Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge) This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.
Proton and electron mean free paths: The Palmer consensus revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bieber, John W.; Matthaeus, William H.; Smith, Charles W.; Wanner, Wolfgang; Kallenrode, May-Britt; Wibberenz, Gerd
1994-01-01
We present experimental and theoretical evidence suggesting that the mean free path of cosmic-ray electrons and protons may be fundamentally different at low to intermediate (less than 50 MV) rigidities. The experimental evidence is from Helios observations of solar energetic particles, which show that the mean free path of 1.4 MV electrons is often similar to that of 187 MV protons, even though proton mean free paths continue to decrease comparatively rapidly with decreasing rigidty down to the lowest channels (about 100 MV) observed. The theoretical evidence is from computations of particle scattering in dynamical magnetic turbulence, which predict that electrons will have a larger mean free path than protons of the same rigidity. In the light of these new results, 'consensus' ideas about cosmic-ray mean free paths may require drastic revision.
Low-energy electron inelastic mean free path in materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen-Truong, Hieu T.
2016-04-01
We show that the dielectric approach can determine electron inelastic mean free paths in materials with an accuracy equivalent to those from first-principle calculations in the GW approximation of many-body theory. The present approach is an alternative for calculating the hot-electron lifetime, which is an important quantity in ultrafast electron dynamics. This approach, applied here to solid copper for electron energies below 100 eV, yields results in agreement with experimental data from time-resolved two-photon photoemission, angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements in the energy ranges 2-3.5, 10-15, and 60-100 eV, respectively.
Electron inelastic mean free paths in cerium dioxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krawczyk, M.; Holdynski, M.; Lisowski, W.; Sobczak, J. W.; Jablonski, A.
2015-06-01
Electron transport properties in CeO2 powder samples were studied by elastic-peak electron spectroscopy (EPES). Prior to EPES measurements, the CeO2 sample surface was pre-sputtered by 0.5 keV Ar ion etching. As a result, an altered layer with thickness of 1.3 nm was created. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed two chemical states of cerium Ce4+ (68%) and Ce3+ (32%) at the surface region of CeO2 sample after such treatment. The inelastic mean free path (IMFP), characterizing electron transport, was evaluated as a function of energy within the 0.5-2 keV range. Experimental IMFPs were corrected for surface excitations and approximated by the simple function λ = kEp, where λ was the IMFP, E denoted the energy (in eV), and k = 0.207 and p = 0.6343 were the fitted parameters. The IMFPs measured here were compared with IMFPs resulting from the TPP-2M predictive equation for the measured composition of oxide surface. The measured IMFPs were found to be from 3.1% to 20.3% smaller than the IMFPs obtained from the predictive formula in the energy range of 0.5-2 keV. The EPES IMFP value at 500 eV was related to the altered layer of sputtered CeO2 samples.
Ionization By Impact Electrons in Solids: Electron Mean Free Path Fitted Over A Wide Energy Range
Ziaja, B; London, R A; Hajdu, J
2005-06-09
We propose a simple formula for fitting the electron mean free paths in solids both at high and at low electron energies. The free-electron-gas approximation used for predicting electron mean free paths is no longer valid at low energies (E < 50 eV), as the band structure effects become significant at those energies. Therefore we include the results of the band structure calculations in our fit. Finally, we apply the fit to 9 elements and 2 compounds.
Electron mean free path from angle-dependent photoelectron spectroscopy of aerosol particles
Goldmann, Maximilian; Miguel-Sánchez, Javier; West, Adam H. C.; Yoder, Bruce L.; Signorell, Ruth
2015-06-14
We propose angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of aerosol particles as an alternative way to determine the electron mean free path of low energy electrons in solid and liquid materials. The mean free path is obtained from fits of simulated photoemission images to experimental ones over a broad range of different aerosol particle sizes. The principal advantage of the aerosol approach is twofold. First, aerosol photoemission studies can be performed for many different materials, including liquids. Second, the size-dependent anisotropy of the photoelectrons can be exploited in addition to size-dependent changes in their kinetic energy. These finite size effects depend in different ways on the mean free path and thus provide more information on the mean free path than corresponding liquid jet, thin film, or bulk data. The present contribution is a proof of principle employing a simple model for the photoemission of electrons and preliminary experimental data for potassium chloride aerosol particles.
Ghosh, T; Bardhan, M; Bhattacharya, M; Satpati, B
2015-06-01
We report a simple method for measuring the inelastic mean free path of nanostructures of known geometry using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy imaging. The mean free path of inelastic electrons was measured by using systems having known symmetry, such as cylindrical or cubic, combined with Poisson statistics without employing the knowledge of microscope parameters, namely the convergence angle and the collection angle. Having inherent symmetry of such systems, their absolute thickness can be measured from their two-dimensional projection images. We have calculated mean free path of inelastic scattering of electrons in gold, silver and nickel doing case study research by employing gold nanorod, silver nanocube and nickel nanorod lying on a carbon-coated TEM grid at two different electron energies (viz. 200 and 300 keV) following this alternative approach. Results obtained using such alternative approach were verified using microscope parameters. PMID:25787717
Nanofocusing, shadowing, and electron mean free path in the photoemission from aerosol droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Signorell, Ruth; Goldmann, Maximilian; Yoder, Bruce L.; Bodi, Andras; Chasovskikh, Egor; Lang, Lukas; Luckhaus, David
2016-08-01
Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of aerosol droplets is a promising method for the determination of electron mean free paths in liquids. It is particularly attractive for volatile liquids, such as water. Here we report the first angle-resolved photoelectron images of droplets with defined sizes, viz. of water, glycerol, and dioctyl phthalate droplets. Simulations of water droplet photoelectron images and data for electron mean free paths for liquid water at low kinetic energy (<3 eV) are provided. We present an approach that allows one to gradually vary the conditions from shadowing to nanofocusing to optimize the information content contained in the photoelectron images.
Energy losses and mean free paths of electrons in silicon dioxide
Ashley, J.C.; Anderson, V.E.
1981-01-01
Theoretical models and calculations are combined with experimental optical data to determine a model energy-loss function for SiO/sub 2/. Sumrule checks and comparisons with experimental information are made to insure overall consistency of the model. The model energy-loss function is employed to calculate electron inelastic mean free paths and stopping powers for electrons with energies less than or equal to 10 keV in SiO/sub 2/.
Spin-resolved inelastic mean free path of slow electrons in Fe.
Zdyb, R; Bauer, E
2013-07-10
The spin-dependent reflectivity of slow electrons from ultrathin Fe films on W(110) has been measured with spin polarized low energy electron microscopy. From the amplitude of the quantum size oscillations observed in the reflectivity curves the spin-dependent inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of electrons in Fe has been determined in the energy range from 5 to 16 eV above the vacuum level. The resulting IMFP values for the spin-up electrons are clearly larger than those for the spin-down electrons and the difference between the two values decreases with increasing electron energy in agreement with theoretical predictions. PMID:23765334
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akkerman, Avraham; Murat, Michael
2015-05-01
The mean free path (MFP) for electron-phonon interactions in pure silicon is an important characteristic needed both for low energy electron transport calculations using Boltzmann transport equation, and for Monte Carlo simulations. Full band calculations present a basic (though complicated) approach to the solution of the problem. Simpler approaches based on analytical presentation of the scattering rates have also been used; however they are valid for a restricted range of electron energies, below 2 eV. In this paper we introduce a hybrid method that utilizes the density of energy states calculated from the full band calculations for electron energies larger than 2 eV, allowing to extend the analytical approach for energies up to 5 eV, where the impact ionization becomes the dominant mechanism of electron interactions within bulk silicon. The resulting MFPs as function of electron energy and lattice temperature, together with the integral probability distribution for given energy losses by phonon emission (or energy gain by absorption of phonons) form the database for Monte Carlo calculations. Using this method, we calculate the electron diffusivity and mobility as function of the electron and lattice temperatures. These parameters are important for solution of the two temperature model, used for calculations of the track structure created by swift ions and nanosecond laser beams.
Energy dependence of electron inelastic mean free paths in bulk GaN crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krawczyk, M.; Zommer, L.; Jablonski, A.; Grzegory, I.; Bockowski, M.
2004-09-01
Recent advances in fabrication and commercialization of high-brightness blue and green light-emitting devices based on gallium nitride have renewed intense research of its basic properties. Since information on electron transport processes in GaN is scarce, their systematic studies are highly desirable. The electron inelastic mean free path (IMFP) is a crucial parameter for quantitative interpretation of surface electron spectra. The energy dependence of IMFP for bulk GaN crystals with different surface concentrations of their constituents was obtained from elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) with use of the Ni standard in the energy range 200-2000 eV. The measured IMFPs were compared with the values predicted by the TPP-2M and G-1 formulae. A reasonable agreement was found between the measured IMFPs in bulk GaN with an ideal stoichiometric surface composition and the corresponding calculated IMFPs. Compared with the bulk IMFPs, experimental IMFPs valid for the GaN sample with a thin surface layer enriched in ˜70 at.% Ga are only slightly smaller by 5-10%, depending on the electron energy.
Corrected electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for selected wide band semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krawczyk, M.
2008-03-01
Elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) has been widely used to determine the electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) in solids. In this work, we investigated quantitatively the influence of surface excitations on electron IMFPs determined by EPES. We used IMFPs obtained from the early EPES measurements of the electron elastic backscattering probability from GaN and Cd0.88Mn0.12 Te wideband-gap semiconductors, and the Ni standard in the energy range 200-2000 eV. The total surface-excitation parameter (SEP) was evaluated using Chen and Werner approaches, and was applied for correcting the EPES IMFPs. These corrected values were then compared with those predicted by the TPP-2M formula. We found that implementation of the surface-excitation correction improved agreement between the resulting IMFPs for selected wide band semiconductors and the TPP-2M values at low-energy (E > 500 eV) electrons. The extent to which the IMFPs measured by EPES differ from the corresponding bulk values (on account of surface excitations) was found to depend on the semiconductor material with finite surface. Our results also clearly demonstrated the importance of accounting for surface excitations for accuracy of the IMFPs measured for GaN.
Plenkiewicz, B.; Plenkiewicz, P.; Jay-Gerin, J.
1986-04-15
It has been found recently from the analysis of low-energy electron-transmission experiments that the scattering mean free path lambda of excess hot electrons in solid xenon films oscillates with energy. We show in this paper that in these experiments lambda is predominantly controlled by the combined effect of both acoustical-phonon scattering and scattering by neutral point defects, and that its energy dependence is entirely caused by the changes in electron effective mass with energy.
Measurement of the hot electron mean free path and the momentum relaxation rate in GaN
Suntrup, Donald J.; Gupta, Geetak; Li, Haoran; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.
2014-12-29
We present a method for measuring the mean free path and extracting the momentum relaxation time of hot electrons in GaN using the hot electron transistor (HET). In this device, electrons are injected over a high energy emitter barrier into the base where they experience quasi-ballistic transport well above the conduction band edge. After traversing the base, high energy electrons either surmount the base-collector barrier and become collector current or reflect off the barrier and become base current. We fabricate HETs with various base thicknesses and measure the common emitter transfer ratio (α) for each device. The mean free path is extracted by fitting α to a decaying exponential as a function of base width and the relaxation time is computed using a suitable injection velocity. For devices with an injection energy of ∼1 eV, we measure a hot electron mean free path of 14 nm and calculate a momentum relaxation time of 16 fs. These values are in agreement with theoretical calculations where longitudinal optical phonon scattering is the dominant momentum relaxation mechanism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagatomi, T.; Goto, K.
2005-11-01
An analytical approach was proposed for simultaneously determining an inelastic mean-free path (IMFP) and a surface excitation parameter (SEP) with absolute units by the analysis of an absolute experimental reflection electron energy loss spectrum. The IMFPs and SEPs in Ni were deduced for electrons of 300 to 3000 eV. The obtained IMFPs were in good agreement with those calculated using the TPP-2M equation. The Chen-type empirical formula was proposed for determining the SEP. The results confirmed the applicability of the present approach for determining the IMFP and SEP for medium-energy electrons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, Gerd; Hoffmann, Horst; Vancea, Johann
1980-12-01
A new method was developed to determine the mean free path. l∞. and the conductivity, σ∞, of charge carriers in metals by investigating the thickness dependence of the conductivity of thin films. The method includes also surface effects as given by the specularity parameter p and the surface roughness amplitude h. Experimental data taken during film growth could be fitted to theoretical size-effect relations only if nonzero specularity and heterogeneous film cross section caused by the surface roughness is introduced. The method allows determination of the Fermi-surface area and the electron density of the isotropic (amorphous) films. Both are smaller than expected from published bulk material data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lesiak, B.; Kosinski, A.; Jablonski, A.; Kövér, L.; Tóth, J.; Varga, D.; Cserny, I.; Zagorska, M.; Kulszewicz-Bajer, I.; Gergely, G.
2001-04-01
The inelastic mean free path (IMFP) is an important parameter for quantitative surface characterisation by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy or electron energy loss spectroscopy. An extensive database of the IMFPs for selected elements, inorganic and organic compounds has been recently published by Powell and Jablonski. As it follows from this compilation, the published material on IMFPs for conductive polymers is very limited. Selected polymers, such as polyacetylenes and polyanilines, have been investigated only recently. The present study is a continuation of the research on IMFPs determination in conductive polymers using the elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) method. In the present study three polythiophene samples have been studied using high energy resolution spectrometer and two standards: Ni and Ag. The resulting experimental IMFPs are compared to the respective IMFP values determined using the predictive formulae proposed by Tanuma and Powell (TPP-2M) and by Gries (G1), showing a good agreement. The scatter between the experimental and predicted IMFPs in polythiophenes is evaluated. The statistical and systematic errors, their sources and the possible contributions to the systematic error due to influence of the accuracy of the input parameters, such as the surface composition and density, on the IMFPs derived from the experiments and Monte Carlo calculations, are extensively discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russell, K. J.; Narayanamurti, V.; Appelbaum, Ian; Hanson, M. P.; Gossard, A. C.
2006-11-01
We present an experimental investigation of the hot-electron mean free path in ErAs thin films grown on GaAs. Using an Al/Al2O3/Al tunnel junction as a hot-electron source for ballistic electron emission spectroscopy, we investigate ErAs films of thicknesses ˜100-˜300Å . Our results indicate a mean free path of order 100Å for electrons 1-2eV above the Fermi level at 80K .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagatomi, T.; Goto, K.
2007-06-01
An analytical approach is proposed for simultaneously determining the inelastic mean-free path (IMFP), the surface excitation parameter (SEP), and the differential SEP (DSEP) in absolute units from an absolute reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectrum under the assumption that the normalized differential inelastic mean-free path for bulk excitations and the elastic scattering cross section are known. This approach was applied to an analysis of REELS spectra for Ni, and the IMFP, SEP, and DSEP in Ni for 300-3000eV electrons were determined. The resulting IMFPs showed good agreement with those calculated using the TPP-2M predictive equations and with those calculated from optical data. The deduced DSEPs show a reasonable agreement with those theoretically predicted. The obtained SEPs were compared with those calculated using several predictive equations. The present SEP results agreed well with the Chen formula with a material parameter proposed for Ni. The present approach has high potential for the experimental determination of IMFPs, SEPs, and DSEPs in absolute units.
Experimental determination of the inelastic mean free path of electrons in GaSb and InSb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gergely, G.; Sulyok, A.; Menyhard, M.; Toth, J.; Varga, D.; Jablonski, A.; Krawczyk, M.; Gruzza, B.; Bideux, L.; Robert, C.
1999-04-01
The inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of electrons is a fundamental material parameter for quantitative surface- and thin-film analysis by AES and XPS. Experimental determination of IMFP is based on the elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) The intensity of the elastic peak recorded for the sample is compared with that of the Ni reference. The IMFP is evaluated from the Monte Carlo (MC) calculations of the elastic backscattering probability. The MC algorithm is based on elastic scattering cross-sections from the NIST 64 database and IMFP values of Ni. Experiments have been carried out in three laboratories working with different types of electron spectrometers and energy ranges: HSA, E=0.2-5 keV; CMA, E=0.2-2 keV, and RFA, E=0.2-1.5 keV. GaSb(100) and InSb(100) samples have been cleaned and their surface layer amorphized by an Ar + ion bombardment at Eion=2 keV. The surface composition after cleaning was checked in situ by XPS. No metallic Ga, In or Sb phases were evidenced by plasmon losses on the surface after Eion=2 keV Ar + ion treatment. The MC calculations were based on the real surface composition. Thus, the IMFP values experimentally obtained for the ion bombarded samples can be considered as the volume parameters for E>0.5 keV. A reasonable agreement was found with the calculated IMFP data of NIST and with other theoretically determined values of the IMFP.
Yan, Rui; Edwards, Thomas J; Pankratz, Logan M; Kuhn, Richard J; Lanman, Jason K; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Wen
2015-11-01
Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is an emerging technique that can elucidate the architecture of macromolecular complexes and cellular ultrastructure in a near-native state. Some important sample parameters, such as thickness and tilt, are needed for 3-D reconstruction. However, these parameters can currently only be determined using trial 3-D reconstructions. Accurate electron mean free path plays a significant role in modeling image formation process essential for simulation of electron microscopy images and model-based iterative 3-D reconstruction methods; however, their values are voltage and sample dependent and have only been experimentally measured for a limited number of sample conditions. Here, we report a computational method, tomoThickness, based on the Beer-Lambert law, to simultaneously determine the sample thickness, tilt and electron inelastic mean free path by solving an overdetermined nonlinear least square optimization problem utilizing the strong constraints of tilt relationships. The method has been extensively tested with both stained and cryo datasets. The fitted electron mean free paths are consistent with reported experimental measurements. The accurate thickness estimation eliminates the need for a generous assignment of Z-dimension size of the tomogram. Interestingly, we have also found that nearly all samples are a few degrees tilted relative to the electron beam. Compensation of the intrinsic sample tilt can result in horizontal structure and reduced Z-dimension of tomograms. Our fast, pre-reconstruction method can thus provide important sample parameters that can help improve performance of tomographic reconstruction of a wide range of samples. PMID:26433027
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagatomi, T.; Goto, K.
