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1

Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge) This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.

2

Electron mean free path from angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy of aerosol particles

We propose angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of aerosol particles as an alternative way to determine the electron mean free path of low energy electrons in solid and liquid materials. The mean free path is obtained from fits of simulated photoemission images to experimental ones over a broad range of different aerosol particle sizes. The principal advantage of the aerosol approach is twofold. Firstly, aerosol photoemission studies can be performed for many different materials, including liquids. Secondly, the size-dependent anisotropy of the photoelectrons can be exploited in addition to size-dependent changes in their kinetic energy. These finite size effects depend in different ways on the mean free path and thus provide more information on the mean free path than corresponding liquid jet, thin film, or bulk data. The present contribution is a proof of principle employing a simple model for the photoemission of electrons and preliminary experimental data for potassium chloride aerosol particles.

Goldmann, Maximilian; West, Adam H C; Yoder, Bruce L; Signorell, Ruth

2015-01-01

3

Evaluation of Calculated and Measured Electron Inelastic Mean Free Paths Near Solid Surfaces

An analysis is given of the consistency of calculated and measured electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) near solid surfaces for electron energies between 50 and 104 eV, the energy range of relevance for surface analysis by Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This evaluation is based on IMFPs calculated from experimental optical data and on IMFPs measured by

C. J. Powell; A. Jablonski

1999-01-01

4

Inverse mean free path of swift electrons in metals irradiated by a strong laser field

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the influence of a high-intensity laser field in the inverse mean free path of electrons moving through a degenerate electron gas. Our calculations are based on the random-phase-approximation formalism, in terms of the dielectric function of the medium, where the effects of the laser field are included in the dynamical response. The main effects on the slowing down of the electrons are studied as a function of the intensity and frequency of the laser field, as well as a function of the projectile velocity. A modification of the electron inverse mean free path for plasmon and electron-hole excitations is obtained due to multiphoton-exchange processes.

Moreno-Marín, Juan Carlos; Abril, Isabel; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Arista, Néstor R.

2003-01-01

5

Study of the Electron Mean Free Path by Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy allows buried interfaces to be characterized with a subnanometer resolution. Additionnally, the electron mean free path in a thin metal layer can thus be investigated with a good level of accuracy. This paper presents the latest results in this field for an Au/n-Si Schottky diode. A discussion is also proposed to link these results with the still controversial interpretations of BEEM contrasts. La microscopie par émission d'électrons balistiques permet la caractérisation d'interfaces enfouies, avec une résolution inférieure au nanomètre. De plus, le libre parcours moyen des électrons dans une fine couche métallique peut être étudié avec une excellente précision. Cet article présente les derniers résultats dans ce domaine, pour des diodes Schottky Au/n-Si. Une discussion est également proposée pour relier ces résultats aux interprétations, toujours très controversées, des contrastes fournis par les images BEEM.

Girardin, C.; Coratger, R.; Pechou, R.; Ajustron, F.; Beauvillain, J.

1996-05-01

6

Photocurrent in bulk heterojunction solar cells with similar electron and hole mean free path

We present photocurrents at several temperatures carried out in a bulk heterojunction photovoltaic device. To explain the results, we developed an analytical model assuming non-injecting contacts and equal mean free paths for electrons and holes. The fitting of the equation to the experimental data provided the temperature evolution of the charge transfer state dissociation probability (P) and ??, where ? is the charge carrier mobility and ? is the charge carrier lifetime. The photocurrent expression tends towards a saturation value of eGPL for high electric fields, where GP is the generation rate of charge carriers.

Coutinho, Douglas José; Faria, Roberto Mendonça, E-mail: faria@ifsc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 369, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

2013-11-25

7

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mean free paths (MFPs) of energy carriers are of critical importance to the nano-engineering of better thermoelectric materials. Despite significant progress in the first-principles–based understanding of the spectral distribution of phonon MFPs in recent years, the spectral distribution of electron MFPs remains unclear. In this work, we compute the energy-dependent electron scatterings and MFPs in silicon from first principles. The electrical conductivity accumulation with respect to electron MFPs is compared to that of the phonon thermal conductivity accumulation to illustrate the quantitative impact of nanostructuring on electron and phonon transport. By combining all electron and phonon transport properties from first principles, we predict the thermoelectric properties of the bulk and nanostructured silicon, and find that silicon with 20 nm nanograins can result in a higher than five times enhancement in their thermoelectric figure of merit as the grain boundaries scatter phonons more significantly than that of electrons due to their disparate MFP distributions.

Qiu, Bo; Tian, Zhiting; Vallabhaneni, Ajit; Liao, Bolin; Mendoza, Jonathan M.; Restrepo, Oscar D.; Ruan, Xiulin; Chen, Gang

2015-03-01

8

We develop the many-pole dielectric theory of UV plasmon interactions and electron energy losses, and couple our advances with recent developments of Kohn-Sham density functional theory to address observed discrepancies between high-precision measurements and tabulated data for electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs). Recent publications have demonstrated that a five standard error difference exists between longstanding theoretical calculations and measurements of electron IMFPs for elemental solids at energies below 120 eV, a critical region for analysis of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and related technologies. Our implementation of improved optical loss spectra and a physical treatment of second-order excitation lifetimes resolves this problem in copper for the first time for energies in excess of 80 eV and substantially improves agreement for lower energy electrons. PMID:24450468

Chantler, C T; Bourke, J D

2014-02-01

9

Measurement of the hot electron mean free path and the momentum relaxation rate in GaN

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method for measuring the mean free path and extracting the momentum relaxation time of hot electrons in GaN using the hot electron transistor (HET). In this device, electrons are injected over a high energy emitter barrier into the base where they experience quasi-ballistic transport well above the conduction band edge. After traversing the base, high energy electrons either surmount the base-collector barrier and become collector current or reflect off the barrier and become base current. We fabricate HETs with various base thicknesses and measure the common emitter transfer ratio (?) for each device. The mean free path is extracted by fitting ? to a decaying exponential as a function of base width and the relaxation time is computed using a suitable injection velocity. For devices with an injection energy of ˜1 eV, we measure a hot electron mean free path of 14 nm and calculate a momentum relaxation time of 16 fs. These values are in agreement with theoretical calculations where longitudinal optical phonon scattering is the dominant momentum relaxation mechanism.

Suntrup, Donald J.; Gupta, Geetak; Li, Haoran; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.

2014-12-01

10

Experimental and numerical investigation of phonon mean free path distribution

Knowledge of phonon mean free path (MFP) distribution is critically important to engineering size effects. Phenomenological models of phonon relaxation times can give us some sense about the mean free path distribution, ...

Zeng, Lingping

2013-01-01

11

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An empirical method to obtain optical energy loss functions is presented for a large number of organic compounds, for which optical data are not available, on the basis of structure feature analysis of the existed optical energy loss functions for certain organic compounds. The optical energy loss functions obtained by using this method are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the Penn's statistical model, a set of systematic expressions have been given for the calculation of the stopping powers and mean free paths of electrons penetrating into the organic compounds in the energy range of E?10 keV. Detailed comparison of the calculated data with other theoretical results is presented. The stopping powers and mean free paths for a group of important polymers, without available optical data, have been calculated. In the calculations, three different cases have been considered, i.e. exchange correction not being considered, Ashley exchange correction being involved, and Born-Ochkur exchange correction being included. The results indicate that for these compounds the calculated stopping powers agree well with those obtained by using Bethe-Bloch theory at high-energy limit E=10 keV, as expected for a stopping power theory that should be converged to Bethe-Bloch theory at high energies.

Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Zhao, Mingwen; Liu, Xiangdong; Li, Feng; Huang, Boda; Ji, Yanju

2004-07-01

12

Electron holography at medium resolution simultaneously probes projected electrostatic and magnetostatic potentials as well as elastic and inelastic attenuation coefficients with a spatial resolution of a few nanometers. In this work, we derive how the elastic and inelastic attenuation can be disentangled. Using that result, we perform the first three dimensional tomographic reconstruction of potential and (in)elastic attenuation in parallel. The technique can be applied to distinguish between functional potentials and composition changes in nanostructures, as demonstrated using the example of a GaAs—Al{sub 0.33}Ga{sub 0.67}As core-shell nanowire.

Lubk, A.; Wolf, D.; Kern, F.; Röder, F.; Lichte, H. [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Prete, P. [IMM-CNR, Lecce Research Unit, S.P. 6 Lecce-Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Lovergine, N. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Innovazione, Università del Salento, S.P. 6 Lecce-Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

2014-10-27

13

Magnon thermal mean free path in yttrium iron garnet

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetothermal properties of monocrystalline yttrium iron garnet (YIG) are reported. The magnon contribution to both the thermal conductivity and specific heat at low temperatures has been determined by measuring these properties under an applied magnetic field, which allows us to freeze the magnon modes and isolate the phonon contribution relative to the zero-field behavior. These results are interpreted within the framework of a simple kinetic gas model for magnon heat conduction that allows us to estimate the magnon thermal mean free path, i.e., the inelastic scattering length scale for thermally driven bulk magnons. We observe this parameter to reach as high as approximately 100 ?m at 2 K. It tracks the acoustic phonon thermal mean free path closely and decreases rapidly as the temperature is increased. This relatively short length scale suggests that magnon modes at thermal energies in YIG are not solely or directly responsible for coherent macroscale thermal spin transport (e.g., in the spin Seebeck effect) at high temperatures. Instead, these results support a growing consensus that subthermal magnons, i.e., those at energies below about 30 ± 10 K, are important for spin transport in YIG at all temperatures. These results also emphasize that magnon effects should be considered wavelength dependent, and that magnon-magnon interactions may be just as important for thermal spin transport as magnon-phonon scattering. This, in turn, has implications for understanding the characteristic temperature and length scales involved in spin caloritronic phenomena.

Boona, Stephen R.; Heremans, Joseph P.

2014-08-01

14

Superconducting optical conductivity for arbitrary temperature and mean free path

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations of the optical conductivity of a superconductor valid for any temperature T and any mean free path l are presented. They are based on the method of Marsiglio, Schossmann, and Carbotte of computing the real-frequency-axis gap and renormalization function. The work is applied to a study of the signature of the opening of the gap edge ?(T) as the superconducting state develops. At finite temperature, the presence of a normal-fluid component leads to absorption down to zero frequency (?). For sufficiently impure systems there remains, nevertheless, a sharp threshold for additional absorption from the condensate which starts at ?=2?(T), so that it is possible to deduce from it an accurate value of ?(T). For the pure limit, the situation is more ambiguous.

Akis, R.; Carbotte, J. P.; Timusk, T.

1991-06-01

15

This paper presents studies on the characteristics of gas molecular mean free path in nanopores by molecular dynamics simulation. Our study results indicate that the mean free path of all molecules in nanopores depend on both the radius of the nanopore and the gas-solid interaction strength. Besides mean free path of all molecules in the nanopore, this paper highlights the gas molecular mean free path at different positions of the nanopore and the anisotropy of the gas molecular mean free path at nanopores. The molecular mean free path varies with the molecule’s distance from the center of the nanopore. The least value of the mean free path occurs at the wall surface of the nanopore. The present paper found that the gas molecular mean free path is anisotropic when gas is confined in nanopores. The radial gas molecular mean free path is much smaller than the mean free path including all molecular collisions occuring in three directions. Our study results also indicate that when gas is confined in nanopores the gas molecule number density does not affect the gas molecular mean free path in the same way as it does for the gas in unbounded space. These study results may bring new insights into understanding the gas flow’s characteristic at nanoscale. PMID:25046745

Liu, Qixin; Cai, Zhiyong

2014-01-01

16

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of electrons has been determined for selected elemental solids using elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) and a Ni standard. The IMFP was evaluated for the range of 500-3000 eV on Cr, Mo, Ge and Si materials. The Ni standard surface has been prepared by electrolysis and HV vapour deposition. Its quality was verified by AES and STM. The theoretical model relating the elastic peak intensity to the value of the IMFP was based on relativistic scattering cross sections and the multiple elastic scattering events were simulated by a Monte Carlo procedure. Reasonable agreement of the obtained IMFP values and their dependence on the energy with the data by Tanuma et al. and by Ashley et al. was found.

Gergely, G.; Menyhárd, M.; Péntek, K.; Sulyok, A.; Jablonski, A.; Lesiak, B.; Daróczi, Cs.

1995-07-01

17

Determining transmission electron microscope specimen thickness is an essential prerequisite for carrying out quantitative microscopy. The convergent beam electron diffraction method is highly accurate but provides information only on the small region being probed and is only applicable to crystalline phases. Thickness mapping with an energy filter is rapid, maps an entire field of view and can be applied to both crystalline and amorphous phases. However, the thickness map is defined in terms of the mean free path for energy loss (lambda), which must be known in order to determine the thickness. Convergent beam electron diffraction and thickness mapping methods were used to determine lambda for two materials, Si and P91 steel. These represent best- and worst-case scenario materials, respectively, for this type of investigation, owing to their radically different microstructures. The effects of collection angle and the importance of dynamical diffraction contrast are also examined. By minimizing diffraction contrast effects in thickness maps, reasonably accurate (+/-15%) values of lambda were obtained for P91 and accuracies of +/-5% were obtained for Si. The correlation between the convergent beam electron diffraction-derived thickness and the log intensity ratios from thickness maps also permits estimation of the thickness of amorphous layers on the upper and lower surfaces of transmission electron microscope specimens. These estimates were evaluated for both Si and P91 using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and were found to be quite accurate. PMID:17204066

Mitchell, D R G

2006-11-01

18

)-1 . A simple derivation of the formula for G0 is outlined below (see also [Datta'97] Chapter 2 --= where v is the electron velocity and dn/d is the density of states. In 1D: hvddn 2= (including the spin to display ballistic conductance. In 1994 W. Tian and S. Datta [

La Rosa, Andres H.

19

The mean free path of protons and neutrons in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter

We calculate the mean free path of protons and neutrons in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter, based on microscopic in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections. Those are obtained from calculations of the G-matrix including relativistic "Dirac" effects. The dependence of the mean free path on energy and isospin asymmetry is discussed. We conclude by suggesting possible ways our microscopic predictions may be helpful in conjunction with studies of rare isotopes.

Francesca Sammarruca

2008-03-05

20

Yields and mean free paths of photoelectrons from liquid hexamethyl phosphoric triamidea)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monochromatic photons between 775 and 500 Å were incident almost normally (15°) on the surface of liquid hexamethyl phosphoric triamide (HMPT). Incident and reflected beam strengths were measured with a double ion chamber filled with argon and the current leaving the cup of liquid was determined. After subtracting a portion of the current due to Ar+ drift into the cup, we obtained the photocurrent and, hence, the absolute photoemission yield. The yield falls from 9% at 16 eV to 5% at 25 eV. Such a falloff with increasing photon energy is expected from theory. The values are about double those calculated from theory using a three-step model for the photoemission and using the Born approximation to calculate electron mean free paths. Conversely, if the experimental yields are used in the three-step model, the electron mean free paths calculated from the data range from about 935 Å at 16 eV to about 80 Å at 24 eV and are about two to three times the theoretically predicted values.

Birkhoff, R. D.; Hubbell, H. H., Jr.; Ashley, J. C.; Painter, L. R.

1982-11-01

21

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guided by a stylized experiment we develop a self-consistent anharmonic phonon concept for nonlinear lattices which allows for explicit "visualization." The idea uses a small external driving force which excites the front particles in a nonlinear lattice slab and subsequently one monitors the excited wave evolution using molecular dynamics simulations. This allows for a simultaneous, direct determination of the existence of the phonon mean-free path with its corresponding anharmonic phonon wave number as a function of temperature. The concept for the mean-free path is very distinct from known prior approaches: the latter evaluate the mean-free path only indirectly, via using both a scale for for the phonon relaxation time and yet another one for the phonon velocity. Notably, the concept here is neither limited to small lattice nonlinearities nor to small frequencies. The scheme is tested for three strongly nonlinear lattices of timely current interest which either exhibit normal or anomalous heat transport.

Liu, Sha; Liu, Junjie; Hänggi, Peter; Wu, Changqin; Li, Baowen

2014-11-01

22

Universal phonon mean free path spectra in crystalline semiconductors at high temperature

Thermal conductivity in non-metallic crystalline materials results from cumulative contributions of phonons that have a broad range of mean free paths. Here we use high frequency surface temperature modulation that generates non-diffusive phonon transport to probe the phonon mean free path spectra of GaAs, GaN, AlN, and 4H-SiC at temperatures near 80?K, 150?K, 300?K, and 400?K. We find that phonons with MFPs greater than 230 ± 120?nm, 1000 ± 200?nm, 2500 ± 800?nm, and 4200 ± 850?nm contribute 50% of the bulk thermal conductivity of GaAs, GaN, AlN, and 4H-SiC near room temperature. By non-dimensionalizing the data based on Umklapp scattering rates of phonons, we identified a universal phonon mean free path spectrum in small unit cell crystalline semiconductors at high temperature. PMID:24129328

Freedman, Justin P.; Leach, Jacob H.; Preble, Edward A.; Sitar, Zlatko; Davis, Robert F.; Malen, Jonathan A.

2013-01-01

23

Lasing in active, sub-mean-free path-sized systems with dense, random, weak scatterers

We report enhanced emission and gain narrowing in Rhodamine 590 perchlorate dye in an aqueous suspension of polystyrene microspheres. A systematic experimental study of the threshold condition for and the gain narrowing of the stimulated emission over a wide range of dye concentrations and scatterer number densities showed several interesting features, even though the transport mean free path far exceeded the system size. The conventional diffusive-reactive approximation to radiative transfer in an inhomogeneously illuminated random amplifying medium, which is valid for a transport mean-free path much smaller than the system size, is clearly inapplicable here. We propose a new probabilistic approach for the present case of dense, random, weak scatterers involving the otherwise rare and ignorable sub-mean-free-path scatterings, now made effective by the high gain in the medium, which is consistent with experimentally observed features. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

Raghavendra Prasad, B.; Sood, Ajay Kumar; Subramanian, C.K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Kumar, Narendra [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India)

1997-10-01

24

Self-consistent Green's functions calculation of the nucleon mean-free path

The extension of Green's functions techniques to the complex energy plane provides access to fully dressed quasi-particle properties from a microscopic perspective. Using self-consistent ladder self-energies, we find both spectra and lifetimes of such quasi-particles in nuclear matter. With a consistent choice of the group velocity, the nucleon mean-free path can be computed. Our results indicate that, for energies above 50 MeV at densities close to saturation, a nucleon has a mean-free path of 4 to 5 femtometers.

A. Rios; V. Soma

2011-12-22

25

On the mean free path for a periodic array of spherical obstacles

We prove theorems pertaining to periodic arrays of spherical obstacles which show how the macroscopic limit of the mean free path depends on the scaling of the size of the obstacles. We treat separately the cases where the obstacles are totally and partially absorbing, and we also distinguish between two-dimensional arrays, where our results are optimal, and higher dimensional arrays, where they are not. The cubically symmetric arrays to which these results apply do not have finite horizon.

Dumas, H.S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Dumas, L. [Universite Paris VII (France); Golse, F. [Universite Paris VII (France)]|[Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris (France)

1996-03-01

26

Frequency-dependent phonon mean free path in carbon nanotubes from nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to their long phonon mean free paths (MFPs) and high thermal conductivity, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are ideal candidates for, e.g., removing heat from electronic devices. It is unknown, however, how the intrinsic phonon MFPs depend on vibrational frequency in nonequilibrium. We determine the spectrally resolved phonon MFPs in isotopically pure CNTs from the spectral phonon transmission function calculated using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics, fully accounting for the resistive phonon-phonon scattering processes through the anharmonic terms of the interatomic potential energy function. Our results show that the effective room temperature MFPs of low-frequency phonons (f <0.5 THz) exceed 10 ? m , while the MFP of high-frequency phonons (f ?20 THz) is in the range 10-100 nm. Because the determined MFPs directly reflect the resistance to energy flow, they can be used to accurately predict the thermal conductivity for arbitrary tube lengths by calculating a single frequency integral. The presented results and methods are expected to significantly improve the understanding of nonequilibrium thermal transport in low-dimensional nanostructures.

Sääskilahti, K.; Oksanen, J.; Volz, S.; Tulkki, J.

2015-03-01

27

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the statistics of phase fluctuations of seismic signals obtained from a temporary small aperture array deployed on a volcano in the French Auvergne. We demonstrate that the phase field satisfies Circular Gaussian statistics. We then determine the scattering mean free path of Rayleigh waves from the spatial phase decoherence. This phenomenon, observed for diffuse wavefields, is found to yield a good approximation of the scattering mean free path. Contrary to the amplitude, spatial phase decoherence is free from absorption effects and provides direct access to the scattering mean free path. Our method may find applications in various areas of seismology where the effects of scattering are prominent and a knowledge of the scattering properties is necessary to describe the propagation. As an example, an unbiased estimate of the scattering mean free path is crucial for the localization of changes in multiply scattering media, where a sensitivity kernel based on diffusion theory is used (Larose et al. 2010; Obermann et al. 2013a,b). Our experimental approach may also provide independent estimates of the scattering mean free path in volcanic areas where particularly strong scattering has been proposed, based on the fitting of energy envelopes using energy transport approaches (Wegler & Lühr 2001; Yamamoto & Sato 2010). References: Larose, E., Planès, T., Rossetto, V. & Margerin, L., 2010. Locating a small change in a multiple scattering environment, Appl. Phys. Lett., 96(204101), 1-3. Obermann, A., Planès, T., Larose, E. & Campillo, M., 2013a. Imaging pre and co-eruptive structural and mechanical changes on a volcano with ambient seismic noise, J. geophys. Res., 118, 1-10. Obermann, A., Planès, T., Larose, E., Sens-Schönfelder, C. & Campillo,M., 2013b. Depth sensitivity of seismic coda waves to velocity perturbations in an elastic heterogeneous medium, Geophys. J. Int., 194(1), 372-382. Wegler, U. & Lühr, B.G., 2001. Scattering behaviour at Merapi volcano (Java) revealed from an active seismic experiment, Geophys. J. Int., 145(3), 579-592. Yamamoto, M. & Sato, H., 2010. Multiple scattering and mode conversion revealed by an active seismic experiment at Asama volcano, Japan, J. geophys. Res., 115(B7), doi:10.1029/2009JB007109.

Obermann, Anne; Larose, Eric; Margerin, Ludovic; Rossetto, Vincent

2014-05-01

28

Thermal conductivity of graphene and graphite: collective excitations and mean free paths.

We characterize the thermal conductivity of graphite, monolayer graphene, graphane, fluorographane, and bilayer graphene, solving exactly the Boltzmann transport equation for phonons, with phonon-phonon collision rates obtained from density functional perturbation theory. For graphite, the results are found to be in excellent agreement with experiments; notably, the thermal conductivity is 1 order of magnitude larger than what found by solving the Boltzmann equation in the single mode approximation, commonly used to describe heat transport. For graphene, we point out that a meaningful value of intrinsic thermal conductivity at room temperature can be obtained only for sample sizes of the order of 1 mm, something not considered previously. This unusual requirement is because collective phonon excitations, and not single phonons, are the main heat carriers in these materials; these excitations are characterized by mean free paths of the order of hundreds of micrometers. As a result, even Fourier's law becomes questionable in typical sample sizes, because its statistical nature makes it applicable only in the thermodynamic limit to systems larger than a few mean free paths. Finally, we discuss the effects of isotopic disorder, strain, and chemical functionalization on thermal performance. Only chemical functionalization is found to play an important role, decreasing the conductivity by a factor of 2 in hydrogenated graphene, and by 1 order of magnitude in fluorogenated graphene. PMID:25343716

Fugallo, Giorgia; Cepellotti, Andrea; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Marzari, Nicola; Mauri, Francesco

2014-11-12

29

Photon Mean Free Paths, Scattering, and Ever-Increasing Telescope Resolution

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit an old question: what are the effects of observing stratified atmospheres on scales below a photon mean free path ?? The mean free path of photons emerging from the solar photosphere and chromosphere is ? 102 km. Using current 1 m-class telescopes, ? is on the order of the angular resolution. But the Daniel K. Inoue Solar Telescope will have a diffraction limit of 0.020? near the atmospheric cutoff at 310 nm, corresponding to 14 km at the solar surface. Even a small amount of scattering in the source function leads to physical smearing due to this solar "fog", with effects similar to a degradation of the telescope point spread function. We discuss a unified picture that depends simply on the nature and amount of scattering in the source function. Scalings are derived from which the scattering in the solar atmosphere can be transcribed into an effective Strehl ratio, a quantity useful to observers. Observations in both permitted ( e.g., Fe i 630.2 nm) and forbidden (Fe i 525.0 nm) lines will shed light on both instrumental performance as well as on small-scale structures in the solar atmosphere.

Judge, P. G.; Kleint, L.; Uitenbroek, H.; Rempel, M.; Suematsu, Y.; Tsuneta, S.

2015-03-01

30

Influence of the primary mean free path on the fluctuations in an electromagnetic cascade

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kokoulin and Petrukhin (1978) have calculated the fluctuations of the number of particles in an electromagnetic cascade under the assumption that the fluctuations of the (cascade-generating) primary-photon mean free path are the determining factor, while all other fluctuations of the cascade (at a fixed point of primary interaction) are negligible. Slovinski (1972, 1975), in studies concerning the determination of photon energies by means of a xenon bubble chamber, has examined cascades with a fixed point of primary collision, the fluctuations in which define largely the precision of the method. In the present paper, equations are derived which relate the dispersion characteristics of a cascade with arbitrary and fixed points of primary interaction. Some numerical data are examined.

Vetoshkin, V. V.; Lagutin, A. A.; Uchaikin, V. V.

1980-03-01

31

Linear response theory and neutrino mean free path using Brussels-Montreal Skyrme functionals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Brussels-Montreal Skyrme functionals have been successful in describing properties of both finite nuclei and infinite homogeneous nuclear matter. In their latest version, these functionals have been equipped with two extra density-dependent terms in order to reproduce simultaneously ground state properties of nuclei and infinite nuclear matter properties while avoiding at the same time the arising of ferromagnetic instabilities. In the present article, we extend our previous results of the linear response theory to include such extra terms at both zero and finite temperature in pure neutron matter. The resulting formalism is then applied to derive the neutrino mean free path. The predictions from the Brussels-Montreal Skyrme functionals are compared with ab initio methods.

Pastore, A.; Martini, M.; Davesne, D.; Navarro, J.; Goriely, S.; Chamel, N.

2014-08-01

32

Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977

Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J

2015-01-01

33

Shear viscosity of hot nuclear matter by the mean free path method

The shear viscosity of hot nuclear matter is investigated by using the mean free path method within the framework of IQMD model. Finite size nuclear sources at different density and temperature are initialized based on the Fermi-Dirac distribution. The results show that shear viscosity to entropy density ratio decreases with the increase of temperature and tends toward a constant value for $\\rho\\sim\\rho_0$, which is consistent with the previous studies on nuclear matter formed during heavy-ion collisions. At $\\rho\\sim\\frac{1}{2}\\rho_0$, a minimum of $\\eta/s$ is seen at around $T=10$ MeV and a maximum of the multiplicity of intermediate mass fragment ($M_{\\text{IMF}}$) is also observed at the same temperature which is an indication of the liquid-gas phase transition.

D. Q. Fang; Y. G. Ma; C. L. Zhou

2014-04-17

34

Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977

Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J.

2015-01-01

35

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron.

Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J.

2015-03-01

36

The parallel mean free path of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which is determined by physical properties of SEPs as well as those of solar wind, is a very important parameter in space physics to study the transport of charged energetic particles in the heliosphere, especially for space weather forecasting. In space weather practice, it is necessary to find a quick approach to obtain the parallel mean free path of SEPs for a solar event. In addition, the adiabatic focusing effect caused by a spatially varying mean magnetic field in the solar system is important to the transport processes of SEPs. Recently, Shalchi presented an analytical description of the parallel diffusion coefficient with adiabatic focusing. Based on Shalchi's results, in this paper we provide a direct analytical formula as a function of parameters concerning the physical properties of SEPs and solar wind to directly and quickly determine the parallel mean free path of SEPs with adiabatic focusing. Since all of the quantities in the analytical formula can be directly observed by spacecraft, this direct method would be a very useful tool in space weather research. As applications of the direct method, we investigate the inherent relations between the parallel mean free path and various parameters concerning physical properties of SEPs and solar wind. Comparisons of parallel mean free paths with and without adiabatic focusing are also presented.

He, H.-Q.; Wan, W., E-mail: hqhe@mail.iggcas.ac.cn, E-mail: wanw@mail.iggcas.ac.cn [Beijing National Observatory of Space Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

2012-03-01

37

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an event-by-event simulation of the trajectory of a particle moving in matter it is usually assumed that the probability for the particle to travel a distance s without interaction is exp(-s/?), where ?=(n·?)-1 is the total mean free path, n the number of scatterers per unit volume and ? the total cross section per scatterer. The step length s between scattering events is then generated by means of a sampling formula s=-? ln(1-R), where R a random number in the interval 0

Liljequist, D.

2012-11-01

38

The Eyring/Sabine equations assume that in a large irregular room a sound wave travels in straight lines from one surface to another, that the surfaces have an average sound absorption coefficient ?av, and that the mean-free-path between reflections is 4?V/Stot where V is the volume of the room and Stot is the total area of all of its surfaces. No account is taken of diffusivity of the surfaces. The 4?V/Stot relation was originally based on experimental determinations made by Knudsen (Architectural Acoustics, 1932, pp. 132-141). This paper sets out to test the 4?V/Stot relation experimentally for a wide variety of unoccupied concert and chamber music halls with seating capacities from 200 to 5000, using the measured sound strengths Gmid and reverberation times RT60,mid. Computer simulations of the sound fields for nine of these rooms (of varying shapes) were also made to determine the mean-free-paths by that method. The study shows that 4?V/Stot is an acceptable relation for mean-free-paths in the Sabine/Eyring equations except for halls of unusual shape. Also demonstrated is the proper method for calibrating the dodecahedral sound source used for measuring the sound strength G, i.e., the reverberation chamber method. PMID:24437762

Beranek, Leo L; Nishihara, Noriko

2014-01-01

39

This paper reports on interaction mean free paths of He-fragments produced by the collisions of carbon and silicon nuclei at 4.5 A GeV/c in nuclear emulsion for different distances from their production point. The authors do not observe any anomalous effect in the mean free paths of He-fragments.

Ahmad, T.; Irfan, M.; Ahsan, M.Z. (Dept. of Physics, Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh 202002 (IN))

1991-06-14

40

Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along open magnetic field lines: Parallel heat flux

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a long mean-free-path plasma where temperature anisotropy can be sustained, the parallel heat flux has two components with one associated with the parallel thermal energy and the other the perpendicular thermal energy. Due to the large deviation of the distribution function from local Maxwellian in an open field line plasma with low collisionality, the conventional perturbative calculation of the parallel heat flux closure in its local or non-local form is no longer applicable. Here, a non-perturbative calculation is presented for a collisionless plasma in a two-dimensional flux expander bounded by absorbing walls. Specifically, closures of previously unfamiliar form are obtained for ions and electrons, which relate two distinct components of the species parallel heat flux to the lower order fluid moments such as density, parallel flow, parallel and perpendicular temperatures, and the field quantities such as the magnetic field strength and the electrostatic potential. The plasma source and boundary condition at the absorbing wall enter explicitly in the closure calculation. Although the closure calculation does not take into account wave-particle interactions, the results based on passing orbits from steady-state collisionless drift-kinetic equation show remarkable agreement with fully kinetic-Maxwell simulations. As an example of the physical implications of the theory, the parallel heat flux closures are found to predict a surprising observation in the kinetic-Maxwell simulation of the 2D magnetic flux expander problem, where the parallel heat flux of the parallel thermal energy flows from low to high parallel temperature region.

Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian-Zhu

2012-06-01

41

Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along open magnetic field lines: Parallel heat flux

In a long mean-free-path plasma where temperature anisotropy can be sustained, the parallel heat flux has two components with one associated with the parallel thermal energy and the other the perpendicular thermal energy. Due to the large deviation of the distribution function from local Maxwellian in an open field line plasma with low collisionality, the conventional perturbative calculation of the parallel heat flux closure in its local or non-local form is no longer applicable. Here, a non-perturbative calculation is presented for a collisionless plasma in a two-dimensional flux expander bounded by absorbing walls. Specifically, closures of previously unfamiliar form are obtained for ions and electrons, which relate two distinct components of the species parallel heat flux to the lower order fluid moments such as density, parallel flow, parallel and perpendicular temperatures, and the field quantities such as the magnetic field strength and the electrostatic potential. The plasma source and boundary condition at the absorbing wall enter explicitly in the closure calculation. Although the closure calculation does not take into account wave-particle interactions, the results based on passing orbits from steady-state collisionless drift-kinetic equation show remarkable agreement with fully kinetic-Maxwell simulations. As an example of the physical implications of the theory, the parallel heat flux closures are found to predict a surprising observation in the kinetic-Maxwell simulation of the 2D magnetic flux expander problem, where the parallel heat flux of the parallel thermal energy flows from low to high parallel temperature region.

Guo Zehua; Tang Xianzhu [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-06-15

42

Violation of the isotropic mean free path approximation for overdoped La2-xSrxCuO4

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetotransport measurements on the overdoped cuprate La1.7Sr0.3CuO4 are fitted using the Ong construction [Phys. Rev. B 43, 193 (1991)] and band parameters inferred from angle-resolved photoemission. Within a band picture, the low-temperature Hall data can only be fitted satisfactorily by invoking strong basal-plane anisotropy in the mean free path ? . This violation of the isotropic- ? approximation supports a picture of dominant small-angle elastic scattering in cuprates due to out-of-plane substitutional disorder. We conjecture that both band anisotropy and anisotropy in the elastic-scattering channel strongly renormalize the Hall coefficient in La2-xSrxCuO4 across the entire overdoped regime.

Narduzzo, A.; Albert, G.; French, M. M. J.; Mangkorntong, N.; Nohara, M.; Takagi, H.; Hussey, N. E.

2008-06-01

43

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained spectra of 163 quasars at zem > 4.4 with the Gemini Multi Object Spectrometers, the largest publicly available sample of high-quality, low-resolution spectra at these redshifts. From this data set, we generated stacked quasar spectra in three redshift intervals at z ˜ 5 to model the average rest-frame Lyman continuum flux and to assess the mean free path ? _mfp^{912} of the intergalactic medium to H I-ionizing radiation. At mean redshifts zq = (4.56, 4.86, 5.16), we measure ? _mfp^{912}=(22.2 ± 2.3, 15.1 ± 1.8, 10.3 ± 1.6)h_{70}^{-1} proper Mpc with uncertainties dominated by sample variance. Combining our results with measurements from lower redshifts, the data are well modelled by a power law ? _mfp^{912}=A[(1+zright)/5]^? with A=(37 ± 2)h_{70}^{-1} Mpc and ? = -5.4 ± 0.4 at 2.3 < z < 5.5. This rapid evolution requires a physical mechanism - beyond cosmological expansion - which reduces the effective Lyman limit opacity. We speculate that the majority of H I Lyman limit opacity manifests in gas outside galactic dark matter haloes, tracing large-scale structures (e.g. filaments) whose average density and neutral fraction decreases with cosmic time. Our measurements of the mean free path shortly after H I reionization serve as a valuable boundary condition for numerical models thereof. Our measured ? _mfp^{912}? 10 Mpc at z = 5.2 confirms that the intergalactic medium is highly ionized without evidence for a break that would indicate a recent end to H I reionization.

Worseck, Gábor; Prochaska, J. Xavier; O'Meara, John M.; Becker, George D.; Ellison, Sara L.; Lopez, Sebastian; Meiksin, Avery; Ménard, Brice; Murphy, Michael T.; Fumagalli, Michele

2014-12-01

44

spectroscopic performance is independent of the electron trapping if the raw electron trapping is less than 6 Thorough understanding of the characteristics of charge carrier transport in a semiconductor detector quantities to characterize the charge trans- port are the electron mobility (me) and the mean free drift time

He, Zhong

45

The Giant Gemini GMOS survey of z>4.4 quasars - I. Measuring the mean free path across cosmic time

We have obtained spectra of 163 quasars at $z_\\mathrm{em}>4.4$ with the Gemini Multi Object Spectrometers on the Gemini North and South telescopes, the largest publicly available sample of high-quality, low-resolution spectra at these redshifts. From this homogeneous data set, we generated stacked quasar spectra in three redshift intervals at $z\\sim 5$. We have modelled the flux below the rest-frame Lyman limit ($\\lambda_\\mathrm{r}<912$\\AA) to assess the mean free path $\\lambda_\\mathrm{mfp}^{912}$ of the intergalactic medium to HI-ionizing radiation. At mean redshifts $z_\\mathrm{q}=4.56$, 4.86 and 5.16, we measure $\\lambda_\\mathrm{mfp}^{912}=(22.2\\pm 2.3, 15.1\\pm 1.8, 10.3\\pm 1.6)h_{70}^{-1}$ proper Mpc with uncertainties dominated by sample variance. Combining our results with $\\lambda_\\mathrm{mfp}^{912}$ measurements from lower redshifts, the data are well modelled by a simple power-law $\\lambda_\\mathrm{mfp}^{912}=A[(1+z)/5]^\\eta$ with $A=(37\\pm 2)h_{70}^{-1}$ Mpc and $\\eta = -5.4\\pm 0.4$ between $z=2.3$...

Worseck, Gábor; O'Meara, John M; Becker, George D; Ellison, Sara; Lopez, Sebastian; Meiksin, Avery; Ménard, Brice; Murphy, Michael T; Fumagalli, Michele

2014-01-01

46

In turbid media such as biological tissue, multiple scattering hinders direct light focusing at depths beyond one transport mean free path. As a solution to this problem, time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing is proposed based on ultrasonic encoding of diffused laser light and optical time reversal. In TRUE focusing, a laser beam of long coherence length illuminates a turbid medium, where the incident light undergoes multiple scattering and part of it gets ultrasonically encoded within the ultrasonic focal zone. A conjugated wavefront of the ultrasonically encoded light is then generated by a phase conjugate mirror outside the medium, which traces back the trajectories of the ultrasonically encoded diffused light and converges light to the ultrasonic focal zone. Here, we report the latest experimental improvement in TRUE optical focusing that increases its penetration in tissue-mimicking media from a thickness of 3.75 to 7.00 mm. We also demonstrate that the TRUE focus depends on the focal diameter of the ultrasonic transducer. PMID:21895321

Liu, Honglin; Xu, Xiao; Lai, Puxiang; Wang, Lihong V.

2011-01-01

47

Proton Inelastic Mean Free Path in a Group of Organic Materials in 0.05-10 MeV Range

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inelastic mean free paths (MFPs) of 0.05-10 MeV protons in a group of 10 organic compounds are systematically calculated. The calculations are based on the method newly derived from the Ashley optical-data model and from the higher-order correction terms in stopping power calculations. Especially, in this method the new and empirical Bloch correction for the inelastic MFP is given. An evaluation for the optical energy loss function is incorporated into the present calculations because of the lack of available experimental optical data for the considered organic compounds expect for kapton. The proton inelastic MFPs for these 10 organic compounds in the energy range from 0.05 to 10 MeV are presented here for the first time, and the combination of these inelastic MFP data and our previous data of stopping power calculation for these bioorganic compounds may form a useful database for Monte Carlo track-structure studies of various radiation effects on these materials.

Tan, Zhen-Yu; Xia, Yue-Yuan; Zhao, Ming-Wen; Liu, Xiang-Dong

2010-11-01

48

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An enhanced Fourier law that we term the unified nondiffusive-diffusive (UND) phonon transport model is proposed in order to account for the effect of low-frequency phonon modes of long mean-free path that propagate concomitantly to the dominant high-frequency modes. The theory is based on spherical harmonic expansions of the phonon distribution functions, wherein the high-frequency mode distribution function is truncated at the first order in the expansion, while the low-frequency mode distribution function, which is farther out of thermal equilibrium, is truncated at the second order. As an illustrative application, the predictions of the proposed model are compared with data from a recent experiment that utilized the transient gratings method to investigate the deviation of thermal transport in a silicon membrane from the predictions of the Fourier law. The good fit of the experimental effective thermal conductivity (ETC) with the analytical solution derived in this work yields quantitative information about the mean-free path of the dominant low-frequency heat-transfer mode in silicon.

Ramu, Ashok T.; Ma, Yanbao

2014-09-01

49

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The systematic calculations of the inelastic mean free paths (MFP) of 0.05-10 MeV protons in a group of eleven important bioorganic compounds, i.e. DNA, five bases, three fatty acids, cellulose and ?-carotene, have been performed. The expressions for the calculations are derived from the Ashley's optical-data model and from the higher-order correction terms in stopping power calculations. Especially, the Bloch correction for the inelastic MFP is proposed empirically in this work. The inelastic MFPs for energetic protons in water are also evaluated and compared with other theoretical calculations. The proton inelastic MFPs for these 11 bioorganic compounds in the energy range from 0.05 to 10 MeV are presented here for the first time, and might be useful for studies of various radiation effects in these materials.

Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Zhao, Mingwen; Liu, Xiangdong

2010-07-01

50

methods " d dcos' Phase shift: #$=dcos' p " (e-jkr+ e-jk(r+dcos")+.... e-jk(r+ndcos")) p0 r Absorber · Perforated plates with porous layer · Helmholtz resonators · Membrane absorbers #12;8 Dissipative Processes of sound (phase speed) * Damping * Transition frequency * Impedance #12;15 Porous Materials x % Porous

Berlin,Technische Universität

51

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local theory of relaxation of 3He by Brownian motion in an inhomogeneous magnetic field, originally proposed by Gamblin and Carver [Phys. Rev. 138, A946 (1965), 10.1103/PhysRev.138.A946] and by Schearer and Walters [Phys. Rev. 139, A1398 (1965), 10.1103/PhysRev.139.A1398], is reconsidered in detail to clarify (or not) the approximations involved. Notably, a discussion is given of frames rotating at time-dependent angular velocities (both in magnitude and in direction), and attention is drawn to the often overlooked long tail that confinement adds to velocity correlation functions. A stepwise application of the Redfield theory of relaxation eventually provides quantitative predictions for the rate of depolarization and the linear-in-electric-field frequency shift, in terms of the components of the local inhomogeneity tensor and the usual parameters (nuclear magnetic resonance frequency, diffusion coefficient, mean time between collisions, etc.), valid in the common situation of mean free path much smaller than the size of the container. These predictions agree with almost all results of previous publications, most of which are based on the global approach which evaluates correlation functions by reference to the diffusion equation in spite of its limitations for short delays.

Jeener, J.

2015-01-01

52

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The systematical calculations of the inelastic mean free paths (MFPs) of 0.05-10 MeV protons in 12 elemental solids (Al, Si, Ni, Cu, Mo, Rh, Ag, W, Os, Ir, Pt, Au) have been performed. The calculations are based on the algorithm derived from Ashley's optical-data model including the higher-order corrections to stopping power (SP) for protons. The prominence and necessity of the higher-order corrections are demonstrated by calculating the proton SPs for the 12 solids using Ashley's optical-data model and by comparing the calculated SPs with the experimental results, the tabulated values and other corresponding theoretical evaluations. The algorithm of evaluating the proton inelastic MFP is described. In this algorithm, the Barkas-effect correction and the Bloch correction are taken into account, the minimum impact parameter from Lindhard is used in the Barkas-effect correction, and an empirical estimation of a free parameter involved in the Bloch correction to the inelastic MFP is proposed. The evaluated inelastic MFPs of 0.05-10 MeV protons for the 12 solids under two different cases, i.e. the higher-order corrections not being considered and the Barkas-effect correction and the Bloch correction being included, are presented in the tabulated form and are first results for these solids. These numerical results provide an alternative basic data for the Monte Carlo studies on low-energy proton transport in these 12 solids.

Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan

2011-02-01

53

Proton inelastic mean free path in amino acids and protein over the energy range of 0.05-10 MeV

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inelastic mean free paths (MFP) of 0.05-10 MeV protons in a group of 15 amino acids and a protein have been systematically calculated. The calculations are based on the method newly derived from the Ashley's optical-data model and from the higher-order correction terms in stopping power calculations. Especially, in this method the new and empirical Bloch correction for the inelastic MFP was given. An evaluation for the optical energy loss function is incorporated into the present calculations because of the lack of available experimental optical data for the bioorganic compounds under consideration. The proton inelastic MFPs for these 15 amino acids and the protein in the energy range from 0.05 to 10 MeV are presented here for the first time, and the combination of these inelastic MFP data and our previous data of the SP calculations for these bioorganic compounds may form a useful database for Monte Carlo track-structure studies of various radiation effects in these materials.

Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Liu, Xiangdong; Zhao, Mingwen

2010-09-01

54

The gamma ray energy absorption (EABF) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) have been calculated for some essential amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates in the energy region 0.015–15MeV up to a penetration depth of 40mfp (mean free path). The five parameter geometric progression (G-P) fitting approximation has been used to calculate both EABF and EBF. Variations of EABF and EBF

Murat Kurudirek; Yüksel Özdemir

2011-01-01

55

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students engage in an interactive "hot potato" demonstration to gain an appreciation for the flow of electrons through a circuit. Students role play the different parts of a simple circuit and send small items representing electrons (paper or candy pieces) through the circuit.

2014-09-18

56

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collision model is frequently introduced to describe electronic conductivity in solids. Depending on the chosen approach, the introduction of the collision time can lead to erroneous results for the average velocity of the electrons, which enters the expression for the electrical conductivity. In other textbooks, correct results are obtained…

Jakoby, Bernhard

2009-01-01

57

Mean Free Path in Soccer and Gases

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trajectories of the molecules in an ideal gas and of the ball in a soccer game are compared. The great difference between these motions and some similarities are discussed. This example could be suitable for discussing many concepts in kinetic theory in a way that can be pictured by students for getting a more intuitive understanding. It could…

Luzuriaga, J.

2010-01-01

58

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gamma ray energy absorption ( EABF) and exposure buildup factors ( EBF) have been calculated for some essential amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path). The five parameter geometric progression (G-P) fitting approximation has been used to calculate both EABF and EBF. Variations of EABF and EBF with incident photon energy, penetration depth and weight fraction of elements have been studied. While the significant variations in EABF and EBF for amino acids and fatty acids have been observed at the intermediate energy region where Compton scattering is the main photon interaction process, the values of EABF and EBF appear to be almost the same for all carbohydrates in the continuous energy region. It has been observed that the fatty acids have the largest EABF and EBF at 0.08 and 0.1 MeV, respectively, whereas the maximum values of EABF and EBF have been observed for aminoacids and carbohydrates at 0.1 MeV. At the fixed energy of 1.5 MeV, the variation of EABF with penetration depth appears to be independent of the variations in chemical composition of the amino acids, fatty acids and carbohydrates. Significant variations were also observed between EABF and EBF which may be due to the variations in chemical composition of the given materials.

Kurudirek, Murat; Özdemir, Yüksel

2011-01-01

59

This paper presents studies on the characteristics of gas molecular mean freepath in nanopores by molecular dynamics simulation. Our study results indicate that themean free path of all molecules in nanopores depend on both the radius of the nanoporeand the gas-solid interaction strength. Besides mean free path of all molecules in thenanopore, this paper highlights the gas molecular mean free path at different positions ofthe nanopore and the anisotropy of the gas molecular mean free path at nanopores. Themolecular mean free path varies with the molecule's distance from the center of thenanopore. The least value of the mean free path occurs at the wall surface of the nanopore.The present paper found that the gas molecular mean free path is anisotropic when gas isconfined in nanopores. The radial gas molecular mean free path is much smaller than themean free path including all molecular collisions occuring in three directions. Our studyresults also indicate that when gas is confined in nanopores the gas molecule number densitydoes not affect the gas molecular mean free path in the same way as it does for the gas inunbounded space. These study results may bring new insights into understanding the gasflow's characteristic at nanoscale. PMID:25046745

Liu, Qixin; Cai, Zhiyong

2014-01-01

60

In this article, a scanning probe method based on nanoscale capacitance measurements was used to investigate the lateral homogeneity of the electron mean free path both in pristine and ion-irradiated graphene. The local variations in the electronic transport properties were explained taking into account the scattering of electrons by charged impurities and point defects (vacancies). Electron mean free path is

Filippo Giannazzo; Sushant Sonde; Emanuele Rimini; Vito Raineri

2011-01-01

61

3HE-rich Solar Particle Mean Free Paths

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this oral presentation is to attempt to explain why the 3HE-rich events at 1AU appear to be 'scatter-free'. The largest 3HE- rich flux events of Kahler et al. (1985) are used to examine potential wave-particle interactions as the particles travel from the Sun to 1AU.

Tsurutani, B. T.

1995-01-01

62

Hands on Activity: The Path of Electrons

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short (approximately 10 minutes) classroom activity to help students visualize the flow of electrons through a circuit. A worksheet with questions and answers is included. The materials needed for this activity are: colored construction paper, markers, candy (optional), two D-size batteries, small light bulb in a light bulb holder (available at hardware stores), and wire to connect the batteries to the light bulb holder

2013-05-02

63

Path integral Monte Carlo and the electron gas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Path integral Monte Carlo is a proven method for accurately simulating quantum mechanical systems at finite-temperature. By stochastically sampling Feynman's path integral representation of the quantum many-body density matrix, path integral Monte Carlo includes non-perturbative effects like thermal fluctuations and particle correlations in a natural way. Over the past 30 years, path integral Monte Carlo has been successfully employed to study the low density electron gas, high-pressure hydrogen, and superfluid helium. For systems where the role of Fermi statistics is important, however, traditional path integral Monte Carlo simulations have an exponentially decreasing efficiency with decreased temperature and increased system size. In this thesis, we work towards improving this efficiency, both through approximate and exact methods, as specifically applied to the homogeneous electron gas. We begin with a brief overview of the current state of atomic simulations at finite-temperature before we delve into a pedagogical review of the path integral Monte Carlo method. We then spend some time discussing the one major issue preventing exact simulation of Fermi systems, the sign problem. Afterwards, we introduce a way to circumvent the sign problem in PIMC simulations through a fixed-node constraint. We then apply this method to the homogeneous electron gas at a large swatch of densities and temperatures in order to map out the warm-dense matter regime. The electron gas can be a representative model for a host of real systems, from simple medals to stellar interiors. However, its most common use is as input into density functional theory. To this end, we aim to build an accurate representation of the electron gas from the ground state to the classical limit and examine its use in finite-temperature density functional formulations. The latter half of this thesis focuses on possible routes beyond the fixed-node approximation. As a first step, we utilize the variational principle inherent in the path integral Monte Carlo method to optimize the nodal surface. By using a ansatz resembling a free particle density matrix, we make a unique connection between a nodal effective mass and the traditional effective mass of many-body quantum theory. We then propose and test several alternate nodal ansatzes and apply them to single atomic systems. Finally, we propose a method to tackle the sign problem head on, by leveraging the relatively simple structure of permutation space. Using this method, we find we can perform exact simulations this of the electron gas and 3He that were previously impossible.

Brown, Ethan W.

64

Huliq:Breaking News Submit News Login Linear Nanotubes Offer Path To High-Performance Electronics

Huliq:Breaking News Submit News Login Linear Nanotubes Offer Path To High-Performance Electronics.MoSys.com Page 1 of 2Linear nanotubes offer path to high-performance electronics | Huliq: Breaking News 3

Rogers, John A.

65

Data path development for multiple electron beam maskless lithography

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron beam lithography has been used in the production of integrated circuits for decades. However, due to the limitation of throughput it was not a viable solution for high volume manufacturing and its biggest application is the production of semiconductor masks. For many considerations it has particularly now become desirable to eliminate the semiconductor mask and introduce maskless lithography for semiconductor fabrication. Multiple Electron Beam Maskless Lithography (MEBML2) has been proposed as a solution to overcome the traditional source current limitation of an electron beam system by using many thousands of parallel electron beamlets to write a pattern directly on the wafer. In developing the MEBML2 tool the challenges have shifted and, in absence of the mask, the system data path has emerged as one of the central challenges. The main theme in the data path development is bandwidth. The required raw bandwidth at the patterning beams is determined by throughput and resolution, i.e. pixel size and number of intensity modulation levels. To achieve a production worthy throughput at 10 wafers per hour in a Gaussian-beam-based maskless lithography system, by writing 3.5-nm pixels at 2 levels (on/off) which is required for the 22-nm lithography node, the required aggregate bandwidth at the beam blanker array is up to 45 Tbit/s. Such a large bandwidth requirement means that the data path architecture is mainly characterized by the bandwidth of the data streams in the system. Compression techniques can be used to reduce the intermediate data stream bandwidth requirements and consequently lead to simplifying the system design, reducing power consumption and footprint, but come at the cost of increased data processing complexity and possible limitations on throughput. In this paper we will show results from the development of a prototype data path for the Gaussian-beam-based maskless lithography system. A new concept for data processing and storage is proposed. The vertex-based processing and storage technique is adopted to reduce memory usage considerably, with only modest requirements on the hardware resources. It reveals that a realistically implementable data path system for the maskless lithography tool in high volume manufacturing is feasible.

Krecinic, Faruk; Lin, Shy-Jay; Chen, Jack J. H.

2011-04-01

66

Path integral Monte Carlo calculation of electronic forces

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a method to evaluate electronic forces by path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) calculation. Electronic correlations, as well as thermal effects, are included naturally in this method. For fermions, a restricted approach is used to avoid the ``sign'' problem. The PIMC force estimator is local and has a finite variance. We applied this method to determine the bond length of H2 and the chemical reaction barrier of H+H2-->H2+H. At low temperature, good agreement is obtained with ground-state calculations. We studied the proton-proton interaction in an electron gas as a simple model for hydrogen impurities in metals. We calculated the force between the two protons at two electronic densities corresponding to Na (rs=3.93) and Al (rs=2.07) using a supercell with 38 electrons. The result is compared to previous calculations. We also studied the effect of temperature on the proton-proton interaction. At very high temperature, our result agrees with the Debye screening of electrons. As temperature decreases, the Debye theory fails both because of the strong degeneracy of electrons and most importantly, the formation of electronic bound states around the protons.

Zong, Fenghua; Ceperley, D. M.

1998-10-01

67

Clinical Paths (Paths) have been introduced by different hospitals for patient care management. An Electronic Clinical Path (ECP) with onsite access provision seems to improve the efficiency of medical staffs because they can share vast medical information about patients at a time and also can reuse accumulated data easily, which is impossible with paper-based Path. Data model is the basis

Osamu Okada; Naoki Ohboshi; Tomohiro Kuroda; Keisuke Nagase; Hiroyuki Yoshihara

2005-01-01

68

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time dynamics in electron-nucleus coupled systems in molecules is studied using the path-integral formalism, with a special emphasis on nonadiabatic interactions. We first establish a formal path-integral description of the entire system. Applying the stationary phase approximation, we then derive coupled equations for the mixed quantum-classical treatment of the system: the equations of motion for electron wave-packet dynamics and those for nuclear dynamics driven by what we call the force form. Thus the present theory also serves as a general theory for dynamics in mixed quantum and classical systems. On this theoretical foundation, we analyze two theories of nonadiabatic electron-nucleus coupled systems from the viewpoint of path branching: the semiclassical Ehrenfest theory and the recently developed method of phase-space averaging and natural branching [T. Yonehara, S. Takahashi, and K. Takatsuka, J. Chem. Phys.JCPSA60021-960610.1063/1.3151684 130, 214113 (2009)]. We give a unified account of the essential feature of their physical implications and limitations. Path-integral formalism leads to further refinement of the idea of path branching caused by nonadiabatic coupling, thus giving deeper insight into the nonadiabatic dynamics. Further, we study the conservation laws for energy, linear momentum, and angular momentum in the general mixed quantum-classical representation. We also extend the present path-integral formulation so as to handle nonadiabatic dynamics in laser fields.

Hanasaki, Kota; Takatsuka, Kazuo

2010-05-01

69

Phonon temperature and electron temperature in thermoelectric coupling

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a mesoscopic model of thermoelectric coupling in nanosystems, allowing for different phonon and electron temperatures, and mutual energy exchange. Its compatibility with the second law of thermodynamics is proved. By comparisons with other theoretical proposals, the different coefficients involved in the model are identified. We consider two illustrations: (a) for systems where the electron mean-free path is considerably shorter than the phonon mean-free path, the non-equilibrium phonon temperature may be different with respect to the local-equilibrium temperature of electrons; (b) for systems with large electron mean-free path, one may have the so-called "hot electrons," namely, electrons having a higher temperature than that of the phonons.

Jou, David; Sellitto, Antonio; Cimmelli, Vito A.

2013-12-01

70

Electronic Transport in Mesoscopic Systems

Recent advances in semiconductor technology have made possible the fabrication of structures whose dimensions are much smaller than the mean free path of an electron. This book gives the first thorough account of the theory of electronic transport in such mesoscopic systems. Beginning with coverage of fundamental concepts, the book presents a detailed account of transmission function formalism which is

Supriyo Datta

1997-01-01

71

Electron correlation from path resummations: the double-excitation star Alex J. W. Thom,

Electron correlation from path resummations: the double-excitation star Alex J. W. Thom, George H evaluation of a N-electron path-integral. In particular, we show that the double excitation star graph. In this paper, we concentrate on the case of the star graph, whose form allows its weight to be calculated

Alavi, Ali

72

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined the Wind/3DP/SST electron and Wind/EPACT/LEMT ion data to investigate the path length difference between solar electrons and ions in the ground-level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23. Assuming that the onset time of metric type II or decameter-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts is the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons, we have found that within an error range of ±10% the deduced path length of low-energy (~27 keV) electrons from their release site near the Sun to the 1 AU observer is consistent with the ion path length deduced by Reames from the onset time analysis. In addition, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined are in favor of the coronal mass ejection-driven shock acceleration origin of observed non-relativistic electrons. We have also found an increase of electron path lengths with increasing electron energies. The increasing rate of path lengths is correlated with the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of peak electron intensities locally measured, with a higher rate corresponding to a broader PAD. The correlation indicates that the path length enhancement is due to the interplanetary scattering experienced by first arriving electrons. The observed path length consistency implies that the maximum stable time of magnetic flux tubes, along which particles transport, could reach 4.8 hr.

Tan, Lun C.; Malandraki, Olga E.; Reames, Donald V.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua; Patsou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Athanasios

2013-05-01

73

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have examined the Wind/3DP/SST electron and Wind/EPACT/LEMT ion data to investigate the path length difference between solar electrons and ions in the ground-level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23. Assuming that the onset time of metric type II or decameter-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts is the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons, we have found that within an error range of plus or minus 10% the deduced path length of low-energy (approximately 27 keV) electrons from their release site near the Sun to the 1 AU observer is consistent with the ion path length deduced by Reames from the onset time analysis. In addition, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined are in favor of the coronal mass ejection-driven shock acceleration origin of observed non-relativistic electrons.We have also found an increase of electron path lengths with increasing electron energies. The increasing rate of path lengths is correlated with the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of peak electron intensities locally measured, with a higher rate corresponding to a broader PAD. The correlation indicates that the path length enhancement is due to the interplanetary scattering experienced by first arriving electrons. The observed path length consistency implies that the maximum stable time of magnetic flux tubes, along which particles transport, could reach 4.8 hr.

Tan, Lun C.; Malandraki, Olga E.; Reames, Donald; NG, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua; Patsou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Athanasios

2013-01-01

74

Modeling Gridded Inertial-Electrostatic Fusion Devices with Short Mean Free Paths

Gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) devices accelerate and focus ions using voltage differences between nearly transparent concentric grids in spherical or cylindrical geometry. Voltages of 50-100 kV can be produced relatively easily between the grids, giving the accelerated ions energies with substantial fusion cross sections. The resulting fusion products potentially can produce radioisotopes useful for positron emission tomography and other applications.

J. F. Santarius; R. P. Ashley; G. L. Kulcinski; G. R. Piefer; K. M. Subramanian

2000-01-01

75

Spiral structure and star formation. I - Formation mechanisms and mean free paths

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wide variety of optical appearances observed in spiral galaxies has encouraged the growth of two theoretical approaches to explain the spiral patterns exhibited by such young objects as OB associations, giant H II regions, and dark dust lanes. These approaches are related to the density wave theory of spiral structure and 'stochastic, self-propagating star formation'. Levinson and Roberts (1981) tried to reconcile these two theoretical approaches, and considered a disk filled with discrete gas clouds. The present investigation is concerned with refinements and extensions of the model of Levinson and Roberts. Attention is given to gravitational forces and dynamical propagation, cloud-cloud collisions, supernova interactions, computational models, a theory concerning the interactions of the gas cloud and stellar association systems, the time evolution of the gas cloud-stellar association systems, and aspects of collisionally triggered star formation.

Roberts, W. W., Jr.; Hausman, M. A.

1984-01-01

76

Motion of Electrons in Electric and Magnetic Fields: Introductory Laboratory and Computer Studies.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a series of laboratory experiments and computer simulations of the motion of electrons in electric and magnetic fields. These experiments, which involve an inexpensive student-built electron gun, study the electron mean free path, magnetic focusing, and other aspects. (Author/HM)

Huggins, Elisha R.; Lelek, Jeffrey J.

1979-01-01

77

In this article, a scanning probe method based on nanoscale capacitance measurements was used to investigate the lateral homogeneity of the electron mean free path both in pristine and ion-irradiated graphene. The local variations in the electronic transport properties were explained taking into account the scattering of electrons by charged impurities and point defects (vacancies). Electron mean free path is mainly limited by charged impurities in unirradiated graphene, whereas an important role is played by lattice vacancies after irradiation. The local density of the charged impurities and vacancies were determined for different irradiated ion fluences. PMID:21711643

2011-01-01

78

Designing a dynamic path guidance system based on electronic maps by using Q-learning

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shortest path problem from one origin node to one destination node in non-FIFO (First In First Out) dynamic networks is an unsolved hard problem in dynamic path guidance system. A new approach based on Q-learning is adopted to solve the problem based on electronic maps in this paper. The approach uses geographical information on electronic maps to define Q-learning's value function. Q-learning algorithm's strategy train learning method and training process on path searching are presented. Finally based on Guangzhou City's electronic map, we randomly generate a dynamic network containing 20000 nodes, 40000 links and 144 time intervals, which do not satisfy FIFO to test the approach proposed in this paper. The approach is implemented with this dynamic network and its computational performance is analyzed experimentally. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of the approach.

Zou, Liang; Xu, Jianmin; Zhu, Lingxiang

2005-11-01

79

The effects of the polydispersity of the structure of gold nanoshells and of the limited electron free path in a thin metal layer on the spectra of resonance light scattering of a suspension of two-layer nanoparticles are studied theoretically and experimentally for the first time. It is shown theoretically that both factors lead to a broadening of the plasmon resonance

B. N. Khlebtsov; V. A. Bogatyrev; L. A. Dykman; N. G. Khlebtsov

2007-01-01

80

The density matrix theory, the ancestor of density functional theory, provides the immediate framework for Path Integral (PI) development, allowing the canonical density be extended for the many-electronic systems through the density functional closure relationship. Yet, the use of path integral formalism for electronic density prescription presents several advantages: assures the inner quantum mechanical description of the system by parameterized paths; averages the quantum fluctuations; behaves as the propagator for time-space evolution of quantum information; resembles Schrödinger equation; allows quantum statistical description of the system through partition function computing. In this framework, four levels of path integral formalism were presented: the Feynman quantum mechanical, the semiclassical, the Feynman-Kleinert effective classical, and the Fokker-Planck non-equilibrium ones. In each case the density matrix or/and the canonical density were rigorously defined and presented. The practical specializations for quantum free and harmonic motions, for statistical high and low temperature limits, the smearing justification for the Bohr’s quantum stability postulate with the paradigmatic Hydrogen atomic excursion, along the quantum chemical calculation of semiclassical electronegativity and hardness, of chemical action and Mulliken electronegativity, as well as by the Markovian generalizations of Becke-Edgecombe electronic focalization functions – all advocate for the reliability of assuming PI formalism of quantum mechanics as a versatile one, suited for analytically and/or computationally modeling of a variety of fundamental physical and chemical reactivity concepts characterizing the (density driving) many-electronic systems. PMID:20087467

Putz, Mihai V.

2009-01-01

81

Assurance of Complex Electronics. What Path Do We Take?

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many of the methods used to develop software bare a close resemblance to Complex Electronics (CE) development. CE are now programmed to perform tasks that were previously handled in software, such as communication protocols. For instance, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) can have over a million logic gates while system-on-chip (SOC) devices can combine a microprocessor, input and output channels, and sometimes an FPGA for programmability. With this increased intricacy, the possibility of "software-like" bugs such as incorrect design, logic, and unexpected interactions within the logic is great. Since CE devices are obscuring the hardware/software boundary, we propose that mature software methodologies may be utilized with slight modifications to develop these devices. By using standardized S/W Engineering methods such as checklists, missing requirements and "bugs" can be detected earlier in the development cycle, thus creating a development process for CE that will be easily maintained and configurable based on the device used.

Plastow, Richard A.

2007-01-01

82

The effects of the polydispersity of the structure of gold nanoshells and of the limited electron free path in a thin metal\\u000a layer on the spectra of resonance light scattering of a suspension of two-layer nanoparticles are studied theoretically and\\u000a experimentally for the first time. It is shown theoretically that both factors lead to a broadening of the plasmon resonance

B. N. Khlebtsov; V. A. Bogatyrev; L. A. Dykman; N. G. Khlebtsov

2007-01-01

83

Doppler noise considered as a function of the signal path integration of electron density

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hypothesis is advanced that observed Doppler noise during solar conjunctions is proportional to total columnar electron content along the signal path. This assumption leads directly to a geometrical model (ISED) for observed Doppler noise which is shown to be in very good agreement with Doppler noise data accumulated during the 1975 Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11 and Helios 1 solar conjunctions. An augmented model is constructed which quantitatively indicates correlation between earth observed sunspot activity and systematic, cyclical deviations from the ISED model.

Berman, A. L.; Wackley, J. A.

1976-01-01

84

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The wave-normal emissivity and the ray emissivity formulas for an electron moving along a helical path in a magnetoactive medium are presented. Simplified formulas for the case of an isotropic plasma are also given. Because of the helical motion of the electron, a difference exists between the radiated power per unit solid angle and the received power per unit solid angle. The relation between these two quantities in a magnetoactive medium is shown. Results are compared with those obtained by others, and the sources of discrepancies are pointed out.

Ko, H. C.

1973-01-01

85

A partial linearized path integral approach is used to calculate the condensed phase electron transfer (ET) rate by directly evaluating the flux-flux/flux-side quantum time correlation functions. We demonstrate for a simple ET model that this approach can reliably capture the transition between non-adiabatic and adiabatic regimes as the electronic coupling is varied, while other commonly used semi-classical methods are less accurate over the broad range of electronic couplings considered. Further, we show that the approach reliably recovers the Marcus turnover as a function of thermodynamic driving force, giving highly accurate rates over four orders of magnitude from the normal to the inverted regimes. We also demonstrate that the approach yields accurate rate estimates over five orders of magnitude of inverse temperature. Finally, the approach outlined here accurately captures the electronic coherence in the flux-flux correlation function that is responsible for the decreased rate in the inverted regime.

Huo, Pengfei; Miller, Thomas F. III [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Coker, David F. [Department of Chemistry, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

2013-10-21

86

We develop an all-electron path integral Monte Carlo method with free-particle nodes for warm dense matter and apply it to water and carbon plasmas. We thereby extend path integral Monte Carlo studies beyond hydrogen and helium to elements with core electrons. Path integral Monte Carlo results for pressures, internal energies, and pair-correlation functions compare well with density functional theory molecular dynamics calculations at temperatures of (2.5-7.5)×10(5) K, and both methods together form a coherent equation of state over a density-temperature range of 3-12 g/cm(3) and 10(4)-10(9) K. PMID:22540485

Driver, K P; Militzer, B

2012-03-16

87

The transport coefficients of fully ionized plasmas under the influence of a high-frequency electric field are derived solving numerically the electron Fokker-Planck equation using a perturbation method, parametrized as a function of the electron mean-free-path lambdaei compared to the spatial scales L. The isotropic and anisotropic contributions of the inverse bremsstrahlung heating are considered. Electron-electron collision terms are kept in

A. Bendib; A. Tahraoui; K. Bendib; K. Mohammed El Hadj; S. Hueller

2005-01-01

88

Fermionic path-integral Monte Carlo results for the uniform electron gas at finite temperature

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature has recently attracted substantial interest due to the experimental progress in the field of warm dense matter. To explain the experimental data, accurate theoretical models for high-density plasmas are needed that depend crucially on the quality of the thermodynamic properties of the quantum degenerate nonideal electrons and of the treatment of their interaction with the positive background. Recent fixed-node path-integral Monte Carlo (RPIMC) data are believed to be the most accurate for the UEG at finite temperature, but they become questionable at high degeneracy when the Brueckner parameter rs=a /aB —the ratio of the mean interparticle distance to the Bohr radius—approaches 1. The validity range of these simulations and their predictive capabilities for the UEG are presently unknown. This is due to the unknown quality of the used fixed nodes and of the finite-size scaling from N =33 simulated particles (per spin projection) to the macroscopic limit. To analyze these questions, we present alternative direct fermionic path integral Monte Carlo (DPIMC) simulations that are independent from RPIMC. Our simulations take into account quantum effects not only in the electron system but also in their interaction with the uniform positive background. Also, we use substantially larger particle numbers (up to three times more) and perform an extrapolation to the macroscopic limit. We observe very good agreement with RPIMC, for the polarized electron gas, up to moderate densities around rs=4 , and larger deviations for the unpolarized case, for low temperatures. For higher densities (high electron degeneracy), rs?1.5 , both RPIMC and DPIMC are problematic due to the increased fermion sign problem.

Filinov, V. S.; Fortov, V. E.; Bonitz, M.; Moldabekov, Zh.

2015-03-01

89

to plasmas that are not strongly elec- tronegative e.g., oxygen and electron detachment can occur in the afterglow. The molecular-oxygen-ion mean-free path in an oxygen discharge at the lowest pressure studied 2 m-diffusion model, k Dk nk / x knkeE, where Dk and k are the k-specie diffusion coefficient and mobility

Kaganovich, Igor

90

Ultrarelativistic Electron-Positron Plasma

Ultrarelativistic electron-positron plasmas can be produced in high-intensity laser fields and play a role in various astrophysical situations. Their properties can be calculated using QED at finite temperature. Here we will use perturbative QED at finite temperature for calculating various important properties, such as the equation of state, dispersion relations of collective plasma modes of photons and electrons, Debye screening, damping rates, mean free paths, collision times, transport coefficients, and particle production rates, of ultrarelativistic electron-positron plasmas. In particular, we will focus on electron-positron plasmas produced with ultra-strong lasers.

Markus H. Thoma

2008-10-06

91

The Helical Fields of CMEs and the Paths of Near-Relativistic Electrons into the Heliosphere

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wavelet processing of the LASCO images of the solar corona brings out many subtle details that are easily missed in the intensity images. Specifically, wavelet processing can enhance the edges of large and small scale structures making it easier to detect and define motions. We used the processed LASCO images obtained during the period 1998 - 2001, of maximum activity of the last sunspot cycle, to study the structure and motions of the CME legs and the nearby fields. Many CMEs show large-scale latitudinal leg displacements that resemble screw threads leaving the Sun. The helical fields extend into the heliosphere after, and sometimes before, the associated CME has left the LASCO C2 field of view. We focused our attention on the CMEs that were analyzed by Simnett et al., Ap. J. 579, 854, 2002. They linked those CMEs to beams of near- relativistic electrons detected at 1 AU with the ACE spacecraft. Our study shows that the electron beams' typical delay of about 10 min in arriving at 1 AU may be due to their following a longer, helical path from Sun to Earth than the usually assumed Parker spiral length of 1.2 AU. The study implies that the escaping electrons may be accelerated at the same time as the trapped electrons that produce hard X-ray flare emissions. When that is the case, there is no need to invoke acceleration in the CME fronts.

Rust, D. M.; Haggerty, D. K.; Stenborg, G.

2009-04-01

92

We develop the path-branching representation for nonadiabatic electron wavepacket dynamics [T. Yonehara and K. Takatsuka, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 244102 (2010)] so as to treat dynamics in an energy range comparable to the barrier height of adiabatic potential energy curves. With this representation two characteristic chemical reaction dynamics are studied, in which an incident nuclear wavepacket encounters a potential barrier, on top of which lies another nonadiabatically coupled adiabatic potential curve: (1) Dynamics of initial paths coming into the nonadiabatic interaction region with energy lower than the barrier height. They branch into two pieces (and repeat branching subsequently), the upper counterparts of which can penetrate into a classically inaccessible high energy region and eventually branch back to the product region on the ground state curve. This is so to say surmounting the potential barrier via nonadiabatically coupled excited state, and phenomenologically looks like the so-called deep tunneling. (2) Dynamics of classical paths whose initial energies are a little higher than the barrier but may be lower than the bottom of the excited state. They can undergo branching and some of those components are trapped on top of the potential barrier, being followed by the population decay down to the lower state flowing both to product and reactant sites. Such expectations arising from the path-branching representation are numerically confirmed with full quantum mechanical wavepacket dynamics. This phenomenon may be experimentally observed as time-delayed pulses of wavepacket trains.

Yamamoto, Kentaro, E-mail: kyamamoto@mns2.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Takatsuka, Kazuo, E-mail: kaztak@mns2.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Basic Science, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, 153-8902 Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Basic Science, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, 153-8902 Tokyo (Japan)

2014-03-28

93

T. Regner1, Daniel P. Sellan2, Zonghui Su1, Cristina H. Amon1,2, Alan J.H. McGaughey1,3 & Jonathan A in nanostruc- tured materials and devices, where size effects selectively scatter phonons or create non

McGaughey, Alan

94

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 035426 (2011) Abnormal electron paths induced by Klein tunneling in graphene quantum point contacts Rui Yang,1 Liang Huang,1,2 Ying-Cheng Lai,1,3,4 and Celso Grebogi4 1 School of Computational Physics and Complex Systems, and Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of MOE

Lai, Ying-Cheng

95

A Born-Oppenheimer approximation for path integrals with an application to electron solvation (Received 8 February 1993; accepted 13 April 1993) The Born-Oppenheimer approximation is introduced this to simulations. We devise a new adiabatic expression which we call the free energy Born-Oppenheimer approximation

Berne, Bruce J.

96

Steepest Descent Path Study of Electron-Transfer Reactions Jianshu Cao

: October 13, 1999 A nonadiabatic steepest descent path method is developed as a qualitative tool to analyze transfer. I. Introduction The steepest descent path has been widely used as a qualitative tool concept,15-17 and the steepest descent evaluation of the instanton rate recovers the overdamped limit

Cao, Jianshu

97

Use of Langmuir Probes to Study Ion-Electron Recombination

Between about 0.1 and 20 mm Hg, ion concentration is related to the current collected by a negative cylindrical probe by the equation (in practical units) n=1.78×1013?e?1?2??5?8(Vprp)?1?4i5?8, where ?e is the electron mean free path, ? is the ion mobility, Vp and rp are the probe voltage and radius, and i is the probe current per unit length. The plasma

C. B. Kretschmer; H. L. Petersen

1963-01-01

98

Inhibition of electron thermal conduction by electromagnetic instabilities. [in stellar coronas

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heat flux inhibition by electromagnetic instabilities in a hot magnetized plasma is investigated. Low-frequency electromagnetic waves become unstable due to anisotropy of the electron distribution function. The chaotic magnetic field thus generated scatters the electrons with a specific effective mean free path. Saturation of the instability due to wave-wave interaction, nonlinear scattering, wave propagation, and collisional damping is considered. The effective mean free path is found self-consistently, using a simple model to estimate saturation level and scattering, and is shown to decrease with the temperature gradient length. The results, limited to the assumptions of the model, are applied to astrophysical systems. For some interstellar clouds the instability is found to be important. Collisional damping stabilizes the plasma, and the heat conduction can be dominated by superthermal electrons.

Levinson, Amir; Eichler, David

1992-01-01

99

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a novel first-principle molecular dynamics method based on the discretized path integral formalism of quantum mechanics. This method which includes quantum exchange is used to simulate the behavior of liquid potassium at high temperature. We compute the energy as well as the electronic and atomic structural properties of the liquid metal. These results compare favorably with previous calculations and experimental results.

Deymier, P. A.; Jabbour, G. E.; Weinberg, J. D.; Cherne, F. J.

1996-03-01

100

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for the temperature variation along geomagnetic field lines is described. The temperature gradient along the field line is 0.9-1.6 deg/km during the day and 0.5-0.7 deg/km during the night at 1000 km, and it reduces to about half of these values at 2000 km, for the altitude range 35-50 deg. A ray-tracing model is developed, and the effects of changes in temperature on electron density distribution and VLF paths are analyzed. It is shown that unducted ray paths are altered from their corresponding paths in an equivalent isothermal model, there is greater refraction, and magnetospheric reflection occurs at lower altitudes.

Strangeways, H. J.

1986-07-01

101

Generation of hot electron flows and the catalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) with different sizes were investigated using catalytic nanodiodes. We show that smaller Pt NPs lead to higher chemicurrent yield, which is associated with the shorter travel length for the hot electrons, compared with their inelastic mean free path. We also show the impact of capping on charge carrier transfer between Pt NPs and their support. PMID:25645508

Lee, Hyosun; Nedrygailov, Ievgen I; Lee, Changhwan; Somorjai, Gabor A; Park, Jeong Young

2015-02-16

102

Field Theoretic Description of Ultrarelativistic Electron-Positron Plasmas

Ultrarelativistic electron-positron plasmas can be produced in high-intensity laser fields and play a role in various astrophysical situations. Their properties can be calculated using QED at finite temperature. Here we will use perturbative QED at finite temperature for calculating various important properties, such as the equation of state, dispersion relations of collective plasma modes of photons and electrons, Debye screening, damping rates, mean free paths, collision times, transport coefficients, and particle production rates, of ultrarelativistic electron-positron plasmas. In particular, we will focus on electron-positron plasmas produced with ultra-strong lasers.

Markus H. Thoma

2009-07-06

103

Free-path distribution and Knudsen-layer modeling for gaseous flows in the transition regime

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the mean free path distribution of nonequilibrium gases in micronanochannel and to model the Knudsen (Kn) layer effect. It is found that the mean free path is significantly reduced near the wall and rather insensitive to flow types (Poiseuille or Couette). The Cercignani relation between the mean free path and the viscosity is adopted to capture the velocity behavior of the special zone in the framework of the extended Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. MD simulations of flows are carried out at different Kn numbers. Results are then compared with the theoretical model.

To, Quy Dong; Léonard, Céline; Lauriat, Guy

2015-02-01

104

The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic

Organic electronics are beginning to make significant inroads into the commercial world, and if the field continues to progress at its current, rapid pace, electronics based on organic thin-film materials will soon become a mainstay of our technological existence. Already products based on active thin-film organic devices are in the market place, most notably the displays of several mobile electronic

Stephen R. Forrest

2004-01-01

105

Electron cyclotron resonance microwave ion sources for thin film processing

Plasmas created by microwave absorption at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) are increasingly used for a variety of plasma processes, including both etching and deposition. ECR sources efficiently couple energy to electrons and use magnetic confinement to maximize the probability of an electron creating an ion or free radical in pressure regimes where the mean free path for ionization is comparable to the ECR source dimensions. The general operating principles of ECR sources are discussed with special emphasis on their use for thin film etching. Data on source performance during Cl base etching of Si using an ECR system are presented. 32 refs., 5 figs.

Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

1990-01-01

106

Photoelectron angular distributions from liquid water: effects of electron scattering.

Photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) from the liquid-water surface and from bulk liquid water are reported for water oxygen-1s ionization. Although less so than for the gas phase, the measured PADs from the liquid are remarkably anisotropic, even at electron kinetic energies lower than 100 eV, when elastic scattering cross sections for the outgoing electrons with other water molecules are large. The PADs reveal that theoretical estimates of the inelastic mean free path are likely too long at low kinetic energies, and hence the electron probing depth in water, near threshold ionization, appears to be considerably smaller than so far assumed. PMID:24206487

Thürmer, Stephan; Seidel, Robert; Faubel, Manfred; Eberhardt, Wolfgang; Hemminger, John C; Bradforth, Stephen E; Winter, Bernd

2013-10-25

107

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse discharges preionized by runaway electrons can produce large-area homogeneous discharges at elevated pressures, which is an intriguing phenomenon in the physics of pulsed discharges. In this paper, runaway-electron-preionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) was obtained in a wide pressure range (0.05-0.25 MPa), and under certain conditions a positive streamer and a cathode-directed spark leader could be observed to propagate at some angles to the applied (background) electric field lines. For a 16-mm gap at an air pressure of 0.08-0.1 MPa, the percentage of pulses in which such propagation is observed is about 5%-50% of their total number, and in the other pulses such bent paths could not be observed because there is even no streamer or cathode-directed spark leader in diffuse discharges. In our opinion, such propagation of the positive streamer and the cathode-directed spark leader at some angle to the background electric field lines owes to different increase rates of the electron density in different regions of the discharge volume under REP DD conditions. Therefore, during the formation of a REP DD, the increase of the electron density is inhomogeneous and nonsimultaneous, resulting in an electron density gradient at the ionization wave front.

Zhang, Cheng; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shao, Tao; Beloplotov, Dmitry V.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Wang, Ruixue; Sorokin, Dmitry A.; Yan, Ping

2015-03-01

108

Feynman Path Integral Approach to Electron Diffraction for One and Two Slits: Analytical Results

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present an analytic solution of the famous problem of diffraction and interference of electrons through one and two slits (for simplicity, only the one-dimensional case is considered). In addition to exact formulae, various approximations of the electron distribution are shown which facilitate the interpretation of the results.…

Beau, Mathieu

2012-01-01

109

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport coefficients of fully ionized plasmas under the influence of a high-frequency electric field are derived solving numerically the electron Fokker-Planck equation using a perturbation method, parametrized as a function of the electron mean-free-path ?ei compared to the spatial scales L. The isotropic and anisotropic contributions of the inverse bremsstrahlung heating are considered. Electron-electron collision terms are kept in the analysis, which allows us to consider with sufficient accuracy to describe plasmas with arbitrary atomic number Z. Practical numerical fits of the transport coefficients are proposed as functions of Z and the collisionality parameter ?ei/L.

Bendib, A.; Tahraoui, A.; Bendib, K.; Mohammed El Hadj, K.; Hüller, S.

2005-03-01

110

The Path of an Electron Orbiting an Accelerating Nucleus Len Zane, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

the microscopic force laws governing the motion of an electron with the macroscopic properties of rods and clocks a distance D apart with synchronized watches. To synchronize their watches, the two scientists will meet at point A, the middle of the marked off distance D, simultaneously start their watches, and then walk

Hemmers, Oliver

111

A Deterministic Transport Code for Space Environment Electrons

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A deterministic computational procedure has been developed to describe transport of space environment electrons in various shield media. This code is an upgrade and extension of an earlier electron code. Whereas the former code was formulated on the basis of parametric functions derived from limited laboratory data, the present code utilizes well established theoretical representations to describe the relevant interactions and transport processes. The shield material specification has been made more general, as have the pertinent cross sections. A combined mean free path and average trajectory approach has been used in the transport formalism. Comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations are presented.

