Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge) This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.
Proton and electron mean free paths: The Palmer consensus revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bieber, John W.; Matthaeus, William H.; Smith, Charles W.; Wanner, Wolfgang; Kallenrode, May-Britt; Wibberenz, Gerd
1994-01-01
We present experimental and theoretical evidence suggesting that the mean free path of cosmic-ray electrons and protons may be fundamentally different at low to intermediate (less than 50 MV) rigidities. The experimental evidence is from Helios observations of solar energetic particles, which show that the mean free path of 1.4 MV electrons is often similar to that of 187 MV protons, even though proton mean free paths continue to decrease comparatively rapidly with decreasing rigidty down to the lowest channels (about 100 MV) observed. The theoretical evidence is from computations of particle scattering in dynamical magnetic turbulence, which predict that electrons will have a larger mean free path than protons of the same rigidity. In the light of these new results, 'consensus' ideas about cosmic-ray mean free paths may require drastic revision.
Inelastic mean free path from reflectivity of slow electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zdyb, R.; Mente?, T. O.; Locatelli, A.; Niño, M. A.; Bauer, E.
2013-02-01
The inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of electrons is derived using a new approach based on the low-energy electron reflectivity from ultrathin films. The thickness-dependent quantum size oscillations as a function of electron energy observed in the reflectivity of slow electrons are modeled using an absorbing Fabry-Pérot interferometer consisting of vacuum, film, and substrate. The absorbing properties of the film are represented by the imaginary part of the complex refractive index associated with the IMFP which determines the amplitude of the electron reflectivity oscillations. Using this formalism for an Fe film on W(110), the IMFP in Fe is found in the energy range from 4 to 18 eV above the vacuum level. In contrast to the common notion, the IMFP in Fe is shown to have a very weak energy dependence at low energy. The results are in good agreement with independent IMFP measurements found in thickness-dependent photoemission experiments.
Electron inelastic mean free paths in cerium dioxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krawczyk, M.; Holdynski, M.; Lisowski, W.; Sobczak, J. W.; Jablonski, A.
2015-06-01
Electron transport properties in CeO2 powder samples were studied by elastic-peak electron spectroscopy (EPES). Prior to EPES measurements, the CeO2 sample surface was pre-sputtered by 0.5 keV Ar ion etching. As a result, an altered layer with thickness of 1.3 nm was created. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed two chemical states of cerium Ce4+ (68%) and Ce3+ (32%) at the surface region of CeO2 sample after such treatment. The inelastic mean free path (IMFP), characterizing electron transport, was evaluated as a function of energy within the 0.5-2 keV range. Experimental IMFPs were corrected for surface excitations and approximated by the simple function ? = kEp, where ? was the IMFP, E denoted the energy (in eV), and k = 0.207 and p = 0.6343 were the fitted parameters. The IMFPs measured here were compared with IMFPs resulting from the TPP-2M predictive equation for the measured composition of oxide surface. The measured IMFPs were found to be from 3.1% to 20.3% smaller than the IMFPs obtained from the predictive formula in the energy range of 0.5-2 keV. The EPES IMFP value at 500 eV was related to the altered layer of sputtered CeO2 samples.
Electron mean free path from angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy of aerosol particles
Goldmann, Maximilian; Miguel-Sánchez, Javier; West, Adam H. C.; Yoder, Bruce L.; Signorell, Ruth
2015-06-14
We propose angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of aerosol particles as an alternative way to determine the electron mean free path of low energy electrons in solid and liquid materials. The mean free path is obtained from fits of simulated photoemission images to experimental ones over a broad range of different aerosol particle sizes. The principal advantage of the aerosol approach is twofold. First, aerosol photoemission studies can be performed for many different materials, including liquids. Second, the size-dependent anisotropy of the photoelectrons can be exploited in addition to size-dependent changes in their kinetic energy. These finite size effects depend in different ways on the mean free path and thus provide more information on the mean free path than corresponding liquid jet, thin film, or bulk data. The present contribution is a proof of principle employing a simple model for the photoemission of electrons and preliminary experimental data for potassium chloride aerosol particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jablonski, A.
2014-02-01
The development of analytical techniques based on measurements of electron elastic-backscattering probabilities stimulated an interest in the theoretical description of such phenomena. The most accurate and reliable theoretical models involve Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of electron trajectories in solids; however, this approach generally requires considerable computer effort. It has been shown that the performance of a modified analytical theory originally proposed by Oswald et al (1993 J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 61 251), designated with the acronym OKGM, compares reasonably well with MC calculations. The MC data are usually underestimated by the OKGM model, and the mean percentage deviation, averaged over nine elements and five energies up to 5 keV, is equal to 8.8% for typical experimental configurations. However, the agreement between ratios of backscattering probabilities from MC simulations and the OKGM model agree much better due to the fact that underestimation of backscattering probability by the OMGM theory is partially cancelled. The percentage deviation between ratios from these theoretical models decreases to 3.14%. The OKGM model should then be useful for determining inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) from measured elastic-peak intensities. The accuracy of the obtained IMFPs is comparable with IMFPs from MC simulations.
Photocurrent in bulk heterojunction solar cells with similar electron and hole mean free path
Coutinho, Douglas José; Faria, Roberto Mendonça
2013-11-25
We present photocurrents at several temperatures carried out in a bulk heterojunction photovoltaic device. To explain the results, we developed an analytical model assuming non-injecting contacts and equal mean free paths for electrons and holes. The fitting of the equation to the experimental data provided the temperature evolution of the charge transfer state dissociation probability (P) and ??, where ? is the charge carrier mobility and ? is the charge carrier lifetime. The photocurrent expression tends towards a saturation value of eGPL for high electric fields, where GP is the generation rate of charge carriers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Bo; Tian, Zhiting; Vallabhaneni, Ajit; Liao, Bolin; Mendoza, Jonathan M.; Restrepo, Oscar D.; Ruan, Xiulin; Chen, Gang
2015-03-01
The mean free paths (MFPs) of energy carriers are of critical importance to the nano-engineering of better thermoelectric materials. Despite significant progress in the first-principles-based understanding of the spectral distribution of phonon MFPs in recent years, the spectral distribution of electron MFPs remains unclear. In this work, we compute the energy-dependent electron scatterings and MFPs in silicon from first principles. The electrical conductivity accumulation with respect to electron MFPs is compared to that of the phonon thermal conductivity accumulation to illustrate the quantitative impact of nanostructuring on electron and phonon transport. By combining all electron and phonon transport properties from first principles, we predict the thermoelectric properties of the bulk and nanostructured silicon, and find that silicon with 20 nm nanograins can result in a higher than five times enhancement in their thermoelectric figure of merit as the grain boundaries scatter phonons more significantly than that of electrons due to their disparate MFP distributions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akkerman, Avraham; Murat, Michael
2015-05-01
The mean free path (MFP) for electron-phonon interactions in pure silicon is an important characteristic needed both for low energy electron transport calculations using Boltzmann transport equation, and for Monte Carlo simulations. Full band calculations present a basic (though complicated) approach to the solution of the problem. Simpler approaches based on analytical presentation of the scattering rates have also been used; however they are valid for a restricted range of electron energies, below 2 eV. In this paper we introduce a hybrid method that utilizes the density of energy states calculated from the full band calculations for electron energies larger than 2 eV, allowing to extend the analytical approach for energies up to 5 eV, where the impact ionization becomes the dominant mechanism of electron interactions within bulk silicon. The resulting MFPs as function of electron energy and lattice temperature, together with the integral probability distribution for given energy losses by phonon emission (or energy gain by absorption of phonons) form the database for Monte Carlo calculations. Using this method, we calculate the electron diffusivity and mobility as function of the electron and lattice temperatures. These parameters are important for solution of the two temperature model, used for calculations of the track structure created by swift ions and nanosecond laser beams.
Plenkiewicz, B.; Plenkiewicz, P.; Jay-Gerin, J.
1986-04-15
It has been found recently from the analysis of low-energy electron-transmission experiments that the scattering mean free path lambda of excess hot electrons in solid xenon films oscillates with energy. We show in this paper that in these experiments lambda is predominantly controlled by the combined effect of both acoustical-phonon scattering and scattering by neutral point defects, and that its energy dependence is entirely caused by the changes in electron effective mass with energy.
Measurement of the hot electron mean free path and the momentum relaxation rate in GaN
Suntrup, Donald J.; Gupta, Geetak; Li, Haoran; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.
2014-12-29
We present a method for measuring the mean free path and extracting the momentum relaxation time of hot electrons in GaN using the hot electron transistor (HET). In this device, electrons are injected over a high energy emitter barrier into the base where they experience quasi-ballistic transport well above the conduction band edge. After traversing the base, high energy electrons either surmount the base-collector barrier and become collector current or reflect off the barrier and become base current. We fabricate HETs with various base thicknesses and measure the common emitter transfer ratio (?) for each device. The mean free path is extracted by fitting ? to a decaying exponential as a function of base width and the relaxation time is computed using a suitable injection velocity. For devices with an injection energy of ?1?eV, we measure a hot electron mean free path of 14?nm and calculate a momentum relaxation time of 16 fs. These values are in agreement with theoretical calculations where longitudinal optical phonon scattering is the dominant momentum relaxation mechanism.
Experimental and numerical investigation of phonon mean free path distribution
Zeng, Lingping
2013-01-01
Knowledge of phonon mean free path (MFP) distribution is critically important to engineering size effects. Phenomenological models of phonon relaxation times can give us some sense about the mean free path distribution, ...
Yan, Rui; Edwards, Thomas J; Pankratz, Logan M; Kuhn, Richard J; Lanman, Jason K; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Wen
2015-11-01
Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is an emerging technique that can elucidate the architecture of macromolecular complexes and cellular ultrastructure in a near-native state. Some important sample parameters, such as thickness and tilt, are needed for 3-D reconstruction. However, these parameters can currently only be determined using trial 3-D reconstructions. Accurate electron mean free path plays a significant role in modeling image formation process essential for simulation of electron microscopy images and model-based iterative 3-D reconstruction methods; however, their values are voltage and sample dependent and have only been experimentally measured for a limited number of sample conditions. Here, we report a computational method, tomoThickness, based on the Beer-Lambert law, to simultaneously determine the sample thickness, tilt and electron inelastic mean free path by solving an overdetermined nonlinear least square optimization problem utilizing the strong constraints of tilt relationships. The method has been extensively tested with both stained and cryo datasets. The fitted electron mean free paths are consistent with reported experimental measurements. The accurate thickness estimation eliminates the need for a generous assignment of Z-dimension size of the tomogram. Interestingly, we have also found that nearly all samples are a few degrees tilted relative to the electron beam. Compensation of the intrinsic sample tilt can result in horizontal structure and reduced Z-dimension of tomograms. Our fast, pre-reconstruction method can thus provide important sample parameters that can help improve performance of tomographic reconstruction of a wide range of samples. PMID:26433027
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Un, A.; Sahin, Y.
2011-07-01
The total mass attenuation coefficients, ? m, for PbO, barite, colemanite, tincal and ulexite were determined at 80.1, 302.9, 356.0, 661.7 and 1250.0 keV photon energies by using NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. Effective atomic number, Z eff, effective electron number, N eff, total atomic cross-section, ? t, total electronic cross-section, ? e, mean free path, mfp, and kerma relative to air were determined experimentally and theoretically. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using mixture rule. The calculated values were compared with the experimental values for all samples.
Thermal Conductivity Spectroscopy Technique to Measure Phonon Mean Free Paths
Schmidt, A. J.
Size effects in heat conduction, which occur when phonon mean free paths (MFPs) are comparable to characteristic lengths, are being extensively explored in many nanoscale systems for energy applications. Knowledge of MFPs ...
Tan, Zhenyu; Liu, Wei
2013-12-01
Systematic calculations are performed for determining the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for 20 eV-20 keV electrons in 11 types of human tissue. The calculations are based on a dielectric model, including the Born-Ochkur exchange correction. The optical energy loss functions (OELF) are empirically evaluated, because of the lack of available experimental optical data for the 11 tissues under consideration. The evaluated OELFs are examined by the f-sum rule expected from the dielectric response theory, and by calculation of the mean excitation energy. The calculated SPs are compared with those for PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate, a tissue equivalent material) and liquid water. The SP and IMFP data presented here are the results for the 11 human tissues over the energy range of 20 eV-20 keV, and are of importance in radiotherapy planning and for studies of various radiation effects on human tissues. PMID:24144616
Lubk, A.; Wolf, D.; Kern, F.; Röder, F.; Lichte, H.; Prete, P.; Lovergine, N.
2014-10-27
Electron holography at medium resolution simultaneously probes projected electrostatic and magnetostatic potentials as well as elastic and inelastic attenuation coefficients with a spatial resolution of a few nanometers. In this work, we derive how the elastic and inelastic attenuation can be disentangled. Using that result, we perform the first three dimensional tomographic reconstruction of potential and (in)elastic attenuation in parallel. The technique can be applied to distinguish between functional potentials and composition changes in nanostructures, as demonstrated using the example of a GaAs—Al{sub 0.33}Ga{sub 0.67}As core-shell nanowire.
Self-Consistent Relativistic Calculation of Nucleon Mean Free Path
G. Q. Li; R. Machleidt; Y. Z. Zhuo
1993-08-27
We present a fully self-consistent and relativistic calculation of the nucleon mean free path in nuclear matter and finite nuclei. Starting from the Bonn potential, the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock results for nuclear matter are parametrized in terms of an effective $\\sigma$-$\\omega$ Lagrangian suitable for the relativistic density-dependent Hartree-Fock (RDHF) approximation. The nucleon mean free path in nuclear matter is derived from this effective Lagrangian taking diagrams up to fourth-order into account. For the nucleon mean free path in finite nuclei, we make use of the density determined by the RDHF calculation in the local density approximation. Our microscopic results are in good agreement with the empirical data and predictions by Dirac phenomenology.
The hyperon mean free paths in the relativistic mean field
Q. L. Wang; L. Dang; X. H. Zhong; P. Z. Ning
2005-12-19
The $\\Lambda$- and $\\Xi^-$-hyperon mean free paths in nuclei are firstly calculated in the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory. The real parts of the optical potential are derived from the RMF approach, while the imaginary parts are obtained from those of nucleons with the relations: $U^{\\mathrm{IY}}_{\\mathrm{S}} = \\alpha_{\\sigma \\mathrm{Y}}\\cdot U_{\\mathrm{S}}^{\\mathrm{IN}}$ and $U^{\\mathrm{IY}}_{\\mathrm{V}} = \\alpha_{\\omega \\mathrm{Y}}\\cdot U_{\\mathrm{V}}^{\\mathrm{IN}}$ . With the assumption, the depth of the imaginary potential for $\\Xi^-$ is $W_{\\Xi}\\simeq-$ 3.5 MeV, and for $\\Lambda$ is $W_{\\Lambda}\\simeq-$ 7 MeV at low incident energy. We find that, the hyperon mean free path decreases with the increase of the hyperon incident energies, from 200 MeV to 800 MeV; and in the interior of the nuclei, the mean free path is about $2\\sim 3$ fm for $\\Lambda$, and about $4\\sim 8$ fm for $\\Xi^-$, depending on the hyperon incident energy.
Russell, Kasey
of thermal energy convert- ing devices11,12 and multijunction solar cells.13 Yet despite the promising-dependent characterization of hot-electron transport through the device. In a single device we can use the energy, and comparisons between the transfer ratios of the individual devices can be used to find the energy
Mean free paths in single-walled carbon nanotubes measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuller, Elliot J.; Pan, Deng; Corso, Brad L.; Gul, O. Tolga; Collins, Philip G.
2014-06-01
The inelastic mean free path ?MFP is a critical parameter for electronic devices. Here, we demonstrate Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) as a technique for studying ?MFP in biased, semi-metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Having one of the longest room-temperature ?MFP values of any known material, SWNTs provide a unique platform for probing mesoscopic transport. KPFM directly determined ?MFP as a function of bias, quantitatively determined the contributions of different scattering mechanisms, and enabled comparative study of individual SWNTs with and without disorder. The room-temperature mean free paths for optical phonon and surface plasmon-polariton scattering were measured to be 62 ± 20 nm and 260 ± 50 nm, respectively. The optical phonon scattering length is significantly longer than inferred from previous measurements, and it resolves a longstanding discrepancy between SWNT theory and experiment, suggesting that KPFM could become a preferred quantitative technique for studying transport in nanoscale systems.
Direct measurement of spin dependent mean free paths in metals (abstract)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurney, Bruce A.; Speriosu, Virgil S.; Lefakis, Harry; Wilhoit, Dennis R.; Need, Omar U.
1994-05-01
We describe results obtained using a new spin valve structure that is specifically designed to measure the spin up and spin down mean free paths in ferromagnetic metals. We report how these mean free paths can be measured more directly and with greater accuracy than previous methods, which were based mostly on indirect evidence from magnetoresistance in ternary alloys. The technique is based on the ``backed'' spin valve layered structure: substrate/seed/80 Å FeMn/50 Å NiFe/23 Å Cu/20 Å NiFe/t Å b/50 Å Ta where the back layer of material b with thickness t is probed by the rest of the structure, which forms a spin polarized conduction electron source. As t is varied the majority carrier mean free path ?+b in the layer b is obtained directly from the form taken by the change in film conductance between parallel and antiparallel magnetization states, ?G, whose solution of the Boltzmann transport equation shows is well approximated by the form ?G=?G0+?Gb{1-exp([t-tx]/??+b)}, where ?G0 arises from the 20 Å NiFe layer, tx is the high resistivity region of intermixing at the b layer interfaces, and ??1 from observations with b=Cu. The minority carrier mean free path in a ferromagnetic layer b, ?b, is obtained by comparing ?G and ?+b with ?G', and ?b'+, of a nonmagnetic b' layer of similar resistivity to b; it is a less direct measurement than that of ?+ since it relies on the connection between conductivity and mean free path for the minority subband. We have obtained room temperature results for Ni80Fe20 (?+=46±3 Å, 0mean free paths in ferromagnetic metals is crucial in exploring the mechanism of giant magnetoresistance and, more broadly, is central in all theories of transport in magnetic metals; this new technique should prove a powerful tool in measuring these fundamental quantities.
Frenklach, Michael
Conductivity Key Words: Phonon, Mean Free Path, Spectroscopy, Thermal Conductivity Background: From a young age and forth through a solid material's atomic lattice. The thermal conductivity of a solid largely depends measure how much each phonon mean free path contributes to the total thermal conductivity of crystalline
Sánchez, David
for a 2D GaAs electron gas taking n = 10 11 cm -2 and # e = 100 ps. 2. Consider the electron transport(s + 12 s 12 ), where Tr(. . .) denotes the trace. 3. Investigate the e#ect of backscattering with N excess electrons. (ii) Make the replacement # 0 # µ N d in Eq. (1) and find an exact expression
Mitchell, D R G
2006-11-01
Determining transmission electron microscope specimen thickness is an essential prerequisite for carrying out quantitative microscopy. The convergent beam electron diffraction method is highly accurate but provides information only on the small region being probed and is only applicable to crystalline phases. Thickness mapping with an energy filter is rapid, maps an entire field of view and can be applied to both crystalline and amorphous phases. However, the thickness map is defined in terms of the mean free path for energy loss (lambda), which must be known in order to determine the thickness. Convergent beam electron diffraction and thickness mapping methods were used to determine lambda for two materials, Si and P91 steel. These represent best- and worst-case scenario materials, respectively, for this type of investigation, owing to their radically different microstructures. The effects of collection angle and the importance of dynamical diffraction contrast are also examined. By minimizing diffraction contrast effects in thickness maps, reasonably accurate (+/-15%) values of lambda were obtained for P91 and accuracies of +/-5% were obtained for Si. The correlation between the convergent beam electron diffraction-derived thickness and the log intensity ratios from thickness maps also permits estimation of the thickness of amorphous layers on the upper and lower surfaces of transmission electron microscope specimens. These estimates were evaluated for both Si and P91 using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and were found to be quite accurate. PMID:17204066
Zeng, Lingping; Collins, Kimberlee C.; Hu, Yongjie; Luckyanova, Maria N.; Maznev, Alexei A.; Huberman, Samuel; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Zhou, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaopeng; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang
2015-01-01
Heat conduction in semiconductors and dielectrics depends upon their phonon mean free paths that describe the average travelling distance between two consecutive phonon scattering events. Nondiffusive phonon transport is being exploited to extract phonon mean free path distributions. Here, we describe an implementation of a nanoscale thermal conductivity spectroscopy technique that allows for the study of mean free path distributions in optically absorbing materials with relatively simple fabrication and a straightforward analysis scheme. We pattern 1D metallic grating of various line widths but fixed gap size on sample surfaces. The metal lines serve as both heaters and thermometers in time-domain thermoreflectance measurements and simultaneously act as wire-grid polarizers that protect the underlying substrate from direct optical excitation and heating. We demonstrate the viability of this technique by studying length-dependent thermal conductivities of silicon at various temperatures. The thermal conductivities measured with different metal line widths are analyzed using suppression functions calculated from the Boltzmann transport equation to extract the phonon mean free path distributions with no calibration required. This table-top ultrafast thermal transport spectroscopy technique enables the study of mean free path spectra in a wide range of technologically important materials. PMID:26612032
Zeng, Lingping; Collins, Kimberlee C; Hu, Yongjie; Luckyanova, Maria N; Maznev, Alexei A; Huberman, Samuel; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Zhou, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaopeng; Nelson, Keith A; Chen, Gang
2015-01-01
Heat conduction in semiconductors and dielectrics depends upon their phonon mean free paths that describe the average travelling distance between two consecutive phonon scattering events. Nondiffusive phonon transport is being exploited to extract phonon mean free path distributions. Here, we describe an implementation of a nanoscale thermal conductivity spectroscopy technique that allows for the study of mean free path distributions in optically absorbing materials with relatively simple fabrication and a straightforward analysis scheme. We pattern 1D metallic grating of various line widths but fixed gap size on sample surfaces. The metal lines serve as both heaters and thermometers in time-domain thermoreflectance measurements and simultaneously act as wire-grid polarizers that protect the underlying substrate from direct optical excitation and heating. We demonstrate the viability of this technique by studying length-dependent thermal conductivities of silicon at various temperatures. The thermal conductivities measured with different metal line widths are analyzed using suppression functions calculated from the Boltzmann transport equation to extract the phonon mean free path distributions with no calibration required. This table-top ultrafast thermal transport spectroscopy technique enables the study of mean free path spectra in a wide range of technologically important materials. PMID:26612032
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xianzhu
2012-03-01
A tokamak fusion reactor dumps a large amount of heat and particle flux to the divertor through the scrape-off plasma (SOL). Situation exists either by necessity or through deliberate design that the SOL plasma attains long mean-free-path along large segments of the open field lines. The rapid parallel streaming of electrons requires a large parallel electric field to maintain ambipolarity. The confining effect of the parallel electric field on electrons leads to a trap/passing boundary in the velocity space for electrons. In the normal situation where the upstream electron source populates both the trapped and passing region, a mechanism must exist to produce a flux across the electron trap/passing boundary. In a short mean-free-path plasma, this is provided by collisions. For long mean-free-path plasmas, wave-particle interaction is the primary candidate for detrapping the electrons. Here we present simulation results and a theoretical analysis using a model distribution function of trapped electrons. The dominating electromagnetic plasma instability and the associated collisionless scattering, that produces both particle and energy fluxes across the electron trap/passing boundary in velocity space, are discussed.
Universal phonon mean free path spectra in crystalline semiconductors at high temperature.
Freedman, Justin P; Leach, Jacob H; Preble, Edward A; Sitar, Zlatko; Davis, Robert F; Malen, Jonathan A
2013-01-01
Thermal conductivity in non-metallic crystalline materials results from cumulative contributions of phonons that have a broad range of mean free paths. Here we use high frequency surface temperature modulation that generates non-diffusive phonon transport to probe the phonon mean free path spectra of GaAs, GaN, AlN, and 4H-SiC at temperatures near 80?K, 150?K, 300?K, and 400?K. We find that phonons with MFPs greater than 230 ± 120?nm, 1000 ± 200?nm, 2500 ± 800?nm, and 4200 ± 850?nm contribute 50% of the bulk thermal conductivity of GaAs, GaN, AlN, and 4H-SiC near room temperature. By non-dimensionalizing the data based on Umklapp scattering rates of phonons, we identified a universal phonon mean free path spectrum in small unit cell crystalline semiconductors at high temperature. PMID:24129328
Universal phonon mean free path spectra in crystalline semiconductors at high temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freedman, Justin P.; Leach, Jacob H.; Preble, Edward A.; Sitar, Zlatko; Davis, Robert F.; Malen, Jonathan A.
2013-10-01
Thermal conductivity in non-metallic crystalline materials results from cumulative contributions of phonons that have a broad range of mean free paths. Here we use high frequency surface temperature modulation that generates non-diffusive phonon transport to probe the phonon mean free path spectra of GaAs, GaN, AlN, and 4H-SiC at temperatures near 80 K, 150 K, 300 K, and 400 K. We find that phonons with MFPs greater than 230 +/- 120 nm, 1000 +/- 200 nm, 2500 +/- 800 nm, and 4200 +/- 850 nm contribute 50% of the bulk thermal conductivity of GaAs, GaN, AlN, and 4H-SiC near room temperature. By non-dimensionalizing the data based on Umklapp scattering rates of phonons, we identified a universal phonon mean free path spectrum in small unit cell crystalline semiconductors at high temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Gaosheng; Wang, Lixin; Chen, Lin; Du, Xiaoze; Xu, Chao; Zhang, Xinxin
2015-07-01
This study comprehensively analyzes the mean free path of gas molecules and gaseous thermal conductivity in confined nanoporous structures through a wide range of temperatures and pressures. A simplified unit cell cubic array structure of nanospheres is used to correlate microstructure features with specific surface area and density of nanoporous materials. Zeng's model is used to describe the mean free path of the gas molecules and the gaseous thermal conductivity in confined nanoporous structures, and experimental gaseous thermal conductivity data from the literature is used to validate the model. The results show that a material's nanoporous structure features are directly related to specific surface area and density. The mean free path of gas molecules in a confined nanoporous structure decreases with increasing specific surface area and density. Thus, nanoporous materials with a relatively high specific surface area and a higher density are more favorable for confining gaseous thermal conductivity in nanopores. This work shows that p=104{ Pa} and 106{ Pa} are two characteristic pressures at ambient temperatures for the investigated silica aerogel materials. When p<104{ Pa} , the mean free path of the gas molecules remains constant with varying pressure, while gaseous thermal conductivity approaches zero due to the restrictive effect of the nanoporous structure and the diluted gas molecules. When {p}>106{ Pa} , the limiting effect of the nanoporous structure on the movement of gas molecules can be ignored, and so the mean free path of gas molecules in the nanoporous material approaches the mean free path of gas molecules in free space, while the gaseous thermal conductivity approaches the gaseous thermal conductivity in free space. As temperature increases, there exists a maximum value for gaseous thermal conductivity in confined nanoporous materials, but this maximum increases as pressure increases. The maximum gaseous thermal conductivity for the material is also determined in the paper.
Measurement of mean inner potential and inelastic mean free path of ZnO nanowires and nanosheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gan, Zhaofeng; Ahn, Seungho; Yu, Hongbin; Smith, David J.; McCartney, Martha R.
2015-10-01
ZnO nanowires (NWs) and ZnO nano-sheets were grown using the chemical vapor deposition method. The NW structure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, while the mean inner potential and inelastic mean free path for 200 keV electrons were measured using off-axis electron holography to be 15.3 ± 0.2 V and 55 ± 3 nm, respectively. These values were then used to characterize the thickness of a ZnO nano-sheet, and gave consistent results. This study demonstrates that electron holography can provide useful information about nanostructured ZnO materials and devices.
Effective phonon mean-free path and slip heat flow in rarefied phonon hydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlomagno, I.; Sellitto, A.; Jou, D.
2015-10-01
Non-local effects in generalized heat-transport equations provide a mesoscopic approach to phonon hydrodynamics. In contrast to usual phonon hydrodynamics with non-slip heat flow, we consider, in analogy to rarefied gas dynamics, a slip heat flow along the walls. This way the effective thermal conductivity behaves as Kn-1 instead of as Kn-2, which is the behavior in usual phonon hydrodynamics, Kn being the Knudsen number, i.e., the ratio between the mean-free path of the heat carriers and a characteristic size of the system. Here we revisit previous formulations to provide a more explicit and clearer interpretation of the differences between the effective mean-free path in the non-local term of the generalized transport equation for q, and that in the thermal conductivity.
Scattering mean free path in continuous complex media: Beyond the Helmholtz equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baydoun, Ibrahim; Baresch, Diego; Pierrat, Romain; Derode, Arnaud
2015-09-01
We present theoretical calculations of the ensemble-averaged (or effective or coherent) wave field propagating in a heterogeneous medium considered as one realization of a random process. In the literature, it is usually assumed that heterogeneity can be accounted for by a random scalar function of the space coordinates, termed the potential. Physically, this amounts to replacing the constant wave speed in Helmholtz' equation by a space-dependent speed. In the case of acoustic waves, we show that this approach leads to incorrect results for the scattering mean free path, no matter how weak the fluctuations. The detailed calculation of the coherent wave field must take into account both a scalar and an operator part in the random potential. When both terms have identical amplitudes, the correct value for the scattering mean free paths is shown to be more than 4 times smaller (13/3, precisely) in the low-frequency limit, whatever the shape of the correlation function. Based on the diagrammatic approach of multiple scattering, theoretical results are obtained for the self-energy and mean free path within Bourret's and on-shell approximations. They are confirmed by numerical experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obermann, Anne; Larose, Eric; Margerin, Ludovic; Rossetto, Vincent
2014-05-01
We analyze the statistics of phase fluctuations of seismic signals obtained from a temporary small aperture array deployed on a volcano in the French Auvergne. We demonstrate that the phase field satisfies Circular Gaussian statistics. We then determine the scattering mean free path of Rayleigh waves from the spatial phase decoherence. This phenomenon, observed for diffuse wavefields, is found to yield a good approximation of the scattering mean free path. Contrary to the amplitude, spatial phase decoherence is free from absorption effects and provides direct access to the scattering mean free path. Our method may find applications in various areas of seismology where the effects of scattering are prominent and a knowledge of the scattering properties is necessary to describe the propagation. As an example, an unbiased estimate of the scattering mean free path is crucial for the localization of changes in multiply scattering media, where a sensitivity kernel based on diffusion theory is used (Larose et al. 2010; Obermann et al. 2013a,b). Our experimental approach may also provide independent estimates of the scattering mean free path in volcanic areas where particularly strong scattering has been proposed, based on the fitting of energy envelopes using energy transport approaches (Wegler & Lühr 2001; Yamamoto & Sato 2010). References: Larose, E., Planès, T., Rossetto, V. & Margerin, L., 2010. Locating a small change in a multiple scattering environment, Appl. Phys. Lett., 96(204101), 1-3. Obermann, A., Planès, T., Larose, E. & Campillo, M., 2013a. Imaging pre and co-eruptive structural and mechanical changes on a volcano with ambient seismic noise, J. geophys. Res., 118, 1-10. Obermann, A., Planès, T., Larose, E., Sens-Schönfelder, C. & Campillo,M., 2013b. Depth sensitivity of seismic coda waves to velocity perturbations in an elastic heterogeneous medium, Geophys. J. Int., 194(1), 372-382. Wegler, U. & Lühr, B.G., 2001. Scattering behaviour at Merapi volcano (Java) revealed from an active seismic experiment, Geophys. J. Int., 145(3), 579-592. Yamamoto, M. & Sato, H., 2010. Multiple scattering and mode conversion revealed by an active seismic experiment at Asama volcano, Japan, J. geophys. Res., 115(B7), doi:10.1029/2009JB007109.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pathak, M. B.; Vyas, P. R.; Bhatt, N. K.; Jani, A. R.; Gohel, V. B.
2011-07-01
The resistivity of liquid less-simple metals is calculated using Ziman's theory. The effective electron-ion interaction pseudopotential constructed from energy-wave number characteristics, which is obtained through first principles, has been used in the present study. The self-consistent electrical resistivity is evaluated by considering blurring of the Fermi surface due to finite mean free path of electrons. Our results are well compared with experiments and other theoretical findings. It is pointed out that the presently generated local pseudopotentials not only suffice for electrical properties, but has an additional advantage of making calculations simple.
Heat transport by long mean free path vibrations in amorphous silicon nitride near room temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sultan, Rubina; Avery, A. D.; Underwood, J. M.; Mason, S. J.; Bassett, D.; Zink, B. L.
2013-06-01
We present measurements of thermal transport in 500-nm-thick, 35-?m-wide, and 806-?m-long micromachined suspended silicon nitride (Si-N) bridges over the temperature range of 77 to 325 K. The measured thermal conductivity of Si-N (for material grown by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition in two different furnaces) deviates somewhat from previously reported measurements and also shows surprising dependence on surface variation at these relatively high temperatures. Addition of discontinuous gold films causes the thermal conductance of Si-N bridges to drop through the entire measured temperature range, before rising again when thicker, continuous films are added. Similar effects occur when continuous but very low-thermal-conductivity alumina films are deposited. The reduction in thermal conductance upon modification of the Si-N surface is strong evidence that vibrational excitations with long mean free paths carry significant heat even at these high temperatures. By measuring a series of film thicknesses the surface-scattering effects can be mitigated, and the resulting experimental values of the thermal conductivity of alumina and Au thin films compare very well to known values or to predictions of the Wiedemann-Franz law. We also present a modified model for the phonon mean free path in thin-film geometries, and use it along with atomic force microsope scans to show that a very small population of phonons with mean free path on the order of 1 ?m and wavelength much longer than the expected thermal wavelengths carry up to 50% of the heat in Si-N at room temperature.
Neutron fraction and neutrino mean free path predictions in relativistic mean field models
Hutauruk, P.T.P.; Williams, C.K.; Sulaksono, A.; Mart, T.
2004-12-01
The equation of state (EOS) of dense matter and neutrino mean free path (NMFP) in a neutron star have been studied by using relativistic mean field models motivated by effective field theory. It is found that the models predict too large proton fractions, although one of the models (G2) predicts an acceptable EOS. This is caused by the isovector terms. Except G2, the other two models predict anomalous NMFP's. In order to minimize the anomaly, besides an acceptable EOS, a large M* is favorable. A model with large M* retains the regularity in the NMFP even for a small neutron fraction.
Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J.
2015-01-01
Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977
Linear response theory and neutrino mean free path using Brussels-Montreal Skyrme functionals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pastore, A.; Martini, M.; Davesne, D.; Navarro, J.; Goriely, S.; Chamel, N.
2014-08-01
The Brussels-Montreal Skyrme functionals have been successful in describing properties of both finite nuclei and infinite homogeneous nuclear matter. In their latest version, these functionals have been equipped with two extra density-dependent terms in order to reproduce simultaneously ground state properties of nuclei and infinite nuclear matter properties while avoiding at the same time the arising of ferromagnetic instabilities. In the present article, we extend our previous results of the linear response theory to include such extra terms at both zero and finite temperature in pure neutron matter. The resulting formalism is then applied to derive the neutrino mean free path. The predictions from the Brussels-Montreal Skyrme functionals are compared with ab initio methods.
Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J
2015-01-01
Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977
Phonon mean free path of graphite along the c-axis
Wei, Zhiyong; Yang, Juekuan; Chen, Weiyu; Bi, Kedong; Chen, Yunfei
2014-02-24
Phonon transport in the c-axis direction of graphite thin films has been studied using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The simulation results show that the c-axis thermal conductivities for films of thickness ranging from 20 to 500 atomic layers are significantly lower than the bulk value. Based on the MD data, a method is developed to construct the c-axis thermal conductivity as an accumulation function of phonon mean free path (MFP), from which we show that phonons with MFPs from 2 to 2000?nm contribute ?80% of the graphite c-axis thermal conductivity at room temperature, and phonons with MFPs larger than 100?nm contribute over 40% to the c-axis thermal conductivity. These findings indicate that the commonly believed value of just a few nanometers from the simple kinetic theory drastically underestimates the c-axis phonon MFP of graphite.
He, H.-Q.; Wan, W. E-mail: wanw@mail.iggcas.ac.cn
2012-03-01
The parallel mean free path of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which is determined by physical properties of SEPs as well as those of solar wind, is a very important parameter in space physics to study the transport of charged energetic particles in the heliosphere, especially for space weather forecasting. In space weather practice, it is necessary to find a quick approach to obtain the parallel mean free path of SEPs for a solar event. In addition, the adiabatic focusing effect caused by a spatially varying mean magnetic field in the solar system is important to the transport processes of SEPs. Recently, Shalchi presented an analytical description of the parallel diffusion coefficient with adiabatic focusing. Based on Shalchi's results, in this paper we provide a direct analytical formula as a function of parameters concerning the physical properties of SEPs and solar wind to directly and quickly determine the parallel mean free path of SEPs with adiabatic focusing. Since all of the quantities in the analytical formula can be directly observed by spacecraft, this direct method would be a very useful tool in space weather research. As applications of the direct method, we investigate the inherent relations between the parallel mean free path and various parameters concerning physical properties of SEPs and solar wind. Comparisons of parallel mean free paths with and without adiabatic focusing are also presented.
Phonon Mean Free Path Spectra Measured by Broadband Frequency Domain Thermoreflectance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malen, Jonathan
2014-03-01
Nonmetallic crystalline materials conduct heat by the transport of quantized atomic lattice vibrations called phonons. Thermal conductivity depends on how far phonons travel between scattering events -- their mean free paths (MFPs). Due to the breadth of the phonon MFP spectrum, nanostructuring of materials and devices can reduce thermal conductivity from bulk by scattering long MFP phonons, while short MFP phonons are unaffected. We have developed a novel approach called Broadband Frequency Domain Thermoreflectance (BB-FDTR) that uses high-frequency laser heating to generate non-Fourier heat conduction that can sort phonons based on their MFPs. BB-FDTR outputs thermal conductivity as a function of heating frequency. Through non-equilibrium Boltzmann Transport Equation models this data can be converted to thermal conductivity accumulation, which describes how thermal conductivity is summed from phonons with different MFPs. Relative to alternative approaches, BB-FDTR yields order-of-magnitude improvements in the resolution and breadth of the thermal conductivity accumulation function. We will present data for GaAs, GaN, AlN, Si, and SiC that show interesting commonalities near their respective Debye temperatures and suggest that there may be a universal phonon MFP spectrum for small unit cell non-metals in the high temperature limit. At the time of this abstract submission we are also working on measurements of semiconductor alloys and select metals that will be presented if completed by the conference.
The effect of characteristic length on mean free path for confined gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
P. D., Sree Hari; Prabha, Sooraj K.; Sathian, Sarith P.
2015-11-01
Molecular Dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the influence of system boundaries and characteristic length (L) of the system on the mean free path (MFP) of rarefied gas confined to the walls of a nano-channel. Isothermal Lennard-Jones fluid confined between Reflective walls and platinum walls at different number densities (0.31 atoms/nm3 and 1.61 atoms/nm3) are independently considered. The MFP is calculated by the Lagrangian approach of tracking the trajectory of each atom and averaging the distance between successive collisions. The percentage of fluid-wall collisions is observed to predominate over fluid-fluid collisions at high levels of rarefaction. The influence of L (varying from 6 nm to 16 nm) on MFP is examined in this regime. At lower Knudsen number (Kn), it is observed that the effect of L on MFP is minimal. However, at higher rarefaction the characteristic dimension influences the MFP significantly for various wall configurations.
Scaling laws of cumulative thermal conductivity for short and long phonon mean free paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aketo, Daisuke; Shiga, Takuma; Shiomi, Junichiro
2014-09-01
Cumulative thermal conductivity (CTC), an accumulation function of lattice thermal conductivity with respect to the phonon mean free path (PMFP), is a useful single-crystal property to gain insight into how much nanostructuring can potentially reduce thermal conductivity. While the details of the CTC profile depend on each material, we have identified that the profile has universal features in the short and long PMFP regimes with each characteristic length scale. In each PMFP regime, by scaling the PMFP with the characteristic length derived using phenomenological models, CTC calculated based on first principles for various materials collapse on a master curve. We also find an empirical relation between the short and long PMFP characteristic length scales, which allows us to roughly estimate the onset/offset PMFP of CTC (i.e., PMFP when CTC are 10%/90% of the total thermal conductivity) only with the knowledge of bulk thermal conductivity and averaged group velocity. The finding provides a facile way to estimate the range of PMFP with noticeable contribution to lattice thermal conductivity, which is useful for designing nanostructured materials with low thermal conductivity, particularly in developing thermoelectric materials.
Sergey A. Rukolaine
2015-03-11
In classical kinetic or kinetic-like models a particle free path distribution is exponensial, but this is more likely to be an exception than a rule. In this paper we derive a linear Boltzmann-like equation for a general free path distribution in the framework of Alt's model J. Math. Biol. 9:147 (1980). In the special case that the free path distribution has at least first and second finite moments we construct an asymptotic solution of the equation for small mean free paths. The asymptotic solution becomes a diffusion approximation to the one-speed Boltzmann-like equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simakov, Andrei N.; Catto, Peter J.
2005-10-01
Expressions for ion perpendicular viscosity, electron and ion parallel viscosities, gyroviscosities, and heat fluxes, as well as electron-ion energy and momentum exchange terms are derived for arbitrary mean-free path plasmas, in which the lowest order distribution function is a Maxwellian. The latter assumption often holds for plasmas confined by magnetic fields with closed flux surfaces in the absence of strong external driving forces [1], such as neutral beams or radio-frequency waves. In particular, it is always employed in the neoclassical theory. The results are given in terms of a few velocity space integrals of the gyrophase averaged correction to the Maxwellian by assuming the gyroradius is small compared to the shortest perpendicular scale length. The general expressions make possible a hybrid fluid-kinetic description, and correctly reproduce known results in the collisional limit [2].[1] R. D. Hazeltine and J. D. Meiss, Plasma Confinement (Addison-Wesley, Redwood City, CA, 1991).[2] P. J. Catto and A. N. Simakov, Phys. Plasmas 11, 90 (2004).
He, H.-Q.; Schlickeiser, R. E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de
2014-09-10
The cosmic ray mean free path in a large-scale nonuniform guide magnetic field with superposed magnetostatic turbulence is calculated to clarify some conflicting results in the literature. A new, exact integro-differential equation for the cosmic-ray anisotropy is derived from the Fokker-Planck transport equation. A perturbation analysis of this integro-differential equation leads to an analytical expression for the cosmic ray anisotropy and the focused transport equation for the isotropic part of the cosmic ray distribution function. The derived parallel spatial diffusion coefficient and the associated cosmic ray mean free path include the effect of adiabatic focusing and reduce to the standard forms in the limit of a uniform guide magnetic field. For the illustrative case of isotropic pitch angle scattering, the derived mean free path agrees with the earlier expressions of Beeck and Wibberenz, Bieber and Burger, Kota, and Litvinenko, but disagrees with the result of Shalchi. The disagreement with the expression of Shalchi is particularly strong in the limit of strong adiabatic focusing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bingi, J.; Hemalatha, M.; Anita, R. W.; Vijayan, C.; Murukeshan, V. M.
2015-11-01
Light transport and the physical phenomena related to light propagation in random media are very intriguing, they also provide scope for new paradigms of device functionality, most of which remain unexplored. Here we demonstrate, experimentally and by simulation, a novel kind of asymmetric light transmission (diffusion) in a stack of random media (SRM) with graded transport mean free path. The structure is studied in terms of transmission, of photons propagated through and photons generated within the SRM. It is observed that the SRM exhibits asymmetric transmission property with a transmission contrast of 0.25. In addition, it is shown that the SRM works as a perfect optical low-pass filter with a well-defined cutoff wavelength at 580 nm. Further, the photons generated within the SRM found to exhibit functionality similar to an optical diode with a transmission contrast of 0.62. The basis of this functionality is explained in terms of wavelength dependent photon randomization and the graded transport mean free path of SRM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Worseck, Gábor; Prochaska, J. Xavier; O'Meara, John M.; Becker, George D.; Ellison, Sara L.; Lopez, Sebastian; Meiksin, Avery; Ménard, Brice; Murphy, Michael T.; Fumagalli, Michele
2014-12-01
We have obtained spectra of 163 quasars at zem > 4.4 with the Gemini Multi Object Spectrometers, the largest publicly available sample of high-quality, low-resolution spectra at these redshifts. From this data set, we generated stacked quasar spectra in three redshift intervals at z ˜ 5 to model the average rest-frame Lyman continuum flux and to assess the mean free path ? _mfp^{912} of the intergalactic medium to H I-ionizing radiation. At mean redshifts zq = (4.56, 4.86, 5.16), we measure ? _mfp^{912}=(22.2 ± 2.3, 15.1 ± 1.8, 10.3 ± 1.6)h_{70}^{-1} proper Mpc with uncertainties dominated by sample variance. Combining our results with measurements from lower redshifts, the data are well modelled by a power law ? _mfp^{912}=A[(1+zright)/5]^? with A=(37 ± 2)h_{70}^{-1} Mpc and ? = -5.4 ± 0.4 at 2.3 < z < 5.5. This rapid evolution requires a physical mechanism - beyond cosmological expansion - which reduces the effective Lyman limit opacity. We speculate that the majority of H I Lyman limit opacity manifests in gas outside galactic dark matter haloes, tracing large-scale structures (e.g. filaments) whose average density and neutral fraction decreases with cosmic time. Our measurements of the mean free path shortly after H I reionization serve as a valuable boundary condition for numerical models thereof. Our measured ? _mfp^{912}? 10 Mpc at z = 5.2 confirms that the intergalactic medium is highly ionized without evidence for a break that would indicate a recent end to H I reionization.