2009-11-01
An analytical approach for simultaneously determining an inelastic mean free path (IMFP), a surface excitation parameter (SEP) and a differential SEP (DSEP) with absolute units was applied for the analysis of absolutely measured reflection electron energy loss spectra for Au. The IMFP, SEP and DSEP in Au for 300-3000 eV electrons are successfully obtained. The obtained DSEPs show a reasonable agreement with those theoretically calculated. The present SEPs were compared with those calculated by several empirical equations, revealing that the present SEPs are close to those calculated using the Oswald's equation. The IMFPs for Au determined by the present analysis were compared with those calculated by the TPP-2M predictive equation, revealing that the present IMFPs are in fairly good agreement with those calculated by the TPP-2M equation. The results confirmed that the present approach is effective for experimentally determining the SEP, DSEP, and IMFP for electrons in solids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Zhao, Mingwen; Liu, Xiangdong; Li, Feng; Huang, Boda; Ji, Yanju
2004-07-01
An empirical method to obtain optical energy loss functions is presented for a large number of organic compounds, for which optical data are not available, on the basis of structure feature analysis of the existed optical energy loss functions for certain organic compounds. The optical energy loss functions obtained by using this method are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the Penn's statistical model, a set of systematic expressions have been given for the calculation of the stopping powers and mean free paths of electrons penetrating into the organic compounds in the energy range of E⩽10 keV. Detailed comparison of the calculated data with other theoretical results is presented. The stopping powers and mean free paths for a group of important polymers, without available optical data, have been calculated. In the calculations, three different cases have been considered, i.e. exchange correction not being considered, Ashley exchange correction being involved, and Born-Ochkur exchange correction being included. The results indicate that for these compounds the calculated stopping powers agree well with those obtained by using Bethe-Bloch theory at high-energy limit E=10 keV, as expected for a stopping power theory that should be converged to Bethe-Bloch theory at high energies.
Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Liu, Xiangdong; Zhao, Mingwen; Zhang, Liming
2009-04-01
A new calculation of the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for electrons in toluene at energies below 10 keV has been presented. The calculation is based on the dielectric model and on an empirical evaluation approach of optical energy loss function (OELF). The reliability for the evaluated OELFs of several hydrocarbons with available experimental optical data has been systematically checked. For toluene, using the empirical OELF, the evaluated mean ionization potential, is compared with that given by Bragg's rule, and the calculated SP at 10 keV is also compared with the Bethe-Bloch prediction. The present results for SP and IMFP provide an alternative basic data for the study on the energy deposition of low-energy electrons transport through toluene, and also show that the method used in this work may be a good one for evaluating the SP and IMFP for hydrocarbons. PMID:19138526
Mean-free-path concept in polycrystalline metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vancea, J.; Reiss, G.; Hoffmann, H.
1987-04-01
A crude analysis of the observed thickness dependence of the conductivity in fine-grained metals shows a very weak connection with the resistivity caused by grain-boundary scattering. An ``effective intrinsic mean free path'' for the whole polycrystal, as introduced in the well-known theory of Mayadas and Shatzkes, cannot explain the observed size effect. It is impossible to define a mean free path for the whole polycrystal, especially if the resistivity is governed by grain-boundary scattering.
Lubk, A.; Wolf, D.; Kern, F.; Röder, F.; Lichte, H.; Prete, P.; Lovergine, N.
2014-10-27
Electron holography at medium resolution simultaneously probes projected electrostatic and magnetostatic potentials as well as elastic and inelastic attenuation coefficients with a spatial resolution of a few nanometers. In this work, we derive how the elastic and inelastic attenuation can be disentangled. Using that result, we perform the first three dimensional tomographic reconstruction of potential and (in)elastic attenuation in parallel. The technique can be applied to distinguish between functional potentials and composition changes in nanostructures, as demonstrated using the example of a GaAs—Al{sub 0.33}Ga{sub 0.67}As core-shell nanowire.
Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Zhao, Mingwen; Liu, Xiangdong
2006-07-01
Systematic calculations of stopping power (SPs) and inelastic mean free path (IMFP) values for 20-20,000 eV electrons in a group of 15 amino acids and a simple protein have been performed. The calculations are based on the dielectric response model and take into account the exchange effect between the incident electron and target electrons. The optical energy-loss functions for the 15 investigated amino acids and the protein are evaluated by using an empirical approach, because of the lack of experimental optical data. For all the considered materials, the calculated mean ionization potentials are in good agreement with those given by Bragg's rule, and the evaluated SP values at 20 keV converge well to the Bethe-Bloch predictions. The data shown represent the first results of SP and IMFP, for these 15 amino acids and the protein in the energy range below 20 keV, and might be useful for studies of various radiation effects in these materials. In addition, the average energy deposited by inelastic scattering of the electrons on this group of 15 amino acids, on the protein, on Formvar and on DNA, respectively, has been estimated for energies below 20 keV. The dependences of the average energy deposition on the electron energy are given. These results are important for any detailed studies of radiation-induced inactivation of proteins and the DNA. PMID:16733724
Chantler, C T; Bourke, J D
2014-04-01
X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is one of the most robust, adaptable, and widely used structural analysis tools available for a range of material classes from bulk solids to aqueous solutions and active catalytic structures. Recent developments in XAFS theory have enabled high-accuracy calculations of spectra over an extended energy range using full-potential cluster modelling, and have demonstrated particular sensitivity in XAFS to a fundamental electron transport property-the electron inelastic mean free path (IMFP). We develop electron IMFP theory using a unique hybrid model that simultaneously incorporates second-order excitation losses, while precisely accounting for optical transitions dictated by the complex band structure of the solid. These advances are coupled with improved XAFS modelling to determine wide energy-range absorption spectra for molybdenum. This represents a critical test case of the theory, as measurements of molybdenum K-edge XAFS represent the most accurate determinations of XAFS spectra for any material. We find that we are able to reproduce an extended range of oscillatory structure in the absorption spectrum, and demonstrate a first-time theoretical determination of the absorption coefficient of molybdenum over the entire extended XAFS range utilizing a full-potential cluster model. PMID:24651638
The scattering mean free path in the Uranian atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Price, M. J.
1973-01-01
New measurements of the equivalent widths of the 4.0 S(0) and S(1) H2 quadrupole lines in the Uranian spectrum have been obtained using high dispersion (4.12 A/mm) image-tube spectrography. The measured equivalent widths are 62 plus or minus 19 mA and 58 plus or minus 13 mA for the S(0) and S(1) lines, respectively. Curve-of-growth analysis in terms of a reflecting layer model yields an H2 column density of 780 (+940 or -330) km amagat and a temperature of 78 (+80 or -24) K. Interpretation using a semiinfinite, homogeneous, isotropically scattering model for line formation yields a scattering mean free path at 6400 A of 550 plus or minus 250 km amagat. Quoted errors for both the H2 column density and the scattering mean free path include the effect of uncertainty in the choice of atmospheric temperature. The results are discussed in terms of current models for the Uranian atmosphere.
Dislocation mean free paths and strain hardening of crystals.
Devincre, B; Hoc, T; Kubin, L
2008-06-27
Predicting the strain hardening properties of crystals constitutes a long-standing challenge for dislocation theory. The main difficulty resides in the integration of dislocation processes through a wide range of time and length scales, up to macroscopic dimensions. In the present multiscale approach, dislocation dynamics simulations are used to establish a dislocation-based continuum model incorporating discrete and intermittent aspects of plastic flow. This is performed through the modeling of a key quantity, the mean free path of dislocations. The model is then integrated at the scale of bulk crystals, which allows for the detailed reproduction of the complex deformation curves of face-centered cubic crystals. Because of its predictive ability, the proposed framework has a large potential for further applications. PMID:18583605
Inelastic interaction mean free path of negative pions in tungsten
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheshire, D. L.; Huggett, R. W.; Jones, W. V.; Rountree, S. P.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Kurz, R. J.; Bowen, T.; Delise, D. A.; Krider, E. P.; Orth, C. D.
1975-01-01
The inelastic interaction mean free paths lambda of 5, 10, and 15 GeV/c pions were measured by determining the distribution of first interaction locations in a modular tungsten-scintillator ionization spectrometer. In addition to commonly used interaction signatures of a few (2-5) particles in two or three consecutive modules, a chi2 distribution is used to calculate the probability that the first interaction occurred at a specific depth in the spectrometer. This latter technique seems to be more reliable than use of the simpler criteria. No significant dependence of lambda on energy was observed. In tungsten, lambda for pions is 206 plus or minus 6 g/sq cm.
Neutrino mean free paths in cold symmetric nuclear matter
Cowell, S.; Pandharipande, V.R.
2004-09-01
The neutrino mean free paths (NMFP) for scattering and absorption in cold symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) are calculated using two-body effective interactions and one-body effective weak operators obtained from realistic models of nuclear forces using correlated basis theory. The infinite system is modeled in a box with periodic boundary conditions and the one particle-hole (p-h) response functions are calculated using the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). For the densities {rho}=(1/2), 1 (3/2){rho}{sub 0}, where {rho}{sub 0} is the equilibrium density of SNM, the strength of the response is shifted to higher energy transfers when compared to a noninteracting Fermi gas (FG). This and the weakness of effective operators compared to the bare operators, significantly reduces the cross sections, enhancing the NMFP by factors of {approx}2.5-3.5 at the densities considered. The NMFP at the equilibrium density {rho}{sub 0} are also calculated using the TDA and random phase approximation (RPA) using zero range Skyrme-like effective interactions with parameters chosen to reproduce the equation of state and spin-isospin susceptibilities of matter. Their results indicate that RPA corrections to correlated TDA may further increase the NMFP by {approx}25% to 3-4 times those in a noninteracting FG. Finally, the sums and the energy weighted sums of the Fermi and Gamow-Teller responses obtained from the correlated ground state are compared with those of the 1 p-h response functions to extract the sum and mean energies of multi p-h contributions to the weak response. The relatively large mean energy of the multi p-h excitations suggests that they may not contribute significantly to low energy NMFP.
Jana, R. N.; Sinha, S.; Meikap, A. K.
2015-05-15
We have reported a comprehensive study on temperature and disorder dependence of inelastic electron dephasing scattering rate in disordered V{sub 82}Al{sub 18-x}Fe{sub x} alloys. The dephasing scattering time has been measured by analysis of low field magnetoresistance using the weak localization theory. In absence of magnetic field the variation of low temperature resistivity rise follows the relation Δρ(T)∝−ρ{sub 0}{sup 5/2}√(T), which is well described by three-dimensional electron-electron interactions. The temperature-independent dephasing rate strongly depends on disorder and follows the relation τ{sub 0}{sup −1}∝l{sub e}, where l{sub e} is the electron elastic mean free path. The inelastic electron-phonon scattering rate obeying the anomalous relation τ{sub e−ph}{sup −1}∝T{sup 2}l{sub e}. This anomalous behavior of τ{sub e−ph}{sup −1} cannot be explained in terms of current theories for electron-phonon scattering in impure dirty conductors.
Mitchell, D R G
2006-11-01
Determining transmission electron microscope specimen thickness is an essential prerequisite for carrying out quantitative microscopy. The convergent beam electron diffraction method is highly accurate but provides information only on the small region being probed and is only applicable to crystalline phases. Thickness mapping with an energy filter is rapid, maps an entire field of view and can be applied to both crystalline and amorphous phases. However, the thickness map is defined in terms of the mean free path for energy loss (lambda), which must be known in order to determine the thickness. Convergent beam electron diffraction and thickness mapping methods were used to determine lambda for two materials, Si and P91 steel. These represent best- and worst-case scenario materials, respectively, for this type of investigation, owing to their radically different microstructures. The effects of collection angle and the importance of dynamical diffraction contrast are also examined. By minimizing diffraction contrast effects in thickness maps, reasonably accurate (+/-15%) values of lambda were obtained for P91 and accuracies of +/-5% were obtained for Si. The correlation between the convergent beam electron diffraction-derived thickness and the log intensity ratios from thickness maps also permits estimation of the thickness of amorphous layers on the upper and lower surfaces of transmission electron microscope specimens. These estimates were evaluated for both Si and P91 using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and were found to be quite accurate. PMID:17204066
Reconstructing phonon mean-free-path contributions to thermal conductivity using nanoscale membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuffe, John; Eliason, Jeffrey K.; Maznev, A. A.; Collins, Kimberlee C.; Johnson, Jeremy A.; Shchepetov, Andrey; Prunnila, Mika; Ahopelto, Jouni; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M.; Chen, Gang; Nelson, Keith A.
2015-06-01
Knowledge of the mean-free-path distribution of heat-carrying phonons is key to understanding phonon-mediated thermal transport. We demonstrate that thermal conductivity measurements of thin membranes spanning a wide thickness range can be used to characterize how bulk thermal conductivity is distributed over phonon mean free paths. A noncontact transient thermal grating technique was used to measure the thermal conductivity of suspended Si membranes ranging from 15-1500 nm in thickness. A decrease in the thermal conductivity from 74-13% of the bulk value is observed over this thickness range, which is attributed to diffuse phonon boundary scattering. Due to the well-defined relation between the membrane thickness and phonon mean-free-path suppression, combined with the range and accuracy of the measurements, we can reconstruct the bulk thermal conductivity accumulation vs. phonon mean free path, and compare with theoretical models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Lingping; Collins, Kimberlee C.; Hu, Yongjie; Luckyanova, Maria N.; Maznev, Alexei A.; Huberman, Samuel; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Zhou, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaopeng; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang
2015-11-01
Heat conduction in semiconductors and dielectrics depends upon their phonon mean free paths that describe the average travelling distance between two consecutive phonon scattering events. Nondiffusive phonon transport is being exploited to extract phonon mean free path distributions. Here, we describe an implementation of a nanoscale thermal conductivity spectroscopy technique that allows for the study of mean free path distributions in optically absorbing materials with relatively simple fabrication and a straightforward analysis scheme. We pattern 1D metallic grating of various line widths but fixed gap size on sample surfaces. The metal lines serve as both heaters and thermometers in time-domain thermoreflectance measurements and simultaneously act as wire-grid polarizers that protect the underlying substrate from direct optical excitation and heating. We demonstrate the viability of this technique by studying length-dependent thermal conductivities of silicon at various temperatures. The thermal conductivities measured with different metal line widths are analyzed using suppression functions calculated from the Boltzmann transport equation to extract the phonon mean free path distributions with no calibration required. This table-top ultrafast thermal transport spectroscopy technique enables the study of mean free path spectra in a wide range of technologically important materials.
Zeng, Lingping; Collins, Kimberlee C; Hu, Yongjie; Luckyanova, Maria N; Maznev, Alexei A; Huberman, Samuel; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Zhou, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaopeng; Nelson, Keith A; Chen, Gang
2015-01-01
Heat conduction in semiconductors and dielectrics depends upon their phonon mean free paths that describe the average travelling distance between two consecutive phonon scattering events. Nondiffusive phonon transport is being exploited to extract phonon mean free path distributions. Here, we describe an implementation of a nanoscale thermal conductivity spectroscopy technique that allows for the study of mean free path distributions in optically absorbing materials with relatively simple fabrication and a straightforward analysis scheme. We pattern 1D metallic grating of various line widths but fixed gap size on sample surfaces. The metal lines serve as both heaters and thermometers in time-domain thermoreflectance measurements and simultaneously act as wire-grid polarizers that protect the underlying substrate from direct optical excitation and heating. We demonstrate the viability of this technique by studying length-dependent thermal conductivities of silicon at various temperatures. The thermal conductivities measured with different metal line widths are analyzed using suppression functions calculated from the Boltzmann transport equation to extract the phonon mean free path distributions with no calibration required. This table-top ultrafast thermal transport spectroscopy technique enables the study of mean free path spectra in a wide range of technologically important materials. PMID:26612032
Zeng, Lingping; Collins, Kimberlee C.; Hu, Yongjie; Luckyanova, Maria N.; Maznev, Alexei A.; Huberman, Samuel; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Zhou, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaopeng; Nelson, Keith A.; et al
2015-11-27
Heat conduction in semiconductors and dielectrics depends upon their phonon mean free paths that describe the average travelling distance between two consecutive phonon scattering events. Nondiffusive phonon transport is being exploited to extract phonon mean free path distributions. Here, we describe an implementation of a nanoscale thermal conductivity spectroscopy technique that allows for the study of mean free path distributions in optically absorbing materials with relatively simple fabrication and a straightforward analysis scheme. We pattern 1D metallic grating of various line widths but fixed gap size on sample surfaces. The metal lines serve as both heaters and thermometers in time-domainmore » thermoreflectance measurements and simultaneously act as wiregrid polarizers that protect the underlying substrate from direct optical excitation and heating. We demonstrate the viability of this technique by studying length-dependent thermal conductivities of silicon at various temperatures. The thermal conductivities measured with different metal line widths are analyzed using suppression functions calculated from the Boltzmann transport equation to extract the phonon mean free path distributions with no calibration required. Furthermore, this table-top ultrafast thermal transport spectroscopy technique enables the study of mean free path spectra in a wide range of technologically important materials.« less
Zeng, Lingping; Collins, Kimberlee C.; Hu, Yongjie; Luckyanova, Maria N.; Maznev, Alexei A.; Huberman, Samuel; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Zhou, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaopeng; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang
2015-01-01
Heat conduction in semiconductors and dielectrics depends upon their phonon mean free paths that describe the average travelling distance between two consecutive phonon scattering events. Nondiffusive phonon transport is being exploited to extract phonon mean free path distributions. Here, we describe an implementation of a nanoscale thermal conductivity spectroscopy technique that allows for the study of mean free path distributions in optically absorbing materials with relatively simple fabrication and a straightforward analysis scheme. We pattern 1D metallic grating of various line widths but fixed gap size on sample surfaces. The metal lines serve as both heaters and thermometers in time-domain thermoreflectance measurements and simultaneously act as wire-grid polarizers that protect the underlying substrate from direct optical excitation and heating. We demonstrate the viability of this technique by studying length-dependent thermal conductivities of silicon at various temperatures. The thermal conductivities measured with different metal line widths are analyzed using suppression functions calculated from the Boltzmann transport equation to extract the phonon mean free path distributions with no calibration required. This table-top ultrafast thermal transport spectroscopy technique enables the study of mean free path spectra in a wide range of technologically important materials. PMID:26612032
Zeng, Lingping; Collins, Kimberlee C.; Hu, Yongjie; Luckyanova, Maria N.; Maznev, Alexei A.; Huberman, Samuel; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Zhou, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaopeng; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang
2015-11-27
Heat conduction in semiconductors and dielectrics depends upon their phonon mean free paths that describe the average travelling distance between two consecutive phonon scattering events. Nondiffusive phonon transport is being exploited to extract phonon mean free path distributions. Here, we describe an implementation of a nanoscale thermal conductivity spectroscopy technique that allows for the study of mean free path distributions in optically absorbing materials with relatively simple fabrication and a straightforward analysis scheme. We pattern 1D metallic grating of various line widths but fixed gap size on sample surfaces. The metal lines serve as both heaters and thermometers in time-domain thermoreflectance measurements and simultaneously act as wiregrid polarizers that protect the underlying substrate from direct optical excitation and heating. We demonstrate the viability of this technique by studying length-dependent thermal conductivities of silicon at various temperatures. The thermal conductivities measured with different metal line widths are analyzed using suppression functions calculated from the Boltzmann transport equation to extract the phonon mean free path distributions with no calibration required. Furthermore, this table-top ultrafast thermal transport spectroscopy technique enables the study of mean free path spectra in a wide range of technologically important materials.