Nealy, John E.; Chang, C. K.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.; Adamczyk, Anne M.

2010-01-01

112

This paper is an extension of our previous work on density functional models of electrons in magnetic fields. A full classical path'' (CP) one-body Green's function is used in the calculation of the kinetic functional and the one particle density. This treatment leads to a more precise expression of the density functional theory in the strong {ital B} case, in which magnetic fields are much stronger than the external scalar potential. In the semiclassical limit {ital t}{r arrow}0, the CP Green's function is checked by an exact solvable system, interactionless electrons in a central harmonic potential and a constant magnetic field. It turns out that the Green's function is correct through the order {ital O}({ital t}{sup 2}). Furthermore, in the high {ital B} limit (but still {ital t}{r arrow}0), the leading terms in {ital B} of the CP Green's function are the same as those of the exact Green's function in the entire {ital t}-expansion series.

Li, S.; Percus, J.K. (Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY (USA))

1990-09-15

113

Conditions for Aeronomic Applicability of the Classical Electron Heat Conduction Formula

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conditions for the applicability of the classical formula for heat conduction in the electrons in ionized gas are investigated. In a fully ionised gas ( V(sub en) much greater than V(sub ei)), when the mean free path for electron-electron (or electron-ion) collisions is much larger than the characteristic thermal scale length of the observed system, the conditions for applicability break down. In the case of the Venus ionosphere this breakdown is indicated for a large fraction of the electron temperature data from altitudes greater than 180 km, for electron densities less than 10(exp 4)/cc cm. In a partially ionised gas such that V(sub en) much greater than V(sub ei) there is breakdown of the formula not only when the mean free path of electrons greatly exceeds the thermal scale length, but also when the gradient of neutral particle density exceeds the electron thermal gradient. It is shown that electron heat conduction may be neglected in estimating the temperature of joule heated electrons by observed strong 100 Hz electric fields when the conduction flux is limited by the saturation flux. The results of this paper support our earlier aeronomical arguments against the hypothesis of planetary scale whistlers for the 100 Hz electric field signal. In turn this means that data from the 100 Hz signal may not be used to support the case for lightning on Venus.

Cole, K. D.; Hoegy, W. R.

1998-01-01

114

Influence of emitted electrons transiting between surfaces on plasma-surface interaction

Emitted electrons are accelerated back into the plasma by the sheath. If their mean free path is large, they can propagate directly to another surface without suffering collisions. We analyze the effects of “transit” on plasma-surface interaction. When transit occurs, surfaces exchanging electrons are intricately coupled. All surfaces float more negatively than they would if the emission collisionally remixed with the bulk plasma. Asymmetries of the system drive a net “transit current” between the surfaces, which influences their potential difference. The larger the initial energy spread of the emitted electrons, the larger the potential difference.

Campanell, Michael [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Wang, Hongyue [Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing (China)] [Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing (China)

2013-09-02

115

Auger electron intensity variations in oxygen-exposed large grain polycrystalline silver

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Auger electron spectroscopic studies of the grains in oxygen-charged polycrystal-line silver show significant intensity variations as a function of crystallographic orientation. These intensity variations were observed by studies of the Auger images and line scans of the different grains (randomly selected) for each silver transition energy. The results can be attributed to the diffraction of the ejected Auger electrons and interpreted by corresponding changes in the electron mean-free path for inelastic scattering and by oxygen atom accumulation in the subsurface. The subsurface (second layer) octahedral sites increased in size because of surface relaxation and serve as a stable reservoir for the dissolved oxygen.

Lee, W. S.; Outlaw, R. A.; Hoflund, G. B.; Davidson, M. R.

1989-01-01

116

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ballistic-Electron-Emission Microscopy (BEEM) spectroscopy has been performed on Au/Si(111) structures as a function of Au thickness and temperature. At 77 K a direct signature of parallel momentum conservation at the Au/Si interface is observed in the BEEM spectra. The variation in spectral shape with both Au thickness and temperature places restrictions on allowable values of inelastic and elastic mean-free paths in the metal, and also requires the presence of multiple electron passes within the Au layer. An independent indication of multiple reflections is directly observed in the attenuation of BEEM current with Au thickness.

Bell, L. D.

1996-01-01

117

the QES cross section for each target, a gaussian fit wasgaussian fit to the data. Dotted Scale of cross sec- tionsfit obtained from the sharp~sphere assumption. This suggests,that the effective NN cross

Tanihata, I.

2013-01-01

118

We describe the performance of a second-harmonic interferometer (SHI) to measure, on an optical path exceeding 12 m, the electron plasma density of two plasmoids formed in separate theta-pinch chambers and then merged in a central compression chamber after undergoing acceleration and compression. The excellent mechanical stability and a time resolution better than 50 ns suggest the application of SHI, especially in pulsed plasma devices with limited optical accesses. PMID:23041882

Del Rosso, T; Giammanco, F; Anderson, M G; Conti, F; Balvis, A; Isakov, I; Matvienko, V; Strashnoy, G; Waggoner, W; Bonelli, L; Paganini, E; Binderbauer, M W

2012-09-15

119

Characterization of the structural and physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as layer number and inelastic mean free path measurements, is very important to optimize their synthesis and application. In this study, we characterize the layer number and morphology of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets on a metallic substrate using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and scanning helium ion microscopy (HIM). Using scanning beams of various energies, we could analyze the dependence of the intensities of secondary electrons on the thickness of the h-BN nanosheets. Based on the interaction between the scanning particles (electrons and helium ions) and h-BN nanosheets, we deduced an exponential relationship between the intensities of secondary electrons and number of layers of h-BN. With the attenuation factor of the exponential formula, we calculate the inelastic mean free path of electrons and helium ions in the h-BN nanosheets. Our results show that HIM is more sensitive and consistent than FE-SEM for characterizing the number of layers and morphology of 2D materials.

Guo, Hongxuan, E-mail: Guo.hongxuan@nims.go.jp, E-mail: msxu@zju.edu.cn [Global Research Center for Environment and Energy Based on Nanomaterials Science National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Gao, Jianhua; Ishida, Nobuyuki [International Center for Young Scientists, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Xu, Mingsheng, E-mail: Guo.hongxuan@nims.go.jp, E-mail: msxu@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Fujita, Daisuke [Advanced Key Technologies Division, Global Research Center for Environment and Energy Based on Nanomaterials Science, and International Center for Young Scientists, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

2014-01-20

120

A new MetaPath information system was developed through a collaborative effort between the Laboratory of Mathematical Chemistry (Bourgas, Bulgaria), EPA?s Office of Research and Development (NHEERL, MED, Duluth, MN and NERL, ERD, Athens, GA), and EPA?s Office of Chemical Safety a...

121

PHYS 551 Lecture #19 Title: Properties of a Fermi-Dirac Gas of Electrons

electrons (negligible) CV = T + AT3 BT3 Question: Why do the ions behave as if they interacted with only is the heat capacity v is the average velocity 3 #12;` is the mean free path ` = vF c = 1 22 NkBT=TF = 1 22 Nk2 BT="F = 1 2 2 Nk2 BT=1 2mv2 F = 2 Nk2 BT=mv2 F = 2 3 Nk2 BT=mv2 F vF vF = 2 3 Nk2 BT

Winokur, Michael

122

MoS2 : Choice Substrate for Accessing and Tuning the Electronic Properties of Graphene

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the enduring challenges in graphene research and applications is the extreme sensitivity of its charge carriers to external perturbations, especially those introduced by the substrate. The best available substrates to date, graphite and hexagonal boron nitride (h -BN ), still pose limitations: graphite being metallic does not allow gating, while both h -BN and graphite, having lattice structures closely matched to that of graphene, may cause significant band structure reconstruction. Here we show that the atomically smooth surface of exfoliated MoS2 provides access to the intrinsic electronic structure of graphene without these drawbacks. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and Landau-level (LL) spectroscopy in a device configuration that allows tuning of the carrier concentration, we find that graphene on MoS2 is ultraflat, producing long mean free paths, while avoiding band structure reconstruction. Importantly, the screening of the MoS2 substrate can be tuned by changing the position of the Fermi energy with relatively low gate voltages. We show that shifting the Fermi energy from the gap to the edge of the conduction band gives rise to enhanced screening and to a substantial increase in the mean free path and quasiparticle lifetime. MoS2 substrates thus provide unique opportunities to access the intrinsic electronic properties of graphene and to study in situ the effects of screening on electron-electron interactions and transport.

Lu, Chih-Pin; Li, Guohong; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Andrei, Eva Y.

2014-10-01

123

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We recently proposed that a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent cascade produces the bulk energization of electrons to approximately 25 keV in the impulsive phase of solar flares (LaRosa & Moore 1993). In that scenario, (1) the cascading MHD turbulence is fed by shear-unstable Alfvenic outflows from sites of strongly driven reconnection in the low corona, and (2) the electrons are energized by absorbing the energy that flows down through the cascade. We did not specify the physical mechanism by which the cascading energy is ultimately transferred to the electrons. Here we propose that Fermi acceleration is this mechanism, the process by which the electrons are energized and by which the cascading MHD turbulence is dissipated. We point out that in the expected cascade MHD fluctuations of scale 1 km can Fermi-accelerate electrons from 0.1 keV to approximately 25 keV on the subsecond timescales observed in impulsive flares, provided there is sufficient trapping and scattering of electrons in the MHD turbulence. We show that these same fluctuations provide the required trapping; they confine the electrons within the turbulent region until the turbulence eis dissipated. This results in the energization of all of the lectrons in each large-scale (5 x 10(exp 7)cm) turbulent eddy to 25 keV. The Fermi process also requires efficient scattering so that the pitch-angle distribution of the accelerating electrons remains isotropic. We propose that the electrons undergo resonant scattering by high-frequency plasma R-waves that, as suggested by others (Hamilton & Petrosian 1992), are generated by the reconnection. Ions are not scattered by R-waves. Provided that there is negligible generation of ion-scattering plasma turbulence (e.g., L-waves) by the reconnection or the MHD turbulence, the ions will not Fermi-accelerate and the cascading energy is transferred only to the electrons. We conclude that, given this situation, electron Fermi acceleration can plausibly account for the electron bulk energization in impulsive solar flares.

Larosa, T. N.; Moore, R. L.; Shore, S. N.

1994-01-01

124

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a new Quantum Molecular Dynamics simulation method. The method is based on the discretized path integral representaion of quantum mechanics. In this representation, a quantum particle is isomorphic to a closed polymer chain. The problem of the indistinguishability between quantum particles is tackled with a non-local exchange potential. When the exact density matrix of the quantum particles is used, the exchange potential is exact. However we use a high temperature approximation to the density matrix and the exchange potential is only approximate. This new quantum molecular dynamics method allows the simulation of collections of quantum particles at finite temperature. Our algorithm can be made to scale linearly with the number of quantum states on which the density matrix is projected. Therefore, it can be optimized to run efficiently on parallel computers. We apply this method to the simulation of the electron plasma in 3-dimensions with different densities (rs = 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0) at various temperatures. Under these conditions, the electron plasma are at the border of the degenerate and the semi-degenerate regimes. The kinetic and potential energies are calculated and compared with results for similar systems simulated with a variational Monte Carlo method. Both results show good agreements with each other at all the densities studied. The quantum path integral molecular dynamics is also employed to study the effect of temperature on the electronic and atomic structural properties of liquid and crystalline alkali metal, namely potassium. In these simulations, ions and valence electrons are treated as classical and quantum particles, respectively. The simple metal undergoes a phase transformation upon heating. Calculated dynamic properties indicate that the atomic motion changes from a vibrational to a diffusive character identifying the transformation as melting. Calculated structural properties further confirm the nature of the transformation. Ionic vibrations in the crystal state and the loss of long range order during melting modify the electronic structure and in particular localize the electrons inside and at the border of the ion core.

Oh, Ki-Dong

1999-10-01

125

A Deterministic Computational Procedure for Space Environment Electron Transport

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A deterministic computational procedure for describing the transport of electrons in condensed media is formulated to simulate the effects and exposures from spectral distributions typical of electrons trapped in planetary magnetic fields. The primary purpose for developing the procedure is to provide a means of rapidly performing numerous repetitive transport calculations essential for electron radiation exposure assessments for complex space structures. The present code utilizes well-established theoretical representations to describe the relevant interactions and transport processes. A combined mean free path and average trajectory approach is used in the transport formalism. For typical space environment spectra, several favorable comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations are made which have indicated that accuracy is not compromised at the expense of the computational speed.

Nealy, John E.; Chang, C. K.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.; Adamcyk, Anne M.

2010-01-01

126

Simulation of electron transport during electron-beam-induced deposition of nanostructures

Summary We present a numerical investigation of energy and charge distributions during electron-beam-induced growth of tungsten nanostructures on SiO2 substrates by using a Monte Carlo simulation of the electron transport. This study gives a quantitative insight into the deposition of energy and charge in the substrate and in the already existing metallic nanostructures in the presence of the electron beam. We analyze electron trajectories, inelastic mean free paths, and the distribution of backscattered electrons in different compositions and at different depths of the deposit. We find that, while in the early stages of the nanostructure growth a significant fraction of electron trajectories still interacts with the substrate, when the nanostructure becomes thicker the transport takes place almost exclusively in the nanostructure. In particular, a larger deposit density leads to enhanced electron backscattering. This work shows how mesoscopic radiation-transport techniques can contribute to a model that addresses the multi-scale nature of the electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) process. Furthermore, similar simulations can help to understand the role that is played by backscattered electrons and emitted secondary electrons in the change of structural properties of nanostructured materials during post-growth electron-beam treatments. PMID:24367747

Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser

2013-01-01

127

MoS 2 MoS2: choice substrate for accessing and tuning the electronic properties of graphene.

One of the enduring challenges in graphene research and applications is the extreme sensitivity of its charge carriers to external perturbations, especially those introduced by the substrate. The best available substrates to date, graphite and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), still pose limitations: graphite being metallic does not allow gating, while both h-BN and graphite, having lattice structures closely matched to that of graphene, may cause significant band structure reconstruction. Here we show that the atomically smooth surface of exfoliated MoS(2) provides access to the intrinsic electronic structure of graphene without these drawbacks. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and Landau-level (LL) spectroscopy in a device configuration that allows tuning of the carrier concentration, we find that graphene on MoS(2) is ultraflat, producing long mean free paths, while avoiding band structure reconstruction. Importantly, the screening of the MoS(2) substrate can be tuned by changing the position of the Fermi energy with relatively low gate voltages. We show that shifting the Fermi energy from the gap to the edge of the conduction band gives rise to enhanced screening and to a substantial increase in the mean free path and quasiparticle lifetime. MoS(2) substrates thus provide unique opportunities to access the intrinsic electronic properties of graphene and to study in situ the effects of screening on electron-electron interactions and transport. PMID:25375733

Lu, Chih-Pin; Li, Guohong; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Andrei, Eva Y

2014-10-10

128

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energetically most stable orthorhombic structure of OsB2 and IrB2 is dynamically stable for OsB2 but unstable for IrB2. Both diborides have substantially lower shear strength in their easy slip systems than their metal counterparts. This is attributed to an easy sliding facilitated by out-of-plane weakening of metallic Os-Os bonds in OsB2 and by an in-plane bond splitting instability in IrB2. A much higher shear resistance of Os-B and B-B bonds than Os-Os ones is found, suggesting that the strengthened Os-B and B-B bonds are responsible for hardness enhancement in OsB2. In contrast, an in-plane electronic instability in IrB2 limits its strength. The electronic structure of deformed diborides suggests that the electronic instabilities of 5d orbitals are their origin of different bond deformation paths. Neither IrB2 nor OsB2 can be intrinsically superhard.

Zhang, R. F.; Legut, D.; Wen, X. D.; Veprek, S.; Rajan, K.; Lookman, T.; Mao, H. K.; Zhao, Y. S.

2014-09-01

129

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-similar distribution of electrons is found for a nonuniform underdense plasma that is heated by an intensive laser field. The distribution function is flat-topped for the low-energy electrons. And in the high-energy region, it has a well-pronounced high-energy tail. It is also found how the electron heat flux and the absorption coefficient depend upon both the ratios of electron mean-free path to the inhomogeneity scale of effective temperature and of the oscillation velocity to the thermal velocity. The actual shapes of electron energy distribution, the heat flux limitation, and the electromagnetic radiation absorption rate are given, both for a currentless plasma and for a plasma with a finite electric current.

Uryupin, S. A.; Kato, S.; Mima, K.

1995-08-01

130

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advanced analytical theory describing electron transport in the surface region of solids may have accuracy comparable to Monte Carlo simulations of electron trajectories, however such an approach requires knowledge of a parameter called the single scattering albedo. This parameter is material dependent and can be calculated from the elastic mean free path and transport mean free path for signal electrons. An attempt is made to derive a simple expression that accurately describes the energy dependence of single scattering albedo in a wide energy range from 50?eV to 30?keV for 78 elemental solids. For these solids and the considered energy range, the mean percentage deviations between the reference values and values calculated from the fitted function were found to be generally well below 1%; the largest value of this deviation was equal to 0.86% (europium). Calculation of the single scattering albedo with high accuracy requires only five fitted coefficients for a given element. Recommendations are also given for calculations of this parameter for compounds. Different predictive formulas expressed in terms of the single scattering albedo are briefly discussed.

Jablonski, A.

2015-02-01

131

Unsymmetrical hot electron heating in quasi-ballistic nanocontacts

Electrons are allowed to pass through a single atom connected to two electrodes without being scattered as the characteristic size is much smaller than the inelastic mean free path. In this quasi-ballistic regime, it is difficult to predict where and how power dissipation occurs in such current-carrying atomic system. Here, we report direct assessment of electrical heating in a metallic nanocontact. We find asymmetric electrical heating effects in the essentially symmetric single-atom contact. We simultaneously identified the voltage polarity independent onset of the local heating by conducting the inelastic noise spectroscopy. As a result, we revealed significant heat dissipation by hot electrons transmitting ballistically through the junction that creates a hot spot at the current downstream. This technique can be used as a platform for studying heat dissipation and transport in atomic/molecular systems. PMID:22355731

Tsutsui, Makusu; Kawai, Tomoji; Taniguchi, Masateru

2012-01-01

132

Locality of information obtained from proximity-electron-tunneling spectroscopy

The locality of the information obtained by the technique of proximity-electron tunneling (PETS) is analyzed, with particular attention to the effects on the measured effective-phonon spectrum ..cap alpha../sup 2/F(..omega..) is disorder or impurities near the surface of the superconductor electrode. As in conventional tunnel junctions it is determined that the (energy-dependent) electron mean free path determines the maximum depth of the superconductor of which the measured phonon spectrum is characterized. An averaging length L(E) is defined and found to be typically larger in proximity junctions than in conventional junctions. This can make PET results inherently less susceptible than conventional results to surface disorder of the superconductor.

Arnold, G.B.; Wolf, E.L.

1982-02-01

133

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students follow several pathways using anatomical directions on a simulated "body" produced from a copy of a school building's fire evacuation plan. The main hallways are designated as major blood vessels and the various areas of the school, the head, chest, abdomen, etc. Students complete several pathways using anatomical terms as directions. For example, one of my paths begins, "Ex- ot-, ad- superior, ecto- derm-, peri-frontal, circum- rhino-, " which loosely means, exit the ear, go to the superior region, outside the skin, around the frontal region, around the nose. At the end of each path I leave a clue that lets me know the students actually made it. The combined clues form a sentence.

Cynthia Ann Radle (McCullough High School REV)

1995-06-30

134

Field electron emission based on resonant tunneling in diamond/CoSi2/Si quantum well nanostructures

Excellent field electron emission properties of a diamond/CoSi2/Si quantum well nanostructure are observed. The novel quantum well structure consists of high quality diamond emitters grown on bulk Si substrate with a nanosized epitaxial CoSi2 conducting interlayer. The results show that the main emission properties were modified by varying the CoSi2 thickness and that stable, low-field, high emission current and controlled electron emission can be obtained by using a high quality diamond film and a thicker CoSi2 interlayer. An electron resonant tunneling mechanism in this quantum well structure is suggested, and the tunneling is due to the long electron mean free path in the nanosized CoSi2 layer. This structure meets most of the requirements for development of vacuum micro/nanoelectronic devices and large-area cold cathodes for flat-panel displays. PMID:23082241

Gu, Changzhi; Jiang, Xin; Lu, Wengang; Li, Junjie; Mantl, Siegfried

2012-01-01

135

Is it the boundaries or disorder that dominates electron transport in semiconductor `billiards'?

Semiconductor billiards are often considered as ideal systems for studying dynamical chaos in the quantum mechanical limit. In the traditional picture, once the electron's mean free path, as determined by the mobility, becomes larger than the device, disorder is negligible and electron trajectories are shaped by specular reflection from the billiard walls alone. Experimental insight into the electron dynamics is normally obtained by magnetoconductance measurements. A number of recent experimental studies have shown these measurements to be largely independent of the billiards exact shape, and highly dependent on sample-to-sample variations in disorder. In this paper, we discuss these more recent findings within the full historical context of work on semiconductor billiards, and offer strong evidence that small-angle scattering at the sub-100 nm length-scale dominates transport in these devices, with important implications for the role these devices can play for experimental tests of ideas in quantum chaos.

Micolich, A P; Scannell, B C; Marlow, C A; Martin, T P; Pilgrim, I; Hamilton, A R; Linke, H; Taylor, R P

2012-01-01

136

Is it the boundaries or disorder that dominates electron transport in semiconductor `billiards'?

Semiconductor billiards are often considered as ideal systems for studying dynamical chaos in the quantum mechanical limit. In the traditional picture, once the electron's mean free path, as determined by the mobility, becomes larger than the device, disorder is negligible and electron trajectories are shaped by specular reflection from the billiard walls alone. Experimental insight into the electron dynamics is normally obtained by magnetoconductance measurements. A number of recent experimental studies have shown these measurements to be largely independent of the billiards exact shape, and highly dependent on sample-to-sample variations in disorder. In this paper, we discuss these more recent findings within the full historical context of work on semiconductor billiards, and offer strong evidence that small-angle scattering at the sub-100 nm length-scale dominates transport in these devices, with important implications for the role these devices can play for experimental tests of ideas in quantum chaos.

A. P. Micolich; A. M. See; B. C. Scannell; C. A. Marlow; T. P. Martin; I. Pilgrim; A. R. Hamilton; H. Linke; R. P. Taylor

2012-04-22

137

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron mean free path (lgr) is "locally" evaluated by scanning capacitance spectroscopy on graphene obtained with different preparation methods and on different substrates, i.e., graphene exfoliated from highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) and deposited (DG) on 4H-SiC(0001) and on SiO2 and epitaxial graphene grown on 4H-SiC(0001) (EG). lgr in DG on SiC was more than four times larger than in DG on SiO2. The improved mean free path is explained by the higher permittivity of SiC compared to SiO2, yielding a better dielectric screening of charged-impurities, and by the weaker coupling of graphene two-dimensional-electron-gas with surface polar phonons of SiC. On the other hand, lgr on EG is on average ˜0.4 times that on DG-SiC and exhibits large variations from point to point, due to the presence of a laterally inhomogeneous positively charged layer at EG/SiC interface.

Sonde, S.; Giannazzo, F.; Vecchio, C.; Yakimova, R.; Rimini, E.; Raineri, V.

2010-09-01

138

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on path planning control are presented. Topics covered include: model based path planning; sensor based path planning; hybrid path planning; proximity sensor array; and applications for fuzzy logic.

Mcroberts, Malcolm

1990-01-01

139

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In June 1986 a 1 x 1 deg/mean free-air anomaly data file containing 48955 anomalies was completed. In August 1986 a 30 x 30 min mean free-air anomaly file was defined containing 31787 values. For the past three years data has been collected to upgrade these mean anomaly files. The primary emphasis was the collection of data to be used for the estimation of 30 min means anomalies in land areas. The emphasis on land areas was due to the anticipated use of 30 min anomalies derived from satellite altimeter data in the ocean areas. There were 10 data sources in the August 1986 file. Twenty-eight sources were added based on the collection of both point and mean anomalies from a number of individuals and organizations. A preliminary 30 min file was constructed from the 38 data sources. This file was used to calculate 1 x 1 deg mean anomalies. This 1 x 1 deg file was merged with a 1 x 1 deg file which was a merger of the June 1986 file plus a 1 x 1 deg file made available by DMA Aerospace Center. Certain bad 30 min anomalies were identified and deleted from the preliminary 30 min file leading to the final 30 min file (the July 1989 30 min file) with 66990 anomalies and their accuracy. These anomalies were used to again compute 1 x 1 deg anomalies which were merged with the previous June 86 DMAAC data file. The final 1 x 1 deg mean anomaly file (the July 89 1 x 1 deg data base) contained 50793 anomalies and their accuracy. The anomaly data files were significantly improved over the prior data sets in the following geographic regions: Africa, Scandinavia, Canada, United States, Mexico, Central and South America. Substantial land areas remain where there is little or no available data.

Kim, Jeong-Hee; Rapp, Richard H.

1990-01-01

140

Advanced multiple scattering algorithms for electron transport

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new multiple scattering or Condensed History algorithms are developed to enhance the Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport problems. These algorithms overcome the computational burdens of single collision models by ``condensing'' multiple collisions into large steps. Thus, these methods describe the cumulative effect of many electron interactions that occur in a given step. Although current Condensed History schemes are effective for many electron transport problems, they suffer from inaccuracies in certain situations. Specifically, conventional methods can poorly determine the locations of particles after Condensed History steps. The first algorithm that we developed predicts electron positions more accurately than current methods by preserving the zeroth-, first-, and second-order spatial moments of the Boltzmann transport equation. This Moment Condensed History algorithm determines the mean position and the standard deviation in the mean position exactly for electrons of any energy that have traveled any number of steps. Using numerical results from Moment Condensed History simulations, we indicate that this algorithm can promptly provide calculations that compare very well to the costly single collision simulations. Therefore, Moment Condensed History improves the accuracy without substantially sacrificing the efficiency of conventional methods. Unlike other multiple scattering methods, the second algorithm, called Transport Condensed History, is a true transport process-it simulates a transport equation that approximates the exact Boltzmann equation. The new equation has a larger mean free path than, and preserves two angular moments of, the Boltzmann equation. Thus, the new equation conserves both particles and scattering power, and it is more efficient to model by Monte Carlo. We show that Transport Condensed History more accurately predicts electron position as a function of path length traveled (energy lost) than current Condensed History schemes. We also show that it can effectively move particles across material boundaries and interfaces with acceptable accuracy and efficiency. Thus, Transport Condensed History is most ideal for modeling electron transport in finite media.

Tolar, Danny Ray, Jr.

141

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the next two exercises, we will break up into groups of four. Each member of the group will represent one of four waves leaving the source: direct wave, ground roll, reflected wave, and head wave. All four "waves" will leave the source at the same time and travel at a particular speed and path as directed by the instructor. ALL students will record the arrival time of each "wave" at each geophone until all 12 geophones have been used. Plot arrival time versus distance for each "wave". Do any of the time versus distance curves fit a straight line? Do any of them not fit a straight line? Explain why they do or don't fit a straight line. Uses online and/or real-time data Has minimal/no quantitative component

142

We have shown that there exists low-frequency growing modes driven by a global temperature gradient in electron and ion plasmas, by linear perturbation analysis within the frame work of plasma Kinetic theory. The driving force of the instability is the local deviation of the distribution function from the Maxwell-Boltzmann due to global temperature gradient. Application to the intracluster medium shows that scattering of the particles due to waves excited by the instability is possible to reduce mean free paths of electron and ion down to five to seven order of magnitude than the mean free paths due to Coulomb collisions. This may provide a hint to explain why hot and cool gas can co-exist in the intracluster medium in spite of the very short evaporation time scale due to thermal conduction if the conductivity is the classical Spitzer value. Our results suggest that the realization of the global thermal equilibrium is postponed by the local instability which is induced for quicker realization of local thermal equilibrium state in plasmas. The instability provides a new possibility to create and grow cosmic magnetic fields without any seed magnetic field.

Makoto Hattori; Keiichi Umetsu

1999-11-25

143

Conditions for electron runaway under leader breakdown of long gaps

An original hydrodynamic model in which inelastic collisions in the equations of motion and energy balance play a decisive role is developed and applied to simulate electron avalanches in strong electric fields. The mean energy and drift velocity of electrons, as well as the ionization coefficient and electric field in a wide range of mean electron energies, are determined for helium and xenon. A criterion is derived for the runaway of the average electron in discharges with ionization multiplication. It is shown that runaway can take place at any value of E/p, provided that the momentum mean free path exceeds the gap length. The voltage corresponding to electron runaway is found for helium, xenon, and air as a function of the electric field, the electron mean energy, and the parameter pd. Conditions for the formation of a precursor in electronegative gases are analyzed. It is shown that the presence of a precursor with a high electric conductance is necessary for the formation of a new leader step. The voltage and time ranges corresponding to efficient electron runaway and X-ray generation during leader breakdown in air are determined.

Ul'yanov, K. N. [Lenin All-Russia Electrotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

2008-04-15

144

The calculation of ionospheric ray paths

path calculation by calculating ray paths from a cosmic radio source to a satellite in orbit above the level of the ionosphere. Radiation of this type may be totally reflected by the ionosphere thus making reception on the earth impossible... ray paths with constant frequency and variable angle of propagation and range, parabolic ionosphere of electrons assumed, earth's magnetic field neglected 2- 1 The vertical and lateral deviations of a radio wave propagated in a plane ionosphere...

Koehler, Buford Ray

1967-01-01

145

Path entanglement of surface plasmons

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metals can sustain traveling electromagnetic waves at their surfaces supported by the collective oscillations of their free electrons in unison. Remarkably, classical electromagnetism captures the essential physics of these ‘surface plasma’ waves using simple models with only macroscopic features, accounting for microscopic electron–electron and electron–phonon interactions with a single, semi-empirical damping parameter. Nevertheless, in quantum theory these microscopic interactions could be important, as any substantial environmental interactions could decohere quantum superpositions of surface plasmons, the quanta of these waves. Here we report a measurement of path entanglement between surface plasmons with 95% contrast, confirming that a path-entangled state can indeed survive without measurable decoherence. Our measurement suggests that elastic scattering mechanisms of the type that might cause pure dephasing in plasmonic systems must be weak enough not to significantly perturb the state of the metal under the experimental conditions we investigated.

Fakonas, James S.; Mitskovets, Anna; Atwater, Harry A.

2015-02-01

146

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations are performed on clusters of finite size to study the effects of size and current-path structure on magnetotransport in spatially-confined samples. Magnetotransport networks are established and calculated based on fractal structures including Koch curves and percolation backbones extracted from regular lattices. The structure pattern of clusters is shown to play an important role in the magnetotransport behaviours by affecting the magnetoresistance fluctuations due to spin disorder in the systems of small size, which suggests the possibility of controlling the magnetotransport by the design of current-path configurations.

Wu, Jian-Chun; Sun, Hua; Li, Zhen-Ya

2009-11-01

147

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work comprises an investigation about basic Quantum Mechanics (QM) teaching in the high school. The organization of the concepts does not follow a historical line. The Path Integrals method of Feynman has been adopted as a Reference Conceptual Structure that is an alternative to the canonical formalism. We have designed a didactic sequence…

Fanaro, Maria de los Angeles; Arlego, Marcelo; Otero, Maria Rita

2012-01-01

148

Nonlocal electron kinetics in a weakly ionized plasma

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron dynamics in a time dependent inhomogeneous electric field in a weakly ionized plasma with elastic electron-neutral collisions is analyzed. We consider the most general ordering when the electron mean free path vTe/?e is arbitrary with respect to the characteristic length scale k-1 of the electric field, and frequency ? of the electric field is arbitrary with respect to the electron collisional frequency ?e ?~?e~kvt. In this case the standard two-term approximation is not valid and higher order spherical harmonics in the perturbed electron distribution function should be taken into account. This results in an infinite hierarchy of coupled equations for angular harmonics that can be solved in the form of the infinite continued fraction. This method is easily generalized for a wide class of scattering cross sections with angular dependencies. The developed approach uniformly describes both local (strongly collisional) and nonlocal regimes. As an example, a closed form of the perturbed electron distribution function is found for the argon gas with nonmonotic dependence of the collisional cross section as function of energy (Ramsauer effect). The conductivity and surface impedance of a semi-infinite plasma are calculated in different collisionality regimes, and anomalous penetration of the electric field into such plasma is analyzed. The nonmonotonous behavior of the amplitude of the external electric field inside of a plasma has been recovered for the nonlocal case (?>1).

Furkal, E.; Smolyakov, A.; Hirose, A.

1998-07-01

149

Thermally induced electrical currents, known as Johnson noise, cause fluctuating electric and magnetic fields in proximity to a conductor. These fluctuations are intrinsically related to the conductivity of the metal. We use single-spin qubits associated with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to probe Johnson noise in the vicinity of conductive silver films. Measurements of polycrystalline silver films over a range of distances (20 to 200 nanometers) and temperatures (10 to 300 kelvin) are consistent with the classically expected behavior of the magnetic fluctuations. However, we find that Johnson noise is markedly suppressed next to single-crystal films, indicative of a substantial deviation from Ohm's law at length scales below the electron mean free path. Our results are consistent with a generalized model that accounts for the ballistic motion of electrons in the metal, indicating that under the appropriate conditions, nearby electrodes may be used for controlling nanoscale optoelectronic, atomic, and solid-state quantum systems. PMID:25636797

Kolkowitz, S; Safira, A; High, A A; Devlin, R C; Choi, S; Unterreithmeier, Q P; Patterson, D; Zibrov, A S; Manucharyan, V E; Park, H; Lukin, M D

2015-03-01

150

Dicalcium nitride as a two-dimensional electride with an anionic electron layer.

Recent studies suggest that electrides--ionic crystals in which electrons serve as anions--are not exceptional materials but rather a generalized form, particularly under high pressure. The topology of the cavities confining anionic electrons determines their physical properties. At present, reported confining sites consist only of zero-dimensional cavities or weakly linked channels. Here we report a layered-structure electride of dicalcium nitride, Ca(2)N, which possesses two-dimensionally confined anionic electrons whose concentration agrees well with that for the chemical formula of [Ca(2)N](+)·e(-). Two-dimensional transport characteristics are demonstrated by a high electron mobility (520?cm(2)?V(-1)?s(-1)) and long mean scattering time (0.6?picoseconds) with a mean free path of 0.12?micrometres. The quadratic temperature dependence of the resistivity up to 120?Kelvin indicates the presence of an electron-electron interaction. A striking anisotropic magnetoresistance behaviour with respect to the direction of magnetic field (negative for the field perpendicular to the conducting plane and positive for the field parallel to it) is observed, confirming diffusive two-dimensional transport in dense electron layers. Additionally, band calculations support confinement of anionic electrons within the interlayer space, and photoemission measurements confirm anisotropic low work functions of 3.5 and 2.6 electronvolts, revealing the loosely bound nature of the anionic electrons. We conclude that Ca(2)N is a two-dimensional electride in terms of [Ca(2)N](+)·e(-). PMID:23364689

Lee, Kimoon; Kim, Sung Wng; Toda, Yoshitake; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo

2013-02-21

151

Generation and accretion of electrons in complex plasmas with cylindrical particles

This paper presents an analytical model for the physical understanding of the charging of cylindrical dust particles in an open complex plasma system. Two different mechanisms, viz., thermionic emission and photoelectric emission have been considered for the electron generation from the charged cylindrical dust particles; the corresponding expressions for the rate of emission of electrons and their mean energy have been derived. A simple approach has been adopted to derive the expression for the rate of electron accretion to the dust particle. Further a new expression for the mean energy associated with the accreted electrons due to cylindrical dust particle has been derived and presented. An interesting comparison of results obtained in the case of spherical and cylindrical dust particles has also been made. Using these expressions, a formalism has been developed for the electronic processes in an illuminated dust cloud with cylindrical particles, on the basis of charge neutrality condition and number and energy balance of electrons; the charge carried by the cylindrical dust particles, electron temperature, and electron density corresponding to a given situation have been determined. The limitation of the applicability of the theory, viz., that the mean free path of an electron for accretion by dust particles be less than the dimension of the dust cloud has been pointed out.

Sodha, Mahendra Singh; Misra, Shikha [Disha Institute of Management and Technology, Satya Vihar, Vidhan Sabha-Chandrakhuri Marg, Mandir Hasaud, Raipur 492101, Chattisgarh (India); Mishra, S. K. [Department of Education Building, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007 (India)

2009-12-15

152

ELECTRON HEAT CONDUCTION IN THE SOLAR WIND: TRANSITION FROM SPITZER-HAeRM TO THE COLLISIONLESS LIMIT

We use a statistically significant set of measurements to show that the field-aligned electron heat flux q{sub Parallel-To} in the solar wind at 1 AU is consistent with the Spitzer-Haerm collisional heat flux q{sub sh} for temperature gradient scales larger than a few mean free paths L{sub T} {approx}> 3.5{lambda}{sub fp}. This represents about 65% of the measured data and corresponds primarily to high {beta}, weakly collisional plasma ({sup s}low solar wind{sup )}. In the more collisionless regime {lambda}{sub fp}/L{sub T} {approx}> 0.28, the electron heat flux is limited to q{sub Parallel-To }/q{sub 0} {approx} 0.3, independent of mean free path, where q{sub 0} is the ''free-streaming'' value; the measured q{sub Parallel-To} does not achieve the full q{sub 0}. This constraint q{sub Parallel-To }/q{sub 0} {approx} 0.3 might be attributed to wave-particle interactions, effects of an interplanetary electric potential, or inherent flux limitation. We also show a {beta}{sub e} dependence to these results that is consistent with a local radial electron temperature profile T{sub e} {approx} r {sup -{alpha}} that is a function of the thermal electron beta {alpha} = {alpha}({beta}{sub e}) and that the {beta} dependence of the collisionless regulation constraint is not obviously consistent with a whistler heat flux instability. It may be that the observed saturation of the measured heat flux is a simply a feature of collisional transport. We discuss the results in a broader astrophysical context.

Bale, S. D.; Quataert, E. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Pulupa, M.; Salem, C.; Chen, C. H. K. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley (United States)

2013-06-01

153

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron energy loss spectra enable a detailed quantification of the electronic loss mechanisms in a target solid, particularly in the low-energy region dominated by plasmon excitations. Models of the electronic response in condensed-matter systems are usually derived from free-electron gas or jellium models, which commonly neglect to account for the lifetime broadening of individual plasmon and single-electron excitations in a constrained, physical manner. This can lead to potentially significant errors in electron energy loss spectra and electron inelastic mean-free-path (IMFP) calculations. We develop a toy model of plasmon and single-electron excitations that incorporates lifetime broadening for each excitation in an energy- and momentum-dependent fashion. The model is physically constrained using optical and electronic sum rules. We demonstrate the necessity of asymmetric excitation broadening, and show that causally permitted variations in the broadening function can have a significant impact on the dielectric response of the material. Our developments are applied to molybdenum, and compared with previous modeling and high-precision experimental results for the IMFP at electron energies below 120 eV.

Chantler, C. T.; Bourke, J. D.

2014-11-01

154

Conductance of one-dimensional quantum wires with anomalous electron wave-function localization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the statistics of the conductance g through one-dimensional disordered systems where electron wave functions decay spatially as |?|˜exp(-?r?) for 0mean free path, here we show that when the wave function is anomalously localized (?<1), the full statistics of the conductance is determined by the average

Amanatidis, Ilias; Kleftogiannis, Ioannis; Falceto, Fernando; Gopar, Víctor A.

2012-06-01

155

Production of electron-positron pairs by a photon propagating in a strongly magnetized thermal bath

The production of electron-positron pairs by a photon propagating in a thermal bath in both zero and strong (B Much-Greater-Than 4.41 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} G) magnetic fields has been considered. The mean free path has been calculated for the high-energy photon propagating through a thermodynamically equilibrium photon gas along the magnetic field lines so that the {gamma} {yields} e{sup -}e{sup +} decay is kinematically forbidden. It has been shown that the strong magnetic field suppresses the probability of the {gamma}{gamma} Prime {yields} e{sup -}e{sup +} process. The analyzed process can be useful for analysis of possible mechanisms of the generation of the e{sup -}e{sup +} plasma in the regions of the polar caps of magnetars.

Dunaev, M. A., E-mail: yarosla@rambler.ru; Mikheev, N. V., E-mail: mikheev@uniyar.ac.ru [Yaroslavl State University (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15

156

Assessing the impact of automated path planning aids in the maritime community

In the area of merchant maritime navigation, electronic charts are a relatively new tool. As a result, navigational path planning environments that allow users to manually enter a path onto an electronic chart are becoming ...

Buchin, Mariela E

2009-01-01

157

DISCUSS: Critical Path Analysis

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, by Barrie Baker and Neville Hunt of Coventry University, introduces critical path analysis and addresses the following topics: Networks, Critical paths, Floats, Activity-on-node (AON) networks. Excel spreadsheets are used to provide examples and exercises.

Baker, Barrie

158

Traveling salesman path problems

In the Traveling Salesman Path Problem, we are given a set of cities, traveling costs between city pairs and fixed source and destination cities. The objective is to find a minimum cost path from the source to destination ...