He, H.-Q.; Wan, W. E-mail: wanw@mail.iggcas.ac.cn
2012-12-15
A direct approach for explicitly determining the perpendicular mean free path of solar energetic particles (SEPs) influenced by parallel diffusion and composite dynamical turbulence in a spatially varying magnetic field is presented. As theoretical applications of the direct approach, we investigate the inherent relations between the perpendicular mean free path and various parameters concerning physical properties of SEPs as well as those of interplanetary conditions such as the solar wind and the turbulent magnetic field. Comparisons of the perpendicular mean free paths with and without adiabatic focusing are also presented. The direct method shows encouraging agreement with spacecraft observations, suggesting it is a reliable and useful tool for use in theoretical investigations and space weather forecasting.
Wang, Mingchao; Lin, Shangchao
2015-01-01
The elastic modulus of carbyne, a one-dimensional carbon chain, was recently predicted to be much higher than graphene. Inspired by this discovery and the fundamental correlation between elastic modulus and thermal conductivity, we investigate the intrinsic thermal transport in two carbon allotropes: carbyne and cumulene. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we discover that thermal conductivities of carbyne and cumulene at the quantum-corrected room temperature can exceed 54 and 148?kW/m/K, respectively, much higher than that for graphene. Such conductivity is attributed to high phonon energies and group velocities, as well as reduced scattering from non-overlapped acoustic and optical phonon modes. The prolonged spectral acoustic phonon lifetime of 30–110?ps and mean free path of 0.5–2.5??m exceed those for graphene, and allow ballistic phonon transport along micron-length carbon chains. Tensile extensions can enhance the thermal conductivity of carbyne due to the increased phonon density of states in the acoustic modes and the increased phonon lifetime from phonon bandgap opening. These findings provide fundamental insights into phonon transport and band structure engineering through tensile deformation in low-dimensional materials, and will inspire studies on carbyne, cumulene, and boron nitride chains for their practical deployments in nano-devices. PMID:26658143
Wang, Mingchao; Lin, Shangchao
2015-01-01
The elastic modulus of carbyne, a one-dimensional carbon chain, was recently predicted to be much higher than graphene. Inspired by this discovery and the fundamental correlation between elastic modulus and thermal conductivity, we investigate the intrinsic thermal transport in two carbon allotropes: carbyne and cumulene. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we discover that thermal conductivities of carbyne and cumulene at the quantum-corrected room temperature can exceed 54 and 148?kW/m/K, respectively, much higher than that for graphene. Such conductivity is attributed to high phonon energies and group velocities, as well as reduced scattering from non-overlapped acoustic and optical phonon modes. The prolonged spectral acoustic phonon lifetime of 30-110?ps and mean free path of 0.5-2.5??m exceed those for graphene, and allow ballistic phonon transport along micron-length carbon chains. Tensile extensions can enhance the thermal conductivity of carbyne due to the increased phonon density of states in the acoustic modes and the increased phonon lifetime from phonon bandgap opening. These findings provide fundamental insights into phonon transport and band structure engineering through tensile deformation in low-dimensional materials, and will inspire studies on carbyne, cumulene, and boron nitride chains for their practical deployments in nano-devices. PMID:26658143
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jakoby, Bernhard
2009-01-01
The collision model is frequently introduced to describe electronic conductivity in solids. Depending on the chosen approach, the introduction of the collision time can lead to erroneous results for the average velocity of the electrons, which enters the expression for the electrical conductivity. In other textbooks, correct results are obtained…
Mean Free Path in Soccer and Gases
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luzuriaga, J.
2010-01-01
The trajectories of the molecules in an ideal gas and of the ball in a soccer game are compared. The great difference between these motions and some similarities are discussed. This example could be suitable for discussing many concepts in kinetic theory in a way that can be pictured by students for getting a more intuitive understanding. It could…
Painter, L.R.
1984-01-01
The work on collective electronic oscillations in the silicone liquid Dow Corning 705 was revised. Newly analyzed data on electron bombardment gave better agreement with results of analyzed vuv optical reflectance values for energy loss than earlier results indicated. As previously reported, electron and photon mean free paths and absolute photoyields were calculated from reanalyzed liquid water data in the 2 to 25 eV region. These electron mean free paths were calculated from formamide electron mean free paths scaled for valence electron density. The formamide mean free paths were derived using Born approximation by Ashley and Williams. An alternate approach to calculation of electron mean free path in organic and inorganic matter proposed by Seah and Dench has been followed. A paper detailing the water data and discrepancies in electron mean free path is in preparation. A survey of a range of liquids with request to reflectivity and photoemission was completed. Absorbance measurements in the 25,000 to 2700 A region were made on a number of the insulating liquids. As a result, a series of n-ethylene glycols with particularly high dipole moments was chosen for study. The main thrust of the current contract period has been a study of these liquids which include ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and tetraethylene glycol.
Electron correlation from path resummations: the double-excitation star Alex J. W. Thom,
Alavi, Ali
Electron correlation from path resummations: the double-excitation star Alex J. W. Thom, George H evaluation of a N-electron path-integral. In particular, we show that the double excitation star graph. In this paper, we concentrate on the case of the star graph, whose form allows its weight to be calculated
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, Lun C.; Malandraki, Olga E.; Reames, Donald; NG, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua; Patsou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Athanasios
2013-01-01
We have examined the Wind/3DP/SST electron and Wind/EPACT/LEMT ion data to investigate the path length difference between solar electrons and ions in the ground-level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23. Assuming that the onset time of metric type II or decameter-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts is the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons, we have found that within an error range of plus or minus 10% the deduced path length of low-energy (approximately 27 keV) electrons from their release site near the Sun to the 1 AU observer is consistent with the ion path length deduced by Reames from the onset time analysis. In addition, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined are in favor of the coronal mass ejection-driven shock acceleration origin of observed non-relativistic electrons.We have also found an increase of electron path lengths with increasing electron energies. The increasing rate of path lengths is correlated with the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of peak electron intensities locally measured, with a higher rate corresponding to a broader PAD. The correlation indicates that the path length enhancement is due to the interplanetary scattering experienced by first arriving electrons. The observed path length consistency implies that the maximum stable time of magnetic flux tubes, along which particles transport, could reach 4.8 hr.
Tan, Lun C.; Malandraki, Olga E.; Patsou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Reames, Donald V.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua
2013-05-01
We have examined the Wind/3DP/SST electron and Wind/EPACT/LEMT ion data to investigate the path length difference between solar electrons and ions in the ground-level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23. Assuming that the onset time of metric type II or decameter-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts is the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons, we have found that within an error range of {+-}10% the deduced path length of low-energy ({approx}27 keV) electrons from their release site near the Sun to the 1 AU observer is consistent with the ion path length deduced by Reames from the onset time analysis. In addition, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined are in favor of the coronal mass ejection-driven shock acceleration origin of observed non-relativistic electrons. We have also found an increase of electron path lengths with increasing electron energies. The increasing rate of path lengths is correlated with the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of peak electron intensities locally measured, with a higher rate corresponding to a broader PAD. The correlation indicates that the path length enhancement is due to the interplanetary scattering experienced by first arriving electrons. The observed path length consistency implies that the maximum stable time of magnetic flux tubes, along which particles transport, could reach 4.8 hr.
Burke, TImothy P.; Kiedrowski, Brian C.; Martin, William R.; Brown, Forrest B.
2015-11-19
Kernel Density Estimators (KDEs) are a non-parametric density estimation technique that has recently been applied to Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. Kernel density estimators are an alternative to histogram tallies for obtaining global solutions in Monte Carlo tallies. With KDEs, a single event, either a collision or particle track, can contribute to the score at multiple tally points with the uncertainty at those points being independent of the desired resolution of the solution. Thus, KDEs show potential for obtaining estimates of a global solution with reduced variance when compared to a histogram. Previously, KDEs have been applied to neutronics for one-group reactor physics problems and fixed source shielding applications. However, little work was done to obtain reaction rates using KDEs. This paper introduces a new form of the MFP KDE that is capable of handling general geometries. Furthermore, extending the MFP KDE to 2-D problems in continuous energy introduces inaccuracies to the solution. An ad-hoc solution to these inaccuracies is introduced that produces errors smaller than 4% at material interfaces.
Kushner, Mark
Electron energy distributions and anomalous skin depth effects in high-plasma-density inductively December 2002 Electron transport in low pressure 10s mTorr , moderate frequency 10s MHz inductively coupled the mean free paths of electrons are significant fractions of the cell dimensions and the skin depth
Ab Initio Study of Phonon-Induced Dephasing of Electronic Excitations in
Vibrational dephasing of the lowest energy electronic excitations in the perfect (16,16) graphene nanoribbon importance. The electron-phonon interaction influences the electron mean-free-path in nanoribbon FETs and, therefore, deter- mines the length of the FET channel as well as the switching speed of the device.6
Effect of a thermal bath on electronic resonance decay: A numerical path-integral study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plöhn, Heiko; Thoss, Michael; Winterstetter, Manfred; Domcke, Wolfgang
1998-08-01
The effect of electron-vibrational coupling on the decay of a metastable electronic state is treated by a real-time path-integral method. The electronic resonance is described within the framework of the projection operator formalism of scattering theory. The effect of the bath is taken into account by the Feynman-Vernon influence functional technique. In this formulation, neither Born-type nor Markov-type approximations are invoked. The numerical evaluation of the time-discretized path integral is made possible by a recursive partial summation technique. This approach, which has previously been formulated for scattering amplitudes, is generalized to population probabilities that are given by a forward-backward double path integral. The performance of the method is demonstrated for model systems describing a d-wave shape resonance, which is linearly coupled to a bath with Ohmic spectral function. The effect of the bath is investigated as a function of coupling strength and temperature.
Scudder, Jack
Electron heat flow in the solar corona: Implications of non-Maxwellian velocity distributions January 2003; published 19 July 2003. [1] It has long been known that weak electron temperature gradients in fully ionized plamas (satisfying l jrTej/Te ] 10À4 , where le is the electron mean free path and Te
Decay Paths of Interfering Two-Electron Excitations in Helium
Menzel, A.; Frigo, S.P.; Whitfield, S.B.; Caldwell, C.D.; Krause, M.O.; Tang, J.; Shimamura, I.
1995-08-21
Partial photoionization cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions of He in the region of interfering Rydberg series below the {ital n}=5 threshold are measured and compared with theoretical results based on the hyperspherical close-coupling method. At a bandpass of 12 meV for the photon energy, this level of differentiation offers the most critical assessment of the dynamics of the two-electron excitations to date. A good understanding is achieved.
Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo for Electron Thermal Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chenhall, Jeffrey; Cao, Duc; Wollaeger, Ryan; Moses, Gregory
2014-10-01
The iSNB (implicit Schurtz Nicolai Busquet electron thermal transport method of Cao et al. is adapted to a Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) solution method for eventual inclusion in a hybrid IMC-DDMC (Implicit Monte Carlo) method. The hybrid method will combine the efficiency of a diffusion method in short mean free path regions with the accuracy of a transport method in long mean free path regions. The Monte Carlo nature of the approach allows the algorithm to be massively parallelized. Work to date on the iSNB-DDMC method will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratory - Albuquerque.
Putz, Mihai V.
2009-01-01
The density matrix theory, the ancestor of density functional theory, provides the immediate framework for Path Integral (PI) development, allowing the canonical density be extended for the many-electronic systems through the density functional closure relationship. Yet, the use of path integral formalism for electronic density prescription presents several advantages: assures the inner quantum mechanical description of the system by parameterized paths; averages the quantum fluctuations; behaves as the propagator for time-space evolution of quantum information; resembles Schrödinger equation; allows quantum statistical description of the system through partition function computing. In this framework, four levels of path integral formalism were presented: the Feynman quantum mechanical, the semiclassical, the Feynman-Kleinert effective classical, and the Fokker-Planck non-equilibrium ones. In each case the density matrix or/and the canonical density were rigorously defined and presented. The practical specializations for quantum free and harmonic motions, for statistical high and low temperature limits, the smearing justification for the Bohr’s quantum stability postulate with the paradigmatic Hydrogen atomic excursion, along the quantum chemical calculation of semiclassical electronegativity and hardness, of chemical action and Mulliken electronegativity, as well as by the Markovian generalizations of Becke-Edgecombe electronic focalization functions – all advocate for the reliability of assuming PI formalism of quantum mechanics as a versatile one, suited for analytically and/or computationally modeling of a variety of fundamental physical and chemical reactivity concepts characterizing the (density driving) many-electronic systems. PMID:20087467
Assurance of Complex Electronics. What Path Do We Take?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Plastow, Richard A.
2007-01-01
Many of the methods used to develop software bare a close resemblance to Complex Electronics (CE) development. CE are now programmed to perform tasks that were previously handled in software, such as communication protocols. For instance, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) can have over a million logic gates while system-on-chip (SOC) devices can combine a microprocessor, input and output channels, and sometimes an FPGA for programmability. With this increased intricacy, the possibility of "software-like" bugs such as incorrect design, logic, and unexpected interactions within the logic is great. Since CE devices are obscuring the hardware/software boundary, we propose that mature software methodologies may be utilized with slight modifications to develop these devices. By using standardized S/W Engineering methods such as checklists, missing requirements and "bugs" can be detected earlier in the development cycle, thus creating a development process for CE that will be easily maintained and configurable based on the device used.
Weak measurement from the electron displacement current: new path for applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marian, D.; Colomés, E.; Zanghì, N.; Oriols, X.
2015-10-01
The interest on weak measurements is rapidly growing during the last years as a unique tool to better understand and predict new quantum phenomena. Up to now many theoretical and experimental weak-measurement techniques deal with (relativistic) photons or cold atoms, but there is much less investigation on (non-relativistic) electrons in up-to-date electronics technologies. We propose a way to perform weak measurements in nanoelectronic devices through the measurement of the total current (particle plus displacement component) in such devices. We study the interaction between an electron in the active region of a electron device with a metal surface working as a sensing electrode by means of the (Bohmian) conditional wave function. We perform numerical (Monte Carlo) simulations to reconstruct the Bohmian trajectories in the iconic double slit experiment. This work opens new paths for understanding the quantum properties of an electronic system as well as for exploring new quantum engineering applications in solid state physics.
Huo, Pengfei; Miller, Thomas F. III; Coker, David F.
2013-10-21
A partial linearized path integral approach is used to calculate the condensed phase electron transfer (ET) rate by directly evaluating the flux-flux/flux-side quantum time correlation functions. We demonstrate for a simple ET model that this approach can reliably capture the transition between non-adiabatic and adiabatic regimes as the electronic coupling is varied, while other commonly used semi-classical methods are less accurate over the broad range of electronic couplings considered. Further, we show that the approach reliably recovers the Marcus turnover as a function of thermodynamic driving force, giving highly accurate rates over four orders of magnitude from the normal to the inverted regimes. We also demonstrate that the approach yields accurate rate estimates over five orders of magnitude of inverse temperature. Finally, the approach outlined here accurately captures the electronic coherence in the flux-flux correlation function that is responsible for the decreased rate in the inverted regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dornheim, Tobias; Schoof, Tim; Groth, Simon; Filinov, Alexey; Bonitz, Michael
2015-11-01
The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature is of high current interest due to its key relevance for many applications including dense plasmas and laser excited solids. In particular, density functional theory heavily relies on accurate thermodynamic data for the UEG. Until recently, the only existing first-principle results had been obtained for N = 33 electrons with restricted path integral Monte Carlo (RPIMC), for low to moderate density, r s = r ¯ / a B ? 1 . These data have been complemented by configuration path integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations for rs ? 1 that substantially deviate from RPIMC towards smaller rs and low temperature. In this work, we present results from an independent third method—the recently developed permutation blocking path integral Monte Carlo (PB-PIMC) approach [T. Dornheim et al., New J. Phys. 17, 073017 (2015)] which we extend to the UEG. Interestingly, PB-PIMC allows us to perform simulations over the entire density range down to half the Fermi temperature (? = kBT/EF = 0.5) and, therefore, to compare our results to both aforementioned methods. While we find excellent agreement with CPIMC, where results are available, we observe deviations from RPIMC that are beyond the statistical errors and increase with density.
Dornheim, Tobias; Groth, Simon; Filinov, Alexey; Bonitz, Michael
2015-01-01
The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature is of high current interest due to its key relevance for many applications including dense plasmas and laser excited solids. In particular, density functional theory heavily relies on accurate thermodynamic data for the UEG. Until recently, the only existing first-principle results had been obtained for $N=33$ electrons with restricted path integral Monte Carlo (RPIMC), for low to moderate density, $r_s = \\overline{r}/a_B \\gtrsim 1$. This data has been complemented by Configuration path integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations for $r_s \\leq 1$ that substantially deviate from RPIMC towards smaller $r_s$ and low temperature. In this work, we present results from an independent third method---the recently developed permutation blocking path integral Monte Carlo (PB-PIMC) approach [T. Dornheim \\textit{et al.}, NJP \\textbf{17}, 073017 (2015)] which we extend to the UEG. Interestingly, PB-PIMC allows us to perform simulations over the entire density range down to...
Dornheim, Tobias; Schoof, Tim; Groth, Simon; Filinov, Alexey; Bonitz, Michael
2015-11-28
The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature is of high current interest due to its key relevance for many applications including dense plasmas and laser excited solids. In particular, density functional theory heavily relies on accurate thermodynamic data for the UEG. Until recently, the only existing first-principle results had been obtained for N = 33 electrons with restricted path integral Monte Carlo (RPIMC), for low to moderate density, rs=r¯/aB?1. These data have been complemented by configuration path integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations for rs ? 1 that substantially deviate from RPIMC towards smaller rs and low temperature. In this work, we present results from an independent third method-the recently developed permutation blocking path integral Monte Carlo (PB-PIMC) approach [T. Dornheim et al., New J. Phys. 17, 073017 (2015)] which we extend to the UEG. Interestingly, PB-PIMC allows us to perform simulations over the entire density range down to half the Fermi temperature (? = kBT/EF = 0.5) and, therefore, to compare our results to both aforementioned methods. While we find excellent agreement with CPIMC, where results are available, we observe deviations from RPIMC that are beyond the statistical errors and increase with density. PMID:26627944
Thick-film gold and platinum conducing paths for high temperature electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jakubowska, Ma?gorzata; Kalenik, Jerzy; Kie?basi?ski, Konrad; M?o?niak, Anna; Zwierkowska, El?bieta
2008-01-01
A new thick film gold conductive composition for high temperature electronics was elaborated and tested. This paste was designed for metallization of the alumina substrates (Al IIO 3) for electrical interconnection system, e.g. for a silicon carbide Schotky diode. Also platinum pastes for conductive paths resistant to high temperatures (over 600°C) were elaborated by the authors. Several gold and platinum powders and glasses, as well as bonding oxides were examined to design a suitable composition. The influence of the paste composition and firing temperature on the layer properties was shown. The obtained layers were aged a 1000 hours at elevated temperatures (350°C). Sheet resistance of platinum and gold paths was measured. Mechanical strength and electrical resistance of wire bonds to the gold layers after aging were also examined. The electrical measurements were performed at room temperature and elevated temperature (150°C, 250°C, 350°C), using precise four-wire method. The microstructure of layers was also shown.
Path Integral Monte Carlo finite-temperature electronic structure of quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leino, Markku; Rantala, Tapio T.
2003-03-01
Quantum Monte Carlo methods allow a straightforward procedure for evaluation of electronic structures with a proper treatment of electronic correlations. This can be done even at finite temperatures [1]. We apply the Path Integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulation method [2] for one and two electrons in a single and double quantum dots. With this approach we evaluate the electronic distributions and correlations, and finite temperature effects on those. Temperature increase broadens the one-electron distribution as expected. This effect is smaller for correlated electrons than for single ones. The simulated one and two electron distributions of a single and two coupled quantum dots are also compared to those from experiments and other theoretical (0 K) methods [3]. Computational capacity is found to become the limiting factor in simulations with increasing accuracy. This and other essential aspects of PIMC and its capability in this type of calculations are also discussed. [1] R.P. Feynman: Statistical Mechanics, Addison Wesley, 1972. [2] D.M. Ceperley, Rev.Mod.Phys. 67, 279 (1995). [3] M. Pi, A. Emperador and M. Barranco, Phys.Rev.B 63, 115316 (2001).
Dutton, Robert W.
MOS devices due to the smaller energy bandgap and longer phonon mean-free-path. Even though strained-current regime have been studied using device simu- lation. The phonon mean-free-path of strained-Si devices device simulations with the phonon mean-free-path parameter determined from the full-band Monte Carlo
Iron-Oxide Minerals Affect Extracellular Electron-Transfer Paths of Geobacter spp
Kato, Souichiro; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Kazuya
2013-01-01
Some bacteria utilize (semi)conductive iron-oxide minerals as conduits for extracellular electron transfer (EET) to distant, insoluble electron acceptors. A previous study demonstrated that microbe/mineral conductive networks are constructed in soil ecosystems, in which Geobacter spp. share dominant populations. In order to examine how (semi)conductive iron-oxide minerals affect EET paths of Geobacter spp., the present study grew five representative Geobacter strains on electrodes as the sole electron acceptors in the absence or presence of (semi)conductive iron oxides. It was found that iron-oxide minerals enhanced current generation by three Geobacter strains, while no effect was observed in another strain. Geobacter sulfurreducens was the only strain that generated substantial amounts of currents both in the presence and absence of the iron oxides. Microscopic, electrochemical and transcriptomic analyses of G. sulfurreducens disclosed that this strain constructed two distinct types of EET path; in the absence of iron-oxide minerals, bacterial biofilms rich in extracellular polymeric substances were constructed, while composite networks made of mineral particles and microbial cells (without polymeric substances) were developed in the presence of iron oxides. It was also found that uncharacterized c-type cytochromes were up-regulated in the presence of iron oxides that were different from those found in conductive biofilms. These results suggest the possibility that natural (semi)conductive minerals confer energetic and ecological advantages on Geobacter, facilitating their growth and survival in the natural environment. PMID:23363619
Fermionic path-integral Monte Carlo results for the uniform electron gas at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filinov, V. S.; Fortov, V. E.; Bonitz, M.; Moldabekov, Zh.
2015-03-01
The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature has recently attracted substantial interest due to the experimental progress in the field of warm dense matter. To explain the experimental data, accurate theoretical models for high-density plasmas are needed that depend crucially on the quality of the thermodynamic properties of the quantum degenerate nonideal electrons and of the treatment of their interaction with the positive background. Recent fixed-node path-integral Monte Carlo (RPIMC) data are believed to be the most accurate for the UEG at finite temperature, but they become questionable at high degeneracy when the Brueckner parameter rs=a /aB —the ratio of the mean interparticle distance to the Bohr radius—approaches 1. The validity range of these simulations and their predictive capabilities for the UEG are presently unknown. This is due to the unknown quality of the used fixed nodes and of the finite-size scaling from N =33 simulated particles (per spin projection) to the macroscopic limit. To analyze these questions, we present alternative direct fermionic path integral Monte Carlo (DPIMC) simulations that are independent from RPIMC. Our simulations take into account quantum effects not only in the electron system but also in their interaction with the uniform positive background. Also, we use substantially larger particle numbers (up to three times more) and perform an extrapolation to the macroscopic limit. We observe very good agreement with RPIMC, for the polarized electron gas, up to moderate densities around rs=4 , and larger deviations for the unpolarized case, for low temperatures. For higher densities (high electron degeneracy), rs?1.5 , both RPIMC and DPIMC are problematic due to the increased fermion sign problem.
Turn on of new electronic paths in Fe-SiO{sub 2} granular thin film
Boff, M. A. S. E-mail: marcoaureliosilveiraboff@gmail.com; Canto, B.; Mesquita, F.; Fraga, G. L. F.; Pereira, L. G.; Hinrichs, R.; Baptista, D. L.
2014-10-06
The electrical properties of Fe-SiO{sub 2} have been studied in the low-field regime (e?V ? k{sub B}T), varying the injected current and the bias potential. Superparamagnetism and a resistance drop of 4400?? (for a voltage variation of 15?V) were observed at room temperature. This resistance drop increased at lower temperatures. The electrical properties were described with the “Mott variable range hopping” model explaining the behavior of the electrical resistance and the electronic localization length as due to the activation of new electronic paths between more distant grains. This non-ohmic resistance at room temperature can be important for properties dependent of electrical current (magnetoresistance, Hall effect, and magnetoimpedance).
Yamamoto, Kentaro Takatsuka, Kazuo
2014-03-28
We develop the path-branching representation for nonadiabatic electron wavepacket dynamics [T. Yonehara and K. Takatsuka, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 244102 (2010)] so as to treat dynamics in an energy range comparable to the barrier height of adiabatic potential energy curves. With this representation two characteristic chemical reaction dynamics are studied, in which an incident nuclear wavepacket encounters a potential barrier, on top of which lies another nonadiabatically coupled adiabatic potential curve: (1) Dynamics of initial paths coming into the nonadiabatic interaction region with energy lower than the barrier height. They branch into two pieces (and repeat branching subsequently), the upper counterparts of which can penetrate into a classically inaccessible high energy region and eventually branch back to the product region on the ground state curve. This is so to say surmounting the potential barrier via nonadiabatically coupled excited state, and phenomenologically looks like the so-called deep tunneling. (2) Dynamics of classical paths whose initial energies are a little higher than the barrier but may be lower than the bottom of the excited state. They can undergo branching and some of those components are trapped on top of the potential barrier, being followed by the population decay down to the lower state flowing both to product and reactant sites. Such expectations arising from the path-branching representation are numerically confirmed with full quantum mechanical wavepacket dynamics. This phenomenon may be experimentally observed as time-delayed pulses of wavepacket trains.
Sansone, G.; Benedetti, E.; Caumes, J.-P.; Stagira, S.; Vozzi, C.; De Silvestri, S.; Nisoli, M.
2006-05-15
In this work we report on the first experimental demonstration of selection of the long electron quantum paths in the process of high-order harmonic generation by phase-stabilized multiple-cycle light pulses. A complete experimental investigation of the role of intensity and carrier-envelope phase of the driving pulses on the spectral characteristics of the long quantum paths is performed. Simulations based on the nonadiabatic saddle-point method and on a complete nonadiabatic three-dimensional model reproduce the main features of the experimental results. The use of phase-stabilized driving pulses allows one to control, on an attosecond temporal scale, the spectral and temporal characteristics associated with the electron quantum paths involved in the harmonic generation process.
Choi, N. N.; Jiang, T. F.; Morishita, T.; Lee, M.-H.; Lin, C. D.
2010-07-15
We study theoretically the electron wave packet generated by an attosecond pulse train (APT) which is probed with a time-delayed infrared (IR) laser pulse. The APT creates an excited state and a continuum electron wave packet. By ionizing the excited state with an IR, a delayed new continuum electron wave packet is created. The interference of the wave packets from the two paths, as reflected in angle-resolved photoelectron spectra, is analyzed analytically. Using the analytical expressions, we examine the possibility of retrieving information on the electron wave packet generated by the APT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Persano Adorno, Dominique; Pizzolato, Nicola; Fazio, Claudio
2015-09-01
Within the context of higher education for science or engineering undergraduates, we present an inquiry-driven learning path aimed at developing a more meaningful conceptual understanding of the electron dynamics in semiconductors in the presence of applied electric fields. The electron transport in a nondegenerate n-type indium phosphide bulk semiconductor is modelled using a multivalley Monte Carlo approach. The main characteristics of the electron dynamics are explored under different values of the driving electric field, lattice temperature and impurity density. Simulation results are presented by following a question-driven path of exploration, starting from the validation of the model and moving up to reasoned inquiries about the observed characteristics of electron dynamics. Our inquiry-driven learning path, based on numerical simulations, represents a viable example of how to integrate a traditional lecture-based teaching approach with effective learning strategies, providing science or engineering undergraduates with practical opportunities to enhance their comprehension of the physics governing the electron dynamics in semiconductors. Finally, we present a general discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of using an inquiry-based teaching approach within a learning environment based on semiconductor simulations.
On the origin of the electron blocking effect by an n-type AlGaN electron blocking layer
Zhang, Zi-Hui; Ji, Yun; Liu, Wei; Tiam Tan, Swee; Kyaw, Zabu; Ju, Zhengang; Zhang, Xueliang; Hasanov, Namig; Lu, Shunpeng; Zhang, Yiping; Zhu, Binbin; Wei Sun, Xiao E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org; Volkan Demir, Hilmi E-mail: volkan@stanfordalumni.org
2014-02-17
In this work, the origin of electron blocking effect of n-type Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N electron blocking layer (EBL) for c+ InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes has been investigated through dual-wavelength emission method. It is found that the strong polarization induced electric field within the n-EBL reduces the thermal velocity and correspondingly the mean free path of the hot electrons. As a result, the electron capture efficiency of the multiple quantum wells is enhanced, which significantly reduces the electron overflow from the active region and increases the radiative recombination rate with holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filinov, V. S.; Fortov, V. E.; Bonitz, M.; Moldabekov, Zh
2015-11-01
The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature has recently attracted substantial interest due to the experimental progress in the field of warm dense matter. To explain the experimental data accurate theoretical models for high density plasmas are needed which crucially depend on treatment of quantum effects in electron-electron interaction as well as in the interaction of electrons with uniform positive background. To comply with these requirements we have developed the new quantum path integral model of the UEG and present the results of related direct path integral Monte-Carlo (DPIMC) simulations. Contrary to the known in literature approaches treating the electron-background interaction classically our simulations take into account the quantum effects in this interaction. We have observed very good agreement with known in literature results only up to moderate densities when the ratio of the average interparticle distance to the Bohr radius is of order four (rs ? 4) and observe deviations for higher densities. At very high electron density (rs ? 1) presented in literature approaches as well as our simulations are problematic due to the strong degeneracy of electrons and increasing fermion sign problem.
Inhibition of electron thermal conduction by electromagnetic instabilities. [in stellar coronas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levinson, Amir; Eichler, David
1992-01-01
Heat flux inhibition by electromagnetic instabilities in a hot magnetized plasma is investigated. Low-frequency electromagnetic waves become unstable due to anisotropy of the electron distribution function. The chaotic magnetic field thus generated scatters the electrons with a specific effective mean free path. Saturation of the instability due to wave-wave interaction, nonlinear scattering, wave propagation, and collisional damping is considered. The effective mean free path is found self-consistently, using a simple model to estimate saturation level and scattering, and is shown to decrease with the temperature gradient length. The results, limited to the assumptions of the model, are applied to astrophysical systems. For some interstellar clouds the instability is found to be important. Collisional damping stabilizes the plasma, and the heat conduction can be dominated by superthermal electrons.
Mangaud, E; de la Lande, A; Meier, C; Desouter-Lecomte, M
2015-11-18
The quantum dynamics of electron transfer in mixed-valence organic compounds is investigated using a reaction path model calibrated by constrained density functional theory (cDFT). Constrained DFT is used to define diabatic states relevant for describing the electron transfer, to obtain equilibrium structures for each of these states and to estimate the electronic coupling between them. The harmonic analysis at the diabatic minima yields normal modes forming the dissipative bath coupled to the electronic states. In order to decrease the system-bath coupling, an effective one dimensional vibronic Hamiltonian is constructed by partitioning the modes into a linear reaction path which connects both equilibrium positions and a set of secondary vibrational modes, coupled to this reaction coordinate. Using this vibronic model Hamiltonian, dissipative quantum dynamics is carried out using Redfield theory, based on a spectral density which is determined from the cDFT results. In a first benchmark case, the model is applied to a series of mixed-valence organic compounds formed by two 1,4-dimethoxy-3-methylphenylene fragments linked by an increasing number of phenylene bridges. This allows us to examine the coherent electron transfer in extreme situations leading to a ground adiabatic state with or without a barrier and therefore to the trapping of the charge or to an easy delocalization. PMID:26041466
Liu, I-Lin; Li, Peng-Cheng; Chu, Shih-I
2011-09-15
We report a mechanism and a realizable approach for the coherent control of the generation of an isolated and ultrashort atto second (as) laser pulse from atoms by optimizing the two-color laser fields with a proper time delay. Optimizing the laser pulse shape allows the control of the electron quantum paths and enables high-harmonic generation from the long- and short-trajectory electrons to be enhanced and split near the cutoff region. In addition, it delays the long-trajectory electron emission time and allows the production of extremely short atto second pulses in a relatively narrow time duration. As a case study, we show that an isolated 30 as pulse with a bandwidth of 127 eV can be generated directly from the contribution of long-trajectory electrons alone.
California at San Diego, University of
effective mass 0 * 5.0 mmp = , where m0 is the free electron mass. An infinite potential energy barrier. If Fermi energy is 0.1 eV calculate the scattering mean free path. (Si m* = 0.2 m0, m0 = 9.11×10-31 kg) #12;, the single-electron charging energy can become comparable to the quantum confinement energies in the dot
Tesoriero, A.J.; Liebscher, H.; Cox, S.E.
2000-01-01
The rate and mechanism of nitrate removal along and between groundwater flow paths were investigated using a series of well nests screened in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer. Intensive agricultural activity in this area has resulted in nitrate concentrations in groundwater often exceeding drinking water standards. Both the extent and rate of denitrification varied depending on the groundwater flow path. While little or no denitrification occurred in much of the upland portions of the aquifer, a gradual redox gradient is observed as aerobic upland groundwater moves deeper in the aquifer. In contrast, a sharp shallow redox gradient is observed adjacent to a third-order stream as aerobic groundwater enters reduced sediments. An essentially complete loss of nitrate concurrent with increases in excess N2 provide evidence that denitrification occurs as groundwater enters this zone. Electron and mass balance calculations suggest that iron sulfide (e.g., pyrite) oxidation is the primary source of electrons for denitrification. Denitrification rate estimates were based on mass balance calculations using nitrate and excess N2 coupled with groundwater travel times. Travel times were determined using a groundwater flow model and were constrained by chlorofluorocarbon-based age dates. Denitrification rates were found to vary considerably between the two areas where denitrification occurs. Denitrification rates in the deep, upland portions of the aquifer were found to range from < 0.01 to 0.14 mM of N per year; rates at the redoxcline along the shallow flow path range from 1.0 to 2.7 mM of N per year. Potential denitrification rates in groundwater adjacent to the stream may be much faster, with rates up to 140 mM per year based on an in situ experiment conducted in this zone.The rate and mechanism of nitrate removal along and between groundwater flow paths were investigated using a series of well nests screened in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer. Intensive agricultural activity in this area has resulted in nitrate concentrations in groundwater often exceeding drinking water standards. Both the extent and rate of denitrification varied depending on the groundwater flow path. While little or no denitrification occurred in much of the upland portions of the aquifer, a gradual redox gradient is observed as aerobic upland groundwater moves deeper in the aquifer. In contrast, a sharp shallow redox gradient is observed adjacent to a third-order stream as aerobic groundwater enters reduced sediments. An essentially complete loss of nitrate concurrent with increases in excess N2 provide evidence that denitrification occurs as groundwater enters this zone. Electron and mass balance calculations suggest that iron sulfide (e.g., pyrite) oxidation is the primary source of electrons for denitrification. Denitrification rate estimates were based on mass balance calculations using nitrate and excess N2 coupled with groundwater travel times. Travel times were determined using a groundwater flow model and were constrained by chlorofluorocarbon-based age dates. Denitrification rates were found to vary considerably between the two areas where denitrification occurs. Denitrification rates in the deep, upland portions of the aquifer were found to range from <0.01 to 0.14 mM of N per year; rates at the redoxcline along the shallow flow path range from 1.0 to 2.7 mM of N per year. Potential denitrification rates in groundwater adjacent to the stream may be much faster, with rates up to 140 mM per year based on an in situ experiment conducted in this zone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cheng; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shao, Tao; Beloplotov, Dmitry V.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Wang, Ruixue; Sorokin, Dmitry A.; Yan, Ping
2015-03-01
Diffuse discharges preionized by runaway electrons can produce large-area homogeneous discharges at elevated pressures, which is an intriguing phenomenon in the physics of pulsed discharges. In this paper, runaway-electron-preionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) was obtained in a wide pressure range (0.05-0.25 MPa), and under certain conditions a positive streamer and a cathode-directed spark leader could be observed to propagate at some angles to the applied (background) electric field lines. For a 16-mm gap at an air pressure of 0.08-0.1 MPa, the percentage of pulses in which such propagation is observed is about 5%-50% of their total number, and in the other pulses such bent paths could not be observed because there is even no streamer or cathode-directed spark leader in diffuse discharges. In our opinion, such propagation of the positive streamer and the cathode-directed spark leader at some angle to the background electric field lines owes to different increase rates of the electron density in different regions of the discharge volume under REP DD conditions. Therefore, during the formation of a REP DD, the increase of the electron density is inhomogeneous and nonsimultaneous, resulting in an electron density gradient at the ionization wave front.
Zhang, Cheng; Shao, Tao Wang, Ruixue; Yan, Ping; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Beloplotov, Dmitry V.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Sorokin, Dmitry A.
2015-03-15
Diffuse discharges preionized by runaway electrons can produce large-area homogeneous discharges at elevated pressures, which is an intriguing phenomenon in the physics of pulsed discharges. In this paper, runaway-electron-preionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) was obtained in a wide pressure range (0.05–0.25?MPa), and under certain conditions a positive streamer and a cathode-directed spark leader could be observed to propagate at some angles to the applied (background) electric field lines. For a 16-mm gap at an air pressure of 0.08–0.1?MPa, the percentage of pulses in which such propagation is observed is about 5%–50% of their total number, and in the other pulses such bent paths could not be observed because there is even no streamer or cathode-directed spark leader in diffuse discharges. In our opinion, such propagation of the positive streamer and the cathode-directed spark leader at some angle to the background electric field lines owes to different increase rates of the electron density in different regions of the discharge volume under REP DD conditions. Therefore, during the formation of a REP DD, the increase of the electron density is inhomogeneous and nonsimultaneous, resulting in an electron density gradient at the ionization wave front.
Feynman Path Integral Approach to Electron Diffraction for One and Two Slits: Analytical Results
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beau, Mathieu
2012-01-01
In this paper we present an analytic solution of the famous problem of diffraction and interference of electrons through one and two slits (for simplicity, only the one-dimensional case is considered). In addition to exact formulae, various approximations of the electron distribution are shown which facilitate the interpretation of the results.…
Ma, Jie; Yang, Jihui; Da Silva, J. L.F.; Wei, Su-Huai
2014-10-30
Using first-principles calculations, we study the diffusions of interstitial defects Cd, Cu, Te, and Cl in CdTe. We find that the diffusion behavior is strongly correlated with the electronic structure of the interstitial diffuser. For Cd and Cu, because the defect state is the non-degenerated slike state under T_{d} symmetry, the diffusions are almost along the [111] directions between the tetrahedral sites, although the diffusion of Cu shows some deviation due to the s - d coupling. The diffusions of the neutral and charged Cd and Cu follow similar paths. However, for Te and Cl atoms, because the defect state is the degenerated p-like state under T_{d} symmetry, large distortions occur. Therefore, the diffusion paths are very different from those of Cd and Cu interstitials, and depend strongly on the charge states of the interstitial atoms. For Te, we find that the distortion is mostly stabilized by the crystal-field splitting, but for Cl, the exchange splitting plays a more important role.
Ma, Jie; Yang, Jihui; Da Silva, J. L.F.; Wei, Su-Huai
2014-10-30
Using first-principles calculations, we study the diffusions of interstitial defects Cd, Cu, Te, and Cl in CdTe. We find that the diffusion behavior is strongly correlated with the electronic structure of the interstitial diffuser. For Cd and Cu, because the defect state is the non-degenerated slike state under Td symmetry, the diffusions are almost along the [111] directions between the tetrahedral sites, although the diffusion of Cu shows some deviation due to the s - d coupling. The diffusions of the neutral and charged Cd and Cu follow similar paths. However, for Te and Cl atoms, because the defect statemore »is the degenerated p-like state under Td symmetry, large distortions occur. Therefore, the diffusion paths are very different from those of Cd and Cu interstitials, and depend strongly on the charge states of the interstitial atoms. For Te, we find that the distortion is mostly stabilized by the crystal-field splitting, but for Cl, the exchange splitting plays a more important role.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Jie; Yang, Jihui; Wei, Su-Huai; Da Silva, Juarez L. F.
2014-10-01
Using first-principles calculations, we study the diffusions of interstitial defects Cd, Cu, Te, and Cl in CdTe. We find that the diffusion behavior is strongly correlated with the electronic structure of the interstitial diffuser. For Cd and Cu, because the defect state is the nondegenerated s -like state under the Td symmetry, the diffusions are almost along the <111 > directions between the tetrahedral sites, although the diffusion of Cu shows some deviation due to the coupling between the Cu d and host s orbitals. The diffusions of the neutral and charged Cd and Cu follow similar paths. However, for Te and Cl atoms, because the defect state is the degenerated p -like state under the Td symmetry, large distortions occur. Therefore the diffusion paths are very different from those of the interstitial Cd and Cu atoms, and depend strongly on the charge states of the interstitial atoms. For Te, we find that the distortion is mostly stabilized by the crystal-field splitting, but for Cl, the exchange splitting plays a more important role.
Silicon electronics on silk as a path to bioresorbable, implantable devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Kim, Yun-Soung; Amsden, Jason; Panilaitis, Bruce; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Zakin, Mitchell R.; Rogers, John A.
2009-09-01
Many existing and envisioned classes of implantable biomedical devices require high performance electronics/sensors. An approach that avoids some of the longer term challenges in biocompatibility involves a construction in which some parts or all of the system resorbs in the body over time. This paper describes strategies for integrating single crystalline silicon electronics, where the silicon is in the form of nanomembranes, onto water soluble and biocompatible silk substrates. Electrical, bending, water dissolution, and animal toxicity studies suggest that this approach might provide many opportunities for future biomedical devices and clinical applications.
A Deterministic Transport Code for Space Environment Electrons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nealy, John E.; Chang, C. K.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.; Adamczyk, Anne M.
2010-01-01
A deterministic computational procedure has been developed to describe transport of space environment electrons in various shield media. This code is an upgrade and extension of an earlier electron code. Whereas the former code was formulated on the basis of parametric functions derived from limited laboratory data, the present code utilizes well established theoretical representations to describe the relevant interactions and transport processes. The shield material specification has been made more general, as have the pertinent cross sections. A combined mean free path and average trajectory approach has been used in the transport formalism. Comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations are presented.
Conditions for Aeronomic Applicability of the Classical Electron Heat Conduction Formula
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, K. D.; Hoegy, W. R.
1998-01-01
Conditions for the applicability of the classical formula for heat conduction in the electrons in ionized gas are investigated. In a fully ionised gas ( V(sub en) much greater than V(sub ei)), when the mean free path for electron-electron (or electron-ion) collisions is much larger than the characteristic thermal scale length of the observed system, the conditions for applicability break down. In the case of the Venus ionosphere this breakdown is indicated for a large fraction of the electron temperature data from altitudes greater than 180 km, for electron densities less than 10(exp 4)/cc cm. In a partially ionised gas such that V(sub en) much greater than V(sub ei) there is breakdown of the formula not only when the mean free path of electrons greatly exceeds the thermal scale length, but also when the gradient of neutral particle density exceeds the electron thermal gradient. It is shown that electron heat conduction may be neglected in estimating the temperature of joule heated electrons by observed strong 100 Hz electric fields when the conduction flux is limited by the saturation flux. The results of this paper support our earlier aeronomical arguments against the hypothesis of planetary scale whistlers for the 100 Hz electric field signal. In turn this means that data from the 100 Hz signal may not be used to support the case for lightning on Venus.
Influence of emitted electrons transiting between surfaces on plasma-surface interaction
Campanell, Michael; Wang, Hongyue
2013-09-02
Emitted electrons are accelerated back into the plasma by the sheath. If their mean free path is large, they can propagate directly to another surface without suffering collisions. We analyze the effects of “transit” on plasma-surface interaction. When transit occurs, surfaces exchanging electrons are intricately coupled. All surfaces float more negatively than they would if the emission collisionally remixed with the bulk plasma. Asymmetries of the system drive a net “transit current” between the surfaces, which influences their potential difference. The larger the initial energy spread of the emitted electrons, the larger the potential difference.