Lifetime and mean free path of spin waves in ultrathin cobalt films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michel, E.; Ibach, H.; Schneider, C. M.; Santos, D. L. R.; Costa, A. T.
2016-07-01
Miniaturization of magnon-based devices into the nanometer range would require the utilization of exchange-dominated spin waves of nanometer wavelength. In experiment and theory we show that the intrinsic lifetime and mean free path of the homogeneous acoustic spin wave in ultrathin cobalt films is sufficiently long for such applications provided that the films are atomically flat. The presence of surface steps, however, shortens lifetime and mean free path. The experimental data are consistent with a model which assumes that steps act as perfect sinks for spin waves.
Magnetic-Phase Dependence of the Spin Carrier Mean Free Path in Graphene Nanoribbons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jing; Niquet, Yann-Michel; Delerue, Christophe
2016-06-01
We show theoretically that the intrinsic (phonon-limited) carrier mobility in graphene nanoribbons is considerably influenced by the presence of spin-polarized edge states. When the coupling between opposite edges switches from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic with increasing carrier density, the current becomes spin polarized and the mean free path rises from 10 nm to micrometers. In the ferromagnetic state, the current flows through one majority-spin channel which is ballistic over micrometers and several minority-spin channels with mean free paths as low as 1 nm. These features predicted in technology-relevant conditions could be nicely exploited in spintronic devices.
Neutrino mean free path in neutron matter with Brussels-Montreal Skyrme functionals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pastore, A.; Martini, M.; Davesne, D.; Navarro, J.; Chamel, N.; Goriely, S.
2016-01-01
We calculate the neutrino mean free path in cold neutron matter with some modern Brussels-Montreal functionals. The three typical functionals used in this article produce quite different results implying a possible impact on the cooling mechanism of neutron stars.
Measurements of hadron mean free path for the particle-producing collisions in nuclear matter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strugalski, Z.
1985-01-01
It is not obvious a priority that the cross-section for a process in hadron collisions with free nucleons is the same as that for the process in hadron collisions with nucleons inside a target nucleus. The question arises: what is the cross-section for a process in a hadron collision with nucleon on inside the atomic nucleus. The answer to it must be found in experiments. The mean free path for particle-producing collisions of pions in nuclear matter is determined experimentally using pion-xenon nucleus collisions at 3.5 GeV/c momentum. Relation between the mean free path in question lambda sub in nucleons fm squared and the cross-section in units of fm squared/nucleon for collisions of the hadron with free nucleon is: lambda sub i = k/cross section sub i, where k = 3.00 plus or minus 0.26.
Scattering mean free path in continuous complex media: beyond the Helmholtz equation.
Baydoun, Ibrahim; Baresch, Diego; Pierrat, Romain; Derode, Arnaud
2015-09-01
We present theoretical calculations of the ensemble-averaged (or effective or coherent) wave field propagating in a heterogeneous medium considered as one realization of a random process. In the literature, it is usually assumed that heterogeneity can be accounted for by a random scalar function of the space coordinates, termed the potential. Physically, this amounts to replacing the constant wave speed in Helmholtz' equation by a space-dependent speed. In the case of acoustic waves, we show that this approach leads to incorrect results for the scattering mean free path, no matter how weak the fluctuations. The detailed calculation of the coherent wave field must take into account both a scalar and an operator part in the random potential. When both terms have identical amplitudes, the correct value for the scattering mean free paths is shown to be more than 4 times smaller (13/3, precisely) in the low-frequency limit, whatever the shape of the correlation function. Based on the diagrammatic approach of multiple scattering, theoretical results are obtained for the self-energy and mean free path within Bourret's and on-shell approximations. They are confirmed by numerical experiments. PMID:26465578
Universal phonon mean free path spectra in crystalline semiconductors at high temperature
Freedman, Justin P.; Leach, Jacob H.; Preble, Edward A.; Sitar, Zlatko; Davis, Robert F.; Malen, Jonathan A.
2013-01-01
Thermal conductivity in non-metallic crystalline materials results from cumulative contributions of phonons that have a broad range of mean free paths. Here we use high frequency surface temperature modulation that generates non-diffusive phonon transport to probe the phonon mean free path spectra of GaAs, GaN, AlN, and 4H-SiC at temperatures near 80 K, 150 K, 300 K, and 400 K. We find that phonons with MFPs greater than 230 ± 120 nm, 1000 ± 200 nm, 2500 ± 800 nm, and 4200 ± 850 nm contribute 50% of the bulk thermal conductivity of GaAs, GaN, AlN, and 4H-SiC near room temperature. By non-dimensionalizing the data based on Umklapp scattering rates of phonons, we identified a universal phonon mean free path spectrum in small unit cell crystalline semiconductors at high temperature. PMID:24129328
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obermann, Anne; Larose, Eric; Margerin, Ludovic; Rossetto, Vincent
2014-05-01
We analyze the statistics of phase fluctuations of seismic signals obtained from a temporary small aperture array deployed on a volcano in the French Auvergne. We demonstrate that the phase field satisfies Circular Gaussian statistics. We then determine the scattering mean free path of Rayleigh waves from the spatial phase decoherence. This phenomenon, observed for diffuse wavefields, is found to yield a good approximation of the scattering mean free path. Contrary to the amplitude, spatial phase decoherence is free from absorption effects and provides direct access to the scattering mean free path. Our method may find applications in various areas of seismology where the effects of scattering are prominent and a knowledge of the scattering properties is necessary to describe the propagation. As an example, an unbiased estimate of the scattering mean free path is crucial for the localization of changes in multiply scattering media, where a sensitivity kernel based on diffusion theory is used (Larose et al. 2010; Obermann et al. 2013a,b). Our experimental approach may also provide independent estimates of the scattering mean free path in volcanic areas where particularly strong scattering has been proposed, based on the fitting of energy envelopes using energy transport approaches (Wegler & Lühr 2001; Yamamoto & Sato 2010). References: Larose, E., Planès, T., Rossetto, V. & Margerin, L., 2010. Locating a small change in a multiple scattering environment, Appl. Phys. Lett., 96(204101), 1-3. Obermann, A., Planès, T., Larose, E. & Campillo, M., 2013a. Imaging pre and co-eruptive structural and mechanical changes on a volcano with ambient seismic noise, J. geophys. Res., 118, 1-10. Obermann, A., Planès, T., Larose, E., Sens-Schönfelder, C. & Campillo,M., 2013b. Depth sensitivity of seismic coda waves to velocity perturbations in an elastic heterogeneous medium, Geophys. J. Int., 194(1), 372-382. Wegler, U. & Lühr, B.G., 2001. Scattering behaviour at Merapi volcano
Direct measurement of coherent subterahertz acoustic phonons mean free path in GaAs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legrand, R.; Huynh, A.; Jusserand, B.; Perrin, B.; Lemaître, A.
2016-05-01
The phonon mean free path is generally inferred from the measurement of thermal conductivity and we are still lacking precise information on this quantity. Recent advances in the field of high-frequency phonons transduction using semiconductor superlattices give the opportunity to fill this gap. We present experimental results on the attenuation of longitudinal acoustic phonons in GaAs in the frequency and temperature ranges 0.2-1 THz and 10-80 K respectively. Surprisingly, we observe a plateau in the frequency dependence of the attenuation above 0.7 THz, that we ascribe to a breakdown of Herring processes.
Shaing, K. C.
2006-09-15
It is illustrated that plasma transport processes in the direction of the magnetic field are local in the vicinity of the magnetic island in the long mean-free-path regime where the collisionality parameter {nu}{sub *} is larger than 10{sup -2}, and the width of the island is about 3% of the minor radius or smaller. This is because the plasma temperature variation on the magnetic surface that results from the magnetic reconnection is gentle. Both the electron and the ion parallel transport fluxes including parallel heat flow in the banana regime where {nu}{sub *}<1 are calculated using a model Coulomb collision operator that conserves momentum.
Estimation of the Mean Free Path using Cross-Correlations in the Seismic Coda
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clerc, V.; Roux, P.; Campillo, M.; Maynard, R.; Chaput, J. A.
2014-12-01
We present recent results concerning the extraction of Green's functions from coda waves. Campillo and Paul 2003 used earthquakes codas and found that the causal and anticausal parts of the cross-correlation are asymmetrical for some stations, depending on the earthquake source region. The lapse time in the coda window is a key parameter to understand causal to anticausal amplitude ratio. We show that this ratio result from the competition between the source signature (non-symmetric cross-correlations when the distribution of sources is non-isotropic around the receivers) and the scattering processes which tend to restore the time symmetry of the correlations. The theoretical analysis is derived from wave propagation theory for single scattering and multiple scattering as initiated by Roux 2005. We propose to use the temporal evolution of cross-correlation function amplitude in coda waves to estimate the value of the mean free path in the propagation medium. The equipartition of the energy is clearly observed in the numerical simulations conducted in a two-dimensional acoustic medium. The cross-correlations between the distinct time windows in synthetic coda records at two points are measured for a set of events for which we obtain a good estimate of the medium mean free path. We perform the same analysis on a set of icequakes recorded at Mount Erebus. The correlations averaged over sources and time exhibit a temporal evolution that obeys to convergence patterns similar to those observed in numerical studies.
Photon Mean Free Paths, Scattering, and Ever-Increasing Telescope Resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Judge, P. G.; Kleint, L.; Uitenbroek, H.; Rempel, M.; Suematsu, Y.; Tsuneta, S.
2015-03-01
We revisit an old question: what are the effects of observing stratified atmospheres on scales below a photon mean free path λ? The mean free path of photons emerging from the solar photosphere and chromosphere is ≈ 102 km. Using current 1 m-class telescopes, λ is on the order of the angular resolution. But the Daniel K. Inoue Solar Telescope will have a diffraction limit of 0.020″ near the atmospheric cutoff at 310 nm, corresponding to 14 km at the solar surface. Even a small amount of scattering in the source function leads to physical smearing due to this solar "fog", with effects similar to a degradation of the telescope point spread function. We discuss a unified picture that depends simply on the nature and amount of scattering in the source function. Scalings are derived from which the scattering in the solar atmosphere can be transcribed into an effective Strehl ratio, a quantity useful to observers. Observations in both permitted ( e.g., Fe i 630.2 nm) and forbidden (Fe i 525.0 nm) lines will shed light on both instrumental performance as well as on small-scale structures in the solar atmosphere.
Phonon mean free path spectrum and thermal conductivity for Si1-xGex nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Guofeng; Guo, Yuan; Wei, Xiaolin; Zhang, Kaiwang; Sun, Lizhong; Zhong, Jianxin; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei
2014-06-01
We reformulate the linearized phonon Boltzmann transport equation by incorporating the direction-dependent phonon-boundary scattering, and based on this equation, we study the thermal conductivity of Si1-xGex nanowires and derive their phonon mean free path spectrum. Due to the severe suppression of high-frequency phonons by alloy scattering, the low frequency phonons in Si1-xGex nanowires have a much higher contribution to the thermal conductivity than pure silicon nanowires. We also find that Si1-xGex nanowires possess a stronger length-dependent, weaker diameter-dependent, and weaker surface roughness-dependent thermal conductivity than silicon nanowires. These findings are potentially useful for engineering Si1-xGex nanowires for thermoelectric applications.
Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J.
2015-01-01
Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977
Effect of polarization field on mean free path of phonons in indium nitride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahoo, Sushant Kumar
2016-05-01
The effect of built-in-polarization field on mean free path of acoustic phonons in bulk wurtzite indium nitride (InN) has been theoretically investigated. The elastic constant of the material gets modified due to the existence of polarization field. As a result velocity and Debye frequency of phonons get enhanced. The various scattering rates of phonons are suppressed by the effect of polarization field, which implies an enhanced combined relaxation time. Thus phonons travel freely for a longer distance between two successive scatterings. This would enhance the thermal transport properties of the material when built-in-polarization field taken into account. Hence by the application of electric field the transport properties of such materials can be controlled as and when desired.
Inelastic-interaction mean free path of negative pions in tungsten
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheshire, D. L.; Huggett, R. W.; Jones, W. V.; Rountree, S. P.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Kurz, R. J.; Bowen, T.; Delise, D. A.; Krider, E. P.; Orth, C. D.
1975-01-01
The inelastic-interaction mean free paths (lambda) of 5-, 10-, and 15-GeV/c pions have been measured by determining the distribution of first-interaction locations in a modular tungsten-scintillator ionization spectrometer. In addition to commonly used interaction signatures of a few (2-5) particles in two or three consecutive modules, a chi-squared distribution is employed to calculate the probability that the first interaction occurred at a specific depth in the spectrometer. This latter technique seems to be more reliable than use of the simpler criteria. No significant dependence of lambda on energy has been observed. In tungsten, lambda for pions is 206 (plus or minus 6) g/sq cm.
Phonon mean free path of graphite along the c-axis
Wei, Zhiyong; Yang, Juekuan; Chen, Weiyu; Bi, Kedong; Chen, Yunfei
2014-02-24
Phonon transport in the c-axis direction of graphite thin films has been studied using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The simulation results show that the c-axis thermal conductivities for films of thickness ranging from 20 to 500 atomic layers are significantly lower than the bulk value. Based on the MD data, a method is developed to construct the c-axis thermal conductivity as an accumulation function of phonon mean free path (MFP), from which we show that phonons with MFPs from 2 to 2000 nm contribute ∼80% of the graphite c-axis thermal conductivity at room temperature, and phonons with MFPs larger than 100 nm contribute over 40% to the c-axis thermal conductivity. These findings indicate that the commonly believed value of just a few nanometers from the simple kinetic theory drastically underestimates the c-axis phonon MFP of graphite.
Zhang, Hang; Hua, Chengyun; Ding, Ding; Minnich, Austin J
2015-01-01
Thermal conductivity measurements over variable lengths on nanostructures such as nanowires provide important information about the mean free paths (MFPs) of the phonons responsible for heat conduction. However, nearly all of these measurements have been interpreted using an average MFP even though phonons in many crystals possess a broad MFP spectrum. Here, we present a reconstruction method to obtain MFP spectra of nanostructures from variable-length thermal conductivity measurements. Using this method, we investigate recently reported length-dependent thermal conductivity measurements on SiGe alloy nanowires and suspended graphene ribbons. We find that the recent measurements on graphene imply that 70% of the heat in graphene is carried by phonons with MFPs longer than 1 micron. PMID:25764977
He, H.-Q.; Wan, W. E-mail: wanw@mail.iggcas.ac.cn
2012-03-01
The parallel mean free path of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which is determined by physical properties of SEPs as well as those of solar wind, is a very important parameter in space physics to study the transport of charged energetic particles in the heliosphere, especially for space weather forecasting. In space weather practice, it is necessary to find a quick approach to obtain the parallel mean free path of SEPs for a solar event. In addition, the adiabatic focusing effect caused by a spatially varying mean magnetic field in the solar system is important to the transport processes of SEPs. Recently, Shalchi presented an analytical description of the parallel diffusion coefficient with adiabatic focusing. Based on Shalchi's results, in this paper we provide a direct analytical formula as a function of parameters concerning the physical properties of SEPs and solar wind to directly and quickly determine the parallel mean free path of SEPs with adiabatic focusing. Since all of the quantities in the analytical formula can be directly observed by spacecraft, this direct method would be a very useful tool in space weather research. As applications of the direct method, we investigate the inherent relations between the parallel mean free path and various parameters concerning physical properties of SEPs and solar wind. Comparisons of parallel mean free paths with and without adiabatic focusing are also presented.