Lam, Fumei

2005-01-01

159

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1950s, materials scientists have pursued the fabrication of solid-state heterostructure (HS) devices of sufficient purity to replicate electron interference effects originally observed in vacuum. The ultimate goal of HS engineering is to create a semiconductor ``billiard table'' in which electrons travel ballistically in a 2-D plane---that is, with scattering events minimized such that the electron's mean free path exceeds the device size. For the past two decades, the modulation-doped (MD) HS architecture has yielded devices supporting very high electron mobilities. In this architecture, ionized dopants are spatially removed from the plane of the electrons, such that their influence on electron trajectories is felt through presumably negligible small-angle scattering events. However, we observe that thermally induced charge redistribution in the doped layers of AlGaAs/GaAs and GaInAs/InP MD heterostructures significantly alters electron transport dynamics as measured by magnetoconductance fluctuations. This result demonstrates that small-angle scattering plays a far larger role than expected in influencing conduction properties.

Pilgrim, Ian; Scannell, Billy; See, Andrew; Montgomery, Rick; Morse, Peter; Fairbanks, Matt; Marlow, Colleen; Linke, Heiner; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David; Hamilton, Alex; Micolich, Adam; Eaves, Laurence; Taylor, Richard

2013-03-01

160

A Hot-electron Direct Detector for Radioastronomy

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hot-electron transition-edge superconducting bolometer with adjustable thermal relaxation speed is proposed. The bolometer contacts are made from a superconductor with high critical temperature which blocks the thermal diffusion of hot carriers into the contacts. Thus electron-phonon interaction is the only mechanism for heat removal. The speed of thermal relaxation for hot electrons in a nanometer-size superconducting bolometer with T(sub c) = 100-300 mK is controlled by the elastic electron mean free path l. The relaxation rate behaves as T(sup 4)l at subkelvin temperatures and can be reduced by a factor of 10-100 by decreasing 1. Then an antenna- or wave guide-coupled bolometer with a time constant approx. = 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -4) s will exhibit photon-noise limited performance at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. The bolometer will have a figure-of-merit NEPtau = 10(exp -22) - 10(exp -21) W/Hz at 100 mK which is 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) times better (ie: smaller) than that of a state-of-the-art bolometer. A tremendous increase in speed and sensitivity will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications.

Karasik, Boris S.; McGrath, William R.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Gershenson, Michael E.

1999-01-01

161

Valence electron count is one of the key factors influencing the stability and structure of metals and alloys. However, unlike in molecular compounds, the origins of the preferred electron counts of many metallic phases remain largely mysterious. Perhaps the clearest-cut of such electron counting rules is exhibited by the Nowotny chimney ladder (NCL) phases, compounds remarkable for their helical structural motifs in which transition metal (T) helices serve as channels for a second set of helices formed from main group (E) elements. These phases exhibit density of states pseudogaps or band gaps, and thus special stability and useful physical properties, when their valence electron count corresponds to 14 electrons per T atom. In this Article, we illustrate, using DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations and the reversed approximation Molecular Orbital analysis, that the 14-electron rule of the NCLs is, in fact, a specific instance of an 18 - n rule emerging for T-E intermetallics, where n is the number of E-supported T-T bonds per T atom. The structural flexibility of the NCL series arises from the role of the E atoms as supports for these T-T bonds, which simply requires the E atoms to be as uniformly distributed within the T sublattice as possible. This picture offers a strategy for identifying other intermetallic structures that may be amenable to incommensurability between T and E sublattices. PMID:25215958

Yannello, Vincent J; Fredrickson, Daniel C

2014-10-01

162

Walden's Paths - Ensemble Edition

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Walden?s Paths enables users of digital document collections (e.g. the Web) to exploit these documents by reusing them for previously unintended audiences in an academic setting. Authors of paths (usually educators) overlay a linear, directed meta-structure over the Web documents and recontextualize these by adding explanatory text to achieve their curricular goals. Paths do not modifythe structure or content of the Web resources that they include. The creation of a path over pre-organized content (e.g. books, Web pages) to reorganize and associate related information serves to facilitate easy retrieval and communication. Walden?s Paths displays the information that the path points to in conjunction with the textual annotations added by the author of the path.

2011-01-04

163

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy dependence of the path-length distribution of cosmic rays at low energies, below relativistic velocities, is studied, and its implications for models of cosmic-ray confinement and propagation in the Galaxy and Galactic halo, including the effects of a possible Galactic wind, are studied. It is found that the mean free path in Galactic propagation must be fully energy-dependent, with the mean of an exponential path-length distribution increasing with increasing energy below 1 GeV per nucleon and decreasing with increasing energy above 1 GeV per nucleon. This indicates that, at low energies, diffusion is not the controlling process. The path-length distribution is not purely exponential but is depleted in short path lengths at low energies. This depletion is energy-dependent, being largest at low energies and decreasing with increasing energy.

Garcia-Munoz, M.; Simpson, J. A.; Guzik, T. G.; Wefel, J. P.; Margolis, S. H.

1987-01-01

164

We have investigated the temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a 100?nm-long InGaAs/InAlAs metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor designed for millimeter-wavelength RF applications. To extract the temperature dependence of quasi-ballistic mobility, our experiment involves measurements of the effective mobility in the low-bias linear region of the transistor and of the collision-dominated Hall mobility using a gated Hall bar of the same epitaxial structure. The data measured from the experiment are consistent with that of modeled ballistic mobility based on ballistic transport theory. These results advance the understanding of ballistic transport in various transistors with a nano-scale channel length that is comparable to the carrier's mean free path in the channel.

Lee, Jongkyong; Gang, Suhyun; Jo, Yongcheol; Kim, Jongmin; Woo, Hyeonseok; Han, Jaeseok; Kim, Hyungsang, E-mail: hskim@dongguk.edu; Im, Hyunsik, E-mail: hyunsik7@dongguk.edu [Division of Physics and Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-07-28

165

Analytical studies and numerical simulations show that the electron velocity distribution function in a Hall thruster discharge with crossed electric and magnetic fields is not Maxwellian. This is due to the fact that the mean free path between collisions is greater than both the Larmor radius and the characteristic dimensions of the discharge channel. However in numerical models of Hall thrusters, a hydrodynamic approach is often used to describe the electron dynamics, because discharge simulation in a fully kinetic approach requires large computing resources and is time consuming. A more accurate modeling of the electron flow in the hydrodynamic approximation requires taking into account the non-Maxwellian character of the distribution function and finding its moments, an approach that reflects the properties of electrons drifting in crossed electric and magnetic fields better than the commonly used Euler or Navier-Stokes approximations. In the present paper, an expression for the electron velocity distribution function in rarefied spatially homogeneous stationary plasma with crossed electric and magnetic fields and predominance of collisions with heavy particles is derived in the relaxation approximation. The main moments of the distribution function including longitudinal and transversal temperatures, the components of the viscous stress tensor, and of the heat flux vector are calculated. Distinctive features of the hydrodynamic description of electrons with a strongly non-equilibrium distribution function and the prospects for further development of the proposed approach for calculating the distribution function in spatially inhomogeneous plasma are discussed.

Shagayda, Andrey [Department of Electrophysics, Keldysh Research Centre, Moscow 125438 (Russian Federation)

2012-08-15

166

It has been experimentally found that the carbon surface contamination influences strongly the spectrum signals in reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) especially at low primary electron energy. However, there is still little theoretical work dealing with the carbon contamination effect in REELS. Such a work is required to predict REELS spectrum for layered structural sample, providing an understanding of the experimental phenomena observed. In this study, we present a numerical calculation result on the spatially varying differential inelastic mean free path for a sample made of a carbon contamination layer of varied thickness on a SrTiO{sub 3} substrate. A Monte Carlo simulation model for electron interaction with a layered structural sample is built by combining this inelastic scattering cross-section with the Mott's cross-section for electron elastic scattering. The simulation results have clearly shown that the contribution of the electron energy loss from carbon surface contamination increases with decreasing primary energy due to increased individual scattering processes along trajectory parts carbon contamination layer. Comparison of the simulated spectra for different thicknesses of the carbon contamination layer and for different primary electron energies with experimental spectra clearly identifies that the carbon contamination in the measured sample was in the form of discontinuous islands other than the uniform film.

Da, B.; Li, Z. Y.; Chang, H. C.; Ding, Z. J., E-mail: zjding@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Mao, S. F. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2014-09-28

167

Sub-10 nm writing: focused electron beam-induced deposition in perspective

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, focused electron beam-induced deposition has become a mature necessary part of the tool box engineers and scientists. This review presents the current state of the art in sub-10 nm focused electron beam deposition and describes the dominant mechanisms that have been found so far for this regime. Several questions regarding patterning at the highest resolution are addressed. What do our findings mean for using sub-10 nm focused electron beam deposition for industrial applications? And which fundamental issues remain to be solved? The overview shows that low-energy secondary electrons dominate the deposition process. As a result, the highest obtainable spatial resolution (averaged over many deposits) is limited by the mean free path of those electrons. Therefore, the only route to improve the resolution beyond the current appears to be using complexes that are sensitive to the high-energy electrons in the incident beam, rather than to the secondaries. Focused electron beam-induced deposition is compared to related techniques. It is on par with resist-based sub-10 nm electron beam lithography, showing similar spatial resolutions at similar electron doses. Regarding ion beam lithography, there are several distinguishing issues. Sub-10 nm writing has yet to be demonstrated for ion deposition, and although the deposition rate is relatively low when writing with electrons, electrons do not induce damage to the sample. The latter is a crucial advantage for focused electron beam-induced deposition. Finally, the main challenges regarding the applicability of sub-10 nm focused electron beam-induced deposition are discussed.

van Dorp, W. F.

2014-12-01

168

Collisionless electron heating in periodic arrays of inductively coupled plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel mechanism of collisionless heating in large planar arrays of small inductive coils operated at radio frequencies is presented. In contrast to the well-known case of non-local heating related to the transversal conductivity, when the electrons move perpendicular to the planar coil, we investigate the problem of electrons moving in a plane parallel to the coils. Two types of periodic structures are studied. Resonance velocities where heating is efficient are calculated analytically by solving the Vlasov equation. Certain scaling parameters are identified. The concept is further investigated by a single particle simulation based on the ergodic principle and combined with a Monte Carlo code allowing for collisions with Argon atoms. Resonances, energy exchange, and distribution functions are obtained. The analytical results are confirmed by the numerical simulation. Pressure and electric field dependences are studied. Stochastic heating is found to be most efficient when the electron mean free path exceeds the size of a single coil cell. Then the mean energy increases approximately exponentially with the electric field amplitude.

Czarnetzki, U.; Tarnev, Kh.

2014-12-01

169

In this study, we use the quadratic calibration method (QCM), in which an EPID image is converted into a matrix of equivalent path lengths (EPLs) and, therefore, exit doses, so as to model doses in conformal and enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) fields. The QCM involves acquiring series of EPID images at a reference field size for different thicknesses of homogeneous solid water blocks. From these, a set of coefficients is established that is used to compute the EPL of any other irradiated material. To determine the EPL, the irradiated area must be known in order to establish the appropriate scatter correction. A method was devised for the automatic calculation of areas from the EPID image that facilitated the calculation of EPL for any field and exit dose. For EDW fields, the fitting coefficients were modified by utilizing the linac manufacturer's golden segmented treatment tables (GSTT) methodology and MU fraction model. The nonlinear response of the EPL with lower monitor units (MUs) was investigated and slight modification of the algorithm performed to account for this. The method permits 2D dose distributions at the exit of phantom or patient to be generated by relating the EPL with an appropriate depth dose table. The results indicate that the inclusion of MU correction improved the EPL determination. The irradiated field areas can be accurately determined from EPID images to within ± 1% uncertainty. Cross-plane profiles and 2D dose distributions of EPID predicted doses were compared with those calculated with the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and those measured directly with MapCHECK 2 device. Comparison of the 2D EPID dose maps to those from TPS and MapCHECK shows that more than 90% of all points passed the gamma index acceptance criteria of 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA), for both conformal and EDW study cases. We conclude that the EPID QCM is an accurate and convenient method for in vivo dosimetry and may, therefore, complement existing techniques. PMID:21844855

Kavuma, Awusi; Glegg, Martin; Metwaly, Mohamed; Currie, Garry; Elliott, Alex

2011-01-01

170

Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: a sound mode inside the quasi-particles

We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh Closed-Time-Path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly non-linear and irreversible even for a non-interacting, ideal gas of electrons at non-zero density. We truncate the linearised equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, composite sound waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition betwee...

Grozdanov, Sašo

2015-01-01

171

Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: a sound mode inside the quasi-particles

We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh Closed-Time-Path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly non-linear and irreversible even for a non-interacting, ideal gas of electrons at non-zero density. We truncate the linearised equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, composite sound waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition between the hydrodynamical regime of an ideal gas, defined in this work, and the hydrodynamical regime in phenomenological hydrodynamics, which is normally used for the description of interacting gases.

Sašo Grozdanov; Janos Polonyi

2015-01-26

172

Transport of electron-waves and single-charges in semiconductor nanostructures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of experiments performed in submicron semiconductor structures are described. The submicron structures are defined in the two Dimensional Electron Gas (2DEG) of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure by means of metallic gates which are fabricated on top of the heterostructure. Applying negative voltages to the gates depletes the electron gas beneath them, leaving free electrons only in the ungated regions. A split gate geometry with an opening and a length of a few 100 nm induces a channel in the 2DEG, which is short and narrow compared to the elastic mean free path in the 2DEG. The transport through such a constriction is, therefore, ballistic. The Fermi wave length of the electrons is about 50 nm and, therefore, is also of the order of the constriction width, so the electron wave nature affects the transport properties. The quantum ballistic transport regime in these submicron devices is addressed and charging effects in semiconductor quantum dots are discussed.

Kouwenhoven, Leonardus Petrus

173

Advanced Physics: Path Integral

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A cursor is shown in an x-y graph. The cursor can be dragged around the graph and its path is marked as it is moved. The data are sent to a DataTable which shows x, y, and the value of the path integral, F.dl.

Wolfgang Christian

174

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features an interactive applet that models the Sun's path from a geocentric view. It calculates and visualizes the position of the Sun based on latitude and time, and allows students to simulate the Sun's position and path for an hour, a day, a month or a year.

Australian National University

175

A viable pathway is proposed for the formation of the triplet state of the GC Watson-Crick base pair. It includes the following steps: (a) a low-energy electron is captured by cytosine in the GC pair, forming the cytosine base-centered radical anion GC(-•); and (b) photoradiation with energy around 5 eV initiates the electron detachment from either cytosine (in the gas phase) or guanine (in aqueous solutions). This triggers interbase proton transfer from G to C, creating the triplet state of the GC pair. Double proton transfer involving the triplet state of GC pair leads to the formation of less stable tautomer G(N2-H)(•)C(O2H)(•). Tautomerization is accomplished through a double proton transfer process in which one proton at the N3 of C(H)(•) migrates to the N1 of G(-H)(•); meanwhile, the proton at the N2 of G transfers to the O2 of C. This process is energetically viable; the corresponding activation energy is around 12-13 kcal/mol. The base-pairing energy of the triplet is found to be ?3-5 kcal/mol smaller than that of the singlet state. Thus, the formation of the triplet state GC pair in DNA double strand only slightly weakens its stability. The obtained highly reactive radicals are expected to cause serious damage in the DNA involved in biochemical processes, such as DNA replication where radicals are exposed in the single strands. PMID:25340559

Gu, Jiande; Wang, Jing; Leszczynski, Jerzy

2015-02-12

176

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate the inelastic scattering rates and the hot-electron inelastic mean free paths for both monolayer and bilayer graphene on a polar substrate. We study the quasiparticle self-energy by taking into account both electron-electron and electron-surface-optical-phonon interactions. In this calculation the leading-order dynamic screening approximation (G0W approximation) is used to obtain the quasiparticle self-energy by treating electrons and phonons on an equal footing. We find that the strong coupling between the surface-optical phonon and the plasmon leads to an additional decay channel for the quasiparticle through the emission of the coupled mode, and gives rise to an abrupt increase in the scattering rate, which is absent in the uncoupled system. In monolayer graphene a single jump in the scattering rate occurs, arising from the emission of the low-energy branch of the coupled plasmon-phonon modes. In bilayer graphene the emission of both low- and high-energy branches of the coupled modes contributes to the scattering rate and gives rise to two abrupt changes in the scattering rate. The jumps in the scattering rate can potentially be used in hot-electron devices such as switching devices and oscillators.

Ahn, Seongjin; Hwang, E. H.; Min, Hongki

2014-12-01

177

Michael Grunwald Transition path sampling

Michael Gr¨unwald Transition path sampling simulations of structural phase transformations compromises the comparability of simulation and experiment considerably. Here, we use transition path sam of parallel crystal planes. We subject the pathways obtained with transition path sam- pling

Gruenwald, Michael

178

Energy transfer: On the right path

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlled energy-transfer on a molecular scale is a goal in many areas of science, from artificial photosynthesis to molecular electronics. Now, DNA origami has been used to direct the transfer of energy from an excited input dye down one of two paths by precisely arranging a mediator dye.

Albinsson, Bo

2011-04-01

179

Energy dependent electron emission between zero and 1.4 keV generated by the natural reactivity of plutonium was measured by an electrostatic spectrometer with known acceptance angle and acceptance area. The electron spectral intensity decreases continuously except for a distinctive feature of unknown origin at approximately 180eV. The spectrum was converted to energy dependent electron flux (e/cm{sup 2} s) using the assumption that the emission has a cosine angular distribution. The energy dependent electron mean free path in gases and literature cross sections for electron induced reactions were used to determine the number of ionization and dissociation reactions per cm{sup 2} second, found to be about 8*10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}s and 1.5*10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}s, respectively, for hydrogen. These results are to be used with caution until complementary measurements can be made, e.g. independent measurement of the total emitted electron current, since the results here are based on the assumption that the electron emission has a cosine angular distribution. That is unlikely to be correct.

Siekhaus, W J; Nelson, A J

2011-10-26

180

Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator

A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Simonson, Robert J. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2010-09-21

181

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The path taken and the turns made as a turtle traces a polygon are examined to discover an important theorem in geometry. A unique tool, the Angle Adder, is implemented in the investigation. (Contains 9 figures.)

Stegemoller, William; Stegemoller, Rebecca

2004-01-01

182

Thermal flux limited electron Kapitza conductance in copper-niobium multilayers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the interplay between the contributions of electron thermal flux and interface scattering to the Kapitza conductance across metal-metal interfaces through measurements of thermal conductivity of copper-niobium multilayers. Thermal conductivities of copper-niobium multilayer films of period thicknesses ranging from 5.4 to 96.2 nm and sample thicknesses ranging from 962 to 2677 nm are measured by time-domain thermoreflectance over a range of temperatures from 78 to 500 K. The Kapitza conductances between the Cu and Nb interfaces in multilayer films are determined from the thermal conductivities using a series resistor model and are in good agreement with the electron diffuse mismatch model. Our results for the thermal boundary conductance between Cu and Nb are compared to literature values for the thermal boundary conductance across Al-Cu and Pd-Ir interfaces, and demonstrate that the interface conductance in metallic systems is dictated by the temperature derivative of the electron energy flux in the metallic layers, rather than electron mean free path or scattering processes at the interface.

Cheaito, Ramez; Hattar, Khalid; Gaskins, John T.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Duda, John C.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Piekos, Edward S.; Baldwin, Jon K.; Misra, Amit; Hopkins, Patrick E.

2015-03-01

183

A deterministic computational model for the two dimensional electron and photon transport

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deterministic (non-statistical) two dimensional (2D) computational model describing the transport of electron and photon typical of space radiation environment in various shield media is described. The 2D formalism is casted into a code which is an extension of a previously developed one dimensional (1D) deterministic electron and photon transport code. The goal of both 1D and 2D codes is to satisfy engineering design applications (i.e. rapid analysis) while maintaining an accurate physics based representation of electron and photon transport in space environment. Both 1D and 2D transport codes have utilized established theoretical representations to describe the relevant collisional and radiative interactions and transport processes. In the 2D version, the shield material specifications are made more general as having the pertinent cross sections. In the 2D model, the specification of the computational field is in terms of a distance of traverse z along an axial direction as well as a variable distribution of deflection (i.e. polar) angles ? where -?/2mean-free-path and average trajectory approach is used. For candidate shielding materials, using the trapped electron radiation environments at low Earth orbit (LEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and Jupiter moon Europa, verification of the 2D formalism vs. 1D and an existing Monte Carlo code are presented.

Badavi, Francis F.; Nealy, John E.

2014-12-01

184

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PathFinder Science contains research projects about water conservation, tardigrades, a winter bird survey, ozone, ultraviolet light and DNA, global warming, spot removal, lichens, stream monitoring, amphibian biomonitoring, and particulate monitoring. Free registration to the PathFinder Science Network offers the opportunity to be a part of the listserv, upload collaborative project data or publish research work. There are tools and tips to help students publish their research on the web.

185

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, younger students will be introduced to the various orbital paths that are used for satellites. Using a globe and a satellite model or a large picture of Earth, the teacher will introduce three types of orbital paths (polar, elliptical, and geosynchronous). The students should be able to define 'satellite', define the three types of orbits, describe how satellites orbit the Earth, and understand how they are slowed down by drag from the atmosphere.

186

Improved initial guess for minimum energy path calculations

A method is presented for generating a good initial guess of a transition path between given initial and final states of a system without evaluation of the energy. An objective function surface is constructed using an interpolation of pairwise distances at each discretization point along the path and the nudged elastic band method then used to find an optimal path on this image dependent pair potential (IDPP) surface. This provides an initial path for the more computationally intensive calculations of a minimum energy path on an energy surface obtained, for example, by ab initio or density functional theory. The optimal path on the IDPP surface is significantly closer to a minimum energy path than a linear interpolation of the Cartesian coordinates and, therefore, reduces the number of iterations needed to reach convergence and averts divergence in the electronic structure calculations when atoms are brought too close to each other in the initial path. The method is illustrated with three examples: (1) rotation of a methyl group in an ethane molecule, (2) an exchange of atoms in an island on a crystal surface, and (3) an exchange of two Si-atoms in amorphous silicon. In all three cases, the computational effort in finding the minimum energy path with DFT was reduced by a factor ranging from 50% to an order of magnitude by using an IDPP path as the initial path. The time required for parallel computations was reduced even more because of load imbalance when linear interpolation of Cartesian coordinates was used.

Smidstrup, Søren [QuantumWise A/S, Lersø Parkallé 107, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Science Institute and Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Iceland VR-III, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Pedersen, Andreas [Science Institute and Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Iceland VR-III, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Integrated Systems Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Stokbro, Kurt [QuantumWise A/S, Lersø Parkallé 107, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Jónsson, Hannes, E-mail: hj@hi.is [Science Institute and Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Iceland VR-III, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, Espoo, FI-00076 (Finland)

2014-06-07

187

Sampling diffusive transition paths

We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.

F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian

2006-10-12

188

Energetic electron measurements in the edge of a reversed-field pinch

The edge plasma of the ZT-40M (Fusion Technol. {bold 8}, 1571 (1985)) reversed-field pinch has been studied using a combination of three different plasma probes: a double-swept Langmuir probe, an electrostatic energy analyzer, and a calorimeter--Langmuir probe. The edge plasma has been measured both with and without a movable graphite tile limiter present nearby in the plasma. Without a limiter a fast nonthermal tail of electrons ({ital T}{congruent}350 eV) is detected in the edge plasma with nearly unidirectional flow along {bold B} and having a density between 2% and 10% of the cold edge plasma ({ital T}{congruent}20 eV). The toroidal sense of this fast electron flow is against the force of the applied electric field. A large power flux along {bold B} is measured flowing in the same direction as the fast electrons and is apparently carried by the fast electrons. With the limiter present the fast electrons are still detected in the plasma, but are strongly attenuated in the shadow of the limiter. The measured scrape-off lengths for both the fast electrons and the cold plasma indicate cross-field transport at the rate of, or less than, Bohm diffusion. Estimates indicate that the fast electrons could carry the reversed-field pinch current density at the edge and, from the measured transverse diffusion rates, could also account for the electron energy loss channel in ZT-40 M. The long mean-free-path kinetic nature of these fast electrons suggests that a kinetic process, rather than a magnetohydrodynamic process that is based upon a local Ohm's law formulation, is responsible for their generation.

Ingraham, J.C.; Ellis, R.F.; Downing, J.N.; Munson, C.P.; Weber, P.G.; Wurden, G.A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (US))

1990-01-01

189

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of two series of experiments are reported. In the first, an electrostatically guided beam of low energy (40-400 eV) positrons was used to study low energy positron diffraction (LEPD) from a Cu(100) surface under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) data were obtained from the same sample in the same apparatus. Comparison of LEPD and LEED intensity versus energy data with model calculations made using computer programs developed by C. B. Duke and collaborators indicated that: (1) LEPD data is adequately modeled using potentials with no exchange -correlation term. (2) The inelastic mean free path, (lamda)(,ee), is shorter for positrons than for electrons at low energy (< (TURN)80 eV). (3) LEED is better than LEPD at making a determination of the first layer spacing of Cu(100) for the particular data set reported. In the second set of experiments, the same apparatus and sample were used to compare positron and electron stimulated secondary electron emission (PSSEE and ESSEE). The results were found to be consistent with existing models of secondary electron production for metals. The energy distributions of secondary electrons had broad low energy (< 10 eV) peaks for both positron and electron stimulation. But the PSEE distribution showed no elastic peak. Measurements of secondary electron angular distributions, found to be cosine-like in both the PSSEE and ESSEE case, were used to obtain total secondary yield ratios, (delta), at four beam energies ranging from 40-400 eV. The secondary yield ratio for primary positrons, (delta)p, and the yield for primary electrons, (delta)(,e), were similar at these energies. For 400 eV primary particles the secondary yields were found to be (delta)(,p) = 0.94 (+OR-) 0.12 and (delta)(,e) = 0.94 (+OR-) 0.12, giving a ratio of positron stimulated secondary yield to electron stimulated secondary yield of. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI).

Weiss, Alexander Herman

190

Object location using path separators

We study a novel separator property called k-path separa- ble. Roughly speaking, a k-path separable graph can be re- cursively separated into smaller components by sequentially removing k shortest paths. Our main result is that every minor free weighted graph is k-path separable. We then show that k-path separable graphs can be used to solve sev- eral object location problems:

Ittai Abraham; Cyril Gavoille

2006-01-01

191

Say a digraph is k-free if it has no directed cycles of length at most k, for k {element_of} Z{sup +}. Thomasse conjectured that the number of induced 3-vertex directed paths in a simple 2-free digraph on n vertices is at most (n-1)n(n+1)/15. We present an unpublished result of Bondy proving there are at most 2n{sup 3}/25 such paths, and prove that for the class of circular interval digraphs, an upper bound of n{sup 3}/16 holds. We also study the problem of bounding the number of (non-induced) 4-vertex paths in 3-free digraphs. We show an upper bound of 4n{sup 4}/75 using Bondy's result for Thomasse's conjecture.

Sullivan, Blair D [ORNL; Seymour, Dr. Paul Douglas [Princeton University

2010-01-01

192

Mobile transporter path planning

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of a genetic algorithm (GA) for solving the mobile transporter path planning problem is investigated. The mobile transporter is a traveling robotic vehicle proposed for the space station which must be able to reach any point of the structure autonomously. Elements of the genetic algorithm are explored in both a theoretical and experimental sense. Specifically, double crossover, greedy crossover, and tournament selection techniques are examined. Additionally, the use of local optimization techniques working in concert with the GA are also explored. Recent developments in genetic algorithm theory are shown to be particularly effective in a path planning problem domain, though problem areas can be cited which require more research.

Baffes, Paul; Wang, Lui

1990-01-01

193

Electronic transport in InGaAs/Al2O3 nFinFETs

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the multiple subbands quasi-ballistic transport theory, we investigate the electronic transport of nano size In0.53Ga0.47As nFinFETs with Al2O3 gate dielectric, emphasizing the saturation current region. 1D mobile charge density and gate capacitance density are introduced for the first time to describe the nano-FinFET transport property under volume inversion. With the extracted effective channel mobility of electrons in the linear region from our experiments, the electron mean free path ? in the channel with the value of 5-9 nm is obtained. With only one fitting parameter ? = 0.31 for the critical length l=L{{\\left( \\frac{kT/q}{{{V}_{d}}} \\right)}^{\\alpha }} in the quasi-ballistic transport theory, the calculated drain current can fit all experimental data for various gate voltage V g, source-drain voltage V d, and temperature (240-332 K) in overall very good agreement. The backscattering coefficient r in the saturation region is larger than 0.8, indicating a large room for improvement for the present InGaAs FinFET technology and performance.

Li, Shengwei; Hu, Yaodong; Wu, Yangqing; Huang, Daming; Ye, Peide D.; Li, Ming-Fu

2014-07-01

194

Surface excitations in electron spectroscopy. Part I: dielectric formalism and Monte Carlo algorithm

The theory describing energy losses of charged non-relativistic projectiles crossing a planar interface is derived on the basis of the Maxwell equations, outlining the physical assumptions of the model in great detail. The employed approach is very general in that various common models for surface excitations (such as the specular reflection model) can be obtained by an appropriate choice of parameter values. The dynamics of charged projectiles near surfaces is examined by calculations of the induced surface charge and the depth- and direction-dependent differential inelastic inverse mean free path (DIIMFP) and stopping power. The effect of several simplifications frequently encountered in the literature is investigated: differences of up to 100% are found in heights, widths, and positions of peaks in the DIIMFP. The presented model is implemented in a Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the electron transport relevant for surface electron spectroscopy. Simulated reflection electron energy loss spectra are in good agreement with experiment on an absolute scale. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23794766

Salvat-Pujol, F; Werner, W S M

2013-01-01

195

The theory describing energy losses of charged non-relativistic projectiles crossing a planar interface is derived on the basis of the Maxwell equations, outlining the physical assumptions of the model in great detail. The employed approach is very general in that various common models for surface excitations (such as the specular reflection model) can be obtained by an appropriate choice of parameter values. The dynamics of charged projectiles near surfaces is examined by calculations of the induced surface charge and the depth- and direction-dependent differential inelastic inverse mean free path (DIIMFP) and stopping power. The effect of several simplifications frequently encountered in the literature is investigated: differences of up to 100% are found in heights, widths, and positions of peaks in the DIIMFP. The presented model is implemented in a Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the electron transport relevant for surface electron spectroscopy. Simulated reflection electron energy loss spectra are in good agreement with experiment on an absolute scale. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23794766

Salvat-Pujol, F; Werner, W S M

2013-05-01

196

Primary cosmic ray electrons above 10 GeV: Evidence for a spectral break

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A balloon borne measurement of the cosmic ray electron spectrum from 10 to 200 GeV is reported in which two new techniques have been used to remove proton background contamination. First, the depth of the spectrometer was more than 25 radiation lengths, the equivalent of more than 2 mean free paths of material, enabling hadronically and electromagnetically induced cascades to be differentiated for a subset of the data. Second, electromagnetic cascade starting points were determined to within + or - 0.1 radiation lengths based upon a calibration with electrons from 5.4 to 18 GeV at the Stanford Linear Accelerator, greatly reducing the chances for a proton to simulate an electron. The resulting spectrum, when fitted with a power law, is quite steep, -3.2 + or - 0.1, but the chi-square fit is marginal. A significantly better fit is achieved assuming a transition region model in which the source spectral index is 2.7 with a break occurring at about 50 GeV.

Silverberg, R. F.; Ormes, J. F.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.

1973-01-01

197

Energy loss of proton, ? particle, and electron beams in hafnium dioxide films

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic stopping power, S , of HfO2 films for proton and alpha particle beams has been measured and calculated. The experimental data have been obtained by the Rutherford backscattering technique and cover the range of 120-900 and 120-3000 keV for proton and alpha particle beams, respectively. Theoretical calculations of the energy loss for the same projectiles have been done by means of the dielectric formalism using the Mermin energy loss function—generalized oscillator strength (MELF-GOS) model for a proper description of the HfO2 target on the whole momentum-energy excitation spectrum. At low projectile energies, a nonlinear theory based on the extended Friedel sum rule has been employed. The calculations and experimental measurements show good agreement for protons and a quite good one for alpha particles. In particular, the experimental maximums of both stopping curves (around 120 and 800 keV, respectively) are well reproduced. On the basis of this good agreement, we have also calculated the inelastic mean-free path (IMFP) and the stopping power for electrons in HfO2 films. Our results predict a minimum value of the IMFP and a maximum value of the S for electrons with energies around 120 and 190 eV, respectively.

Behar, Moni; Fadanelli, Raul C.; Abril, Isabel; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Denton, Cristian D.; Nagamine, Luiz C. C. M.; Arista, Néstor R.

2009-12-01

198

Energy-loss- and thickness-dependent contrast in atomic-scale electron energy-loss spectroscopy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic-scale elemental maps of materials acquired by core-loss inelastic electron scattering often exhibit an undesirable sensitivity to the unavoidable elastic scattering, making the maps counterintuitive to interpret. Here, we present a systematic study that scrutinizes the energy-loss and sample-thickness dependence of atomic-scale elemental maps acquired using 100-keV incident electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope. For single-crystal silicon, the balance between elastic and inelastic scattering means that maps generated from the near-threshold Si -L signal (energy loss of 99 eV) show no discernible contrast for a thickness of 0.5 ? (? is the electron mean-free path, here approximately 110 nm). At greater thicknesses we observe a counterintuitive "negative" contrast. Only at much higher energy losses is an intuitive "positive" contrast gradually restored. Our quantitative analysis shows that the energy loss at which a positive contrast is restored depends linearly on the sample thickness. This behavior is in very good agreement with our double-channeling inelastic scattering calculations. We test a recently proposed experimental method to correct the core-loss inelastic scattering and restore an intuitive "positive" chemical contrast. The method is demonstrated to be reliable over a large range of energy losses and sample thicknesses. The corrected contrast for near-threshold maps is demonstrated to be (desirably) inversely proportional to sample thickness. Implications for the interpretation of atomic-scale elemental maps are discussed.

Tan, Haiyan; Zhu, Ye; Dwyer, Christian; Xin, Huolin L.

2014-12-01

199

Hot electron flow generated on colloid platinum nanoparticles during exothermic catalytic carbon monoxide oxidation was directly detected with Au/TiO{sub 2} diodes. Although Au/TiO{sub 2} diodes are not catalytically active, platinum nanoparticles on Au/TiO{sub 2} exhibit both chemicurrent and catalytic turnover rate. Hot electrons are generated on the surface of the metal nanoparticles and go over the Schottky energy barrier between Au and TiO{sub 2}. The continuous Au layer ensures that the metal nanoparticles are electrically connected to the device. The overall thickness of the metal assembly (nanoparticles and Au thin film) is comparable to the mean free path of hot electrons, resulting in ballistic transport through the metal. The chemicurrent and chemical reactivity of nanoparticles with citrate, hexadecylamine, hexadecylthiol, and TTAB (Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide) capping agents were measured during catalytic CO oxidation at pressures of 100 Torr O{sub 2} and 40 Torr CO at 373-513 K. We found that chemicurrent yield varies with each capping agent, but always decreases with increasing temperature. We suggest that this inverse temperature dependence is associated with the influence of charging effects due to the organic capping layer during hot electron transport through the metal-oxide interface.

Park, Jeong Y.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Renzas, J. Russell; Zhang, Yawen; Somorjai, G.A.

2008-05-01

200

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gas path seal suitable for use with a turbine engine or compressor is described. A shroud wearable or abradable by the abrasion of the rotor blades of the turbine or compressor shrouds the rotor bades. A compliant backing surrounds the shroud. The backing is a yieldingly deformable porous material covered with a thin ductile layer. A mounting fixture surrounds the backing.

Bill, R. C.; Johnson, R. D. (inventors)

1979-01-01

201

DNA Computing Hamiltonian path

2014 DNA DNA #12;DNA Computing · Feynman · Adleman · DNASIMD · ... · · · · · DNADNA #12;DNA · DNA · · · · DNA · · #12;2000 2005 2010 1995 Hamiltonian path DNA tweezers DNA tile DNA origami DNA box Sierpinski DNA tile self assembly DNA logic gates Whiplash PCR DNA automaton DNA spider MAYA

Hagiya, Masami

202

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes "Off the Beaten Path", a program that takes at-risk students out of the traditional classroom and puts them into a camping atmosphere in order to increase academic achievement, improve self-esteem, and promote better social skills. (WRM)

Grimm, Karen

1999-01-01

203

We consider the problem of picking (buying) an inexpensive s -- t path in a graph where edges are owned by independent (selfish) agents, and the cost of an edge is known to its owner only. We study the problem of finding frugal mechanisms for this task, i.e. we investigate the payments the buyer must make in order to buy

Edith Elkind; Amit Sahai; Kenneth Steiglitz

2004-01-01

204

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report uses the national Baccalaureate and Beyond longitudinal database to look at the early career paths of 1993 college graduates. The results provide information on which college graduates became teachers, where they taught, and whether they left teaching within 3 years. Overall, it is not easy to predict who may be potential teachers when…

Lee, John B.; Clery, Suzanne B.; Presley, Jennifer B.

205

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of institutions are being more deliberate about bringing in fundraisers who fit the culture of the development department and about assessing skills and providing training that fill specific needs. Development shops are paying more attention to cultivating their staffs, staying attuned to employees' needs and creating career paths…

Coleman, Toni

2012-01-01

206

High divorce rates and the traditionally discrepant ages at death for husbands and wives indicate a need for a more complete understanding of the paths to remarriage in contemporary America. This study uses data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census' Current Population Survey to examine the extent and timing of remarriage, social factors associated with remarriage, and the impact

Graham B. Spanier; Paul C. Glick

1980-01-01

207

Electron transport in nanostructures: A key to high temperature superconductivity?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured GaAs Schottky barrier diodes are used as low noise THz heterodyne detectors. Different diodes show that the electron transport is ballistic and given by an optimized depletion thickness DDepl which is shorter than the mean free path length. The best THz mixer noise temperature is achieved when the depletion thickness is twice the doping distance in GaAs with DDepl=2 x. There also is a linear relation between the depletion thickness and the carrier mobility ? by (2 x) 2? h/(2 e) ?. Since the mobility is proportional to 1/energy and because of many similarities when comparing with properties of high temperature superconductors (HTSC) it has been investigated if the doping distance x in HTSCs is connected with 1/( kTc). It turns out that there is also a strong correlation between x and the critical transition temperature Tc given by (2 x) 2˜1/ Tc. A detailed analysis and comparison suggest that the correlation equation for HTSCs is linked to the transition temperature Tc, the density of states in a 1D quantum wire, the lowest energy E1 in a 1D quantum well, and to the Fermi energy EF.

Roeser, H. P.; Haslam, D. T.; Hetfleisch, F.; López, J. S.; von Schoenermark, M. F.; Stepper, M.; Huber, F. M.; Nikoghosyan, A. S.

2010-09-01

208

Path allocation for wavelength path sharing University College London

: Wavelength path sharing (WPS) was introduced previously as a means of bridging the gap between the bit answers can be found depending upon the method used for the comparison. 2. Wavelength path sharing (WPS A logical path segment between WPS nodes S & T being transparently routed through X. Key #12;2 shows

Haddadi, Hamed

209

Path integral representation of the evolution operator for the Dirac equation

A path integral representation of the evolution operator for the four-dimensional Dirac equation is proposed. A quadratic form of the canonical momenta regularizes the original representation of the path integral in the electron phase space. This regularization allows to obtain a representation of the path integral over trajectories in the configuration space, i.e. in the Minkowsky space. This form of the path integral is useful for the formulation of perturbation theory in an external electromagnetic field.

Alexander S. Lukyanenko; Inna A. Lukyanenko

2006-05-25

210

Electronic transport in nanoscale structures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation electronic transport in nanoscale structures is discussed. An expression for the shot noise, a fluctuation in current due to the discreteness of charge, is derived directly from the wave functions of a nanoscale system. Investigation of shot noise is of particular interest due to the rich fundamental physics involved. For example, the study of shot noise can provide fundamental insight on the nature of electron transport in a nanoscale junction. We report calculations of the shot noise properties of parallel wires in the regime in which the interwire distance is much smaller than the inelastic mean free path. The validity of quantized transverse momenta in a nanoscale structure and its effect on shot noise is also discussed. We theoretically propose and show the feasibility of a novel protocol for DNA sequencing based on the electronic signature of single-stranded DNA while it translocates through a nanopore. We find that the currents for the bases are sufficiently different to allow for efficient sequencing. Our estimates reveal that sequencing of an entire human genome could be done with very high accuracy in a matter of hours, e.g., orders of magnitude faster than present techniques. We also find that although the overall magnitude of the current may change dramatically with different detection conditions, the intrinsic distinguishability of the bases is not significantly affected by pore size and transverse field strength. Finally, we study the ability of water to screen charges in nanopores by using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations coupled to electrostatic calculations. Due to the short length scales of the nanopore geometry and the large local field gradient of a single ion, the energetics of transporting an ion through the pore is strongly dependent on the microscopic details of the electric field. We show that as long as the pore allows the first hydration shell to stay intact, e.g., ˜6 nearby water molecules, the electric field of the ion can be well screened. We also discuss the consequences of the formation of hydration layers and of the discrete nature of polarization at atomic length scales for the applicability of continuum dielectric models.

Lagerqvist, Johan

211

Parsimonious path openings and closings.