Auger electron intensity variations in oxygen-exposed large grain polycrystalline silver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, W. S.; Outlaw, R. A.; Hoflund, G. B.; Davidson, M. R.
1989-01-01
Auger electron spectroscopic studies of the grains in oxygen-charged polycrystal-line silver show significant intensity variations as a function of crystallographic orientation. These intensity variations were observed by studies of the Auger images and line scans of the different grains (randomly selected) for each silver transition energy. The results can be attributed to the diffraction of the ejected Auger electrons and interpreted by corresponding changes in the electron mean-free path for inelastic scattering and by oxygen atom accumulation in the subsurface. The subsurface (second layer) octahedral sites increased in size because of surface relaxation and serve as a stable reservoir for the dissolved oxygen.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samolyuk, German; Daene, Markus; Stocks, George Malcolm; Caro, Jose Alfredo; Stoller, Roger
2015-03-01
High-entropy alloys (HEAs) have recently been developed as nontraditional alloy systems. They are composed of multiple elements at or near equiatomic ratios that form random solid solutions on simple underlying fcc or bcc lattices. In recent years HEAs have attracted significant attention due to their high strength, ductility and possible high radiation resistance. The complexity of the alloys results in very interesting electronic system behavior. Even in thermal equilibrium, disorder, especially extreme disorder, has important impacts on all electronic, atomic, and magnetic properties. In the current work we present results of first principle investigation of the electronic and magnetic properties of Ni-based multicomponent concentrated alloys using the coherent potential approximation (CPA). The influence of electronic structure modifications on the electron mean free path and values of electron-phonon coupling are calculated, together with preliminary results on similar quantities obtained by Time Dependent DFT. We discuss possible effects of tuning the mean free path and energy dissipation mechanisms to defect production and recombination in HEAs under irradiation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, L. D.
1996-01-01
Ballistic-Electron-Emission Microscopy (BEEM) spectroscopy has been performed on Au/Si(111) structures as a function of Au thickness and temperature. At 77 K a direct signature of parallel momentum conservation at the Au/Si interface is observed in the BEEM spectra. The variation in spectral shape with both Au thickness and temperature places restrictions on allowable values of inelastic and elastic mean-free paths in the metal, and also requires the presence of multiple electron passes within the Au layer. An independent indication of multiple reflections is directly observed in the attenuation of BEEM current with Au thickness.
Siekhaus, W J; Nelson, A J
2011-10-26
Energy dependent electron emission (counts per second) between zero and 1.4 keV generated by the natural reactivity of uranium was measured by an electrostatic spectrometer with known acceptance angle and acceptance area. The electron intensity decreases continuously with energy, but at different rates in different energy regimes, suggesting that a variety of processes may be involved in producing the observed electron emission. The spectrum was converted to energy dependent electron flux (e-/cm{sup 2} s) using the assumption that the emission has a cosine angular distribution. The flux decreased rapidly from {approx}10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2}s to {approx}10{sup 5}/cm{sup 2}s in the energy range from zero to 200 eV, and then more slowly from {approx}10{sup 5}/cm{sup 2}s to {approx}3*10{sup 4}/cm{sup 2} s in the range from 200 to 1400 eV. The energy dependent electron mean free path in gases together with literature cross sections for electron induced reactions were used to determine the number of ionization and dissociation reactions per cm{sup 2}s within the inelastic mean free path of electrons, and found to be about 1.3*10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}s and 1.5*10{sup 7}/cm{sup 2}s, respectively, for hydrogen. An estimate of the number of ionization and dissociation reactions occurring within the total range, rather than the mean free path of electrons in gases resulted in 6.2*10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2}s and 1.3*10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2}s, respectively. The total energy flux carried by electrons from the surface is suspiciously close to the total possible energy generated by one gram of uranium. A likely source of error is the assumption that the electron emission has a cosine distribution. Angular distribution measurements of the electron emission would check that assumption, and actual measurement of the total current emanating from the surface are needed to confirm the value of the current calculated in section II. These results must therefore be used with caution - until they are confirmed by other measurements.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2014-01-07
PathFinder is a graph search program, traversing a directed cyclic graph to find pathways between labeled nodes. Searches for paths through ordered sequences of labels are termed signatures. Determining the presence of signatures within one or more graphs is the primary function of Path Finder. Path Finder can work in either batch mode or interactively with an analyst. Results are limited to Path Finder whether or not a given signature is present in the graph(s).
Guo, Hongxuan E-mail: msxu@zju.edu.cn; Gao, Jianhua; Ishida, Nobuyuki; Xu, Mingsheng E-mail: msxu@zju.edu.cn; Fujita, Daisuke
2014-01-20
Characterization of the structural and physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as layer number and inelastic mean free path measurements, is very important to optimize their synthesis and application. In this study, we characterize the layer number and morphology of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets on a metallic substrate using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and scanning helium ion microscopy (HIM). Using scanning beams of various energies, we could analyze the dependence of the intensities of secondary electrons on the thickness of the h-BN nanosheets. Based on the interaction between the scanning particles (electrons and helium ions) and h-BN nanosheets, we deduced an exponential relationship between the intensities of secondary electrons and number of layers of h-BN. With the attenuation factor of the exponential formula, we calculate the inelastic mean free path of electrons and helium ions in the h-BN nanosheets. Our results show that HIM is more sensitive and consistent than FE-SEM for characterizing the number of layers and morphology of 2D materials.
A new MetaPath information system was developed through a collaborative effort between the Laboratory of Mathematical Chemistry (Bourgas, Bulgaria), EPA’s Office of Research and Development (NHEERL, MED, Duluth, MN and NERL, ERD, Athens, GA), and EPA’s Office of Chemical Safety a...
Tachi, Susumu
of a Manipulator Considering Torque Saturation Hirohiko Arai, Member, IEEE, Kazuo Tanie, Member, IEEE, and Susumu Tachi, Member, IEEE Abstract-When the minimum-timetrajectoryof a manipulator along a geometrically prescribed path is planned taking into considerationthe manipulator'sdynamicsand actuator'storque limits
Relaxation of electronic excitations in CaF2 nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vistovskyy, V. V.; Zhyshkovych, A. V.; Mitina, N. E.; Zaichenko, A. S.; Gektin, A. V.; Vasil'ev, A. N.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.
2012-07-01
The luminescence properties of CaF2 nanoparticles with various sizes (20-140 nm) are studied upon the excitation by VUV and x-ray quanta in order to reveal the influence of ratio of mean free path and thermalization length of charge carriers and nanoparticle size on the self-trapped exciton luminescence. The luminescence intensity for exciting quantum energies corresponding to optical creation of exciton and to the range of electronic excitation multiplication is not so sensitive to nanoparticle size as for quanta with energy of Eg < h? < 2Eg. The dependences of luminescence intensity on nanoparticle size at the excitation by quanta of various energies are discussed in terms of electron-phonon and electron-electron scattering lengths and energy losses on surface defects.
A Deterministic Computational Procedure for Space Environment Electron Transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nealy, John E.; Chang, C. K.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.; Adamcyk, Anne M.
2010-01-01
A deterministic computational procedure for describing the transport of electrons in condensed media is formulated to simulate the effects and exposures from spectral distributions typical of electrons trapped in planetary magnetic fields. The primary purpose for developing the procedure is to provide a means of rapidly performing numerous repetitive transport calculations essential for electron radiation exposure assessments for complex space structures. The present code utilizes well-established theoretical representations to describe the relevant interactions and transport processes. A combined mean free path and average trajectory approach is used in the transport formalism. For typical space environment spectra, several favorable comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations are made which have indicated that accuracy is not compromised at the expense of the computational speed.
Simulation of electron transport during electron-beam-induced deposition of nanostructures.
Salvat-Pujol, Francesc; Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser
2013-01-01
We present a numerical investigation of energy and charge distributions during electron-beam-induced growth of tungsten nanostructures on SiO2 substrates by using a Monte Carlo simulation of the electron transport. This study gives a quantitative insight into the deposition of energy and charge in the substrate and in the already existing metallic nanostructures in the presence of the electron beam. We analyze electron trajectories, inelastic mean free paths, and the distribution of backscattered electrons in different compositions and at different depths of the deposit. We find that, while in the early stages of the nanostructure growth a significant fraction of electron trajectories still interacts with the substrate, when the nanostructure becomes thicker the transport takes place almost exclusively in the nanostructure. In particular, a larger deposit density leads to enhanced electron backscattering. This work shows how mesoscopic radiation-transport techniques can contribute to a model that addresses the multi-scale nature of the electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) process. Furthermore, similar simulations can help to understand the role that is played by backscattered electrons and emitted secondary electrons in the change of structural properties of nanostructured materials during post-growth electron-beam treatments. PMID:24367747
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2007-07-14
The PANL software determines path through an Adversary Sequence Diagram (ASD) with minimum Probability of Interruption, P(I), given the ASD information and data about site detection, delay, and response force times. To accomplish this, the software generates each path through the ASD, then applies the Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI) methodology for calculating P(I) to each path, and keeps track of the path with the lowest P(I). Primary use is for training purposes duringmore »courses on physical security design. During such courses PANL will be used to demonstrate to students how more complex software codes are used by the US Department of Energy to determine the most-vulnerable paths and, where security needs improvement, how such codes can help determine physical security upgrades.« less
Branching and path-deviation of positive streamers resulting from statistical photon transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.
2014-12-01
The branching and change in direction of propagation (path-deviation) of positive streamers in molecular gases such as air likely require a statistical process which perturbs the head of the streamer and produces an asymmetry in its space charge density. In this paper, the mechanisms for path-deviation and branching of atmospheric pressure positive streamer discharges in dry air are numerically investigated from the viewpoint of statistical photon transport and photoionization. A statistical photon transport model, based on randomly selected emitting angles and mean-free-path for absorption, was developed and embedded into a fluid-based plasma transport model. The hybrid model was applied to simulations of positive streamer coaxial discharges in dry air at atmospheric pressure. The results show that secondary streamers, often spatially isolated, are triggered by the random photoionization and interact with the thin space charge layer (SCL) of the primary streamer. This interaction may be partly responsible for path-deviation and streamer branching. The general process consists of random remote photo-electron production which initiates a back-traveling electron avalanche, collision of this secondary avalanche with the primary streamer and the subsequent perturbation to its SCL. When the SCL is deformed from a symmetric to an asymmetric shape, the streamer can experience an abrupt change in the direction of propagation. If the SCL is sufficiently perturbed and essentially broken, local maxima in the SCL can develop into new streamers, leading to streamer branching. During the propagation of positive streamers, this mechanism can take place repetitively in time and space, thus producing multi-level branching and more than two branches within one level.
Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy through Electron Transparent Graphene Membranes
Kraus, Jurgen; Gunther, Sebastian; Gregoratti, Luca; Amati, Matteo; Kiskinova, Maya; Yulaev, Alexander; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Kolmakov, Andrei
2014-01-01
Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and microscopy are highly demanded for exploring morphologically complex solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces under realistic conditions, but the very small electron mean free path inside the dense media imposes serious experimental challenges. Currently, near ambient pressure PES is conducted using sophisticated and expensive electron energy analyzers coupled with differentially pumped electron lenses. An alternative economical approach proposed in this report uses ultrathin graphene membranes to isolate the ambient sample environment from the PES detection system. We demonstrate that the graphene membrane separating windows are both mechanically robust and sufficiently transparent for electrons in a wide energy range to allow PES of liquid and gaseous water. The reported proof-of-principle experiments also open a principal possibility to probe vacuum-incompatible toxic or reactive samples enclosed inside the hermetic environmental cells.
A Hot-Electron Far-Infrared Direct Detector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; LeDuc, H. G.
2000-01-01
A new approach is proposed to improve the sensitivity of direct-detection bolometers at millimeter, submillimeter and far-infrared wavelengths. The idea is to adjust a speed of the thermal relaxation of hot-electrons in a nanometer size normal metal or super-conductive transition edge bolometer by controlling the elastic electron mean free path. If the bolometer contacts are made of a superconductor with high critical temperature (Nb, Pb etc.) then the thermal diffusion into the contacts is absent because of the Andreev's reflection and the electron-phonon relaxation is the only mechanism for heat removal. The relaxation rate should behave as T(sup 4)l at subkelvin temperatures (l is the electron elastic mean free path) and can be reduced by factor of 10-100 by decreasing l. Then an antenna- or waveguide-coupled bolometer with a time constant about 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) s at T approximately equals 0.1-0.3 K will exhibit photon-noise limited performance in millimeter and submillimeter range. The choice of the bolometer material is a tradeoff between a low electron heat capacity and fabrication. A state-of-the-art bolometer currently offers NEP = 10(exp -17) W(Square root of (Hz)) at 100 mK along with a approximately equals 2 msec time constant. The bolometer we propose will have a figure-of-merit, NEP(square root (r)), which is 10(exp 3) times smaller. This will allow for a tremendous increase in speed which will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications. Alternatively, the bolometer could operate at higher temperature with still superior sensitivity. This device can significantly increase a science return and reduce the cost for future observational missions. This research was performed by the Center for Space Microelectronics Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and was sponsored by NASA, Office of Space Science.
Electron and phonon transport in Co-doped FeV0.6Nb0.4Sb half-Heusler thermoelectric materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Chenguang; Liu, Yintu; Xie, Hanhui; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Xinbing; Jeffrey Snyder, G.; Xie, Jian; Zhu, Tiejun
2013-10-01
The electron and phonon transport characteristics of n-type Fe1-xCoxV0.6Nb0.4Sb half-Heusler thermoelectric compounds is analyzed. The acoustic phonon scattering is dominant in the carrier transport. The deformation potential of Edef = 14.1 eV and the density of state effective mass m* ? 2.0 me are derived under a single parabolic band assumption. The band gap is calculated to be ˜0.3 eV. Electron and phonon mean free paths are estimated based on the low and high temperature measurements. The electron mean free path is higher than the phonon one above room temperature, which is consistent with the experimental result that the electron mobility decreases more than the lattice thermal conductivity by grain refinement to enhance boundary scattering. A maximum ZT value of ˜0.33 is obtained at 650 K for x = 0.015, an increase by ˜60% compared with FeVSb. The optimal doping level is found to be ˜3.0 × 1020 cm-3 at 600 K.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skinner, Jack L.; Andriolo, Jessica M.; Beisel, Josh D.; Ross, Brandon M.; Purkett, Lance M.; Murphy, John P.; Kyeremateng, Jerry; Franson, Marvin J.; Kooistra-Manning, Emily A.; Hill, Bryce E.; Loyola, Bryan R.
2015-08-01
Traditional fabrication methods for the integrated circuit (IC) and the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) industries have been developed primarily for two-dimensional fabrication on planar surfaces. More recently, commercial electronics are expeditiously emerging with non-planar displays and rapid prototype machines can be purchased for the price of a modern laptop. While electrospinning (ES) has been in existence for over 100 years, this fabrication method has not been adequately developed for commercial fabrication of electronics or the rapid prototyping industries. ES provides many benefits as a fabrication method including tunability of fiber size and affordable hardware. To realize the full potential of ES as a commonplace fabrication method for modern devices, precise control, real-time fiber morphology monitoring, and the creation of a comprehensive databank of accurate models for prediction is essential. The aim of this research is to accomplish these goals through several avenues. To improve fiber deposition control, both passive and active methods are employed to modify electric field lines during the ES process. COMSOL models have been developed to meticulously mimic experimental results for predictive planning, and an in situ laser diagnostic tool was developed to measure real-time fiber morphology during electrospinning. Further, post-processing data was generated through the use of two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) to monitor alignment, and four-point conductivity measurements were taken via four independently-positioned micromanipulator probes. This article describes the devices developed to date, the a priori modeling approach taken, and resultant capabilities which complement ES as an attractive fabrication method for the electronic and photonic industry.
Unsymmetrical hot electron heating in quasi-ballistic nanocontacts
Tsutsui, Makusu; Kawai, Tomoji; Taniguchi, Masateru
2012-01-01
Electrons are allowed to pass through a single atom connected to two electrodes without being scattered as the characteristic size is much smaller than the inelastic mean free path. In this quasi-ballistic regime, it is difficult to predict where and how power dissipation occurs in such current-carrying atomic system. Here, we report direct assessment of electrical heating in a metallic nanocontact. We find asymmetric electrical heating effects in the essentially symmetric single-atom contact. We simultaneously identified the voltage polarity independent onset of the local heating by conducting the inelastic noise spectroscopy. As a result, we revealed significant heat dissipation by hot electrons transmitting ballistically through the junction that creates a hot spot at the current downstream. This technique can be used as a platform for studying heat dissipation and transport in atomic/molecular systems. PMID:22355731
Tan, Lun C.; Shao, Xi; Reames, Donald V.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua
2014-05-10
Three magnetic cloud events, in which solar impulsive electron events occurred in their outer region, are employed to investigate the difference of path lengths L {sub 0eIII} traveled by non-relativistic electrons from their release site near the Sun to the observer at 1 AU, where L {sub 0eIII} = v {sub l} × (t {sub l} – t {sub III}), v {sub l} and t {sub l} being the velocity and arrival time of electrons in the lowest energy channel (?27 keV) of the Wind/3DP/SST sensor, respectively, and t {sub III} being the onset time of type III radio bursts. The deduced L {sub 0eIII} value ranges from 1.3 to 3.3 AU. Since a negligible interplanetary scattering level can be seen in both L {sub 0eIII} > 3 AU and ?1.2 AU events, the difference in L {sub 0eIII} could be linked to the turbulence geometry (slab or two-dimensional) in the solar wind. By using the Wind/MFI magnetic field data with a time resolution of 92 ms, we examine the turbulence geometry in the dissipation range. In our examination, ?6 minutes of sampled subintervals are used in order to improve time resolution. We have found that, in the transverse turbulence, the observed slab fraction is increased with an increasing L {sub 0eIII} value, reaching ?100% in the L {sub 0eIII} > 3 AU event. Our observation implies that when only the slab spectral component exists, magnetic flux tubes (magnetic surfaces) are closed and regular for a very long distance along the transport route of particles.
Chantler, C T; Bourke, J D
2015-11-18
We present new constraints for the transportation behaviour of low-momentum electronic excitations in condensed matter systems, and demonstrate that these have both a fundamental physical interpretation and a significant impact on the description of low-energy inelastic electron scattering. The dispersion behaviour and characteristic lifetime properties of plasmon and single-electron excitations are investigated using popular classical, semi-classical and quantum dielectric models. We find that, irrespective of constrained agreement to the well known high-momentum and high-energy Bethe ridge limit, standard descriptions of low-momentum electron excitations are inconsistent and unphysical. These observations have direct impact on calculations of transport properties such as inelastic mean free paths, stopping powers and escape depths of charged particles in condensed matter systems. PMID:26490726
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chantler, C. T.; Bourke, J. D.
2015-11-01
We present new constraints for the transportation behaviour of low-momentum electronic excitations in condensed matter systems, and demonstrate that these have both a fundamental physical interpretation and a significant impact on the description of low-energy inelastic electron scattering. The dispersion behaviour and characteristic lifetime properties of plasmon and single-electron excitations are investigated using popular classical, semi-classical and quantum dielectric models. We find that, irrespective of constrained agreement to the well known high-momentum and high-energy Bethe ridge limit, standard descriptions of low-momentum electron excitations are inconsistent and unphysical. These observations have direct impact on calculations of transport properties such as inelastic mean free paths, stopping powers and escape depths of charged particles in condensed matter systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cattani, M.; Vaz, A. R.; Wiederkehr, R. S.; Teixeira, F. S.; Salvadori, M. C.; Brown, I. G.
We report electrical resistivity measurements of platinum and gold thin films over a range of film thickness d (1.3 ? d ? 11.7nm), together with associated measurements of the film morphological and crystallographic grain size. The resistivity results are compared to predictions of the Fuchs-Sondheimer and the Mayadas-Shatzkes models, based on the electron mean free path and crystallographic grain size, and the agreement is not satisfactory. We describe an alternative model based on elastic electron scattering with morphological granularity (grain structure as measured on the film surface) and film surface roughness, and good agreement is obtained with the experimental results. This suggests that electron scattering by morphological granularity and surface roughness plays an important role in determining the electrical resistivity of thin metal films.
Effects of macroscopic inhomogeneities on electron mobility in semi-insulating GaAs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walukiewicz, W.; Wang, L.; Pawlowicz, L. M.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.
1986-01-01
It is shown that defect inhomogeneities of sizes larger than the electron mean free path are responsible for the low values and anomalous temperature dependence of the electron mobility in semi-insulating (SI) GaAs. The room-temperature electron mobility values below about 6000 sq cm/V s cannot be uniquely used for the determination of the concentration of ionized defects, since the contribution from inhomogeneities usually exceeds that from scattering by ionized impurities. The effects of the macroscopically inhomogeneous distribution of residual acceptors and the major deep donor EL2 diminish at elevated temperatures between 600 and 900 K, which offers a means for identification of inhomogeneities, and furthermore explains recently reported steplike mobility versus temperature behavior in SI-GaAs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Jeong-Hee; Rapp, Richard H.
1990-01-01
In June 1986 a 1 x 1 deg/mean free-air anomaly data file containing 48955 anomalies was completed. In August 1986 a 30 x 30 min mean free-air anomaly file was defined containing 31787 values. For the past three years data has been collected to upgrade these mean anomaly files. The primary emphasis was the collection of data to be used for the estimation of 30 min means anomalies in land areas. The emphasis on land areas was due to the anticipated use of 30 min anomalies derived from satellite altimeter data in the ocean areas. There were 10 data sources in the August 1986 file. Twenty-eight sources were added based on the collection of both point and mean anomalies from a number of individuals and organizations. A preliminary 30 min file was constructed from the 38 data sources. This file was used to calculate 1 x 1 deg mean anomalies. This 1 x 1 deg file was merged with a 1 x 1 deg file which was a merger of the June 1986 file plus a 1 x 1 deg file made available by DMA Aerospace Center. Certain bad 30 min anomalies were identified and deleted from the preliminary 30 min file leading to the final 30 min file (the July 1989 30 min file) with 66990 anomalies and their accuracy. These anomalies were used to again compute 1 x 1 deg anomalies which were merged with the previous June 86 DMAAC data file. The final 1 x 1 deg mean anomaly file (the July 89 1 x 1 deg data base) contained 50793 anomalies and their accuracy. The anomaly data files were significantly improved over the prior data sets in the following geographic regions: Africa, Scandinavia, Canada, United States, Mexico, Central and South America. Substantial land areas remain where there is little or no available data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcroberts, Malcolm
1990-01-01
Viewgraphs on path planning control are presented. Topics covered include: model based path planning; sensor based path planning; hybrid path planning; proximity sensor array; and applications for fuzzy logic.
Keszei, E.; Goulet, T.; Jay-Gerin, J.
1988-03-15
The probabilistic description of quasielastic particle transport given in a previous paper is used to analyze the results of low-energy electron transmission experiments on thin solid xenon and molecular nitrogen films deposited on a metal substrate. Values of the entrance probabilities of the incident electrons at the vacuum-film interface and of the electron scattering mean free paths in the films are extracted in the electron energy range 1.6--7.9 eV for xenon, and 2.4--7.4 eV for molecular nitrogen. The effects of anisotropy in the surface scattering and in the reflections at the two interfaces of the films are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kavuma, Awusi; Glegg, Martin; Metwaly, Mohamed; Currie, Garry; Elliott, Alex
2010-01-01
In vivo dosimetry is one of the quality assurance tools used in radiotherapy to monitor the dose delivered to the patient. Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images for a set of solid water phantoms of varying thicknesses were acquired and the data fitted onto a quadratic equation, which relates the reduction in photon beam intensity to the attenuation coefficient and material thickness at a reference condition. The quadratic model is used to convert the measured grey scale value into water equivalent path length (EPL) at each pixel for any material imaged by the detector. For any other non-reference conditions, scatter, field size and MU variation effects on the image were corrected by relative measurements using an ionization chamber and an EPID. The 2D EPL is linked to the percentage exit dose table, for different thicknesses and field sizes, thereby converting the plane pixel values at each point into a 2D dose map. The off-axis ratio is corrected using envelope and boundary profiles generated from the treatment planning system (TPS). The method requires field size, monitor unit and source-to-surface distance (SSD) as clinical input parameters to predict the exit dose, which is then used to determine the entrance dose. The measured pixel dose maps were compared with calculated doses from TPS for both entrance and exit depth of phantom. The gamma index at 3% dose difference (DD) and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA) resulted in an average of 97% passing for the square fields of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm. The exit dose EPID dose distributions predicted by the algorithm were in better agreement with TPS-calculated doses than phantom entrance dose distributions.
Kavuma, Awusi; Glegg, Martin; Metwaly, Mohamed; Currie, Garry; Elliott, Alex
2010-01-21
In vivo dosimetry is one of the quality assurance tools used in radiotherapy to monitor the dose delivered to the patient. Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images for a set of solid water phantoms of varying thicknesses were acquired and the data fitted onto a quadratic equation, which relates the reduction in photon beam intensity to the attenuation coefficient and material thickness at a reference condition. The quadratic model is used to convert the measured grey scale value into water equivalent path length (EPL) at each pixel for any material imaged by the detector. For any other non-reference conditions, scatter, field size and MU variation effects on the image were corrected by relative measurements using an ionization chamber and an EPID. The 2D EPL is linked to the percentage exit dose table, for different thicknesses and field sizes, thereby converting the plane pixel values at each point into a 2D dose map. The off-axis ratio is corrected using envelope and boundary profiles generated from the treatment planning system (TPS). The method requires field size, monitor unit and source-to-surface distance (SSD) as clinical input parameters to predict the exit dose, which is then used to determine the entrance dose. The measured pixel dose maps were compared with calculated doses from TPS for both entrance and exit depth of phantom. The gamma index at 3% dose difference (DD) and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA) resulted in an average of 97% passing for the square fields of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm. The exit dose EPID dose distributions predicted by the algorithm were in better agreement with TPS-calculated doses than phantom entrance dose distributions. PMID:20019398
Time-resolved electron kinetics in swift heavy ion irradiated solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvedev, N. A.; Rymzhanov, R. A.; Volkov, A. E.
2015-09-01
The event-by-event Monte Carlo model, TREKIS, was developed to describe the excitation of the electron subsystems of various solids by a penetrating swift heavy ion (SHI), the spatial spreading of generated fast electrons, and secondary electron and hole cascades. Complex dielectric function formalism is used to obtain relevant cross sections. This allows the recognition of fundamental effects resulting from the collective response of the electron subsystem of a target for excitation that is not possible within the binary collision approximation of these cross sections, e.g. the differences in the electronic stopping of an ion and in the electron mean free paths for different structures (phases) of a material. A systematic study performed with this model for different materials (insulators, semiconductors and metals) revealed effects which may be important for an ion track: e.g. the appearance of a second front of excess electronic energy propagation outwards from the track core following the primary front of spreading of generated electrons. We also analyze how the initial ballistic spatial spreading of fast electrons generated in a track turns to the diffusion ~10 fs after ion passage. Detailed time-resolved simulations of electronic subsystem kinetics helped in understanding the reasons behind enhanced silicon resistance to SHI irradiation in contrast to easily produced damage in this material by femtosecond laser pulses. We demonstrate that the fast spreading of excited electrons from the track core on a sub-100 fs timescale prevents the Si lattice from nonthermal melting in a relaxing SHI track.
Conditions for electron runaway under leader breakdown of long gaps
Ul'yanov, K. N.
2008-04-15
An original hydrodynamic model in which inelastic collisions in the equations of motion and energy balance play a decisive role is developed and applied to simulate electron avalanches in strong electric fields. The mean energy and drift velocity of electrons, as well as the ionization coefficient and electric field in a wide range of mean electron energies, are determined for helium and xenon. A criterion is derived for the runaway of the average electron in discharges with ionization multiplication. It is shown that runaway can take place at any value of E/p, provided that the momentum mean free path exceeds the gap length. The voltage corresponding to electron runaway is found for helium, xenon, and air as a function of the electric field, the electron mean energy, and the parameter pd. Conditions for the formation of a precursor in electronegative gases are analyzed. It is shown that the presence of a precursor with a high electric conductance is necessary for the formation of a new leader step. The voltage and time ranges corresponding to efficient electron runaway and X-ray generation during leader breakdown in air are determined.
Electronic spectrum of twisted bilayer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sboychakov, A. O.; Rakhmanov, A. L.; Rozhkov, A. V.; Nori, Franco
2015-08-01
We study the electronic properties of twisted bilayer graphene in the tight-binding approximation. The interlayer hopping amplitude is modeled by a function which depends not only on the distance between two carbon atoms, but also on the positions of neighboring atoms as well. Using the Lanczos algorithm for the numerical evaluation of eigenvalues of large sparse matrices, we calculate the bilayer single-electron spectrum for commensurate twist angles in the range 1??? ?30? . We show that at certain angles ? greater than ?c?1 .89? the electronic spectrum acquires a finite gap, whose value could be as large as 80 meV. However, in an infinitely large and perfectly clean sample the gap as a function of ? behaves nonmonotonously, demonstrating exponentially large jumps for very small variations of ? . This sensitivity to the angle makes it impossible to predict the gap value for a given sample, since in experiment ? is always known with certain error. To establish the connection with experiments, we demonstrate that for a system of finite size L ˜ the gap becomes a smooth function of the twist angle. If the sample is infinite, but disorder is present, we expect that the electron mean-free path plays the same role as L ˜. In the regime of small angles ?
Doswell III, Charles A.
: The 1925 Tri- State tornado damage path and associated storm system. Electronic J. Severe Storms Meteor., 8 (2), 133. 1 The 1925 Tri-State Tornado Damage Path and Associated Storm System ROBERT H. JOHNS May 2013) ABSTRACT The "Tri-State tornado" event of 18 March 1925, with an official death toll of 695
Igor D. Kaganovich; Oleg Polomarov
2003-05-19
In low-pressure discharges, when the electron mean free path is larger or comparable with the discharge length, the electron dynamics is essentially non-local. Moreover, the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) deviates considerably from a Maxwellian. Therefore, an accurate kinetic description of the low-pressure discharges requires knowledge of the non-local conductivity operator and calculation of the non-Maxwellian EEDF. The previous treatments made use of simplifying assumptions: a uniform density profile and a Maxwellian EEDF. In the present study a self-consistent system of equations for the kinetic description of nonlocal, non-uniform, nearly collisionless plasmas of low-pressure discharges is derived. It consists of the nonlocal conductivity operator and the averaged kinetic equation for calculation of the non-Maxwellian EEDF. The importance of accounting for the non-uniform plasma density profile on both the current density profile and the EEDF is demonstrated.
Generation and accretion of electrons in complex plasmas with cylindrical particles
Sodha, Mahendra Singh; Misra, Shikha; Mishra, S. K.
2009-12-15
This paper presents an analytical model for the physical understanding of the charging of cylindrical dust particles in an open complex plasma system. Two different mechanisms, viz., thermionic emission and photoelectric emission have been considered for the electron generation from the charged cylindrical dust particles; the corresponding expressions for the rate of emission of electrons and their mean energy have been derived. A simple approach has been adopted to derive the expression for the rate of electron accretion to the dust particle. Further a new expression for the mean energy associated with the accreted electrons due to cylindrical dust particle has been derived and presented. An interesting comparison of results obtained in the case of spherical and cylindrical dust particles has also been made. Using these expressions, a formalism has been developed for the electronic processes in an illuminated dust cloud with cylindrical particles, on the basis of charge neutrality condition and number and energy balance of electrons; the charge carried by the cylindrical dust particles, electron temperature, and electron density corresponding to a given situation have been determined. The limitation of the applicability of the theory, viz., that the mean free path of an electron for accretion by dust particles be less than the dimension of the dust cloud has been pointed out.
Deymier, Pierre
Ab initio molecular-dynamics method based on the restricted path integral: Application, Arizona 85721 Received 29 April 1998 We introduce an ab initio molecular-dynamics method based descriptions to highly accurate and sophis- ticated representations based on first-principle calculations. Ab
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fanaro, Maria de los Angeles; Arlego, Marcelo; Otero, Maria Rita
2012-01-01
This work comprises an investigation about basic Quantum Mechanics (QM) teaching in the high school. The organization of the concepts does not follow a historical line. The Path Integrals method of Feynman has been adopted as a Reference Conceptual Structure that is an alternative to the canonical formalism. We have designed a didactic sequence…
ELECTRON HEAT CONDUCTION IN THE SOLAR WIND: TRANSITION FROM SPITZER-HAeRM TO THE COLLISIONLESS LIMIT
Bale, S. D.; Quataert, E.; Pulupa, M.; Salem, C.; Chen, C. H. K.
2013-06-01
We use a statistically significant set of measurements to show that the field-aligned electron heat flux q{sub Parallel-To} in the solar wind at 1 AU is consistent with the Spitzer-Haerm collisional heat flux q{sub sh} for temperature gradient scales larger than a few mean free paths L{sub T} {approx}> 3.5{lambda}{sub fp}. This represents about 65% of the measured data and corresponds primarily to high {beta}, weakly collisional plasma ({sup s}low solar wind{sup )}. In the more collisionless regime {lambda}{sub fp}/L{sub T} {approx}> 0.28, the electron heat flux is limited to q{sub Parallel-To }/q{sub 0} {approx} 0.3, independent of mean free path, where q{sub 0} is the ''free-streaming'' value; the measured q{sub Parallel-To} does not achieve the full q{sub 0}. This constraint q{sub Parallel-To }/q{sub 0} {approx} 0.3 might be attributed to wave-particle interactions, effects of an interplanetary electric potential, or inherent flux limitation. We also show a {beta}{sub e} dependence to these results that is consistent with a local radial electron temperature profile T{sub e} {approx} r {sup -{alpha}} that is a function of the thermal electron beta {alpha} = {alpha}({beta}{sub e}) and that the {beta} dependence of the collisionless regulation constraint is not obviously consistent with a whistler heat flux instability. It may be that the observed saturation of the measured heat flux is a simply a feature of collisional transport. We discuss the results in a broader astrophysical context.
Effect of secondary electron emission on the plasma sheath
Langendorf, S. Walker, M.
2015-03-15
In this experiment, plasma sheath potential profiles are measured over boron nitride walls in argon plasma and the effect of secondary electron emission is observed. Results are compared to a kinetic model. Plasmas are generated with a number density of 3 × 10{sup 12} m{sup ?3} at a pressure of 10{sup ?4} Torr-Ar, with a 1%–16% fraction of energetic primary electrons. The sheath potential profile at the surface of each sample is measured with emissive probes. The electron number densities and temperatures are measured in the bulk plasma with a planar Langmuir probe. The plasma is non-Maxwellian, with isotropic and directed energetic electron populations from 50 to 200 eV and hot and cold Maxwellian populations from 3.6 to 6.4 eV and 0.3 to 1.3 eV, respectively. Plasma Debye lengths range from 4 to 7?mm and the ion-neutral mean free path is 0.8 m. Sheath thicknesses range from 20 to 50?mm, with the smaller thickness occurring near the critical secondary electron emission yield of the wall material. Measured floating potentials are within 16% of model predictions. Measured sheath potential profiles agree with model predictions within 5 V (?1 T{sub e}), and in four out of six cases deviate less than the measurement uncertainty of 1 V.
Modified predictive formula for the electron stopping power
Jablonski, A.; Powell, C. J.
2008-03-15
We report an improved predictive formula for the electron stopping power (SP) based on an analysis and fit of SPs and electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) calculated from optical data for 37 elemental solids and energies between 200 eV and 30 keV. The formula is a function of energy, density, and IMFP, and is recommended for solids with atomic numbers larger than 6. While the mean deviation between predicted and calculated SPs was 7.25%, larger deviations were found for four additional materials, Li (22.2%), Be (17.9%), graphite (15.3%), and diamond (15.7%). The predictive SP formula can be applied to multicomponent materials. Test comparisons for two compounds, guanine and InSb, showed average deviations of 16.0% and 19.1%, respectively. The improved SP formula is expected to be useful in simulations of electron trajectories in solids with the continuous slowing-down approximation (e.g., in Auger-electron spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wittmaack, Klaus
2015-03-01
The mean attenuation length,
Wang Zhiguo; Gao Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien; Xie Yulong; Campbell, Luke W.
2012-07-01
A Monte Carlo model of electron thermalization in inorganic scintillators, which was developed and applied to CsI in a previous publication [Wang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064903 (2011)], is extended to another material of the alkali halide class, NaI, and to two materials from the alkaline-earth halide class, CaF{sub 2} and BaF{sub 2}. This model includes electron scattering with both longitudinal optical (LO) and acoustic phonons as well as the effects of internal electric fields. For the four pure materials, a significant fraction of the electrons recombine with self-trapped holes and the thermalization distance distributions of the electrons that do not recombine peak between approximately 25 and 50 nm and extend up to a few hundreds of nanometers. The thermalization time distributions of CaF{sub 2}, BaF{sub 2}, NaI, and CsI extend to approximately 0.5, 1, 2, and 7 ps, respectively. The simulations show that the LO phonon energy is a key factor that affects the electron thermalization process. Indeed, the higher the LO phonon energy is, the shorter the thermalization time and distance are. The thermalization time and distance distributions show no dependence on the incident {gamma}-ray energy. The four materials also show different extents of electron-hole pair recombination due mostly to differences in their electron mean free paths (MFPs), LO phonon energies, initial densities of electron-hole pairs, and static dielectric constants. The effect of thallium doping is also investigated for CsI and NaI as these materials are often doped with activators. Comparison between CsI and NaI shows that both the larger size of Cs{sup +} relative to Na{sup +}, i.e., the greater atomic density of NaI, and the longer electron mean free path in NaI compared to CsI contribute to an increased probability for electron trapping at Tl sites in NaI versus CsI.
Wang, Zhiguo; Xie, YuLong; Campbell, Luke W.; Gao, Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien N.
2012-07-01
A Monte Carlo model of electron thermalization in inorganic scintillators, which was developed and applied to CsI in a previous publication [Wang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064903 (2011)], is extended to another material of the alkali halide class, NaI, and to two materials from the alkaline-earth halide class, CaF2 and BaF2. This model includes electron scattering with both longitudinal optical (LO) and acoustic phonons as well as the effects of internal electric fields. For the four pure materials, a significant fraction of the electrons recombine with self-trapped holes and the thermalization distance distributions of the electrons that do not recombine peak between approximately 25 and 50 {per_thousand}nm and extend up to a few hundreds of nanometers. The thermalization time distributions of CaF2, BaF2, NaI, and CsI extend to approximately 0.5, 1, 2, and 7 ps, respectively. The simulations show that the LO phonon energy is a key factor that affects the electron thermalization process. Indeed, the higher the LO phonon energy is, the shorter the thermalization time and distance are. The thermalization time and distance distributions show no dependence on the incident {gamma}-ray energy. The four materials also show different extents of electron-hole pair recombination due mostly to differences in their electron mean free paths (MFPs), LO phonon energies, initial densities of electron-hole pairs, and static dielectric constants. The effect of thallium doping is also investigated for CsI and NaI as these materials are often doped with activators. Comparison between CsI and NaI shows that both the larger size of Cs+ relative to Na+, i.e., the greater atomic density of NaI, and the longer electron mean free path in NaI compared to CsI contribute to an increased probability for electron trapping at Tl sites in NaI versus CsI.
Path Coupling and Aggregate Path Coupling
Yevgeniy Kovchegov; Peter T. Otto
2015-01-13
In this survey paper, we describe and characterize an extension to the classical path coupling method applied statistical mechanical models, referred to as aggregate path coupling. In conjunction with large deviations estimates, we use this aggregate path coupling method to prove rapid mixing of Glauber dynamics for a large class of statistical mechanical models, including models that exhibit discontinuous phase transitions which have traditionally been more difficult to analyze rigorously. The parameter region for rapid mixing for the generalized Curie-Weiss-Potts model is derived as a new application of the aggregate path coupling method.
Path Coupling and Aggregate Path Coupling
Kovchegov, Yevgeniy
2015-01-01
In this survey paper, we describe and characterize an extension to the classical path coupling method applied statistical mechanical models, referred to as aggregate path coupling. In conjunction with large deviations estimates, we use this aggregate path coupling method to prove rapid mixing of Glauber dynamics for a large class of statistical mechanical models, including models that exhibit discontinuous phase transitions which have traditionally been more difficult to analyze rigorously. The parameter region for rapid mixing for the generalized Curie-Weiss-Potts model is derived as a new application of the aggregate path coupling method.
Assessing the impact of automated path planning aids in the maritime community
Buchin, Mariela E
2009-01-01
In the area of merchant maritime navigation, electronic charts are a relatively new tool. As a result, navigational path planning environments that allow users to manually enter a path onto an electronic chart are becoming ...
Exploring highly correlated materials via electron pair emission: the case of NiO/Ag(100)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schumann, F. O.; Behnke, L.; Li, C. H.; Kirschner, J.
2013-03-01
Metal oxides like NiO are usually termed ‘highly correlated’, because the material properties are decisively determined by the electron-electron interaction. This makes them interesting candidates for electron pair spectroscopy which is particularly sensitive to the electron correlation. We have prepared ultrathin NiO/Ag(100) films and studied the electron pair emission upon electron impact. Compared to the metal substrate we observe an increase of the coincidence intensity by a factor of 8 for NiO. Thickness dependent measurements prove that this enhancement is an intrinsic effect rather than due to a mean free path increase of the oxide. The Néel temperature TN of NiO films displays a thickness dependence which allows us to tune TN. We performed temperature dependent measurements and observed no temperature dependence of the coincidence spectra. This proves that the electron pair emission probes the local correlation rather than long range order. An enhanced coincidence intensity was also found for other oxide phases compared to their corresponding metal phases.
A Hot-electron Direct Detector for Radioastronomy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karasik, Boris S.; McGrath, William R.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Gershenson, Michael E.
1999-01-01
A hot-electron transition-edge superconducting bolometer with adjustable thermal relaxation speed is proposed. The bolometer contacts are made from a superconductor with high critical temperature which blocks the thermal diffusion of hot carriers into the contacts. Thus electron-phonon interaction is the only mechanism for heat removal. The speed of thermal relaxation for hot electrons in a nanometer-size superconducting bolometer with T(sub c) = 100-300 mK is controlled by the elastic electron mean free path l. The relaxation rate behaves as T(sup 4)l at subkelvin temperatures and can be reduced by a factor of 10-100 by decreasing 1. Then an antenna- or wave guide-coupled bolometer with a time constant approx. = 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -4) s will exhibit photon-noise limited performance at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. The bolometer will have a figure-of-merit NEPtau = 10(exp -22) - 10(exp -21) W/Hz at 100 mK which is 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) times better (ie: smaller) than that of a state-of-the-art bolometer. A tremendous increase in speed and sensitivity will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2012-05-11
The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore »provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less
Electron thermodynamics in GRMHD simulations of low-luminosity black hole accretion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ressler, S. M.; Tchekhovskoy, A.; Quataert, E.; Chandra, M.; Gammie, C. F.
2015-12-01
Simple assumptions made regarding electron thermodynamics often limit the extent to which general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations can be applied to observations of low-luminosity accreting black holes. We present, implement, and test a model that self-consistently evolves an entropy equation for the electrons and takes into account the effects of spatially varying electron heating and relativistic anisotropic thermal conduction along magnetic field lines. We neglect the backreaction of electron pressure on the dynamics of the accretion flow. Our model is appropriate for systems accreting at ?10-5 of the Eddington accretion rate, so radiative cooling by electrons can be neglected. It can be extended to higher accretion rates in the future by including electron cooling and proton-electron Coulomb collisions. We present a suite of tests showing that our method recovers the correct solution for electron heating under a range of circumstances, including strong shocks and driven turbulence. Our initial applications to axisymmetric simulations of accreting black holes show that (1) physically motivated electron heating rates that depend on the local magnetic field strength yield electron temperature distributions significantly different from the constant electron-to-proton temperature ratios assumed in previous work, with higher electron temperatures concentrated in the coronal region between the disc and the jet; (2) electron thermal conduction significantly modifies the electron temperature in the inner regions of black hole accretion flows if the effective electron mean free path is larger than the local scaleheight of the disc (at least for the initial conditions and magnetic field configurations we study). The methods developed in this work are important for producing more realistic predictions for the emission from accreting black holes such as Sagittarius A* and M87; these applications will be explored in future work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rymzhanov, R. A.; Medvedev, N. A.; Volkov, A. E.
2014-05-01
The Monte-Carlo (MC) model simulating the femto-second kinetics of the electron subsystem in a track of a swift heavy ion decelerated in the electronic stopping regime is developed. The complex dielectric function (CDF) formalism is used to calculate the cross sections of interactions of an ion and fast electrons with the electron subsystem of a target. It accounts for all collective modes in the electron ensemble. The applied method of CDF reconstruction from the experimental optical data provided a very good agreement of the calculated electron inelastic mean free paths with the NIST database as well as of the calculated SHI energy loss with those from SRIM and CasP codes. The MC model was applied to determine the radial distributions of delocalized electrons and their energy density in tracks of Au (2187 MeV) ions in insulators (Al2O3 and polyethylene) at different times. The femtosecond electron kinetics reveals two fronts of the spatial propagation: the primary fast delta-electrons form the front of excitations while electrons appearing due to decay of plasmons generated in a track form the second slow front following behind.
Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: A sound mode inside the quasiparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grozdanov, Sašo; Polonyi, Janos
2015-09-01
We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time-path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly nonlinear and irreversible even for a noninteracting, ideal gas of electrons at nonzero density. We truncate the linearized equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, composite sound waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition between the hydrodynamical regime of an ideal gas, defined in this work, and the hydrodynamical regime in phenomenological hydrodynamics, which is normally used for the description of interacting gases.
Yannello, Vincent J; Fredrickson, Daniel C
2014-10-01
Valence electron count is one of the key factors influencing the stability and structure of metals and alloys. However, unlike in molecular compounds, the origins of the preferred electron counts of many metallic phases remain largely mysterious. Perhaps the clearest-cut of such electron counting rules is exhibited by the Nowotny chimney ladder (NCL) phases, compounds remarkable for their helical structural motifs in which transition metal (T) helices serve as channels for a second set of helices formed from main group (E) elements. These phases exhibit density of states pseudogaps or band gaps, and thus special stability and useful physical properties, when their valence electron count corresponds to 14 electrons per T atom. In this Article, we illustrate, using DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations and the reversed approximation Molecular Orbital analysis, that the 14-electron rule of the NCLs is, in fact, a specific instance of an 18 - n rule emerging for T-E intermetallics, where n is the number of E-supported T-T bonds per T atom. The structural flexibility of the NCL series arises from the role of the E atoms as supports for these T-T bonds, which simply requires the E atoms to be as uniformly distributed within the T sublattice as possible. This picture offers a strategy for identifying other intermetallic structures that may be amenable to incommensurability between T and E sublattices. PMID:25215958
Lee, Jongkyong; Gang, Suhyun; Jo, Yongcheol; Kim, Jongmin; Woo, Hyeonseok; Han, Jaeseok; Kim, Hyungsang Im, Hyunsik
2014-07-28
We have investigated the temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a 100?nm-long InGaAs/InAlAs metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor designed for millimeter-wavelength RF applications. To extract the temperature dependence of quasi-ballistic mobility, our experiment involves measurements of the effective mobility in the low-bias linear region of the transistor and of the collision-dominated Hall mobility using a gated Hall bar of the same epitaxial structure. The data measured from the experiment are consistent with that of modeled ballistic mobility based on ballistic transport theory. These results advance the understanding of ballistic transport in various transistors with a nano-scale channel length that is comparable to the carrier's mean free path in the channel.
Da, B.; Li, Z. Y.; Chang, H. C.; Ding, Z. J.; Mao, S. F.
2014-09-28
It has been experimentally found that the carbon surface contamination influences strongly the spectrum signals in reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) especially at low primary electron energy. However, there is still little theoretical work dealing with the carbon contamination effect in REELS. Such a work is required to predict REELS spectrum for layered structural sample, providing an understanding of the experimental phenomena observed. In this study, we present a numerical calculation result on the spatially varying differential inelastic mean free path for a sample made of a carbon contamination layer of varied thickness on a SrTiO{sub 3} substrate. A Monte Carlo simulation model for electron interaction with a layered structural sample is built by combining this inelastic scattering cross-section with the Mott's cross-section for electron elastic scattering. The simulation results have clearly shown that the contribution of the electron energy loss from carbon surface contamination increases with decreasing primary energy due to increased individual scattering processes along trajectory parts carbon contamination layer. Comparison of the simulated spectra for different thicknesses of the carbon contamination layer and for different primary electron energies with experimental spectra clearly identifies that the carbon contamination in the measured sample was in the form of discontinuous islands other than the uniform film.
Zhong, Zhaohui; Gabor, Nathaniel M; Sharping, Jay E; Gaeta, Alexander L; McEuen, Paul L
2008-04-01
Understanding the physics of low-dimensional systems and the operation of next-generation electronics will depend on our ability to measure the electrical properties of nanomaterials at terahertz frequencies ( approximately 100 GHz to 10 THz). Single-walled carbon nanotubes are prototypical one-dimensional nanomaterials because of their unique band structure and long carrier mean free path. Although nanotube transistors have been studied at microwave frequencies (100 MHz to 50 GHz), no techniques currently exist to probe their terahertz response. Here, we describe the first terahertz electrical measurements of single-walled carbon nanotube transistors performed in the time domain. We observe a ballistic electron resonance that corresponds to the round-trip transit of an electron along the nanotube with a picosecond-scale period. The electron velocity is found to be constant and equal to the Fermi velocity, showing that the high-frequency electron response is dominated by single-particle excitations rather than collective plasmon modes. These results demonstrate a powerful new tool for directly probing picosecond electron motion in nanostructures. PMID:18654503
Sub-10 nm writing: focused electron beam-induced deposition in perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Dorp, W. F.
2014-12-01
Over the past decade, focused electron beam-induced deposition has become a mature necessary part of the tool box engineers and scientists. This review presents the current state of the art in sub-10 nm focused electron beam deposition and describes the dominant mechanisms that have been found so far for this regime. Several questions regarding patterning at the highest resolution are addressed. What do our findings mean for using sub-10 nm focused electron beam deposition for industrial applications? And which fundamental issues remain to be solved? The overview shows that low-energy secondary electrons dominate the deposition process. As a result, the highest obtainable spatial resolution (averaged over many deposits) is limited by the mean free path of those electrons. Therefore, the only route to improve the resolution beyond the current appears to be using complexes that are sensitive to the high-energy electrons in the incident beam, rather than to the secondaries. Focused electron beam-induced deposition is compared to related techniques. It is on par with resist-based sub-10 nm electron beam lithography, showing similar spatial resolutions at similar electron doses. Regarding ion beam lithography, there are several distinguishing issues. Sub-10 nm writing has yet to be demonstrated for ion deposition, and although the deposition rate is relatively low when writing with electrons, electrons do not induce damage to the sample. The latter is a crucial advantage for focused electron beam-induced deposition. Finally, the main challenges regarding the applicability of sub-10 nm focused electron beam-induced deposition are discussed.
Path planning using optically computed potential fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reid, Max B.
1993-01-01
An algorithm for the optical computation of potential field maps suitable for mobile robot navigation is described and experimentally produced maps and paths are presented. The parallel analog optical computation employs a two-dimensional spatial light modulator on which an image of the potential field map is generated. Optically calculated fields contain no local minima, tend to produce paths centered in gaps between obstacles, and produce paths which give preference to wide gaps. Calculation of 128 x 128 pixel fields at a few hertz are possible with current technology, and calculation time vs. map size scales favorably in comparison to digital electronic computation.
Fast Advection of Magnetic Fields by Hot Electrons
Willingale, L.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.; Nilson, P. M.; Kaluza, M. C.; Dangor, A. E.; Evans, R. G.; Fernandes, P.; Haines, M. G.; Kamperidis, C.; Kingham, R. J.; Ridgers, C. P.; Sherlock, M.; Wei, M. S.; Najmudin, Z.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Notley, M.; Minardi, S.; Tatarakis, M.; Rozmus, W.
2010-08-27
Experiments where a laser-generated proton beam is used to probe the megagauss strength self-generated magnetic fields from a nanosecond laser interaction with an aluminum target are presented. At intensities of 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2} and under conditions of significant fast electron production and strong heat fluxes, the electron mean-free-path is long compared with the temperature gradient scale length and hence nonlocal transport is important for the dynamics of the magnetic field in the plasma. The hot electron flux transports self-generated magnetic fields away from the focal region through the Nernst effect [A. Nishiguchi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 262 (1984)] at significantly higher velocities than the fluid velocity. Two-dimensional implicit Vlasov-Fokker-Planck modeling shows that the Nernst effect allows advection and self-generation transports magnetic fields at significantly faster than the ion fluid velocity, v{sub N}/c{sub s{approx_equal}}10.
Collisionless electron heating in periodic arrays of inductively coupled plasmas
Czarnetzki, U.; Tarnev, Kh.
2014-12-15
A novel mechanism of collisionless heating in large planar arrays of small inductive coils operated at radio frequencies is presented. In contrast to the well-known case of non-local heating related to the transversal conductivity, when the electrons move perpendicular to the planar coil, we investigate the problem of electrons moving in a plane parallel to the coils. Two types of periodic structures are studied. Resonance velocities where heating is efficient are calculated analytically by solving the Vlasov equation. Certain scaling parameters are identified. The concept is further investigated by a single particle simulation based on the ergodic principle and combined with a Monte Carlo code allowing for collisions with Argon atoms. Resonances, energy exchange, and distribution functions are obtained. The analytical results are confirmed by the numerical simulation. Pressure and electric field dependences are studied. Stochastic heating is found to be most efficient when the electron mean free path exceeds the size of a single coil cell. Then the mean energy increases approximately exponentially with the electric field amplitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carelli, Fabio; Gianturco, Francesco Antonio; Franz, Jan; Satta, Mauro
2015-06-01
Electron and positron scattering processes in the gas-phase are analysed for uracil and pyrimidine molecules using a multichannel quantum approach at energies close to threshold. The special effects on the scattering dynamics induced by the large dipole moments in both molecules on the spatial features of the continuum leptonic wavefunctions are here linked to the possible bound states of the Rydberg-like molecular anions or `positroned' molecules which could be reached via further couplings with molecular internal degrees of freedom.
Inelastic scattering of electron and light ion beams in organic polymers
Vera, Pablo de; Abril, Isabel; Garcia-Molina, Rafael
2011-05-01
We have calculated the inelastic mean free path, stopping power, and energy-loss straggling of swift electron, proton, and {alpha}-particle beams in a broad incident energy range in four organic polymers: poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), Kapton, polyacetylene (PA), and poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP). These calculations have been done through a suitable description of their optical properties and its extension into the whole momentum and energy transfer excitation spectrum. For electrons, we take into account the exchange effect between the projectile and the target electrons, while the charge-state fractions have been considered for ions. Our results are compared with other models and with the available experimental data. An excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained in the case of proton and {alpha}-particle beams in Kapton and a reasonably good agreement has been achieved for electron beams in PMMA, Kapton, and PA. We have parameterized by means of simple analytical expressions our results for electron beams interacting with these four polymers, which can be easily implemented in Monte Carlo calculations.
The Electron Heat flux in the Solar Wind: Collisionless or Collisional Dominated?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landi, S.; Pantellini, F. G. E.; Matteini, L.
2014-12-01
Recent measurements by the WIND spacecraft at 1 AU (Bale et al., ApJL 769, L22) show that, when the Knudsen number (the ratio between the electron mean free path and the electron temperature scale height) drops below about 0.3, the electron heat flux appears strongly correlate with the classical electron heat flux expected for a collisional dominated plasma, while at higher values the heat flux is limited to a fraction of its free-streaming value. Using a fully kinetic model including the effect of Coulomb collisions, the expansion of the solar wind, as well as the self consistent large scale electric field needed to preserve quasi neutrality and zero current, we indeed observe the electron heat flux in very good agreement with observations. However, closer inspection of the heat flux properties, such as its dependence on the thermodynamic quantities and its variation with the distance, shows that for Knudsen number between 0.02 and 0.3 the heat flux is still not conveniently described by the Spitzer-Härm formula. Moreover, the good agreement between our model - that does not include wave-particle interactions - and the heat flux in the solar wind in the high Knudsen regime suggests that at 1AU the heat flux intensity is not constrained by electromagnetic instabilities, wave-particle and wave-wave interactions.
Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: a sound mode inside the quasi-particles
Sašo Grozdanov; Janos Polonyi
2015-09-03
We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh Closed-Time-Path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly non-linear and irreversible even for a non-interacting, ideal gas of electrons at non-zero density. We truncate the linearised equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, {\\it composite sound} waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition between the hydrodynamical regime of an ideal gas, defined in this work, and the hydrodynamical regime in phenomenological hydrodynamics, which is normally used for the description of interacting gases.
Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: a sound mode inside the quasi-particles
Grozdanov, Sašo
2015-01-01
We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh Closed-Time-Path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly non-linear and irreversible even for a non-interacting, ideal gas of electrons at non-zero density. We truncate the linearised equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, composite sound waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition betwee...
Christian Fleischhack
2015-03-21
The symmetries of paths in a manifold $M$ are classified with respect to a given pointwise proper action of a Lie group $G$ on $M$. Here, paths are embeddings of a compact interval into $M$. There are at least two types of symmetries: Firstly, paths that are parts of an integral curve of a fundamental vector field on $M$ (continuous symmetry). Secondly, paths that can be decomposed into finitely many pieces, each of which is the translate of some free segment, where possibly the translate is cut at the two ends of the paths (discrete symmetry). Here, a free segment is a path $e$ whose $G$-translates either equal $e$ or intersect it in at most finitely many points. Note that all the statements above are understood up to the parametrization of the paths. We will show, for the category of analytic manifolds, that each path is of exactly one of either types. For the proof, we use that the overlap of a path $\\gamma$ with one of its translates is encoded uniquely in a mapping between subsets of $\\dom\\gamma$. Running over all translates, these mappings form the so-called reparametrization set to $\\gamma$. It will turn out that, up to conjugation with a diffeomorphism, any such set is given by the action of a Lie subgroup of $O(2)$ on $S^1$, restricted in domain and range to some compact interval on $S^1$. Now, the infinite subgroups correspond to the continuous symmetry above, finite ones to the discrete symmetry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voronkov, R. A.; Rymzhanov, R. A.; Medvedev, N. A.; Volkov, A. E.
2015-12-01
Monte Carlo code TREKIS is applied to trace kinetics of excitation of the electron subsystem of ZnO and MgO after an impact of a swift heavy ion (SHI). The event-by-event simulations describe excitation of the electron subsystems by a penetrating SHI, spatial spreading of generated electrons and secondary electron cascades. Application of the complex dielectric function (CDF) formalism for calculation of the cross sections of charged particle interaction with a solid target allows to consider collective response of the target to perturbation, which arises from the spatial and temporal correlations in the target electrons ensemble. The method of CDF reconstruction from the experimental optical data is applied. Electron inelastic mean free paths calculated within the CDF formalism are in very good agreement with NIST database. SHI energy losses agree well with those from SRIM and CasP codes. The radial distributions of valence holes, core holes and delocalized electrons as well as their energy densities in SHI tracks are calculated. The analysis of these distributions is presented.
Siekhaus, W J; Nelson, A J
2011-10-26
Energy dependent electron emission between zero and 1.4 keV generated by the natural reactivity of plutonium was measured by an electrostatic spectrometer with known acceptance angle and acceptance area. The electron spectral intensity decreases continuously except for a distinctive feature of unknown origin at approximately 180eV. The spectrum was converted to energy dependent electron flux (e/cm{sup 2} s) using the assumption that the emission has a cosine angular distribution. The energy dependent electron mean free path in gases and literature cross sections for electron induced reactions were used to determine the number of ionization and dissociation reactions per cm{sup 2} second, found to be about 8*10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}s and 1.5*10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}s, respectively, for hydrogen. These results are to be used with caution until complementary measurements can be made, e.g. independent measurement of the total emitted electron current, since the results here are based on the assumption that the electron emission has a cosine angular distribution. That is unlikely to be correct.
Thermal flux limited electron Kapitza conductance in copper-niobium multilayers
Cheaito, Ramez; Gaskins, John T.; Duda, John C.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Hattar, Khalid; Beechem, Thomas E.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Piekos, Edward S.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Baldwin, Jon K.; Misra, Amit
2015-03-02
We study the interplay between the contributions of electron thermal flux and interface scattering to the Kapitza conductance across metal-metal interfaces through measurements of thermal conductivity of copper-niobium multilayers. Thermal conductivities of copper-niobium multilayer films of period thicknesses ranging from 5.4 to 96.2?nm and sample thicknesses ranging from 962 to 2677?nm are measured by time-domain thermoreflectance over a range of temperatures from 78 to 500?K. The Kapitza conductances between the Cu and Nb interfaces in multilayer films are determined from the thermal conductivities using a series resistor model and are in good agreement with the electron diffuse mismatch model. Our results for the thermal boundary conductance between Cu and Nb are compared to literature values for the thermal boundary conductance across Al-Cu and Pd-Ir interfaces, and demonstrate that the interface conductance in metallic systems is dictated by the temperature derivative of the electron energy flux in the metallic layers, rather than electron mean free path or scattering processes at the interface.
Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator
Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Simonson, Robert J. (Cedar Crest, NM)
2010-09-21
A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stegemoller, William; Stegemoller, Rebecca
2004-01-01
The path taken and the turns made as a turtle traces a polygon are examined to discover an important theorem in geometry. A unique tool, the Angle Adder, is implemented in the investigation. (Contains 9 figures.)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spanier, Graham B.; Glick, Paul C.
1980-01-01
Presents a demographic analysis of the paths to remarriage--the extent and timing of remarriage, social factors associated with remarriage, and the impact of the event which preceded remarriage (divorce or widowhood). (Author)
Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; Kostarelos, Kostas
2011-09-01
The effect of bulk and surface excitations to inelastic scattering in low-energy electron beam irradiation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) is studied using the dielectric formalism. Calculations are based on a semiempirical dielectric response function for MWCNTs determined by means of a many-pole plasmon model with parameters adjusted to available experimental spectroscopic data under theoretical sum-rule constrains. Finite-size effects are considered in the context of electron gas theory via a boundary correction term in the plasmon dispersion relations, thus, allowing a more realistic extrapolation of the electronic excitation spectrum over the whole energy-momentum plane. Energy-loss differential and total inelastic scattering cross sections as a function of electron energy and distance from the surface, valid over the energy range {approx}50-30,000 eV, are calculated with the individual contribution of bulk and surface excitations separated and analyzed for the case of normally incident and escaping electrons. The sensitivity of the results to the various approximations for the spatial dispersion of the electronic excitations is quantified. Surface excitations are shown to have a strong influence upon the shape and intensity of the energy-loss differential cross section in the near surface region whereas the general notion of a spatially invariant inelastic mean free path inside the material is found to be of good approximation.
Improved initial guess for minimum energy path calculations
Smidstrup, Søren; Pedersen, Andreas; Stokbro, Kurt
2014-06-07
A method is presented for generating a good initial guess of a transition path between given initial and final states of a system without evaluation of the energy. An objective function surface is constructed using an interpolation of pairwise distances at each discretization point along the path and the nudged elastic band method then used to find an optimal path on this image dependent pair potential (IDPP) surface. This provides an initial path for the more computationally intensive calculations of a minimum energy path on an energy surface obtained, for example, by ab initio or density functional theory. The optimal path on the IDPP surface is significantly closer to a minimum energy path than a linear interpolation of the Cartesian coordinates and, therefore, reduces the number of iterations needed to reach convergence and averts divergence in the electronic structure calculations when atoms are brought too close to each other in the initial path. The method is illustrated with three examples: (1) rotation of a methyl group in an ethane molecule, (2) an exchange of atoms in an island on a crystal surface, and (3) an exchange of two Si-atoms in amorphous silicon. In all three cases, the computational effort in finding the minimum energy path with DFT was reduced by a factor ranging from 50% to an order of magnitude by using an IDPP path as the initial path. The time required for parallel computations was reduced even more because of load imbalance when linear interpolation of Cartesian coordinates was used.
Finding Good Paths: Applications of Least Cost Caloric Path Computations
Wood, Zoë J.
Google Earth API to explore the use of least cost caloric path computations to create an interactive path for the creation of crowd path computations that consider the terrain as one factor in agent path computations. The second application builds on the popular Google Earth API to provide a tool for users to compute
Partial intensity approach for quantitative analysis of reflection-electron-energy-loss spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calliari, L.; Filippi, M.; A. Varfolomeev
2011-08-01
We have considered a formalism, known as partial intensity approach (PIA), previously developed to quantitatively analyze reflection electron energy loss (REEL) spectra [1,2]. The aim of the approach is, in particular, to recover the single scattering distribution of energy losses and to separate it into bulk and surface contributions, respectively referred to as the differential inverse inelastic mean free path (DIIMFP) and the differential surface excitation parameter (DSEP). As compared to [1] and [2], we have implemented a modified approach, and we have applied it to the specific geometry of the cylindrical mirror analyzer (CMA), used to acquire the REEL spectra shown here. Silicon, a material with well-defined surface and bulk plasmons, is taken as a case study to investigate the approach as a function of electron energy over the energy range typical of REELS, i.e. from 250 eV to 2 keV. Our goal is, on the one hand, to examine possible limits for the applicability of the approach and, on the other hand, to test a basic assumption of the PIA, namely that a unique DIIMFP and a unique DSEP account for REEL spectra, whatever the acquisition conditions (i.e. electron energy or angle of surface crossing) are. We find that a minimum energy exists below which the PIA cannot be applied and that the assumption of REEL spectra accounted for by unique DIIMFP and DSEP is indeed an approximation.
Surface excitations in electron spectroscopy. Part I: dielectric formalism and Monte Carlo algorithm
Salvat-Pujol, F; Werner, W S M
2013-01-01
The theory describing energy losses of charged non-relativistic projectiles crossing a planar interface is derived on the basis of the Maxwell equations, outlining the physical assumptions of the model in great detail. The employed approach is very general in that various common models for surface excitations (such as the specular reflection model) can be obtained by an appropriate choice of parameter values. The dynamics of charged projectiles near surfaces is examined by calculations of the induced surface charge and the depth- and direction-dependent differential inelastic inverse mean free path (DIIMFP) and stopping power. The effect of several simplifications frequently encountered in the literature is investigated: differences of up to 100% are found in heights, widths, and positions of peaks in the DIIMFP. The presented model is implemented in a Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the electron transport relevant for surface electron spectroscopy. Simulated reflection electron energy loss spectra are in good agreement with experiment on an absolute scale. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23794766
Autonomous Ground Vehicle Path Tracking
Florida, University of
Autonomous Ground Vehicle Path Tracking Jeff Wit Wintec, Inc. 104 Research Road, Building 9738 vehicle navigation requires the integration of many technologies such as path planning, position of a nonholonomic ground vehicle as it tracks a given path. A new path tracking technique called ``vector pursuit
Sampling diffusive transition paths
F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian
2006-10-12
We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.
Sullivan, Blair D; Seymour, Dr. Paul Douglas
2010-01-01
Say a digraph is k-free if it has no directed cycles of length at most k, for k {element_of} Z{sup +}. Thomasse conjectured that the number of induced 3-vertex directed paths in a simple 2-free digraph on n vertices is at most (n-1)n(n+1)/15. We present an unpublished result of Bondy proving there are at most 2n{sup 3}/25 such paths, and prove that for the class of circular interval digraphs, an upper bound of n{sup 3}/16 holds. We also study the problem of bounding the number of (non-induced) 4-vertex paths in 3-free digraphs. We show an upper bound of 4n{sup 4}/75 using Bondy's result for Thomasse's conjecture.
Mobile transporter path planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baffes, Paul; Wang, Lui
1990-01-01
The use of a genetic algorithm (GA) for solving the mobile transporter path planning problem is investigated. The mobile transporter is a traveling robotic vehicle proposed for the space station which must be able to reach any point of the structure autonomously. Elements of the genetic algorithm are explored in both a theoretical and experimental sense. Specifically, double crossover, greedy crossover, and tournament selection techniques are examined. Additionally, the use of local optimization techniques working in concert with the GA are also explored. Recent developments in genetic algorithm theory are shown to be particularly effective in a path planning problem domain, though problem areas can be cited which require more research.
Kontar, Eduard P.; Bian, Nicolas H.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Vilmer, Nicole E-mail: emslieg@wku.edu
2014-01-10
Recent observations from RHESSI have revealed that the number of non-thermal electrons in the coronal part of a flaring loop can exceed the number of electrons required to explain the hard X-ray-emitting footpoints of the same flaring loop. Such sources cannot, therefore, be interpreted on the basis of the standard collisional transport model, in which electrons stream along the loop while losing their energy through collisions with the ambient plasma; additional physical processes, to either trap or scatter the energetic electrons, are required. Motivated by this and other observations that suggest that high-energy electrons are confined to the coronal region of the source, we consider turbulent pitch-angle scattering of fast electrons off low-frequency magnetic fluctuations as a confinement mechanism, modeled as a spatial diffusion parallel to the mean magnetic field. In general, turbulent scattering leads to a reduction of the collisional stopping distance of non-thermal electrons along the loop, and hence to an enhancement of the coronal hard X-ray source relative to the footpoints. The variation of source size L with electron energy E becomes weaker than the quadratic behavior pertinent to collisional transport, with the slope of L(E) depending directly on the mean free path ? associated with the non-collisional scattering mechanism. Comparing the predictions of the model with observations, we find that ? ? (10{sup 8}-10{sup 9}) cm for ?30 keV, less than the length of a typical flaring loop and smaller than, or comparable to, the size of the electron acceleration region.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coleman, Toni
2012-01-01
A growing number of institutions are being more deliberate about bringing in fundraisers who fit the culture of the development department and about assessing skills and providing training that fill specific needs. Development shops are paying more attention to cultivating their staffs, staying attuned to employees' needs and creating career paths…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGarvey, Lynn M.; Sterenberg, Gladys Y.; Long, Julie S.
2013-01-01
The authors elucidate what they saw as three important challenges to overcome along the path to becoming elementary school mathematics teacher leaders: marginal interest in math, low self-confidence, and teaching in isolation. To illustrate how these challenges were mitigated, they focus on the stories of two elementary school teachers--Laura and…
DNA Computing Hamiltonian path
Hagiya, Masami
2014 DNA DNA #12;DNA Computing · Feynman · Adleman · DNASIMD · ... · · · · · DNADNA #12;DNA · DNA · · · · DNA · · #12;2000 2005 2010 1995 Hamiltonian path DNA tweezers DNA tile DNA origami DNA box Sierpinski DNA tile self assembly DNA logic gates Whiplash PCR DNA automaton DNA spider MAYA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bill, R. C.; Johnson, R. D. (inventors)
1979-01-01
A gas path seal suitable for use with a turbine engine or compressor is described. A shroud wearable or abradable by the abrasion of the rotor blades of the turbine or compressor shrouds the rotor bades. A compliant backing surrounds the shroud. The backing is a yieldingly deformable porous material covered with a thin ductile layer. A mounting fixture surrounds the backing.
200 times greater than that of steel and a relatively high tensile strength [7], as well as high be further enhanced by sp2 -on- sp3 technology [18]. Compared to copper, graphene has higher thermal conductivity [19], [20] and a large carrier mean free path, which leads to higher conductance [10], [11], [19
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arenas, Claudio; Henriquez, Ricardo; Moraga, Luis; Muñoz, Enrique; Munoz, Raul C.
2015-02-01
We calculate the electrical resistivity of a metallic specimen, under the combined effects of electron scattering by impurities, grain boundaries, and rough surfaces limiting the film, using a quantum theory based upon the Kubo formalism. Grain boundaries are represented by a one-dimensional periodic array of Dirac delta functions separated by a distance "d" giving rise to a Kronig-Penney (KP) potential. We use the Green's function built from the wave functions that are solutions of this KP potential; disorder is included by incorporating into the theory the probability that an electron is transmitted through several successive grain boundaries. We apply this new theory to analyze the resistivity of samples S1, S2, S7 and S8 measured between 4 and 300 K reported in Appl. Surf. Science273, 315 (2013). Although both the classical and the quantum theories predict a resistivity that agrees with experimental data to within a few percent or better, the phenomena giving rise to the increase of resistivity over the bulk are remarkably different. Classically, each grain boundary contributes to the electrical resistance by reflecting a certain fraction of the incoming electrons. In the quantum description, there are states (in the allowed KP bands) that transmit electrons unhindered, without reflections, while the electrons in the forbidden KP bands are localized. A distinctive feature of the quantum theory is that it provides a description of the temperature dependence of the resistivity where the contribution to the resistivity originating on electron-grain boundary scattering can be identified by a certain unique grain boundary reflectivity R, and the resistivity arising from electron-impurity scattering can be identified by a certain unique ?IMP mean free path attributable to impurity scattering. This is in contrast to the classical theory of Mayadas and Shatzkes (MS), that does not discriminate properly between a resistivity arising from electron-grain boundary scattering and that arising from electron-impurity scattering, for MS theory does not allow parameters (?IMP, R) to be uniquely adjusted to describe the temperature dependence of the resistivity data. The same data can be described using different sets of (R, ?IMP); the latter parameter can be varied by two orders of magnitude in the case of small grained samples d < ?, and by a factor of 4 in the case of samples made out of large grains d > ? (where ? is the bulk mean free path at 300 K). For samples d > ?, the increase of resistivity is attributed not to electrons being partially reflected by the grain boundaries, but to a decrease in the number of states at the Fermi sphere that are allowed bands of the KP potential; hence the reflectivity required by the quantum model turns out to be an order of magnitude smaller than that required by the classical MS theory. For samples d < ?, the resistivity increase originates mainly from Anderson localization induced by electron grain boundary scattering from disordered successive grains characterized by a localization length of the order of 110 nm and not from electrons being partially reflected by grain boundaries; the outcome is that the reflectivity required by the quantum theory turns out to be about 4 times smaller than that required by the classical MS theory.
Gusenleitner, S.; Hauschild, D.; Reinert, F.; Handick, E.
2014-03-28
Ruthenium capped multilayer coatings for use in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation regime have manifold applications in science and industry. Although the Ru cap shall protect the reflecting multilayers, the surface of the heterostructures suffers from contamination issues and surface degradation. In order to get a better understanding of the effects of these impurities on the optical parameters, reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) measurements of contaminated and H cleaned Ru multilayer coatings were taken at various primary electron beam energies. Experiments conducted at low primary beam energies between 100?eV and 1000?eV are very surface sensitive due to the short inelastic mean free path of the electrons in this energy range. Therefore, influences of the surface condition on the above mentioned characteristics can be appraised. In this paper, it can be shown that carbon and oxide impurities on the mirror surface decrease the transmission of the Ru cap by about 0.75% and the overall reflectance of the device is impaired as the main share of the non-transmitted EUV light is absorbed in the contamination layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimling, Judith; Kronast, Florian; Martens, Stephan; Böhnert, Tim; Martens, Michael; Herrero-Albillos, Julia; Tati-Bismaths, Logane; Merkt, Ulrich; Nielsch, Kornelius; Meier, Guido
2011-11-01
We present a photoemission electron microscopy method that combines magnetic imaging of the surface and of the inner magnetization in three-dimensional core-shell nanostructures. The structure investigated consists of a cylindrical nickel core that is completely surrounded by a shell of iron oxide and silicon oxide layers. The method enables one to image the magnetization configuration of the nickel core even though the shell is thicker than the mean-free path of the photoelectrons. Characteristic L3 and L2 edges can be observed not only in the yield of the photoelectrons emitted from the surface of the nanostructure but also in its shadow. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in the electron yield of the x rays absorbed and transmitted by the multilayered nanowire allows for the individual imaging of the magnetization configurations of the iron oxide tube and the nickel core. The method suggests novel approaches for the characterization of the magnetic and material properties of complex three-dimensional nanostructures.
Chew, Geoffrey F
2008-01-01
Arrowed-time divergence-free rules or cosmological quantum dynamics are formulated through stepped Feynman paths across macroscopic slices of Milne spacetime. Slice boundaries house totally-relativistic rays representing elementary entities--preons. Total relativity and the associated preon Fock space, despite distinction from special relativity (which lacks time arrow), are based on the Lorentz group. Each path is a set of cubic vertices connected by straight, directed and stepped arcs that carry inertial, electromagnetic and gravitational action. The action of an arc step comprises increments each bounded by Planck's constant. Action from extremely-distant sources is determined by universe mean energy density. Identifying the arc-step energy that determines inertial action with that determining gravitational action establishes both arc-step length and universe density. Special relativity is accurate for physics at laboratory spacetime scales far below that of Hubble and far above that of Planck.
Geoffrey F. Chew
2008-02-21
Arrowed-time divergence-free rules or cosmological quantum dynamics are formulated through stepped Feynman paths across macroscopic slices of Milne spacetime. Slice boundaries house totally-relativistic rays representing elementary entities--preons. Total relativity and the associated preon Fock space, despite distinction from special relativity (which lacks time arrow), are based on the Lorentz group. Each path is a set of cubic vertices connected by straight, directed and stepped arcs that carry inertial, electromagnetic and gravitational action. The action of an arc step comprises increments each bounded by Planck's constant. Action from extremely-distant sources is determined by universe mean energy density. Identifying the arc-step energy that determines inertial action with that determining gravitational action establishes both arc-step length and universe density. Special relativity is accurate for physics at laboratory spacetime scales far below that of Hubble and far above that of Planck.
PATHS groundwater hydrologic model
Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.
1980-04-01
A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.
Path Integral Monte Carlo Simulation of the Low-Density Hydrogen Plasma B. Militzer y
Militzer, Burkhard
Path Integral Monte Carlo Simulation of the Low-Density Hydrogen Plasma B. Militzer y Lawrence. There are ab initio methods such as y Electronic address: militzer@llnl.gov z Electronic address: ceperley
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decisionmaker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its content include program managers and administrators who track the program and are involved in decisions regarding resource allocation and program evaluation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decision maker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its content include program managers and administrators who track the program and are involved in decisions regarding resource allocation and program evaluation.
Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey
2012-01-01
We examine portage sites in the U.S. South, Mid-Atlantic, and Midwest, including those on the fall line, a geomorphological feature in the southeastern U.S. marking the final rapids on rivers before the ocean. Historically, waterborne transport of goods required portage around the falls at these points, while some falls provided water power during early industrialization. These factors attracted commerce and manufacturing. Although these original advantages have long since been made obsolete, we document the continuing importance of these portage sites over time. We interpret these results as path dependence and contrast explanations based on sunk costs interacting with decreasing versus increasing returns to scale. PMID:23935217
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehhtz, Peter
2005-01-01
JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.
Handbook of Feynman Path Integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosche, Christian, Steiner, Frank
The Handbook of Feynman Path Integrals appears just fifty years after Richard Feynman published his pioneering paper in 1948 entitled "Space-Time Approach to Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics", in which he introduced his new formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of path integrals. The book presents for the first time a comprehensive table of Feynman path integrals together with an extensive list of references; it will serve the reader as a thorough introduction to the theory of path integrals. As a reference book, it is unique in its scope and will be essential for many physicists, chemists and mathematicians working in different areas of research.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krause, L. Habsh; Gilchrist, B. E.; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi
2013-01-01
Relativisitic electron precipitation (REP) events occur when beams or bunches of relativistic electrons of magnetospheric origin enter the Earth's atmosphere, typically at auroral latitudes. REP events are associated with a variety of space weather effects, including production of transitional and bremsstrahlung radiation, catalytic depletion of stratospheric ozone, and scintillation of transionospheric radio waves. This study examines the intensities of x-rays produced at airliner, manned balloon, and space reuseable launch vehicles (sRLVs). The monoenergetic beam is modeled in cylindrical symetry using the paraxial ray equation. Bremsstrahlung photon production is calculated using the traditional Sauter-Elwert cross-section, providing x-ray emission spectra differential in energy and angle. Attenuation is computed for a plane-stratified standard atmosphere, and the loss processes include photoionization, Rayleigh and Compton scattering, electron-positron pair production, and photonuclear interaction. Peak altitudes of electron energy deposition and bremsstrahlung x-ray production were calculated for beams of energies from 1 MeV through 100 MeV. The altitude peak of bremsstrahlung deposition was consistently and significantly lower that that of the electron deposition due to the longer mean free paths of x-rays compared to electrons within the atmosphere. For example, for a nadir-directed monoenergetic 5 MeV beam, the peak deposition altitude was calculated to be 42 km, but the resulting bremsstrahlung deposition peaked at 25 km. This has implications for crew and passenger safety, especially with the growth of the space tourism industry. A survey of results covering the 1-100 MeV spectrum for the three altitude ranges of interest will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habash Krause, L.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Nishikawa, K.; Williams, A.
2013-12-01
Relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events occur when beams or bunches of relativistic electrons of magnetospheric origin enter the Earth's atmosphere, typically at auroral latitudes. REP events are associated with a variety of space weather effects, including production of transitional and bremsstrahlung radiation, catalytic depletion of stratospheric ozone, and scintillation of transionospheric radio waves. This study examines the intensities of x-rays produced at airliner, manned balloon, and suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV) altitudes. The monoenergetic beam is modeled in cylindrical symmetry using the paraxial ray equation. Bremsstrahlung photon production is calculated using the traditional Sauter-Elwert cross-section, providing x-ray emission spectra differential in energy and angle. Attenuation is computed for a plane-stratified standard atmosphere, and the loss processes include photoionization, Rayleigh and Compton scattering, electron-positron pair production, and photonuclear interaction. Peak altitudes of electron energy deposition and bremsstrahlung x-ray production were calculated for beams of energies from 1 MeV through 100 MeV. The altitude peak of bremsstrahlung deposition was consistently and significantly lower that that of the electron deposition due to the longer mean free paths of x-rays compared to electrons within the atmosphere. For example, for a nadir-directed monoenergetic 5 MeV beam, the peak deposition altitude was calculated to be 42 km, but the resulting bremmstrahlung deposition peaked at 25 km. This has implications for crew and passenger safety, especially with the growth of the space tourism industry that relies on sRLVs with a nominal apogee of 100 km. A survey of results covering the 1-100 MeV spectrum for the three altitude ranges of interest will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng
2014-12-01
Solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) detection refers to photon detection specifically in the wavelength range of 200 nm-320 nm. Without background noises from solar radiation, it has broad applications from homeland security to environmental monitoring. The most commonly used solid state devices for this application are wide band gap (WBG) semiconductor photodetectors (Eg > 3.5 eV). However, WBG semiconductors are difficult to grow and integrate with Si readout integrated circuits (ROICs). In this paper, we design a nanophotonic metal-oxide-semiconductor structure on Si for solar-blind UV detectors. Instead of using semiconductors as the active absorber, we use Sn nano-grating structures to absorb UV photons and generate hot electrons for internal photoemission across the Sn/SiO2 interfacial barrier, thereby generating photocurrent between the metal and the n-type Si region upon UV excitation. Moreover, the transported hot electron has an excess kinetic energy >3 eV, large enough to induce impact ionization and generate another free electron in the conduction band of n-Si. This process doubles the quantum efficiency. On the other hand, the large metal/oxide interfacial energy barrier (>3.5 eV) also enables solar-blind UV detection by blocking the less energetic electrons excited by visible photons. With optimized design, ˜75% UV absorption and hot electron excitation can be achieved within the mean free path of ˜20 nm from the metal/oxide interface. This feature greatly enhances hot electron transport across the interfacial barrier to generate photocurrent. The simple geometry of the Sn nano-gratings and the MOS structure make it easy to fabricate and integrate with Si ROICs compared to existing solar-blind UV detection schemes. The presented device structure also breaks through the conventional notion that photon absorption by metal is always a loss in solid-state photodetectors, and it can potentially be extended to other active metal photonic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques
2015-08-01
An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.
Fetzer, Roman; Stadtmüller, Benjamin; Ohdaira, Yusuke; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo; Taira, Tomoyuki; Uemura, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Aeschlimann, Martin; Cinchetti, Mirko
2015-01-01
Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) is a powerful tool to study the electronic spin and symmetry features at both surfaces and interfaces to ultrathin top layers. However, the very low mean free path of the photoelectrons usually prevents a direct access to the properties of buried interfaces. The latter are of particular interest since they crucially influence the performance of spintronic devices like magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Here, we introduce spin-resolved extremely low energy photoemission spectroscopy (ELEPS) to provide a powerful way for overcoming this limitation. We apply ELEPS to the interface formed between the half-metallic Heusler compound Co2MnSi and the insulator MgO, prepared as in state-of-the-art Co2MnSi/MgO-based MTJs. The high accordance between the spintronic fingerprint of the free Co2MnSi surface and the Co2MnSi/MgO interface buried below up to 4?nm MgO provides clear evidence for the high interface sensitivity of ELEPS to buried interfaces. Although the absolute values of the interface spin polarization are well below 100%, the now accessible spin- and symmetry-resolved wave functions are in line with the predicted existence of non-collinear spin moments at the Co2MnSi/MgO interface, one of the mechanisms evoked to explain the controversially discussed performance loss of Heusler-based MTJs at room temperature. PMID:25702631
Fetzer, Roman; Stadtmüller, Benjamin; Ohdaira, Yusuke; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo; Taira, Tomoyuki; Uemura, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Aeschlimann, Martin; Cinchetti, Mirko
2015-01-01
Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) is a powerful tool to study the electronic spin and symmetry features at both surfaces and interfaces to ultrathin top layers. However, the very low mean free path of the photoelectrons usually prevents a direct access to the properties of buried interfaces. The latter are of particular interest since they crucially influence the performance of spintronic devices like magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Here, we introduce spin-resolved extremely low energy photoemission spectroscopy (ELEPS) to provide a powerful way for overcoming this limitation. We apply ELEPS to the interface formed between the half-metallic Heusler compound Co2MnSi and the insulator MgO, prepared as in state-of-the-art Co2MnSi/MgO-based MTJs. The high accordance between the spintronic fingerprint of the free Co2MnSi surface and the Co2MnSi/MgO interface buried below up to 4?nm MgO provides clear evidence for the high interface sensitivity of ELEPS to buried interfaces. Although the absolute values of the interface spin polarization are well below 100%, the now accessible spin- and symmetry-resolved wave functions are in line with the predicted existence of non-collinear spin moments at the Co2MnSi/MgO interface, one of the mechanisms evoked to explain the controversially discussed performance loss of Heusler-based MTJs at room temperature. PMID:25702631
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fetzer, Roman; Stadtmüller, Benjamin; Ohdaira, Yusuke; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo; Taira, Tomoyuki; Uemura, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Aeschlimann, Martin; Cinchetti, Mirko
2015-02-01
Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) is a powerful tool to study the electronic spin and symmetry features at both surfaces and interfaces to ultrathin top layers. However, the very low mean free path of the photoelectrons usually prevents a direct access to the properties of buried interfaces. The latter are of particular interest since they crucially influence the performance of spintronic devices like magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Here, we introduce spin-resolved extremely low energy photoemission spectroscopy (ELEPS) to provide a powerful way for overcoming this limitation. We apply ELEPS to the interface formed between the half-metallic Heusler compound Co2MnSi and the insulator MgO, prepared as in state-of-the-art Co2MnSi/MgO-based MTJs. The high accordance between the spintronic fingerprint of the free Co2MnSi surface and the Co2MnSi/MgO interface buried below up to 4 nm MgO provides clear evidence for the high interface sensitivity of ELEPS to buried interfaces. Although the absolute values of the interface spin polarization are well below 100%, the now accessible spin- and symmetry-resolved wave functions are in line with the predicted existence of non-collinear spin moments at the Co2MnSi/MgO interface, one of the mechanisms evoked to explain the controversially discussed performance loss of Heusler-based MTJs at room temperature.
CURRENT SHEET REGULATION OF SOLAR NEAR-RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON INJECTION HISTORIES
Agueda, N.; Sanahuja, B.; Vainio, R.; Dalla, S.; Lario, D.
2013-03-10
We present a sample of three large near-relativistic (>50 keV) electron events observed in 2001 by both the ACE and the Ulysses spacecraft, when Ulysses was at high-northern latitudes (>60 Degree-Sign ) and close to 2 AU. Despite the large latitudinal distance between the two spacecraft, electrons injected near the Sun reached both heliospheric locations. All three events were associated with large solar flares, strong decametric type II radio bursts and accompanied by wide (>212 Degree-Sign ) and fast (>1400 km s{sup -1}) coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We use advanced interplanetary transport simulations and make use of the directional intensities observed in situ by the spacecraft to infer the electron injection profile close to the Sun and the interplanetary transport conditions at both low and high latitudes. For the three selected events, we find similar interplanetary transport conditions at different heliolatitudes for a given event, with values of the mean free path ranging from 0.04 AU to 0.27 AU. We find differences in the injection profiles inferred for each spacecraft. We investigate the role that sector boundaries of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) have on determining the characteristics of the electron injection profiles. Extended injection profiles, associated with coronal shocks, are found if the magnetic footpoints of the spacecraft lay in the same magnetic sector as the associated flare, while intermittent sparse injection episodes appear when the spacecraft footpoints are in the opposite sector or a wrap in the HCS bounded the CME structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carles, R.; Bayle, M.; Benzo, P.; Benassayag, G.; Bonafos, C.; Cacciato, G.; Privitera, V.