Scaling laws of cumulative thermal conductivity for short and long phonon mean free paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aketo, Daisuke; Shiga, Takuma; Shiomi, Junichiro
2014-09-01
Cumulative thermal conductivity (CTC), an accumulation function of lattice thermal conductivity with respect to the phonon mean free path (PMFP), is a useful single-crystal property to gain insight into how much nanostructuring can potentially reduce thermal conductivity. While the details of the CTC profile depend on each material, we have identified that the profile has universal features in the short and long PMFP regimes with each characteristic length scale. In each PMFP regime, by scaling the PMFP with the characteristic length derived using phenomenological models, CTC calculated based on first principles for various materials collapse on a master curve. We also find an empirical relation between the short and long PMFP characteristic length scales, which allows us to roughly estimate the onset/offset PMFP of CTC (i.e., PMFP when CTC are 10%/90% of the total thermal conductivity) only with the knowledge of bulk thermal conductivity and averaged group velocity. The finding provides a facile way to estimate the range of PMFP with noticeable contribution to lattice thermal conductivity, which is useful for designing nanostructured materials with low thermal conductivity, particularly in developing thermoelectric materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rukolaine, Sergey A.
2016-05-01
In classical kinetic models a particle free path distribution is exponential, but this is more likely to be an exception than a rule. In this paper we derive a generalized linear Boltzmann equation (GLBE) for a general free path distribution in the framework of Alt's model. In the case that the free path distribution has at least first and second finite moments we construct an asymptotic solution to the initial value problem for the GLBE for small mean free paths. In the special case of the one-speed transport problem the asymptotic solution results in a diffusion approximation to the GLBE.
Grimm, R; Typke, D; Bärmann, M; Baumeister, W
1996-07-01
Using electron microscopy, the thickness of ice-embedded vesicles is estimated examining tilted and untilted views and assuming an ellipsoidal shape of the vesicles that appear to be circular in the untilted view. Another thickness measure is obtained from the ratio of the unfiltered and zero-loss-filtered image intensities of the vesicle. From these two measurements, the mean free path A for inelastic scattering of electrons in ice is calculated as 203 +/- 33 nm for 120 kV acceleration voltage. It is found that vesicles in thin ice films (< or = 1.5 lambda) significantly protrude out of the ice film. Due to surface tension the shape becomes an oblate ellipsoid. In holes covered with a thick ice film (> or = 3 lambda) and strong thickness gradients, vesicles are predominantly found in regions where the ice thickness is appropriate for their size. Also, a way of imaging the most probable loss under low-dose conditions involving thickness measurement is proposed. Even at large ice thicknesses zero-loss filtering always gives better image contrast. Most probable loss imaging can only help where there is no intensity in the zero-loss image, at very large thicknesses (lambda > 8). PMID:8921626
The interplanetary scattering mean free path - Collisionless wave-damping effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davila, J. M.; Scott, J. S.
1984-01-01
The role of dissipation in the scattering of charged particles in the interplanetary medium (IPM) is analyzed to obtain a model for the interplanetary magnetic turbulence spectrum that yields particle free paths (PEP) which agree with observational data. The scattering processes are attributed to waves with small wavelengths intersected by particles with zero pitch angles. The waves, being strongly damped by collisionless cyclotron damping in the ambient thermal plasma, produce reduced scattering and longer MFPs. The model, which includes the damping factor, was used to generate proton propagation maps at kinetic energy levels of under, over, and within the 5 MeV-2 GeV range. The results, when compared with observational data, displayed good agreement. The same held true for the MFP propagation of energetic electrons.
McLerran, L.
1984-11-01
The author discusses the applicability of a hydrodynamic description of high energy hadronic collisions. The author reviews the results of recent computations of the mean free paths of quarks and gluons in a quark-gluon plasma, and the corresponding results for viscous coefficients. These quantities are employed to evaluate the limits to the application of perfect fluid hydrodynamics as a description of time evolution of matter produced in various hadronic collisions. 22 references.
He, H.-Q.; Schlickeiser, R. E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de
2014-09-10
The cosmic ray mean free path in a large-scale nonuniform guide magnetic field with superposed magnetostatic turbulence is calculated to clarify some conflicting results in the literature. A new, exact integro-differential equation for the cosmic-ray anisotropy is derived from the Fokker-Planck transport equation. A perturbation analysis of this integro-differential equation leads to an analytical expression for the cosmic ray anisotropy and the focused transport equation for the isotropic part of the cosmic ray distribution function. The derived parallel spatial diffusion coefficient and the associated cosmic ray mean free path include the effect of adiabatic focusing and reduce to the standard forms in the limit of a uniform guide magnetic field. For the illustrative case of isotropic pitch angle scattering, the derived mean free path agrees with the earlier expressions of Beeck and Wibberenz, Bieber and Burger, Kota, and Litvinenko, but disagrees with the result of Shalchi. The disagreement with the expression of Shalchi is particularly strong in the limit of strong adiabatic focusing.
Beranek, Leo L; Nishihara, Noriko
2014-01-01
The Eyring/Sabine equations assume that in a large irregular room a sound wave travels in straight lines from one surface to another, that the surfaces have an average sound absorption coefficient αav, and that the mean-free-path between reflections is 4 V/Stot where V is the volume of the room and Stot is the total area of all of its surfaces. No account is taken of diffusivity of the surfaces. The 4 V/Stot relation was originally based on experimental determinations made by Knudsen (Architectural Acoustics, 1932, pp. 132-141). This paper sets out to test the 4 V/Stot relation experimentally for a wide variety of unoccupied concert and chamber music halls with seating capacities from 200 to 5000, using the measured sound strengths Gmid and reverberation times RT60,mid. Computer simulations of the sound fields for nine of these rooms (of varying shapes) were also made to determine the mean-free-paths by that method. The study shows that 4 V/Stot is an acceptable relation for mean-free-paths in the Sabine/Eyring equations except for halls of unusual shape. Also demonstrated is the proper method for calibrating the dodecahedral sound source used for measuring the sound strength G, i.e., the reverberation chamber method. PMID:24437762
Ahmad, T.; Irfan, M.; Ahsan, M.Z. )
1991-06-14
This paper reports on interaction mean free paths of He-fragments produced by the collisions of carbon and silicon nuclei at 4.5 A GeV/c in nuclear emulsion for different distances from their production point. The authors do not observe any anomalous effect in the mean free paths of He-fragments.
Parallel transport of long mean-free-path plasma along open magnetic field lines: Parallel heat flux
Guo Zehua; Tang Xianzhu
2012-06-15
In a long mean-free-path plasma where temperature anisotropy can be sustained, the parallel heat flux has two components with one associated with the parallel thermal energy and the other the perpendicular thermal energy. Due to the large deviation of the distribution function from local Maxwellian in an open field line plasma with low collisionality, the conventional perturbative calculation of the parallel heat flux closure in its local or non-local form is no longer applicable. Here, a non-perturbative calculation is presented for a collisionless plasma in a two-dimensional flux expander bounded by absorbing walls. Specifically, closures of previously unfamiliar form are obtained for ions and electrons, which relate two distinct components of the species parallel heat flux to the lower order fluid moments such as density, parallel flow, parallel and perpendicular temperatures, and the field quantities such as the magnetic field strength and the electrostatic potential. The plasma source and boundary condition at the absorbing wall enter explicitly in the closure calculation. Although the closure calculation does not take into account wave-particle interactions, the results based on passing orbits from steady-state collisionless drift-kinetic equation show remarkable agreement with fully kinetic-Maxwell simulations. As an example of the physical implications of the theory, the parallel heat flux closures are found to predict a surprising observation in the kinetic-Maxwell simulation of the 2D magnetic flux expander problem, where the parallel heat flux of the parallel thermal energy flows from low to high parallel temperature region.
Role of low-energy phonons with mean-free-paths >0.8 m in heat conduction in silicon
Jiang, Puqing; Lindsay, Lucas R; Koh, Yee Kan
2016-01-01
Despite recent progress in the first-principles calculations and measurements of phonon mean-free-paths ( ), contribution of low-energy phonons to heat conduction in silicon is still inconclusive, as exemplified by the discrepancies as large as 30% between different first-principles calculations. Here we investigate the contribution of low-energy phonons with >0.8 m by accurately measuring the cross-plane thermal conductivity ( cross) of crystalline silicon films by time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), over a wide range of film thicknesses 1 hf 10 m and temperatures 100 T 300 K. We employ a dual-frequency TDTR approach to improve the accuracy of our cross measurements. We find from our cross measurements that phonons with >0.8 m contribute 53 W m-1 K-1 (37%) to heat conduction in natural Si at 300 K while phonons with >3 m contribute 523 W m-1 K-1 (61%) at 100 K, >20% lower than first-principles predictions of 68 W m-1 K-1 (47%) and 717 W m-1 K-1 (76%), respectively. Using a relaxation time approximation (RTA) model, we demonstrate that macroscopic damping (e.g., Akhieser s damping) eliminates the contribution of phonons with mean-free-paths >20 m at 300 K, which contributes 15 W m-1 K-1 (10%) to calculated heat conduction in Si. Thus, we propose that omission of the macroscopic damping for low-energy phonons in the first-principles calculations could be one of the possible explanations for the observed differences between our measurements and calculations. Our work provides an important benchmark for future measurements and calculations of the distribution of phonon mean-free-paths in crystalline silicon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, Frederick B.; Furlanetto, Steven R.
2016-04-01
Extremely large opaque troughs in the Lyα forest have been interpreted as a sign of an extended reionization process below z ˜ 6. Such features are impossible to reproduce with simple models of the intergalactic ionizing background that assume a uniform mean free path of ionizing photons. We build a self-consistent model of the ionizing background that includes fluctuations in the mean free path due to the varying strength of the ionizing background and large-scale density field. The dominant effect is the suppression of the ionizing background in large-scale voids due to "self-shielding" by an enhanced number of optically thick absorbers. Our model results in a distribution of 50 Mpc/h Lyα forest effective optical depths that significantly improves agreement with the observations at z ˜ 5.6. Extrapolation to z ˜ 5.4 and z ˜ 5.8 appears promising, but matching the mean background evolution requires evolution in the absorber population beyond the scope of the present model. We also demonstrate the need for extremely large volumes ( > 400 Mpc on a side) to accurately determine the incidence of rare large-scale features in the Lyα forest.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, Frederick B.; Furlanetto, Steven R.
2016-08-01
Extremely large opaque troughs in the Lyα forest have been interpreted as a sign of an extended reionization process below z ˜ 6. Such features are impossible to reproduce with simple models of the intergalactic ionizing background that assume a uniform mean free path of ionizing photons. We build a self-consistent model of the ionizing background that includes fluctuations in the mean free path due to the varying strength of the ionizing background and large-scale density field. The dominant effect is the suppression of the ionizing background in large-scale voids due to `self-shielding' by an enhanced number of optically thick absorbers. Our model results in a distribution of 50 Mpc h-1 Lyα forest effective optical depths that significantly improves agreement with the observations at z ˜ 5.6. Extrapolation to z ˜ 5.4 and 5.8 appears promising, but matching the mean background evolution requires evolution in the absorber population beyond the scope of the present model. We also demonstrate the need for extremely large volumes (>400 Mpc on a side) to accurately determine the incidence of rare large-scale features in the Lyα forest.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arora, Vijay K.; Zainal Abidin, Mastura Shafinaz; Tan, Michael L. P.; Riyadi, Munawar A.
2012-03-01
The temperature-dependent ballistic transport, using nonequilibrium Arora distribution function (NEADF), is shown to result in mobility degradation with reduction in channel length, in direct contrast to expectation of a collision-free transport. The ballistic mean free path (mfp) is much higher than the scattering-limited long-channel mfp, yet the mobility is amazingly lower. High-field effects, converting stochastic velocity vectors to streamlined ones, are found to be negligible when the applied voltage is less than the critical voltage appropriate for a ballistic mfp, especially at cryogenic temperatures. Excellent agreement with the experimental data on a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor is obtained. The applications of NEADF are shown to cover a wide spectrum, covering regimes from the scattering-limited to ballistic, from nondegenerate to degenerate, from nanowire to bulk, from low- to high-temperature, and from a low electric field to an extremely high electric field.
Violation of the isotropic mean free path approximation for overdoped La2-xSrxCuO4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narduzzo, A.; Albert, G.; French, M. M. J.; Mangkorntong, N.; Nohara, M.; Takagi, H.; Hussey, N. E.
2008-06-01
Magnetotransport measurements on the overdoped cuprate La1.7Sr0.3CuO4 are fitted using the Ong construction [Phys. Rev. B 43, 193 (1991)] and band parameters inferred from angle-resolved photoemission. Within a band picture, the low-temperature Hall data can only be fitted satisfactorily by invoking strong basal-plane anisotropy in the mean free path ℓ . This violation of the isotropic- ℓ approximation supports a picture of dominant small-angle elastic scattering in cuprates due to out-of-plane substitutional disorder. We conjecture that both band anisotropy and anisotropy in the elastic-scattering channel strongly renormalize the Hall coefficient in La2-xSrxCuO4 across the entire overdoped regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Worseck, Gábor; Prochaska, J. Xavier; O'Meara, John M.; Becker, George D.; Ellison, Sara L.; Lopez, Sebastian; Meiksin, Avery; Ménard, Brice; Murphy, Michael T.; Fumagalli, Michele
2014-12-01
We have obtained spectra of 163 quasars at zem > 4.4 with the Gemini Multi Object Spectrometers, the largest publicly available sample of high-quality, low-resolution spectra at these redshifts. From this data set, we generated stacked quasar spectra in three redshift intervals at z ˜ 5 to model the average rest-frame Lyman continuum flux and to assess the mean free path λ _mfp^{912} of the intergalactic medium to H I-ionizing radiation. At mean redshifts zq = (4.56, 4.86, 5.16), we measure λ _mfp^{912}=(22.2 ± 2.3, 15.1 ± 1.8, 10.3 ± 1.6)h_{70}^{-1} proper Mpc with uncertainties dominated by sample variance. Combining our results with measurements from lower redshifts, the data are well modelled by a power law λ _mfp^{912}=A[(1+zright)/5]^η with A=(37 ± 2)h_{70}^{-1} Mpc and η = -5.4 ± 0.4 at 2.3 < z < 5.5. This rapid evolution requires a physical mechanism - beyond cosmological expansion - which reduces the effective Lyman limit opacity. We speculate that the majority of H I Lyman limit opacity manifests in gas outside galactic dark matter haloes, tracing large-scale structures (e.g. filaments) whose average density and neutral fraction decreases with cosmic time. Our measurements of the mean free path shortly after H I reionization serve as a valuable boundary condition for numerical models thereof. Our measured λ _mfp^{912}≈ 10 Mpc at z = 5.2 confirms that the intergalactic medium is highly ionized without evidence for a break that would indicate a recent end to H I reionization.
Temperature-Dependent Mean Free Path Spectra of Thermal Phonons Along the c-Axis of Graphite.
Zhang, Hang; Chen, Xiangwen; Jho, Young-Dahl; Minnich, Austin J
2016-03-01
Heat conduction in graphite has been studied for decades because of its exceptionally large thermal anisotropy. While the bulk thermal conductivities along the in-plane and cross-plane directions are well-known, less understood are the microscopic properties of the thermal phonons responsible for heat conduction. In particular, recent experimental and computational works indicate that the average phonon mean free path (MFP) along the c-axis is considerably larger than that estimated by kinetic theory, but the distribution of MFPs remains unknown. Here, we report the first quantitative measurements of c-axis phonon MFP spectra in graphite at a variety of temperatures using time-domain thermoreflectance measurements of graphite flakes with variable thickness. Our results indicate that c-axis phonon MFPs have values of a few hundred nanometers at room temperature and a much narrower distribution than in isotropic crystals. At low temperatures, phonon scattering is dominated by grain boundaries separating crystalline regions of different rotational orientation. Our study provides important new insights into heat transport and phonon scattering mechanisms in graphite and other anisotropic van der Waals solids. PMID:26840052
Friedlander, E.M.; Gimpel, R.W.; Heckman, H.H.; Karant, Y.J.; Judek, B.; Ganssauge, E.
1982-08-01
We present in detail the description and the analysis of two independent experiments using Bevalac beams of {sup 16}O and {sup 56}Fe. From their results it is concluded that the reaction mean free paths of relativistic projectile fragments, 3 {<=} Z {<=} 26, are shorter for a few centimeters after emission than at large distances where they are compatible with values predicted from experiments on beam nuclei. The probability that this effect is due to a statistical fluctuation is <10{sup -3}. The effect is enhanced in later generations of fragments, the correlation between successive generations suggesting a kind of "memory" for the anomaly. Various systematic and spurious effects as well as conventional explanations are discussed mainly on the basis of direct experimental observations internal to our data, and found not to explain our results. The data can be interpreted by the relatively rare occurrence of anomalous fragments that interact with an unexpectedly large cross section. The statistical methods used in the analysis of the observations are fully described.
Wang, Mingchao; Lin, Shangchao
2015-01-01
The elastic modulus of carbyne, a one-dimensional carbon chain, was recently predicted to be much higher than graphene. Inspired by this discovery and the fundamental correlation between elastic modulus and thermal conductivity, we investigate the intrinsic thermal transport in two carbon allotropes: carbyne and cumulene. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we discover that thermal conductivities of carbyne and cumulene at the quantum-corrected room temperature can exceed 54 and 148 kW/m/K, respectively, much higher than that for graphene. Such conductivity is attributed to high phonon energies and group velocities, as well as reduced scattering from non-overlapped acoustic and optical phonon modes. The prolonged spectral acoustic phonon lifetime of 30–110 ps and mean free path of 0.5–2.5 μm exceed those for graphene, and allow ballistic phonon transport along micron-length carbon chains. Tensile extensions can enhance the thermal conductivity of carbyne due to the increased phonon density of states in the acoustic modes and the increased phonon lifetime from phonon bandgap opening. These findings provide fundamental insights into phonon transport and band structure engineering through tensile deformation in low-dimensional materials, and will inspire studies on carbyne, cumulene, and boron nitride chains for their practical deployments in nano-devices. PMID:26658143
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Mingchao; Lin, Shangchao
2015-12-01
The elastic modulus of carbyne, a one-dimensional carbon chain, was recently predicted to be much higher than graphene. Inspired by this discovery and the fundamental correlation between elastic modulus and thermal conductivity, we investigate the intrinsic thermal transport in two carbon allotropes: carbyne and cumulene. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we discover that thermal conductivities of carbyne and cumulene at the quantum-corrected room temperature can exceed 54 and 148 kW/m/K, respectively, much higher than that for graphene. Such conductivity is attributed to high phonon energies and group velocities, as well as reduced scattering from non-overlapped acoustic and optical phonon modes. The prolonged spectral acoustic phonon lifetime of 30-110 ps and mean free path of 0.5-2.5 μm exceed those for graphene, and allow ballistic phonon transport along micron-length carbon chains. Tensile extensions can enhance the thermal conductivity of carbyne due to the increased phonon density of states in the acoustic modes and the increased phonon lifetime from phonon bandgap opening. These findings provide fundamental insights into phonon transport and band structure engineering through tensile deformation in low-dimensional materials, and will inspire studies on carbyne, cumulene, and boron nitride chains for their practical deployments in nano-devices.