Path openings and closings are morphological tools used to preserve long, thin, and tortuous structures in gray level images. They explore all paths from a defined class, and filter them with a length criterion. However, most paths are redundant, making the process generally slow. Parsimonious path openings and closings are introduced in this paper to solve this problem. These operators only consider a subset of the paths considered by classical path openings, thus achieving a substantial speed-up, while obtaining similar results. In addition, a recently introduced 1D opening algorithm is applied along each selected path. Its complexity is linear with respect to the number of pixels, independent of the size of the opening. Furthermore, it is fast for any input data accuracy (integer or floating point) and works in stream. Parsimonious path openings are also extended to incomplete paths, i.e., paths containing gaps. Noise-corrupted paths can thus be processed with the same approach and complexity. These parsimonious operators achieve a several orders of magnitude speed-up. Examples are shown for incomplete path openings, where computing times are brought from minutes to tens of milliseconds, while obtaining similar results. PMID:24569442

Morard, Vincent; Dokladal, Petr; Decenciere, Etienne

2014-04-01

212

PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

1980-04-01

213

This paper deals with random walk of electrons and collisional crossover in a gas evolving toward a plasma, in presence of electromagnetic (EM) waves and magnetostatic (B) fields, a fundamental subject of importance in areas requiring generation and confinement of wave assisted plasmas. In presence of EM waves and B fields, the number of collisions N suffered by an electron with neutral gas atoms while diffusing out of the volume during the walk is significantly modified when compared to the conventional field free square law diffusion; N=1.5({Lambda}/{lambda}){sup 2}, where {Lambda} is the characteristic diffusion length and {lambda} is the mean free path. There is a distinct crossover and a time scale associated with the transition from the elastic to inelastic collisions dominated regime, which can accurately predict the breakdown time ({tau}{sub c}) and the threshold electric field (E{sub BD}) for plasma initiation. The essential features of cyclotron resonance manifested as a sharp drop in {tau}{sub c}, lowering of E{sub BD} and enhanced electron energy gain is well reproduced in the constrained random walk.

Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Paul, Samit [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, Uttar Pradesh (India); Dey, Indranuj [Kyushu University, Kasuga Kouen 6-1, Kasuga City, 816-8580 (Japan)

2013-04-15

214

Ruthenium capped multilayer coatings for use in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation regime have manifold applications in science and industry. Although the Ru cap shall protect the reflecting multilayers, the surface of the heterostructures suffers from contamination issues and surface degradation. In order to get a better understanding of the effects of these impurities on the optical parameters, reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) measurements of contaminated and H cleaned Ru multilayer coatings were taken at various primary electron beam energies. Experiments conducted at low primary beam energies between 100?eV and 1000?eV are very surface sensitive due to the short inelastic mean free path of the electrons in this energy range. Therefore, influences of the surface condition on the above mentioned characteristics can be appraised. In this paper, it can be shown that carbon and oxide impurities on the mirror surface decrease the transmission of the Ru cap by about 0.75% and the overall reflectance of the device is impaired as the main share of the non-transmitted EUV light is absorbed in the contamination layer.

Gusenleitner, S.; Hauschild, D.; Reinert, F. [Universität Würzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Karlsruher Institut für Technologie KIT, Gemeinschaftslabor für Nanoanalytik, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Handick, E. [Universität Würzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany)

2014-03-28

215

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The average number of collisions N of seed electrons with neutral gas atoms during random walk in escaping from a given volume, in the presence of polarized electromagnetic waves, is found to vary as N =B(? /?)2/[1+C(? /?)]2, indicating a modification to the conventional field free square law N =A(? /?)2, where ? is the characteristic diffusion length and ? the mean free path. It is found that for the field free case A =1.5 if all the electrons originate at the center and is 1.25 if they are allowed to originate at any random point in the given volume. The B and C coefficients depend on the wave electric field and frequency. Predictions of true discharge initiation time ?c can be made from the temporal evolution of seed electrons over a wide range of collision frequencies. For linearly polarized waves of 2.45 GHz and electric field in the range (0.6-1.0)×105 V/m, ?c=5.5-1.6 ns for an unmagnetized microwave driven discharge at 1 Torr argon.

Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Paul, Samit

2009-10-01

216

Jovian modulation of interplanetary electrons as observed with Voyagers 1 and 2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The release of magnetospheric electrons from Jupiter into interplanetary space is modulated by the Jovian rotation period. The Voyager 1 and 2 observations showed that the modulation period agrees on the average with the synodic period of Jupiter (9h 55m 33.12s), but over intervals of weeks it can differ from the synodic period by several minutes. The lack of exact synchronization is attributed to changes of the plasma population in the Jovian magnetosphere. The Jovian modulation appears to be a persistent feature of the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere and the disappearance of the modulation away from Jupiter is attributed to interplanetary propagation conditions. This leads to the following limits on the diffuse coefficient for interplanetary electrons: kappa perpendicular is or = 8 x 10 to the 19th power sq cm/s and kappa parallel is or = 10 to the 21st power sq cm/s. Modulation was still detectable at 3.8 A.U. behind Jupiter in the far magnetotail. This requires a mean free path in the tail 0.75 A.U. and good field connection along the tail to Jupiter.

Schardt, A. W.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Trainor, J. H.

1982-01-01

217

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The South East coastal region experiences hurricane threat for almost six months in every year. To improve the accuracy of hurricane forecasts, meteorologists would need the storm paths of both the present and the past. A hurricane path can be established if we could identify the correct position of the storm at different times right from its birth to the end. We propose a method based on both spatial and temporal image correlations to locate the position of a storm from satellite images. During the hurricane season, the satellite images of the Atlantic ocean near the equator are examined for the hurricane presence. This is accomplished in two steps. In the first step, only segments with more than a particular value of cloud cover are selected for analysis. Next, we apply image processing algorithms to test the presence of a hurricane eye in the segment. If the eye is found, the coordinate of the eye is recorded along with the time stamp of the segment. If the eye is not found, we examine adjacent segments for the existence of hurricane eye. It is probable that more than one hurricane eye could be found from different segments of the same period. Hence, the above process is repeated till the entire potential area for hurricane birth is exhausted. The subsequent/previous position of each hurricane eye will be searched in the appropriate adjacent segments of the next/previous period to mark the hurricane path. The temporal coherence and spatial coherence of the images are taken into account by our scheme in determining the segments and the associated periods required for analysis.

Prabhakaran, Nagarajan; Rishe, Naphtali; Athauda, Rukshan

1997-01-01

218

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The well known Berkeley Digital Library SunSite, discussed in the February 9, 1996 Scout Report, has recently added a new resource to its collection. The PATH database, maintained by the Harmer E. Davis Transportation Library at the University of California, is "the world's largest bibliographical database pertaining to Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)." It is searchable and browsable (Browse by ITS Thesaurus Term), and contains over 9,000 records and abstracts "including monographs, journal articles, conference papers, technical reports, theses and selected media coverage," dating back to the 1940s.

219

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.

Mehhtz, Peter

2005-01-01

220

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mobile app (available for both iOS and Android devices) was developed by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics with funding from Verizon Foundation. The app is based on the Decimal Maze from the popular lesson "Too Big or Too Small". The goal is to help Okta reach the target (maximum, minimum, or a specific value) by choosing a path from the top of the maze to the bottom — adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing as the player goes. Seven levels with seven puzzles in each level test the player's skills with operation with powers of ten, negative numbers, fractions, decimals, and exponents.

2012-01-01

221

We examine portage sites in the U.S. South, Mid-Atlantic, and Midwest, including those on the fall line, a geomorphological feature in the southeastern U.S. marking the final rapids on rivers before the ocean. Historically, waterborne transport of goods required portage around the falls at these points, while some falls provided water power during early industrialization. These factors attracted commerce and manufacturing. Although these original advantages have long since been made obsolete, we document the continuing importance of these portage sites over time. We interpret these results as path dependence and contrast explanations based on sunk costs interacting with decreasing versus increasing returns to scale. PMID:23935217

Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

222

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ohio State Universitys Library web site notes As a navigational aviator, Byrd pioneered in the technology that would be the foundation for modern polar exploration and investigation. As a decorated and much celebrated hero, Byrd drew popular attention to areas of the world that became focal points of scientific investigation in numerous disciplines. More information about Admiral Richard E. Byrd can be found at (http:--www.lib.ohio-state.edu-arvweb-polar-byrd-byrd.htm). The next animation, #1001, shows Byrds plane as it follows the flight path presented in this animation.

Tom Biddlecome

1999-11-08

223

We establish the direct $d=2$ on-shell bosonization $\\psi_{L}(x_{+}) = e^{i\\xi(x_{+})}$ and~$\\psi_{R}^{\\dagger}(x_{-}) = e^{i\\xi(x_{-})}$ in path integral formulation by deriving the off-shell relations $\\psi_{L}(x)\\psi_{R}^{\\dagger}(x) = \\exp[i\\xi(x)]$ and $\\psi_{R}(x)\\psi_{L}^{\\dagger}(x) = \\exp[-i\\xi(x)]$. Similarly, the on-shell bosonization of the bosonic commuting spinor, $\\phi_{L}(x_{+}) = ie^{-i\\xi(x_{+})}\\partial^{+}e^{-i\\chi(x_{+})}$, $\\phi^{\\dagger}_{R}(x_{-}) = e^{-i\\xi(x_{-})-i\\chi(x_{-})}$ and $\\phi_{R}(x_{-}) = ie^{i\\xi(x_{-})}\\partial^{-}e^{+i\\chi(x_{-})}$, $\\phi^{\\dagger}_{L}(x_{+}) = e^{i\\xi(x_{+})+i\\chi(x_{+})}$, is established in path integral formulation by deriving the off-shell relations $\\phi_{L}(x)\\phi^{\\dagger}_{R}(x) = ie^{-i\\xi(x)}\\partial^{+}e^{-i\\chi(x)}$ and $\\phi_{R}(x)\\phi^{\\dagger}_{L}(x) = ie^{i\\xi(x)}\\partial^{-}e^{i\\chi(x)}$.

Fujikawa, Kazuo

2015-01-01

224

Flight Paths of Orbiting Satellites

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity to help students visualize the relationship of motion, time and space as it relates to objects orbiting the earth. They will be able to track the path of an orbiting object on a globe, plot the path of an orbiting object on a flat world map, and explain that an object orbiting earth on a plane will produce a flight path which appears as wavy lines on the earths surface.

225

Interactive cutting path analysis programs

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operation of numerically controlled machine tools is interactively simulated. Four programs were developed to graphically display the cutting paths for a Monarch lathe, Cintimatic mill, Strippit sheet metal punch, and the wiring path for a Standard wire wrap machine. These programs are run on a IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system under the DOS-3 disk operating system. The cutting path analysis programs accept input via both paper tape and disk file.

Weiner, J. M.; Williams, D. S.; Colley, S. R.

1975-01-01

226

f ~P1g, or f ~P1; ~P2g, the G-packing problem is NP-complete. When G = f ~P1g, the G-packing problem is simply the matching problem. We treat in detail the one remaining case, G = f ~P1; ~P2g. We give in this case a polynomial algorithm for the packing problem. We also give the following positive results: a Berge type augmenting configuration theorem, a min-max characterization, and a reduction to bipartite matching. These results apply also to packings by the family G consisting of all directed paths and cycles. We also explore weighted variants of the problem and include a polyhedral analysis.

Richard C. Brewster; Pavol Hell; Sarah H. Pantel; Romeo Rizzi; Anders Yeo

227

Thermoalgebras and path integral

Using a representation for Lie groups closely associated with thermal problems, we derive the algebraic rules of the real-time formalism for thermal quantum field theories, the so-called thermo-field dynamics (TFD), including the tilde conjugation rules for interacting fields. These thermo-group representations provide a unified view of different approaches for finite-temperature quantum fields in terms of a symmetry group. On these grounds, a path integral formalism is constructed, using Bogoliubov transformations, for bosons, fermions and non-abelian gauge fields. The generalization of the results for quantum fields in (S{sup 1}){sup d}xR{sup D-d} topology is addressed.

Khanna, F.C. [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2J1 (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)], E-mail: khanna@phys.ualberta.ca; Malbouisson, A.P.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas/MCT, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: adolfo@cbpf.br; Malbouisson, J.M.C. [Instituto de Fisicas, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340 Salvador, BA (Brazil)], E-mail: jmalboui@ufba.br; Santana, A.E. [Instituto de Fisicas, Universidade de Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], E-mail: asantana@fis.unb.br

2009-09-15

228

Theory of bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy for tomography

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation transport theory is applied to electron microscopy of samples composed of one or more materials. The theory, originally due to Goudsmit and Saunderson, assumes only elastic scattering and an amorphous medium dominated by atomic interactions. For samples composed of a single material, the theory yields reasonable parameter-free agreement with experimental data taken from the literature for the multiple scattering of 300-keV electrons through aluminum foils up to 25?m thick. For thin films, the theory gives a validity condition for Beer's law. For thick films, a variant of Molière's theory [V. G. Molière, Z. Naturforschg. 3a, 78 (1948)] of multiple scattering leads to a form for the bright-field signal for foils in the multiple-scattering regime. The signal varies as [tln(e1-2?t/?)]-1 where t is the path length of the beam, ? is the mean free path for elastic scattering, and ? is Euler's constant. The Goudsmit-Saunderson solution interpolates numerically between these two limits. For samples with multiple materials, elemental sensitivity is developed through the angular dependence of the scattering. From the elastic scattering cross sections of the first 92 elements, a singular-value decomposition of a vector space spanned by the elastic scattering cross sections minus a delta function shows that there is a dominant common mode, with composition-dependent corrections of about 2%. A mathematically correct reconstruction procedure beyond 2% accuracy requires the acquisition of the bright-field signal as a function of the scattering angle. Tomographic reconstructions are carried out for three singular vectors of a sample problem with four elements Cr, Cu, Zr, and Te. The three reconstructions are presented jointly as a color image; all four elements are clearly identifiable throughout the image.

Levine, Zachary H.

2005-02-01

229

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resolution of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) in three-dimensional (3D) momentum k is fundamentally limited by ill defined surface-perpendicular wave vector k? associated with the finite photoelectron mean free path. Pushing ARPES into the soft-x-ray energy region sharpens the k? definition, allowing accurate electronic structure investigations in 3D materials. We apply soft-x-ray ARPES to explore the 3D electron realm in a paradigm transition metal dichalcogenide VSe2. Essential to break through the dramatic loss of the valence band photoexcitation cross section at soft-x-ray energies is the advanced photon flux performance of our synchrotron instrumentation. By virtue of the sharp 3D momentum definition, the soft-x-ray ARPES experimental band structure and Fermi surface of VSe2 show a textbook clarity. We identify pronounced 3D warping of the Fermi surface and show that its concomitant nesting acts as the precursor for the exotic 3D charge-density waves in VSe2. Our results demonstrate the immense potential of soft-x-ray ARPES to explore details of 3D electronic structure.

Strocov, Vladimir N.; Shi, Ming; Kobayashi, Masaki; Monney, Claude; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Krempasky, Juraj; Schmitt, Thorsten; Patthey, Luc; Berger, Helmuth; Blaha, Peter

2012-08-01

230

Sep 19, 2014 ... Institute of Public Economics, University of Graz, ... s, t ? V . The aim of Shortest Path Game is to find a directed path from s to t in the following .... Assigning arbitrary but fixed numbers to each vertex in the beginning,. e.g. 1,...

2014-09-19

231

Obstacle avoidance and path planning

Outlines the state-of-the-art in obstacle avoidance and path planning for industrial robots that is practical on the current generation of computer hardware. Describes practical vehicle planners and planning for manipulators. Summarizes that obstacle avoidance and path planning are techniques with differing goals. Sonar is the standard method of obstacle avoidance systems which is largely limited by the reliability of the

Stephen Cameron

1994-01-01

232

Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.

2014-01-01

233

Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences based on development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in more developed sites. Thematically, people in less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community based solutions, while people in more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in water-rich sites. Thematically, people in water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; Roberts, C. M.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.

2013-06-01

234

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events occur when beams or bunches of relativistic electrons of magnetospheric origin enter the Earth's atmosphere, typically at auroral latitudes. REP events are associated with a variety of space weather effects, including production of transitional and bremsstrahlung radiation, catalytic depletion of stratospheric ozone, and scintillation of transionospheric radio waves. This study examines the intensities of x-rays produced at airliner, manned balloon, and suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV) altitudes. The monoenergetic beam is modeled in cylindrical symmetry using the paraxial ray equation. Bremsstrahlung photon production is calculated using the traditional Sauter-Elwert cross-section, providing x-ray emission spectra differential in energy and angle. Attenuation is computed for a plane-stratified standard atmosphere, and the loss processes include photoionization, Rayleigh and Compton scattering, electron-positron pair production, and photonuclear interaction. Peak altitudes of electron energy deposition and bremsstrahlung x-ray production were calculated for beams of energies from 1 MeV through 100 MeV. The altitude peak of bremsstrahlung deposition was consistently and significantly lower that that of the electron deposition due to the longer mean free paths of x-rays compared to electrons within the atmosphere. For example, for a nadir-directed monoenergetic 5 MeV beam, the peak deposition altitude was calculated to be 42 km, but the resulting bremmstrahlung deposition peaked at 25 km. This has implications for crew and passenger safety, especially with the growth of the space tourism industry that relies on sRLVs with a nominal apogee of 100 km. A survey of results covering the 1-100 MeV spectrum for the three altitude ranges of interest will be presented.

Habash Krause, L.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Nishikawa, K.; Williams, A.

2013-12-01

235

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) detection refers to photon detection specifically in the wavelength range of 200 nm–320 nm. Without background noises from solar radiation, it has broad applications from homeland security to environmental monitoring. The most commonly used solid state devices for this application are wide band gap (WBG) semiconductor photodetectors (Eg > 3.5 eV). However, WBG semiconductors are difficult to grow and integrate with Si readout integrated circuits (ROICs). In this paper, we design a nanophotonic metal-oxide-semiconductor structure on Si for solar-blind UV detectors. Instead of using semiconductors as the active absorber, we use Sn nano-grating structures to absorb UV photons and generate hot electrons for internal photoemission across the Sn/SiO2 interfacial barrier, thereby generating photocurrent between the metal and the n-type Si region upon UV excitation. Moreover, the transported hot electron has an excess kinetic energy >3 eV, large enough to induce impact ionization and generate another free electron in the conduction band of n-Si. This process doubles the quantum efficiency. On the other hand, the large metal/oxide interfacial energy barrier (>3.5 eV) also enables solar-blind UV detection by blocking the less energetic electrons excited by visible photons. With optimized design, ˜75% UV absorption and hot electron excitation can be achieved within the mean free path of ˜20 nm from the metal/oxide interface. This feature greatly enhances hot electron transport across the interfacial barrier to generate photocurrent. The simple geometry of the Sn nano-gratings and the MOS structure make it easy to fabricate and integrate with Si ROICs compared to existing solar-blind UV detection schemes. The presented device structure also breaks through the conventional notion that photon absorption by metal is always a loss in solid-state photodetectors, and it can potentially be extended to other active metal photonic devices.

Wang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng

2014-12-01

236

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relativisitic electron precipitation (REP) events occur when beams or bunches of relativistic electrons of magnetospheric origin enter the Earth's atmosphere, typically at auroral latitudes. REP events are associated with a variety of space weather effects, including production of transitional and bremsstrahlung radiation, catalytic depletion of stratospheric ozone, and scintillation of transionospheric radio waves. This study examines the intensities of x-rays produced at airliner, manned balloon, and space reuseable launch vehicles (sRLVs). The monoenergetic beam is modeled in cylindrical symetry using the paraxial ray equation. Bremsstrahlung photon production is calculated using the traditional Sauter-Elwert cross-section, providing x-ray emission spectra differential in energy and angle. Attenuation is computed for a plane-stratified standard atmosphere, and the loss processes include photoionization, Rayleigh and Compton scattering, electron-positron pair production, and photonuclear interaction. Peak altitudes of electron energy deposition and bremsstrahlung x-ray production were calculated for beams of energies from 1 MeV through 100 MeV. The altitude peak of bremsstrahlung deposition was consistently and significantly lower that that of the electron deposition due to the longer mean free paths of x-rays compared to electrons within the atmosphere. For example, for a nadir-directed monoenergetic 5 MeV beam, the peak deposition altitude was calculated to be 42 km, but the resulting bremsstrahlung deposition peaked at 25 km. This has implications for crew and passenger safety, especially with the growth of the space tourism industry. A survey of results covering the 1-100 MeV spectrum for the three altitude ranges of interest will be presented.

Krause, L. Habsh; Gilchrist, B. E.; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

2013-01-01

237

Reconfigurable data path processor

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reconfigurable data path processor comprises a plurality of independent processing elements. Each of the processing elements advantageously comprising an identical architecture. Each processing element comprises a plurality of data processing means for generating a potential output. Each processor is also capable of through-putting an input as a potential output with little or no processing. Each processing element comprises a conditional multiplexer having a first conditional multiplexer input, a second conditional multiplexer input and a conditional multiplexer output. A first potential output value is transmitted to the first conditional multiplexer input, and a second potential output value is transmitted to the second conditional multiplexer output. The conditional multiplexer couples either the first conditional multiplexer input or the second conditional multiplexer input to the conditional multiplexer output, according to an output control command. The output control command is generated by processing a set of arithmetic status-bits through a logical mask. The conditional multiplexer output is coupled to a first processing element output. A first set of arithmetic bits are generated according to the processing of the first processable value. A second set of arithmetic bits may be generated from a second processing operation. The selection of the arithmetic status-bits is performed by an arithmetic-status bit multiplexer selects the desired set of arithmetic status bits from among the first and second set of arithmetic status bits. The conditional multiplexer evaluates the select arithmetic status bits according to logical mask defining an algorithm for evaluating the arithmetic status bits.

Donohoe, Gregory (Inventor)

2005-01-01

238

British Pathe Newsreels Online

NSDL National Science Digital Library

British Pathe, one of the oldest media companies in the world, recently made available its entire 3500-hour film archive, covering "news, sport, social history and entertainment from 1896 to 1970." At the Web site, users can search by keyword or try out advanced search, if details such as reel numbers or exact titles are known. Casual users may prefer the "Lucky Dip" search, which provides a random selection of films to see. After a search returns a hit list of films, choices include "Preview Film: a page of stills, with a textual description of the clip;" "Download Now: a free, low resolution clip;" or "Add to basket, to purchase higher resolutions of the film." (A rate card giving prices for low and high resolution clips is provided.) One hint for first-time users, though: if files do not seem to download properly, check your email, because you will be sent the URL to retrieve your film. After just a bit of finagling on our first visit, we watched the Beatles at a water-skiing show, Charlie Chaplin, and Sir Ernest Shackleton and his sled dogs photographed in 1916 on returning from their Antarctic expedition.

2002-01-01

239

Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) is a powerful tool to study the electronic spin and symmetry features at both surfaces and interfaces to ultrathin top layers. However, the very low mean free path of the photoelectrons usually prevents a direct access to the properties of buried interfaces. The latter are of particular interest since they crucially influence the performance of spintronic devices like magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Here, we introduce spin-resolved extremely low energy photoemission spectroscopy (ELEPS) to provide a powerful way for overcoming this limitation. We apply ELEPS to the interface formed between the half-metallic Heusler compound Co2MnSi and the insulator MgO, prepared as in state-of-the-art Co2MnSi/MgO-based MTJs. The high accordance between the spintronic fingerprint of the free Co2MnSi surface and the Co2MnSi/MgO interface buried below up to 4?nm MgO provides clear evidence for the high interface sensitivity of ELEPS to buried interfaces. Although the absolute values of the interface spin polarization are well below 100%, the now accessible spin- and symmetry-resolved wave functions are in line with the predicted existence of non-collinear spin moments at the Co2MnSi/MgO interface, one of the mechanisms evoked to explain the controversially discussed performance loss of Heusler-based MTJs at room temperature. PMID:25702631

Fetzer, Roman; Stadtmüller, Benjamin; Ohdaira, Yusuke; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo; Taira, Tomoyuki; Uemura, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Aeschlimann, Martin; Cinchetti, Mirko

2015-01-01

240

Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) is a powerful tool to study the electronic spin and symmetry features at both surfaces and interfaces to ultrathin top layers. However, the very low mean free path of the photoelectrons usually prevents a direct access to the properties of buried interfaces. The latter are of particular interest since they crucially influence the performance of spintronic devices like magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Here, we introduce spin-resolved extremely low energy photoemission spectroscopy (ELEPS) to provide a powerful way for overcoming this limitation. We apply ELEPS to the interface formed between the half-metallic Heusler compound Co2MnSi and the insulator MgO, prepared as in state-of-the-art Co2MnSi/MgO-based MTJs. The high accordance between the spintronic fingerprint of the free Co2MnSi surface and the Co2MnSi/MgO interface buried below up to 4?nm MgO provides clear evidence for the high interface sensitivity of ELEPS to buried interfaces. Although the absolute values of the interface spin polarization are well below 100%, the now accessible spin- and symmetry-resolved wave functions are in line with the predicted existence of non-collinear spin moments at the Co2MnSi/MgO interface, one of the mechanisms evoked to explain the controversially discussed performance loss of Heusler-based MTJs at room temperature. PMID:25702631

Fetzer, Roman; Stadtmüller, Benjamin; Ohdaira, Yusuke; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo; Taira, Tomoyuki; Uemura, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Aeschlimann, Martin; Cinchetti, Mirko

2015-01-01

241

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) is a powerful tool to study the electronic spin and symmetry features at both surfaces and interfaces to ultrathin top layers. However, the very low mean free path of the photoelectrons usually prevents a direct access to the properties of buried interfaces. The latter are of particular interest since they crucially influence the performance of spintronic devices like magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Here, we introduce spin-resolved extremely low energy photoemission spectroscopy (ELEPS) to provide a powerful way for overcoming this limitation. We apply ELEPS to the interface formed between the half-metallic Heusler compound Co2MnSi and the insulator MgO, prepared as in state-of-the-art Co2MnSi/MgO-based MTJs. The high accordance between the spintronic fingerprint of the free Co2MnSi surface and the Co2MnSi/MgO interface buried below up to 4 nm MgO provides clear evidence for the high interface sensitivity of ELEPS to buried interfaces. Although the absolute values of the interface spin polarization are well below 100%, the now accessible spin- and symmetry-resolved wave functions are in line with the predicted existence of non-collinear spin moments at the Co2MnSi/MgO interface, one of the mechanisms evoked to explain the controversially discussed performance loss of Heusler-based MTJs at room temperature.

Fetzer, Roman; Stadtmüller, Benjamin; Ohdaira, Yusuke; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo; Taira, Tomoyuki; Uemura, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Aeschlimann, Martin; Cinchetti, Mirko

2015-02-01

242

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations of the atomic and electronic structure of CaxAl1-x glasses (with x=0.70, 0.60, 0.50, and 0.33) and of the crystalline intermetallic compound CaAl2 are presented. For the amorphous alloys the calculations are based on realistic models for the atomic structure constructed by a molecular-dynamics simulation linked to a steepest-descent potential-energy mapping. The effective interatomic forces are calculated using pseudopotential theory. We find that both the atomic and the electronic structures are dominated by strong electronic bonding effects: (a) The strong (s,p,d) hybridization of the free-electron-like conduction band of pure Al is broken up on alloying with Ca, and we find nearly separate Al 3s and Al 3p bands which are much narrower than the s and p bands in pure Al; (b) only the Al 3p states interact substantially with the Ca states. The interatomic electron transfer is small, but we find a substantial intra-atomic d-to-s transfer on the Al sites and an s-to-d transfer on the Ca sites. In the atomic structure the s-d promotion leads to a strong contraction of the Ca-Ca bonds in both the crystalline and the amorphous alloys compared to pure Ca, and a preferential Ca-Al bonding in the Al-rich but not in the Ca-rich alloys. The calculated electronic structure is well confirmed in all its details by heat-capacity, photoemission, and soft-x-ray emission spectra. The x-ray-diffraction data for the atomic structure corroborate the predicted compression of the Ca-Ca distances and the overall form of the correlation functions (which points to a local topology best described as a disordered tetrahedral close packing) but show distinctly lower and broader peaks. We argue that this is due to the short mean free path of the electrons, which will lead to a damping of the oscillations in the interatomic interactions.

Hafner, J.; Jaswal, S. S.

1988-10-01

243

Ballistic Electron Magnetic Microscopy Studies of Ferromagnetic Multilayer Films and Nanostructures

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new magnetic imaging technique, ballistic electron magnetic microscopy (BEMM), has been developed to study the magnetic structure in ferromagnetic multilayer films and nanostructures as a function of magnetic field H. In BEMM we exploit the hot electron transport properties of the ferromagnetic films in order to probe their magnetic structure. In contrast to other techniques this allows magnetic imaging in applied fields with nm-scale spatial resolution, and also allows the imaging of thin film magnetic structures buried up to ~20 nm below the surface. In both sputtered and evaporated Co thin films (< 6 nm thick), we find magnetic domains to typically occur on the sim500 nm length scale, although much smaller < 100 nm features are also commonly observed. These very small domains can persist to high H, well above that which saturates the bulk of the film. In the Co films magnetic domains wall widths vary greatly, being as narrow as 10 nm and as wide as several hundred nm. Similar magnetic structures are also found in permalloy films, although there the magnetic reversal process occurs in a more uniform manner. In BEMM, contrast results from the large asymmetry in the spin-dependent inelastic mean free path of electrons in ferromagnetic films. We have measured these hot electron attenuation lengths from 1.0 eV to 2.0 eV above Ef in Co to good precision. We have also fabricated patterned magnetic nanostructures in an UHV environment using a stencil-mask technique and imaged these with BEMM. I will present and discuss the switching behavior of various magnetic structures (e.g. disks, rectangles, etc.) with lateral dimensions < 1mm.

Rippard, William

2000-03-01

244

CURRENT SHEET REGULATION OF SOLAR NEAR-RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON INJECTION HISTORIES

We present a sample of three large near-relativistic (>50 keV) electron events observed in 2001 by both the ACE and the Ulysses spacecraft, when Ulysses was at high-northern latitudes (>60 Degree-Sign ) and close to 2 AU. Despite the large latitudinal distance between the two spacecraft, electrons injected near the Sun reached both heliospheric locations. All three events were associated with large solar flares, strong decametric type II radio bursts and accompanied by wide (>212 Degree-Sign ) and fast (>1400 km s{sup -1}) coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We use advanced interplanetary transport simulations and make use of the directional intensities observed in situ by the spacecraft to infer the electron injection profile close to the Sun and the interplanetary transport conditions at both low and high latitudes. For the three selected events, we find similar interplanetary transport conditions at different heliolatitudes for a given event, with values of the mean free path ranging from 0.04 AU to 0.27 AU. We find differences in the injection profiles inferred for each spacecraft. We investigate the role that sector boundaries of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) have on determining the characteristics of the electron injection profiles. Extended injection profiles, associated with coronal shocks, are found if the magnetic footpoints of the spacecraft lay in the same magnetic sector as the associated flare, while intermittent sparse injection episodes appear when the spacecraft footpoints are in the opposite sector or a wrap in the HCS bounded the CME structure.

Agueda, N.; Sanahuja, B. [Departament d'Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Vainio, R. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Dalla, S. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire (United Kingdom); Lario, D. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University (United States)

2013-03-10

245

Variable path cryogenic acoustic interferometer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a variable path acoustic interferometer for use at cryogenic temperatures. Movement is enabled without mechanical coupling via two piezoelectric bimorphs wired and mounted in a manner that preserves the parallelism of two ultrasonic transducers that define the acoustic path. A certain degree of in situ alignment can also be accomplished. Path length sweeps from 0 to 180 ?m have been made at cryogenic temperatures and preliminary sound velocity measurements in liquid 4He and gaseous 3He near 4 K are presented which agree well with past measurements.

Kucera, D. M.; Ketterson, J. B.

1998-12-01

246

A Hierarchical Path View Model for Path Finding in Intelligent Transportation Systems

Effective path finding has been identified as an important requirement for dynamic route guidance in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Path finding is most efficient if the all-pair (shortest) paths are precomputed because path search requires only simple lookups of the precomputed path views. Such an approach however incurs path view maintenance (computation and update) and storage costs which can be

Yun-Wu Huang; Ning Jing; ELKE A. RUNDENSTEINER

1997-01-01

247

Particle-in-cell simulations of electron dynamics in low pressure discharges with magnetic fields

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In modern low pressure plasma discharges, the electron mean free path often exceeds the device dimensions. Under such conditions the electron velocity distribution function may significantly deviate from Maxwellian, which strongly affects the discharge properties. The description of such plasmas has to be kinetic and often requires the use of numerical methods. This thesis presents the study of kinetic effects in inductively coupled plasmas and Hall thrusters carried out by means of particle-in-cell simulations. The important result and the essential part of the research is the development of particle-in-cell codes. An advective electromagnetic 1d3v particle-in-cell code is developed for modelling the inductively coupled plasmas. An electrostatic direct implicit 1d3v particle-in-cell code EDIPIC is developed for plane geometry simulations of Hall thruster plasmas. The EDIPIC code includes several physical effects important for Hall thrusters: collisions with neutral atoms, turbulence, and secondary electron emission. In addition, the narrow sheath regions crucial for plasma-wall interaction are resolved in simulations. The code is parallelized to achieve fast run times. Inductively coupled plasmas sustained by the external RF electromagnetic field are widely used in material processing reactors and electrodeless lighting sources. In a low pressure inductive discharge, the collisionless electron motion strongly affects the absorption of the external electromagnetic waves and, via. the ponderomotive force, the density profile. The linear theory of the anomalous skin effect based on the linear electron trajectories predicts a strong decrease of the ponderomotive force for warm plasmas. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the nonlinear modification of electron trajectories by the RF magnetic field partially compensates the effects of electron thermal motion. As a result, the ponderomotive force in warm collisionless plasmas is stronger than predicted by linear kinetic theory. A new model of secondary electron emission in a bounded plasma slab, allowing for emission due to the counter-propagating secondary electron beams, is developed. It is shown that in bounded plasmas the average energy of plasma bulk electrons is far less important for the space charge saturation of the sheath than it is in purely Maxwellian plasmas. A new regime with relaxation oscillations of the sheath has been identified in simulations. Recent experimental studies of Hall thrusters indirectly support the simulation results with respect to the electron temperature saturation and the channel width effect on the thruster discharge. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Sydorenko, Dmytro

248

Scattering theory with path integrals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting from well-known expressions for the T-matrix and its derivative in standard nonrelativistic potential scattering, I rederive recent path-integral formulations due to Efimov and Barbashov et al. Some new relations follow immediately.

Rosenfelder, R.

2014-03-01

249

An introduction to critical paths.

A critical path defines the optimal sequencing and timing of interventions by physicians, nurses, and other staff for a particular diagnosis or procedure. Critical paths are developed through collaborative efforts of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and others to improve the quality and value of patient care. They are designed to minimize delays and resource utilization and to maximize quality of care. Critical paths have been shown to reduce variation in the care provided, facilitate expected outcomes, reduce delays, reduce length of stay, and improve cost-effectiveness. The approach and goals of critical paths are consistent with those of total quality management (TQM) and can be an important part of an organization's TQM process. PMID:15739581

Coffey, Richard J; Richards, Janet S; Remmert, Carl S; LeRoy, Sarah S; Schoville, Rhonda R; Baldwin, Phyllis J

2005-01-01

250

COMPUTER SCIENCE: MISCONCEPTIONS, CAREER PATHS

COMPUTER SCIENCE: MISCONCEPTIONS, CAREER PATHS AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES School of Computing Undergraduate Student) #12;Computer Science Misconceptions Intro to Computer Science - Florida International University 2 Some preconceived ideas & stereotypes about Computer Science (CS) are quite common

Hristidis, Vagelis

251

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... orbits that observe the same areas under the same nominal angular conditions. Areas that are close to each other in longitude will be ... 1 crosses the equator at 64.60° west longitude. Orbital Paths/Blocks ...

2014-12-08

252

Collaborative Authoring of Walden's Paths

The World Wide Web contains rich collections of digital materials that can be used in education and learning settings. The collaborative authoring prototype of Walden's Paths targets two groups of users: educators and learners. From the perspective...

Li, Yuanling

2012-10-19

253

We consider the path space of a curved manifold on which a point particle is introduced in a conservative physical system with constant total energy to formulate its action functional and geodesic equation together with breaks on the path. The second variation of the action functional is exploited to yield the geodesic deviation equation and to discuss the Jacobi fields on the curved manifold. We investigate the topology of the path space using the action functional on it and its physical meaning by defining the gradient of the action functional, the space of bounded flow energy solutions and the moduli space associated with the critical points of the action functional. We also consider the particle motion on the $n$-sphere $S^{n}$ in the conservative physical system to discuss explicitly the moduli space of the path space and the corresponding homology groups.

Yong Seung Cho; Soon-Tae Hong

2007-06-01

254

Scattering theory with path integrals

Starting from well-known expressions for the T-matrix and its derivative in standard nonrelativistic potential scattering, I rederive recent path-integral formulations due to Efimov and Barbashov et al. Some new relations follow immediately.

Rosenfelder, R. [Particle Theory Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)] [Particle Theory Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2014-03-15

255

Survivable paths in multilayer networks

We consider the problem of protection in multilayer networks. In single-layer net- works, a pair of disjoint paths can be used to provide protection for a source-destination pair. However, this approach cannot be directly ...

Parandehgheibi, Marzieh

2012-01-01

256

Formal language constrained path problems

In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.

1997-07-08

257

E-beam ionized channel guiding of an intense relativistic electron beam

An IREB is guided through a curved path by ionizing a channel in a gas with electrons from a filament, and confining the electrons to the center of the path with a magnetic field extending along the path. The magnetic field is preferably generated by a solenoid extending along the path.

Frost, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM); Godfrey, Brendon B. (Albuquerque, NM); Kiekel, Paul D. (Albuquerque, NM); Shope, Steven L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

258

E-beam ionized channel guiding of an intense relativistic electron beam

An IREB is guided through a curved path by ionizing a channel in a gas with electrons from a filament, and confining the electrons to the center of the path with a magnetic field extending along the path. The magnetic field is preferably generated by a solenoid extending along the path. 2 figs.

Frost, C.A.; Godfrey, B.B.; Kiekel, P.D.; Shope, S.L.

1988-05-10

259

On hallucinated garden paths UC San Diego

On hallucinated garden paths Roger Levy UC San Diego Department of Linguistics 2010 LSA Annual., 1995) #12;Garden-pathing in incremental parsing Â· Garden-path sentence a consequence of incrementality recent examples don't match this definition Â· Tabor et al. (2004): garden-paths on continuous substrings

260

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of finding the Hamiltonian path in a graph, or deciding whether a graph has a Hamiltonian path or not, is an NP-complete problem. No exact solution has been found yet, to solve this problem using polynomial amount of time and space. In this paper, we propose a two dimensional (2-D) optical architecture based on optical electronic devices such as micro ring resonators, optical circulators and MEMS based mirror (MEMS-M) to solve the Hamiltonian Path Problem, for undirected graphs in linear time. It uses a heuristic algorithm and employs n+1 different wavelengths of a light ray, to check whether a Hamiltonian path exists or not on a graph with n vertices. Then if a Hamiltonian path exists, it reports the path. The device complexity of the proposed architecture is O(n2).

Shakeri, Nadim; Jalili, Saeed; Ahmadi, Vahid; Rasoulzadeh Zali, Aref; Goliaei, Sama

2015-01-01

261

Electron Heat Flux in the Solar Wind: Are We Observing the Collisional Limit in the 1 AU Data?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using statistically significant data at 1 AU, it has recently been shown (Bale et al.) that in the solar wind, when the Knudsen number K T (the ratio between the electron mean free path and the electron temperature scale height) drops below about 0.3, the electron heat flux q intensity rapidly approaches the classical collisional Spitzer-Härm limit. Using a fully kinetic model including the effect of Coulomb collisions and the expansion of the solar wind with heliocentric distance, we observe that the heat flux strength does indeed approach the collisional value for Knudsen numbers smaller than about 0.3 in very good agreement with the observations. However, closer inspection of the heat flux properties, such as its variation with the heliocentric distance and its dependence on the plasma parameters, shows that for Knudsen numbers between 0.02 and 0.3 the heat flux is not conveniently described by the Spitzer-Härm formula. We conclude that even though observations at 1 AU seem to indicate that the electron heat flux intensity approaches the collisional limit when the Knudsen drops below ~0.3, the collisional limit is not a generally valid closure for a Knudsen larger than 0.01. Moreover, the good agreement between the heat flux from our model and the heat flux from solar wind measurements in the high-Knudsen number regime seems to indicate that the heat flux at 1 AU is not constrained by electromagnetic instabilities as both wave-particle and wave-wave interactions are neglected in our calculations.

Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Pantellini, F.

2014-07-01

262

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast ionization waves (FIWs), often generated with high voltage pulses over nanosecond timescales, are able to produce large volumes of ions and excited states at moderate pressures. The mechanisms of FIW propagation were experimentally and computationally investigated to provide insights into the manner in which these large volumes are excited. The two-dimensional structure of electron and metastable densities produced by short-pulse FIWs sustained in helium were measured using laser-induced fluorescence and laser collision-induced fluorescence diagnostics for times of 100-120 ns after the pulse, as the pressure was varied from 1 to 20 Torr. A trend of center-peaked to volume-filling to wall-peaked electron density profiles was observed as the pressure was increased. Instantaneous FIW velocities, obtained from plasma-induced emission, ranged from 0.1 to 3 × 109 cm s-1, depending on distance from the high voltage electrode and pressure. Predictions from two-dimensional modeling of the propagation of a single FIW correlated well with the experimental trends in electron density profiles and wave velocity. Results from the model show that the maximum ionization rate occurs in the wavefront, and the discharge continues to propagate forward after the removal of high voltage from the powered electrode due to the potential energy stored in the space charge. As the pressure is varied, the radial distribution of the ionization rate is shaped by changes in the electron mean free path, and subsequent localized electric field enhancement at the walls or on the centerline of the discharge.

Weatherford, Brandon R.; Xiong, Zhongmin; Barnat, E. V.; Kushner, Mark J.