2015-11-01
Since the discovery of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) 40 years ago, the origin of the "background" that is systematically observed in SERS spectra has remained questionable. To deeply analyze this phenomenon, plasmon-resonant Raman scattering was recorded under specific experimental conditions on a panel of composite multilayer samples containing noble metal (Ag and Au) nanoparticles. Stokes, anti-Stokes, and wide, including very low, frequency ranges have been explored. The effects of temperature, size (in the nm range), embedding medium (SiO2, Si3N4, or TiO2) or ligands have been successively analyzed. Both lattice (Lamb modes and bulk phonons) and electron (plasmon mode and electron-hole excitations) dynamics have been investigated. This work confirms that in Ag-based nanoplasmonics composite layers, only Raman scattering by single-particle electronic excitations accounts for the background. This latter appears as an intrinsic phenomenon independently of the presence of molecules on the metallic surface. Its spectral shape is well described by revisiting a model developed in the 1990s for analyzing electron scattering in dirty metals, and used later in superconductors. The gs factor, that determines the effective mean-free path of free carriers, is evaluated, gsexpt=0.33 ±0.04 , in good agreement with a recent evaluation based on time-dependent local density approximation gstheor=0.32 . Confinement and interface roughness effects at the nanometer range thus appear crucial to understand and control SERS enhancement and more generally plasmon-enhanced processes on metallic surfaces.
Ab-initio path integral techniques for molecules
Daejin Shin; Ming-Chak Ho; J. Shumway
2006-11-09
Path integral Monte Carlo with Green's function analysis allows the sampling of quantum mechanical properties of molecules at finite temperature. While a high-precision computation of the energy of the Born-Oppenheimer surface from path integral Monte Carlo is quite costly, we can extract many properties without explicitly calculating the electronic energies. We demonstrate how physically relevant quantities, such as bond-length, vibrational spectra, and polarizabilities of molecules may be sampled directly from the path integral simulation using Matsubura (temperature) Green's functions (imaginary-time correlation functions). These calculations on the hydrogen molecule are a proof-of-concept, designed to motivate new work on fixed-node path-integral calculations for molecules.
Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.
2014-01-01
In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.
Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; Roberts, C. M.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.
2013-06-01
In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences based on development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in more developed sites. Thematically, people in less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community based solutions, while people in more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in water-rich sites. Thematically, people in water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.
Electron-hole quantum physics in ZnO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Versteegh, M. A. M.
2011-09-01
This dissertation describes several new aspects of the quantum physics of electrons and holes in zinc oxide (ZnO), including a few possible applications. Zinc oxide is a II-VI semiconductor with a direct band gap in the ultraviolet. Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed, both on bulk ZnO and on ZnO nanowires. Chapter 2 presents a new technique for an ultrafast all-optical shutter, based on two-photon absorption in a ZnO crystal. This shutter can be used for luminescence experiments requiring extremely high time-resolution. Chapter 3 describes a time-resolved study on the electron-hole many-body effects in highly excited ZnO at room temperature, in particular band-filling, band-gap renormalization, and the disappearance of the exciton resonance due to screening. In Chapter 4, the quantum many-body theory developed and experimentally verified in Chapter 3, is used to explain laser action in ZnO nanowires, and compared with experimental results. In contrast to current opinion, the results indicate that excitons are not involved in the laser action. The measured emission wavelength, the laser threshold, and the spectral distance between the laser modes are shown to be excellently explained by our quantum many-body theory. Multiple scattering of light in a forest of nanowires can be employed to enhance light absorption in solar cells. Optimization of this technique requires better understanding of light diffusion in such a nanowire forest. In Chapter 5 we demonstrate a method, based on two-photon absorption, to directly measure the residence time of light in a nanowire forest, and we show that scanning electron microscope (SEM) images can be used to predict the photon mean free path. In Chapter 6 we present a new ultrafast all-optical transistor, consisting of a forest of ZnO nanowires. After excitation, laser action in this forest causes rapid recombination of the majority of the electrons and holes, limiting the amplification to 1.2 picoseconds only . This ultrafast ultraviolet transistor may have applications in all-optical computing and in pump-probe experiments. Finally, Chapter 7 presents our discovery of preformed electron-hole Cooper pairs. A ZnO crystal has been highly excited via three-photon absorption at cryogenic temperatures. A new peak appears in the measured emission spectra when the crystal is cooled below a certain temperature, and also when it is excited above a certain density. Comparison with light amplification spectra, calculated from quantum many-body theory, demonstrates that this new peak is due to amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from preformed electron-hole Cooper pairs.
Reconfigurable data path processor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donohoe, Gregory (Inventor)
2005-01-01
A reconfigurable data path processor comprises a plurality of independent processing elements. Each of the processing elements advantageously comprising an identical architecture. Each processing element comprises a plurality of data processing means for generating a potential output. Each processor is also capable of through-putting an input as a potential output with little or no processing. Each processing element comprises a conditional multiplexer having a first conditional multiplexer input, a second conditional multiplexer input and a conditional multiplexer output. A first potential output value is transmitted to the first conditional multiplexer input, and a second potential output value is transmitted to the second conditional multiplexer output. The conditional multiplexer couples either the first conditional multiplexer input or the second conditional multiplexer input to the conditional multiplexer output, according to an output control command. The output control command is generated by processing a set of arithmetic status-bits through a logical mask. The conditional multiplexer output is coupled to a first processing element output. A first set of arithmetic bits are generated according to the processing of the first processable value. A second set of arithmetic bits may be generated from a second processing operation. The selection of the arithmetic status-bits is performed by an arithmetic-status bit multiplexer selects the desired set of arithmetic status bits from among the first and second set of arithmetic status bits. The conditional multiplexer evaluates the select arithmetic status bits according to logical mask defining an algorithm for evaluating the arithmetic status bits.
Drunken Sailors and Stumbling Paths: A Game for Simulating Random Walk Processes in Astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, V. I. K.; Boice, D. C.
2000-10-01
The concept of random walk is imporant for understanding a variety of natural phenomena in nature. A game that uses cheap, easily obtainable materials with simple rules is described for simulating the random walk of photons from the interior of the Sun to its visible surface. The game is appropriate for high school and introductory university classes. Pairs of students create unique paths of 100 segment length using a random number generator (a die) on a transparency on top of hexagonal grid paper. They investigate the relationship between the number of scatterings (N) and the cumulative distance (D) from the starting point. Afterwards all random paths are superimposed on an overhead projector and all reults are combined to establish the square root of N dependence of D. Students discuss questions concerning mean free path, the application to the Sun, etc. This hands-on activity is found to be more instructive and enjoyable than computer simulations. Other findings from our classroom experiences are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khrabrov, Alexander V.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Ventzek, Peter L. G.; Ranjan, Alok; Chen, Lee
2015-10-01
Low-pressure capacitively-coupled discharges with additional dc bias applied to a separate electrode are utilized in plasma-assisted etching for semiconductor device manufacturing. Measurements of the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) of the flux impinging on the wafer, as well as in the plasma bulk, show a thermal population and additional peaks within a broad range of energies. That range extends from the thermal level up to the value for the ‘ballistic’ peak, corresponding to the bias potential. The non-thermal electron flux has been correlated to alleviating the electron shading effect and providing etch-resistance properties to masking photoresist layers. ‘Middle-energy peak electrons’ at energies of several hundred eV may provide an additional sustaining mechanism for the discharge. These features in the electron velocity (or energy) distribution functions are possibly caused by secondary electrons emitted from the electrodes and interacting with two high-voltage sheaths: a stationary sheath at the dc electrode and an oscillating self-biased sheath at the powered electrode. Since at those energies the mean free path for large-angle scattering (momentum relaxation length) is comparable to, or exceeds the size of the discharge gap, these ‘ballistic’ electrons will not be fully scattered by the background gas as they traverse the inter-electrode space. We have performed test-particle simulations in which the features in the EVDF of electrons impacting the RF electrode are fully resolved at all energies. An analytical model has been developed to predict existence of peaked and step-like structures in the EVDF. Those features can be explained by analyzing the kinematics of electron trajectories in the discharge gap. Step-like structures in the EVDF near the powered electrode appear due to accumulation of electrons emitted from the dc electrode within a portion of the RF cycle, and their subsequent release. Trapping occurs when the RF sheath voltage exceeds the applied bias, and is decreasing. The secondary electrons originating from the dc-biased surface also form a peak near the energy equal to the bias potential. Additional peaks, at lower energies, are formed by the electrons emitted from the RF electrode and eventually escaping to it. The latter can be grouped according to the number of bounces between the sheaths during their residence time in the discharge. Each of such groups may give rise to an individual peak in the distribution. The trap-and-release theory developed in this paper provides a convincing explanation for the observations of the ballistic and ‘middle energy peak’ electrons detected in experiments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandler, J. A.
1983-01-01
Long helical vent path cools and releases hot pyrotechnical gas that exits along its spiraling threads. Current design uses 1/4-28 threads with outer diameter of stud reduced by 0.025 in. (0.62 mm). To open or close gassampler bottle, pyrotechnic charges on either one side or other of valve cylinder are actuated. Gases vented slowly over long path are cool enough to present no ignition hazard. Vent used to meter flow in refrigeration, pneumaticcontrol, and fluid-control systems by appropriately adjusting size and length of vent path.
Path Planning with obstacle avoidance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krause, Donald M.
1987-01-01
The research report here summarizes a solution for two dimensional Path Planning with obstacle avoidance in a workspace with stationary obstacles. The solution finds the shortest path for the end effector of a manipulator arm. The program uses an overhead image of the robot work space and the starting and ending positions of the manipulator arm end effector to generate a search graph which is used to find the shortest path through the work area. The solution was originally implemented in VAX Pascal, but was later converted to VAX C.
E-beam ionized channel guiding of an intense relativistic electron beam
Frost, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM); Godfrey, Brendon B. (Albuquerque, NM); Kiekel, Paul D. (Albuquerque, NM); Shope, Steven L. (Albuquerque, NM)
1988-01-01
An IREB is guided through a curved path by ionizing a channel in a gas with electrons from a filament, and confining the electrons to the center of the path with a magnetic field extending along the path. The magnetic field is preferably generated by a solenoid extending along the path.
E-beam ionized channel guiding of an intense relativistic electron beam
Frost, C.A.; Godfrey, B.B.; Kiekel, P.D.; Shope, S.L.
1988-05-10
An IREB is guided through a curved path by ionizing a channel in a gas with electrons from a filament, and confining the electrons to the center of the path with a magnetic field extending along the path. The magnetic field is preferably generated by a solenoid extending along the path. 2 figs.
Path Cost Optimization Using Genetic Algorithm with Supervised Crossover Operator
Tse, Chi K. "Michael"
Path Cost Optimization Using Genetic Algorithm with Supervised Crossover Operator Chi-Tsun Cheng , Kia Fallahi , Henry Leung and Chi K. Tse Dept. of Electronic & Information Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary
Folded-Light-Path Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells
Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"
avenues to overcoming limited electronic transport in these materials. Progress has recently been madeFolded-Light-Path Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells Ghada I. Koleilat*, Illan J. Kramer*, Chris T-processed solar cells offer the promise of low cost, large-area processing, and, prospectively, high solar power
Subdimensional Expansion for Multirobot Path Glenn Wagner
Choset, Howie
Subdimensional Expansion for Multirobot Path Planning Glenn Wagner , Howie Choset Robotics 4, 2015 #12;Subdimensional Expansion for Multirobot Path Planning Glenn Wagner , Howie Choset framework for multirobot path plan- ning called subdimensional expansion, which initially plans for each
EXTENDING THE PATH-PLANNING Robotics Institute
EXTENDING THE PATH-PLANNING HORIZON Bart Nabbe Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University to plan inefficient paths that trace obstacle boundaries. To alleviate this problem, We present an op . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3. Path Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2. Proposed
Commercializing Biorefineries The Path Forward
Commercializing Biorefineries The Path Forward Bioenergy ExCo 59 Workshop Golden, CO Lawrence J Agricultural lands · Corn stover, wheat straw, soybean residue, manure, switchgrass, poplar/willow energy crops
Collaborative Authoring of Walden's Paths
Li, Yuanling
2012-10-19
The World Wide Web contains rich collections of digital materials that can be used in education and learning settings. The collaborative authoring prototype of Walden's Paths targets two groups of users: educators and learners. From the perspective...
Yong Seung Cho; Soon-Tae Hong
2007-06-01
We consider the path space of a curved manifold on which a point particle is introduced in a conservative physical system with constant total energy to formulate its action functional and geodesic equation together with breaks on the path. The second variation of the action functional is exploited to yield the geodesic deviation equation and to discuss the Jacobi fields on the curved manifold. We investigate the topology of the path space using the action functional on it and its physical meaning by defining the gradient of the action functional, the space of bounded flow energy solutions and the moduli space associated with the critical points of the action functional. We also consider the particle motion on the $n$-sphere $S^{n}$ in the conservative physical system to discuss explicitly the moduli space of the path space and the corresponding homology groups.
COMPUTER SCIENCE: MISCONCEPTIONS, CAREER PATHS
Hristidis, Vagelis
COMPUTER SCIENCE: MISCONCEPTIONS, CAREER PATHS AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES School of Computing Undergraduate Student) #12;Computer Science Misconceptions Intro to Computer Science - Florida International University 2 Some preconceived ideas & stereotypes about Computer Science (CS) are quite common
An introduction to critical paths.
Coffey, Richard J; Richards, Janet S; Remmert, Carl S; LeRoy, Sarah S; Schoville, Rhonda R; Baldwin, Phyllis J
2005-01-01
A critical path defines the optimal sequencing and timing of interventions by physicians, nurses, and other staff for a particular diagnosis or procedure. Critical paths are developed through collaborative efforts of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and others to improve the quality and value of patient care. They are designed to minimize delays and resource utilization and to maximize quality of care. Critical paths have been shown to reduce variation in the care provided, facilitate expected outcomes, reduce delays, reduce length of stay, and improve cost-effectiveness. The approach and goals of critical paths are consistent with those of total quality management (TQM) and can be an important part of an organization's TQM process. PMID:15739581
Scattering Theory with Path Integrals
R. Rosenfelder
2013-02-25
Starting from well-known expressions for the $T$-matrix and its derivative in standard nonrelativistic potential scattering I rederive recent path-integral formulations due to Efimov and Barbashov et al. Some new relations follow immediately.
Formal language constrained path problems
Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.
1997-07-08
In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bae, Hyo Won; Yel Lee, Jung; Lee, Ho-Jun; Lee, Hae June
2011-10-01
Recently, atmospheric pressure plasmas attract lots of interests for the useful applications such as surface modification and bio-medical treatment. In this study, a particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision (PIC-MCC) simulation was adopted to investigate the discharge characteristics of a planar micro dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) with a driving frequency from 1 MHz to 50 MHz and with a gap distance from 60 to 500 micrometers. The variation of control parameters such as the gap distance, the driving wave form, and the applied voltage results in the change in the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). Through the relation between the ionization mean free path and the gap size, a significant change of EEDFs is achievable with the decrease of gap distance. Therefore, it is possible to categorize the operation range of DBDs for its applications by controlling the interactions between plasmas and neutral gas for the generation of preferable radicals. This work was supported by the Human Resources Development of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 20104010100670).
ELECTRON HEAT FLUX IN THE SOLAR WIND: ARE WE OBSERVING THE COLLISIONAL LIMIT IN THE 1 AU DATA?
Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Pantellini, F.
2014-07-20
Using statistically significant data at 1 AU, it has recently been shown (Bale et al.) that in the solar wind, when the Knudsen number K {sub T} (the ratio between the electron mean free path and the electron temperature scale height) drops below about 0.3, the electron heat flux q intensity rapidly approaches the classical collisional Spitzer-Härm limit. Using a fully kinetic model including the effect of Coulomb collisions and the expansion of the solar wind with heliocentric distance, we observe that the heat flux strength does indeed approach the collisional value for Knudsen numbers smaller than about 0.3 in very good agreement with the observations. However, closer inspection of the heat flux properties, such as its variation with the heliocentric distance and its dependence on the plasma parameters, shows that for Knudsen numbers between 0.02 and 0.3 the heat flux is not conveniently described by the Spitzer-Härm formula. We conclude that even though observations at 1 AU seem to indicate that the electron heat flux intensity approaches the collisional limit when the Knudsen drops below ?0.3, the collisional limit is not a generally valid closure for a Knudsen larger than 0.01. Moreover, the good agreement between the heat flux from our model and the heat flux from solar wind measurements in the high-Knudsen number regime seems to indicate that the heat flux at 1 AU is not constrained by electromagnetic instabilities as both wave-particle and wave-wave interactions are neglected in our calculations.
Energy-loss- and thickness-dependent contrast in atomic-scale electron energy-loss spectroscopy
Tan, Haiyan; Zhu, Ye; Dwyer, Christian; Xin, Huolin L.
2014-12-31
Atomic-scale elemental maps of materials acquired by core-loss inelastic electron scattering often exhibit an undesirable sensitivity to the unavoidable elastic scattering, making the maps counter-intuitive to interpret. Here, we present a systematic study that scrutinizes the energy-loss and sample-thickness dependence of atomic-scale elemental maps acquired using 100 keV incident electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope. For single-crystal silicon, the balance between elastic and inelastic scattering means that maps generated from the near-threshold Si-L signal (energy loss of 99 eV) show no discernible contrast for a thickness of 0.5? (? is the electron mean-free path, here approximately 110 nm). Atmore »greater thicknesses we observe a counter-intuitive “negative” contrast. Only at much higher energy losses is an intuitive “positive” contrast gradually restored. Our quantitative analysis shows that the energy-loss at which a positive contrast is restored depends linearly on the sample thickness. This behavior is in very good agreement with our double-channeling inelastic scattering calculations. We test a recently-proposed experimental method to correct the core-loss inelastic scattering and restore an intuitive “positive” chemical contrast. The method is demonstrated to be reliable over a large range of energy losses and sample thicknesses. The corrected contrast for near-threshold maps is demonstrated to be (desirably) inversely proportional to sample thickness. As a result, implications for the interpretation of atomic-scale elemental maps are discussed.« less
Energy-loss- and thickness-dependent contrast in atomic-scale electron energy-loss spectroscopy
Tan, Haiyan; Zhu, Ye; Dwyer, Christian; Xin, Huolin L.
2014-12-31
Atomic-scale elemental maps of materials acquired by core-loss inelastic electron scattering often exhibit an undesirable sensitivity to the unavoidable elastic scattering, making the maps counter-intuitive to interpret. Here, we present a systematic study that scrutinizes the energy-loss and sample-thickness dependence of atomic-scale elemental maps acquired using 100 keV incident electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope. For single-crystal silicon, the balance between elastic and inelastic scattering means that maps generated from the near-threshold Si-L signal (energy loss of 99 eV) show no discernible contrast for a thickness of 0.5? (? is the electron mean-free path, here approximately 110 nm). At greater thicknesses we observe a counter-intuitive “negative” contrast. Only at much higher energy losses is an intuitive “positive” contrast gradually restored. Our quantitative analysis shows that the energy-loss at which a positive contrast is restored depends linearly on the sample thickness. This behavior is in very good agreement with our double-channeling inelastic scattering calculations. We test a recently-proposed experimental method to correct the core-loss inelastic scattering and restore an intuitive “positive” chemical contrast. The method is demonstrated to be reliable over a large range of energy losses and sample thicknesses. The corrected contrast for near-threshold maps is demonstrated to be (desirably) inversely proportional to sample thickness. As a result, implications for the interpretation of atomic-scale elemental maps are discussed.
Weatherford, Brandon R. E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Barnat, E. V. E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Xiong, Zhongmin E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Kushner, Mark J. E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu
2014-09-14
Fast ionization waves (FIWs), often generated with high voltage pulses over nanosecond timescales, are able to produce large volumes of ions and excited states at moderate pressures. The mechanisms of FIW propagation were experimentally and computationally investigated to provide insights into the manner in which these large volumes are excited. The two-dimensional structure of electron and metastable densities produced by short-pulse FIWs sustained in helium were measured using laser-induced fluorescence and laser collision-induced fluorescence diagnostics for times of 100–120 ns after the pulse, as the pressure was varied from 1 to 20 Torr. A trend of center-peaked to volume-filling to wall-peaked electron density profiles was observed as the pressure was increased. Instantaneous FIW velocities, obtained from plasma-induced emission, ranged from 0.1 to 3×10?cm s?¹, depending on distance from the high voltage electrode and pressure. Predictions from two-dimensional modeling of the propagation of a single FIW correlated well with the experimental trends in electron density profiles and wave velocity. Results from the model show that the maximum ionization rate occurs in the wavefront, and the discharge continues to propagate forward after the removal of high voltage from the powered electrode due to the potential energy stored in the space charge. As the pressure is varied, the radial distribution of the ionization rate is shaped by changes in the electron mean free path, and subsequent localized electric field enhancement at the walls or on the centerline of the discharge.
10 Metric Path Planning Chapter objectives
Sukthankar, Gita Reese
10 Metric Path Planning Chapter objectives: Define Cspace, path relaxation, digitization bias, and create a graph suitable for path planning. Apply the A* search algorithm to a graph to find the optimal between continuous and event-driven replanning. 10.1 Objectives and Overview Metric path planning
Somorjai, Gabor A; Bratlie, Kaitlin M; Montano, Max O; Park, Jeong Y
2006-10-12
The mechanism that controls bond breaking at transition metal surfaces has been studied with sum frequency generation (SFG), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and catalytic nanodiodes operating under the high-pressure conditions. The combination of these techniques permits us to understand the role of surface defects, surface diffusion, and hot electrons in dynamics of surface catalyzed reactions. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and kinetic measurements were performed under 1.5 Torr of cyclohexene hydrogenation/dehydrogenation in the presence and absence of H(2) and over the temperature range 300-500 K on the Pt(100) and Pt(111) surfaces. The structure specificity of the Pt(100) and Pt(111) surfaces is exhibited by the surface species present during reaction. On Pt(100), pi-allyl c-C6H9, cyclohexyl (C6H11), and 1,4-cyclohexadiene are identified adsorbates, while on the Pt(111) surface, pi-allyl c-C6H9, 1,4-cyclohexadiene, and 1,3-cyclohexadiene are present. A scanning tunneling microscope that can be operated at high pressures and temperatures was used to study the Pt(111) surface during the catalytic hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of cyclohexene and its poisoning with CO. It was found that catalytically active surfaces were always disordered, while ordered surface were always catalytically deactivated. Only in the case of the CO poisoning at 350 K was a surface with a mobile adsorbed monolayer not catalytically active. From these results, a CO-dominated mobile overlayer that prevents reactant adsorption was proposed. By using the catalytic nanodiode, we detected the continuous flow of hot electron currents that is induced by the exothermic catalytic reaction. During the platinum-catalyzed oxidation of carbon monoxide, we monitored the flow of hot electrons over several hours using a metal-semiconductor Schottky diode composed of Pt and TiO2. The thickness of the Pt film used as the catalyst was 5 nm, less than the electron mean free path, resulting in the ballistic transport of hot electrons through the metal. The electron flow was detected as a chemicurrent if the excess electron kinetic energy generated by the exothermic reaction was larger than the effective Schottky barrier formed at the metal-semiconductor interface. The measurement of continuous chemicurrent indicated that chemical energy of exothermic catalytic reaction was directly converted into hot electron flux in the catalytic nanodiode. We found the chemicurrent was well-correlated with the turnover rate of CO oxidation separately measured by gas chromatography. PMID:17020389
A Continuous-State Version of Discrete Randomized Shortest-Paths, with Application to Path Planning
Del Moral , Pierre
A Continuous-State Version of Discrete Randomized Shortest-Paths, with Application to Path Planning are of capital importance in a variety of problems, from robot path planning, to maze solving. Path planning [16 RSP is investigated and applied to path planning. By defining a grid where each node has four
Discrete Approximations to Continuous Shortest-Path: Application to Minimum-Risk Path Planning for
Hespanha, João Pedro
1 Discrete Approximations to Continuous Shortest-Path: Application to Minimum-Risk Path Planning Barbara Research supported by DARPA/IXO MICA program Outline 1. Motivation--minimum-risk path planning 2. Discretization approach to shortest-path 3. Sampling methods 4. Back to minimum-risk path planning... #12
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thakoor, Anil
1990-01-01
Viewgraphs on electronic neural networks for space station are presented. Topics covered include: electronic neural networks; electronic implementations; VLSI/thin film hybrid hardware for neurocomputing; computations with analog parallel processing; features of neuroprocessors; applications of neuroprocessors; neural network hardware for terrain trafficability determination; a dedicated processor for path planning; neural network system interface; neural network for robotic control; error backpropagation algorithm for learning; resource allocation matrix; global optimization neuroprocessor; and electrically programmable read only thin-film synaptic array.
Path queries for Web data Path queries for Web data
databases, ubiquitous in transactional applications, websites etc. follow the relational model, representing data with a fixed structure. The recent spread of graph-structured data such as linked open data the structure of graph data. Unlike basic SQL queries over relational data, path queries allow to express
Path-dependent entropy production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Chulan
2015-09-01
A rigorous derivation of nonequilibrium entropy production via the path-integral formalism is presented. Entropy production is defined as the entropy change piled in a heat reservoir as a result of a nonequilibrium thermodynamic process. It is a central quantity by which various forms of the fluctuation theorem are obtained. The two kinds of the stochastic dynamics are investigated: the Langevin dynamics for an even-parity state and the Brownian motion of a single particle. Mathematical ambiguities in deriving the functional form of the entropy production, which depends on path in state space, are clarified by using a rigorous quantum mechanical approach.
Multiple paths in complex tasks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Galanter, Eugene; Wiegand, Thomas; Mark, Gloria
1987-01-01
The relationship between utility judgments of subtask paths and the utility of the task as a whole was examined. The convergent validation procedure is based on the assumption that measurements of the same quantity done with different methods should covary. The utility measures of the subtasks were obtained during the performance of an aircraft flight controller navigation task. Analyses helped decide among various models of subtask utility combination, whether the utility ratings of subtask paths predict the whole tasks utility rating, and indirectly, whether judgmental models need to include the equivalent of cognitive noise.
Safont, Vicent S; González-Navarrete, Patricio; Oliva, Mónica; Andrés, Juan
2015-12-01
A detailed study on all stages associated with the reaction mechanisms for the denitrogenation of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene derivatives (DBX, with X substituents at the methano-bridge carbon atom, X = H and OH) is presented. In particular, we have characterized the processes leading to cycloalkene derivatives through migration-type mechanisms as well as the processes leading to cyclopentil-1,3-diradical species along concerted or stepwise pathways. The reaction mechanisms have been further analysed within the bonding evolution theory framework at B3LYP and M05-2X/6-311+G(2d,p) levels of theory. Analysis of the results allows us to obtain the intimate electronic mechanism for the studied processes, providing a new topological picture of processes underlying the correlation between the experimental measurements obtained by few-optical-cycle visible pulse radiation and the quantum topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) in terms of breaking/forming processes along this chemical rearrangement. The evolution of the population of the disynaptic basin V(N1,N2) can be related to the experimental observation associated with the N[double bond, length as m-dash]N stretching mode evolution, relative to the N2 release, along the reaction process. This result allows us to determine why the N2 release is easier for the DBH case via a concerted mechanism compared to the stepwise mechanism found in the DBOH system. This holds the key to unprecedented insight into the mapping of the electrons making/breaking the bonds while the bonds change. PMID:26584857
Electron and ion acceleration in relativistic shocks with applications to GRB afterglows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warren, Donald C.; Ellison, Donald C.; Bykov, Andrei M.; Lee, Shiu-Hang
2015-09-01
We have modelled the simultaneous first-order Fermi shock acceleration of protons, electrons, and helium nuclei by relativistic shocks. By parametrizing the particle diffusion, our steady-state Monte Carlo simulation allows us to follow particles from particle injection at non-relativistic thermal energies to above PeV energies, including the non-linear smoothing of the shock structure due to cosmic ray (CR) backpressure. We observe the mass-to-charge (A/Z) enhancement effect believed to occur in efficient Fermi acceleration in non-relativistic shocks and we parametrize the transfer of ion energy to electrons seen in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. For a given set of environmental and model parameters, the Monte Carlo simulation determines the absolute normalization of the particle distributions and the resulting synchrotron, inverse Compton, and pion-decay emission in a largely self-consistent manner. The simulation is flexible and can be readily used with a wide range of parameters typical of ?-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. We describe some preliminary results for photon emission from shocks of different Lorentz factors and outline how the Monte Carlo simulation can be generalized and coupled to hydrodynamic simulations of GRB blast waves. We assume Bohm diffusion for simplicity but emphasize that the non-linear effects we describe stem mainly from an extended shock precursor where higher energy particles diffuse further upstream. Quantitative differences will occur with different diffusion models, particularly for the maximum CR energy and photon emission, but these non-linear effects should be qualitatively similar as long as the scattering mean-free path is an increasing function of momentum.
Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.
2007-01-01
Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to better interference risk assessment.
Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.
2007-01-01
Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.
SSME propellant path leak detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crawford, Roger; Shohadaee, Ahmad Ali
1989-01-01
The complicated high-pressure cycle of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) propellant path provides many opportunities for external propellant path leaks while the engine is running. This mode of engine failure may be detected and analyzed with sufficient speed to save critical engine test hardware from destruction. The leaks indicate hardware failures which will damage or destroy an engine if undetected; therefore, detection of both cryogenic and hot gas leaks is the objective of this investigation. The primary objective of this phase of the investigation is the experimental validation of techniques for detecting and analyzing propellant path external leaks which have a high probability of occurring on the SSME. The selection of candidate detection methods requires a good analytic model for leak plumes which would develop from external leaks and an understanding of radiation transfer through the leak plume. One advanced propellant path leak detection technique is obtained by using state-of-the-art technology infrared (IR) thermal imaging systems combined with computer, digital image processing, and expert systems for the engine protection. The feasibility of IR leak plume detection is evaluated on subscale simulated laboratory plumes to determine sensitivity, signal to noise, and general suitability for the application.
Perceived Shrinkage of Motion Paths
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sinico, Michele; Parovel, Giulia; Casco, Clara; Anstis, Stuart
2009-01-01
We show that human observers strongly underestimate a linear or circular trajectory that a luminous spot follows in the dark. At slow speeds, observers are relatively accurate, but, as the speed increases, the size of the path is progressively underestimated, by up to 35%. The underestimation imposes little memory load and does not require…
Immigration: Rubio's path to presidency?
Fernandez, Eduardo
Immigration: Rubio's path to presidency? In media blitz retorting conservative critics, he aims Writer Of the four Democratic and four Republican senators who wrote the immigration reform proposal now, both in Congress and nationwide, need more convincing on immigration reform than Democrats. And Rubio
Employer Resource Manual. Project Path.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kane, Karen R.; Del George, Eve
Project Path at Illinois' College of DuPage was established to provide pre-employment training and career counseling for disabled students. To encourage the integration of qualified individuals with disabilities into the workplace, the project compiled this resource manual for area businesses, providing tips for interacting with disabled people…
Career Paths in Environmental Sciences
Career paths, current and future, in the environmental sciences will be discussed, based on experiences and observations during the author's 40 + years in the field. An emphasis will be placed on the need for integrated, transdisciplinary systems thinking approaches toward achie...
Career Paths of Academic Deans.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wolverton, Mimi; Gonzales, Mary Jo
This paper examines various career paths leading to deanship and considers the implications of the findings for women and minorities who aspire to this position. The paper is part of a larger study of academic deanship conducted by the Center for Academic Leadership at Washington State University between October 1996 and January 1997. Data for the…
Relations between coherence and path information
Emilio Bagan; Janos A. Bergou; Seth S. Cottrell; Mark Hillery
2015-12-10
We find two relations between coherence and path-information in a multi-path interferometer. The first builds on earlier results for the two-path interferometer, which used minimum-error state discrimination between detector states to provide the path information. For visibility, which was used in the two-path case, we substitute a recently defined $l_{1}$ measure of quantum coherence. The second is an entropic relation in which the path information is characterized by the mutual information between the detector states and the outcome of the measurement performed on them, and the coherence measure is one based on relative entropy.
Path querying system on mobile devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Xing; Wang, Yifei; Tian, Yuan; Wu, Lun
2006-01-01
Traditional approaches to path querying problems are not efficient and convenient under most circumstances. A more convenient and reliable approach to this problem has to be found. This paper is devoted to a path querying solution on mobile devices. By using an improved Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm and a natural language translating module, this system can help people find the shortest path between two places through their cell phones or other mobile devices. The chosen path is prompted in text of natural language, as well as a map picture. This system would be useful in solving best path querying problems and have potential to be a profitable business system.
Marocchino, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.
2014-01-15
In some regions of a laser driven inertial fusion target, the electron mean-free path can become comparable to or even longer than the electron temperature gradient scale-length. This can be particularly important in shock-ignited (SI) targets, where the laser-spike heated corona reaches temperatures of several keV. In this case, thermal conduction cannot be described by a simple local conductivity model and a Fick's law. Fluid codes usually employ flux-limited conduction models, which preserve causality, but lose important features of the thermal flow. A more accurate thermal flow modeling requires convolution-like non-local operators. In order to improve the simulation of SI targets, the non-local electron transport operator proposed by Schurtz-Nicolaï-Busquet [G. P. Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] has been implemented in the DUED fluid code. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) simulations of SI targets have been performed. 1D simulations of the ablation phase highlight that while the shock profile and timing might be mocked up with a flux-limiter; the electron temperature profiles exhibit a relatively different behavior with no major effects on the final gain. The spike, instead, can only roughly be reproduced with a fixed flux-limiter value. 1D target gain is however unaffected, provided some minor tuning of laser pulses. 2D simulations show that the use of a non-local thermal conduction model does not affect the robustness to mispositioning of targets driven by quasi-uniform laser irradiation. 2D simulations performed with only two final polar intense spikes yield encouraging results and support further studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wu
2015-08-01
We demonstrate the ab initio electrical transport calculation limited by electron-phonon coupling by using the full solution of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), which applies equally to metals and semiconductors. Numerical issues are emphasized in this work. We show that the simple linear interpolation of the electron-phonon coupling matrix elements from a relatively coarse grid to an extremely fine grid can ease the calculational burden, which makes the calculation feasible in practice. For the Brillouin zone (BZ) integration of the transition probabilities involving one ? function, the Gaussian smearing method with a physical choice of locally adaptive broadening parameters is employed. We validate the calculation in the cases of n -type Si and Al. The calculated conductivity and mobility are in good agreement with experiments. In the metal case we also demonstrate that the Gaussian smearing method with locally adaptive broadening parameters works excellently for the BZ integration with double ? functions involved in the Eliashberg spectral function and its transport variant. The simpler implementation is the advantage of the Gaussian smearing method over the tetrahedron method. The accuracy of the relaxation time approximation and the approximation made by Allen [Phys. Rev. B 17, 3725 (1978), 10.1103/PhysRevB.17.3725] has been examined by comparing with the exact solution of BTE. We also apply our method to n -type monolayer MoS2, for which a mobility of 150 cm2 v-1 s-1 is obtained at room temperature. Moreover, the mean free paths are less than 9 nm, indicating that in the presence of grain boundaries the mobilities should not be effectively affected if the grain boundary size is tens of nanometers or larger. The ab initio approach demonstrated in this paper can be directly applied to other materials without the need for any a priori knowledge about the electron-phonon scattering processes, and can be straightforwardly extended to study cases with electron-impurity scattering.
Kihm, IconKenneth David
. The metal thickness is ~ 40 nm, which is roughly the mean free path of electrons. A thin layer of parylene is shown in Fig. 2. A thin (100 nm) parylene layer was coated on top of the whole structure. Expansion
Nanoscale heat conduction with applications in nanoelectronics and thermoelectrics
Yang, Ronggui, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2006-01-01
When the device or structure characteristic length scales are comparable to the mean free path and wavelength of energy carriers (electrons, photons, phonons, and molecules) or the time of interest is on the same order as ...
Enzymatic reaction paths as determined by transition path sampling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masterson, Jean Emily
Enzymes are biological catalysts capable of enhancing the rates of chemical reactions by many orders of magnitude as compared to solution chemistry. Since the catalytic power of enzymes routinely exceeds that of the best artificial catalysts available, there is much interest in understanding the complete nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymatic reactions. Two specific questions pertaining to the source of enzymatic rate enhancements are investigated in this work. The first is the issue of how fast protein motions of an enzyme contribute to chemical barrier crossing. Our group has previously identified sub-picosecond protein motions, termed promoting vibrations (PVs), that dynamically modulate chemical transformation in several enzymes. In the case of human heart lactate dehydrogenase (hhLDH), prior studies have shown that a specific axis of residues undergoes a compressional fluctuation towards the active site, decreasing a hydride and a proton donor--acceptor distance on a sub-picosecond timescale to promote particle transfer. To more thoroughly understand the contribution of this dynamic motion to the enzymatic reaction coordinate of hhLDH, we conducted transition path sampling (TPS) using four versions of the enzymatic system: a wild type enzyme with natural isotopic abundance; a heavy enzyme where all the carbons, nitrogens, and non-exchangeable hydrogens were replaced with heavy isotopes; and two versions of the enzyme with mutations in the axis of PV residues. We generated four separate ensembles of reaction paths and analyzed each in terms of the reaction mechanism, time of barrier crossing, dynamics of the PV, and residues involved in the enzymatic reaction coordinate. We found that heavy isotopic substitution of hhLDH altered the sub-picosecond dynamics of the PV, changed the favored reaction mechanism, dramatically increased the time of barrier crossing, but did not have an effect on the specific residues involved in the PV. In the mutant systems, we observed changes in the reaction mechanism and altered contributions of the mutated residues to the enzymatic reaction coordinate, but we did not detect a substantial change in the time of barrier crossing. These results confirm the importance of maintaining the dynamics and structural scaffolding of the hhLDH PV in order to facilitate facile barrier passage. We also utilized TPS to investigate the possible role of fast protein dynamics in the enzymatic reaction coordinate of human dihydrofolate reductase (hsDHFR). We found that sub-picosecond dynamics of hsDHFR do contribute to the reaction coordinate, whereas this is not the case in the E. coli version of the enzyme. This result indicates a shift in the DHFR family to a more dynamic version of catalysis. The second inquiry we addressed in this thesis regarding enzymatic barrier passage concerns the variability of paths through reactive phase space for a given enzymatic reaction. We further investigated the hhLDH-catalyzed reaction using a high-perturbation TPS algorithm. Though we saw that alternate reaction paths were possible, the dominant reaction path we observed corresponded to that previously elucidated in prior hhLDH TPS studies. Since the additional reaction paths we observed were likely high-energy, these results indicate that only the dominant reaction path contributes significantly to the overall reaction rate. In conclusion, we show that the enzymes hhLDH and hsDHFR exhibit paths through reactive phase space where fast protein motions are involved in the enzymatic reaction coordinate and exhibit a non-negligible contribution to chemical barrier crossing.
Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering
Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.
1993-01-01
Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.
Physarum can compute shortest paths.
Bonifaci, Vincenzo; Mehlhorn, Kurt; Varma, Girish
2012-09-21
Physarum polycephalum is a slime mold that is apparently able to solve shortest path problems. A mathematical model has been proposed by Tero et al. (Journal of Theoretical Biology, 244, 2007, pp. 553-564) to describe the feedback mechanism used by the slime mold to adapt its tubular channels while foraging two food sources s(0) and s(1). We prove that, under this model, the mass of the mold will eventually converge to the shortest s(0)-s(1) path of the network that the mold lies on, independently of the structure of the network or of the initial mass distribution. This matches the experimental observations by Tero et al. and can be seen as an example of a "natural algorithm", that is, an algorithm developed by evolution over millions of years. PMID:22732274
Spacetime path formalism: localized states
Ed Seidewitz
2010-11-14
This note is an addendum to quant-ph/0507115. In that paper, I present a formalism for relativistic quantum mechanics in which the spacetime paths of particles are considered fundamental, reproducing the standard results of the traditional formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. Now, it is well known that there are issues with the ability to localize the position of particles in the usual formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics. The present note shows how, in the spacetime path formalism, the natural representation of on-shell 3-momentum states is effectively a Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation of the traditional representation, addressing the localization issues of position states and, further, providing a straightforward non-relativistic limit.
Multiple Paths to Encephalization and Technical Civilizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwartzman, David; Middendorf, George
2011-12-01
We propose consideration of at least two possible evolutionary paths for the emergence of intelligent life with the potential for technical civilization. The first is the path via encephalization of homeothermic animals; the second is the path to swarm intelligence of so-called superorganisms, in particular the social insects. The path to each appears to be facilitated by environmental change: homeothermic animals by decreased climatic temperature and for swarm intelligence by increased oxygen levels.
Squeezed states and path integrals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daubechies, Ingrid; Klauder, John R.
1992-01-01
The continuous-time regularization scheme for defining phase-space path integrals is briefly reviewed as a method to define a quantization procedure that is completely covariant under all smooth canonical coordinate transformations. As an illustration of this method, a limited set of transformations is discussed that have an image in the set of the usual squeezed states. It is noteworthy that even this limited set of transformations offers new possibilities for stationary phase approximations to quantum mechanical propagators.
Path planning under spatial uncertainty.
Wiener, Jan M; Lafon, Matthieu; Berthoz, Alain
2008-04-01
In this article, we present experiments studying path planning under spatial uncertainties. In the main experiment, the participants' task was to navigate the shortest possible path to find an object hidden in one of four places and to bring it to the final destination. The probability of finding the object (probability matrix) was different for each of the four places and varied between conditions. Givensuch uncertainties about the object's location, planning a single path is not sufficient. Participants had to generate multiple consecutive plans (metaplans)--for example: If the object is found in A, proceed to the destination; if the object is not found, proceed to B; and so on. The optimal solution depends on the specific probability matrix. In each condition, participants learned a different probability matrix and were then asked to report the optimal metaplan. Results demonstrate effective integration of the probabilistic information about the object's location during planning. We present a hierarchical planning scheme that could account for participants' behavior, as well as for systematic errors and differences between conditions. PMID:18491490
Continuous Path Planning with Multiple Constraints
Mitchell, Ian
Continuous Path Planning with Multiple Constraints Ian M. Mitchell and Shankar Sastry Department examine the problem of planning a path through a low di- mensional continuous state space subject to upper Few problems are as well studied as the path planning or routing prob- lem; it appears in engineering
Evaluation of the Learning Path Specification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Janssen, Jose; Berlanga, Adriana J.; Koper, Rob
2011-01-01
Flexible lifelong learning requires that learners can compare and select learning paths that best meet individual needs, not just in terms of learning goals, but also in terms of planning, costs etc. To this end a learning path specification was developed, which describes both the contents and the structure of any learning path, be it formal,…
Analogical Path Planning Saul Simhon, Gregory Dudek
Dudek, Gregory
Analogical Path Planning Saul Simhon, Gregory Dudek Centre for Intelligent Machines Mc for path planning that considers trajectories constrained by both the environment and an ensemble of the path, and planning in the presence of such constraints in often difficult (an automobile
Clearance Based Path Optimization for Motion Planning
Utrecht, Universiteit
Clearance Based Path Optimization for Motion Planning Roland Geraerts Mark Overmars institute;Clearance Based Path Optimization for Motion Planning Roland Geraerts Mark Overmars Institute of Information to generate paths of a much higher quality than previous approaches. 1 Introduction Motion planning can
Clearance Based Path Optimization for Motion Planning
Utrecht, Universiteit
Clearance Based Path Optimization for Motion Planning Roland Geraerts Mark Overmars institute; Clearance Based Path Optimization for Motion Planning Roland Geraerts Mark Overmars Institute of Information to generate paths of a much higher quality than previous approaches. 1 Introduction Motion planning can
Multiresolution Path Planning Via Sector Decompositions
Tsiotras, Panagiotis
Multiresolution Path Planning Via Sector Decompositions Compatible to On-Board Sensor Data Efstathios Bakolas and Panagiotis Tsiotras In this paper we present a hybrid local-global path planning-free manner. The path planning algorithm is based on information gathered on-line by the available on
CALIFORNIA PATH PROGRAM INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORTATION STUDIES
Agogino, Alice M.
CALIFORNIA PATH PROGRAM INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORTATION STUDIES UNIVERFITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY Agogino, Kai Goebel SatnamAlag University of California,Berkeley CaliforniaPATH Research Report UCB-ITS-PRR-97-31 This work was performed as part of the CaliforniaPATH Program of the University of California
Universal Path Spaces W. A. Bogley
Universal Path Spaces W. A. Bogley Oregon State University A. J. Sieradski University of Oregon Abstract This paper examines a theory of universal path spaces that properly includes the covering space is a wild metric 2-complex, the universal path space is simply connected if and only if the fundamental
Link prediction based on path entropy
Xu, Zhongqi; Yang, Jian
2015-01-01
Information theory has been taken as a prospective tool for quantifying the complexity of complex networks. In this paper, we first study the information entropy or uncertainty of a path using the information theory. Then we apply the path entropy to the link prediction problem in real-world networks. Specifically, we propose a new similarity index, namely Path Entropy (PE) index, which considers the information entropies of shortest paths between node pairs with penalization to long paths. Empirical experiments demonstrate that PE index outperforms the mainstream link predictors.
Processor Would Find Best Paths On Map
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eberhardt, Silvio P.