He, H.-Q.; Wan, W. E-mail: wanw@mail.iggcas.ac.cn
2012-12-15
A direct approach for explicitly determining the perpendicular mean free path of solar energetic particles (SEPs) influenced by parallel diffusion and composite dynamical turbulence in a spatially varying magnetic field is presented. As theoretical applications of the direct approach, we investigate the inherent relations between the perpendicular mean free path and various parameters concerning physical properties of SEPs as well as those of interplanetary conditions such as the solar wind and the turbulent magnetic field. Comparisons of the perpendicular mean free paths with and without adiabatic focusing are also presented. The direct method shows encouraging agreement with spacecraft observations, suggesting it is a reliable and useful tool for use in theoretical investigations and space weather forecasting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Bernardi, Marco; Louie, Steven G.
2015-03-01
The organometallic halide pervoskites have generated enormous interest due to the rapidly increasing efficiency of solar cells fabricated from these materials. Most research on the organometallic halide pervoskites has been experimental due to the challenges posed by these materials to theoretical study, including the size of the unit cell, the presence of many defects, the orientational disorder in of the methyammonium (MA) cation, and the heavy atoms involved with the corresponding large spin-orbit coupling (SOC). We study the room-temperature tetragonal structure of CH3NH3PbI3 using density functional theory (DFT) and a many-body Green's functions approach. We use DFT to study the effect of the dependence of the bandstructure on the orientation of the MA cation, while we perform GW and GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation (GW-BSE) calculations to study the quasiparticle bandstructure and optical spectra, respectively, paying close attention to convergence and the effect of SOC. We particularly investigate the existence of a proposed charge-transfer state in this material. We also briefly discuss the mean free paths due to electron-phonon and electron-electron scattering in the ideal structure. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR10-1006184, and U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 and the DOE SciDAC program. Computational resources were provided by NERSC. D.V.-F. acknowledges funding from the NSF's Blue Waters Fellowship.
Karant, Y.J.
1981-07-01
From an analysis of 1460 projectile fragment collisions in nuclear research emulsion exposed to 2.1 A GeV /sup 16/O and 1.9 A GeV /sup 56/Fe at the Bevalac, evidence is presented for the existence of an anomalously short interaction mean free path of projectile fragments for the first several cm after emission. The result is significant to beyond the 3 standard deviation confidence level.
Role of low-energy phonons with mean-free-paths >0.8 μm in heat conduction in silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Puqing; Lindsay, Lucas; Koh, Yee Kan
2016-06-01
Despite recent progress in the first-principles calculations and measurements of phonon mean-free-paths (ℓ), contribution of low-energy phonons to heat conduction in silicon is still inconclusive, as exemplified by the discrepancies as large as 30% between different first-principles calculations. Here, we investigate the contribution of low-energy phonons with ℓ > 0.8 μm by accurately measuring the cross-plane thermal conductivity (Λcross) of crystalline silicon films by time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), over a wide range of film thicknesses 1 ≤ hf ≤ 10 μm and temperatures 100 ≤ T ≤ 300 K. We employ a dual-frequency TDTR approach to improve the accuracy of our Λcross measurements. We find from our Λcross measurements that phonons with ℓ > 0.8 μm contribute 53 W m-1 K-1 (37%) to heat conduction in natural Si at 300 K, while phonons with ℓ > 3 μm contribute 523 W m-1 K-1 (61%) at 100 K, >20% lower than first-principles predictions of 68 W m-1 K-1 (47%) and 717 W m-1 K-1 (76%), respectively. Using a relaxation time approximation model, we demonstrate that macroscopic damping (e.g., Akhieser's damping) eliminates the contribution of phonons with mean-free-paths >20 μm at 300 K, which contributes 15 W m-1 K-1 (10%) to calculated heat conduction in Si. Thus, we propose that omission of the macroscopic damping for low-energy phonons in the first-principles calculations could be one of the possible explanations for the observed differences between our measurements and calculations. Our work provides an important benchmark for future measurements and calculations of the distribution of phonon mean-free-paths in crystalline silicon.
Role of low-energy phonons with mean-free-paths >0.8 μm in heat conduction in silicon
Jiang, Puqing; Lindsay, Lucas R.; Koh, Yee Kan
2016-06-30
Despite recent progress in the first-principles calculations and measurements of phonon mean-free-paths (ℓ), contribution of low-energy phonons to heat conduction in silicon is still inconclusive, as exemplified by the discrepancies as large as 30% between different first-principles calculations. In this study, we investigate the contribution of low-energy phonons with ℓ>0.8 μm by accurately measuring the cross-plane thermal conductivity (Λcross) of crystalline silicon films by time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), over a wide range of film thicknesses 1≤ hf ≤ 10 μm and temperatures 100 ≤ T ≤ 300 K. We employ a dual-frequency TDTR approach to improve the accuracy of our Λcrossmore » measurements. We find from our Λcross measurements that phonons with ℓ>0.8 μm contribute 53 W m-1 K-1 (37%) to heat conduction in natural Si at 300 K while phonons with ℓ>3 μm contribute 523 W m-1 K-1 (61%) at 100 K, >20% lower than first-principles predictions of 68 W m-1 K-1 (47%) and 717 W m-1 K-1 (76%), respectively. Using a relaxation time approximation (RTA) model, we demonstrate that macroscopic damping (e.g., Akhieser s damping) eliminates the contribution of phonons with mean-free-paths >20 μm at 300 K, which contributes 15 W m-1 K-1 (10%) to calculated heat conduction in Si. Thus, we propose that omission of the macroscopic damping for low-energy phonons in the first-principles calculations could be one of the possible explanations for the observed differences between our measurements and calculations. Finally, our work provides an important benchmark for future measurements and calculations of the distribution of phonon mean-free-paths in crystalline silicon.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramu, Ashok T.; Ma, Yanbao
2014-09-01
An enhanced Fourier law that we term the unified nondiffusive-diffusive (UND) phonon transport model is proposed in order to account for the effect of low-frequency phonon modes of long mean-free path that propagate concomitantly to the dominant high-frequency modes. The theory is based on spherical harmonic expansions of the phonon distribution functions, wherein the high-frequency mode distribution function is truncated at the first order in the expansion, while the low-frequency mode distribution function, which is farther out of thermal equilibrium, is truncated at the second order. As an illustrative application, the predictions of the proposed model are compared with data from a recent experiment that utilized the transient gratings method to investigate the deviation of thermal transport in a silicon membrane from the predictions of the Fourier law. The good fit of the experimental effective thermal conductivity (ETC) with the analytical solution derived in this work yields quantitative information about the mean-free path of the dominant low-frequency heat-transfer mode in silicon.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jakoby, Bernhard
2009-01-01
The collision model is frequently introduced to describe electronic conductivity in solids. Depending on the chosen approach, the introduction of the collision time can lead to erroneous results for the average velocity of the electrons, which enters the expression for the electrical conductivity. In other textbooks, correct results are obtained…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, M. J.; Shiraiwa, M.; Poschl, U.; Cox, R. A.; Kalberer, M.
2015-05-01
Diffusion of organic vapours to the surface of aerosol or cloud particles is an important step for the formation and transformation of atmospheric particles. So far, however, a database of gas phase diffusion coefficients for organic compounds of atmospheric interest has not been available. In this work we have compiled and evaluated gas phase diffusivities (pressure-independent diffusion coefficients) of organic compounds reported by previous experimental studies, and we compare the measurement data to estimates obtained with Fuller's semi-empirical method. The difference between measured and estimated diffusivities are mostly < 10%. With regard to gas-particle interactions, different gas molecules, including both organic and inorganic compounds, exhibit similar Knudsen numbers (Kn) although their gas phase diffusivities may vary over a wide range. This is because different trace gas molecules have similar mean free paths in air at a given pressure. Thus, we introduce the pressure-normalised mean free path, λP ~ 100 nm atm, as a near-constant generic parameter that can be used for approximate calculation of Knudsen numbers as a simple function of gas pressure and particle diameter to characterise the influence of gas phase diffusion on the uptake of gases by aerosol or cloud particles. We use a kinetic multilayer model of gas-particle interaction to illustrate the effects of gas phase diffusion on the condensation of organic compounds with different volatilities. The results show that gas phase diffusion can play a major role in determining the growth of secondary organic aerosol particles by condensation of low-volatility organic vapours.
Mean Free Path in Soccer and Gases
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luzuriaga, J.
2010-01-01
The trajectories of the molecules in an ideal gas and of the ball in a soccer game are compared. The great difference between these motions and some similarities are discussed. This example could be suitable for discussing many concepts in kinetic theory in a way that can be pictured by students for getting a more intuitive understanding. It could…
Mean free path effects in the shock-implosion problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldsworthy, M. J.; Pullin, D. I.
2009-02-01
The effects of finite Knudsen number in the problem of a cylindrically imploding shock wave in a monatomic gas are investigated. Numerical solutions of the flow field are obtained with initial conditions in the ranges 1.25≤M0≤5 and 0.005≤Kn0≤0.1 using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Results show that as Kn0 decreases and M0 increases, the maximum implosion temperature scales increasingly well with the similarity exponent predicted in the Guderley solution for an imploding strong shock in the Euler limit. When the radius of curvature is large, the cylindrical shock thickness is found to be almost identical to the thickness of a planar shock for a given shock Mach number. For small radii of curvature, the cylindrical shock was found to be thicker than the corresponding planar shock.
Path integral Monte Carlo and the electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Ethan W.
Path integral Monte Carlo is a proven method for accurately simulating quantum mechanical systems at finite-temperature. By stochastically sampling Feynman's path integral representation of the quantum many-body density matrix, path integral Monte Carlo includes non-perturbative effects like thermal fluctuations and particle correlations in a natural way. Over the past 30 years, path integral Monte Carlo has been successfully employed to study the low density electron gas, high-pressure hydrogen, and superfluid helium. For systems where the role of Fermi statistics is important, however, traditional path integral Monte Carlo simulations have an exponentially decreasing efficiency with decreased temperature and increased system size. In this thesis, we work towards improving this efficiency, both through approximate and exact methods, as specifically applied to the homogeneous electron gas. We begin with a brief overview of the current state of atomic simulations at finite-temperature before we delve into a pedagogical review of the path integral Monte Carlo method. We then spend some time discussing the one major issue preventing exact simulation of Fermi systems, the sign problem. Afterwards, we introduce a way to circumvent the sign problem in PIMC simulations through a fixed-node constraint. We then apply this method to the homogeneous electron gas at a large swatch of densities and temperatures in order to map out the warm-dense matter regime. The electron gas can be a representative model for a host of real systems, from simple medals to stellar interiors. However, its most common use is as input into density functional theory. To this end, we aim to build an accurate representation of the electron gas from the ground state to the classical limit and examine its use in finite-temperature density functional formulations. The latter half of this thesis focuses on possible routes beyond the fixed-node approximation. As a first step, we utilize the variational
Electron paths, tunnelling, and diffraction in the spacetime algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gull, Stephen; Lasenby, Anthony; Doran, Chris
1993-10-01
This paper employs the ideas of geometric algebra to investigate the physical content of Dirac's electron theory. The basis is Hestenes' discovery of the geometric significance of the Dirac spinor, which now represents a Lorentz transformation in spacetime. This transformation specifies a definite velocity, which might be interpreted as that of a real electron. Taken literally, this velocity yields predictions of tunnelling times through potential barriers, and defines streamlines in spacetime that would correspond to electron paths. We also present a general, first-order diffraction theory for electromagnetic and Dirac waves. We conclude with a critical appraisal of the Dirac theory.
Path integral approach to electron scattering in classical electromagnetic potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chuang, Xu; Feng, Feng; Ying-Jun, Li
2016-05-01
As is known to all, the electron scattering in classical electromagnetic potential is one of the most widespread applications of quantum theory. Nevertheless, many discussions about electron scattering are based upon single-particle Schrodinger equation or Dirac equation in quantum mechanics rather than the method of quantum field theory. In this paper, by using the path integral approach of quantum field theory, we perturbatively evaluate the scattering amplitude up to the second order for the electron scattering by the classical electromagnetic potential. The results we derive are convenient to apply to all sorts of potential forms. Furthermore, by means of the obtained results, we give explicit calculations for the one-dimensional electric potential. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374360, 11405266, and 11505285) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CBA01504).
Tan, Lun C.; Malandraki, Olga E.; Patsou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Reames, Donald V.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua
2013-05-01
We have examined the Wind/3DP/SST electron and Wind/EPACT/LEMT ion data to investigate the path length difference between solar electrons and ions in the ground-level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23. Assuming that the onset time of metric type II or decameter-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts is the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons, we have found that within an error range of {+-}10% the deduced path length of low-energy ({approx}27 keV) electrons from their release site near the Sun to the 1 AU observer is consistent with the ion path length deduced by Reames from the onset time analysis. In addition, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined are in favor of the coronal mass ejection-driven shock acceleration origin of observed non-relativistic electrons. We have also found an increase of electron path lengths with increasing electron energies. The increasing rate of path lengths is correlated with the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of peak electron intensities locally measured, with a higher rate corresponding to a broader PAD. The correlation indicates that the path length enhancement is due to the interplanetary scattering experienced by first arriving electrons. The observed path length consistency implies that the maximum stable time of magnetic flux tubes, along which particles transport, could reach 4.8 hr.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, Lun C.; Malandraki, Olga E.; Reames, Donald; NG, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua; Patsou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Athanasios
2013-01-01
We have examined the Wind/3DP/SST electron and Wind/EPACT/LEMT ion data to investigate the path length difference between solar electrons and ions in the ground-level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23. Assuming that the onset time of metric type II or decameter-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts is the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons, we have found that within an error range of plus or minus 10% the deduced path length of low-energy (approximately 27 keV) electrons from their release site near the Sun to the 1 AU observer is consistent with the ion path length deduced by Reames from the onset time analysis. In addition, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined are in favor of the coronal mass ejection-driven shock acceleration origin of observed non-relativistic electrons.We have also found an increase of electron path lengths with increasing electron energies. The increasing rate of path lengths is correlated with the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of peak electron intensities locally measured, with a higher rate corresponding to a broader PAD. The correlation indicates that the path length enhancement is due to the interplanetary scattering experienced by first arriving electrons. The observed path length consistency implies that the maximum stable time of magnetic flux tubes, along which particles transport, could reach 4.8 hr.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Lun C.; Malandraki, Olga E.; Reames, Donald V.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua; Patsou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Athanasios
2013-05-01
We have examined the Wind/3DP/SST electron and Wind/EPACT/LEMT ion data to investigate the path length difference between solar electrons and ions in the ground-level enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23. Assuming that the onset time of metric type II or decameter-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts is the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons, we have found that within an error range of ±10% the deduced path length of low-energy (~27 keV) electrons from their release site near the Sun to the 1 AU observer is consistent with the ion path length deduced by Reames from the onset time analysis. In addition, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined are in favor of the coronal mass ejection-driven shock acceleration origin of observed non-relativistic electrons. We have also found an increase of electron path lengths with increasing electron energies. The increasing rate of path lengths is correlated with the pitch angle distribution (PAD) of peak electron intensities locally measured, with a higher rate corresponding to a broader PAD. The correlation indicates that the path length enhancement is due to the interplanetary scattering experienced by first arriving electrons. The observed path length consistency implies that the maximum stable time of magnetic flux tubes, along which particles transport, could reach 4.8 hr.
On the question of the energy dependence of the mean free path of flare particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daibog, E. I.; Kurt, V. G.; Stolpovskii, V. G.
1984-09-01
An analysis is made of the time profiles of fluxes of protons and alpha particles in the 0.1-100 MeV/nucleon range, detected by Prognoz-6 in the solar-flare events of September 24, October 9 and 12, November 22, and December 27, 1977. It is shown that a harmonic expansion of the measured field cannot be used to calculate the transport characteristics of solar cosmic rays (SCR). This is evidently due to the fact that the usual procedure for determining the power spectrum of IMF fluctuations does not make it possible to identify the type of inhomogeneity (wave, oscillation, or discontinuity) on which SCR-scattering occurs.
Burke, TImothy P.; Kiedrowski, Brian C.; Martin, William R.; Brown, Forrest B.
2015-11-19
Kernel Density Estimators (KDEs) are a non-parametric density estimation technique that has recently been applied to Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. Kernel density estimators are an alternative to histogram tallies for obtaining global solutions in Monte Carlo tallies. With KDEs, a single event, either a collision or particle track, can contribute to the score at multiple tally points with the uncertainty at those points being independent of the desired resolution of the solution. Thus, KDEs show potential for obtaining estimates of a global solution with reduced variance when compared to a histogram. Previously, KDEs have been applied to neutronics for one-group reactor physics problems and fixed source shielding applications. However, little work was done to obtain reaction rates using KDEs. This paper introduces a new form of the MFP KDE that is capable of handling general geometries. Furthermore, extending the MFP KDE to 2-D problems in continuous energy introduces inaccuracies to the solution. An ad-hoc solution to these inaccuracies is introduced that produces errors smaller than 4% at material interfaces.