2014-09-01

263

Fast ionization waves (FIWs), often generated with high voltage pulses over nanosecond timescales, are able to produce large volumes of ions and excited states at moderate pressures. The mechanisms of FIW propagation were experimentally and computationally investigated to provide insights into the manner in which these large volumes are excited. The two-dimensional structure of electron and metastable densities produced by short-pulse FIWs sustained in helium were measured using laser-induced fluorescence and laser collision-induced fluorescence diagnostics for times of 100–120?ns after the pulse, as the pressure was varied from 1 to 20?Torr. A trend of center-peaked to volume-filling to wall-peaked electron density profiles was observed as the pressure was increased. Instantaneous FIW velocities, obtained from plasma-induced emission, ranged from 0.1 to 3?×?10{sup 9?}cm s{sup ?1}, depending on distance from the high voltage electrode and pressure. Predictions from two-dimensional modeling of the propagation of a single FIW correlated well with the experimental trends in electron density profiles and wave velocity. Results from the model show that the maximum ionization rate occurs in the wavefront, and the discharge continues to propagate forward after the removal of high voltage from the powered electrode due to the potential energy stored in the space charge. As the pressure is varied, the radial distribution of the ionization rate is shaped by changes in the electron mean free path, and subsequent localized electric field enhancement at the walls or on the centerline of the discharge.

Weatherford, Brandon R., E-mail: brweathe@gmail.com, E-mail: zax@esi-group.com, E-mail: evbarna@sandia.gov, E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Barnat, E. V., E-mail: brweathe@gmail.com, E-mail: zax@esi-group.com, E-mail: evbarna@sandia.gov, E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1423 (United States); Xiong, Zhongmin, E-mail: brweathe@gmail.com, E-mail: zax@esi-group.com, E-mail: evbarna@sandia.gov, E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Kushner, Mark J., E-mail: brweathe@gmail.com, E-mail: zax@esi-group.com, E-mail: evbarna@sandia.gov, E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122, USA. (United States)

2014-09-14

264

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved gas-path seals are needed for better fuel economy, longer performance retention, and lower maintenance, particularly in advanced, high-performance gas turbine engines. Problems encountered in gas-path sealing are described, as well as new blade-tip sealing approaches for high-pressure compressors and turbines. These include a lubricant coating for conventional, porous-metal, rub-strip materials used in compressors. An improved hot-press metal alloy shows promise to increase the operating surface temperatures of high-pressure-turbine, blade-tip seals to 1450 K (2150 F). Three ceramic seal materials are also described that have the potential to allow much higher gas-path surface operating temperatures than are possible with metal systems.

Zuk, J.

1976-01-01

265

Multiple paths in complex tasks

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between utility judgments of subtask paths and the utility of the task as a whole was examined. The convergent validation procedure is based on the assumption that measurements of the same quantity done with different methods should covary. The utility measures of the subtasks were obtained during the performance of an aircraft flight controller navigation task. Analyses helped decide among various models of subtask utility combination, whether the utility ratings of subtask paths predict the whole tasks utility rating, and indirectly, whether judgmental models need to include the equivalent of cognitive noise.

Galanter, Eugene; Wiegand, Thomas; Mark, Gloria

1987-01-01

266

Revealing quantum path details in high-field physics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fundamental mechanism underlying harmonic emission in the strong-field regime is governed by tunnel ionization of the atom, followed by the motion of the electron wave packet in the continuum, and finally by its recollision with the atomic core. Due to the quantum nature of the process, the properties of the electron wave packet strongly correlate with those of the emitted radiation. Here, by spatially resolving the interference pattern generated by overlapping the harmonic radiation emitted by different interfering electron quantum paths, we have succeeded in unravelling the intricacies associated with the recollision process. This has been achieved by mapping the spatial extreme-ultraviolet (EUV)-intensity distribution onto a spatial ion distribution, produced in the EUV focal area through the linear and nonlinear processes of atoms. By in situ manipulation of the intensity-dependent motion of the electron wave packets, we have been able to directly measure the difference between the harmonic emission times and electron path lengths resulting from different electron trajectories. Due to the high degree of accuracy that the present approach provides, we have been able to demonstrate the quantum nature of the recollision process. This is done by quantitatively correlating the photoemission time and the electron quantum path-length differences, taking into account the energy-momentum transfer from the driving laser field into the system. This information paves the way for electron-photon correlation studies at the attosecond time scale, while it puts the recollision process from the semiclassical prospective into a full quantum-mechanical context.

Kolliopoulos, G.; Bergues, B.; Schröder, H.; Carpeggiani, P. A.; Veisz, L.; Tsakiris, G. D.; Charalambidis, D.; Tzallas, P.

2014-07-01

267

Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to better interference risk assessment.

Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

2007-01-01

268

Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.

Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

2007-01-01

269

Individual carbon nanotubes for quantum electronic and quantum photonic devices

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising materials since their unique one dimensional geometry leads to remarkable physical properties such as ballistic transport, long mean free path, large direct band gaps, high mechanical tensile strength and strong exciton binding energies, which make them attractive candidates for applications in high-performance nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. CNT-based field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) are considered to be ideally suited for future nanoelectronics. Single CNT-FETs made by depositing metal electrodes on top of individual CNTs with E-beam lithography have achieved great performance but are limited for massive large area integrated circuit fabrication. Therefore, this thesis demonstrates characteristics of CNT-FETs made by registered in-plane growth utilizing tailored nanoscale catalyst patterns and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), resulting in CNT arrays directly bridging source and drain. The demonstrated access to individual CNTs with pronounced semiconducting behavior opens also the possibility to form more advanced nanoelectronic structures such as CNT quantum dots. CNT-based single electron transistors (CNT-SETS) are promising for quantum electronic devices operating with ultra-low power consumption and allow fundamental studies of electron transport. In addition to existing CNT-SETS based on individual CNTs, we have fabricated the first CNT-SETS based on in-plane grown CNTs using the CVD technique. The demonstrated utilization of registered in-plane growth opens possibilities to create novel SET device geometries which are more complex, i.e. laterally ordered and scalable, as required for advanced quantum electronic devices. Blinking and spectral diffusion are hallmarks of nanoscale light emitters and a challenge for creating stable fluorescent biomarkers or efficient nonclassical light sources. The studies of blinking of CNTs are still in the explorative stage. In this thesis, I show the first experimental demonstration of the suppression of blinking and spectral diffusion of individual CNTs by manipulation of their dielectric environment, resulting in five fold enhanced light emission. Such results open many new device applications in CNT nanophotonics, such as efficient CNT-based single photon sources. CNT-based FETs, SETS and light emitters studied in this thesis demonstrate the great potential for CNTs as optoelectronic material in future nanoelectronic and nanophotonic device applications.

Ai, Nan

2011-12-01

270

PATH DECOMPOSITION METHOD FOR POTENTIALS

We know all that thanks the development of the various formulations, moreover all equiva- lent, the physical phenomena explained by quantum mechanics are understood better. Among these formulations, we can quote most known because of its success: the formulation of Feyn- man (1) which uses the tool of the path integral. Not a long time ago, obtaining solutions for certain

A. Laissaoui; L. Chetouani

271

A complex series of evolutionary steps, contingent upon a dynamic environmental context and a long biological heritage, have led to the ascent of Homo sapiens as a dominant component of the modern biosphere. In a field where missing links still abound and new discoveries regularly overturn theoretical paradigms, our understanding of the path of human evolution has made tremendous advances

C. S. Feibel

2004-01-01

272

SSME propellant path leak detection

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complicated high-pressure cycle of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) propellant path provides many opportunities for external propellant path leaks while the engine is running. This mode of engine failure may be detected and analyzed with sufficient speed to save critical engine test hardware from destruction. The leaks indicate hardware failures which will damage or destroy an engine if undetected; therefore, detection of both cryogenic and hot gas leaks is the objective of this investigation. The primary objective of this phase of the investigation is the experimental validation of techniques for detecting and analyzing propellant path external leaks which have a high probability of occurring on the SSME. The selection of candidate detection methods requires a good analytic model for leak plumes which would develop from external leaks and an understanding of radiation transfer through the leak plume. One advanced propellant path leak detection technique is obtained by using state-of-the-art technology infrared (IR) thermal imaging systems combined with computer, digital image processing, and expert systems for the engine protection. The feasibility of IR leak plume detection is evaluated on subscale simulated laboratory plumes to determine sensitivity, signal to noise, and general suitability for the application.

Crawford, Roger; Shohadaee, Ahmad Ali

1989-01-01

273

Career Paths in Environmental Sciences

Career paths, current and future, in the environmental sciences will be discussed, based on experiences and observations during the author's 40 + years in the field. An emphasis will be placed on the need for integrated, transdisciplinary systems thinking approaches toward achie...

274

Equivariant Localization of Path Integrals

We review equivariant localization techniques for the evaluation of Feynman path integrals. We develop systematic geometric methods for studying the semi-classical properties of phase space path integrals for dynamical systems, emphasizing the relations with integrable and topological quantum field theories. Beginning with a detailed review of the relevant mathematical background -- equivariant cohomology and the Duistermaat-Heckman theorem, we demonstrate how the localization ideas are related to classical integrability and how they can be formally extended to derive explicit localization formulas for path integrals in special instances using BRST quantization techniques. Various loop space localizations are presented and related to notions in quantum integrability and topological field theory. We emphasize the common symmetries that such localizable models always possess and use these symmetries to discuss the range of applicability of the localization formulas. A number of physical and mathematical applications are presented in connection with elementary quantum mechanics, Morse theory, index theorems, character formulas for semi-simple Lie groups, quantization of spin systems, unitary integrations in matrix models, modular invariants of Riemann surfaces, supersymmetric quantum field theories, two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory, conformal field theory, cohomological field theories and the loop expansion in quantum field theory. Some modern techniques of path integral quantization, such as coherent state methods, are also discussed. The relations between equivariant localization and other ideas in topological field theory, such as the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky and Mathai-Quillen formalisms, are presented.

Richard J. Szabo

1996-08-12

275

Employer Resource Manual. Project Path.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Project Path at Illinois' College of DuPage was established to provide pre-employment training and career counseling for disabled students. To encourage the integration of qualified individuals with disabilities into the workplace, the project compiled this resource manual for area businesses, providing tips for interacting with disabled people…

Kane, Karen R.; Del George, Eve

276

Perceived Shrinkage of Motion Paths

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show that human observers strongly underestimate a linear or circular trajectory that a luminous spot follows in the dark. At slow speeds, observers are relatively accurate, but, as the speed increases, the size of the path is progressively underestimated, by up to 35%. The underestimation imposes little memory load and does not require…

Sinico, Michele; Parovel, Giulia; Casco, Clara; Anstis, Stuart

2009-01-01

277

Low bias integrated path estimators

We consider the problem of estimating the time-average variance constant for a stationary process. A previous paper described an approach based on multiple integrations of the simulation output path, and described the efficiency improvement that can result compared with the method of batch means (which is a special case of the method). In this paper we describe versions of the

James M. Calvin

2007-01-01

278

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on electronic neural networks for space station are presented. Topics covered include: electronic neural networks; electronic implementations; VLSI/thin film hybrid hardware for neurocomputing; computations with analog parallel processing; features of neuroprocessors; applications of neuroprocessors; neural network hardware for terrain trafficability determination; a dedicated processor for path planning; neural network system interface; neural network for robotic control; error backpropagation algorithm for learning; resource allocation matrix; global optimization neuroprocessor; and electrically programmable read only thin-film synaptic array.

Thakoor, Anil

1990-01-01

279

Enzymatic reaction paths as determined by transition path sampling

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enzymes are biological catalysts capable of enhancing the rates of chemical reactions by many orders of magnitude as compared to solution chemistry. Since the catalytic power of enzymes routinely exceeds that of the best artificial catalysts available, there is much interest in understanding the complete nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymatic reactions. Two specific questions pertaining to the source of enzymatic rate enhancements are investigated in this work. The first is the issue of how fast protein motions of an enzyme contribute to chemical barrier crossing. Our group has previously identified sub-picosecond protein motions, termed promoting vibrations (PVs), that dynamically modulate chemical transformation in several enzymes. In the case of human heart lactate dehydrogenase (hhLDH), prior studies have shown that a specific axis of residues undergoes a compressional fluctuation towards the active site, decreasing a hydride and a proton donor--acceptor distance on a sub-picosecond timescale to promote particle transfer. To more thoroughly understand the contribution of this dynamic motion to the enzymatic reaction coordinate of hhLDH, we conducted transition path sampling (TPS) using four versions of the enzymatic system: a wild type enzyme with natural isotopic abundance; a heavy enzyme where all the carbons, nitrogens, and non-exchangeable hydrogens were replaced with heavy isotopes; and two versions of the enzyme with mutations in the axis of PV residues. We generated four separate ensembles of reaction paths and analyzed each in terms of the reaction mechanism, time of barrier crossing, dynamics of the PV, and residues involved in the enzymatic reaction coordinate. We found that heavy isotopic substitution of hhLDH altered the sub-picosecond dynamics of the PV, changed the favored reaction mechanism, dramatically increased the time of barrier crossing, but did not have an effect on the specific residues involved in the PV. In the mutant systems, we observed changes in the reaction mechanism and altered contributions of the mutated residues to the enzymatic reaction coordinate, but we did not detect a substantial change in the time of barrier crossing. These results confirm the importance of maintaining the dynamics and structural scaffolding of the hhLDH PV in order to facilitate facile barrier passage. We also utilized TPS to investigate the possible role of fast protein dynamics in the enzymatic reaction coordinate of human dihydrofolate reductase (hsDHFR). We found that sub-picosecond dynamics of hsDHFR do contribute to the reaction coordinate, whereas this is not the case in the E. coli version of the enzyme. This result indicates a shift in the DHFR family to a more dynamic version of catalysis. The second inquiry we addressed in this thesis regarding enzymatic barrier passage concerns the variability of paths through reactive phase space for a given enzymatic reaction. We further investigated the hhLDH-catalyzed reaction using a high-perturbation TPS algorithm. Though we saw that alternate reaction paths were possible, the dominant reaction path we observed corresponded to that previously elucidated in prior hhLDH TPS studies. Since the additional reaction paths we observed were likely high-energy, these results indicate that only the dominant reaction path contributes significantly to the overall reaction rate. In conclusion, we show that the enzymes hhLDH and hsDHFR exhibit paths through reactive phase space where fast protein motions are involved in the enzymatic reaction coordinate and exhibit a non-negligible contribution to chemical barrier crossing.

Masterson, Jean Emily

280

Assessing perceptions about hazardous substances (PATHS): the PATHS questionnaire.

How people perceive the nature of a hazardous substance may determine how they respond when potentially exposed to it. We tested a new Perceptions AbouT Hazardous Substances (PATHS) questionnaire. In Study 1 (N = 21), we assessed the face validity of items concerning perceptions about eight properties of a hazardous substance. In Study 2 (N = 2030), we tested the factor structure, reliability and validity of the PATHS questionnaire across four qualitatively different substances. In Study 3 (N = 760), we tested the impact of information provision on Perceptions AbouT Hazardous Substances scores. Our results showed that our eight measures demonstrated good reliability and validity when used for non-contagious hazards. PMID:23104995

Rubin, G James; Amlôt, Richard; Page, Lisa; Pearce, Julia; Wessely, Simon

2013-08-01

281

Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

status play in shaping how people conceptualize water solutions? 3) What role does water scarcity play selected based on their diversity in development status and water scarcity (Figure 1) Â· Participants no path (2 = 5.19, p = 0.02, = 0.22). Water Scarcity Â· Respondents from water-scarce sites were found

Hall, Sharon J.

282

Model for Delay Faults Based upon Paths

Delay testing of combinational logic in a clocked environment is analyzed. A model based upon paths is introduced for delay faults. Any path with a total delay exceeding the clock interval is called a \\

Gordon L. Smith

1985-01-01

283

Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering

Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.

Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.

1993-01-01

284

Multiple Paths to Encephalization and Technical Civilizations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose consideration of at least two possible evolutionary paths for the emergence of intelligent life with the potential for technical civilization. The first is the path via encephalization of homeothermic animals; the second is the path to swarm intelligence of so-called superorganisms, in particular the social insects. The path to each appears to be facilitated by environmental change: homeothermic animals by decreased climatic temperature and for swarm intelligence by increased oxygen levels.

Schwartzman, David; Middendorf, George

2011-12-01

285

Understanding Delay Variations on Internet Paths

In this paper we investigate the network factors that may affect the user perceived end-to-end delay jitter. In parti cular, we iden- tify the following three major factors: per hop queueing delay varia- tions along an Internet path; intra-domain multi-path routing; and inter- domain route (i.e., AS path) alterations. By studying traceroutedata collected on Internet paths, we find that 1)

Zhenhai Duan; Kuai Xu; Zhi-Li Zhang

286

Physarum can compute shortest paths.

Physarum polycephalum is a slime mold that is apparently able to solve shortest path problems. A mathematical model has been proposed by Tero et al. (Journal of Theoretical Biology, 244, 2007, pp. 553-564) to describe the feedback mechanism used by the slime mold to adapt its tubular channels while foraging two food sources s(0) and s(1). We prove that, under this model, the mass of the mold will eventually converge to the shortest s(0)-s(1) path of the network that the mold lies on, independently of the structure of the network or of the initial mass distribution. This matches the experimental observations by Tero et al. and can be seen as an example of a "natural algorithm", that is, an algorithm developed by evolution over millions of years. PMID:22732274

Bonifaci, Vincenzo; Mehlhorn, Kurt; Varma, Girish

2012-09-21

287

Interior point path following algorithms

In the last few years the research on interior point methods for linear programming has been dominated by the study of primal-dual algorithms. Most of these methods are easily extended to monotone linear complementarity problems, preserving the convergence properties. In this talk we concentrate mostly on the basic techniques used for following the primal-dual central path associated with a monotone horizontal LCP. The emphasis is on feasible interior point methods, but we also describe the main techniques for dealing with infeasible starting points. We define the central path and construct homotopy methods for following it, with iterations based on the application of Newton`s method. We show how these Newton steps are combinations of two special directions, the affine-scaling and the centering direction, and describe how this fact can be used to generate large step methods with low polynomial bounds and superlinear rates of convergence.

Gonzaga, C.C.

1994-12-31

288

Squeezed states and path integrals

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The continuous-time regularization scheme for defining phase-space path integrals is briefly reviewed as a method to define a quantization procedure that is completely covariant under all smooth canonical coordinate transformations. As an illustration of this method, a limited set of transformations is discussed that have an image in the set of the usual squeezed states. It is noteworthy that even this limited set of transformations offers new possibilities for stationary phase approximations to quantum mechanical propagators.

Daubechies, Ingrid; Klauder, John R.

1992-01-01

289

Path Integrals and Coherent States

propagator, on the other hand, is ^ / ( ) iHT U T e- = ^( ) 1 /U iH = - Motivations for a path integral evolutions as a composition of infinitesimal evolutions. ^( ) 1 /U iH = - #12;DIRAC: is there a Lagrangian ''| | ' | | | | | | N iHT iH iH N N N N iH N N i q e q q e q q e q q e q dq dq dq

de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.

290

Continuum-plasma solution surrounding nonemitting spherical bodies

The classical problem of the interaction of a nonemitting spherical body with a zero mean-free-path continuum plasma is solved numerically in the full range of physically allowed free parameters (electron Debye length to ...

Hutchinson, Ian H.

291

Nanoscale heat conduction with applications in nanoelectronics and thermoelectrics

When the device or structure characteristic length scales are comparable to the mean free path and wavelength of energy carriers (electrons, photons, phonons, and molecules) or the time of interest is on the same order as ...

Yang, Ronggui, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

292

CALIFORNIA PATH PROGRAM INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORTATION STUDIES

CALIFORNIA PATH PROGRAM INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORTATION STUDIES UNIVERFITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY Agogino, Kai Goebel SatnamAlag University of California,Berkeley CaliforniaPATH Research Report UCB-ITS-PRR-97-31 This work was performed as part of the CaliforniaPATH Program of the University of California

Agogino, Alice M.

293

Quantifying the Causes of Path Inflation

Researchers have shown that the Internet exhibits path inflation - end-to-end paths can be significantly longer than necessary. We present a trace-driven study of 65 ISPs that characterizes the root causes of path inflation, namely topology and routing policy choices within an ISP, between pairs of ISPs, and across the global Inter- net. To do so, we develop and validate

Neil Spring; Ratul Mahajan; Thomas Anderson

2003-01-01

294

Chip layout optimization using critical path weighting

A chip layout procedure for optimizing the performance of critical timing paths in a synchronous digital circuit is presented. The procedure uses the path analysis data produced by a static timing analysis program to generate weights for critical nets on clock and data paths. These weights are then used to bias automatic placement and routing in the layout program. This

A. E. Dunlop; V. D. Agrawal; D. N. Deutsch; M. F. Jukl; P. Kozak; M. Wiesel

1984-01-01

295

Path optimization for oil probe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a robust method for optimal oil probe path planning inspired by medical imaging. Horizontal wells require three-dimensional steering made possible by the rotary steerable capabilities of the system, which allows the hole to intersect multiple target shale gas zones. Horizontal "legs" can be over a mile long; the longer the exposure length, the more oil and natural gas is drained and the faster it can flow. More oil and natural gas can be produced with fewer wells and less surface disturbance. Horizontal drilling can help producers tap oil and natural gas deposits under surface areas where a vertical well cannot be drilled, such as under developed or environmentally sensitive areas. Drilling creates well paths which have multiple twists and turns to try to hit multiple accumulations from a single well location. Our algorithm can be used to augment current state of the art methods. Our goal is to obtain a 3D path with nodes describing the optimal route to the destination. This algorithm works with BIG data and saves cost in planning for probe insertion. Our solution may be able to help increase the energy extracted vs. input energy.

Smith, O'Neil; Rahmes, Mark; Blue, Mark; Peter, Adrian

2014-05-01

296

Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE`s national strategy, the Richland Operations Office`s Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established.

Edwards, C.

1998-06-30

297

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some regions of a laser driven inertial fusion target, the electron mean-free path can become comparable to or even longer than the electron temperature gradient scale-length. This can be particularly important in shock-ignited (SI) targets, where the laser-spike heated corona reaches temperatures of several keV. In this case, thermal conduction cannot be described by a simple local conductivity model and a Fick's law. Fluid codes usually employ flux-limited conduction models, which preserve causality, but lose important features of the thermal flow. A more accurate thermal flow modeling requires convolution-like non-local operators. In order to improve the simulation of SI targets, the non-local electron transport operator proposed by Schurtz-Nicolaï-Busquet [G. P. Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] has been implemented in the DUED fluid code. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) simulations of SI targets have been performed. 1D simulations of the ablation phase highlight that while the shock profile and timing might be mocked up with a flux-limiter; the electron temperature profiles exhibit a relatively different behavior with no major effects on the final gain. The spike, instead, can only roughly be reproduced with a fixed flux-limiter value. 1D target gain is however unaffected, provided some minor tuning of laser pulses. 2D simulations show that the use of a non-local thermal conduction model does not affect the robustness to mispositioning of targets driven by quasi-uniform laser irradiation. 2D simulations performed with only two final polar intense spikes yield encouraging results and support further studies.

Marocchino, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.

2014-01-01

298

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In hydrodynamics simulation of laser driven systems, the time-dependent nonlocal electron heat-flux models predict the saturation (flux inhibition) and delocalization of the heat-flux automatically. Therefore it avoids commonly used time and space-independent ad hoc flux limiting. Previously proposed analytical nonlocal heat-flux model of Luciani et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett., 51, p-1664, (1983)] which fits the results of numerical Fokke-Planck calculations is simple and straight forward to implement in a fluid code. The proposed expression, however, is a convolution of Spitze-Harm heat-flux with a delocalization kernel which depends on classical electron collision mean free path. This is rigorously valid for high temperature non-degenerate plasmas. However, in laser driven systems, the energy transport due to electron thermal conduction is important in regions between the critical density and ablation surface where the plasma is mostly degenerate. We have improved this nonlocal heat-flux model by using a wide-range electron collision frequency model valid from warm-dense matter (degenerate plasmas) to fully ionized plasmas. The effect of this improved nonlocal heat-flux model on the free-surface velocity of laser-accelerated Al foils of thickness 2-10 ?m is studied by using a two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code. The simulated free surface velocities are compared with our experimental results for laser intensities in the range 4 × 1013-3 × 1014 W/cm2. Preliminary analysis shows that the simulation results obtained with improved nonlocal heat-flux model yields better agreement with our experimental values.

Sijoy, C. D.; Chaurasia, Shivanand; Mishra, Vinayak; Leshma, P.; Sakthivel, N.; Chaturvedi, Shashank; Sharma, S. M.; Basu, Sekhar

2014-06-01

299

In some regions of a laser driven inertial fusion target, the electron mean-free path can become comparable to or even longer than the electron temperature gradient scale-length. This can be particularly important in shock-ignited (SI) targets, where the laser-spike heated corona reaches temperatures of several keV. In this case, thermal conduction cannot be described by a simple local conductivity model and a Fick's law. Fluid codes usually employ flux-limited conduction models, which preserve causality, but lose important features of the thermal flow. A more accurate thermal flow modeling requires convolution-like non-local operators. In order to improve the simulation of SI targets, the non-local electron transport operator proposed by Schurtz-Nicolaï-Busquet [G. P. Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] has been implemented in the DUED fluid code. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) simulations of SI targets have been performed. 1D simulations of the ablation phase highlight that while the shock profile and timing might be mocked up with a flux-limiter; the electron temperature profiles exhibit a relatively different behavior with no major effects on the final gain. The spike, instead, can only roughly be reproduced with a fixed flux-limiter value. 1D target gain is however unaffected, provided some minor tuning of laser pulses. 2D simulations show that the use of a non-local thermal conduction model does not affect the robustness to mispositioning of targets driven by quasi-uniform laser irradiation. 2D simulations performed with only two final polar intense spikes yield encouraging results and support further studies.

Marocchino, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A. [Dipartimento SBAI, Università di Roma “La Sapienza” and CNISM, Roma 00161 (Italy)] [Dipartimento SBAI, Università di Roma “La Sapienza” and CNISM, Roma 00161 (Italy)

2014-01-15

300

Filtered backprojection proton CT reconstruction along most likely paths

Purpose: Proton CT (pCT) has the potential to accurately measure the electron density map of tissues at low doses but the spatial resolution is prohibitive if the curved paths of protons in matter is not accounted for. The authors propose to account for an estimate of the most likely path of protons in a filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Methods: The energy loss of protons is first binned in several proton radiographs at different distances to the proton source to exploit the depth-dependency of the estimate of the most likely path. This process is named the distance-driven binning. A voxel-specific backprojection is then used to select the adequate radiograph in the distance-driven binning in order to propagate in the pCT image the best achievable spatial resolution in proton radiographs. The improvement in spatial resolution is demonstrated using Monte Carlo simulations of resolution phantoms. Results: The spatial resolution in the distance-driven binning depended on the distance of the objects from the source and was optimal in the binned radiograph corresponding to that distance. The spatial resolution in the reconstructed pCT images decreased with the depth in the scanned object but it was always better than previous FBP algorithms assuming straight line paths. In a water cylinder with 20 cm diameter, the observed range of spatial resolutions was 0.7 - 1.6 mm compared to 1.0 - 2.4 mm at best with a straight line path assumption. The improvement was strongly enhanced in shorter 200 Degree-Sign scans. Conclusions: Improved spatial resolution was obtained in pCT images with filtered backprojection reconstruction using most likely path estimates of protons. The improvement in spatial resolution combined with the practicality of FBP algorithms compared to iterative reconstruction algorithms makes this new algorithm a candidate of choice for clinical pCT.

Rit, Simon; Dedes, George; Freud, Nicolas; Sarrut, David; Letang, Jean Michel [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Centre Leon Berard, 69008 Lyon (France)

2013-03-15

301

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) and Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) Traffic Engineering (TE) Label Switched Paths (LSPs) may be computed by Path Computation Elements (PCEs). Where the TE LSP crosses multiple domains, such as Autonomous Systems (ASes), the path may be computed by multiple PCEs that cooperate, with each responsible for computing a segment of the path. However, in some cases (e.g.,

A. Farrel

302

SIZE EFFECTS IN RESIDUAL RESISTANCE RATIOS FOR ZINC ``WHISKERS''

(P3OO'f(IpU:'K - 1000; E) Measurements of the electrical resistivity of small metal samples at low temperatures, where the mean free path of the conduction electrons is affected by the sample dimensions, have been used to deter mine the mean free path of the electrons. These determinations are based on the theory due to Fuchs,2 Dingle,3 and Sondheimer,4 which assumes spherical

M. J. Skove; E. P. Stillwell

1965-01-01

303

Spatial and frequency coherence of oblique, one-hop, high-frequency paths

We consider the effect of random index of refraction fluctuations upon long-distance, ionospherically-reflected, hf paths. Along with deterministic effects such as multipath and dispersion, such fluctuations have a deleterious impact on hf communication including nonabsorptive fading, time-of-arrival spread, angle-of-arrival spread, and Doppler spread. We develop a formalism to calculate the mutual coherence functions for spatial and frequency separations based upon a path integral solution of the parabolic wave equation for a single refracted path through an ionosphere which contains random electron density fluctuations. The statistics of the hf path depend directly on the strength and statistics of the electron density fluctuations; we model the spatial power spectrum of the density fluctuation as a power law behavior versus frequency and with outer and inner scales.

Fitzgerald, T.J.

1995-10-01

304

Mechanics of the crack path formation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed analysis of experimentally obtained curvilinear crack path trajectories formed in a heterogeneous stress field is presented. Experimental crack path trajectories were used as data for numerical simulations, recreating the actual stress field governing the development of the crack path. Thus, the current theories of crack curving and kinking could be examined by comparing them with the actual stress field parameters as they develop along the experimentally observed crack path. The experimental curvilinear crack path trajectories were formed in the tensile specimens with a hole positioned in the vicinity of a potential crack path. The numerical simulation, based on the solution of equivalent boundary value problems with the possible perturbations of the crack path, is presented here.

Rubinstein, Asher A.

1989-01-01

305

Characterizing the evolutionary path(s) to early Homo.

Numerous studies suggest that the transition from Australopithecus to Homo was characterized by evolutionary innovation, resulting in the emergence and coexistence of a diversity of forms. However, the evolutionary processes necessary to drive such a transition have not been examined. Here, we apply statistical tests developed from quantitative evolutionary theory to assess whether morphological differences among late australopith and early Homo species in Africa have been shaped by natural selection. Where selection is demonstrated, we identify aspects of morphology that were most likely under selective pressure, and determine the nature (type, rate) of that selection. Results demonstrate that selection must be invoked to explain an Au. africanus-Au. sediba-Homo transition, while transitions from late australopiths to various early Homo species that exclude Au. sediba can be achieved through drift alone. Rate tests indicate that selection is largely directional, acting to rapidly differentiate these taxa. Reconstructions of patterns of directional selection needed to drive the Au. africanus-Au. sediba-Homo transition suggest that selection would have affected all regions of the skull. These results may indicate that an evolutionary path to Homo without Au. sediba is the simpler path and/or provide evidence that this pathway involved more reliance on cultural adaptations to cope with environmental change. PMID:25470780

Schroeder, Lauren; Roseman, Charles C; Cheverud, James M; Ackermann, Rebecca R

2014-01-01

306

Electronics 2010: A New Systems Approach to Teaching Electronics

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the slides for the MATEC NetWorks Webinar that was held on May 9, 2008 for Electronics 2010: A New Systems Approach to Teaching Electronics. Presented by Tom McGlew, a thirty year veteran to the electronics field, the presentation discusses new paths for electronics and the changing role of the technician, and the implications for curriculum. The goals of the eSyst project are also discussed, the needed curriculum changes and updates, and ideas for assessment.

307

Multiple order common path spectrometer

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

308

Intellimotion: California PATH's Quarterly Newsletter

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways (PATH) researches methods for increasing highway safety, reducing congestion, and minimizing pollution and energy consumption. Intellimotion is one of its publications that highlights some of the current projects. Although it is labeled as a quarterly newsletter, Intellimotion is released on a very irregular basis. The 2002 issue covers several stories, including a project that makes vehicle navigation with the Global Positioning System extremely accurate. Another article looks at intelligent transportation systems and the issues regarding Bus Rapid Transit. Many past issues of Intellimotion are available on this Web site. This site is also reviewed in the October 25, 2002 Scout Report.

309

Communication path for extreme environments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and systems for using one or more radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs), or other suitable signal transmitters and/or receivers, to provide a sensor information communication path, to provide location and/or spatial orientation information for an emergency service worker (ESW), to provide an ESW escape route, to indicate a direction from an ESW to an ES appliance, to provide updated information on a region or structure that presents an extreme environment (fire, hazardous fluid leak, underwater, nuclear, etc.) in which an ESW works, and to provide accumulated thermal load or thermal breakdown information on one or more locations in the region.

Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Betts, Bradley J. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

310

Staff detection with stable paths.

The preservation of musical works produced in the past requires their digitalization and transformation into a machine-readable format. The processing of handwritten musical scores by computers remains far from ideal. One of the fundamental stages to carry out this task is the staff line detection. We investigate a general-purpose, knowledge-free method for the automatic detection of music staff lines based on a stable path approach. Lines affected by curvature, discontinuities, and inclination are robustly detected. Experimental results show that the proposed technique consistently outperforms well-established algorithms. PMID:19372615

Dos Santos Cardoso, Jaime; Capela, Artur; Rebelo, Ana; Guedes, Carlos; Pinto da Costa, Joaquim

2009-06-01

311

Effective Path Selection for Delay Fault Testing of Sequential Circuits

This paper outlines several problems related to the delay fault testing of sequential circuits. For timing test of a circuit and for layout optimization, critical path data are needed. When critical paths are identified by a static timing analyzer many of the selected paths cannot be activated functionally. Such paths are sequential false paths. However, many of these paths can

Tapan J. Chakraborty; Vishwani D. Agrawal

1997-01-01

312

SSME propellant path leak detection

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective of this phase of the investigation is the experimental validation of techniques for detecting and analyzing propellant path external leaks which have a high probability of occurring on the SSME. The selection of candidate detection methods requires a good analytic model for leak plumes which would develop from external leaks and an understanding of radiation transfer through the leak plume. One advanced propellant path leak detection technique is obtained by using state-of-art technology of infrared (IR) thermal imaging systems combined with computer, digital image processing and expert systems for the engine protection. The feasibility of the IR leak plume detection will be evaluated on subscale simulated laboratory plumes to determine sensitivity, signal to noise, and general suitability for the application. The theoretical analysis was undertaken with the objective of developing and testing simple, easy-to-use models to predict the amount of radiation coming from a radiation source, background plate (BP), which can be absorbed, emitted and scattered by the gas leaks.

Crawford, Roger; Shohadaee, Ahmad Ali; Powers, W. T.

1995-01-01

313

Configuration Path Integral Monte Carlo

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) approach for correlated many-particle systems with arbitrary pair interaction in continuous space at low temperatures is presented. It is based on a representation of the N-particle density operator in a basis of (anti-)symmetrized N-particle states (``configurations'' of occupation numbers) [1]. The path integral is transformed into a sum over trajectories with the same topology and, finally, the limit of M to infinity, (M is the number of high-temperature factors), is analytically performed. This yields exact expressions for the thermodynamic quantities and allows to perform efficient simulations for fermions at low temperature and weak to moderate coupling. Our method is applicable to dense quantum plasmas in the regime of strong degeneracy where conventional PIMC, e.g. [2], fails due to the fermion sign problem. [4pt] [1] T. Schoof, M. Bonitz, A. Filinov, D. Hochstuhl, and J.W. Dufty, Contrib. Plasma Phys. (2011), DOI 10.1002/ctpp.201100012;.[0pt] [2] ``Introduction to computational methods for many-body physics,'' M. Bonitz and D. Semkat (eds.). Rinton Press, Princeton 2006, chapter 4.

Bonitz, Michael; Schoof, Tim; Groth, Simon; Filinov, Alexei; Hochstuhl, David

2011-11-01

314

Endhost path selection—the ability for endhosts to spec- ify the paths which their packets should traverse—has been proposed as a promising means for meeting next-generation Internet goals such as high availability and application- tailored routing. However, current proposals have serious shortcomings. First, they typically allow only limited path selection; second, they generally do not provide a billing method by which

Akihiro Nakao

2008-01-01

315

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a sample of three large near-relativistic (NR; >50 keV) electron events observed in 2001 by both the ACE and the Ulysses spacecraft, when Ulysses was at high-northern latitudes and close to 2 AU. All three events are associated with large solar flares, strong decametric type II radio bursts and accompanied by wide (> 212 deg) and fast (> 1400 km/s) coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We use advanced interplanetary transport simulations and make use of the directional intensities observed in-situ by the spacecraft, to infer the electron injection profiles close to the Sun and the interplanetary transport conditions. For the three selected events, we find similar interplanetary transport conditions at low and at high latitudes, with values of the mean free path ranging from 0.05 AU to 0.27 AU. Despite the similar solar origin signatures, we find differences in the injection profiles inferred for each spacecraft. The injection timescales seem to be ordered by the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) sector boundaries; that is, extended injection profiles (associated with coronal shocks) are found if the footpoint of the spacecraft laid in the flare magnetic sector, while intermittent spare injection episodes appear when the spacecraft footpoint is in the opposite sector or a wrap in the HCS bounded the CME structure. Our results suggest that the large-scale coronal magnetic field might play a role in the expansion of coronal shocks and support an scenario in which reconnection processes during restructuring of coronal magnetic fields contribute to solar energetic particle release.

Agueda, N.; Lario, D.; Dalla, S.; Sanahuja, B.; Vainio, R. O.

2012-12-01

316

Electronically controlled automatic transmission

This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission control system for an automotive vehicle. It comprises multiple ratio gearing and multiple pressure operated clutches and brakes adapted to establish and disestablish multiple torque flow paths through the gearing from an engine; a source of regulated line pressure, a valve circuit connecting the line pressure source to the clutches and brakes;

R. B. Smith; J. A. Daubenmier; J. I. Zielke

1992-01-01

317

Extracting Critical Path Graphs from MPI Applications

The critical path is one of the fundamental runtime characteristics of a parallel program. It identifies the longest execution sequence without wait delays. In other words, the critical path is the global execution path that inflicts wait operations on other nodes without itself being stalled. Hence, it dictates the overall runtime and knowing it is important to understand an application's runtime and message behavior and to target optimizations. We have developed a toolset that identifies the critical path of MPI applications, extracts it, and then produces a graphical representation of the corresponding program execution graph to visualize it. To implement this, we intercept all MPI library calls, use the information to build the relevant subset of the execution graph, and then extract the critical path from there. We have applied our technique to several scientific benchmarks and successfully produced critical path diagrams for applications running on up to 128 processors.

Schulz, M

2005-07-27

318

One can define for an LCP (A, b) with artificial vector d, n internally vertex disjoint Lemke paths to solve the LCP, where A is an n {times} n matrix. The lengths of the set of Lemke paths are investigated in the case that A is a P-matrix. We introduce a class of matrices, the complete hidden Minkowski matrices, that guarantee a set of short Lemke paths.

Morris, W.

1994-12-31

319

The ability to discover the AS-level path between two end-points is valuable for network diagnosis, performance optimization, and reliability enhancement. Virtually all existing techniques and tools for path discovery require direct access to the source. However, the uncooperative nature of the Internet makes it difficult to get direct access to any remote end-point. Path inference becomes challenging when we have

Zhuoqing Morley Mao; Lili Qiu; Jia Wang; Yin Zhang

2005-01-01

320

Path-integral simulation of solids.

The path-integral formulation of the statistical mechanics of quantum many-body systems is described, with the purpose of introducing practical techniques for the simulation of solids. Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods for distinguishable quantum particles are presented, with particular attention to the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. Applications of these computational techniques to different types of solids are reviewed, including noble-gas solids (helium and heavier elements), group-IV materials (diamond and elemental semiconductors), and molecular solids (with emphasis on hydrogen and ice). Structural, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of these materials are discussed. Applications also include point defects in solids (structure and diffusion), as well as nuclear quantum effects in solid surfaces and adsorbates. Different phenomena are discussed, as solid-to-solid and orientational phase transitions, rates of quantum processes, classical-to-quantum crossover, and various finite-temperature anharmonic effects (thermal expansion, isotopic effects, electron-phonon interactions). Nuclear quantum effects are most remarkable in the presence of light atoms, so that especial emphasis is laid on solids containing hydrogen as a constituent element or as an impurity. PMID:24810944

Herrero, C P; Ramírez, R

2014-06-11

321

A method is presented to unfold the two-dimensional vertical structure in electron density by using data on the total electron content for a series of paths through the ionosphere. The method uses a set of orthonormal basis functions to represent the vertical structure and takes advantage of curved paths and the eikonical equation to reduce the number of iterations required for a solution. Curved paths allow a more thorough probing of the ionosphere with a given set of transmitter and receiver positions. The approach can be directly extended to more complex geometries.

Vittitoe, C.N.

1993-08-01

322

Paths and stochastic order in open systems

The principle of maximum irreversible is proved to be a consequence of a stochastic order of the paths inside the phase space; indeed, the system evolves on the greatest path in the stochastic order. The result obtained is that, at the stability, the entropy generation is maximum and, this maximum value is consequence of the stochastic order of the paths in the phase space, while, conversely, the stochastic order of the paths in the phase space is a consequence of the maximum of the entropy generation at the stability.

Umberto Lucia

2011-01-07

323

The Logic behind Feynman's Paths

The classical notions of continuity and mechanical causality are left in order to refor- mulate the Quantum Theory starting from two principles: I) the intrinsic randomness of quantum process at microphysical level, II) the projective representations of sym- metries of the system. The second principle determines the geometry and then a new logic for describing the history of events (Feynman's paths) that modifies the rules of classical probabilistic calculus. The notion of classical trajectory is replaced by a history of spontaneous, random an discontinuous events. So the theory is reduced to determin- ing the probability distribution for such histories according with the symmetries of the system. The representation of the logic in terms of amplitudes leads to Feynman rules and, alternatively, its representation in terms of projectors results in the Schwinger trace formula.