1990-01-01
Proposed very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit image-data processor finds path of least cost from specified origin to any destination on map. Cost of traversal assigned to each picture element of map. Path of least cost from originating picture element to every other picture element computed as path that preserves as much as possible of signal transmitted by originating picture element. Dedicated microprocessor at each picture element stores cost of traversal and performs its share of computations of paths of least cost. Least-cost-path problem occurs in research, military maneuvers, and in planning routes of vehicles.
Spatial and frequency coherence of oblique, one-hop, high-frequency paths
Fitzgerald, T.J.
1995-10-01
We consider the effect of random index of refraction fluctuations upon long-distance, ionospherically-reflected, hf paths. Along with deterministic effects such as multipath and dispersion, such fluctuations have a deleterious impact on hf communication including nonabsorptive fading, time-of-arrival spread, angle-of-arrival spread, and Doppler spread. We develop a formalism to calculate the mutual coherence functions for spatial and frequency separations based upon a path integral solution of the parabolic wave equation for a single refracted path through an ionosphere which contains random electron density fluctuations. The statistics of the hf path depend directly on the strength and statistics of the electron density fluctuations; we model the spatial power spectrum of the density fluctuation as a power law behavior versus frequency and with outer and inner scales.
Mechanics of the crack path formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Asher A.
1989-01-01
A detailed analysis of experimentally obtained curvilinear crack path trajectories formed in a heterogeneous stress field is presented. Experimental crack path trajectories were used as data for numerical simulations, recreating the actual stress field governing the development of the crack path. Thus, the current theories of crack curving and kinking could be examined by comparing them with the actual stress field parameters as they develop along the experimentally observed crack path. The experimental curvilinear crack path trajectories were formed in the tensile specimens with a hole positioned in the vicinity of a potential crack path. The numerical simulation, based on the solution of equivalent boundary value problems with the possible perturbations of the crack path, is presented here.
Arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desbois, Jean; Ouvry, Stéphane
2012-05-01
We pursue the analysis made in Desbois and Ouvry (2011 J. Stat. Mech. P05024) on the arithmetic area enclosed by m closed Brownian paths. We pay particular attention to the random variable Sn1, n2,..., nm(m), which is the arithmetic area of the set of points, also called winding sectors, enclosed n1 times by path 1, n2 times by path 2,..., and nm times by path m. Various results are obtained in the asymptotic limit m\\to \\infty . A key observation is that, since the paths are independent, one can use in the m-path case the SLE information, valid in the one-path case, on the zero-winding sectors arithmetic area.
Practical correction procedures for elastic electron scattering effects in ARXPS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lassen, T. S.; Tougaard, S.; Jablonski, A.
2001-06-01
Angle-resolved XPS and AES (ARXPS and ARAES) are widely used for determination of the in-depth distribution of elements in the surface region of solids. It is well known that elastic electron scattering has a significant effect on the intensity as a function of emission angle and that this has a great influence on the determined overlayer thicknesses by this method. However the applied procedures for ARXPS and ARAES generally neglect this because no simple and practical procedure for correction has been available. However recently, new algorithms have been suggested. In this paper, we have studied the efficiency of these algorithms to correct for elastic scattering effects in the interpretation of ARXPS and ARAES. This is done by first calculating electron distributions by Monte Carlo simulations for well-defined overlayer/substrate systems and then to apply the different algorithms. We have found that an analytical formula based on a solution of the Boltzmann transport equation provides a good account for elastic scattering effects. However this procedure is computationally very slow and the underlying algorithm is complicated. Another much simpler algorithm, proposed by Nefedov and coworkers, was also tested. Three different ways of handling the scattering parameters within this model were tested and it was found that this algorithm also gives a good description for elastic scattering effects provided that it is slightly modified so that it takes into account the differences in the transport properties of the substrate and the overlayer. This procedure is fairly simple and is described in detail. The model gives a much more accurate description compared to the traditional straight-line approximation (SLA). However it is also found that when attenuation lengths instead of inelastic mean free paths are used in the simple SLA formalism, the effects of elastic scattering are also reasonably well accounted for. Specifically, from a systematic study of several overlayer/substrate systems it was found that by ARXPS analysis of the overlayer signal, the mean percentage deviation from the nominal heights is ˜5% when using the procedure proposed by Nefedov, and ˜10% with the SLA using attenuation lengths while the deviation is 13-68% with the SLA using IMFPs. For ARXPS analysis of the substrate signal, the mean percentage deviation from the nominal heights is ˜10% both when using the modified Nefedov algorithm and when using the SLA with attenuation lengths as compared to 16-31% with the SLA using IMFPs.
Characterizing the Evolutionary Path(s) to Early Homo
Schroeder, Lauren; Roseman, Charles C.; Cheverud, James M.; Ackermann, Rebecca R.
2014-01-01
Numerous studies suggest that the transition from Australopithecus to Homo was characterized by evolutionary innovation, resulting in the emergence and coexistence of a diversity of forms. However, the evolutionary processes necessary to drive such a transition have not been examined. Here, we apply statistical tests developed from quantitative evolutionary theory to assess whether morphological differences among late australopith and early Homo species in Africa have been shaped by natural selection. Where selection is demonstrated, we identify aspects of morphology that were most likely under selective pressure, and determine the nature (type, rate) of that selection. Results demonstrate that selection must be invoked to explain an Au. africanus—Au. sediba—Homo transition, while transitions from late australopiths to various early Homo species that exclude Au. sediba can be achieved through drift alone. Rate tests indicate that selection is largely directional, acting to rapidly differentiate these taxa. Reconstructions of patterns of directional selection needed to drive the Au. africanus—Au. sediba—Homo transition suggest that selection would have affected all regions of the skull. These results may indicate that an evolutionary path to Homo without Au. sediba is the simpler path and/or provide evidence that this pathway involved more reliance on cultural adaptations to cope with environmental change. PMID:25470780
Attention trees and semantic paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura
2007-02-01
In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial results will be shown.
Sansone, G.; Stagira, S.; Nisoli, M.; Vozzi, C.
2004-07-01
High-order harmonic generation process in the few- and multiple-optical-cycle regime is theoretically investigated, using the saddle-point method generalized to account for nonadiabatic effects. The influence of the carrier-envelope phase of the driving pulses on the various electron quantum paths is analyzed. We demonstrate that the short and long quantum paths are influenced in different ways by the carrier-envelope phase. In particular, we show that clear phase effects are visible on the long quantum paths even in the multiple-optical-cycle regime, while the short quantum paths are significantly influenced by the carrier-envelope phase only in the few-optical-cycle regime.
Physarum Can Compute Shortest Paths
Bonifaci, Vincenzo; Varma, Girish
2011-01-01
A mathematical model has been proposed by biologists to describe the feedback mechanism used by the Physarum Polycephalum slime mold to adapt its tubular channels while foraging two food sources $s_0$ and $s_1$. We give a proof of the fact that, under this model, the mass of the mold will eventually converge to the shortest $s_0$-$s_1$ path of the network that the mold lies on, independently of the structure of the network or of the initial mass distribution. This matches the experimental observations by the biologists and can be seen as an example of a "natural algorithm", that is, an algorithm developed by evolution over millions of years.
Multiple order common path spectrometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.
Staff detection with stable paths.
Dos Santos Cardoso, Jaime; Capela, Artur; Rebelo, Ana; Guedes, Carlos; Pinto da Costa, Joaquim
2009-06-01
The preservation of musical works produced in the past requires their digitalization and transformation into a machine-readable format. The processing of handwritten musical scores by computers remains far from ideal. One of the fundamental stages to carry out this task is the staff line detection. We investigate a general-purpose, knowledge-free method for the automatic detection of music staff lines based on a stable path approach. Lines affected by curvature, discontinuities, and inclination are robustly detected. Experimental results show that the proposed technique consistently outperforms well-established algorithms. PMID:19372615
Communication path for extreme environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Betts, Bradley J. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
Methods and systems for using one or more radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs), or other suitable signal transmitters and/or receivers, to provide a sensor information communication path, to provide location and/or spatial orientation information for an emergency service worker (ESW), to provide an ESW escape route, to indicate a direction from an ESW to an ES appliance, to provide updated information on a region or structure that presents an extreme environment (fire, hazardous fluid leak, underwater, nuclear, etc.) in which an ESW works, and to provide accumulated thermal load or thermal breakdown information on one or more locations in the region.
Nanoscale heat transport via electrons and phonons by molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Keng-Hua
Nanoscale heat transport has become a crucial research topic due to the growing importance of nanotechnology for manufacturing, energy conversion, medicine and electronics. Thermal transport properties at the nanoscale are distinct from the macroscopic ones since the sizes of nanoscale features, such as free surfaces and interfaces, are comparable to the wavelengths and mean free paths of the heat carriers (electrons and phonons), and lead to changes in thermal transport properties. Therefore, understanding how the nanoscale features and energy exchange between the heat carriers affect thermal transport characteristics are the goals of this research. Molecular dynamics (MD) is applied in this research to understand the details of nanoscale heat transport. The advantage of MD is that the size effect, anharmonicity, atomistic structure, and non-equilibrium behavior of the system can all be captured since the dynamics of atoms are described explicitly in MD. However, MD neglects the thermal role of electrons and therefore it is unable to describe heat transport in metal or metal-semiconductor systems accurately. To address this limitation of MD, we develop a method to simulate electronic heat transport by implementing electronic degrees of freedom to MD. In this research, nanoscale heat transport in semiconductor, metal, and metal-semiconductor systems is studied. Size effects on phonon thermal transport in SiGe superlattice thin films and nanowires are studied by MD. We find that, opposite to the macroscopic trend, superlattice thin films can achieve lower thermal conductivity than nanowires at small scales due to the change of phonon nature caused by adjusting the superlattice periodic length and specimen length. Effects of size and electron-phonon coupling rate on thermal conductivity and thermal interface resistivity in Al and model metal-semiconductor systems are studied by MD with electronic degrees of freedom. The results show that increasing the specimen length or the electron-phonon coupling rate increases the electronic contribution in thermal transport and therefore increases the thermal conductivity; moreover, the thermal interface resistivity in metal-semiconductor systems is observed to depend on the heat flux direction due to the direction-dependent energy transfer pathways between electrons and phonons at the interface. MD with electronic degrees of freedom is also applied to simulate heat transport across the metal-semiconductor interface under the non-equilibrium conditions, mimicking the ultrafast laser heating in transient thermoreflectance measurements. The effect of local and non-local electron-phonon coupling across the interface are examined, since the experimental evidence suggests that non-local electron-phonon coupling occurs under the non-equilibrium conditions. Our results show that non-local electron-phonon coupling not only facilitates energy transfer across the interface but also enhances ballistic transport of the high frequency phonon modes in a semiconductor. In summary, our study provides an insight into the details of nanoscale heat transport in various systems by MD and MD with electronic degrees of freedom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avramenko, Yu. A.; Bezugly?, E. V.; Burma, N. G.; Fil', V. D.
2009-08-01
This work is devoted to the investigation of electron sound—oscillations coupled with elastic deformation of the electron distribution function and propagating with the Fermi velocity. The amplitude-phase relations characterizing the behavior of electron sound in Ga single crystals are determined experimentally. A model problem of excitation of electron sound in a compensated metal with equivalent bands is solved for a finite sample with diffuse scattering of electrons at the interfaces. It is determined that the displacement amplitude of the receiving interface is two orders of magnitude greater than the elastic amplitude characteristic for the wave due to electron pressure. It is established that the changes occurring in the amplitude and phase of the electron sound waves at a superconducting transition do not depend on the path traversed by the wave, i.e. they refer only to the behavior of the conversion coefficient.
SSME propellant path leak detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crawford, Roger; Shohadaee, Ahmad Ali; Powers, W. T.
1995-01-01
The primary objective of this phase of the investigation is the experimental validation of techniques for detecting and analyzing propellant path external leaks which have a high probability of occurring on the SSME. The selection of candidate detection methods requires a good analytic model for leak plumes which would develop from external leaks and an understanding of radiation transfer through the leak plume. One advanced propellant path leak detection technique is obtained by using state-of-art technology of infrared (IR) thermal imaging systems combined with computer, digital image processing and expert systems for the engine protection. The feasibility of the IR leak plume detection will be evaluated on subscale simulated laboratory plumes to determine sensitivity, signal to noise, and general suitability for the application. The theoretical analysis was undertaken with the objective of developing and testing simple, easy-to-use models to predict the amount of radiation coming from a radiation source, background plate (BP), which can be absorbed, emitted and scattered by the gas leaks.
Path-integrated growth of auroral kilometric radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Omidi, N.; Gurnett, D. A.
1984-01-01
Using Poeverlein's graphical method, three dimensional ray path calculations are performed to evaluate the path-integrated growth of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR). The ray tracing results indicate that waves whose initial wave vector lie in the local meridian plane continue to propagate in that plane and that among these waves, those with frequencies near the cutoff frequency (f sub R = 0) refract substantially, where as those with frequencies well above the cutoff frequency suffer little refraction. It is also shown that waves whose initial wave vector lie outside of the local meridian plane propagate in the longitudinal as well as the radial and the latitudinal directions. The refraction of these waves is also highly dependent upon the wave frequency, i.e., waves with frequencies near f sub R = 0 refract substantially, whereas waves with frequencies much above f sub R = 0 undergo little refraction. In order to test the electron cyclotron maser mechanisms as a method for generation of AKR, a typical electron distribution function measured in the auroral zone by the S3-3 satellite, is used to calculate path-integrated growths of representative rays. The results of this study indicate that electron distribution functions like those measured by the S3-3 satellite are not capable of amplifying cosmic noise background to the observed intensities of auroral kilometric radiation, and that much steeper slopes at the edges of the loss cone are required. The presence of such distribution functions in the auroral zone is plausible if one assumes that backscattered electrons in this region have energies less than a few hundred eV.
Path integral measure factorization in path integrals for diffusion of Yang--Mills fields
S. N. Storchak
2007-11-19
Factorization of the (formal) path integral measure in a Wiener path integrals for Yang--Mills diffusion is studied. Using the nonlinear filtering stochastic differential equation, we perform the transformation of the path integral defined on a total space of the Yang--Mills principal fiber bundle and come to the reduced path integral on a Coulomb gauge surface. Integral relation between the path integral representing the "quantum" evolution given on the original manifold of Yang--Mills fields and the path integral on the reduced manifold defined by the Coulomb gauge is obtained.
Sequential Path Entanglement for Quantum Metrology
Jin, Xian-Min; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Deng, Youjin; Barbieri, Marco; Nunn, Joshua; Walmsley, Ian A.
2013-01-01
Path entanglement is a key resource for quantum metrology. Using path-entangled states, the standard quantum limit can be beaten, and the Heisenberg limit can be achieved. However, the preparation and detection of such states scales unfavourably with the number of photons. Here we introduce sequential path entanglement, in which photons are distributed across distinct time bins with arbitrary separation, as a resource for quantum metrology. We demonstrate a scheme for converting polarization Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement into sequential path entanglement. We observe the same enhanced phase resolution expected for conventional path entanglement, independent of the delay between consecutive photons. Sequential path entanglement can be prepared comparably easily from polarization entanglement, can be detected without using photon-number-resolving detectors, and enables novel applications.
Vittitoe, C.N.
1993-08-01
A method is presented to unfold the two-dimensional vertical structure in electron density by using data on the total electron content for a series of paths through the ionosphere. The method uses a set of orthonormal basis functions to represent the vertical structure and takes advantage of curved paths and the eikonical equation to reduce the number of iterations required for a solution. Curved paths allow a more thorough probing of the ionosphere with a given set of transmitter and receiver positions. The approach can be directly extended to more complex geometries.
Path-integral simulation of solids.
Herrero, C P; Ramírez, R
2014-06-11
The path-integral formulation of the statistical mechanics of quantum many-body systems is described, with the purpose of introducing practical techniques for the simulation of solids. Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods for distinguishable quantum particles are presented, with particular attention to the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. Applications of these computational techniques to different types of solids are reviewed, including noble-gas solids (helium and heavier elements), group-IV materials (diamond and elemental semiconductors), and molecular solids (with emphasis on hydrogen and ice). Structural, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of these materials are discussed. Applications also include point defects in solids (structure and diffusion), as well as nuclear quantum effects in solid surfaces and adsorbates. Different phenomena are discussed, as solid-to-solid and orientational phase transitions, rates of quantum processes, classical-to-quantum crossover, and various finite-temperature anharmonic effects (thermal expansion, isotopic effects, electron-phonon interactions). Nuclear quantum effects are most remarkable in the presence of light atoms, so that especial emphasis is laid on solids containing hydrogen as a constituent element or as an impurity. PMID:24810944
Path integral for Koenigs spaces
Grosche, C.
2008-05-15
I discuss a path-integral approach for the quantum motion on two-dimensional spaces according to Koenigs, for short 'Koenigs spaces'. Their construction is simple: one takes a Hamiltonian from a two-dimensional flat space and divides it by a two-dimensional superintegrable potential. These superintegrable potentials are the isotropic singular oscillator, the Holt potential, and the Coulomb potential. In all cases, a nontrivial space of nonconstant curvature is generated. We can study free motion and the motion with an additional superintegrable potential. For possible bound-state solutions, we find in all three cases an equation of the eighth order in the energy E. The special cases of the Darboux spaces are easily recovered by choosing the parameters accordingly.
Fragmentation paths in dynamical models
M. Colonna; A. Ono; J. Rizzo
2010-11-05
We undertake a quantitative comparison of multi-fragmentation reactions, as modeled by two different approaches: the Antisymmetrized Molecular Dynamics (AMD) and the momentum-dependent stochastic mean-field (SMF) model. Fragment observables and pre-equilibrium (nucleon and light cluster) emission are analyzed, in connection to the underlying compression-expansion dynamics in each model. Considering reactions between neutron-rich systems, observables related to the isotopic properties of emitted particles and fragments are also discussed, as a function of the parametrization employed for the isovector part of the nuclear interaction. We find that the reaction path, particularly the mechanism of fragmentation, is different in the two models and reflects on some properties of the reaction products, including their isospin content. This should be taken into account in the study of the density dependence of the symmetry energy from such collisions.
Fragmentation paths in dynamical models
Colonna, M.; Rizzo, J.; Ono, A.
2010-11-15
We undertake a quantitative comparison of multifragmentation reactions, as modeled by two different approaches: the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) and the momentum-dependent stochastic mean-field (SMF) model. Fragment observables and pre-equilibrium (nucleon and light cluster) emission are analyzed, in connection with the underlying compression-expansion dynamics in each model. Considering reactions between neutron-rich systems, observables related to the isotopic properties of emitted particles and fragments are also discussed, as a function of the parametrization employed for the isovector part of the nuclear interaction. We find that the reaction path, particularly the mechanism of fragmentation, is different in the two models and reflects on some properties of the reaction products, including their isospin content. This should be taken into account in the study of the density dependence of the symmetry energy from such collisions.
Flexible-Path Human Exploration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherwood, B.; Adler, M.; Alkalai, L.; Burdick, G.; Coulter, D.; Jordan, F.; Naderi, F.; Graham, L.; Landis, R.; Drake, B.; Hoffman, S.; Grunsfeld, J.; Seery, B. D.
2010-01-01
In the fourth quarter of 2009 an in-house, multi-center NASA study team briefly examined "Flexible Path" concepts to begin understanding characteristics, content, and roles of potential missions consistent with the strategy proposed by the Augustine Committee. We present an overview of the study findings. Three illustrative human/robotic mission concepts not requiring planet surface operations are described: assembly of very large in-space telescopes in cis-lunar space; exploration of near Earth objects (NEOs); exploration of Mars' moon Phobos. For each, a representative mission is described, technology and science objectives are outlined, and a basic mission operations concept is quantified. A fourth type of mission, using the lunar surface as preparation for Mars, is also described. Each mission's "capability legacy" is summarized. All four illustrative missions could achieve NASA's stated human space exploration objectives and advance human space flight toward Mars surface exploration. Telescope assembly missions would require the fewest new system developments. NEO missions would offer a wide range of deep-space trip times between several months and two years. Phobos exploration would retire several Marsclass risks, leaving another large remainder set (associated with entry, descent, surface operations, and ascent) for retirement by subsequent missions. And extended lunar surface operations would build confidence for Mars surface missions by addressing a complementary set of risks. Six enabling developments (robotic precursors, ISS exploration testbed, heavy-lift launch, deep-space-capable crew capsule, deep-space habitat, and reusable in-space propulsion stage) would apply across multiple program sequence options, and thus could be started even without committing to a specific mission sequence now. Flexible Path appears to be a viable strategy, with meaningful and worthy mission content.
Electron temperature ( ): Electron density ( )
Lotko, William
Electron temperature ( ): Electron density ( ): Field-aligne e T N Candidates for adjustable (or Electron number flux: Electron energy flux: d current ( ): Average electron energy: Field-aligned potential drop:Mirror ratio ( ): / The formul 8 ae fo E E I M R E F J VB B F Parametric Variables r electron
Methodology for Augmenting Existing Paths with Additional Parallel Transects
Wilson, John E.
2013-09-30
Visual Sample Plan (VSP) is sample planning software that is used, among other purposes, to plan transect sampling paths to detect areas that were potentially used for munition training. This module was developed for application on a large site where existing roads and trails were to be used as primary sampling paths. Gap areas between these primary paths needed to found and covered with parallel transect paths. These gap areas represent areas on the site that are more than a specified distance from a primary path. These added parallel paths needed to optionally be connected together into a single path—the shortest path possible. The paths also needed to optionally be attached to existing primary paths, again with the shortest possible path. Finally, the process must be repeatable and predictable so that the same inputs (primary paths, specified distance, and path options) will result in the same set of new paths every time. This methodology was developed to meet those specifications.
: A Holistic Path Join Algorithm for Path Query with Not-predicates on XML Data
Ling, Tok Wang
-to-leaf paths in tree-structured XML documents that satisfy certain selection predicates is the basis of complex XML query processing. Such selection predicates are called path queries (i.e., twig queries without applications. As an example of a path query with a not-predicate, consider the XPath query: //supplier
Transition Path Theory E. Vanden-Eijnden
Van Den Eijnden, Eric
Transition Path Theory E. Vanden-Eijnden Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University New York, NY 10012 eve2cims.nyu.edu Eric Vanden-Eijnden E. Vanden-Eijnden: Transition Path Theory of the Current and Transition Tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 5 Comparison with Transition
Cooperative organic mine avoidance path planning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David
2005-06-01
The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.
Realistic Human Walking Paths David C. Brogan
Brogan, David
Realistic Human Walking Paths David C. Brogan Department of Computer Science University of Virginia are influenced by kinematic and dynami- cal constraints. A realistic model of human walking paths is an important natural human behavior than previous models. 1. Introduction Realistic walking animations are required
Optimal Path Synthesis for Automated Guided Vehicles
Vuik, Kees
Optimal Path Synthesis for Automated Guided Vehicles Preliminary Research Reijer Idema 2005 TU;Optimal Path Synthesis for Automated Guided Vehicles Preliminary Research Author: Reijer Idema Supervisors. FROG is a manufacturer of Automated Guided Vehicles. They have de- veloped a multitude of vehicles
FESAC Development Path Meeting Draft Agenda
FESAC Development Path Meeting Draft Agenda October 28, 2002 9:00 - 9:35: 1) Structural Materials Development for MFE and IFE - Steve Zinkle What options could be possible for a 35-year Demo? ODS steels Development Path - Mohamed Abdou / Mike Ulrickson Speak about what a blanket is. Range of blanket options
PARALLEL EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS FOR UAV PATH PLANNING
PARALLEL EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS FOR UAV PATH PLANNING Dong Jia Post-Doctoral Research Associate vehicles (UAVs). Premature convergence prevents evolutionary-based algorithms from reaching global optimal. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a framework of parallel evolutionary algorithms for UAV path
Shortest path and Schramm-Loewner Evolution
Posé, N.; Schrenk, K. J.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.
2014-01-01
We numerically show that the statistical properties of the shortest path on critical percolation clusters are consistent with the ones predicted for Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) curves for ? = 1.04 ± 0.02. The shortest path results from a global optimization process. To identify it, one needs to explore an entire area. Establishing a relation with SLE permits to generate curves statistically equivalent to the shortest path from a Brownian motion. We numerically analyze the winding angle, the left passage probability, and the driving function of the shortest path and compare them to the distributions predicted for SLE curves with the same fractal dimension. The consistency with SLE opens the possibility of using a solid theoretical framework to describe the shortest path and it raises relevant questions regarding conformal invariance and domain Markov properties, which we also discuss. PMID:24975019
The formal path integral and quantum mechanics
Johnson-Freyd, Theo
2010-01-01
Given an arbitrary Lagrangian function on \\RR^d and a choice of classical path, one can try to define Feynman's path integral supported near the classical path as a formal power series parameterized by "Feynman diagrams," although these diagrams may diverge. We compute this expansion and show that it is (formally, if there are ultraviolet divergences) invariant under volume-preserving changes of coordinates. We prove that if the ultraviolet divergences cancel at each order, then our formal path integral satisfies a "Fubini theorem" expressing the standard composition law for the time evolution operator in quantum mechanics. Moreover, we show that when the Lagrangian is inhomogeneous-quadratic in velocity such that its homogeneous-quadratic part is given by a matrix with constant determinant, then the divergences cancel at each order. Thus, by "cutting and pasting" and choosing volume-compatible local coordinates, our construction defines a Feynman-diagrammatic "formal path integral" for the nonrelativistic qu...
Shortest path and Schramm-Loewner Evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Posé, N.; Schrenk, K. J.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.
2014-06-01
We numerically show that the statistical properties of the shortest path on critical percolation clusters are consistent with the ones predicted for Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) curves for ? = 1.04 +/- 0.02. The shortest path results from a global optimization process. To identify it, one needs to explore an entire area. Establishing a relation with SLE permits to generate curves statistically equivalent to the shortest path from a Brownian motion. We numerically analyze the winding angle, the left passage probability, and the driving function of the shortest path and compare them to the distributions predicted for SLE curves with the same fractal dimension. The consistency with SLE opens the possibility of using a solid theoretical framework to describe the shortest path and it raises relevant questions regarding conformal invariance and domain Markov properties, which we also discuss.
On Path Decomposition Conjecture of Tibor Gallai
Dhananjay P. Mehendale
2011-06-02
We settle the Path Decomposition Conjecture (P.D.C.) due to Tibor Gallai for minimally connected graphs, i.e. trees. We use this validity for trees and settle the P. D. C. using induction on the number of edges for all connected graphs. We then obtain a new bound for the number of paths in a path cover in terms of the number of edges using idea of associating a tree with a connected graph. We then make use of a spanning tree in the given connected graph and its associated basic path cover to settle the conjecture of Tibor Gallai in an alternative way. Finally, we show the existence of Hamiltonian path cover satisfying Gallai bound for complete graphs of even order and discuss some of its possible ramifications.
Career Paths in Sport Management
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schwab, Keri A.; Legg, Eric; Tanner, Preston; Timmerman, Danielle; Dustin, Daniel; Arthur-Banning, Skye G.
2015-01-01
Sport management alumni (N = 268) from five universities that offer undergraduate programs with an emphasis in sport management within departments of parks, recreation, and tourism were sampled via an electronic survey. The survey sought to learn where alumni were working, and how they felt about their career choice and undergraduate professional…
Excitation of nucleobases from a computational perspective I: reaction paths.
Giussani, Angelo; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Roca-Sanjuán, Daniel; Merchán, Manuela
2015-01-01
The main intrinsic photochemical events in nucleobases can be described on theoretical grounds within the realm of non-adiabatic computational photochemistry. From a static standpoint, the photochemical reaction path approach (PRPA), through the computation of the respective minimum energy path (MEP), can be regarded as the most suitable strategy in order to explore the electronically excited isolated nucleobases. Unfortunately, the PRPA does not appear widely in the studies reported in the last decade. The main ultrafast decay observed experimentally for the gas-phase excited nucleobases is related to the computed barrierless MEPs from the bright excited state connecting the initial Franck-Condon region and a conical intersection involving the ground state. At the highest level of theory currently available (CASPT2//CASPT2), the lowest excited (1)(??*) hypersurface for cytosine has a shallow minimum along the MEP deactivation pathway. In any case, the internal conversion processes in all the natural nucleobases are attained by means of interstate crossings, a self-protection mechanism that prevents the occurrence of photoinduced damage of nucleobases by ultraviolet radiation. Many alternative and secondary paths have been proposed in the literature, which ultimately provide a rich and constructive interplay between experimentally and theoretically oriented research. PMID:24264958
Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mackler, Scott E.
2008-01-01
ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.
Decision paths in complex tasks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Galanter, Eugene
1991-01-01
Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.
Gerbertian paths for the Jubilee
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sigismondi, Costantino
2015-04-01
Gerbert before becoming Pope Sylvester II came several times in Rome, as reported in his Letters and in the biography of Richerus. Eight places in Rome can be connected with Gerbertian memories. 1. The Cathedral of St. John in the Lateran where the gravestone of his tumb is still preserved near the Holy Door; 2. the “Basilica Hierusalem” (Santa Croce) where Gerbert had the stroke on May 3rd 1003 which lead him to death on May 12th; 3. the Aventine hill, with the church of the Knights of Malta in the place where the palace of the Ottonian Emperors was located; 4. the church of St. Bartholomew in the Tiber Island built in 997 under Otto III; 5. the Obelisk of Augustus in Montecitorio to remember the relationship between Gerbert, Astronomy and numbers which led the birth of the legends on Gerbert magician; 6. St. Mary Major end of the procession of August 15, 1000; 7. St. Paul outside the walls with the iconography of the Popes and 8. St. Peter's tumb end of all Romaei pilgrimages. This Gerbertian path in Rome suggests one way to accomplish the pilgrimage suggested by Pope Francis in the Bulla Misericordiae Vultus (14) of indiction of the new Jubilee.
Kinetic Effects In Hall Thruster Discharge
Kaganovich, Igor
th twall interactions in Hall thrusters Large electron temperature andE JH~1cm secondary electron distribution function. #12;Wall losses strongly increases due to d l t i isecondary electron emission. T)T( ew Electron energy mean free path is large, thisgy p g , allows remote plasma handling via nonlocal electron
MAS 05 Informative Path Planning MAS 05.1 Overview
Soatto, Stefano
MAS 05 Informative Path Planning MAS 05.1 Overview My goal is to create path planning algorithms that robots provide, it is necessary to come up with a path planning algorithm that can choose paths which gather the most useful information. Over the past year, I have focused primarily on path planning
All-Optical Monitoring Path Computation Using Lower Bounds of Required Number of Paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogino, Nagao; Nakamura, Hajime
To reduce the cost of fault management in all-optical networks, it is a promising approach to detect the degradation of optical signal quality solely at the terminal points of all-optical monitoring paths. The all-optical monitoring paths must be routed so that all single-link failures can be localized using route information of monitoring paths where signal quality degradation is detected. However, route computation for the all-optical monitoring paths that satisfy the above condition is time consuming. This paper proposes a procedure for deriving the lower bounds of the required number of monitoring paths to localize all single-link failures, and proposes an efficient monitoring path computation method based on the derived lower bounds. The proposed method repeats the route computation for the monitoring paths until feasible routes can be found, while the assumed number of monitoring paths increases, starting from the lower bounds. With the proposed method, the minimum number of monitoring paths with the overall shortest routes can be obtained quickly by solving several small-scale integer linear programming problems when the possible terminal nodes of monitoring paths are arbitrarily given. Thus, the proposed method can minimize the required number of monitors for detecting the degradation of signal quality and the total overhead traffic volume transferred through the monitoring paths.
Emilio Bagan; Janos A. Bergou; Mark Hillery
2015-09-15
We find a relation between coherence and path-information in a multi-path interferometer. This work builds on earlier results for the two-path interferometer, which used minimum-error state discrimination between detector states to provide the path information. For visibility, which was used in the two-path case, we substitute a recently defined measure of quantum coherence.
Robot path planning using a genetic algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cleghorn, Timothy F.; Baffes, Paul T.; Wang, Liu
1988-01-01
Robot path planning can refer either to a mobile vehicle such as a Mars Rover, or to an end effector on an arm moving through a cluttered workspace. In both instances there may exist many solutions, some of which are better than others, either in terms of distance traversed, energy expended, or joint angle or reach capabilities. A path planning program has been developed based upon a genetic algorithm. This program assumes global knowledge of the terrain or workspace, and provides a family of good paths between the initial and final points. Initially, a set of valid random paths are constructed. Successive generations of valid paths are obtained using one of several possible reproduction strategies similar to those found in biological communities. A fitness function is defined to describe the goodness of the path, in this case including length, slope, and obstacle avoidance considerations. It was found that with some reproduction strategies, the average value of the fitness function improved for successive generations, and that by saving the best paths of each generation, one could quite rapidly obtain a collection of good candidate solutions.
Nonholonomic catheter path reconstruction using electromagnetic tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lugez, Elodie; Sadjadi, Hossein; Akl, Selim G.; Fichtinger, Gabor
2015-03-01
Catheter path reconstruction is a necessary step in many clinical procedures, such as cardiovascular interventions and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. To overcome limitations of standard imaging modalities, electromagnetic tracking has been employed to reconstruct catheter paths. However, tracking errors pose a challenge in accurate path reconstructions. We address this challenge by means of a filtering technique incorporating the electromagnetic measurements with the nonholonomic motion constraints of the sensor inside a catheter. The nonholonomic motion model of the sensor within the catheter and the electromagnetic measurement data were integrated using an extended Kalman filter. The performance of our proposed approach was experimentally evaluated using the Ascension's 3D Guidance trakStar electromagnetic tracker. Sensor measurements were recorded during insertions of an electromagnetic sensor (model 55) along ten predefined ground truth paths. Our method was implemented in MATLAB and applied to the measurement data. Our reconstruction results were compared to raw measurements as well as filtered measurements provided by the manufacturer. The mean of the root-mean-square (RMS) errors along the ten paths was 3.7 mm for the raw measurements, and 3.3 mm with manufacturer's filters. Our approach effectively reduced the mean RMS error to 2.7 mm. Compared to other filtering methods, our approach successfully improved the path reconstruction accuracy by exploiting the sensor's nonholonomic motion constraints in its formulation. Our approach seems promising for a variety of clinical procedures involving reconstruction of a catheter path.
Modular electronics packaging system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunter, Don J. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A modular electronics packaging system includes multiple packaging slices that are mounted horizontally to a base structure. The slices interlock to provide added structural support. Each packaging slice includes a rigid and thermally conductive housing having four side walls that together form a cavity to house an electronic circuit. The chamber is enclosed on one end by an end wall, or web, that isolates the electronic circuit from a circuit in an adjacent packaging slice. The web also provides a thermal path between the electronic circuit and the base structure. Each slice also includes a mounting bracket that connects the packaging slice to the base structure. Four guide pins protrude from the slice into four corresponding receptacles in an adjacent slice. A locking element, such as a set screw, protrudes into each receptacle and interlocks with the corresponding guide pin. A conduit is formed in the slice to allow electrical connection to the electronic circuit.
Dissociable cognitive mechanisms underlying human path integration.
Wiener, Jan M; Berthoz, Alain; Wolbers, Thomas
2011-01-01
Path integration is a fundamental mechanism of spatial navigation. In non-human species, it is assumed to be an online process in which a homing vector is updated continuously during an outward journey. In contrast, human path integration has been conceptualized as a configural process in which travelers store working memory representations of path segments, with the computation of a homing vector only occurring when required. To resolve this apparent discrepancy, we tested whether humans can employ different path integration strategies in the same task. Using a triangle completion paradigm, participants were instructed either to continuously update the start position during locomotion (continuous strategy) or to remember the shape of the outbound path and to calculate home vectors on basis of this representation (configural strategy). While overall homing accuracy was superior in the configural condition, participants were quicker to respond during continuous updating, strongly suggesting that homing vectors were computed online. Corroborating these findings, we observed reliable differences in head orientation during the outbound path: when participants applied the continuous updating strategy, the head deviated significantly from straight ahead in direction of the start place, which can be interpreted as a continuous motor expression of the homing vector. Head orientation-a novel online measure for path integration-can thus inform about the underlying updating mechanism already during locomotion. In addition to demonstrating that humans can employ different cognitive strategies during path integration, our two-systems view helps to resolve recent controversies regarding the role of the medial temporal lobe in human path integration. PMID:20972774
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feibel, C. S.
2004-12-01
A complex series of evolutionary steps, contingent upon a dynamic environmental context and a long biological heritage, have led to the ascent of Homo sapiens as a dominant component of the modern biosphere. In a field where missing links still abound and new discoveries regularly overturn theoretical paradigms, our understanding of the path of human evolution has made tremendous advances in recent years. Two major trends characterize the development of the hominin clade subsequent to its origins with the advent of upright bipedalism in the Late Miocene of Africa. One is a diversification into two prominent morphological branches, each with a series of 'twigs' representing evolutionary experimentation at the species or subspecies level. The second important trend, which in its earliest manifestations cannot clearly be ascribed to one or the other branch, is the behavioral complexity of an increasing reliance on technology to expand upon limited inherent morphological specializations and to buffer the organism from its environment. This technological dependence is directly associated with the expansion of hominin range outside Africa by the genus Homo, and is accelerated in the sole extant form Homo sapiens through the last 100 Ka. There are interesting correlates between the evolutionary and behavioral patterns seen in the hominin clade and environmental dynamics of the Neogene. In particular, the tempo of morphological and behavioral innovation may be tracking major events in Neogene climatic development as well as reflecting intervals of variability or stability. Major improvements in analytical techniques, coupled with important new collections and a growing body of contextual data are now making possible the integration of global, regional and local environmental archives with an improved biological understanding of the hominin clade to address questions of coincidence and causality.
Path planning strategies for autonomous ground vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gifford, Kevin Kent
Several key issues involved with the planning and executing of optimally generated paths for autonomous vehicles are addressed. Two new path planning algorithms are developed, and examined, which effectively minimize replanning as unmapped hazards are encountered. The individual algorithms are compared via extensive simulation. The search strategy results are implemented and tested using the University of Colorado's autonomous vehicle test-bed, RoboCar, and results show the advantages of solving the single-destination all-paths problem for autonomous vehicle path planning. Both path planners implement a graph search methodology incorporating dynamic programming that solves the single-destination shortest-paths problem. Algorithm 1, termed DP for dynamic programming, searches a state space where each state represents a potential vehicle location in a breadth-first fashion expanding from the goal to all potential start locations in the state space. Algorithm 2, termed DP*, couples the heuristic search power of the well-known A* search procedure (Nilsson-80) with the dynamic programming principle applied to graph searching to efficiently make use of overlapping subproblems. DP* is the primary research contribution of the work contained within this thesis. The advantage of solving the single-destination shortest-paths problem is that the entire terrain map is solved in terms of reaching a specified goal. Therefore, if the robot is diverted from the pre-planned path, an alternative path is already computed. The search algorithms are extended to include a probabilistic approach using empirical loss functions to incorporate terrain map uncertainties into the path considering terrain planning process. The results show the importance of considering terrain uncertainty. If the map representation ignores uncertainty by marking any area with less than perfect confidence as unpassable or assigns it the worst case rating, then the paths are longer than intuitively necessary. A hierarchical software control architecture is introduced that uses as the main guidance function an arbitration-based scheme which is able to efficiently and robustly integrate disparate sensor data. The flexibility provided by such an architecture allows for very easy integration of any type of environmental sensing device into the path planning algorithm.
Crack-path effect on material toughness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Asher A.
1990-01-01
The main features of a toughening mechanism associated with a curvilinear crack path are examined using a model consisting of a macrocrack in a brittle solid with a curvilinear segment at the crack tip. A numerical procedure for finite and semiinfinite cracks is formulated and evaluated using an example which has an exact solution (a finite crack in the form of a circular arc in a uniform stress field). It is shown that, for a relatively small amplitude of crack path oscillations, the toughening ratio can be taken equal to the ratio of the corresponding crack path lengths.
The terminal area automated path generation problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsin, C.-C.
1977-01-01
The automated terminal area path generation problem in the advanced Air Traffic Control System (ATC), has been studied. Definitions, input, output and the interrelationships with other ATC functions have been discussed. Alternatives in modeling the problem have been identified. Problem formulations and solution techniques are presented. In particular, the solution of a minimum effort path stretching problem (path generation on a given schedule) has been carried out using the Newton-Raphson trajectory optimization method. Discussions are presented on the effect of different delivery time, aircraft entry position, initial guess on the boundary conditions, etc. Recommendations are made on real-world implementations.
EFFICIENT STRUCTURE AND MOTION: PATH PLANNING, UNCERTAINTY AND SPARSITY
Lunds Universitet
EFFICIENT STRUCTURE AND MOTION: PATH PLANNING, UNCERTAINTY AND SPARSITY SEBASTIAN HANER Faculty", Workshop on Mobile Vision, San Francisco, 2010. · S. Haner and A. Heyden, "Optimal View Path Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 B Optimal View Path Planning for Visual SLAM 31 1 Introduction
MOBILE ROBOTS PATH PLANNING OPTIMIZATION IN STATIC AND DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTS
Areibi, Shawki M
MOBILE ROBOTS PATH PLANNING OPTIMIZATION IN STATIC AND DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTS A Thesis Presented PATH PLANNING OPTIMIZATION IN STATIC AND DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTS Ahmed Elshamli University of Guelph, 2004 Advisor: Professor: Hussein A. Abdullah Professor: Shawki Areibi Path planning for mobile robots
Multiresolution Hierarchical Path-Planning for Small UAVs Panagiotis Tsiotras
Tsiotras, Panagiotis
Multiresolution Hierarchical Path-Planning for Small UAVs Panagiotis Tsiotras School of Aerospace-- In this paper we review some recent results on a new multiresolution hierarchical path planning algorithm, wavelet decomposition, path planning, collision avoidance, adjacency matrix, UAVs I. INTRODUCTION
Current path in light emitting diodes based on nanowire ensembles.
Limbach, F; Hauswald, C; Lähnemann, J; Wölz, M; Brandt, O; Trampert, A; Hanke, M; Jahn, U; Calarco, R; Geelhaar, L; Riechert, H
2012-11-23
Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using ensembles of free-standing (In, Ga)N/GaN nanowires (NWs) grown on Si substrates in the self-induced growth mode by molecular beam epitaxy. Electron-beam-induced current analysis, cathodoluminescence as well as biased ?-photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electrical measurements indicate that the electroluminescence of such LEDs is governed by the differences in the individual current densities of the single-NW LEDs operated in parallel, i.e. by the inhomogeneity of the current path in the ensemble LED. In addition, the optoelectronic characterization leads to the conclusion that these NWs exhibit N-polarity and that the (In, Ga)N quantum well states in the NWs are subject to a non-vanishing quantum confined Stark effect. PMID:23092897
Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun
2013-05-01
A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63?rad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75?m. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.
47 CFR 22.515 - Permissible communications paths.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...false Permissible communications paths. 22.515...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES ...515 Permissible communications paths....
Identifying decohering paths in closed quantum systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albrecht, Andreas
1990-01-01
A specific proposal is discussed for how to identify decohering paths in a wavefunction of the universe. The emphasis is on determining the correlations among subsystems and then considering how these correlations evolve. The proposal is similar to earlier ideas of Schroedinger and of Zeh, but in other ways it is closer to the decoherence functional of Griffiths, Omnes, and Gell-Mann and Hartle. There are interesting differences with each of these which are discussed. Once a given coarse-graining is chosen, the candidate paths are fixed in this scheme, and a single well defined number measures the degree of decoherence for each path. The normal probability sum rules are exactly obeyed (instantaneously) by these paths regardless of the level of decoherence. Also briefly discussed is how one might quantify some other aspects of classicality. The important role that concrete calculations play in testing this and other proposals is stressed.
Building a path in cell biology
Cheeseman, Iain McPherson
Setting up a new lab is an exciting but challenging prospect. We discuss our experiences in finding a path to tackle some of the key current questions in cell biology and the hurdles that we have encountered along the way.
Walden's Paths quiz: system design and implementation
Arora, Avital Jayant
2002-01-01
This thesis describes the motivation for online testing, compares the effectiveness of online tests versus conventional tests and outlines the features of online-testing mechanisms. It details the features and implementation of the Walden's Paths...
Adaptive pyramidal clustering for shortest path determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson, Keith; Speigle, Scott A.
1996-05-01
This paper will present a unique concept implemented in a software design that determines near optimal paths between hundreds of randomly connected nodes of interest in a faster time than current near optimal path determining algorithms. The adaptive pyramidal clustering (APC) approach to determining near optimal paths between numerous nodes uses an adaptive neural network along with classical heuristic search techniques. This combination is represented by a nearest neighbor clustering up function (performed by the neural network) and a trickle down pruning function (performed by the heuristic search). The function of the adaptive neural network is a significant reason why the APC algorithm is superior to several well known approaches. The APC algorithm has already been applied to autonomous route planning for unmanned ground vehicles. The intersections represent navigational waypoints that can be selected as source and destination locations. The APC algorithm then determines a near optimal path to navigate between the selected waypoints.
A chemist building paths to cell biology.