Resistive ballooning modes in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with long mean-free path
Connor, J.W.; Chen, L.
1984-08-01
Tokamak devices normally operate at such high temperatures that the resistive fluid description is inappropriate. In particular, the collision frequency may be low enough for trapped particles to exist. However, on account of the high conductivity of such plasmas, one can identify two separate scale lengths when discussing resistive ballooning modes. By describing plasma motion on one of these, the connection length, in terms of kinetic theory the dynamics of trapped particles can be incorporated. On the resistive scale length, this leads to a description in terms of modified fluid equations in which trapped particle effects appear. The resulting equations are analyzed and the presence of trapped particles is found to modify the stability properties qualitatively.
A hybrid model for computing nonthermal ion distributions in a long mean-free-path plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Xianzhu; McDevitt, Chris; Guo, Zehua; Berk, Herb
2014-10-01
Non-thermal ions, especially the suprathermal ones, are known to make a dominant contribution to a number of important physics such as the fusion reactivity in controlled fusion, the ion heat flux, and in the case of a tokamak, the ion bootstrap current. Evaluating the deviation from a local Maxwellian distribution of these non-thermal ions can be a challenging task in the context of a global plasma fluid model that evolves the plasma density, flow, and temperature. Here we describe a hybrid model for coupling such constrained kinetic calculation to global plasma fluid models. The key ingredient is a non-perturbative treatment of the tail ions where the ion Knudsen number approaches or surpasses order unity. This can be sharply constrasted with the standard Chapman-Enskog approach which relies on a perturbative treatment that is frequently invalidated. The accuracy of our coupling scheme is controlled by the precise criteria for matching the non-perturbative kinetic model to perturbative solutions in both configuration space and velocity space. Although our specific application examples will be drawn from laboratory controlled fusion experiments, the general approach is applicable to space and astrophysical plasmas as well. Work supported by DOE.
Chemical excitation of electrons: A dark path to melanoma.
Premi, Sanjay; Brash, Douglas E
2016-08-01
Sunlight's ultraviolet wavelengths induce cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), which then cause mutations that lead to melanoma or to cancers of skin keratinocytes. In pigmented melanocytes, we found that CPDs arise both instantaneously and for hours after UV exposure ends. Remarkably, the CPDs arising in the dark originate by a novel pathway that resembles bioluminescence but does not end in light: First, UV activates the enzymes nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NADPH oxidase (NOX), which generate the radicals nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2(-)); these combine to form the powerful oxidant peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). A fragment of the skin pigment melanin is then oxidized, exciting an electron to an energy level so high that it is rarely seen in biology. This process of chemically exciting electrons, termed "chemiexcitation", is used by fireflies to generate light but it had never been seen in mammalian cells. In melanocytes, the energy transfers radiationlessly to DNA, inducing CPDs. Chemiexcitation is a new source of genome instability, and it calls attention to endogenous mechanisms of genome maintenance that prevent electronic excitation or dissipate the energy of excited states. Chemiexcitation may also trigger pathogenesis in internal tissues because the same chemistry should arise wherever superoxide and nitric oxide arise near cells that contain melanin. PMID:27262612
Assurance of Complex Electronics. What Path Do We Take?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Plastow, Richard A.
2007-01-01
Many of the methods used to develop software bare a close resemblance to Complex Electronics (CE) development. CE are now programmed to perform tasks that were previously handled in software, such as communication protocols. For instance, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) can have over a million logic gates while system-on-chip (SOC) devices can combine a microprocessor, input and output channels, and sometimes an FPGA for programmability. With this increased intricacy, the possibility of "software-like" bugs such as incorrect design, logic, and unexpected interactions within the logic is great. Since CE devices are obscuring the hardware/software boundary, we propose that mature software methodologies may be utilized with slight modifications to develop these devices. By using standardized S/W Engineering methods such as checklists, missing requirements and "bugs" can be detected earlier in the development cycle, thus creating a development process for CE that will be easily maintained and configurable based on the device used.
Dephasing of an electronic two-path interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurman, Itamar; Sabo, Ron; Heiblum, Moty; Umansky, Vladimir; Mahalu, Diana
2016-03-01
This Rapid Communication was motivated by the quest for observing interference of fractionally charged quasiparticles. Here, we study the behavior of an electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometer at the integer quantum Hall effect regime at filling factors greater than 1. Both the visibility and the velocity were measured and found to be highly correlated as a function of the filling factor. As the filling factor approached unity, the visibility quenched, not to recover for filling factors smaller than unity. Alternatively, the velocity saturated around a minimal value at the unity filling factor. We highlight the significant role interactions between the interfering edge and the bulk play as well as that of the defining potential at the edge. Shot-noise measurements suggest that phase averaging (due to phase randomization), rather than single-particle decoherence, is likely to be the cause of the dephasing in the fractional regime.
Electron path control of high-order harmonic generation by a spatially inhomogeneous field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohebbi, Masoud; Nazarpoor Malaei, Sakineh
2016-04-01
We theoretically investigate the control of high-order harmonics cut-off and as-pulse generation by a chirped laser field using a metallic bow tie-shaped nanostructure. The numerical results show that the trajectories of the electron wave packet are strongly modified, the short quantum path is enhanced, the long quantum path is suppressed and the low modulated spectrum of the harmonics can be remarkably extended. Our calculated results also show that, by confining electron motion, a broadband supercontinuum with the width of 1670 eV can be produced which directly generates an isolated 34 as-pulse without phase compensation. To explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the cut-off extension and the quantum path selection, we perform time-frequency analysis and a classical simulation based on the three-step model.
Cerenkov radiation generated by periodic electron bunches in a finite air path
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newton, L. A.
1983-12-01
Microwave Cerenkov radiation is measured for the case of bunched electron beams which exceed the velocity of light in a finite air path. The theoretical equation for prediction of the form of the power for Cerenkov radiation is tested experimentally for this case. Initial verification of the theory is observed.
Putz, Mihai V.
2009-01-01
The density matrix theory, the ancestor of density functional theory, provides the immediate framework for Path Integral (PI) development, allowing the canonical density be extended for the many-electronic systems through the density functional closure relationship. Yet, the use of path integral formalism for electronic density prescription presents several advantages: assures the inner quantum mechanical description of the system by parameterized paths; averages the quantum fluctuations; behaves as the propagator for time-space evolution of quantum information; resembles Schrödinger equation; allows quantum statistical description of the system through partition function computing. In this framework, four levels of path integral formalism were presented: the Feynman quantum mechanical, the semiclassical, the Feynman-Kleinert effective classical, and the Fokker-Planck non-equilibrium ones. In each case the density matrix or/and the canonical density were rigorously defined and presented. The practical specializations for quantum free and harmonic motions, for statistical high and low temperature limits, the smearing justification for the Bohr’s quantum stability postulate with the paradigmatic Hydrogen atomic excursion, along the quantum chemical calculation of semiclassical electronegativity and hardness, of chemical action and Mulliken electronegativity, as well as by the Markovian generalizations of Becke-Edgecombe electronic focalization functions – all advocate for the reliability of assuming PI formalism of quantum mechanics as a versatile one, suited for analytically and/or computationally modeling of a variety of fundamental physical and chemical reactivity concepts characterizing the (density driving) many-electronic systems. PMID:20087467
Measurement of the transmission phase of an electron in a quantum two-path interferometer
Takada, S. Watanabe, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Bäuerle, C.; Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D.; Tarucha, S.
2015-08-10
A quantum two-path interferometer allows for direct measurement of the transmission phase shift of an electron, providing useful information on coherent scattering problems. In mesoscopic systems, however, the two-path interference is easily smeared by contributions from other paths, and this makes it difficult to observe the true transmission phase shift. To eliminate this problem, multi-terminal Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometers have been used to derive the phase shift by assuming that the relative phase shift of the electrons between the two paths is simply obtained when a smooth shift of the AB oscillations is observed. Nevertheless, the phase shifts using such a criterion have sometimes been inconsistent with theory. On the other hand, we have used an AB ring contacted to tunnel-coupled wires and acquired the phase shift consistent with theory when the two output currents through the coupled wires oscillate with well-defined anti-phase. Here, we investigate thoroughly these two criteria used to ensure a reliable phase measurement, the anti-phase relation of the two output currents, and the smooth phase shift in the AB oscillation. We confirm that the well-defined anti-phase relation ensures a correct phase measurement with a quantum two-path interference. In contrast, we find that even in a situation where the anti-phase relation is less well-defined, the smooth phase shift in the AB oscillation can still occur but does not give the correct transmission phase due to contributions from multiple paths. This indicates that the phase relation of the two output currents in our interferometer gives a good criterion for the measurement of the true transmission phase, while the smooth phase shift in the AB oscillation itself does not.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malandraki, Olga; Tan, Lun; Reames, Donald; Ng, Chee; Wang, Linghua; Patsou, Ioanna; Papaioannou, Athanasios
2014-05-01
The inconsistency of electron and ion path lengths during Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events remains an open issue. In order to investigate the difference between the electron and ion path lengths during the Ground-Level Enhancement (GLE) events in solar cycle 23, electron and ion data from the WIND/3DP/SST and WIND/EPACT/LEMT instruments respectively have been used. The electron path lengths were determined for the GLEs in solar cycle 23 assuming that the solar release time of non-relativistic electrons is well represented by the onset time of metric type II or decametre-hectometric (DH) type III radio bursts. The values estimated for low-energy electrons (~ 27 keV) were compared to the ion path lengths deduced by Reames for the GLEs in solar cycle 23 based on the onset-time analysis and consistency within an error range of 10% was found. In addition, the electron path lengths were found to increase with increasing electron energies, with the increasing rate of path lengths corresponding to broader position angle distribution (PAD) of electrons, which suggests that electron path length enhancement is due to interplanetary scattering experienced by first-arriving electrons. Furthermore, the solar longitude distribution and IMF topology of the GLE events examined support that the non-relativistic electrons observed have been accelerated in shocks driven by CMEs. Finally, it should be stressed that the observed path length consistency leads to stability of magnetic flux tubes along which particles travel, with a maximum stability time of ~ 4.8 hours, which could be very important for forecasting since, based on the observed onset time of the electron event, it is possible to observe the arrival and duration of the proton event.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ko, H. C.
1973-01-01
The wave-normal emissivity and the ray emissivity formulas for an electron moving along a helical path in a magnetoactive medium are presented. Simplified formulas for the case of an isotropic plasma are also given. Because of the helical motion of the electron, a difference exists between the radiated power per unit solid angle and the received power per unit solid angle. The relation between these two quantities in a magnetoactive medium is shown. Results are compared with those obtained by others, and the sources of discrepancies are pointed out.
On the path length of an excess electron interacted with optical phonons in a molecular chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lakhno, V. D.
2008-08-01
We show that in a molecular chain with dispersionless phonons at zero temperature, a “quasistationary” moving soliton state of an excess electron is possible. As the soliton velocity vanishes, the path length of the excess electron exponentially tends to infinity. It is demonstrated that in the presence of dispersion, when the soliton initial velocity exceeds the maximum group velocity of the chain, the soliton slows down until it reaches the maximum group velocity and then moves stationarily at this maximum group velocity. A conclusion is made of the fallacy of some works were the existence of moving polarons in a dispersionless medium is considered infeasible.
Motion of Electrons in Electric and Magnetic Fields: Introductory Laboratory and Computer Studies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huggins, Elisha R.; Lelek, Jeffrey J.
1979-01-01
Describes a series of laboratory experiments and computer simulations of the motion of electrons in electric and magnetic fields. These experiments, which involve an inexpensive student-built electron gun, study the electron mean free path, magnetic focusing, and other aspects. (Author/HM)
Huo, Pengfei; Miller, Thomas F. III; Coker, David F.
2013-10-21
A partial linearized path integral approach is used to calculate the condensed phase electron transfer (ET) rate by directly evaluating the flux-flux/flux-side quantum time correlation functions. We demonstrate for a simple ET model that this approach can reliably capture the transition between non-adiabatic and adiabatic regimes as the electronic coupling is varied, while other commonly used semi-classical methods are less accurate over the broad range of electronic couplings considered. Further, we show that the approach reliably recovers the Marcus turnover as a function of thermodynamic driving force, giving highly accurate rates over four orders of magnitude from the normal to the inverted regimes. We also demonstrate that the approach yields accurate rate estimates over five orders of magnitude of inverse temperature. Finally, the approach outlined here accurately captures the electronic coherence in the flux-flux correlation function that is responsible for the decreased rate in the inverted regime.
Dornheim, Tobias; Schoof, Tim; Groth, Simon; Filinov, Alexey; Bonitz, Michael
2015-11-28
The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature is of high current interest due to its key relevance for many applications including dense plasmas and laser excited solids. In particular, density functional theory heavily relies on accurate thermodynamic data for the UEG. Until recently, the only existing first-principle results had been obtained for N = 33 electrons with restricted path integral Monte Carlo (RPIMC), for low to moderate density, rs=r¯/aB≳1. These data have been complemented by configuration path integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) simulations for rs ≤ 1 that substantially deviate from RPIMC towards smaller rs and low temperature. In this work, we present results from an independent third method-the recently developed permutation blocking path integral Monte Carlo (PB-PIMC) approach [T. Dornheim et al., New J. Phys. 17, 073017 (2015)] which we extend to the UEG. Interestingly, PB-PIMC allows us to perform simulations over the entire density range down to half the Fermi temperature (θ = kBT/EF = 0.5) and, therefore, to compare our results to both aforementioned methods. While we find excellent agreement with CPIMC, where results are available, we observe deviations from RPIMC that are beyond the statistical errors and increase with density. PMID:26627944
Ultrafast electron crystallography of the cooperative reaction path in vanadium dioxide
Yang, Ding-Shyue; Baum, Peter; Zewail, Ahmed H.
2016-01-01
Time-resolved electron diffraction with atomic-scale spatial and temporal resolution was used to unravel the transformation pathway in the photoinduced structural phase transition of vanadium dioxide. Results from bulk crystals and single-crystalline thin-films reveal a common, stepwise mechanism: First, there is a femtosecond V−V bond dilation within 300 fs, second, an intracell adjustment in picoseconds and, third, a nanoscale shear motion within tens of picoseconds. Experiments at different ambient temperatures and pump laser fluences reveal a temperature-dependent excitation threshold required to trigger the transitional reaction path of the atomic motions. PMID:27376103
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imada, Masatoshi; Kashima, Tsuyoshi
2000-09-01
A numerical algorithm for studying strongly correlated electron systems is proposed. The groundstate wavefunction is projected out after a numerical renormalization procedure in the path integral formalism. The wavefunction is expressed from the optimized linear combination of retained states in the truncated Hilbert space with a numerically chosen basis. This algorithm does not suffer from the negative sign problem and can be applied to any type of Hamiltonian in any dimension. The efficiency is tested in examples of the Hubbard model where the basis of Slater determinants is numerically optimized. We show results on fast convergence and accuracy achieved with a small number of retained states.
Fermionic path-integral Monte Carlo results for the uniform electron gas at finite temperature.
Filinov, V S; Fortov, V E; Bonitz, M; Moldabekov, Zh
2015-03-01
The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature has recently attracted substantial interest due to the experimental progress in the field of warm dense matter. To explain the experimental data, accurate theoretical models for high-density plasmas are needed that depend crucially on the quality of the thermodynamic properties of the quantum degenerate nonideal electrons and of the treatment of their interaction with the positive background. Recent fixed-node path-integral Monte Carlo (RPIMC) data are believed to be the most accurate for the UEG at finite temperature, but they become questionable at high degeneracy when the Brueckner parameter rs=a/aB--the ratio of the mean interparticle distance to the Bohr radius--approaches 1. The validity range of these simulations and their predictive capabilities for the UEG are presently unknown. This is due to the unknown quality of the used fixed nodes and of the finite-size scaling from N=33 simulated particles (per spin projection) to the macroscopic limit. To analyze these questions, we present alternative direct fermionic path integral Monte Carlo (DPIMC) simulations that are independent from RPIMC. Our simulations take into account quantum effects not only in the electron system but also in their interaction with the uniform positive background. Also, we use substantially larger particle numbers (up to three times more) and perform an extrapolation to the macroscopic limit. We observe very good agreement with RPIMC, for the polarized electron gas, up to moderate densities around rs=4, and larger deviations for the unpolarized case, for low temperatures. For higher densities (high electron degeneracy), rs≲1.5, both RPIMC and DPIMC are problematic due to the increased fermion sign problem. PMID:25871225
Fermionic path-integral Monte Carlo results for the uniform electron gas at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filinov, V. S.; Fortov, V. E.; Bonitz, M.; Moldabekov, Zh.
2015-03-01
The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature has recently attracted substantial interest due to the experimental progress in the field of warm dense matter. To explain the experimental data, accurate theoretical models for high-density plasmas are needed that depend crucially on the quality of the thermodynamic properties of the quantum degenerate nonideal electrons and of the treatment of their interaction with the positive background. Recent fixed-node path-integral Monte Carlo (RPIMC) data are believed to be the most accurate for the UEG at finite temperature, but they become questionable at high degeneracy when the Brueckner parameter rs=a /aB —the ratio of the mean interparticle distance to the Bohr radius—approaches 1. The validity range of these simulations and their predictive capabilities for the UEG are presently unknown. This is due to the unknown quality of the used fixed nodes and of the finite-size scaling from N =33 simulated particles (per spin projection) to the macroscopic limit. To analyze these questions, we present alternative direct fermionic path integral Monte Carlo (DPIMC) simulations that are independent from RPIMC. Our simulations take into account quantum effects not only in the electron system but also in their interaction with the uniform positive background. Also, we use substantially larger particle numbers (up to three times more) and perform an extrapolation to the macroscopic limit. We observe very good agreement with RPIMC, for the polarized electron gas, up to moderate densities around rs=4 , and larger deviations for the unpolarized case, for low temperatures. For higher densities (high electron degeneracy), rs≲1.5 , both RPIMC and DPIMC are problematic due to the increased fermion sign problem.