Edgardo T. Garcia Alvarez

2010-11-22

324

Hydrogen molecule ion: Path-integral Monte Carlo approach

The path-integral Monte Carlo approach is used to study the coupled quantum dynamics of the electron and nuclei in hydrogen molecule ion. The coupling effects are demonstrated by comparing differences in adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer and nonadiabatic simulations, and inspecting projections of the full three-body dynamics onto the adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Coupling of the electron and nuclear quantum dynamics is clearly seen. The nuclear pair correlation function is found to broaden by 0.040a{sub 0}, and the average bond length is larger by 0.056a{sub 0}. Also, a nonadiabatic correction to the binding energy is found. The electronic distribution is affected less than the nuclear one upon inclusion of nonadiabatic effects.

Kylaenpaeae, I.; Leino, M.; Rantala, T. T. [Institute of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

2007-11-15

325

Methodology for Augmenting Existing Paths with Additional Parallel Transects

Visual Sample Plan (VSP) is sample planning software that is used, among other purposes, to plan transect sampling paths to detect areas that were potentially used for munition training. This module was developed for application on a large site where existing roads and trails were to be used as primary sampling paths. Gap areas between these primary paths needed to found and covered with parallel transect paths. These gap areas represent areas on the site that are more than a specified distance from a primary path. These added parallel paths needed to optionally be connected together into a single path—the shortest path possible. The paths also needed to optionally be attached to existing primary paths, again with the shortest possible path. Finally, the process must be repeatable and predictable so that the same inputs (primary paths, specified distance, and path options) will result in the same set of new paths every time. This methodology was developed to meet those specifications.

Wilson, John E.

2013-09-30

326

This paper addresses sensitivity analysis questions concerning the shortest path problem and the maximum capacity path problem in an undirected network. For both problems, we determine the maximum and minimum weights that ...

Ramaswamy, Ramkumar

2004-04-30

327

This paper addresses sensitivity analysis questions concerning the shortest path problem and the maximum capacity path problem in an undirected network. For both problems, we determine the maximum and ...

Ramaswamy, Ramkumar

2004-12-10

328

Finding Regular Simple Paths in Graph Databases

We consider the following problem: given a labelled directed graph and a regular expression , find all pairs of nodes connected by a simple path such that theconcatenation of the labels along the path satisfies . The problem is motivated by the observation that many recursive queries in relational databases can be expressed in this form, and by the implementation

Alberto O. Mendelzon; Peter T. Wood

1989-01-01

329

Collaborative path planning for a robotic wheelchair.

Generating a path to guide a wheelchair's motion faces two challenges. First, the path is located in the human environment and that is usually unstructured and dynamic. Thus, it is difficult to generate a reliable map and plan paths on it by artificial intelligence. Second, the wheelchair, whose task is to carry a human user, should move on a smooth and comfortable path adapted to the user's intentions. To meet these challenges, we propose that the human operator and the robot interact to create and gradually improve a guide path. This paper introduces design tools to enable an intuitive interaction, and reports experiments performed with healthy subjects in order to investigate this collaborative path learning strategy. We analyzed features of the optimal paths and user evaluation in representative conditions. This was complemented by a questionnaire filled out by the subjects after the experiments. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, and show the utility and complementarity of the tools to design ergonomic guide paths. PMID:19117192

Zeng, Qiang; Teo, Chee Leong; Rebsamen, Brice; Burdet, Etienne

2008-11-01

330

Career Path Guide for Adult Career Choices.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for adults who are considering career choices or changes, this booklet provides opportunities for self-study and reflection in six career paths. The booklet begins with tips for long-term career survival and myths and realities of career planning. After a brief career survey, readers are introduced to six career paths: arts and…

Case, Clydia

331

A Methodology for Intelligent Path Planning

In this work we present a methodology for intelligent path planning in an uncertain environment. Examples would include a mobile robot exploring an unknown terrain or a UAV navigating enemy territory while avoiding radar detection. We show that the problem of path planning in an uncertain environment, under certain assumptions, can be posed as the adaptive optimal control of an

Suman Chakravorty; John L. Junkins

2005-01-01

332

Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Path Finder

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive visual 'path finder' from the Concord Consortium allows users to explore the component pieces of the Next Generation Science Standards. After selecting the appropriate practices, core ideas, and crosscutting concepts, the path finder will suggest relevant resources from the Concord Consortium's collection.

The Concord Consortium

333

Plasma Facing Components (The Path to DEMO)

Plasma Facing Components (The Path to DEMO) Michael Ulrickson Presented at FESAC Development Path metals Â Helium gas is the prime candidate in the future Â· Heat sink designs Â For water swirl tapes, hypervapotron, screw tube, ... are all well established Â Porous metal heat sinks are in the initial stages

334

CALIFORNIA PATH PROGRAM INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORTATION STUDIES

CALIFORNIA PATH PROGRAM INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORTATION STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY This work was performed as part of the California PATH Program of the University of California, in cooperation with the State of California Business, Transportation, and Housing Agency, Department of Trans

Levinson, David M.

335

Asymmetric fluctuation relaxation paths in FPU models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent theory by Bertini, De Sole, Gabrielli, Jona-Lasinio and Landim predicts a temporal asymmetry in the fluctuation-relaxation paths of certain observables of nonequilibrium systems in local thermodynamic equilibrium. We find temporal asymmetries in the fluctuation-relaxation paths of a form of local heat flow, in the nonequilibrium FPU- ? model of Lepri, Livi and Politi.

Giberti, C.; Rondoni, L.; Vernia, C.

2006-06-01

336

Outdoor Path Labeling Using Polynomial Mahalanobis Distance

Autonomous robot navigation in outdoor environ- ments remains a challenging and unsolved problem. A key issue is our ability to identify safe or navigable paths far enough ahead of the robot to allow smooth trajectories at acceptable speeds. Colour or texture-based labeling of safe path regions in image sequences is one way to achieve this far field prediction. A challenge

Gregory Z. Grudic; Jane Mulligan

2006-01-01

337

Shortest viable path algorithm in multimodal networks

We consider an approach using label correcting techniques to find the shortest viable path from an origin to a destination, in a multimodal transportation network. A path is called viable if its sequence of modes is feasible with respect to a set of constraints. We present an ad hoc modification of the Chronological Algorithm to solve the multimodal shortest viable

Angelica Lozano; Giovanni Storchi

2001-01-01

338

Katrina'sPath Lake Pontchartrain

'sPath Katrina's Storm Surge #12;Now Scenario Hurricane Toufectis Â· Approaches from the ESE, traveling WNW Â· SSC to Katrina #12;Gotwals'Path Now Scenario Hurricane Gotwals Â· Katrina is as Katrina was Â· Storm track moved 4 Hurricane Horton Â· Katrina is as Katrina was Â· Adding roughly 10" sea level rise (25cm) Impacts Â· Similar

339

Adaptable Path Planning in Regionalized Environments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human path planning relies on several more aspects than only geometric distance between two locations. These additional aspects mostly relate to the complexity of the traveled path. Accordingly, in recent years several cognitively motivated path search algorithms have been developed that try to minimize wayfinding complexity. However, the calculated paths may result in large detours as geometric properties of the network wayfinding occurs in are ignored. Simply adding distance as an additional factor to the cost function is a possible, but insufficient way of dealing with this problem. Instead, taking a global view on an environment by accounting for the heterogeneity of its structure allows for adapting the path search strategy. This heterogeneity can be used to regionalize the environment; each emerging region may require a different strategy for path planning. This paper presents such an approach to regionalized path planning. It argues for the advantages of the chosen approach, develops a measure for calculating wayfinding complexity that accounts for structural and functional aspects of wayfinding, and states a generic algorithm for regionalization. Finally, regionalized path planning is demonstrated in a sample scenario.

Richter, Kai-Florian

340

ON LANDSCAPE FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSPORT PATHS

ON LANDSCAPE FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSPORT PATHS QINGLAN XIA Abstract. In this paper, we by Santambrogio in [10]. More precisely, we study landscape functions associated with a transport path be- tween for nonpositive p. We show an equivalence relation be- tween landscape functions associated with an -transport

Xia, Qinglan

341

Evaluation of Calcine Disposition Path Forward

This document describes an evaluation of the baseline and two alternative disposition paths for the final disposition of the calcine wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The pathways are evaluated against a prescribed set of criteria and a recommendation is made for the path forward.

Birrer, S.A.; Heiser, M.B.

2003-02-26

342

Evaluation of Calcine Disposition - Path Forward

This document describes an evaluation of the baseline and two alternative disposition paths for the final disposition of the calcine wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The pathways are evaluated against a prescribed set of criteria and a recommendation is made for the path forward.

Steve Birrer

2003-02-01

343

Adaptively Ubiquitous Learning in Campus Math Path

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study are to develop and evaluate the instructional model and learning system which integrate ubiquitous learning, computerized adaptive diagnostic testing system and campus math path learning. The researcher first creates a ubiquitous learning environment which is called "adaptive U-learning math path system". This system…

Shih, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Liu, Yu-Lung

2012-01-01

344

A Pilot Plant: The Fastest Path to

and then building Demo to produce net electricity may not be the fastest path. Consider construction of a device1/14 A Pilot Plant: The Fastest Path to Net Electricity from Fusion Fusion Power Associates Thirty seconds in 2028. The MFE Program Needs to Move Faster Implications Building a Component Test Facility

345

Perturbative Methods in Path Integration

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses a number of related questions concerning perturbative "path" integrals. Perturbative methods are one of the few successful ways physicists have worked with (or even defined) these infinite-dimensional integrals, and it is important as mathematicians to check that they are correct. Chapter 0 provides a detailed introduction. We take a classical approach to path integrals in Chapter 1. Following standard arguments, we posit a Feynman-diagrammatic description of the asymptotics of the time-evolution operator for the quantum mechanics of a charged particle moving nonrelativistically through a curved manifold under the influence of an external electromagnetic field. We check that our sum of Feynman diagrams has all desired properties: it is coordinate-independent and well-defined without ultraviolet divergences, it satisfies the correct composition law, and it satisfies Schrodinger's equation thought of as a boundary-value problem in PDE. Path integrals in quantum mechanics and elsewhere in quantum field theory are almost always of the shape ? f es for some functions f (the "observable") and s (the "action"). In Chapter 2 we step back to analyze integrals of this type more generally. Integration by parts provides algebraic relations between the values of ? (-) es for different inputs, which can be packaged into a Batalin--Vilkovisky-type chain complex. Using some simple homological perturbation theory, we study the version of this complex that arises when f and s are taken to be polynomial functions, and power series are banished. We find that in such cases, the entire scheme-theoretic critical locus (complex points included) of s plays an important role, and that one can uniformly (but noncanonically) integrate out in a purely algebraic way the contributions to the integral from all "higher modes," reducing ? f es to an integral over the critical locus. This may help explain the presence of analytic continuation in questions like the Volume Conjecture. We end with Chapter 3, in which the role of integration is somewhat obscured, but perturbation theory is prominent. The Batalin--Vilkovisky homological approach to integration illustrates that there are generalizations of the notion of "integral" analogous to the generalization from cotangent bundles to Poisson manifolds. The AKSZ construction of topological quantum field theories fits into this approach; in what is usually called "AKSZ theory," everything is still required to be symplectic. Using factorization algebras as a framework for (topological) quantum field theory, we construct a one-dimensional Poisson AKSZ field theory for any formal Poisson manifold M. Quantizations of our field theory correspond to formal star-products on M. By using a "universal'' formal Poisson manifold and abandoning configuration-space integrals in favor of other homological-perturbation techniques, we construct a universal formal star-product all of whose coefficients are manifestly rational numbers.

Johnson-Freyd, Theodore Paul

346

Converging towards the optimal path to extinction

Extinction appears ubiquitously in many fields, including chemical reactions, population biology, evolution and epidemiology. Even though extinction as a random process is a rare event, its occurrence is observed in large finite populations. Extinction occurs when fluctuations owing to random transitions act as an effective force that drives one or more components or species to vanish. Although there are many random paths to an extinct state, there is an optimal path that maximizes the probability to extinction. In this paper, we show that the optimal path is associated with the dynamical systems idea of having maximum sensitive dependence to initial conditions. Using the equivalence between the sensitive dependence and the path to extinction, we show that the dynamical systems picture of extinction evolves naturally towards the optimal path in several stochastic models of epidemics. PMID:21571943

Schwartz, Ira B.; Forgoston, Eric; Bianco, Simone; Shaw, Leah B.

2011-01-01

347

Shortest path and Schramm-Loewner Evolution

We numerically show that the statistical properties of the shortest path on critical percolation clusters are consistent with the ones predicted for Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) curves for ? = 1.04 ± 0.02. The shortest path results from a global optimization process. To identify it, one needs to explore an entire area. Establishing a relation with SLE permits to generate curves statistically equivalent to the shortest path from a Brownian motion. We numerically analyze the winding angle, the left passage probability, and the driving function of the shortest path and compare them to the distributions predicted for SLE curves with the same fractal dimension. The consistency with SLE opens the possibility of using a solid theoretical framework to describe the shortest path and it raises relevant questions regarding conformal invariance and domain Markov properties, which we also discuss. PMID:24975019

Posé, N.; Schrenk, K. J.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.

2014-01-01

348

On Path Decomposition Conjecture of Tibor Gallai

We settle the Path Decomposition Conjecture (P.D.C.) due to Tibor Gallai for minimally connected graphs, i.e. trees. We use this validity for trees and settle the P. D. C. using induction on the number of edges for all connected graphs. We then obtain a new bound for the number of paths in a path cover in terms of the number of edges using idea of associating a tree with a connected graph. We then make use of a spanning tree in the given connected graph and its associated basic path cover to settle the conjecture of Tibor Gallai in an alternative way. Finally, we show the existence of Hamiltonian path cover satisfying Gallai bound for complete graphs of even order and discuss some of its possible ramifications.

Dhananjay P. Mehendale

2011-06-02

349

Success of Path Dependence Through Perpetuation of Failure During Reform

The primary purpose of this paper is to extend current debates about path dependence and to contribute to scholarship by addressing inadequately researched aspects of path dependence: the role of individuals in sustaining long-standing 'inefficient' institutions; the balance of 'path following' and 'path violation'; and path dependent resource utilisation, not resource allocation. These matters are illustrated through and discussed in

E Kasabov

2010-01-01

350

Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

Mackler, Scott E.

2008-01-01

351

Decision paths in complex tasks

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.

Galanter, Eugene

1991-01-01

352

Path integral for inflationary perturbations

The quantum theory of cosmological perturbations in single-field inflation is formulated in terms of a path integral. Starting from a canonical formulation, we show how the free propagators can be obtained from the well-known gauge-invariant quadratic action for scalar and tensor perturbations, and determine the interactions to arbitrary order. This approach does not require the explicit solution of the energy and momentum constraints, a novel feature which simplifies the determination of the interaction vertices. The constraints and the necessary imposition of gauge conditions is reflected in the appearance of various commuting and anticommuting auxiliary fields in the action. These auxiliary fields are not propagating physical degrees of freedom but need to be included in internal lines and loops in a diagrammatic expansion. To illustrate the formalism we discuss the tree-level three-point and four-point functions of the inflaton perturbations, reproducing the results already obtained by the methods used in the current literature. Loop calculations are left for future work.

Prokopec, Tomislav [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands); Rigopoulos, Gerasimos [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

2010-07-15

353

We report on a detailed investigation of the crystal and electronic band structures and of the transport and thermodynamic properties of the Mo-based cluster compound Ag2Tl2Mo9Se11. This novel structure type crystallizes in the trigonal space group R3?c and is built of a three-dimensional network of interconnected Mo9Se11 units. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicates that the Ag and Tl atoms are distributed in the voids of the cluster framework, both of which show unusually large anisotropic thermal ellipsoids indicative of strong local disorder. First-principles calculations show a weakly dispersive band structure around the Fermi level as well as a semiconducting ground state. The former feature naturally explains the presence of both hole-like and electron-like signals observed in Hall effect. Of particular interest is the very low thermal conductivity that remains quasi-constant between 150 and 800 K at a value of approximately 0.6 W·m(-1)·K(-1). The lattice thermal conductivity is close to its minimum possible value, that is, in a regime where the phonon mean free path nears the mean interatomic distance. Such extremely low values likely originate from the disorder induced by the Ag and Tl atoms giving rise to strong anharmonicity of the lattice vibrations. The strongly limited ability of this compound to transport heat is the key feature that leads to a dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of 0.6 at 800 K. PMID:25338311

Al Rahal Al Orabi, Rabih; Gougeon, Patrick; Gall, Philippe; Fontaine, Bruno; Gautier, Régis; Colin, Malika; Candolfi, Christophe; Dauscher, Anne; Hejtmanek, Jiri; Malaman, Bernard; Lenoir, Bertrand

2014-11-01

354

Quantum Path Interference through Incoherent Motions in Multilevel Quantum Systems

Quantum path interferences or resonances in multilevel dissipative quantum systems play an important and intriguing role in the transport processes of nanoscale systems. Many previous minimalistic models used to describe the quantum path interference driven by incoherent fields are based on the approximations including the second order perturbation for the weak coupling limit, the ad-hoc choices of two-time correlation functions and $\\it{etc}$. On the other hand, the similar model to study the non-adiabatic molecular electronic excitation have been extensively developed and many efficient quantum molecular dynamics simulation schemes, such as the Ehrenfest scheme, have been proposed. In this paper, I aim to propose an unified model, extend the Ehrenfest scheme to study the interactions of system-light and system-phonon simultaneously and gain insight into and principles of the roles of quantum path interferences in the realistic molecular systems. I discuss how to derive the time-dependent stochastic Schr$\\ddot{o}$dinger equation from the Ehrenfest scheme as a foundation to discuss the detailed balance for the weak coupling limit and therefore the quantum correction in the Ehrenfest scheme. Different from the master equation technique, the Ehrenfest scheme doesn't need any specific assumptions about spectral densities and two time correlation functions. With simple open two-level and three-level quantum systems, I show the effect of the quantum path interference on the steady state populations. Currently I only focus on the role of the phonon thermal reservoir. The electromagnetic field (solar light) will be modeled as a thermal reservoir and discussed in detail in the future paper.

Xin Chen

2013-10-21

355

Path planning strategies for autonomous ground vehicles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several key issues involved with the planning and executing of optimally generated paths for autonomous vehicles are addressed. Two new path planning algorithms are developed, and examined, which effectively minimize replanning as unmapped hazards are encountered. The individual algorithms are compared via extensive simulation. The search strategy results are implemented and tested using the University of Colorado's autonomous vehicle test-bed, RoboCar, and results show the advantages of solving the single-destination all-paths problem for autonomous vehicle path planning. Both path planners implement a graph search methodology incorporating dynamic programming that solves the single-destination shortest-paths problem. Algorithm 1, termed DP for dynamic programming, searches a state space where each state represents a potential vehicle location in a breadth-first fashion expanding from the goal to all potential start locations in the state space. Algorithm 2, termed DP*, couples the heuristic search power of the well-known A* search procedure (Nilsson-80) with the dynamic programming principle applied to graph searching to efficiently make use of overlapping subproblems. DP* is the primary research contribution of the work contained within this thesis. The advantage of solving the single-destination shortest-paths problem is that the entire terrain map is solved in terms of reaching a specified goal. Therefore, if the robot is diverted from the pre-planned path, an alternative path is already computed. The search algorithms are extended to include a probabilistic approach using empirical loss functions to incorporate terrain map uncertainties into the path considering terrain planning process. The results show the importance of considering terrain uncertainty. If the map representation ignores uncertainty by marking any area with less than perfect confidence as unpassable or assigns it the worst case rating, then the paths are longer than intuitively necessary. A hierarchical software control architecture is introduced that uses as the main guidance function an arbitration-based scheme which is able to efficiently and robustly integrate disparate sensor data. The flexibility provided by such an architecture allows for very easy integration of any type of environmental sensing device into the path planning algorithm.

Gifford, Kevin Kent

356

Oriented paths in n-chromatic digraphs

In this thesis, we try to treat the problem of oriented paths in n-chromatic digraphs. We first treat the case of antidirected paths in 5-chromatic digraphs, where we explain El-Sahili's theorem and provide an elementary and shorter proof of it. We then treat the case of paths with two blocks in n-chromatic digraphs with n greater than 4, where we explain the two different approaches of Addario-Berry et al. and of El-Sahili. We indicate a mistake in Addario-Berry et al.'s proof and provide a correction for it.

Nasser, Rajai

2011-01-01

357

Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63?rad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75?m. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.

Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun

2013-05-01

358

The respiration rise in bulky storage organs induced by ethylene plus pure O2 is accompanied by an increase in the CN-resistant respiration, or alternative path. Whereas a lesser respiratory stimulation in response to ethylene is demonstrable in air and increased by peeling, ethylene-induced alternative path development depends on the synergistic effect of pure O2, with or without peeling. The effect of ethylene plus O2 is evident, whether untreated parent organs yield CN-sensitive or CN-resistant fresh slices. Alternative path capacity and maximal cytochrome oxidase-mediated electron transport have been separately estimated. Ethylene plus O2 selectively enhances the alternative path. It is proposed that the gross rise in respiration evoked by ethylene is implemented by a system with an O2 requirement much higher than that of cytochrome oxidase, while the ethylene-induced development of the alternative path depends on a system of still higher O2 requirement. PMID:16662340

Theologis, Athanasios; Laties, George G.

1982-01-01

359

We describe a new NIST database for the Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA). This database provides data for the many parameters needed in quantitative Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition, AES and XPS spectra can be simulated for layered samples. The simulated spectra, for layer compositions and thicknesses specified by the user, can be compared with measured spectra. The layer compositions and thicknesses can then be adjusted to find maximum consistency between simulated and measured spectra. In this way, AES and XPS can provide more detailed characterization of multilayer thin-film materials. We report on the use of SESSA for determining the thicknesses of HfO2, ZrO2, HfSiO4, and ZrSiO4 films on Si by angle-resolved XPS. Practical effective attenuation lengths (EALs) have been computed from SESSA as a function of film thickness and photoelectron emission angle (i.e., to simulate the effects of tilting the sample). These EALs have been compared with similar values obtained from the NIST Electron Effective-Attenuation-Length Database (SRD 82). Generally good agreement was found between corresponding EAL values, but there were differences for film thicknesses less than the inelastic mean free path of the photoelectrons in the overlayer film. These differences are due to a simplifying approximation in the algorithm used to compute EALs in SRD 82. SESSA, with realistic cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering in the film and substrate materials, is believed to provide more accurate EALs than SRD 82 for thin-film thickness measurements, particularly in applications where the film and substrate have different electron-scattering properties.

Powell, C.J. [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8370 (United States); Smekal, W.; Werner, W.S.M. [Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

2005-09-09

360

Polynomial Sequences of Binomial Type Path Integrals

Polynomial sequences $ p_n (x) $ of binomial type are a principal tool in the umbral calculus of enumerative combinatorics. We express $ \\\\mathbb{N} \\\\times [-\\\\pi, \\\\pi] $ as a path integral in the \\

Vladimir V. Kisil

2002-01-01

361

Identifying decohering paths in closed quantum systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A specific proposal is discussed for how to identify decohering paths in a wavefunction of the universe. The emphasis is on determining the correlations among subsystems and then considering how these correlations evolve. The proposal is similar to earlier ideas of Schroedinger and of Zeh, but in other ways it is closer to the decoherence functional of Griffiths, Omnes, and Gell-Mann and Hartle. There are interesting differences with each of these which are discussed. Once a given coarse-graining is chosen, the candidate paths are fixed in this scheme, and a single well defined number measures the degree of decoherence for each path. The normal probability sum rules are exactly obeyed (instantaneously) by these paths regardless of the level of decoherence. Also briefly discussed is how one might quantify some other aspects of classicality. The important role that concrete calculations play in testing this and other proposals is stressed.

Albrecht, Andreas

1990-01-01

362

How Do Paths Look From Different Perspectives?

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using both literature (a book featuring a path, such as Little Red Riding Hood) and satellite images, students will identify paths, observe and analyze them from different altitudes, and distinguish natural paths from those made by humans. Students will learn how images can inform the building, use and maintenance of paths. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. This is Investigation 2 of four found in the Grades K-4 Module 4 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the four investigations in Module 4, while related, can be done independently. Please see Investigation 1 of this module for a two-page module overview and list of all standards addressed.

363

Approximate Shortest Path Queries Using Voronoi Duals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an approximation method to answer point-to-point shortest path queries in undirected edge-weighted graphs, based on random sampling and Voronoi duals. We compute a simplification of the graph by selecting nodes independently at random with probability p. Edges are generated as the Voronoi dual of the original graph, using the selected nodes as Voronoi sites. This overlay graph allows for fast computation of approximate shortest paths for general, undirected graphs. The time-quality tradeoff decision can be made at query time. We provide bounds on the approximation ratio of the path lengths as well as experimental results. The theoretical worst-case approximation ratio is bounded by a logarithmic factor. Experiments show that our approximation method based on Voronoi duals has extremely fast preprocessing time and efficiently computes reasonably short paths.

Honiden, Shinichi; Houle, Michael E.; Sommer, Christian; Wolff, Martin

364

An Alternate Path To Stoichiometric Problem Solving.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an alternate path to teaching introductory stoichiometry based on research findings. The recommendation is to use problems that can be solved easily by rapid mental calculation as well as by pure logic. (AIM)

Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

1997-01-01

365

Path integration in relativistic quantum mechanics

The simple physics of a free particle reveals important features of the path-integral formulation of relativistic quantum theories. The exact quantum-mechanical propagator is calculated here for a particle described by the simple relativistic action proportional to its proper time. This propagator is nonvanishing outside the light cone, implying that spacelike trajectories must be included in the path integral. The propagator matches the WKB approximation to the corresponding configuration-space path integral far from the light cone; outside the light cone that approximation consists of the contribution from a single spacelike geodesic. This propagator also has the unusual property that its short-time limit does not coincide with the WKB approximation, making the construction of a concrete skeletonized version of the path integral more complicated than in nonrelativistic theory.

Ian H. Redmount; Wai-Mo Suen

1992-10-28

366

Riemann Curvature Tensor and Closed Geodesic Paths

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates erroneous results obtained if change in a vector under parallel transport about a closed path in Riemannian spacetime is made in a complete circuit rather than just half a circuit. (Author/SL)

Morganstern, Ralph E.

1977-01-01

367

Nonclassical paths in quantum interference experiments.

In a double slit interference experiment, the wave function at the screen with both slits open is not exactly equal to the sum of the wave functions with the slits individually open one at a time. The three scenarios represent three different boundary conditions and as such, the superposition principle should not be applicable. However, most well-known text books in quantum mechanics implicitly and/or explicitly use this assumption that is only approximately true. In our present study, we have used the Feynman path integral formalism to quantify contributions from nonclassical paths in quantum interference experiments that provide a measurable deviation from a naive application of the superposition principle. A direct experimental demonstration for the existence of these nonclassical paths is difficult to present. We find that contributions from such paths can be significant and we propose simple three-slit interference experiments to directly confirm their existence. PMID:25279612

Sawant, Rahul; Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Aninda; Sinha, Supurna; Sinha, Urbasi

2014-09-19

368

Floats, Integers, and Single Source Shortest Paths

Floats are ugly, but to everyone but theoretical computer scientists, they are the real thing. A linear time algorithm is presented for the undirected single-source shortest paths problem with nonnegative floating point weights.

Mikkel Thorup

2000-01-01

369

PATH-RELINKING INTENSIFICATION METHODS FOR ...

Apr 1, 2010 ... In the case of the classical traveling salesman problem, the ground set E is that of all edges connecting ... words and phrases. Path-relinking, metaheuristics, hybrid metaheurisics. ...... Transmission network design by a greedy ...

user

370

A chemist building paths to cell biology.

Galileo is reported to have stated, "Measure what is measurable and make measurable what is not so." My group's trajectory in cell biology has closely followed this philosophy, although it took some searching to find this path. PMID:24174456

Weibel, Douglas B

2013-11-01

371

Predicting missing links via effective paths

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, in complex network, link prediction has brought a surge of researches, among which similarity based link prediction outstandingly gains considerable success, especially similarity in terms of paths. In investigation of paths based similarity, we find that the effective influence of endpoints and strong connectivity make paths contribute more similarity between two unconnected endpoints, leading to a more accurate link prediction. Accordingly, we propose a so-called effective path index (EP) in this paper to leverage effective influence of endpoints and strong connectivity in similarity calculation. For demonstrating excellence of our index, the comparisons with six mainstream indices are performed on experiments in 15 real datasets and results show a great improvement of performance via our index.

Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shimin

2014-11-01

372

A chemist building paths to cell biology

Galileo is reported to have stated, “Measure what is measurable and make measurable what is not so.” My group's trajectory in cell biology has closely followed this philosophy, although it took some searching to find this path. PMID:24174456

Weibel, Douglas B.

2013-01-01

373

Balancing minimum spanning and shortest path trees

This paper give a simple linear-time algorithm that, given a weighted\\u000adigraph, finds a spanning tree that simultaneously approximates a shortest-path\\u000atree and a minimum spanning tree. The algorithm provides a continuous\\u000atrade-off: given the two trees and epsilon > 0, the algorithm returns a\\u000aspanning tree in which the distance between any vertex and the root of the\\u000ashortest-path

Samir Khuller; Balaji Raghavacharit; Neal E. Young

1993-01-01

374

Paths and stability number in digraphs

The Gallai-Milgram theorem says that the vertex set of any digraph with stability number k can be partitioned into k directed paths. In 1990, Hahn and Jackson conjectured that this theorem is best possible in the following strong sense. For each positive integer k, there is a digraph D with stability number k such that deleting the vertices of any k-1 directed paths in D leaves a digraph with stability number k. In this note, we prove this conjecture.

Fox, Jacob

2009-01-01

375

The prediction of radio-path characteristics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper examines algorithms for the long-term prediction of radio-path characteristics in the ionosphere, the main characteristic being the MUF at a given distance. The proposed approach is based on long-term memories called DATA BANKS. Attention is given to the characteritics of the various banks, including the BANK OF CITIES, the BANK OF RADIO PATHS, the REFERENCE DATA BANK, and the OUTPUT DATA BANK.

Gitina, G. M.; Kalinin, Iu. K.

376

Competition for Shortest Paths on Sparse Graphs

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal paths connecting randomly selected network nodes and fixed routers are studied analytically in the presence of a nonlinear overlap cost that penalizes congestion. Routing becomes more difficult as the number of selected nodes increases and exhibits ergodicity breaking in the case of multiple routers. The ground state of such systems reveals nonmonotonic complex behaviors in average path length and algorithmic convergence, depending on the network topology, and densities of communicating nodes and routers. A distributed linearly scalable routing algorithm is also devised.

Yeung, Chi Ho; Saad, David

2012-05-01

377

A Path Algorithm for Constrained Estimation

Many least-square problems involve affine equality and inequality constraints. Although there are a variety of methods for solving such problems, most statisticians find constrained estimation challenging. The current article proposes a new path-following algorithm for quadratic programming that replaces hard constraints by what are called exact penalties. Similar penalties arise in l1 regularization in model selection. In the regularization setting, penalties encapsulate prior knowledge, and penalized parameter estimates represent a trade-off between the observed data and the prior knowledge. Classical penalty methods of optimization, such as the quadratic penalty method, solve a sequence of unconstrained problems that put greater and greater stress on meeting the constraints. In the limit as the penalty constant tends to ?, one recovers the constrained solution. In the exact penalty method, squared penalties!are replaced by absolute value penalties, and the solution is recovered for a finite value of the penalty constant. The exact path-following method starts at the unconstrained solution and follows the solution path as the penalty constant increases. In the process, the solution path hits, slides along, and exits from the various constraints. Path following in Lasso penalized regression, in contrast, starts with a large value of the penalty constant and works its way downward. In both settings, inspection of the entire solution path is revealing. Just as with the Lasso and generalized Lasso, it is possible to plot the effective degrees of freedom along the solution path. For a strictly convex quadratic program, the exact penalty algorithm can be framed entirely in terms of the sweep operator of regression analysis. A few well-chosen examples illustrate the mechanics and potential of path following. This article has supplementary materials available online. PMID:24039382

Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

2013-01-01

378

Path integral approach on Schrodinger's cat

From the following thought experiments, it is demonstrated that the collapse of wave function of an isolated system is possible without external observer. It will be shown that the analysis by Feynman path integral method supports this conclusion. The argument is based on two assumptions: 1. The condition of Schrodinger's cat experiment 2. Feynman path integral; This could explain Schrodinger's cat paradox and its implication on the black hole information paradox will be discussed.

Zinkoo Yun

2014-01-24

379

HomePath: Your On-Line Path to a Home of Your Own

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether you're thinking about if you're ready to buy a home, are in the process of buying a home, or are considering refinancing your current home, there's information for you on Fannie Mae's newest website. Fannie Mae is America's largest source of home mortgage funds, and has designed HomePath to be "your on-line path to a home of your own." There are three different paths through the information on the website: HomeStarterPath has resources for people deciding whether home ownership is right for them, including a comparison of renting vs. buying and a calculator for estimating how much house one can afford to buy; HomePurchasePath offers services for people who are ready to buy, including mortgage application information and how to shop for a lender; HomeRefinancePath helps homeowners determine when refinancing is beneficial, and outlines the costs involved.

380

Computing Diffeomorphic Paths for Large Motion Interpolation.

In this paper, we introduce a novel framework for computing a path of diffeomorphisms between a pair of input diffeomorphisms. Direct computation of a geodesic path on the space of diffeomorphisms Diff(?) is difficult, and it can be attributed mainly to the infinite dimensionality of Diff(?). Our proposed framework, to some degree, bypasses this difficulty using the quotient map of Diff(?) to the quotient space Diff(M)/Diff(M) ? obtained by quotienting out the subgroup of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms Diff(M) ? . This quotient space was recently identified as the unit sphere in a Hilbert space in mathematics literature, a space with well-known geometric properties. Our framework leverages this recent result by computing the diffeomorphic path in two stages. First, we project the given diffeomorphism pair onto this sphere and then compute the geodesic path between these projected points. Second, we lift the geodesic on the sphere back to the space of diffeomerphisms, by solving a quadratic programming problem with bilinear constraints using the augmented Lagrangian technique with penalty terms. In this way, we can estimate the path of diffeomorphisms, first, staying in the space of diffeomorphisms, and second, preserving shapes/volumes in the deformed images along the path as much as possible. We have applied our framework to interpolate intermediate frames of frame-sub-sampled video sequences. In the reported experiments, our approach compares favorably with the popular Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping framework (LDDMM). PMID:25364222

Seo, Dohyung; Jeffrey, Ho; Vemuri, Baba C

2013-06-01

381

A Shortest Path Based Path Planning Algorithm for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots

A path planning algorithm for a mobile robot subject to nonholonomic constraints is presented. The algorithmemploys a global- local strategy, and solves the problem in the 2D workspace of the robot, without generating the complexconfiguration space. Firstly, a visibility graph is constructed for finding a collision-free shortest path for a point. Secondly,the path for a point is evaluated to find

Kaichun Jiang; Lakmal D. Seneviratne; S. W. E. Earles

1999-01-01

382

Bonded Paths and van der Waals Interactions in Orpiment, As2S3

Bond critical properties and bond paths have been calculated for the thioarsenide molecular crystal orpiment, As2S3. In addition to the intramolecular As-S bond paths and van der Waals As-S and S-S bond paths within the layers, intermolecular S-S, As-S and As-As van der Waals paths exist between the layers. The S-S bond paths between the layers are identified with the main interlayer restoring forces responsible for the vibrational internal-mode splitting and the low frequency rigid layer modes previously documented in infrared and Raman studies of orpiment. These S-S bond paths are comparable with those calculated for orthorhombic native sulfur and the As4Sn (n = 3,4,5) molecules for several arsenide molecular crystals. The As-S bond paths show that the two nonequivalent arsenic atoms are each coordinated by a highly distorted octahedral array of sulfur atoms. The octahedra consist of three As-S intramolecular bonded interactions and three longer van der Waals interactions (two intramolecular and one intermolecular). One of the arsenic atoms is also coordinated by an arsenic atom in an interlayer As-As bonded interaction. Laplacian isosurface envelopes calculated for the arsenic and sulfur atoms are comparable with those calculated for native arsenic and orthorhombic sulfur. The intermolecular As-S bond paths connect Lewis acid domains on arsenic and an Lewis base domains on sulfur. Van der Waals interactions are traditionally defined as attractive interactions other than those ascribed to bond formation. However, theoretical evidence and arguments, as well as the connection between the bond paths and the vibrational spectra, indicate that the van der Waals interactions in orpiment are directed bonded interactions in the Slater sense. The experimental bond lengths for the As-S and S-S bonded interactions decrease nonlinearly with the increasing value of the electron density at the bond critical point, concomitant with a decrease in the bonded radii of arsenic and sulfur. On the basis of the local energy density, the intramolecular As-S bonded interactions classify as shared interactions and the intramolecular and intermolecular As-S and S-S bonded interactions and the intermolecular As-As van der Waals interactions classify as closed-shell interactions. The so called planar lone electron pair micelle picture for orpiment is spanned by bond paths, substantiating the claim that the layers in the orpiment structure are linked by weak van der Waals bonded interactions.

Gibbs, Gerald V.; Wallace, Adam F.; Zallen, Richard; Downs, R. T.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2010-06-17

383

Reactive path integral quantum simulations of molecules solvated in superfluid helium

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid ab initio path integral molecular dynamics/bosonic path integral Monte Carlo simulation method has been developed, implemented and tested, which allows for the reactive simulations of molecules, clusters or complexes solvated by superfluid 4He. The simulation takes into account “on-the-fly” the electronic structure and thus the chemical reactivity of the solutes, in conjunction with the Bose-Einstein statistics, and thus the superfluid character of this peculiar solvent. This enables investigations into cryochemical reactions taking place in helium nanodroplets, such as those used in helium nanodroplet isolation (HENDI) spectroscopy.

Walewski, ?ukasz; Forbert, Harald; Marx, Dominik

2014-03-01

384

High-order path-integral Monte Carlo methods for solving quantum dot problems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional second-order path-integral Monte Carlo method is plagued with the sign problem in solving many-fermion systems. This is due to the large number of antisymmetric free-fermion propagators that are needed to extract the ground state wave function at large imaginary time. In this work we show that optimized fourth-order path-integral Monte Carlo methods, which use no more than five free-fermion propagators, can yield accurate quantum dot energies for up to 20 polarized electrons with the use of the Hamiltonian energy estimator.

Chin, Siu A.

2015-03-01

385

INVERSES OF MOTZKIN AND SCHRDER PATHS Heinrich Niederhausen

the paths inside a horizontal band, and for the inverse Schröder matrix we look at the paths inside the same band, but ending on the top side of the band. 1. Introduction A Motzkin paths takes steps or Motzkin paths are at the heart of your problem, and will help to solve it. Here we show that the paradigm

Niederhausen, Heinrich

386

Finding Smallest Paths in Rectilinear Polygons on a Hypercube Multiprocessor

Finding Smallest Paths in Rectilinear Polygons on a Hypercube Multiprocessor Afonso Ferreira techniques for designing geometric algorithms for the (sharedÂmemory) PRAM model of parallel computation (e that is simultaneously a shortest path with respect to the L 1 metric, and a straightest path (i.e., minimum link path

Zhang, Richard "Hao"

387

Off-axis paths in spherical mirror interferometers

vO = 24r, and g being integers, the rays retrace their paths. These ray paths give rise to additional resonances which were observed. Pictures of the points of reflection are reproduced. The theory is in good agreement with the experi- mental observations. In laser amplifiers these ray paths enable one to obtain long effective path lengths in the active medium

D. Herriott; H. Kogelnik; R. Kompfner

1964-01-01

388

Diagnosis for Covariance Structure Models by Analyzing the Path

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a covariance structure model is misspecified, parameter estimates will be affected. It is important to know which estimates are systematically affected and which are not. The approach of analyzing the path is both intuitive and informative for such a purpose. Different from path analysis, analyzing the path uses path tracing and elementary…

Yuan, Ke-Hai; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Kelley, Ken

2008-01-01

389

Discrete Approximation to Continuous Anisotropic Shortest-Path Problem

Probability that some UAV will be detected along path on time interval [0, T]: Probability of jth UAV being-Risk Path Planning for Groups of UAVs James Riehl JoÃ£o Hespanha INFORMS Meeting November 6, 2007 #12;start point ? Cost may depend on Â· duration of path Â· fuel consumed along path Â· probability of detection

Hespanha, JoÃ£o Pedro

390

Exploring Career Paths. A Guide for Students and Their Families.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This five-section guide is designed to help students and their parents explore career paths. The first part of the guide is an introduction to the concept of career paths and an explanation of the steps students follow in exploring career paths. The second section, which makes up most of the booklet, covers five steps for exploring career paths:…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

391

Theory of extreme correlations using canonical Fermions and path integrals

The t–J model is studied using a novel and rigorous mapping of the Gutzwiller projected electrons, in terms of canonical electrons. The mapping has considerable similarity to the Dyson–Maleev transformation relating spin operators to canonical Bosons. This representation gives rise to a non Hermitian quantum theory, characterized by minimal redundancies. A path integral representation of the canonical theory is given. Using it, the salient results of the extremely correlated Fermi liquid (ECFL) theory, including the previously found Schwinger equations of motion, are easily rederived. Further, a transparent physical interpretation of the previously introduced auxiliary Greens function and the ‘caparison factor’, is obtained. The low energy electron spectral function in this theory, with a strong intrinsic asymmetry, is summarized in terms of a few expansion coefficients. These include an important emergent energy scale ?{sub 0} that shrinks to zero on approaching the insulating state, thereby making it difficult to access the underlying very low energy Fermi liquid behavior. The scaled low frequency ECFL spectral function, related simply to the Fano line shape, has a peculiar energy dependence unlike that of a Lorentzian. The resulting energy dispersion obtained by maximization is a hybrid of a massive and a massless Dirac spectrum E{sub Q}{sup ?}??Q??(?{sub 0}{sup 2}+Q{sup 2}), where the vanishing of Q, a momentum type variable, locates the kink minimum. Therefore the quasiparticle velocity interpolates between (??1) over a width ?{sub 0} on the two sides of Q=0, implying a kink there that strongly resembles a prominent low energy feature seen in angle resolved photoemission spectra (ARPES) of cuprate materials. We also propose novel ways of analyzing the ARPES data to isolate the predicted asymmetry between particle and hole excitations. -- Highlights: •Spectral function of the Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquid theory at low energy. •Electronic origin of low energy kinks in energy dispersion. •Non Hermitian representation of Gutzwiller projected electrons. •Analogy with Dyson–Maleev representation of spins. •Path integral formulation of extremely correlated electrons.