Weibel, Douglas B
2013-11-01
Galileo is reported to have stated, "Measure what is measurable and make measurable what is not so." My group's trajectory in cell biology has closely followed this philosophy, although it took some searching to find this path. PMID:24174456
MODELING DENDRITIC SHAPES Using Path Planning
Mould, David
MODELING DENDRITIC SHAPES Using Path Planning Ling Xu, David Mould Department of Computer Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada lix272@mail.usask.ca, mould@cs.usask.ca Keywords: dendrites
Path integral distance for data interpretation
Volchenkov, D
2015-01-01
The process of data interpretation is always based on the implicit introduction of equivalence relations on the set of walks over the database. Every equivalence relation on the set of walks specifies a Markov chain describing the transitions of a discrete time random walk. In order to geometrize and interpret the data, we propose the new distance between data units defined as a "Feynman path integral", in which all possible paths between any two nodes in a graph model of the data are taken into account, although some paths are more preferable than others. Such a path integral distance approach to the analysis of databases has proven its efficiency and success, especially on multivariate strongly correlated data where other methods fail to detect structural components (urban planning, historical language phylogenies, music, street fashion traits analysis, etc. ). We believe that it would become an invaluable tool for the intelligent complexity reduction and big data interpretation.
Regularization Path Algorithms for Detecting Gene Interactions
Hastie, Trevor
of indicators can be selected simultaneously. Here we introduce another version of group-Lars. In addi- tion, we models. We regard this strategy of using path algorithms as a compromise between our two earlier studies
Riemann Curvature Tensor and Closed Geodesic Paths
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morganstern, Ralph E.
1977-01-01
Demonstrates erroneous results obtained if change in a vector under parallel transport about a closed path in Riemannian spacetime is made in a complete circuit rather than just half a circuit. (Author/SL)
Duality of quantum coherence and path distinguishability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Manabendra Nath; Qureshi, Tabish; Siddiqui, Mohd Asad; Pati, Arun Kumar
2015-07-01
We derive a generalized wave-particle duality relation for arbitrary multipath quantum interference phenomena. Beyond the conventional notion of the wave nature of a quantum system, i.e., the interference fringe visibility, we introduce a quantifier as the normalized quantum coherence, recently defined in the framework of quantum information theory. To witness the particle nature, we quantify the path distinguishability or the which-path information based on unambiguous quantum state discrimination. Then, the Bohr complementarity principle for multipath quantum interference can be stated as a duality relation between the quantum coherence and the path distinguishability. For two-path interference, the quantum coherence is identical to the interference fringe visibility, and the relation reduces to the well-known complementarity relation. The duality relation continues to hold in the case where mixedness is introduced due to possible decoherence effects.
Local-time representation of path integrals
Petr Jizba; Vaclav Zatloukal
2015-06-02
We derive a local-time path-integral representation for a generic one-dimensional time-independent system. In particular, we show how to rephrase the matrix elements of the Bloch density matrix as a path integral over x-dependent local-time profiles. The latter quantify the time that the sample paths x(t) in the Feynman path integral spend in the vicinity of an arbitrary point x. Generalization of the local-time representation that includes arbitrary functionals of the local time is also provided. We argue that the results obtained represent a powerful alternative to the traditional Feynman-Kac formula, particularly in the high and low temperature regimes. To illustrate this point, we apply our local-time representation to analyze the asymptotic behavior of the Bloch density matrix at low temperatures. Further salient issues, such as connections with the Sturm-Liouville theory and the Rayleigh-Ritz variational principle are also discussed.
Performance analysis of CCSDS path service
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Marjory J.
1989-01-01
A communications service, called Path Service, is currently being developed by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) to provide a mechanism for the efficient transmission of telemetry data from space to ground for complex space missions of the future. This is an important service, due to the large volumes of telemetry data that will be generated during these missions. A preliminary analysis of performance of Path Service is presented with respect to protocol-processing requirements and channel utilization.
Multiple path transport in quantum networks
Cohen, Doron
] GA, DC, Multiple path transport (JPA 2013) [2] DD, DC, Double path crossing (JPA 2013) [3] http://www.bgu.ac [Kubo, Thouless, Avron, Berry]: dQ = G du ; I = G u G(u) = 2Im u =0 Splitting ratio picture [MC,IS,DC crosses an half-filled energy band For a Fermi sea occupation we have to sum the currents of all
Visualization of Ant Pheromone Based Path Following
Sutherland, Benjamin T.
2010-07-14
OF ANT PHEROMONE BASED PATH FOLOWING A Thesis by Benjamin Sutherland Submited to the O?ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degre of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 2009 Major Subject: Visualization Sciences VISUALIZATION OF ANT PHEROMONE BASED PATH FOLOWING A Thesis by Benjamin Sutherland Submited to the O?ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment...
Quantum cosmology based on discrete Feynman paths
Chew, Geoffrey F.
2002-10-10
Although the rules for interpreting local quantum theory imply discretization of process, Lorentz covariance is usually regarded as precluding time quantization. Nevertheless a time-discretized quantum representation of redshifting spatially-homogeneous universe may be based on discrete-step Feynman paths carrying causal Lorentz-invariant action--paths that not only propagate the wave function but provide a phenomenologically-promising elementary-particle Hilbert-space basis. In a model under development, local path steps are at Planck scale while, at a much larger ''wave-function scale'', global steps separate successive wave-functions. Wave-function spacetime is but a tiny fraction of path spacetime. Electromagnetic and gravitational actions are ''at a distance'' in Wheeler-Feynman sense while strong (color) and weak (isospin) actions, as well as action of particle motion, are ''local'' in a sense paralleling the action of local field theory. ''Nonmaterial'' path segments and ''trivial events'' collaborate to define energy and gravity. Photons coupled to conserved electric charge enjoy privileged model status among elementary fermions and vector bosons. Although real path parameters provide no immediate meaning for ''measurement'', the phase of the complex wave function allows significance for ''information'' accumulated through ''gentle'' electromagnetic events involving charged matter and ''soft'' photons. Through its soft-photon content the wave function is an ''information reservoir''.
Multi-Level Indoor Path Planning Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Q.; Zhu, Q.; Zlatanova, S.; Du, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zeng, L.
2015-05-01
Indoor navigation is increasingly widespread in complex indoor environments, and indoor path planning is the most important part of indoor navigation. Path planning generally refers to finding the most suitable path connecting two locations, while avoiding collision with obstacles. However, it is a fundamental problem, especially for 3D complex building model. A common way to solve the issue in some applications has been approached in a number of relevant literature, which primarily operates on 2D drawings or building layouts, possibly with few attached attributes for obstacles. Although several digital building models in the format of 3D CAD have been used for path planning, they usually contain only geometric information while losing abundant semantic information of building components (e.g. types and attributes of building components and their simple relationships). Therefore, it becomes important to develop a reliable method that can enhance application of path planning by combining both geometric and semantic information of building components. This paper introduces a method that support 3D indoor path planning with semantic information.
Bonded Paths and van der Waals Interactions in Orpiment, As2S3
Gibbs, Gerald V.; Wallace, Adam F.; Zallen, Richard; Downs, R. T.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.
2010-06-17
Bond critical properties and bond paths have been calculated for the thioarsenide molecular crystal orpiment, As2S3. In addition to the intramolecular As-S bond paths and van der Waals As-S and S-S bond paths within the layers, intermolecular S-S, As-S and As-As van der Waals paths exist between the layers. The S-S bond paths between the layers are identified with the main interlayer restoring forces responsible for the vibrational internal-mode splitting and the low frequency rigid layer modes previously documented in infrared and Raman studies of orpiment. These S-S bond paths are comparable with those calculated for orthorhombic native sulfur and the As4Sn (n = 3,4,5) molecules for several arsenide molecular crystals. The As-S bond paths show that the two nonequivalent arsenic atoms are each coordinated by a highly distorted octahedral array of sulfur atoms. The octahedra consist of three As-S intramolecular bonded interactions and three longer van der Waals interactions (two intramolecular and one intermolecular). One of the arsenic atoms is also coordinated by an arsenic atom in an interlayer As-As bonded interaction. Laplacian isosurface envelopes calculated for the arsenic and sulfur atoms are comparable with those calculated for native arsenic and orthorhombic sulfur. The intermolecular As-S bond paths connect Lewis acid domains on arsenic and an Lewis base domains on sulfur. Van der Waals interactions are traditionally defined as attractive interactions other than those ascribed to bond formation. However, theoretical evidence and arguments, as well as the connection between the bond paths and the vibrational spectra, indicate that the van der Waals interactions in orpiment are directed bonded interactions in the Slater sense. The experimental bond lengths for the As-S and S-S bonded interactions decrease nonlinearly with the increasing value of the electron density at the bond critical point, concomitant with a decrease in the bonded radii of arsenic and sulfur. On the basis of the local energy density, the intramolecular As-S bonded interactions classify as shared interactions and the intramolecular and intermolecular As-S and S-S bonded interactions and the intermolecular As-As van der Waals interactions classify as closed-shell interactions. The so called planar lone electron pair micelle picture for orpiment is spanned by bond paths, substantiating the claim that the layers in the orpiment structure are linked by weak van der Waals bonded interactions.
Miniaturization of electron storage device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, H.; Liu, C. P.; Wang, C.; Shen, B. F.
2015-09-01
A scheme for setting up a small-sized table-top level electron storage device is proposed. Insulator pipe, electron reflecting mirrors and loose controlling enable a high-energy beam to be confined effectively along a polygonal, closed, short path. Moreover, self-field can cause a beam to be of a space-time varying shape and a finite real-space volume because the density cannot be negative-valued. This also favors a small-sized storage device.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, Eric Dietzgen
The physical properties of several U- and Pr-based heavy fermion compounds have been investigated. Superconductivity has been observed in PrOs4Sb12 at TC = 1.85 K and appears to involve heavy fermion quasiparticles with an effective mass m* ˜ 50me as inferred from the jump in the specific heat at TC, the upper critical field near TC, and the normal state electronic specific heat. Thermodynamic and transport measurements suggest that the heavy fermion state has a quadrupolar origin. Electrical resistivity measurements under pressure have been made on ferromagnetic UGe2, UxPt1- x (0.50 ? x ? 0.54), and UIr compounds. Superconductivity coexists with ferromagnetism in UGe 2 between 8 kbar < P < 14 kbar with a maximum onset temperature of 1.2 K at P ˜ 13 kbar. These polycrystalline specimens have a residual resistivity rho0 up to ˜3 muOcm corresponding to an electron mean free path smaller than or of the order of the superconducting coherence length. These results suggest superconductivity in UGe2 may be s-wave in nature. The U xPt1-x materials order magnetically at TC1 ˜ 18 K and TC2 ˜ 27 K and the ordering temperatures exhibit a small pressure dependence. The Curie temperature of UIr, on the other hand, decreases from 47 K at ambient pressure to 27 K by 19 kbar. The URu2-xRe xSi2 system exhibits ferromagnetic (FM) order for Re concentrations 0.3 < x ? 1.0 and antiferromagnetic order for 0 ? x < 0.15. Magnetic measurements indicate the suppression of FM order occurs at xFMc = 0.3. The specific heat of samples with Re concentrations 0.15 < x ? 0.6 can be described by C/T ? - ln T at low temperatures, typical of many non-Fermi liquid (NFL) systems. The resistivity also exhibits an NFL power law T-dependence (rho(T) ? Tn) with an exponent n < 2 for 0.15 ? x < 0.8. The NFL behavior observed in the URu2- xRexSi2 system appears to be most consistent with proximity to a T = 0 K phase transition.
High-order path-integral Monte Carlo methods for solving quantum dot problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chin, Siu A.
2015-03-01
The conventional second-order path-integral Monte Carlo method is plagued with the sign problem in solving many-fermion systems. This is due to the large number of antisymmetric free-fermion propagators that are needed to extract the ground state wave function at large imaginary time. In this work we show that optimized fourth-order path-integral Monte Carlo methods, which use no more than five free-fermion propagators, can yield accurate quantum dot energies for up to 20 polarized electrons with the use of the Hamiltonian energy estimator.
Approximate path seeking for statistical iterative reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Meng; Yang, Qiao; Maier, Andreas; Fahrig, Rebecca
2015-03-01
Statistical iterative reconstruction (IR) techniques have demonstrated many advantages in X-ray CT reconstruction. The statistical iterative reconstruction approach is often modeled as an optimization problem including a data fitting function and a penalty function. The tuning parameter values that regulate the strength of the penalty function are critical for achieving good reconstruction results. However, appropriate tuning parameter values that are suitable for the scan protocols and imaging tasks are often difficult to choose. In this work, we propose a path seeking algorithm that is capable of generating a series of IR images with different strengths of the penalty function. The path seeking algorithm uses the ratio of the gradients of the data fitting function and the penalty function to select pixels for small fixed size updates. We describe the path seeking algorithm for penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) with a Huber penalty function in both the directions of increasing and decreasing tuning parameter value. Simulations using the XCAT phantom show the proposed method produces path images that are very similar to the IR images that are computed via direct optimization. The root-mean- squared-error of one path image generated by the proposed method relative to full iterative reconstruction is about 6 HU for the entire image and 10 HU for a small region. Different path seeking directions, increment sizes and updating percentages of the path seeking algorithm are compared in simulations. The proposed method may reduce the dependence on selection of good tuning parameter values by instead generating multiple IR images, without significantly increasing the computational load.
Cell Representations of the Configuration Space for Planning Optimal Paths
Cell Representations of the Configuration Space for Planning Optimal Paths Ajay Kannan Advisor that is useful for planning optimal paths. Each cell in the decomposition is path subconvex (defined by Balkcom be leveraged for other tasks, such as obtaining diverse sets of paths around obstacles, creating motion plans
Adaptive path planning algorithm for cooperating unmanned air vehicles
Cunningham, C T; Roberts, R S
2001-02-08
An adaptive path planning algorithm is presented for cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) that are used to deploy and operate land-based sensor networks. The algorithm employs a global cost function to generate paths for the UAVs, and adapts the paths to exceptions that might occur. Examples are provided of the paths and adaptation.
An Adaptive Path Planning Algorithm for Cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles
Cunningham, C.T.; Roberts, R.S.
2000-09-12
An adaptive path planning algorithm is presented for cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) that are used to deploy and operate land-based sensor networks. The algorithm employs a global cost function to generate paths for the UAVs, and adapts the paths to exceptions that might occur. Examples are provided of the paths and adaptation.
Diagnosis for Covariance Structure Models by Analyzing the Path
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yuan, Ke-Hai; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Kelley, Ken
2008-01-01
When a covariance structure model is misspecified, parameter estimates will be affected. It is important to know which estimates are systematically affected and which are not. The approach of analyzing the path is both intuitive and informative for such a purpose. Different from path analysis, analyzing the path uses path tracing and elementary…
The formal path integral and quantum mechanics
Theo Johnson-Freyd
2010-09-05
Given an arbitrary Lagrangian function on \\RR^d and a choice of classical path, one can try to define Feynman's path integral supported near the classical path as a formal power series parameterized by "Feynman diagrams," although these diagrams may diverge. We compute this expansion and show that it is (formally, if there are ultraviolet divergences) invariant under volume-preserving changes of coordinates. We prove that if the ultraviolet divergences cancel at each order, then our formal path integral satisfies a "Fubini theorem" expressing the standard composition law for the time evolution operator in quantum mechanics. Moreover, we show that when the Lagrangian is inhomogeneous-quadratic in velocity such that its homogeneous-quadratic part is given by a matrix with constant determinant, then the divergences cancel at each order. Thus, by "cutting and pasting" and choosing volume-compatible local coordinates, our construction defines a Feynman-diagrammatic "formal path integral" for the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of a charged particle moving in a Riemannian manifold with an external electromagnetic field.
The formal path integral and quantum mechanics
Johnson-Freyd, Theo
2010-11-15
Given an arbitrary Lagrangian function on R{sup d} and a choice of classical path, one can try to define Feynman's path integral supported near the classical path as a formal power series parameterized by 'Feynman diagrams', although these diagrams may diverge. We compute this expansion and show that it is (formally, if there are ultraviolet divergences) invariant under volume-preserving changes of coordinates. We prove that if the ultraviolet divergences cancel at each order, then our formal path integral satisfies a 'Fubini theorem' expressing the standard composition law for the time evolution operator in quantum mechanics. Moreover, we show that when the Lagrangian is inhomogeneous quadratic in velocity such that its homogeneous-quadratic part is given by a matrix with constant determinant, then the divergences cancel at each order. Thus, by 'cutting and pasting' and choosing volume-compatible local coordinates, our construction defines a Feynman-diagrammatic 'formal path integral' for the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of a charged particle moving in a Riemannian manifold with an external electromagnetic field.
Path analysis in genetic epidemiology: a critique.
Karlin, S; Cameron, E C; Chakraborty, R
1983-01-01
Path analysis, a form of general linear structural equation models, is used in studies of human genetics data to discern genetic, environmental, and cultural factors contributing to familial resemblance. It postulates a set of linear and additive parametric relationships between phenotypes and genetic and cultural variables and then essentially uses the assumption of multivariate normality to estimate and perform tests of hypothesis on parameters. Such an approach has been advocated for the analysis of genetic epidemiological data by D. C. Rao, N. Morton, C. R. Cloninger, L. J. Eaves, and W. E. Nance, among others. This paper reviews and evaluates the formulations, assumptions, methodological procedures, interpretations, and applications of path analysis. To give perspective, we begin with a discussion of path analysis as it occurs in the form of general linear causal models in several disciplines of the social sciences. Several specific path analysis models applied to lipoprotein concentrations, IQ, and twin data are then reviewed to keep the presentation self-contained. The bulk of the critical discussion that follows is directed toward the following four facets of path analysis: (1) coherence of model specification and applicability to data; (2) plausibility of modeling assumptions; (3) interpretability and utility of the model; and (4) validity of statistical and computational procedures. In the concluding section, a brief discussion of the problem of appropriate model selection is presented, followed by a number of suggestions of essentially model-free alternative methods of use in the treatment of complex structured data such as occurs in genetic epidemiology. PMID:6349335
Accurate free energy calculation along optimized paths.
Chen, Changjun; Xiao, Yi
2010-05-01
The path-based methods of free energy calculation, such as thermodynamic integration and free energy perturbation, are simple in theory, but difficult in practice because in most cases smooth paths do not exist, especially for large molecules. In this article, we present a novel method to build the transition path of a peptide. We use harmonic potentials to restrain its nonhydrogen atom dihedrals in the initial state and set the equilibrium angles of the potentials as those in the final state. Through a series of steps of geometrical optimization, we can construct a smooth and short path from the initial state to the final state. This path can be used to calculate free energy difference. To validate this method, we apply it to a small 10-ALA peptide and find that the calculated free energy changes in helix-helix and helix-hairpin transitions are both self-convergent and cross-convergent. We also calculate the free energy differences between different stable states of beta-hairpin trpzip2, and the results show that this method is more efficient than the conventional molecular dynamics method in accurate free energy calculation. PMID:19859916
Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path
Babaeian, Amir; Bayestehtashk, Alireza; Bandarabadi, Mojtaba
2015-01-01
The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering. PMID:26375819
Local path configuration method considering global path optimality in multilayer networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takehara, Takayoshi; Tode, Hideki; Murakami, Koso
2005-10-01
Recently, further high-speed and larger capacity communication is requested in the IP network. And multilayer network that constructs the IP network on an optical network such as IP over WDM is focused on. Under such a network environment, the multipath routing for setting two or more paths between a starting and ending nodes in each network is researched. The multipaths are taken advantage of load balance and path recovery and damaged traffic is switched to other paths at the starting node if a failure happens on a path. However, the traditional routing often finds multipaths overlapping on some links and nodes because of its low "disjoint property". Hence, path recovery is difficult because the multipaths may be interrupted at the same time. In order to resolve the problem in multilayer network, we propose the local path configuration method considering global path optimality. Concretely, we propose a network architecture where networks are connected by multiple edge nodes and multipath routing method with new link cost and parallel calculation of multipaths. As a result, the multipaths are prevented from overlapping and the disjointed multipaths enable efficient path recovery in case of a failure. Moreover, we verify the effectiveness of the disjoint property.
A Comparison of Two Path Planners for Planetary Rovers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tarokh, M.; Shiller, Z.; Hayati, S.
1999-01-01
The paper presents two path planners suitable for planetary rovers. The first is based on fuzzy description of the terrain, and genetic algorithm to find a traversable path in a rugged terrain. The second planner uses a global optimization method with a cost function that is the path distance divided by the velocity limit obtained from the consideration of the rover static and dynamic stability. A description of both methods is provided, and the results of paths produced are given which show the effectiveness of the path planners in finding near optimal paths. The features of the methods and their suitability and application for rover path planning are compared
Ravikumar, B.
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Combinatorics of lattice paths with and without spikes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González-Arroyo, A.
2000-02-01
We derive a series of results on random walks on a d -dimensional hypercubic lattice (lattice paths). We introduce the notions of terse and simple paths corresponding to the path having no backtracking parts (spikes). These paths label equivalence classes which allow a rearrangement of the sum over paths. The basic combinatorial quantities of this construction are given. These formulae are useful when performing strong-coupling (hopping parameter) expansions of lattice models. Some applications are described.
A taxonomy of integral reaction path analysis
Grcar, Joseph F.; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.
2004-12-23
W. C. Gardiner observed that achieving understanding through combustion modeling is limited by the ability to recognize the implications of what has been computed and to draw conclusions about the elementary steps underlying the reaction mechanism. This difficulty can be overcome in part by making better use of reaction path analysis in the context of multidimensional flame simulations. Following a survey of current practice, an integral reaction flux is formulated in terms of conserved scalars that can be calculated in a fully automated way. Conditional analyses are then introduced, and a taxonomy for bidirectional path analysis is explored. Many examples illustrate the resulting path analysis and uncover some new results about nonpremixed methane-air laminar jets.
Heterodyne interferometer with unequal path lengths
Kumar, Deepak; Bellan, Paul M.
2006-08-15
Laser interferometry is an extensively used diagnostic for plasma experiments. Existing plasma interferometers are designed on the presumption that the scene and reference beam path lengths have to be equal, a requirement that is costly in both the number of optical components and the alignment complexity. It is shown here that having equal path lengths is not necessary, instead, what is required is that the path length difference be an even multiple of the laser cavity length. This assertion has been verified in a heterodyne laser interferometer that measures typical line-average densities of {approx}10{sup 21}/m{sup 2} with an error of {approx}10{sup 19}/m{sup 2}.
Molecular path control in zeolite membranes
Dubbeldam, D.; Beerdsen, E.; Calero, S.; Smit, B.
2005-01-01
We report molecular simulations of diffusion in confinement showing a phenomenon that we denote as molecular path control (MPC); depending on loading, molecules follow a preferred pathway. MPC raises the important question to which extent the loading may affect the molecular trajectories in nanoporous materials. Through MPC one is able to manually adjust the ratio of the diffusivities through different types of pores, and as an application one can direct the flow of diffusing particles in membranes forward or sideward by simply adjusting the pressure, without the need for mechanical parts like valves. We show that the key ingredient of MPC is the anisotropic nature of the nanoporous material that results in a complex interplay between different diffusion paths as a function of loading. These paths may be controlled by changing the loading, either through a change in pressure or temperature. PMID:16109769
Fermionic path integrals and local anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roepstorff, G.
2003-05-01
No doubt, the subject of path integrals proved to be an immensely fruitful human, i.e. Feynman's idea. No wonder it is more timely than ever. Some even claim that it is the most daring, innovative and revolutionary idea since the days of Heisenberg and Bohr. It is thus likely to generate enthusiasm, if not addiction among physicists who seek simplicity together with perfection. Professor Devreese's long-lasting interest in, if not passion on the subject stems from his firm conviction that, beyond being the tool of choice, path integration provides the key to all quantum phenomena, be it in solid state, atomic, molecular or particle physics as evidenced by the impressive list of publications at the address http://lib.ua.ac.be/AB/a867.html. In this note, I review a pitfall of fermionic path integrals and a way to get around it in situations relevant to the Standard Model of particle physics.
Quantum state of wormholes and path integral
Garay, L.J. )
1991-08-15
The quantum state of a wormhole can be represented by a path integral over all asymptotically Euclidean four-geometries and all matter fields which have prescribed values, the arguments of the wave function, on a three-surface {ital S} which divides the spacetime manifold into two disconnected parts. The ground-state wave function is picked out by requiring that there be no matter excitations in the asymptotic region. Once the path integrals over the lapse and shift functions are evaluated, the requirement that the spacetime be asymptotically Euclidean can be accomplished by fixing the asymptotic gravitational momentum in the remaining path integral. It is claimed that no wave function exists which corresponds to asymptotic field configurations such that the effective gravitational constant is negative in the asymptotic region. The wormhole wave functions are worked out in minisuperspace models with massless minimal and conformal scalar fields.
Differentiable-path integrals in quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koch, Benjamin; Reyes, Ignacio
2015-06-01
A method is presented which restricts the space of paths entering the path integral of quantum mechanics to subspaces of C?, by only allowing paths which possess at least ? derivatives. The method introduces two external parameters, and induces the appearance of a particular time scale ?D such that for time intervals longer than ?D the model behaves as usual quantum mechanics. However, for time scales smaller than ?D, modifications to standard formulation of quantum theory occur. This restriction renders convergent some quantities which are usually divergent in the time-continuum limit ? ? 0. We illustrate the model by computing several meaningful physical quantities such as the mean square velocity
Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.
Elsner, James B; Jagger, Thomas H; Elsner, Ian J
2014-01-01
The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1) for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width. PMID:25229242
Tornado Intensity Estimated from Damage Path Dimensions
Elsner, James B.; Jagger, Thomas H.; Elsner, Ian J.
2014-01-01
The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s?1 for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width. PMID:25229242
Gas Path Sealing in Turbine Engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ludwig, L. P.
1978-01-01
A survey of gas path seals is presented with particular attention given to sealing clearance effects on engine component efficiency. The effects on compressor pressure ratio and stall margin are pointed out. Various case-rotor relative displacements, which affect gas path seal clearances, are identified. Forces produced by nonuniform sealing clearances and their effect on rotor stability are discussed qualitatively, and recent work on turbine-blade-tip sealing for high temperature is described. The need for active clearance control and for engine structural analysis is discussed. The functions of the internal-flow system and its seals are reviewed.
Connections on decorated path space bundles
Saikat Chatterjee; Amitabha Lahiri; Ambar N. Sengupta
2015-02-11
For a principal bundle $P\\to M$ equipped with a connection ${\\bar A}$, we study an infinite dimensional bundle ${\\mathcal P}^{\\rm dec}_{\\bar A}P$ over the space of paths on $M$, with the points of ${\\mathcal P}^{\\rm dec}_{\\bar A}P$ being horizontal paths on $P$ decorated with elements of a second structure group. We construct parallel transport processes on such bundles and study holonomy bundles in this setting. We explain the relationship with categorical geometry and explore the notion of categorical connections on categorical principal bundles in a concrete differential geometric way.
Mars PathFinder Rover Traverse Image
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1998-01-01
This figure contains an azimuth-elevation projection of the 'Gallery Panorama.' The original Simple Cylindrical mosaic has been reprojected to the inside of a sphere so that lines of constant azimuth radiate from the center and lines of constant elevation are concentric circles. This projection preserves the resolution of the original panorama. Overlaid onto the projected Martian surface is a delineation of the Sojourner rover traverse path during the 83 Sols (Martian days) of Pathfinder surface operations. The rover path was reproduced using IMP camera 'end of day' and 'Rover movie' image sequences and rover vehicle telemetry data as references.
Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines
Mitchell, D. R.
1992-01-01
stream_source_info ESL-IE-92-04-44.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 27729 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-92-04-44.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 steam Path Audits... on Industrial steam Turbines DOUGLAS R. MITCHELL. ENGINEER. ENCOTECH, INC., SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK ABSTRACT The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits include the ability to identify...
Path planning for everday robotics with SANDROS
Watterberg, P.; Xavier, P.; Hwang, Y.
1997-02-01
We discuss the integration of the SANDROS path planner into a general robot simulation and control package with the inclusion of a fast geometry engine for distance calculations. This creates a single system that allows the path to be computed, simulated, and then executed on the physical robot. The architecture and usage procedures are presented. Also, we present examples of its usage in typical environments found in our organization. The resulting system is as easy to use as the general simulation system (which is in common use here) and is fast enough (example problems are solved in seconds) to be used interactively on an everyday basis.
Common path point diffraction interferometer using liquid crystal phase shifting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mercer, Carolyn R. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
A common path point diffraction interferometer uses dyed, parallel nematic liquid crystals which surround an optically transparent microsphere. Coherent, collimated and polarized light is focused on the microsphere at a diameter larger than that of the microsphere. A portion of the focused light passes through the microsphere to form a spherical wavefront reference beam and the rest of the light is attenuated by the dyed liquid crystals to form an object beam. The two beams form an interferogram which is imaged by a lens onto an electronic array sensor and into a computer which determines the wavefront of the object beam. The computer phase shifts the interferogram by stepping up an AC voltage applied across the liquid crystals without affecting the reference beam.
Inter-Domain Redundancy Path Computation Methods Based on PCE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, Rie; Oki, Eiji; Shiomoto, Kohei
This paper evaluates three inter-domain redundancy path computation methods based on PCE (Path Computation Element). Some inter-domain paths carry traffic that must be assured of high quality and high reliability transfer such as telephony over IP and premium virtual private networks (VPNs). It is, therefore, important to set inter-domain redundancy paths, i. e. primary and secondary paths. The first scheme utilizes an existing protocol and the basic PCE implementation. It does not need any extension or modification. In the second scheme, PCEs make a virtual shortest path tree (VSPT) considering the candidates of primary paths that have corresponding secondary paths. The goal is to reduce blocking probability; corresponding secondary paths may be found more often after a primary path is decided; no protocol extension is necessary. In the third scheme, PCEs make a VSPT considering all candidates of primary and secondary paths. Blocking probability is further decreased since all possible candidates are located, and the sum of primary and secondary path cost is reduced by choosing the pair with minimum cost among all path pairs. Numerical evaluations show that the second and third schemes offer only a few percent reduction in blocking probability and path pair total cost, while the overheads imposed by protocol revision and increase of the amount of calculation and information to be exchanged are large. This suggests that the first scheme, the most basic and simple one, is the best choice.
self-avoiding path dSG self-avoiding path
Hattori, Tetsuya
0: SAP on dSG (Self-Avoiding Path) w : Z+ G L(w) = inf{i | w(j) = w(i), j i} W0 = {w : Z+ G, 6, Â· Â· Â· dSG, d = 2, 3, SAP SAP path dSG SAP SAP #12;( ) (i) (path ) ( ) (ii) (iii) dSG SAP (re- cursion) #12;recursion SAP (A) SAP Â· d = 2: I2 = {(1), (2)} {Ov1} ( ) {Ov1v2} ( ) Â· I3 = {(1), (2), (3
The Many Paths of Hypervalent Iodine Reactions
Stoltz, Brian M.
The Many Paths of Hypervalent Iodine Reactions Ryan McFadden Stoltz Literature Group Meeting June! In Outline I. What is Hypervalency? A. The Martin-Arduengo Notation B. Bonding in Hypervalent Iodine Compounds C. A Brief History of IBX and DMP II. Oxidation Chemistry of Hypervalent Iodine A. Oxidations
Damage detection using frequency shift path
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Longqi; Lie, Seng Tjhen; Zhang, Yao
2016-01-01
This paper introduces a novel concept called FREquency Shift (FRESH) path to describe the dynamic behavior of structures with auxiliary mass. FRESH path combines the effects of frequency shifting and amplitude changing into one space curve, providing a tool for analyzing structure health status and properties. A damage index called FRESH curvature is then proposed to detect local stiffness reduction. FRESH curvature can be easily adapted for a particular problem since the sensitivity of the index can be adjusted by changing auxiliary mass or excitation power. An algorithm is proposed to adjust automatically the contribution from frequency and amplitude in the method. Because the extraction of FRESH path requires highly accurate frequency and amplitude estimators; therefore, a procedure based on discrete time Fourier transform is introduced to extract accurate frequency and amplitude with the time complexity of O (n log n), which is verified by simulation signals. Moreover, numerical examples with different damage sizes, severities and damping are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed damage index. In addition, applications of FRESH path on two steel beams with different damages are presented and the results show that the proposed method is valid and computational efficient.
Amaral, Luis A.N.
to one another by computer-controlled continuously variable transmissions rather than individually driven on the performance of the free, virtual path, and virtual surface controllers. Index Terms--Cobot, haptics, human/robot Colgate Abstract--Cobots are devices for human/robot interaction, in which axes of motion are coupled
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
...the takeoff path to be determined for flight in icing conditions, the airborne part of the takeoff must be based on the airplane drag: (i) With the takeoff ice accretion defined in appendix C, from a height of 35 feet above the takeoff surface up to...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...the takeoff path to be determined for flight in icing conditions, the airborne part of the takeoff must be based on the airplane drag: (i) With the takeoff ice accretion defined in appendix C, from a height of 35 feet above the takeoff surface up to...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...the takeoff path to be determined for flight in icing conditions, the airborne part of the takeoff must be based on the airplane drag: (i) With the takeoff ice accretion defined in appendix C, from a height of 35 feet above the takeoff surface up to...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
...the takeoff path to be determined for flight in icing conditions, the airborne part of the takeoff must be based on the airplane drag: (i) With the takeoff ice accretion defined in appendix C, from a height of 35 feet above the takeoff surface up to...
Planning Flight Paths of Autonomous Aerobots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Sharma, Shivanjli
2009-01-01
Algorithms for planning flight paths of autonomous aerobots (robotic blimps) to be deployed in scientific exploration of remote planets are undergoing development. These algorithms are also adaptable to terrestrial applications involving robotic submarines as well as aerobots and other autonomous aircraft used to acquire scientific data or to perform surveying or monitoring functions.
Path integral quantization of parametrized field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varadarajan, Madhavan
2004-10-01
Free scalar field theory on a flat spacetime can be cast into a generally covariant form known as parametrized field theory in which the action is a functional of the scalar field as well as the embedding variables which describe arbitrary, in general curved, foliations of the flat spacetime. We construct the path integral quantization of parametrized field theory in order to analyze issues at the interface of quantum field theory and general covariance in a path integral context. We show that the measure in the Lorentzian path integral is nontrivial and is the analog of the Fradkin-Vilkovisky measure for quantum gravity. We construct Euclidean functional integrals in the generally covariant setting of parametrized field theory using key ideas of Schleich and show that our constructions imply the existence of nonstandard “Wick rotations” of the standard free scalar field two-point function. We develop a framework to study the problem of time through computations of scalar field two-point functions. We illustrate our ideas through explicit computation for a time independent (1+1)-dimensional foliation. Although the problem of time seems to be absent in this simple example, the general case is still open. We discuss our results in the contexts of the path integral formulation of quantum gravity and the canonical quantization of parametrized field theory.
A Complex Path to Haudenosaunee Degree Completion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waterman, Stephanie J.
2007-01-01
This qualitative study describes how 12 Haudenosaunee (Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy) college graduates constructed pathways to degree completion. The participants related their experiences on this path through open-ended interviews. The pathways were found to be complex owing to their unique cultural grounding and dedication to family. The…
Four Paths that Led to Careers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Witherspoon, W. Roger
1989-01-01
Traces the alternative career paths that four minority individuals followed to professional journalism. Includes a potential doctoral candidate in 17th century poetry, a future aeronautical engineer, a jazz musician, and possible pharmacist. Contends that minorities must often approach the profession through alternative routes in order to succeed.…
Global cloud liquid water path simulations
Lemus, L.; Rikus, L.; Martin, C.; Platt, R.
1997-01-01
A new parameterization of cloud liquid water and ice content has been included in the Bureau of Meteorology Global Assimilation and Prediction System. The cloud liquid water content is derived from the mean cloud temperatures in the model using an empirical relationship based on observations. The results from perpetual January and July simulations are presented and show that the total cloud water path steadily decreases toward high latitudes, with two relative maxima at midlatitudes and a peak at low latitudes. To validate the scheme, the simulated fields need to be processed to produce liquid water paths that can be directly compared with the corresponding field derived from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. This requires the identification of cloud ice water content within the parameterization and a prescription to account for the treatment of strongly precipitating subgrid-scale cloud. The resultant cloud liquid water paths agree qualitatively with the SSM/I data but show some systematic errors that are attributed to corresponding errors in the model`s simulation of cloud amounts. Given that a more quantitative validation requires substantial improvement in the model`s diagnostic cloud scheme, the comparison with the SSM/I data indicates that the cloud water path, derived from the cloud liquid water content parameterization introduced in this paper, is consistent with the observations and can be usefully incorporated in the prediction system. 40 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.
Priming on the path of least resistance
Wruck, Eric Michael
2001-01-01
, of 'rituals'. The manner in which new ideas are generated is thought to follow the path of least resistance, where category exemplars that come to mind first are the ones used as starting points for novel creations from a given domain. Properties of a...
Inclination shallowing and preferred transitional VGP paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barton, C. E.; McFadden, P. L.
1996-05-01
Transitional VGP paths recorded in sediments cluster into two antipodal preferred longitude bands that tend to lie 90° away from their site longitudes, the latter also being clustered. VGP paths obtained from lava flow sequences, though much fewer, appear not to show these biases, suggesting a rock-magnetic influence on VGP paths recorded in sediments. Inclination shallowing of detrital magnetic remanence, enhanced under low transitional field strengths, is the most likely candidate. We illustrate the effects of inclination shallowing by applying a simple shallowing model (tan I R = f tan I A, where I A is the inclination of the magnetic remanence and I A is the inclination of the ambient field) with field variation to hypothetical data sets. Shallowing-induced clustering increases as f decreases and becomes extreme as f approaches 0.1. We have used the model to 'de-shallow' the available set of transitional VGP sediment records for various values of f. The probability that the observations arise from inclination shallowing of a uniform random distribution of paths increases as f decreases. When f drops to 0.13 there is a 50% chance of getting at least as much grouping as observed. To decide if inclination shallowing is a dominant factor in the clustering, we need to know whether such extreme shallowing is widespread in sedimentary records under transitional field conditions. Field and laboratory redeposition data are not yet adequate to resolve this question.
The Erratic Path of Hungarian Higher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marcus, Jon
2014-01-01
This article reviews the path of funding higher education in Hungary, where funding cuts have resulted in understaffing, escalating tuition, growing student debt, and declining enrollment. Graduation rates are low, government policies favor vocational disciplines, and the system of preparation and access gives preference to students from wealthier…
-Limit for Transition Paths of Maximal Probability
Theil, Florian
. The computations in [5] were performed at low temperature over fixed long intervals. To gain mathematical insight-Limit for Transition Paths of Maximal Probability F.J. Pinski Physics Department University the temperature is small and the transition time scales as the inverse temperature. 1 Introduction In this paper
Homomorphisms of Trees into a Path
Lin, Zhicong
Let hom(G,H) denote the number of homomorphisms from a graph G to a graph H. In this paper we study the number of homomorphisms of trees into a path, and prove that hom(P[subscript m],P[subscript n]) ? hom(T[subscript ...
A Pilot Plant: The Fastest Path to
Key Science Needs for a Technically Sound MFE Pilot Plant Design Integrated Plasma Material Interface;4/14 What Science is Needed for a Technically Sound MFE Pilot Plant Design? (1) Plasma Performance · Scaling1/14 A Pilot Plant: The Fastest Path to Net Electricity from Fusion Fusion Power Associates Thirty
PLENOPTIC PATH AND ITS APPLICATIONS Frank Nielsen
Nielsen, Frank
PLENOPTIC PATH AND ITS APPLICATIONS Frank Nielsen Sony Computer ScienceLaboratories Inc. Nielsen@sl.sony),choosingone wavelength(i.e.,a colorchannel Thanks to Sony Cow. FoulthVIEWteam members for their collabo- 'Throughout this paper, we use the most pertinant citation from which rations. http:/ / w w . sony.C O . jp
Current SPE Hydrodynamic Modeling and Path Forward
Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban
2012-08-14
Extensive work has been conducted on SPE analysis efforts: Fault effects Non-uniform weathered layer analysis MUNROU: material library incorporation, parallelization, and development of non-locking tets Development of a unique continuum-based-visco-plastic strain-rate-dependent material model With corrected SPE data path is now set for a multipronged approach to fully understand experimental series shot effects.
Path Integral Method for DNA Denaturation
Marco Zoli
2009-03-26
The statistical physics of homogeneous DNA is investigated by the imaginary time path integral formalism. The base pair stretchings are described by an ensemble of paths selected through a macroscopic constraint, the fulfillement of the second law of thermodynamics. The number of paths contributing to the partition function strongly increases around and above a specific temperature $T^*_c$ whereas the fraction of unbound base pairs grows continuosly around and above $T^*_c$. The latter is identified with the denaturation temperature. Thus, the separation of the two complementary strands appears as a highly cooperative phenomenon displaying a smooth crossover versus $T$. The thermodynamical properties have been computed in a large temperature range by varying the size of the path ensemble at the lower bound of the range. No significant physical dependence on the system size has been envisaged. The entropy grows continuosly versus $T$ while the specific heat displays a remarkable peak at $T^*_c$. The location of the peak versus $T$ varies with the stiffness of the anharmonic stacking interaction along the strand. The presented results suggest that denaturation in homogeneous DNA has the features of a second order phase transition. The method accounts for the cooperative behavior of a very large number of degrees of freedom while the computation time is kept within a reasonable limit.
Folded-path optical analysis gas cell
Carangelo, R.M.; Wright, D.D.
1995-08-08
A folded-path gas cell employs an elliptical concave mirror in confronting relationship to two substantially spherical concave mirrors. At least one of the spherical mirrors, and usually both, are formed with an added cylindrical component to increase orthogonal foci coincidence and thereby to increase the radiation energy throughput characteristic of the cell. 10 figs.
Motion on Cycloid Paths: A Project
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gluck, P.
2010-01-01
This article reports a high school laboratory project whose theme is the motion of a small ball on cycloidal tracks. Models were built both of a brachistochrone and of a Huygens pendulum clock whose bob is constrained to move on a cycloidal path. Photogates and a data acquisition system were employed in order to investigate experimentally the…
Star-Paths, Stones and Horizon Astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brady, Bernadette
2015-05-01
Archaeoastronomers tend to approach ancient monuments focusing on the landscape and the horizon calendar events of sun and moon and, due to problems with precession, generally ignore the movement of the stars. However, locating the position of solar calendar points on the horizon can have other uses apart from calendar and/or cosmological purposes. This paper firstly suggests that the stars do not need to be ignored. By considering the evidence of the Phaenomena, a sky poem by Aratus of Soli, a third century BC Greek poet, and his use of second millennium BC star lore fragments, this paper argues that the stars were a part of the knowledge of horizon astronomy. Aratus' poem implied that the horizon astronomy of the late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods included knowledge of star-paths or 'linear constellations' that were defined by particular horizon calendar events and other azimuths. Knowledge of such star-paths would have enabled navigation and orientation, and by using permanent markers, constructed or natural, to define these paths, they were immune to precession as the stones could redefine a star-path for a future generation. Finally the paper presents other possible intentions behind the diverse orientation of passage tombs and some megalithic sites.
The Path of a Triangulation Oswin Aichholzer
The Path of a Triangulation Oswin Aichholzer #3; Institute for Theoretical Computer Science Graz For a planar point set S let T be a triangulation of S and l a line properly intersecting T . We show to (non triangulated) point sets restricted to the interior of simple polygons. This so
Conflicting Paths: Growing Up in America.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graff, Harvey J.
This history of growing up is based on more than 500 first-person accounts relating to growing up from the middle of the 18th through the early 20th centuries. Major focus is on the formation, experience, and transformation of the principal paths of growing up. It considers transitions or turning points, particularly as they surround entries and…
Fusion Development Path Panel Preliminary Report
Fusion Development Path Panel Preliminary Report Summary for NRC BPAC Panel (Focus on MFE of a demonstration power plant in approximately 35 years. The plan should recognize the capabilities of all fusion facilities around the world, and include both magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE
Gender Differences in Career Paths in Banking.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morgan, Sandra; And Others
1993-01-01
Analyzed career paths of middle managers in bank. Study of matched pairs found that men (n=25) advanced faster and reached middle management through fewer promotions and positions than did women (n=25). Men had significantly more work experience outside of banking. In banking careers, men held more jobs in lending, whereas women occupied more…
Quad-rotor flight path energy optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kemper, Edward
Quad-Rotor unmanned areal vehicles (UAVs) have been a popular area of research and development in the last decade, especially with the advent of affordable microcontrollers like the MSP 430 and the Raspberry Pi. Path-Energy Optimization is an area that is well developed for linear systems. In this thesis, this idea of path-energy optimization is extended to the nonlinear model of the Quad-rotor UAV. The classical optimization technique is adapted to the nonlinear model that is derived for the problem at hand, coming up with a set of partial differential equations and boundary value conditions to solve these equations. Then, different techniques to implement energy optimization algorithms are tested using simulations in Python. First, a purely nonlinear approach is used. This method is shown to be computationally intensive, with no practical solution available in a reasonable amount of time. Second, heuristic techniques to minimize the energy of the flight path are tested, using Ziegler-Nichols' proportional integral derivative (PID) controller tuning technique. Finally, a brute force look-up table based PID controller is used. Simulation results of the heuristic method show that both reliable control of the system and path-energy optimization are achieved in a reasonable amount of time.