Turn on of new electronic paths in Fe-SiO{sub 2} granular thin film
Boff, M. A. S. E-mail: marcoaureliosilveiraboff@gmail.com; Canto, B.; Mesquita, F.; Fraga, G. L. F.; Pereira, L. G.; Hinrichs, R.; Baptista, D. L.
2014-10-06
The electrical properties of Fe-SiO{sub 2} have been studied in the low-field regime (eΔV ≪ k{sub B}T), varying the injected current and the bias potential. Superparamagnetism and a resistance drop of 4400 Ω (for a voltage variation of 15 V) were observed at room temperature. This resistance drop increased at lower temperatures. The electrical properties were described with the “Mott variable range hopping” model explaining the behavior of the electrical resistance and the electronic localization length as due to the activation of new electronic paths between more distant grains. This non-ohmic resistance at room temperature can be important for properties dependent of electrical current (magnetoresistance, Hall effect, and magnetoimpedance).
Yamamoto, Kentaro Takatsuka, Kazuo
2014-03-28
We develop the path-branching representation for nonadiabatic electron wavepacket dynamics [T. Yonehara and K. Takatsuka, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 244102 (2010)] so as to treat dynamics in an energy range comparable to the barrier height of adiabatic potential energy curves. With this representation two characteristic chemical reaction dynamics are studied, in which an incident nuclear wavepacket encounters a potential barrier, on top of which lies another nonadiabatically coupled adiabatic potential curve: (1) Dynamics of initial paths coming into the nonadiabatic interaction region with energy lower than the barrier height. They branch into two pieces (and repeat branching subsequently), the upper counterparts of which can penetrate into a classically inaccessible high energy region and eventually branch back to the product region on the ground state curve. This is so to say surmounting the potential barrier via nonadiabatically coupled excited state, and phenomenologically looks like the so-called deep tunneling. (2) Dynamics of classical paths whose initial energies are a little higher than the barrier but may be lower than the bottom of the excited state. They can undergo branching and some of those components are trapped on top of the potential barrier, being followed by the population decay down to the lower state flowing both to product and reactant sites. Such expectations arising from the path-branching representation are numerically confirmed with full quantum mechanical wavepacket dynamics. This phenomenon may be experimentally observed as time-delayed pulses of wavepacket trains.
Yamamoto, Kentaro; Takatsuka, Kazuo
2014-03-28
We develop the path-branching representation for nonadiabatic electron wavepacket dynamics [T. Yonehara and K. Takatsuka, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 244102 (2010)] so as to treat dynamics in an energy range comparable to the barrier height of adiabatic potential energy curves. With this representation two characteristic chemical reaction dynamics are studied, in which an incident nuclear wavepacket encounters a potential barrier, on top of which lies another nonadiabatically coupled adiabatic potential curve: (1) Dynamics of initial paths coming into the nonadiabatic interaction region with energy lower than the barrier height. They branch into two pieces (and repeat branching subsequently), the upper counterparts of which can penetrate into a classically inaccessible high energy region and eventually branch back to the product region on the ground state curve. This is so to say surmounting the potential barrier via nonadiabatically coupled excited state, and phenomenologically looks like the so-called deep tunneling. (2) Dynamics of classical paths whose initial energies are a little higher than the barrier but may be lower than the bottom of the excited state. They can undergo branching and some of those components are trapped on top of the potential barrier, being followed by the population decay down to the lower state flowing both to product and reactant sites. Such expectations arising from the path-branching representation are numerically confirmed with full quantum mechanical wavepacket dynamics. This phenomenon may be experimentally observed as time-delayed pulses of wavepacket trains. PMID:24697428
Shaing, K. C.
2007-11-15
In Part I [Phys. Fluids B 2, 1190 (1990)] and Part II [Phys. Plasmas 12, 082508 (2005)], it was emphasized that the equilibrium plasma viscous forces when applied for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes are only rigorously valid at the mode rational surface where m-nq=0. Here, m is the poloidal mode number, n is the toroidal mode number, and q is the safety factor. This important fact has been demonstrated explicitly by calculating the viscous forces in the plateau regime in Parts I and II. Here, the effective viscous forces in the banana regime are calculated for MHD modes by solving the linear drift kinetic equation that is driven by the plasma flows first derived in Part I. At the mode rational surface, the equilibrium plasma viscous forces are reproduced. However, it is found that away from the mode rational surface, the viscous forces for MHD modes decrease, a behavior similar to that observed in the viscous forces for the plateau regime. The proper form of the momentum equation that is appropriate for the modeling of the MHD modes is also discussed.
Choi, N. N.; Jiang, T. F.; Morishita, T.; Lee, M.-H.; Lin, C. D.
2010-07-15
We study theoretically the electron wave packet generated by an attosecond pulse train (APT) which is probed with a time-delayed infrared (IR) laser pulse. The APT creates an excited state and a continuum electron wave packet. By ionizing the excited state with an IR, a delayed new continuum electron wave packet is created. The interference of the wave packets from the two paths, as reflected in angle-resolved photoelectron spectra, is analyzed analytically. Using the analytical expressions, we examine the possibility of retrieving information on the electron wave packet generated by the APT.
Hari, Ananda Rao; Katuri, Krishna P; Gorron, Eduardo; Logan, Bruce E; Saikaly, Pascal E
2016-07-01
Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) provide a viable approach for bioenergy generation from fermentable substrates such as propionate. However, the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs are unknown. Here, the paths of electron flow involved in propionate oxidation in the anode of two-chambered MECs were examined at low (4.5 mM) and high (36 mM) propionate concentrations. Electron mass balances and microbial community analysis revealed that multiple paths of electron flow (via acetate/H2 or acetate/formate) to current could occur simultaneously during propionate oxidation regardless of the concentration tested. Current (57-96 %) was the largest electron sink and methane (0-2.3 %) production was relatively unimportant at both concentrations based on electron balances. At a low propionate concentration, reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had slightly higher coulombic efficiencies than reactors lacking this methanogenesis inhibitor. However, an opposite trend was observed at high propionate concentration, where reactors supplemented with 2-bromoethanesulfonate had a lower coulombic efficiency and there was a greater percentage of electron loss (23.5 %) to undefined sinks compared to reactors without 2-bromoethanesulfonate (11.2 %). Propionate removal efficiencies were 98 % (low propionate concentration) and 78 % (high propionate concentration). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed the dominance of sequences most similar to Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and G. sulfurreducens subsp. ethanolicus. Collectively, these results provide new insights on the paths of electron flow during propionate oxidation in the anode of MECs fed with low and high propionate concentrations. PMID:26936773
Han, Sang Eon
2016-02-01
Nanostructured metals have been intensively studied for optical applications over the past few decades. However, the intrinsic loss of metals has limited the optical performance of the metal nanostructures in diverse applications. In particular, light concentration in metals by surface plasmons or other resonances causes substantial absorption in metals. Here, we avoid plasmonic excitations for low loss and investigate methods to further suppress loss in nanostructured metals. We demonstrate that parasitic absorption in metal nanostructures can be significantly reduced over a broad band by increasing the Faraday inductance and the electron path length. For an example structure, the loss is reduced in comparison to flat films by more than an order of magnitude over most of the very broad spectrum between short and long wavelength infrared. For a photodetector structure, the fraction of absorption in the photoactive material increases by two orders of magnitude and the photoresponsivity increases by 15 times because of the selective suppression of metal absorption. These findings could benefit many metal-based applications that require low loss such as photovoltaics, photoconductive detectors, solar selective surfaces, infrared-transparent defrosting windows, and other metamaterials. PMID:26906830
Effects of Auger electron elastic scattering in quantitative AES
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jablonski, Aleksander
1987-09-01
The Monte Carlo algorithm was developed for simulating the trajectories of electrons elastically scattered in the solid. The distribution of scattering angles was determined using the partial wave expansion method. This algorithm was used to establish the influence of Auger electron elastic collisions on the results of quantitative AES analysis. The calculations were performed for the most pronounced KLL, L 3 MM and M 5NN Auger transitions. It turned out that due to the elastic collisions the Auger electron signal is decreased by up to 10%. The corresponding decreased of the escape depth of Auger electrons reaches 30% as compared with the value derived from the inelastic mean free path. The values of the inelastic mean free path resulting from the overalyer method may be strongly affected by elastic scattering of Auger electrons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Persano Adorno, Dominique; Pizzolato, Nicola; Fazio, Claudio
2015-09-01
Within the context of higher education for science or engineering undergraduates, we present an inquiry-driven learning path aimed at developing a more meaningful conceptual understanding of the electron dynamics in semiconductors in the presence of applied electric fields. The electron transport in a nondegenerate n-type indium phosphide bulk semiconductor is modelled using a multivalley Monte Carlo approach. The main characteristics of the electron dynamics are explored under different values of the driving electric field, lattice temperature and impurity density. Simulation results are presented by following a question-driven path of exploration, starting from the validation of the model and moving up to reasoned inquiries about the observed characteristics of electron dynamics. Our inquiry-driven learning path, based on numerical simulations, represents a viable example of how to integrate a traditional lecture-based teaching approach with effective learning strategies, providing science or engineering undergraduates with practical opportunities to enhance their comprehension of the physics governing the electron dynamics in semiconductors. Finally, we present a general discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of using an inquiry-based teaching approach within a learning environment based on semiconductor simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filinov, V. S.; Fortov, V. E.; Bonitz, M.; Moldabekov, Zh
2015-11-01
The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature has recently attracted substantial interest due to the experimental progress in the field of warm dense matter. To explain the experimental data accurate theoretical models for high density plasmas are needed which crucially depend on treatment of quantum effects in electron-electron interaction as well as in the interaction of electrons with uniform positive background. To comply with these requirements we have developed the new quantum path integral model of the UEG and present the results of related direct path integral Monte-Carlo (DPIMC) simulations. Contrary to the known in literature approaches treating the electron-background interaction classically our simulations take into account the quantum effects in this interaction. We have observed very good agreement with known in literature results only up to moderate densities when the ratio of the average interparticle distance to the Bohr radius is of order four (rs ≥ 4) and observe deviations for higher densities. At very high electron density (rs ≈ 1) presented in literature approaches as well as our simulations are problematic due to the strong degeneracy of electrons and increasing fermion sign problem.
Mangaud, E; de la Lande, A; Meier, C; Desouter-Lecomte, M
2015-12-14
The quantum dynamics of electron transfer in mixed-valence organic compounds is investigated using a reaction path model calibrated by constrained density functional theory (cDFT). Constrained DFT is used to define diabatic states relevant for describing the electron transfer, to obtain equilibrium structures for each of these states and to estimate the electronic coupling between them. The harmonic analysis at the diabatic minima yields normal modes forming the dissipative bath coupled to the electronic states. In order to decrease the system-bath coupling, an effective one dimensional vibronic Hamiltonian is constructed by partitioning the modes into a linear reaction path which connects both equilibrium positions and a set of secondary vibrational modes, coupled to this reaction coordinate. Using this vibronic model Hamiltonian, dissipative quantum dynamics is carried out using Redfield theory, based on a spectral density which is determined from the cDFT results. In a first benchmark case, the model is applied to a series of mixed-valence organic compounds formed by two 1,4-dimethoxy-3-methylphenylene fragments linked by an increasing number of phenylene bridges. This allows us to examine the coherent electron transfer in extreme situations leading to a ground adiabatic state with or without a barrier and therefore to the trapping of the charge or to an easy delocalization. PMID:26041466
Monte Carlo Transport for Electron Thermal Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chenhall, Jeffrey; Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory
2015-11-01
The iSNB (implicit Schurtz Nicolai Busquet multigroup electron thermal transport method of Cao et al. is adapted into a Monte Carlo transport method in order to better model the effects of non-local behavior. The end goal is a hybrid transport-diffusion method that combines Monte Carlo Transport with a discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC). The hybrid method will combine the efficiency of a diffusion method in short mean free path regions with the accuracy of a transport method in long mean free path regions. The Monte Carlo nature of the approach allows the algorithm to be massively parallelized. Work to date on the method will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratory - Albuquerque and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.
The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forrest, Stephen R.
2004-04-01
Organic electronics are beginning to make significant inroads into the commercial world, and if the field continues to progress at its current, rapid pace, electronics based on organic thin-film materials will soon become a mainstay of our technological existence. Already products based on active thin-film organic devices are in the market place, most notably the displays of several mobile electronic appliances. Yet the future holds even greater promise for this technology, with an entirely new generation of ultralow-cost, lightweight and even flexible electronic devices in the offing, which will perform functions traditionally accomplished using much more expensive components based on conventional semiconductor materials such as silicon.
Tesoriero, A.J.; Liebscher, H.; Cox, S.E.
2000-01-01
The rate and mechanism of nitrate removal along and between groundwater flow paths were investigated using a series of well nests screened in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer. Intensive agricultural activity in this area has resulted in nitrate concentrations in groundwater often exceeding drinking water standards. Both the extent and rate of denitrification varied depending on the groundwater flow path. While little or no denitrification occurred in much of the upland portions of the aquifer, a gradual redox gradient is observed as aerobic upland groundwater moves deeper in the aquifer. In contrast, a sharp shallow redox gradient is observed adjacent to a third-order stream as aerobic groundwater enters reduced sediments. An essentially complete loss of nitrate concurrent with increases in excess N2 provide evidence that denitrification occurs as groundwater enters this zone. Electron and mass balance calculations suggest that iron sulfide (e.g., pyrite) oxidation is the primary source of electrons for denitrification. Denitrification rate estimates were based on mass balance calculations using nitrate and excess N2 coupled with groundwater travel times. Travel times were determined using a groundwater flow model and were constrained by chlorofluorocarbon-based age dates. Denitrification rates were found to vary considerably between the two areas where denitrification occurs. Denitrification rates in the deep, upland portions of the aquifer were found to range from < 0.01 to 0.14 mM of N per year; rates at the redoxcline along the shallow flow path range from 1.0 to 2.7 mM of N per year. Potential denitrification rates in groundwater adjacent to the stream may be much faster, with rates up to 140 mM per year based on an in situ experiment conducted in this zone.The rate and mechanism of nitrate removal along and between groundwater flow paths were investigated using a series of well nests screened in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer. Intensive
Feynman Path Integral Approach to Electron Diffraction for One and Two Slits: Analytical Results
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beau, Mathieu
2012-01-01
In this paper we present an analytic solution of the famous problem of diffraction and interference of electrons through one and two slits (for simplicity, only the one-dimensional case is considered). In addition to exact formulae, various approximations of the electron distribution are shown which facilitate the interpretation of the results.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cheng; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shao, Tao; Beloplotov, Dmitry V.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Wang, Ruixue; Sorokin, Dmitry A.; Yan, Ping
2015-03-01
Diffuse discharges preionized by runaway electrons can produce large-area homogeneous discharges at elevated pressures, which is an intriguing phenomenon in the physics of pulsed discharges. In this paper, runaway-electron-preionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) was obtained in a wide pressure range (0.05-0.25 MPa), and under certain conditions a positive streamer and a cathode-directed spark leader could be observed to propagate at some angles to the applied (background) electric field lines. For a 16-mm gap at an air pressure of 0.08-0.1 MPa, the percentage of pulses in which such propagation is observed is about 5%-50% of their total number, and in the other pulses such bent paths could not be observed because there is even no streamer or cathode-directed spark leader in diffuse discharges. In our opinion, such propagation of the positive streamer and the cathode-directed spark leader at some angle to the background electric field lines owes to different increase rates of the electron density in different regions of the discharge volume under REP DD conditions. Therefore, during the formation of a REP DD, the increase of the electron density is inhomogeneous and nonsimultaneous, resulting in an electron density gradient at the ionization wave front.
Zhang, Cheng; Shao, Tao Wang, Ruixue; Yan, Ping; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Beloplotov, Dmitry V.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Sorokin, Dmitry A.
2015-03-15
Diffuse discharges preionized by runaway electrons can produce large-area homogeneous discharges at elevated pressures, which is an intriguing phenomenon in the physics of pulsed discharges. In this paper, runaway-electron-preionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) was obtained in a wide pressure range (0.05–0.25 MPa), and under certain conditions a positive streamer and a cathode-directed spark leader could be observed to propagate at some angles to the applied (background) electric field lines. For a 16-mm gap at an air pressure of 0.08–0.1 MPa, the percentage of pulses in which such propagation is observed is about 5%–50% of their total number, and in the other pulses such bent paths could not be observed because there is even no streamer or cathode-directed spark leader in diffuse discharges. In our opinion, such propagation of the positive streamer and the cathode-directed spark leader at some angle to the background electric field lines owes to different increase rates of the electron density in different regions of the discharge volume under REP DD conditions. Therefore, during the formation of a REP DD, the increase of the electron density is inhomogeneous and nonsimultaneous, resulting in an electron density gradient at the ionization wave front.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schüür, J.; Nunes, R. R.
2012-05-01
Emitters of current and future wireless ultra wideband technology (UWB) inside the cabin should not interfere with any aircraft system. Especially the radio altimeter (RA) system using antennas mounted outside the fuselage is potentially sensitive to UWB devices in the frequency range between 4.1 and 4.8 GHz. The measurement of the interference path loss (IPL) to the RA is therefore of interest and is presented for different aircraft. The need of a high dynamic setup with low parasitic coupling in the IPL measurement is stressed. In addition, electromagnetic interference (EMI) tests with different transmitted signals are made, showing that the susceptibility of the RA system actually increases with UWB modulation.
Jiang, N.; Wu, B.; Qiu, J.; Spence, J. C. H.