Shastry, B. Sriram, E-mail: sriram@physics.ucsc.edu

2014-04-15

392

The formal path integral and quantum mechanics

Given an arbitrary Lagrangian function on R{sup d} and a choice of classical path, one can try to define Feynman's path integral supported near the classical path as a formal power series parameterized by 'Feynman diagrams', although these diagrams may diverge. We compute this expansion and show that it is (formally, if there are ultraviolet divergences) invariant under volume-preserving changes of coordinates. We prove that if the ultraviolet divergences cancel at each order, then our formal path integral satisfies a 'Fubini theorem' expressing the standard composition law for the time evolution operator in quantum mechanics. Moreover, we show that when the Lagrangian is inhomogeneous quadratic in velocity such that its homogeneous-quadratic part is given by a matrix with constant determinant, then the divergences cancel at each order. Thus, by 'cutting and pasting' and choosing volume-compatible local coordinates, our construction defines a Feynman-diagrammatic 'formal path integral' for the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of a charged particle moving in a Riemannian manifold with an external electromagnetic field.

Johnson-Freyd, Theo [Department of Mathematics, University of California - Berkeley, 970 Evans Hall, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2010-11-15

393

Fermionic path integrals and local anomalies

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No doubt, the subject of path integrals proved to be an immensely fruitful human, i.e. Feynman's idea. No wonder it is more timely than ever. Some even claim that it is the most daring, innovative and revolutionary idea since the days of Heisenberg and Bohr. It is thus likely to generate enthusiasm, if not addiction among physicists who seek simplicity together with perfection. Professor Devreese's long-lasting interest in, if not passion on the subject stems from his firm conviction that, beyond being the tool of choice, path integration provides the key to all quantum phenomena, be it in solid state, atomic, molecular or particle physics as evidenced by the impressive list of publications at the address http://lib.ua.ac.be/AB/a867.html. In this note, I review a pitfall of fermionic path integrals and a way to get around it in situations relevant to the Standard Model of particle physics.

Roepstorff, G.

2003-05-01

394

Molecular path control in zeolite membranes

We report molecular simulations of diffusion in confinement showing a phenomenon that we denote as molecular path control (MPC); depending on loading, molecules follow a preferred pathway. MPC raises the important question to which extent the loading may affect the molecular trajectories in nanoporous materials. Through MPC one is able to manually adjust the ratio of the diffusivities through different types of pores, and as an application one can direct the flow of diffusing particles in membranes forward or sideward by simply adjusting the pressure, without the need for mechanical parts like valves. We show that the key ingredient of MPC is the anisotropic nature of the nanoporous material that results in a complex interplay between different diffusion paths as a function of loading. These paths may be controlled by changing the loading, either through a change in pressure or temperature. PMID:16109769

Dubbeldam, D.; Beerdsen, E.; Calero, S.; Smit, B.

2005-01-01

395

A taxonomy of integral reaction path analysis

W. C. Gardiner observed that achieving understanding through combustion modeling is limited by the ability to recognize the implications of what has been computed and to draw conclusions about the elementary steps underlying the reaction mechanism. This difficulty can be overcome in part by making better use of reaction path analysis in the context of multidimensional flame simulations. Following a survey of current practice, an integral reaction flux is formulated in terms of conserved scalars that can be calculated in a fully automated way. Conditional analyses are then introduced, and a taxonomy for bidirectional path analysis is explored. Many examples illustrate the resulting path analysis and uncover some new results about nonpremixed methane-air laminar jets.

Grcar, Joseph F.; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.

2004-12-23

396

Piecewise Linear Paths Among Convex Obstacles

Let ? be a set ofn arbitrary (possibly intersecting) convex obstacles in ?\\u000a d\\u000a . It is shown that any two points which can be connected by a path avoiding the obstacles can also be connected by a path\\u000a consisting ofO(n\\u000a (d?1)[d\\/2+1]) segments. The bound cannot be improved below ?(n\\u000a \\u000a d\\u000a ); thus, in ?3, the answer is betweenn\\u000a 3

Mark De Berg; Jirí Matousek; Otfried Schwarzkopf

1995-01-01

397

Path Factorization Approach to Stochastic Simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computational efficiency of stochastic simulation algorithms is notoriously limited by the kinetic trapping of the simulated trajectories within low energy basins. Here we present a new method that overcomes kinetic trapping while still preserving exact statistics of escape paths from the trapping basins. The method is based on path factorization of the evolution operator and requires no prior knowledge of the underlying energy landscape. The efficiency of the new method is demonstrated in simulations of anomalous diffusion and phase separation in a binary alloy, two stochastic models presenting severe kinetic trapping.

Athènes, Manuel; Bulatov, Vasily V.

2014-12-01

398

Path planning for everday robotics with SANDROS

We discuss the integration of the SANDROS path planner into a general robot simulation and control package with the inclusion of a fast geometry engine for distance calculations. This creates a single system that allows the path to be computed, simulated, and then executed on the physical robot. The architecture and usage procedures are presented. Also, we present examples of its usage in typical environments found in our organization. The resulting system is as easy to use as the general simulation system (which is in common use here) and is fast enough (example problems are solved in seconds) to be used interactively on an everyday basis.

Watterberg, P.; Xavier, P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hwang, Y. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1997-02-01

399

Connections on decorated path space bundles

For a principal bundle $P\\to M$ equipped with a connection ${\\bar A}$, we study an infinite dimensional bundle ${\\mathcal P}^{\\rm dec}_{\\bar A}P$ over the space of paths on $M$, with the points of ${\\mathcal P}^{\\rm dec}_{\\bar A}P$ being horizontal paths on $P$ decorated with elements of a second structure group. We construct parallel transport processes on such bundles and study holonomy bundles in this setting. We explain the relationship with categorical geometry and explore the notion of categorical connections on categorical principal bundles in a concrete differential geometric way.

Saikat Chatterjee; Amitabha Lahiri; Ambar N. Sengupta

2015-02-11

400

A high performance magnetorheological valve with a meandering flow path

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The huge developments in the field of magnetorheological (MR) fluid-based devices will have a great influence on the future of mechatronic applications due to the ease of interfacing between electronic controls and the mechanical components that they provide. Among various MR fluid-based devices, an MR valve would be particularly significant for the development of other devices, if it could be successfully achieved. One of the most challenging obstacles to MR valve development is the difficulty of achieving device miniaturization while, at the same time, improving the achievable performance. This study demonstrates a novel design for an MR valve, using the meandering flow path approach in order to increase the effective area so that the MR fluid can be regulated within a small-sized valve. The meandering flow path is formed by combining multiple annular, radial and orifice flow channels. In order to analyze the valve performance, a mathematical model of the proposed MR valve is derived and combined with numerical simulation using the finite element method, with the intention of predicting the achievable pressure drop that can be generated by the valve. The predicted MR valve performances are then experimentally evaluated using an oscillation-disturbed bypass hydraulic cylinder. The simulation results show that the proposed MR valve design could yield substantial pressure drop improvement, which is confirmed by the experiment.

Imaduddin, Fitrian; Amri Mazlan, Saiful; Rahman, Mohd Azizi Abdul; Zamzuri, Hairi; Ubaidillah; Ichwan, Burhanuddin

2014-06-01

401

EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF SHIELDING EQUATIONS

S>Building factors for iron shields, lead shields, and laminated iron-; lead shields (1.7 mean free paths of lead and 1 to 3 mean free paths of iron per ; lamination) were determined for shield thicknesses up to 6.8 mean free paths of ; lead, 8.7 mean free paths of iron, and 9.2 mean free paths of laminated shielding. ; A

C. L. Kusik; T. R. Jaworowski; D. C. Morse; D. G. Strawson

1957-01-01

402

Common path point diffraction interferometer using liquid crystal phase shifting

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A common path point diffraction interferometer uses dyed, parallel nematic liquid crystals which surround an optically transparent microsphere. Coherent, collimated and polarized light is focused on the microsphere at a diameter larger than that of the microsphere. A portion of the focused light passes through the microsphere to form a spherical wavefront reference beam and the rest of the light is attenuated by the dyed liquid crystals to form an object beam. The two beams form an interferogram which is imaged by a lens onto an electronic array sensor and into a computer which determines the wavefront of the object beam. The computer phase shifts the interferogram by stepping up an AC voltage applied across the liquid crystals without affecting the reference beam.

Mercer, Carolyn R. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

403

Common-path interference and oscillatory Zener tunneling in bilayer graphene p-n junctions

Interference and tunneling are two signature quantum effects that are often perceived as the yin and yang of quantum mechanics: a particle simultaneously propagating along several distinct classical paths versus a particle penetrating through a classically inaccessible region via a single least-action path. Here we demonstrate that the Dirac quasiparticles in graphene provide a dramatic departure from this paradigm. We show that Zener tunneling in gapped bilayer graphene, which governs transport through p-n heterojunctions, exhibits common-path interference that takes place under the tunnel barrier. Due to a symmetry peculiar to the gapped bilayer graphene bandstructure, interfering tunneling paths form conjugate pairs, giving rise to high-contrast oscillations in transmission as a function of the gate-tunable bandgap and other control parameters of the junction. The common-path interference is solely due to forward-propagating waves; in contrast to Fabry–Pérot-type interference in resonant-tunneling structures, it does not rely on multiple backscattering. The oscillations manifest themselves in the junction I–V characteristic as N-shaped branches with negative differential conductivity. The negative dI/dV, which arises solely due to under-barrier interference, can enable new high-speed active-circuit devices with architectures that are not available in electronic semiconductor devices. PMID:21825159

Nandkishore, Rahul; Levitov, Leonid

2011-01-01

404

Path Integral Monte Carlo Calculation of Interatomic Forces

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of electronic forces with quantum Monte Carlo has, for many years, been an outstanding problem. One can calculate interatomic forces with Path Integral Monte Carlo(PIMC) as the coordinate derivatives of the partition function. Advantages of using PIMC are that effects of thermal electronic excitations and correlations are included, no trial functions are involved and the force estimator is local. We have calculated the classical forces of small molecular systems such as H_2, H_3^+ and H3 determined the bond lengths of H2 and H_3^+, and the saddle point position of the reaction H+H2 --> H_2+H. All are in very good agreement with previous zero temperature calculations. We are applying this method to study the hydrogen-hydrogen interaction in an electron gas as a simple model of hydrogen impurities in metals. Previous LDA calculations are accurate when the H2 molecular binding is dominant but the accuracy is unclear when bound states form at lower density.

Zong, Fenghua; Ceperley, David

1997-03-01

405

The Path to Disaster The Deepwater Horizon

21/08/2013 1 The Path to Disaster The Deepwater Horizon BP's disaster in the Gulf of Mexico Professor Patrick Hudson & Tim Hudson Hudson Global Consulting 4th Annual Plexus Industrial Safety Lecture Industrial Psychology Research Centre 14th August, 2013 Transocean Deepwater Horizon #12;21/08/2013 2

Pym, David J.

406

Path integral quantization of parametrized field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free scalar field theory on a flat spacetime can be cast into a generally covariant form known as parametrized field theory in which the action is a functional of the scalar field as well as the embedding variables which describe arbitrary, in general curved, foliations of the flat spacetime. We construct the path integral quantization of parametrized field theory in order to analyze issues at the interface of quantum field theory and general covariance in a path integral context. We show that the measure in the Lorentzian path integral is nontrivial and is the analog of the Fradkin-Vilkovisky measure for quantum gravity. We construct Euclidean functional integrals in the generally covariant setting of parametrized field theory using key ideas of Schleich and show that our constructions imply the existence of nonstandard “Wick rotations” of the standard free scalar field two-point function. We develop a framework to study the problem of time through computations of scalar field two-point functions. We illustrate our ideas through explicit computation for a time independent (1+1)-dimensional foliation. Although the problem of time seems to be absent in this simple example, the general case is still open. We discuss our results in the contexts of the path integral formulation of quantum gravity and the canonical quantization of parametrized field theory.

Varadarajan, Madhavan

2004-10-01

407

Stochastic Evolutionary Algorithms for Planning Robot Paths

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program implements stochastic evolutionary algorithms for planning and optimizing collision-free paths for robots and their jointed limbs. Stochastic evolutionary algorithms can be made to produce acceptably close approximations to exact, optimal solutions for path-planning problems while often demanding much less computation than do exhaustive-search and deterministic inverse-kinematics algorithms that have been used previously for this purpose. Hence, the present software is better suited for application aboard robots having limited computing capabilities (see figure). The stochastic aspect lies in the use of simulated annealing to (1) prevent trapping of an optimization algorithm in local minima of an energy-like error measure by which the fitness of a trial solution is evaluated while (2) ensuring that the entire multidimensional configuration and parameter space of the path-planning problem is sampled efficiently with respect to both robot joint angles and computation time. Simulated annealing is an established technique for avoiding local minima in multidimensional optimization problems, but has not, until now, been applied to planning collision-free robot paths by use of low-power computers.

Fink, Wolfgang; Aghazarian, Hrand; Huntsberger, Terrance; Terrile, Richard

2006-01-01

408

Path Integration in the Field of Dispiration

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Path integration is carried out for the bound states of a particle in the combined field of a wedge disclination and a screw dislocation. The energy spectrum extracted from the Feynman kernel differs from that obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation.

Inomata, A.

2008-11-01

409

Learning to improve path planning performance

In robotics, path planning refers to finding a short. collision-free path from an initial robot configuration to a desired configuratioin. It has to be fast to support real-time task-level robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To remedy this situation, we present and analyze a learning algorithm that uses past experience to increase future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a speedup-learning framework in which a slow but capable planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less capable planner coupled with experience. The basic algorithm is suitable for stationary environments, and can be extended to accommodate changing environments with on-demand experience repair and object-attached experience abstraction. To analyze the algorithm, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior, and confirm our theoretical results with experiments in path planning of manipulators. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently, general that they may also be applied to other planning domains in which experience is useful.

Chen, Pang C.

1995-04-01

410

Predictors of Retirement Satisfaction: A Path Model.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined adjustment to retirement among 310 former industrial and service workers. Respondents had come to terms with retirement and enjoyed their more relaxed lifestyle. Dominant variables in the path model were retirees' satisfaction with specific aspects of retirement: giving up work, activities with family and friends, rest, and free time. (BH)

Kremer, Yael

1985-01-01

411

Planning Flight Paths of Autonomous Aerobots

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Algorithms for planning flight paths of autonomous aerobots (robotic blimps) to be deployed in scientific exploration of remote planets are undergoing development. These algorithms are also adaptable to terrestrial applications involving robotic submarines as well as aerobots and other autonomous aircraft used to acquire scientific data or to perform surveying or monitoring functions.

Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Sharma, Shivanjli

2009-01-01

412

Efficient Data Mining for Path Traversal Patterns

In this paper, we explore a new data mining capability that involves mining path traversal patterns in a distributed information-providing environment where documents or objects are linked together to facilitate interactive access. Our solution procedure consists of two steps. First, we derive an algorithm to convert the original sequence of log data into a set of maximal forward references. By

Ming-syan Chen; Jong Soo Park; Philip S. Yu

1998-01-01

413

The Erratic Path of Hungarian Higher Education

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the path of funding higher education in Hungary, where funding cuts have resulted in understaffing, escalating tuition, growing student debt, and declining enrollment. Graduation rates are low, government policies favor vocational disciplines, and the system of preparation and access gives preference to students from wealthier…

Marcus, Jon

2014-01-01

414

Asymmetrical Path Interference Test of Light

The asymmetrical path interference test of light is put forward in the paper. In the test, two different results would arise under the same experimental conditions if light is regarded as wave or particle. Therefore, the test can help us to comprehend which concept, wave or particle, is more essential for micro-particles.

Mei Xiaochun

2006-03-05

415

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...up to the point at which the airplane is out of ground effect and...to the continous path. The airplane is considered to be out of the...reaches a height equal to its wing span. (e) For airplanes equipped with standby...

2014-01-01

416

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...up to the point at which the airplane is out of ground effect and...to the continous path. The airplane is considered to be out of the...reaches a height equal to its wing span. (e) For airplanes equipped with standby...

2013-01-01

417

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...up to the point at which the airplane is out of ground effect and...to the continous path. The airplane is considered to be out of the...reaches a height equal to its wing span. (e) For airplanes equipped with standby...

2012-01-01

418

Geometry of particle paths in turbulent flows

We use the intrinsic geometrical characteristics of space curves, i.e. curvature and torsion, to describe the paths of particles passively advected in a turbulent flow. We find that curvature increases with the Reynolds number and that the maxima in vorticity and curvature times local velocity are linearly correlated. Fluctuations around the maximal values in runs at a fixed Reynolds number

W. Braun; F. de Lillo; B. Eckhardt

2006-01-01

419

Career Paths for Managers in the Arts

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we examine the career paths of top-level managers in the arts. By analysing the training and work history of 23 managers in a variety of arts organisations we evaluate the utility of several existing theories for understanding careers that are characterised by low levels of initial knowledge, the absence of a clear method of entry…

Inglis, Loretta; Cray, David

2012-01-01

420

2012 Winter Issue Page The Critical Path

Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on Curiosity continues to perform well, also. Several Mars2012 Winter Issue Page The Critical Path MAVEN--Definitive Answers about Mars Climate History When the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission launches in November 2013 it will make history

Christian, Eric

421

Path detection and the uncertainty principle

QUANTUM mechanics predicts that any detector capable of determining the path taken by a particle through a double slit will destroy the interference. This follows from the principle of complementarity formulated by Niels Bohr: simultaneous observation of wave and particle behaviour is prohibited. But such a description makes no reference to the physical mechanism by which the interference is lost.

Pippa Storey; Sze Tan; Matthew Collett; Daniel Walls

1994-01-01

422

Quad-rotor flight path energy optimization

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quad-Rotor unmanned areal vehicles (UAVs) have been a popular area of research and development in the last decade, especially with the advent of affordable microcontrollers like the MSP 430 and the Raspberry Pi. Path-Energy Optimization is an area that is well developed for linear systems. In this thesis, this idea of path-energy optimization is extended to the nonlinear model of the Quad-rotor UAV. The classical optimization technique is adapted to the nonlinear model that is derived for the problem at hand, coming up with a set of partial differential equations and boundary value conditions to solve these equations. Then, different techniques to implement energy optimization algorithms are tested using simulations in Python. First, a purely nonlinear approach is used. This method is shown to be computationally intensive, with no practical solution available in a reasonable amount of time. Second, heuristic techniques to minimize the energy of the flight path are tested, using Ziegler-Nichols' proportional integral derivative (PID) controller tuning technique. Finally, a brute force look-up table based PID controller is used. Simulation results of the heuristic method show that both reliable control of the system and path-energy optimization are achieved in a reasonable amount of time.

Kemper, Edward

423

Air Path Estimation on Diesel HCCI Engine

In this paper, we address the problem of air path variables estimation for an HCCI engine. Two observers are pro- posed. Both rely on physical assumptions on the com- bustion, but use different sensors. After proving conver- gence in the two cases, we carry out comparisons based on simulation results. We stress the impact of two particu- lar additional sensors

J. Chauvin; N. Petit; P. Rouchon; C. Vigild; Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen

2006-01-01

424

Floats, Integers, and Single Source Shortest Paths

Floats are ugly, but to everyone but theoretical computer scientists, they are thereal thing. A linear time algorithm is presented for the undirected single source shortestpaths problem with positive floating point weights.1 IntroductionThe technical goal of this paper is to present a linear time solution to the undirected singlesource shortest paths problem (USSSP) where the weights are positive floating points,

Mikkel Thorup

1998-01-01

425

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the takeoff path to be determined for flight in icing conditions, the airborne part of the takeoff must be based on the airplane drag: (i) With the takeoff ice accretion defined in appendix C, from a height of 35 feet above the takeoff surface up to...

2011-01-01

426

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the takeoff path to be determined for flight in icing conditions, the airborne part of the takeoff must be based on the airplane drag: (i) With the takeoff ice accretion defined in appendix C, from a height of 35 feet above the takeoff surface up to...

2010-01-01

427

The Many Paths of Hypervalent Iodine Reactions

The Many Paths of Hypervalent Iodine Reactions Ryan McFadden Stoltz Literature Group Meeting June! In Outline I. What is Hypervalency? A. The Martin-Arduengo Notation B. Bonding in Hypervalent Iodine Compounds C. A Brief History of IBX and DMP II. Oxidation Chemistry of Hypervalent Iodine A. Oxidations

Stoltz, Brian M.

428

LONG PATH LASER OZONE MONITOR EVALUATION

The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate a long path laser air pollution monitor developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the General Electric (GE) Company. The monitor was known as ILAMS (Infrared Laser Atmospheric Monitoring System) and desi...

429

A modified reconfigurable data path processor

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High throughput is an overriding factor dictating system performance. A configurable data processor is presented which can be modified to optimize performance for a wide class of problems. The new processor is specifically designed for arbitrary data path operations and can be dynamically reconfigured.

Ganesh, G.; Whitaker, S.; Maki, G.

1991-01-01

430

Modeling DNA Dynamics by Path Integrals

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complementary strands in DNA double helix show temporary fluctuational openings which are essential to biological functions such as transcription and replication of the genetic information. Such large amplitude fluctuations, known as the breathing of DNA, are generally localized and, microscopically, are due to the breaking of the hydrogen bonds linking the base pairs (bps). I apply imaginary time path integral techniques to a mesoscopic Hamiltonian which accounts for the helicoidal geometry of a short circular DNA molecule. The bps displacements with respect to the ground state are interpreted as time dependent paths whose amplitudes are consistent with the model potential for the hydrogen bonds. The portion of the paths configuration space contributing to the partition function is determined by selecting the ensemble of paths which fulfill the second law of thermodynamics. Computations of the thermodynamics in the denaturation range show the energetic advantage for the equilibrium helicoidal geometry peculiar of B-DNA. I discuss the interplay between twisting of the double helix and anharmonic stacking along the molecule backbone suggesting an interesting relation between intrinsic nonlinear character of the microscopic interactions and molecular topology.

Zoli, Marco

2013-02-01

431

Folded-path optical analysis gas cell

A folded-path gas cell employs an elliptical concave mirror in confronting relationship to two substantially spherical concave mirrors. At least one of the spherical mirrors, and usually both, are formed with an added cylindrical component to increase orthogonal focii coincidence and thereby to increase the radiation energy throughput characteristic of the cell.

Carangelo, Robert M. (Glastonbury, CT); Wright, David D. (Vershire, VT)

1995-01-01

432

The RFP Development Path S. C. Prager

of non-tokamak research concept A concept B concept Z reactor A reactor B reactor Z configurationThe RFP Development Path S. C. Prager University of Wisconsin January, 2003 #12;Reminder: Two views A configuration B configuration Z reactor Each concept as a fusion reactor each configuration building fusion

433

Dynamic path-based software watermarking

Software watermarking is a tool used to combat software piracy by embedding identifying information into a program. Most existing proposals for software watermarking have the shortcoming that the mark can be destroyed via fairly straightforward semantics-preserving code transformations. This paper introduces path-based watermarking, a new approach to software watermarking based on the dynamic branching behavior of programs. The advantage of

Christian S. Collberg; Edward Carter; Saumya K. Debray; Andrew Huntwork; John D. Kececioglu; Cullen Linn; Michael Stepp

2004-01-01

434

The diagnosis and cure of garden paths

We propose that, for the human parser, recovery from garden paths consists in repairing the structure built so far, rather than reparsing the input. The difficulty of a repair is attributable not to the cost of effecting the structural alterations but to the cost of deducing which alterations are needed. The parser must diagnose its error in order to correct

Janet Dean Fodor; Atsu Inoue

1994-01-01

435

Finding optimal paths in MREP routing

Maximum Residual Energy Path (MREP) routing has been shown an effective routing scheme for energy conservation in battery powered wireless networks. Past studies on MREP routing are based on the assumption that the transmitting node consumes power, but the receiving node does not. This assumption is false if acknowledgment is required as occurs, for example, in some Bluetooth applications. If

Rudolf Fleischer; Mordecai J. Golin; Chin-tau A. Lea; Steven Wong

2004-01-01

436

Particle RRT for Path Planning with Uncertainty

This paper describes a new extension to the Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) path planning algo- rithm. The Particle RRT algorithm explicitly considers uncer- tainty in its domain, similar to the operation of a particle filter. Each extension to the search tree is treated as a stochastic process and is simulated multiple times. The behavior of the robot can be characterized

Nik A. Melchior; Reid G. Simmons

2007-01-01

437

Current SPE Hydrodynamic Modeling and Path Forward

Extensive work has been conducted on SPE analysis efforts: Fault effects Non-uniform weathered layer analysis MUNROU: material library incorporation, parallelization, and development of non-locking tets Development of a unique continuum-based-visco-plastic strain-rate-dependent material model With corrected SPE data path is now set for a multipronged approach to fully understand experimental series shot effects.

Knight, Earl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rougier, Esteban [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-14

438

Volcanic eruption induced WWVB transmission path interruption

It is reported that the 60 kHz transmission of WWVB from Fort Collins, Colorado, was not received in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for about 11 h from 1109 UT to 2153 UT on July 23, 1980. It is suggested that this transmission path interruption is correlated with the 15 km height ash cloud due to the July 22, 1980 volcanic eruption

H. A. Buckmaster; C. H. Hansen

1985-01-01

439

Issues affecting specialty career paths in dermatology.

As the field of medicine changes, physicians deal with ever-increasing challenges and pressures. An overview of broad career paths within the specialty of dermatology is presented and important issues affecting these subspecialty tracks are discussed. These issues include increasing regulatory controls, the medical liability crisis, competitive forces, corporate and global outsourcing threats, managed care, and reimbursement. PMID:18189057

Leonard, Aimee L; Hanke, C William; Bechtel, Mark A; Brownell, Isaac; Buckel, Larry J; Hurwitz, Robert M; Hsiung, Sherry H; Paller, Amy S; Turchan, Kirsten

2007-12-01

440

Encoding folding paths of RNA switches

RNA co-transcriptional folding has long been suspected to play an active role in helping proper native folding of ribozymes and structured regulatory motifs in mRNA untranslated regions (UTRs). Yet, the underlying mechanisms and coding requirements for efficient co-transcriptional folding remain unclear. Traditional approaches have intrinsic limitations to dissect RNA folding paths, as they rely on sequence mutations or circular permutations that typically perturb both RNA folding paths and equilibrium structures. Here, we show that exploiting sequence symmetries instead of mutations can circumvent this problem by essentially decoupling folding paths from equilibrium structures of designed RNA sequences. Using bistable RNA switches with symmetrical helices conserved under sequence reversal, we demonstrate experimentally that native and transiently formed helices can guide efficient co-transcriptional folding into either long-lived structure of these RNA switches. Their folding path is controlled by the order of helix nucleations and subsequent exchanges during transcription, and may also be redirected by transient antisense interactions. Hence, transient intra- and inter-molecular base pair interactions can effectively regulate the folding of nascent RNA molecules into different native structures, provided limited coding requirements, as discussed from an information theory perspective. This constitutive coupling between RNA synthesis and RNA folding regulation may have enabled the early emergence of autonomous RNA-based regulation networks. PMID:17178750

Xayaphoummine, A.; Viasnoff, V.; Harlepp, S.; Isambert, H.

2007-01-01

441

Motion on Cycloid Paths: A Project

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a high school laboratory project whose theme is the motion of a small ball on cycloidal tracks. Models were built both of a brachistochrone and of a Huygens pendulum clock whose bob is constrained to move on a cycloidal path. Photogates and a data acquisition system were employed in order to investigate experimentally the…

Gluck, P.

2010-01-01

442

Photon path length retrieval from GOSAT observations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of clouds on the atmospheric radiation budget is investigated, focussing on the photon path length distributions of the scattered sunlight. Apart from the reflection of incoming solar radiation at the cloud top, clouds can also introduce a large number of additional scattering events causing an enhancement of the photon paths. In certain cloud formations, these scattering events also result in a ``ping-pong`` behaviour between different cloud patches and cloud layers. It has been shown from ground based measurements that it is possible to retrieve photon path lengths by analysis of high resolution oxygen A-band spectra (O. Funk et al.). This study uses similar space based measurements of the oxygen A-band for the path length retrieval. The oxygen A-band spectra are retrieved from the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) which was successfully launched in 2009. The high spectral resolution of the GOSAT TANSO-FTS instrument allows to almost completely resolve the individual absorption lines. The considered spectral range is particularly suitable for this study because it shows clear absorption structures of different strength. From the analysis of the spectral signatures, cloud properties and the underlying path length distributions can be derived. The retrieval is done by analysis and comparison of the extracted TANSO-FTS spectra with simulations from the Monte Carlo radiative transfer Model McArtim. The model permits modelling of altitude dependent oxygen absorption cross sections and three-dimensional cloud patterns. Case studies of clear and cloudy sky scenarios will be presented. Future studies will focus on more complicated cloud structures, especially considering three-dimensional geometries and heterogeneities.

Kremmling, Beke; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Deutschmann, Tim; Wagner, Thomas

2013-04-01

443

Path-consistency: When space misses time

Within the framework of constraint programming, particulary concerning the Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSPs), the techniques of preprocessing based on filtering algorithms were shown to be very important for the search phase. In particular, two filtering methods have been studied, these methods exploit two properties of local consistency: arc- and path-consistency. Concerning the arc-consistency methods, there is a linear time algorithm (in the size of the problem) which is efficient in practice. But the limitations of the arc-consistency algorithms requires often filtering methods with higher order like path-consistency filterings. The best path-consistency algorithm proposed is PC-6, a natural generalization of AC-6 to path-consistency. Its time complexity is O(n{sup 3}d{sup 4}) and its space complexity is O(n{sup 3}d{sup 4}), where n is the number of variables and d is the size of domains. We have remarked that PC-6, though it is widely better than PC-4, was not very efficient in practice, specially for those classes of problems that require an important space to be run. Therefore, we propose here a new path-consistency algorithm called PC-7, its space complexity is O(n{sup 3}d{sup 4}) but its time complexity is O(n{sup 3}d{sup 4}) i.e. worse than that of PC-6. However, the simplicity of PC-7 as well as the data structures used for its implementation offer really a higher performance than PC-6. Furthermore, it turns out that when the size of domains is a constant of the problems, the time complexity of PC-7 becomes. like PC-6, optimal i.e. O(n{sup 3}).

Chmeiss, A.; Jegou, P. [Universite de Provence, Marseille (France)

1996-12-31

444

Electronic Communications of the EASST Volume 17 (2009)

Electronic Communications of the EASST Volume 17 (2009) Workshops der Wissenschaftlichen Konferenz redundancy and/or capacity to such a network, several multi-path extensions to existing ad hoc routing protocols have been proposed. These extensions allow any member of the network to find multiple paths to any

Braun, Torsten

445

Identifying Non-Robust Untestable RTL Paths in Circuits with Multicycle Paths

As LSI manufacturing technology improves and the time-to-market for products becomes stricter, more and more circuit designs have multiple clock domains due to concerns such as design re-use, power reduction and temperature control. It is not uncommon for these designs to have multi-cycle paths which are untestable. The rapid identification of these untestable paths reduces test generation time as well

T. E. Yu; T. Yoneda; S. Ohtake; Hideo Fujiwara

2008-01-01

446

Epitaxial Ag(001) layers were deposited on MgO(001) in order to study electron surface scattering. X-ray reflection indicates 3D layer nucleation with a high rms surface roughness of 1.0 nm for a layer thickness d = 3.5 nm. X-ray diffraction shows that {l_brace}111{r_brace} twins form at d < 11 nm, followed by 2nd generation twinning for 11 nm < d < 120 nm. Increasing the growth temperature from 25 to 150 deg. C suppresses 2nd generation twinning and reduces the twin density by 2 orders of magnitude. In situ deposition of epitaxial 2.5-nm-thick TiN(001) underlayers prior to Ag deposition results in twin-free single-crystal Ag(001) with 10 x smoother surfaces for d = 3.5 nm. This is attributed to a better wetting on the higher energy TiN(001) than MgO(001) surface, resulting in the absence of 3D nuclei with exposed {l_brace}111{r_brace} facets, which facilitate twin nucleation. The twinned Ag/MgO layers have a higher resistivity {rho} than the single crystal Ag/TiN layers at both 298 and 77 K, due to electron scattering at grain and twin boundaries. The {rho} for single-crystal Ag layers increases with decreasing d, which is well explained with known surface scattering models and provides specularity parameters for the Ag-vacuum and the Ag-air interfaces of p = 0.8 {+-} 0.1 and 0.4 {+-} 0.1, respectively. A comparison with corresponding epitaxial Cu(001) layers shows that {rho}{sub Ag} < {rho}{sub Cu} for d > 50 nm, consistent with known bulk values. However, {rho}{sub Ag} > {rho}{sub Cu} for d < 40 nm. This is attributed to the larger electron mean free path for electron-phonon scattering and a correspondingly higher resistivity contribution from surface scattering in Ag than Cu. In contrast, air exposure causes {rho}{sub Ag} < {rho}{sub Cu} for all d, due to diffuse scattering at the oxidized Cu surface and the correspondingly higher Cu resistivity.

Chawla, J. S.; Gall, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

2012-02-15

447

Path ORAM: An Extremely Simple Oblivious RAM Protocol

We present Path ORAM, an extremely simple Oblivious RAM protocol with a small amount of client storage. Partly due to its simplicity, Path ORAM is the most practical ORAM scheme for small client storage known to date. We ...

Stefanov, Emil

448

Mission Geography: Paths (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mission Geography uses existing NASA data and images where possible to engage students in active, hands-on inquiry, modeling the scientific method and developing students' understanding of environment-society relations and Earth science. This module looks at many different kinds of paths and considers why paths are where they are and how they look from space. People and animals make paths that take into account the terrain and other features of the landscape. Rivers, lava, smoke, and other natural phenomena follow paths. The module contains four investigations in which students interpret paths in their immediate environment, use literature to investigate paths, inspect unusual paths, and use satellite images to view paths of natural disasters. Each investigation is complete with overview, a list of materials and supplies, content preview, classroom procedures, worksheets, background, and evaluation.

449

Flight Path Optimization subject to Instationary Heat Constraints

Flight Path Optimization subject to Instationary Heat Constraints Matthias Witzgall Kurt Chudej consider a flight path optimization problem in the hypersonic flight regime. The aerothermic heating in hypersonic flight regimes. Mathematically this leads to a trajectory optimization problem s

Dettweiler, Michael

450

14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61 Aeronautics...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.61 Takeoff flight path. Link to an amendment published...

2012-01-01

451

14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61 Aeronautics...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.61 Takeoff flight path. For each commuter category...

2011-01-01

452

14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61 Aeronautics...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.61 Takeoff flight path. For each commuter category...

2010-01-01

453

Exploring satisfaction in business-to-business services: a path-analytic approach

In this article, we propose a path-analytic approach to model the relationships among overall satisfaction, satisfaction with\\u000a higher order performance domains and the lower order performance attributes for business-to-business services. The model is\\u000a estimated using data from the business customers of a large provider of electronics products and services. Our results show\\u000a that overall satisfaction in such contexts may be

Piyush Kumar; Mayukh Dass; Omer Topaloglu

2011-01-01

454

Voronoi-Based Extraction and Visualization of Molecular Paths

Fig. 1. Mechanosensitive channel (PDB: 2OAU). Left: Ball-and-stick representation (yellow), potential molecular paths (blue), and extension surface (red) of the most important paths. Middle: Van der Waals surface of the molecule with screen space ambient occlusion and path illumination. Right: Solvent excluded surface clipped by the extension surface of the red paths. Abstract—Visual analysis is widely used to study the

Norbert Lindow; Daniel Baum; Hans-Christian Hege

2011-01-01

455

Fast Compressed Tries through Path Decompositions

Tries are popular data structures for storing a set of strings, where common prefixes are represented by common root-to-node paths. Over fifty years of usage have produced many variants and implementations to overcome some of their limitations. We explore new succinct representations of path-decomposed tries and experimentally evaluate the corresponding reduction in space usage and memory latency, comparing with the state of the art. We study two cases of applications: (1) a compressed dictionary for (compressed) strings, and (2) a monotone minimal perfect hash for strings that preserves their lexicographic order. For (1), we obtain data structures that outperform other state-of-the-art compressed dictionaries in space efficiency, while obtaining predictable query times that are competitive with data structures preferred by the practitioners. In (2), our tries perform several times faster than other trie-based monotone perfect hash functions, while occupying nearly the same space.

Grossi, Roberto

2011-01-01

456

Lorentzian path integral for minisuperspace cosmology

The path integral for minisuperspace models of cosmology is defined as a sum over Lorentzian geometries, and is a Green function for the Wheeler-DeWitt operator. It is shown to be a symmetric function of the initial and final configurations, and its real part is a solution to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. The Lorentzian path integral is computed explicitly for the de Sitter minisuperspace model and is convergent. The resulting Green function is then related to the solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation known as the Hartle-Hawking and tunneling wave functions of the Universe. The real part of this Green function is a product of Hartle-Hawking wave functions.

Brown, J.D.; Martinez, E.A. (Institute of Field Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255 (USA))

1990-09-15

457

Adaptive path planning for flexible manufacturing

Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses past experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for automating flexible manufacturing in incrementally-changing environments. The algorithm allows the robot to adapt to its environment by having two experience manipulation schemes: For minor environmental change, we use an object-attached experience abstraction scheme to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, we use an on-demand experience repair scheme to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. Using this algorithm, we can effectively reduce the overall robot planning time by re-using the computation result for one task to plan a path for another.

Chen, Pang C.

1994-08-01

458

Sensitivity of ray paths to initial condition

Using a parabolic equation, we consider ray propagation in a waveguide with the sound speed profile that corresponds to the dynamics of a nonlinear oscillator. An analytical consideration of the dependence of the travel time on the initial conditions is presented. Using an exactly solvable model and the path integral representation of the travel time, we explain the step-like behavior of the travel time (T) as a function of the starting momentum (p_0) (related to the starting ray grazing angle (\\chi_0) by (p_0=\\tan\\chi_0)). A periodic perturbation of the waveguide along the range leads to wave and ray chaos. We explain an inhomogeneity of distribution of the chaotic ray travel times, which has obvious maxima. These maxima lead to the clustering of rays and each maximum relates to a ray identifier, {\\em i.e.} to the number of ray semi--cycles along the ray path.

A. Iomin; G. M. Zaslavsky

2007-06-03

459

Free Energy Changes, Fluctuations, and Path Probabilities

We illustrate some of the static and dynamic relations discovered by Cohen, Crooks, Evans, Jarzynski, Kirkwood, Morriss, Searles, and Zwanzig. These relations link nonequilibrium processes to equilibrium isothermal free energy changes and to dynamical path probabilities. We include ideas suggested by Dellago, Geissler, Oberhofer, and Schoell-Paschinger. Our treatment is intended to be pedagogical, for use in an updated version of our book: Time Reversibility, Computer Simulation, and Chaos. Comments are very welcome.

William G. Hoover; Carol G. Hoover

2011-04-20

460

Walden's Paths quiz: system design and implementation

December 2002 Major Subject: Computer Science WALDEN'S PATHS QUIZ: SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION A Thesis by A VITAL JAYANT ARORA Submitted to thc Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University tn partial fulfillment. of the requirements... for thc degree ol MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Richard Furuta (Chair of Co ittee) Frank Shipm n (Member) Ro ert all (Member) J nnifer Welch (Head of Department) December 2002 Major Subject: Computer Science ABSTRACT...

Arora, Avital Jayant

2002-01-01

461

On the path integral of constrained systems

Constrained Hamiltonian systems are investigated by using Gueler's method. Integration of a set of equations of motion and the action function is discussed. It is shown that the canonical path integral quantization is obtained directly as an integration over the canonical phase-space coordinates without any need to enlarge the initial phase-space by introducing extra- unphysical variables as in the Batalin-Fradkin-Tyutin (BFT) method. The abelian Proca model is analyzed by the two methods.

Muslih, Sami I. [Physics Department, Al-Azhar University, Gaza, Palestine (Country Unknown)

2004-10-04

462

Covariant path integrals on hyperbolic surfaces

DeWitt{close_quote}s covariant formulation of path integration [B. De Witt, {open_quotes}Dynamical theory in curved spaces. I. A review of the classical and quantum action principles,{close_quotes} Rev. Mod. Phys. {bold 29}, 377{endash}397 (1957)] has two practical advantages over the traditional methods of {open_quotes}lattice approximations;{close_quot