Stochastic Evolutionary Algorithms for Planning Robot Paths
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fink, Wolfgang; Aghazarian, Hrand; Huntsberger, Terrance; Terrile, Richard
2006-01-01
A computer program implements stochastic evolutionary algorithms for planning and optimizing collision-free paths for robots and their jointed limbs. Stochastic evolutionary algorithms can be made to produce acceptably close approximations to exact, optimal solutions for path-planning problems while often demanding much less computation than do exhaustive-search and deterministic inverse-kinematics algorithms that have been used previously for this purpose. Hence, the present software is better suited for application aboard robots having limited computing capabilities (see figure). The stochastic aspect lies in the use of simulated annealing to (1) prevent trapping of an optimization algorithm in local minima of an energy-like error measure by which the fitness of a trial solution is evaluated while (2) ensuring that the entire multidimensional configuration and parameter space of the path-planning problem is sampled efficiently with respect to both robot joint angles and computation time. Simulated annealing is an established technique for avoiding local minima in multidimensional optimization problems, but has not, until now, been applied to planning collision-free robot paths by use of low-power computers.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... height equal to its wing span. (e) For airplanes equipped with standby power rocket engines, the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... height equal to its wing span. (e) For airplanes equipped with standby power rocket engines, the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... height equal to its wing span. (e) For airplanes equipped with standby power rocket engines, the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... height equal to its wing span. (e) For airplanes equipped with standby power rocket engines, the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... height equal to its wing span. (e) For airplanes equipped with standby power rocket engines, the...
Ambivalent Journey: Teacher Career Paths in Oman
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chapman, David W.; Al-Barwani, Thuwayba; Al Mawali, Fathiya; Green, Elizabeth
2012-01-01
This study investigated the career paths of 625 university graduates who prepared to be secondary school teachers in Oman, their assessment of their current work situation, and the extent to which their initial commitment to teaching was related to their subsequent career satisfaction and intention to remain in teaching. While nearly all graduates…
Career Paths for Managers in the Arts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Inglis, Loretta; Cray, David
2012-01-01
In this article we examine the career paths of top-level managers in the arts. By analysing the training and work history of 23 managers in a variety of arts organisations we evaluate the utility of several existing theories for understanding careers that are characterised by low levels of initial knowledge, the absence of a clear method of entry…
Learning to improve path planning performance
Chen, Pang C.
1995-04-01
In robotics, path planning refers to finding a short. collision-free path from an initial robot configuration to a desired configuratioin. It has to be fast to support real-time task-level robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To remedy this situation, we present and analyze a learning algorithm that uses past experience to increase future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a speedup-learning framework in which a slow but capable planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less capable planner coupled with experience. The basic algorithm is suitable for stationary environments, and can be extended to accommodate changing environments with on-demand experience repair and object-attached experience abstraction. To analyze the algorithm, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior, and confirm our theoretical results with experiments in path planning of manipulators. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently, general that they may also be applied to other planning domains in which experience is useful.
Photon path length retrieval from GOSAT observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kremmling, Beke; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Deutschmann, Tim; Wagner, Thomas
2013-04-01
The influence of clouds on the atmospheric radiation budget is investigated, focussing on the photon path length distributions of the scattered sunlight. Apart from the reflection of incoming solar radiation at the cloud top, clouds can also introduce a large number of additional scattering events causing an enhancement of the photon paths. In certain cloud formations, these scattering events also result in a ``ping-pong`` behaviour between different cloud patches and cloud layers. It has been shown from ground based measurements that it is possible to retrieve photon path lengths by analysis of high resolution oxygen A-band spectra (O. Funk et al.). This study uses similar space based measurements of the oxygen A-band for the path length retrieval. The oxygen A-band spectra are retrieved from the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) which was successfully launched in 2009. The high spectral resolution of the GOSAT TANSO-FTS instrument allows to almost completely resolve the individual absorption lines. The considered spectral range is particularly suitable for this study because it shows clear absorption structures of different strength. From the analysis of the spectral signatures, cloud properties and the underlying path length distributions can be derived. The retrieval is done by analysis and comparison of the extracted TANSO-FTS spectra with simulations from the Monte Carlo radiative transfer Model McArtim. The model permits modelling of altitude dependent oxygen absorption cross sections and three-dimensional cloud patterns. Case studies of clear and cloudy sky scenarios will be presented. Future studies will focus on more complicated cloud structures, especially considering three-dimensional geometries and heterogeneities.
LI ET AL. VOL. 6 ' NO. 6 ' 52835290 ' 2012 www.acsnano.org
Xiong, Qihua
, such as the mean free path of electron or phonon and the Bohr radius of exciton, at finite tempera- ture, a quantum confinement effect is antici- pated, giving rise to the blue shift of the band gap in terms of electronic and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 I n the past decade, zero- and one
Electron Accelerator ight it be possible to com-
Byer, Robert L.
Electron Accelerator M ight it be possible to com- bine today's commercial laser technologywith's a dream that is appearing more realistic every day. High-energy electrons following a zigzag path. Electron beams with mega- to gig- aelectron-voltenergiesare required to generate the wavelengths described
Paths in the minimally weighted path model are incompatible with Schramm-Loewner evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Norrenbrock, C.; Melchert, O.; Hartmann, A. K.
2013-03-01
We study numerically the geometrical properties of minimally weighted paths that appear in the minimally weighted path (MWP) model on two-dimensional lattices assuming a combination of periodic and free boundary conditions (BCs). Each realization of the disorder consists of a random fraction (1-?) of bonds with unit strength and a fraction ? of bond strengths drawn from a Gaussian distribution with zero mean and unit width. For each such sample, a path is forced to span the lattice along the direction with the free BCs. The path and a set of negatively weighted loops form a ground state. A ground state on such a lattice can be determined performing a nontrivial transformation of the original graph and applying sophisticated matching algorithms. Here we examine whether the geometrical properties of the paths are in accordance with the predictions of the Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE). Measuring the fractal dimension, considering the winding angle statistics, and reviewing Schramm's left passage formula indicate that the paths cannot be described in terms of SLE.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, C. Y.; Goertz, C. K.
1983-01-01
Gyroresonance and Landau resonance interactions between unducted low-frequency whistler waves and trapped electrons in the earth's plasmasphere have been studied. Ray paths for waves launched near the plasmapause have been traced. In agreement with recent findings by Thorne et al. (1979), waves have been found which return through the equatorial zone with field-aligned wave normal angles. However, when the growth along the ray path is calculated for such waves, assuming an electron distribution function of the form E exp -n sin exp m alpha, it is found that for all the waves considered, the local growth rate becomes negative before plasmapause reflection, limiting the total gain to small values. Most waves reach zero gain before reflection. This is the result of Landau damping at oblique propagation angles, which necessarily occurs before reflection can take place. It is concluded that the concept of cyclic ray paths does not provide an explanation for the generation of unguided plasmaspheric hiss.
1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING ...
1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43) AND THE NEWARK TURNPIKE ARE VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ
Generating informative paths for persistent sensing in unknown environments
Soltero, Daniel Eduardo
2012-01-01
In this thesis, we present an adaptive control law for a team of robots to shape their paths to locally optimal configurations for sensing an unknown dynamical environment. As the robots travels through their paths, they ...
Terminal area flight path generation using parallel constraint propagation
Sadoune, Michel
1989-01-01
A Flight Path Generator is defined as the module of an automated Air Traffic Control system which plans aircraft trajectories in the terminal area with respect to operational constraints. The flight path plans have to be ...
14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61 Aeronautics...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.61 Takeoff flight path. Link to an amendment published...
14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61 Aeronautics...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.61 Takeoff flight path. For each commuter category...
14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61 Aeronautics...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.61 Takeoff flight path. For each commuter category...
Heuristically Driven Front Propagation for Geodesic Paths Extraction
Frey, Pascal
tubular structures extraction in 3D medical images [1] to path finding in video games [2]. The ability to compute a lot of geodesic paths can gain benefits from our algorithm. The computa- tional saving is even
Dispersion compensation for attosecond electron pulses
Hansen, Peter; Baumgarten, Cory; Batelaan, Herman; Centurion, Martin
2012-08-20
We propose a device to compensate for the dispersion of attosecond electron pulses. The device uses only static electric and magnetic fields and therefore does not require synchronization to the pulsed electron source. Analogous to the well-known optical dispersion compensator, an electron dispersion compensator separates paths by energy in space. Magnetic fields are used as the dispersing element, while a Wien filter is used for compensation of the electron arrival times. We analyze a device with a size of centimeters, which can be applied to ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy, and fundamental studies.
Phase space path-integral formulation of the above-threshold ionization
Milosevic, D. B.; Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born-Str. 2a, 12489 Berlin; Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bistrik 7, 71000 Sarajevo
2013-04-15
Atoms and molecules submitted to a strong laser field can emit electrons of high energies in the above-threshold ionization (ATI) process. This process finds a highly intuitive and also quantitative explanation in terms of Feynman's path integral and the concept of quantum orbits [P. Salieres et al., Science 292, 902 (2001)]. However, the connection with the Feynman path-integral formalism is explained only by intuition and analogy and within the so-called strong-field approximation (SFA). Using the phase space path-integral formalism we have obtained an exact result for the momentum-space matrix element of the total time-evolution operator. Applying this result to the ATI we show that the SFA and the so-called improved SFA are, respectively, the zeroth- and the first-order terms of the expansion in powers of the laser-free effective interaction of the electron with the rest of the atom (molecule). We have also presented the second-order term of this expansion which is responsible for the ATI with double scattering of the ionized electron.
Gofton, Wade
2015-01-01
Background A new family of micro-posterior approaches, percutaneously assisted total hip (PATH), SuperCapsular (SuperCap) and Supercapsular percutaneously assisted total hip (SuperPATH) allow preservation of the short external rotators. This study assesses early outcomes and learning curves of the PATH and SuperPATH approaches. Methods Early outcomes of the first consecutive 49 PATH and 50 SuperPATH cases performed by a non-developer surgeon were evaluated. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare age, body mass index (BMI), and pre-operative hemoglobin. Gender was compared using a Chi-square test. Clinical outcomes were compared using a nonparametric Wilcoxon test or a Chi-square test. Learning curves were assessed using operative time as a surrogate. Acetabular cup abduction and anteversion were compared using the first post-operative radiograph and a modified protractor. Results Both cohorts were similar with respect to diagnosis, gender, and BMI. Mean operative time in minutes was recorded for the PATH (114.5±17.5) and SuperPATH (101.7±18.3) cohorts (P value =0.0002). PATH operative time reached a plateau by case 40, but SuperPATH operative time continued to decrease by case 50. Transfusion rates were low in the PATH (4%) and SuperPATH (6%) cohorts. Mean length of stay (LOS) in days for the SuperPATH and PATH cohorts were 2.2 and 3.0, respectively (P value <0.0001). Complication rates were low in the SuperPATH (4.0%) and PATH (4.1%) cohorts. Acetabular cups in the SuperPATH cohort (anteversion: 23.5°±8.2°, abduction: 39.0°±8.4°) were significantly more anteverted (P value <0.0001) and less abducted (P value <0.05) than in the PATH cohort (anteversion: 13.1°±7.1°; abduction: 42.9°±7.6°). Conclusions Early results demonstrate that the PATH and SuperPATH approaches can be adopted with minimal complications and outcomes consistent with innovator outcomes, even during the learning curve. The SuperPATH technique was associated with shorter operative time that continued to decrease, suggesting that proficiency continues to decrease beyond the first 50 cases. In this author’s experience, acetabular cups implanted using the SuperPATH technique were more anteverted than those implanted using the PATH technique. Greater use of the transverse acetabular ligament to guide cup alignment reduced this effect. PMID:26366396
Broadband Phase Spectroscopy over Turbulent Air Paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Rieker, Gregory B.; Baumann, Esther; Swann, William C.; Sinclair, Laura C.; Kofler, Jon; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R.
2015-09-01
Broadband atmospheric phase spectra are acquired with a phase-sensitive dual-frequency-comb spectrometer by implementing adaptive compensation for the strong decoherence from atmospheric turbulence. The compensation is possible due to the pistonlike behavior of turbulence across a single spatial-mode path combined with the intrinsic frequency stability and high sampling speed associated with dual-comb spectroscopy. The atmospheric phase spectrum is measured across 2 km of air at each of the 70 000 comb teeth spanning 233 cm-1 across hundreds of near-infrared rovibrational resonances of CO2 , CH4 , and H2O with submilliradian uncertainty, corresponding to a 10-13 refractive index sensitivity. Trace gas concentrations extracted directly from the phase spectrum reach 0.7 ppm uncertainty, demonstrated here for CO2 . While conventional broadband spectroscopy only measures intensity absorption, this approach enables measurement of the full complex susceptibility even in practical open path sensing.
Broadband Phase Spectroscopy over Turbulent Air Paths.
Giorgetta, Fabrizio R; Rieker, Gregory B; Baumann, Esther; Swann, William C; Sinclair, Laura C; Kofler, Jon; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R
2015-09-01
Broadband atmospheric phase spectra are acquired with a phase-sensitive dual-frequency-comb spectrometer by implementing adaptive compensation for the strong decoherence from atmospheric turbulence. The compensation is possible due to the pistonlike behavior of turbulence across a single spatial-mode path combined with the intrinsic frequency stability and high sampling speed associated with dual-comb spectroscopy. The atmospheric phase spectrum is measured across 2 km of air at each of the 70?000 comb teeth spanning 233??cm^{-1} across hundreds of near-infrared rovibrational resonances of CO_{2}, CH_{4}, and H_{2}O with submilliradian uncertainty, corresponding to a 10^{-13} refractive index sensitivity. Trace gas concentrations extracted directly from the phase spectrum reach 0.7 ppm uncertainty, demonstrated here for CO_{2}. While conventional broadband spectroscopy only measures intensity absorption, this approach enables measurement of the full complex susceptibility even in practical open path sensing. PMID:26382677
Mining Preferred Traversal Paths with HITS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeh, Jieh-Shan; Lin, Ying-Lin; Chen, Yu-Cheng
Web usage mining can discover useful information hidden in web logs data. However, many previous algorithms do not consider the structure of web pages, but regard all web pages with the same importance. This paper utilizes HITS values and PNT preferences as measures to mine users' preferred traversal paths. Wë structure mining uses HITS (hypertext induced topic selection) to rank web pages. PNT (preferred navigation tree) is an algorithm that finds users' preferred navigation paths. This paper introduces the Preferred Navigation Tree with HITS (PNTH) algorithm, which is an extension of PNT. This algorithm uses the concept of PNT and takes into account the relationships among web pages using HITS algorithm. This algorithm is suitable for E-commerce applications such as improving web site design and web server performance.
Hamiltonian formalism and path entropy maximization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Sergio; González, Diego
2015-10-01
Maximization of the path information entropy is a clear prescription for constructing models in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Here it is shown that, following this prescription under the assumption of arbitrary instantaneous constraints on position and velocity, a Lagrangian emerges which determines the most probable trajectory. Deviations from the probability maximum can be consistently described as slices in time by a Hamiltonian, according to a nonlinear Langevin equation and its associated Fokker-Planck equation. The connections unveiled between the maximization of path entropy and the Langevin/Fokker-Planck equations imply that missing information about the phase space coordinate never decreases in time, a purely information-theoretical version of the second law of thermodynamics. All of these results are independent of any physical assumptions, and thus valid for any generalized coordinate as a function of time, or any other parameter. This reinforces the view that the second law is a fundamental property of plausible inference.
A path model of aircraft noise annoyance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, S. M.
1984-09-01
This paper describes the development and testing of a path model of aircraft noise annoyance by using noise and social survey data collected in the vicinity of Toronto International Airport. Path analysis is used to estimate the direct and indirect effects of seventeen independent variables on individual annoyance. The results show that the strongest direct effects are for speech interference, attitudes toward aircraft operations, sleep interruption and personal sensitivity to noise. The strongest indirect effects are for aircraft Leq(24) and sensitivity. Overall the model explains 41 percent of the variation in the annoyance reported by the 673 survey respondents. The findings both support and extend existing statements in the literature on the antecedents of annoyance.
Adaptive path planning for flexible manufacturing
Chen, Pang C.
1994-08-01
Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses past experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for automating flexible manufacturing in incrementally-changing environments. The algorithm allows the robot to adapt to its environment by having two experience manipulation schemes: For minor environmental change, we use an object-attached experience abstraction scheme to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, we use an on-demand experience repair scheme to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. Using this algorithm, we can effectively reduce the overall robot planning time by re-using the computation result for one task to plan a path for another.
Free Energy Changes, Fluctuations, and Path Probabilities
William G. Hoover; Carol G. Hoover
2011-04-20
We illustrate some of the static and dynamic relations discovered by Cohen, Crooks, Evans, Jarzynski, Kirkwood, Morriss, Searles, and Zwanzig. These relations link nonequilibrium processes to equilibrium isothermal free energy changes and to dynamical path probabilities. We include ideas suggested by Dellago, Geissler, Oberhofer, and Schoell-Paschinger. Our treatment is intended to be pedagogical, for use in an updated version of our book: Time Reversibility, Computer Simulation, and Chaos. Comments are very welcome.
Flux Control in Networks of Diffusion Paths
A. I. Zhmoginov and N. J. Fisch
2009-07-08
A class of optimization problems in networks of intersecting diffusion domains of a special form of thin paths has been considered. The system of equations describing stationary solutions is equivalent to an electrical circuit built of intersecting conductors. The solution of an optimization problem has been obtained and extended to the analogous electrical circuit. The interest in this network arises from, among other applications, an application to wave-particle diffusion through resonant interactions in plasma.
Practical and conceptual path sampling issues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolhuis, P. G.; Dellago, C.
2015-09-01
In the past 15 years transition path sampling (TPS) has evolved from its basic algorithm to an entire collection of methods and a framework for investigating rare events in complex systems. The methodology is applicable to a wide variety of systems and processes, ranging from transitions in small clusters or molecules to chemical reactions, phase transitions, and conformational changes in biomolecules. The basic idea of TPS is to harvest dynamical unbiased trajectories that connect a reactant with a product, by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure called shooting. This simple importance sampling yields the rate constants, the free energy surface, insight in the mechanism of the rare event of interest, and by using the concept of the committor, also access to the reaction coordinate. In the last decade extensions to TPS have been developed, notably the transition interface sampling (TIS) methods, and its generalization multiple state TIS. Combination with advanced sampling methods such as replica exchange and the Wang-Landau algorithm, among others, improves sampling efficiency. Notwithstanding the success of TPS, there are issues left to discuss, and, despite the method's apparent simplicity, many pitfalls to avoid. This paper discusses several of these issues and pitfalls: the choice of stable states and interface order parameters, the problem of positioning the TPS windows and TIS interfaces, the matter of convergence of the path ensemble, the matter of kinetic traps, and the question whether TPS is able to investigate and sample Markov state models. We also review the reweighting technique used to join path ensembles. Finally we discuss the use of the sampled path ensemble to obtain reaction coordinates.
Multi-objective stochastic path planning
Dasgupta, Sumantra
2009-05-15
Based: Edges are grown from the center of the search space to various directions until the whole search space is covered. e.g. Rapidly exploring Random Trees (RRT). Usually, when a graph is not given, the search space (for path planning) has...]. Many further extensions and novel point-based algorithms have been reported in [17]. Rapidly exploring Random Trees (RRT) [17] is a very well known tree based graph building algorithm. Further tree-based algorithms can be found in [17...
Path Integrals on Euclidean Space Forms
Guillermo Capobianco; Walter Reartes
2015-09-04
In this paper we develop a quantization method for flat compact manifolds based on path integrals. In this method the Hilbert space of holomorphic functions in the complexification of the manifold is used. This space is a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. A definition of the Feynman propagator, based on the reproducing property of this space, is proposed. In the $\\mathbb{R}^n$ case the obtained results coincide with the known expressions.
Evolutionary software for autonomous path planning
Couture, S; Hage, M
1999-02-10
This research project demonstrated the effectiveness of using evolutionary software techniques in the development of path-planning algorithms and control programs for mobile vehicles in radioactive environments. The goal was to take maximum advantage of the programmer's intelligence by tasking the programmer with encoding the measures of success for a path-planning algorithm, rather than developing the path-planning algorithms themselves. Evolutionary software development techniques could then be used to develop algorithms most suitable to the particular environments of interest. The measures of path-planning success were encoded in the form of a fitness function for an evolutionary software development engine. The task for the evolutionary software development engine was to evaluate the performance of individual algorithms, select the best performers for the population based on the fitness function, and breed them to evolve the next generation of algorithms. The process continued for a set number of generations or until the algorithm converged to an optimal solution. The task environment was the navigation of a rover from an initial location to a goal, then to a processing point, in an environment containing physical and radioactive obstacles. Genetic algorithms were developed for a variety of environmental configurations. Algorithms were simple and non-robust strings of behaviors, but they could be evolved to be nearly optimal for a given environment. In addition, a genetic program was evolved in the form of a control algorithm that operates at every motion of the robot. Programs were more complex than algorithms and less optimal in a given environment. However, after training in a variety of different environments, they were more robust and could perform acceptably in environments they were not trained in. This paper describes the evolutionary software development engine and the performance of algorithms and programs evolved by it for the chosen task.
On the path integral of constrained systems
Muslih, Sami I.
2004-10-04
Constrained Hamiltonian systems are investigated by using Gueler's method. Integration of a set of equations of motion and the action function is discussed. It is shown that the canonical path integral quantization is obtained directly as an integration over the canonical phase-space coordinates without any need to enlarge the initial phase-space by introducing extra- unphysical variables as in the Batalin-Fradkin-Tyutin (BFT) method. The abelian Proca model is analyzed by the two methods.
Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)
1983-01-01
Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.
Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication
Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R.
2015-01-01
We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars). PMID:26325076
Automatic tool path generation for finish machining
Kwok, Kwan S.; Loucks, C.S.; Driessen, B.J.
1997-03-01
A system for automatic tool path generation was developed at Sandia National Laboratories for finish machining operations. The system consists of a commercially available 5-axis milling machine controlled by Sandia developed software. This system was used to remove overspray on cast turbine blades. A laser-based, structured-light sensor, mounted on a tool holder, is used to collect 3D data points around the surface of the turbine blade. Using the digitized model of the blade, a tool path is generated which will drive a 0.375 inch diameter CBN grinding pin around the tip of the blade. A fuzzified digital filter was developed to properly eliminate false sensor readings caused by burrs, holes and overspray. The digital filter was found to successfully generate the correct tool path for a blade with intentionally scanned holes and defects. The fuzzified filter improved the computation efficiency by a factor of 25. For application to general parts, an adaptive scanning algorithm was developed and presented with simulation results. A right pyramid and an ellipsoid were scanned successfully with the adaptive algorithm.
Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.
Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R
2015-01-01
We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars). PMID:26325076
Graviton-graviton scattering and path integral
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Rong
One of the exciting developments to emerge from the work in recent years on string duality is the conjecture proposed by Banks, Fischler, Shenker and Susskind (BFSS) that in the infinite momentum frame, String theory (M theory) is described by a large N matrix model. In addition, the finite N matrix model has been conjectured to describe M-theory on a compact light-like circle. Although there are still many open questions in the Matrix model formulation of M-theory, numerous pieces of evidence give one reason to believe that finite N matrix theory describes the discrete light-cone quantization (DLCQ) of M-theory with eleven dimensional DLCQ supergravity as its low energy limit. One of the important Pieces of support for the original Matrix model conjecture was that it successfully reproduced graviton- graviton scattering in eleven dimensional supergravity. In this thesis, we verify the duality of Matrix model and eleven dimensional supergravity on multigraviton scattering amplitude by a path integral approach. This systematic path integral approach to compute the S-Matrix resolves the ordering problem for applying the second order Born approximation to the velocity dependent one- loop effective potential of the Matrix model. By applying the rules derived from the path integral approach, the exact agreement between the Matrix model and the eleven dimensional supergravity on the scattering amplitude of six gravitons-three incoming and three outgoing, is verified.
Adaptive path planning: Algorithm and analysis
Chen, Pang C.
1995-03-01
To address the need for a fast path planner, we present a learning algorithm that improves path planning by using past experience to enhance future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse work of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a framework in which a slow but effective planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less effective planner coupled with experience. We analyze algorithm by formalizing the concept of improvability and deriving conditions under which a planner can be improved within the framework. The analysis is based on two stochastic models, one pessimistic (on task complexity), the other randomized (on experience utility). Using these models, we derive quantitative bounds to predict the learning behavior. We use these estimation tools to characterize the situations in which the algorithm is useful and to provide bounds on the training time. In particular, we show how to predict the maximum achievable speedup. Additionally, our analysis techniques are elementary and should be useful for studying other types of probabilistic learning as well.
Perspectives on an alternative career path in regulatory science
Fields, F. Owen
2013-01-01
Perspectives are provided on an alternative career path in regulatory science for those currently involved in basic biology research. This path is compared and contrasted with basic research, and factors to be examined if one is considering such a path are discussed. PMID:23846346
Path Planning for Space Manipulators Exhibiting Nonholonomic Behavior
Papadopoulos, Evangelos
1 Path Planning for Space Manipulators Exhibiting Nonholonomic Behavior Evangelos G. Papadopoulos that permits the effective use of a system's reachable workspace by planning paths that avoid dynamically be exploited to control the orientation of the spacecraft by closed joint space paths. A joint space planning
Locally Constrained Shortest Paths and an Application in Mission Planning
Kunkle, Tom
Locally Constrained Shortest Paths and an Application in Mission Planning Greg Angelides MIT on a feasible path. This problem has applications in robotics and optimal mission planning. We propose planning. 4. RESULTS AND CONTRIBUTIONS A dynamic programming heuristic Dijkstra's classical shortest path
Coverage Path Planning: The Boustrophedon Cellular Decomposition Howie Choset
Choset, Howie
Coverage Path Planning: The Boustrophedon Cellular Decomposition Howie Choset Department Technologies, Inc., Mountain View, CA 940431605 U. S. A. Abstract Coverage path planning is the determination complete and Experiments on a mobile robot validate this approach. 1 Introduction Coverage path planning
Surface-adaptive and Collision-avoiding Path Planning
Morik, Katharina
Surface-adaptive and Collision-avoiding Path Planning for Five-axis Milling Peter Bollweg, Dino-adaptive and Collision-avoiding Path Planning for Five-axis Milling Peter Bollweg, Dino Hasanbegovic, Heinrich M. 808/2006 January 2006 #12;Abstract Automatic path planning for 5-axis-milling is a difficult problem
Path Planning and Motion Coordination in Multiple Mobile Robot Teams
Parker, Lynne E.
Path Planning and Motion Coordination in Multiple Mobile Robot Teams Lynne E. Parker Department is a robot that can perform tasks in unstructured environments with minimal human guidance. Planned path A planned path is a pre-determined, obstacle-free, trajectory that a robot can follow to reach its goal
A Path Planning Method Using Cubic Spiral with Curvature Constraint
Chen, Sheng-Wei
A Path Planning Method Using Cubic Spiral with Curvature Constraint Tzu-Chen Liang and Jing-Sin Liu@iis.sinica.edu.tw and liu@iis.sinica.edu.tw Abstract. This paper addresses a new path planning method, whose objective constraints like wall-collision avoidance. This will also be discussed. I. Introduction Path planning problem
A Navigation Path Planning Assistant for Web-Based Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suzuki, Ryoichi; Hasegawa, Shinobu; Kashihara, Akihiro; Toyoda, Jun'ichi
This paper addresses how to help learners navigate in existing Web-based learning resources. In order to resolve this issue, a learner-centered navigation path-planning model is proposed. The main objective is to provide learners with a path planning space in which they can see through hyperspace to plan a navigation path. This paper describes an…
Multi-Vehicle Path Planning in Dynamically Changing Environments
Pappas, George J.
Multi-Vehicle Path Planning in Dynamically Changing Environments Ali Ahmadzadeh1, Nader Motee2, Ali Jadbabaie1 and George Pappas1 Abstract-- In this paper, we propose a path planning method for nonholonomic this idea, we formulate an arbitrarily fine relaxation of the path planning problem as a nonconvex
Anytime Dynamic Path-Planning with Flexible Probabilistic Roadmaps
Kabanza, Froduald
Anytime Dynamic Path-Planning with Flexible Probabilistic Roadmaps Khaled Belghith, Froduald to be very promising for planning paths for robots with high degrees of freedom in complex 3D workspaces. In this paper we describe a PRM path-planning method presenting three novel features that are useful in various
Time Constrained Randomized Path Planning Using Spatial Networks Christopher Lum*
Lum, Christopher
Time Constrained Randomized Path Planning Using Spatial Networks Christopher Lum* Department time planning of optimal paths remains an open problem in many applications of autonomous systems an open problem. The path planning problem is often addressed as a non- holonomic planning problem
Human-Automation Collaborative RRT for UAV Mission Path Planning
Cummings, Mary "Missy"
Human-Automation Collaborative RRT for UAV Mission Path Planning by Americo De Jesus Caves S;2 #12;Human-Automation Collaborative RRT for UAV Mission Path Planning by Americo De Jesus Caves individual operators will be able to supervise a team of vehicles performing semi-autonomous path planning
Efficient Multi-Agent Path Planning Okan Arikan
Forsyth, David
Efficient Multi-Agent Path Planning Okan Arikan University of California at Berkeley Stephen the number of agents is large. In this paper, we introduce an efficient algorithm that creates path plans in significant speedups over running the accurate simulation for all agents. Keywords: path planning, virtual
Multiresolution Path Planning with Wavelets: A Local Replanning Approach
Tsiotras, Panagiotis
Multiresolution Path Planning with Wavelets: A Local Replanning Approach Raghvendra V. Cowlagi and Panagiotis Tsiotras Abstract-- A path planning algorithm based on multireso- lution cell decomposition approaches transform the path planning problem into a graph search problem. In particular, cell decomposition
Constraint Manifold Subsearch for Multirobot Path Planning with Cooperative Tasks
Choset, Howie
Constraint Manifold Subsearch for Multirobot Path Planning with Cooperative Tasks Glenn Wagner, Jae Il Kim, Konrad Urban, Howie Choset Abstract-- The cooperative path planning problem seeks. This paper describes a new approach to cooperative path planning called Constraint Manifold Subsearch (CMS
Path planning by querying persistent stores of trajectory segments
Grossman, Robert
Path planning by querying persistent stores of trajectory segments R. L. Grossman S. Mehta X. Qin at Chicago, September, 1992. Introduction. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm for path planning (long duration) paths of a dynamical system, given a database, or store, contain- ing suitable collections
Path Planning for Permutation-Invariant Multi-Robot Formations
Hutchinson, Seth
Path Planning for Permutation-Invariant Multi-Robot Formations Stephen Kloder Seth Hutchinson, IL 61801 Email: {kloder, seth}@uiuc.edu Abstract-- In this paper we demonstrate path planning for our], [13], [14], where each robot plans its own path, but a single centralized planner coordinates
Safe Receding Horizon Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles
Safe Receding Horizon Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles Tom Schouwenaars Eric Feron Jonathan a recently developed approach to optimal path planning of autonomous vehicles to account for safety. Recent environments. A significant portion of the autonomy consists of path planning capabilities: the problem
Constraintbased Optimization of Priority Schemes for Decoupled Path Planning Techniques
Burgard, Wolfram
Constraintbased Optimization of Priority Schemes for Decoupled Path Planning Techniques Maren and in the ability to find valid plans. 1 Introduction Path planning is one of the fundamental problems in mobile in planning paths for multiple robots operating in a single, shared environment, where physical limitations
An Effective Framework for Path Planning amidst Movable Obstacles
Utrecht, Universiteit
An Effective Framework for Path Planning amidst Movable Obstacles Dennis Nieuwenhuisen A. Frank van Technical Report UU-CS-2006-035 www.cs.uu.nl ISSN: 0924-3275 #12;An Effective Framework for Path Planning framework for solving path planning problems among movable obstacles. Heuristics are presented to provide
Discrete Optimal View Path Planning Sebastian Haner and Anders Heyden
Lunds Universitet
Discrete Optimal View Path Planning Sebastian Haner and Anders Heyden Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden {haner,heyden}@maths.lth.se Keywords: Path Planning, Next Best View: This paper presents a discrete model of a sensor path planning problem, with a long-term planning horizon
Beyond Quadtrees: Cell Decompositions for Path Planning using Wavelet Transforms
Tsiotras, Panagiotis
Beyond Quadtrees: Cell Decompositions for Path Planning using Wavelet Transforms Raghvendra V. Cowlagi and Panagiotis Tsiotras Abstract-- Path planning techniques based on hierarchical multiresolution of planning a path for an autonomous mobile robot in a given workspace, while avoiding obstacles, has been
14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.61 Takeoff flight path. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff flight path must be determined as...
14 CFR 25.123 - En route flight paths.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false En route flight paths. 25.123 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.123 En route flight paths. (a) For the en route configuration, the flight paths prescribed in paragraph (b) and (c) of this section...
14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.61 Takeoff flight path. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff flight path must be determined as...
14 CFR 25.115 - Takeoff flight path.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 25.115 Section 25.115... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.115 Takeoff flight path. (a) The takeoff flight path shall be considered to begin 35 feet above the takeoff surface at the end of the...
Mapping reaction paths and separatrices in phase-space
Kurchan, Jorge
Mapping reaction paths and separatrices in phase-space Julien Tailleur, Jorge Kurchan PMMH reaction paths to separatrices 1 / 20 #12;Simulation of physical systems From: stable structures equilibrium or metastable states To: unstable structures barriers, reaction paths in chemistry localized
"Multi-machine" Strategy: The Other Path of the FESAC
"Multi-machine" Strategy: The Other Path of the FESAC Burning Plasma Strategy Gerald Navratil Difference ITER Development Path FIRE Development Path `Single Machine Strategy' `Multi-machine Strategy Machine Strategy' `Multi-machine Strategy' `One Step to DEMO' Modular Strategy `Penultimate Step to DEMO
Time optimal paths for a constant speed unicycle
Reister, D.B.
1991-01-01
This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed unicycle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of arcs of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduced concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. 10 refs., 6 figs.
Stable periodic billiard paths in obtuse isosceles triangles
Hooper, Patrick
Stable periodic billiard paths in obtuse isosceles triangles W. Patrick Hooper March 27, 2006 Can you place a small billiard ball on a frictionless triangular pool table and hit it so that it comes dynamics s # of a periodic billiard path # is the biinfinite sequence of edges the billiard path hits
Stable periodic billiard paths in obtuse isosceles triangles
Hooper, Patrick
Stable periodic billiard paths in obtuse isosceles triangles W. Patrick Hooper March 27, 2006 Can you place a small billiard ball on a frictionless triangular pool table and hit it so that it comes dynamics s of a periodic billiard path is the bi-infinite sequence of edges the billiard path hits, which
EQUILIBRIUM PATHS OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS WITH UNILATERAL CONSTRAINTS
Pellegrino, Sergio
EQUILIBRIUM PATHS OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS WITH UNILATERAL CONSTRAINTS PART II: DEPLOYABLE REFLECTOR M, by imple- menting the theory for tracing the equilibrium path of a mechanical system with unilateral had not been previously explained, is the existence of a corner limit point on the equilibrium path
Evolution-Based Path Planning and Management for Autonomous Vehicles
Evolution-Based Path Planning and Management for Autonomous Vehicles Brian J. Capozzi of Washington Abstract Evolution-Based Path Planning and Management for Autonomous Vehicles by Brian J. Capozzi paths for an autonomous vehicle through a number of different static and dynamic envi- ronments
Limited Dual Path Execution Gary Tyson Kelsey Lick Matthew Farrens
Tyson, Gary
Limited Dual Path Execution Gary Tyson Kelsey Lick Matthew Farrens Electrical Engineering presents a hybrid branch predictor scheme that uses a limited form of dual path execution along with dynamic branch prediction to improve execution times. The ability to execute down both paths
Ellingson, Steven W.
a Transmitter Inside an Aircraft Cabin to an Exterior Fuselage-Mounted Antenna Kathy Wei Hurst and Steven W and equipment on large aircraft may increase the like- lihood of interference with the aircraft's electronic systems. Thus, the "interference path loss" from a transmitting device inside the cabin of such aircraft
ammonia would react directly with com-pounds 4a and 4b, and a dissociative path D,
Tedrake, Russ
ammonia would react directly with com- pounds 4a and 4b, and a dissociative path D, in which ammonia would react with a 14- electron complex formed after dissociation of olefin (Scheme 5). The rates and ratios of ammonia to olefin (data and plot are shown in figs. S1 and S2 and table S1). The observable
PATH PLANNING FOR NONHOLONOMIC VEHICLES AND ITS APPLICATION TO RADIATION ENVIRONMENTS
Florida, University of
PATH PLANNING FOR NONHOLONOMIC VEHICLES AND ITS APPLICATION TO RADIATION ENVIRONMENTS By ARFATH ..................................................................2 Path Planning Algorithms.............................................................................................3 Offline Path Planning for Car-Like Vehicles
PATH PLANNING SOFTWARE AND GRAPHICS INTERFACE FOR AN AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE, ACCOUNTING
Florida, University of
PATH PLANNING SOFTWARE AND GRAPHICS INTERFACE FOR AN AUTONOMOUS VEHICLE, ACCOUNTING FOR TERRAIN .........................................................................................4 On-Line Path Planning................................................................................................... 4 Off-Line Path Planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barker, L. Keith
1998-01-01
The primary purpose of this publication is to develop a mathematical model to describe smooth paths along any combination of circles and tangent lines. Two consecutive circles in a path are either tangent (externally or internally) or they appear on the same (lateral) or opposite (transverse) sides of a connecting tangent line. A path may start or end on either a segment or circle. The approach is to use mathematics common to robotics to design the path as a multilink manipulator. This approach allows a hierarchical view of the problem and keeps the notation manageable. A user simply specifies a few parameters to configure a path. Necessary and sufficient conditions automatically ensure the consistency of the inputs for a smooth path. Two example runway exit paths are given, and an angle to go assists in knowing when to switch from one path element to the next.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Hongyu; Li, Fan; Yang, Zhanbing; Wang, Yizhi
2015-08-01
PtPdCu nanoparticles (NPs) were etched by acid to prepare hollow nanostructures (HNSs). A hypothesis ‘path’ was given. The rate of Cu migration is different in amorphous and in crystalline structures, and is usually faster in amorphous structures. The fast mass transport part looked like a road for Cu migration, and it was named the ‘path’. With time passing, phase transfer occurs; the ‘path’ may shrink until it is closed. These changes of the status of the ‘path’ would affect the results of the Kirkendall effect, separate voids or big holes inside particles. This could indicate that only a 10 K temperature difference in the synthesis results in the final productivity of the HNSs, and even the morphologies, being different during the same leaching process. High resolution electron microscopy images obtained during the leaching process gave evidence of a glass-like region and a crystal region coexisting, which was evidence of the ‘path’ formed.
Characterizing Reactive Flow Paths in Fractured Cement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wenning, Q. C.; Huerta, N. J.; Hesse, M. A.; Bryant, S. L.
2011-12-01
Geologic carbon sequestration can be a viable method for reducing anthropogenic CO2 flux into the atmosphere. However, the technology must be economically feasible and pose acceptable risk to stakeholders. One key risk is CO2 leakage out of the storage reservoir. Potential driving forces for leakage are the overpressure due to CO2 injection and the buoyancy of free phase CO2. Potential hazards of leakage are contamination of Underground Sources of Drinking Water or the atmosphere and would be deemed an unacceptable risk. Wells potentially provide a fast path for leakage from the reservoir. While the well's cement casing is reactive with CO2 and CO2-saturated brine, the low cement matrix permeability and slow diffusion rate make it unlikely that CO2 will escape through a properly constructed wellbore. However, highly permeable fractures with micrometer scale apertures can occur in cement casings. Reactions that occur in the flow in these fractures can either be self-limiting or self-enhancing. Therefore, understanding the reactive flow is critical to understanding of leakage evolution through these fractures. The goal of our work is to characterize the modification of the flow paths in the fracture due to reaction with acidic brine. With this aim we have characterized both the initial flow path of un-reactive flow and the final flow path after introduction of low-pH acid along the same fracture. Class H cement cores 3-6 cm in length and 2.5 cm diameter are created and a single natural and unique fracture is produced in each core using the Brazilian method. Our experimental fluid is injected at a constant rate into the cement core housed in a Hassler Cell under confining pressure. A solution of red dye and deionized water is pumped through the fracture to stain the un-reactive flow paths. Deionized water is then pumped through the core to limit diffusion of the dye into non-flowing portions of the fracture. After staining the initial flow path, low pH water due to hydrochloric acid (HCL), is pumped through the core at the same rate as the dye. The low pH water is used as a proxy for acidic CO2-saturated brine. Both staining from the un-reactive dye and acid produce visible permanent color alterations on the cement fracture plane. Results show that nearly the entire fracture width is stained by the red dye, with only a few asperities un-dyed. However the low pH HCl forms restricted reacted channels that are a subset of the area open to un-reactive flow, occupying only 10-50% of the entire fracture width. Low pH HCl is believed to be the driving force for the reaction that causes channeling. As acid flows through the fracture, calcium is stripped from the low pH high velocity flow front and precipitates along of the edges of the channel where pH is higher due to the lower flow velocities outside the channel. It is hypothesized that this mineral precipitation restricts the flow into localized channels within the plane of fractures having apertures of tens of micrometers. Reactions restrict the flow path to a smaller fraction of the surface, which may be an indication of self-limiting behavior.
Astronomers Trace Microquasar's Path Back in Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2003-01-01
Astronomers have traced the orbit through our Milky Way Galaxy of a voracious neutron star and a companion star it is cannibalizing, and conclude that the pair joined more than 30 million years ago and probably were catapulted out of a cluster of stars far from the Galaxy's center. Path of Microquasar and Sun Path of Microquasar (red) and Sun (yellow) through the Milky Way Galaxy for the past 230 million years. Animations: GIF Version MPEG Version CREDIT: Mirabel & Rodrigues, NRAO/AUI/NSF The pair of stars, called Scorpius X-1, form a "microquasar," in which material sucked from the "normal" star forms a rapidly-rotating disk around the superdense neutron star. The disk becomes so hot it emits X-rays, and also spits out "jets" of subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light. Using precise positional data from the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and from optical telescopes, Felix Mirabel, an astrophysicist at the Institute for Astronomy and Space Physics of Argentina and French Atomic Energy Commission, and Irapuan Rodrigues, also of the French Atomic Energy Commission, calculated that Scorpius X-1 is not orbiting the Milky Way's center in step with most other stars, but instead follows an eccentric path far above and below the Galaxy's plane. Scorpius X-1, discovered with a rocket-borne X-ray telescope in 1962, is about 9,000 light-years from Earth. It is the brightest continuous source of X-rays beyond the Solar System. The 1962 discovery and associated work earned a share of the 2002 Nobel Prize in physics for Riccardo Giacconi. Mirabel and Rodrigues used a number of published observations to calculate the path of Scorpius X-1 over the past few million years. "This is the most accurate determination we have made of the path of an X-ray binary," said Mirabel. By tracing the object's path backward in time, the scientists were able to conclude that the neutron star and its companion have been traveling together for more than 30 million years. They also speculated on the birthplace of Scorpius X-1. "The neutron star, which is the remnant left over from the supernova explosion of an even more massive star, either came from the Milky Way's disk, or from a globular cluster at a considerable distance from the disk," said Rodrigues. Globular clusters are clumps of millions of stars in the outskirts of the Galaxy. If it came from the Galaxy's disk, the scientists say, it would have had to receive a powerful one-sided "kick" from the supernova explosion to get into its present eccentric orbit. While this is possible, they conclude that a more likely scenario is that the neutron star came from a globular cluster. "Probably, this neutron star picked up its companion and was thrown out of its globular cluster by a close encounter with other stars at the cluster's core," Mirabel said. The scientists published their results in the January 30 issue of the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics. The same pair of researchers traced a similar path of a black hole and its companion star in 2001. Also that year, other astronomers produced a "movie" showing motions in the jet of material ejected from the disk around Scorpius X-1's neutron star. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.
Direct measurement of electron drift parameters using depth sensing single carrier CdZnTe detectors
He, Z.; Knoll, G.F.; Wehe, D.K.; Du, Y.F.
1998-12-31
This paper describes some novel techniques developed for directly measuring the electron mobility {mu}{sub e} and mean free drift time {tau}{sub e} in wide band gap semiconductors. These methods are based on a newly-developed digital data analysis system, in conjunction with single carrier charge sensing and depth sensing techniques. Compared with conventional methods, the new techniques are easier to implement, do not involve curve fitting, allow the use of high energy {gamma}-rays and are not sensitive to variations in pulse rise time.