2007-04-16
This letter demonstrates an alternative method to form gallium silicate glass ceramics using high-energy electron irradiation. Compared with glass ceramics obtained from the conventional thermal treatment method, the distribution and crystal sizes of the precipitated Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles are the same. An advantage of this method is that the spatial distribution of the precipitated nanoparticles can be easily controlled. However, optically active dopants Ni{sup 2+} ions do not participate in the precipitation during electron irradiation.
Inhibition of electron thermal conduction by electromagnetic instabilities. [in stellar coronas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levinson, Amir; Eichler, David
1992-01-01
Heat flux inhibition by electromagnetic instabilities in a hot magnetized plasma is investigated. Low-frequency electromagnetic waves become unstable due to anisotropy of the electron distribution function. The chaotic magnetic field thus generated scatters the electrons with a specific effective mean free path. Saturation of the instability due to wave-wave interaction, nonlinear scattering, wave propagation, and collisional damping is considered. The effective mean free path is found self-consistently, using a simple model to estimate saturation level and scattering, and is shown to decrease with the temperature gradient length. The results, limited to the assumptions of the model, are applied to astrophysical systems. For some interstellar clouds the instability is found to be important. Collisional damping stabilizes the plasma, and the heat conduction can be dominated by superthermal electrons.
Ma, Jie; Yang, Jihui; Da Silva, J. L.F.; Wei, Su-Huai
2014-10-30
Using first-principles calculations, we study the diffusions of interstitial defects Cd, Cu, Te, and Cl in CdTe. We find that the diffusion behavior is strongly correlated with the electronic structure of the interstitial diffuser. For Cd and Cu, because the defect state is the non-degenerated slike state under T_{d} symmetry, the diffusions are almost along the [111] directions between the tetrahedral sites, although the diffusion of Cu shows some deviation due to the s - d coupling. The diffusions of the neutral and charged Cd and Cu follow similar paths. However, for Te and Cl atoms, because the defect state is the degenerated p-like state under T_{d} symmetry, large distortions occur. Therefore, the diffusion paths are very different from those of Cd and Cu interstitials, and depend strongly on the charge states of the interstitial atoms. For Te, we find that the distortion is mostly stabilized by the crystal-field splitting, but for Cl, the exchange splitting plays a more important role.
Ma, Jie; Yang, Jihui; Da Silva, J. L.F.; Wei, Su-Huai
2014-10-30
Using first-principles calculations, we study the diffusions of interstitial defects Cd, Cu, Te, and Cl in CdTe. We find that the diffusion behavior is strongly correlated with the electronic structure of the interstitial diffuser. For Cd and Cu, because the defect state is the non-degenerated slike state under Td symmetry, the diffusions are almost along the [111] directions between the tetrahedral sites, although the diffusion of Cu shows some deviation due to the s - d coupling. The diffusions of the neutral and charged Cd and Cu follow similar paths. However, for Te and Cl atoms, because the defect statemore » is the degenerated p-like state under Td symmetry, large distortions occur. Therefore, the diffusion paths are very different from those of Cd and Cu interstitials, and depend strongly on the charge states of the interstitial atoms. For Te, we find that the distortion is mostly stabilized by the crystal-field splitting, but for Cl, the exchange splitting plays a more important role.« less
Theoretical study of electron tunneling through the spiral molecule junctions along spiral paths.
Xu, Xiaodong; Li, Weiqi; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Qiang; Feng, Jikang; Tian, Wei Quan; Jiang, Yongyuan
2016-02-01
The electronic transport properties of carbohelicenes and heterohelicenes absorbed between two metal electrodes have been investigated by using the nonequilibrium Green's function in combination with the density function theory. The transport properties of the molecular junctions are mainly dependent on the nature of spiral molecules. The detailed analyses of the transmission spectra, the energy levels as well as the spatial distribution of molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian explain how the geometry of molecules affects the intra-molecular electronic coupling. The spiral current in the configurations can be achieved by tuning the outer edge states of spiral-shaped molecules. Furthermore, the symmetric current-voltage characteristics are investigated with the bias changing for all devices as well as an negative differential resistance behavior is observed. PMID:26762548
Electron energy transport in ion waves and its relevance to laser-produced plasmas
Bell, A.R.
1983-01-01
Electron energy transport in plasmas is examined in the context of ion waves which are intermediate between collisionless isothermal ion acoustic waves and collisional adiabatic sound waves. The conductivity is found to be much less than the Spitzer-Haerm result for wavelengths less than 1000 electron mean free paths. This is expected to be relevant to laser-produced ablating plasmas in which the temperature can vary considerably over a distance of 10 to 100 mean free paths. The reduction in conductivity is independent of the wave amplitude thus differing from the reduction due to saturation found recently by numerical solution of the Fokker--Planck equation. At short wavelengths the heat flow approaches an upper limit which depends on the phase velocity of the wave. Diffusive ion wave damping is strong over a large range of wavelengths.
Electron cyclotron resonance microwave ion sources for thin film processing
Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.
1990-01-01
Plasmas created by microwave absorption at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) are increasingly used for a variety of plasma processes, including both etching and deposition. ECR sources efficiently couple energy to electrons and use magnetic confinement to maximize the probability of an electron creating an ion or free radical in pressure regimes where the mean free path for ionization is comparable to the ECR source dimensions. The general operating principles of ECR sources are discussed with special emphasis on their use for thin film etching. Data on source performance during Cl base etching of Si using an ECR system are presented. 32 refs., 5 figs.
Electronic States of Nickel Effected By Magnetic Doping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podolak, Ken; Smith, Jamie
2012-02-01
Spin currents have a great potential to replace charge currents. This would revolutionize how we read/write information. The generation and switching of spin currents however must be well understood. Transport measurements suggest that magnetic impurities can alter the mean free path of carriers and thereby create spin currents. Angle-resolved photoemission is used to determine the change in the electronic states of Ni induced by doping with iron, chromium, and manganese near the Fermi Energy. The samples were single crystals of nickel(110) with variable amounts of dopant diffused into it. Alloy single crystals were used over epitaxial thin films due to the sharper features at the Fermi Energy that they produced. The mean free path, magnetic splitting, and carrier density are affected by a few percent of each of the dopants. Iron suppresses the mean free path of minority spins only, while chromium and manganese suppresses both spins and decreases the magnetic splitting. The strong variation of these affects from one impurity to the other supports the concept of tailoring spin transport by magnetic doping. [1] K. N. Altmann et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 137201 (2001) [2] K.R. Podolak, Ph.D. Thesis, Penn. State (2008)
Bendib, A.; Tahraoui, A.; Bendib, K.; Mohammed El Hadj, K.; Hueller, S.
2005-03-01
The transport coefficients of fully ionized plasmas under the influence of a high-frequency electric field are derived solving numerically the electron Fokker-Planck equation using a perturbation method, parametrized as a function of the electron mean-free-path {lambda}{sub ei} compared to the spatial scales L. The isotropic and anisotropic contributions of the inverse bremsstrahlung heating are considered. Electron-electron collision terms are kept in the analysis, which allows us to consider with sufficient accuracy to describe plasmas with arbitrary atomic number Z. Practical numerical fits of the transport coefficients are proposed as functions of Z and the collisionality parameter {lambda}{sub ei}/L.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2014-01-07
PathFinder is a graph search program, traversing a directed cyclic graph to find pathways between labeled nodes. Searches for paths through ordered sequences of labels are termed signatures. Determining the presence of signatures within one or more graphs is the primary function of Path Finder. Path Finder can work in either batch mode or interactively with an analyst. Results are limited to Path Finder whether or not a given signature is present in the graph(s).
Electron heat transport down steep temperature gradients
Matte, J.P.; Virmont, J.
1982-12-27
Electron heat transport is studied by numerically solving the Fokker-Planck equation, with a spherical harmonic representation of the distribution function. The first two terms (f/sub 0/, f/sub 1/) suffice, even in steep temperature gradients. Deviations from the Spitzer-Haerm law appear for lambda/L/sub T/ ((mean free path)/(temperature gradient length))> or approx. =0.01, as a result of non-Maxwellian f/sub 0/. For lambda/L/sub T/> or approx. =1, the heat flux is (1/3) of the free-streaming value. In intermediate cases, a harmonic law describes well the hottest part of the plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agueda, N.; Vainio, R.; Lario, D.; Sanahuja, B.
2010-09-01
Aims: We study the near-relativistic (NR; >30 keV) electron event observed on 2000 February 18 by near-Earth spacecraft. Previous works have explained this event by assuming that the propagation of NR electrons is essentially “scatter-free” at heliocentric radial distances r < 1 AU, and that beyond 1 AU particles are “back-scattered” by magnetic field irregularities. Methods: Our aim is to re-visit this interplanetary propagation scenario and infer the injection profile at the Sun by fitting the electron directional intensities observed by the Advanced Composition Explorer. Results: We use a Monte Carlo transport model to explore this approach. We assume that the interplanetary magnetic field is an Archimedean spiral and that the interplanetary transport of NR electrons is characterized by a large radial mean free path (λ_r > 0.5 AU) and anisotropic pitch-angle scattering for r <1 AU, and a small radial mean free path (λ_r < 0.5 AU) and isotropic scattering in the back-scatter region. Conclusions: The event cannot be explained without assuming a back-scatter region beyond 1 AU. The best fit is obtained by assuming λ_r = 3.2 AU in the inner heliosphere and a back-scatter region characterized by a small mean free path λr = 0.2 AU located beyond 1.2 AU.
A Deterministic Transport Code for Space Environment Electrons
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nealy, John E.; Chang, C. K.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.; Adamczyk, Anne M.
2010-01-01
A deterministic computational procedure has been developed to describe transport of space environment electrons in various shield media. This code is an upgrade and extension of an earlier electron code. Whereas the former code was formulated on the basis of parametric functions derived from limited laboratory data, the present code utilizes well established theoretical representations to describe the relevant interactions and transport processes. The shield material specification has been made more general, as have the pertinent cross sections. A combined mean free path and average trajectory approach has been used in the transport formalism. Comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations are presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shore, M. L.
1980-01-01
There are many uses for the shortest path algorithm presented which are limited only by our ability to recognize when a problem may be converted into the shortest path in a graph representation. (Author/TG)
A new MetaPath information system was developed through a collaborative effort between the Laboratory of Mathematical Chemistry (Bourgas, Bulgaria), EPA’s Office of Research and Development (NHEERL, MED, Duluth, MN and NERL, ERD, Athens, GA), and EPA’s Office of Chemical Safety a...
Conditions for Aeronomic Applicability of the Classical Electron Heat Conduction Formula
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, K. D.; Hoegy, W. R.
1998-01-01
Conditions for the applicability of the classical formula for heat conduction in the electrons in ionized gas are investigated. In a fully ionised gas ( V(sub en) much greater than V(sub ei)), when the mean free path for electron-electron (or electron-ion) collisions is much larger than the characteristic thermal scale length of the observed system, the conditions for applicability break down. In the case of the Venus ionosphere this breakdown is indicated for a large fraction of the electron temperature data from altitudes greater than 180 km, for electron densities less than 10(exp 4)/cc cm. In a partially ionised gas such that V(sub en) much greater than V(sub ei) there is breakdown of the formula not only when the mean free path of electrons greatly exceeds the thermal scale length, but also when the gradient of neutral particle density exceeds the electron thermal gradient. It is shown that electron heat conduction may be neglected in estimating the temperature of joule heated electrons by observed strong 100 Hz electric fields when the conduction flux is limited by the saturation flux. The results of this paper support our earlier aeronomical arguments against the hypothesis of planetary scale whistlers for the 100 Hz electric field signal. In turn this means that data from the 100 Hz signal may not be used to support the case for lightning on Venus.
Influence of emitted electrons transiting between surfaces on plasma-surface interaction
Campanell, Michael; Wang, Hongyue
2013-09-02
Emitted electrons are accelerated back into the plasma by the sheath. If their mean free path is large, they can propagate directly to another surface without suffering collisions. We analyze the effects of “transit” on plasma-surface interaction. When transit occurs, surfaces exchanging electrons are intricately coupled. All surfaces float more negatively than they would if the emission collisionally remixed with the bulk plasma. Asymmetries of the system drive a net “transit current” between the surfaces, which influences their potential difference. The larger the initial energy spread of the emitted electrons, the larger the potential difference.
Auger electron intensity variations in oxygen-exposed large grain polycrystalline silver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, W. S.; Outlaw, R. A.; Hoflund, G. B.; Davidson, M. R.
1989-01-01
Auger electron spectroscopic studies of the grains in oxygen-charged polycrystal-line silver show significant intensity variations as a function of crystallographic orientation. These intensity variations were observed by studies of the Auger images and line scans of the different grains (randomly selected) for each silver transition energy. The results can be attributed to the diffraction of the ejected Auger electrons and interpreted by corresponding changes in the electron mean-free path for inelastic scattering and by oxygen atom accumulation in the subsurface. The subsurface (second layer) octahedral sites increased in size because of surface relaxation and serve as a stable reservoir for the dissolved oxygen.
Influence of emitted electrons transiting between surfaces on plasma-surface interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campanell, Michael; Wang, Hongyue
2013-09-01
Emitted electrons are accelerated back into the plasma by the sheath. If their mean free path is large, they can propagate directly to another surface without suffering collisions. We analyze the effects of "transit" on plasma-surface interaction. When transit occurs, surfaces exchanging electrons are intricately coupled. All surfaces float more negatively than they would if the emission collisionally remixed with the bulk plasma. Asymmetries of the system drive a net "transit current" between the surfaces, which influences their potential difference. The larger the initial energy spread of the emitted electrons, the larger the potential difference.
Photoemission electron microscopy of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saliba, Sebastian; Wardini, Jenna; Fitzgerald, J. P. S.; Word, Robert C.; Kevek, Josh; Minot, Ethan; Koenenkamp, Rolf
2012-10-01
A study of chemical vapor deposited graphene on copper foil is conducted using an aberration-corrected photoemission electron microscope (PEEM). We demonstrate the efficacy such a PEEM has in identifying multi-layer graphene, defects and cracking. A model is developed to describe the observed reduction in photoemission rate where electrons originate from the copper foil and scatter through the graphene. A survey of several multi-layer feature line profiles demonstrates the reduced photoemission rate as the number of graphene layers increases. A mean-free-path length of l=3.8±0.8 nm is inferred assuming the layer spacing in graphene is δz=0.35 nm. The PEEM's high spatial resolution and surface sensitivity combined with no electron beam damage are promising for characterizing biosensors and other nanoscale graphene devices.
Bizarro, J.P.; Belo, J.H.; Figueiredo, A.C.
1997-06-01
Knowing that short-time propagators for Fokker{endash}Planck equations are Gaussian, and based on a path-sum formulation, an efficient and simple numerical method is presented to solve the initial-value problem for electron kinetics during rf heating and current drive. The formulation is thoroughly presented and discussed, its advantages are stressed, and general, practical criteria for its implementation are derived regarding the time step and grid spacing. The new approach is illustrated and validated by solving the one-dimensional model for lower-hybrid current drive, which has a well-known steady-state analytical solution. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Snell, Mark K.
2007-07-14
The PANL software determines path through an Adversary Sequence Diagram (ASD) with minimum Probability of Interruption, P(I), given the ASD information and data about site detection, delay, and response force times. To accomplish this, the software generates each path through the ASD, then applies the Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI) methodology for calculating P(I) to each path, and keeps track of the path with the lowest P(I). Primary use is for training purposes during courses on physical security design. During such courses PANL will be used to demonstrate to students how more complex software codes are used by the US Department of Energy to determine the most-vulnerable paths and, where security needs improvement, how such codes can help determine physical security upgrades.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2007-07-14
The PANL software determines path through an Adversary Sequence Diagram (ASD) with minimum Probability of Interruption, P(I), given the ASD information and data about site detection, delay, and response force times. To accomplish this, the software generates each path through the ASD, then applies the Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI) methodology for calculating P(I) to each path, and keeps track of the path with the lowest P(I). Primary use is for training purposes duringmore » courses on physical security design. During such courses PANL will be used to demonstrate to students how more complex software codes are used by the US Department of Energy to determine the most-vulnerable paths and, where security needs improvement, how such codes can help determine physical security upgrades.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larosa, T. N.; Moore, R. L.; Shore, S. N.
1994-01-01
We recently proposed that a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent cascade produces the bulk energization of electrons to approximately 25 keV in the impulsive phase of solar flares (LaRosa & Moore 1993). In that scenario, (1) the cascading MHD turbulence is fed by shear-unstable Alfvenic outflows from sites of strongly driven reconnection in the low corona, and (2) the electrons are energized by absorbing the energy that flows down through the cascade. We did not specify the physical mechanism by which the cascading energy is ultimately transferred to the electrons. Here we propose that Fermi acceleration is this mechanism, the process by which the electrons are energized and by which the cascading MHD turbulence is dissipated. We point out that in the expected cascade MHD fluctuations of scale 1 km can Fermi-accelerate electrons from 0.1 keV to approximately 25 keV on the subsecond timescales observed in impulsive flares, provided there is sufficient trapping and scattering of electrons in the MHD turbulence. We show that these same fluctuations provide the required trapping; they confine the electrons within the turbulent region until the turbulence eis dissipated. This results in the energization of all of the lectrons in each large-scale (5 x 10(exp 7)cm) turbulent eddy to 25 keV. The Fermi process also requires efficient scattering so that the pitch-angle distribution of the accelerating electrons remains isotropic. We propose that the electrons undergo resonant scattering by high-frequency plasma R-waves that, as suggested by others (Hamilton & Petrosian 1992), are generated by the reconnection. Ions are not scattered by R-waves. Provided that there is negligible generation of ion-scattering plasma turbulence (e.g., L-waves) by the reconnection or the MHD turbulence, the ions will not Fermi-accelerate and the cascading energy is transferred only to the electrons. We conclude that, given this situation, electron Fermi acceleration can plausibly account for the
Electron dominated thermoelectric response in MNiSn (M: Ti, Zr, Hf) half-Heusler alloys.
Gandi, Appala Naidu; Schwingenschlögl, Udo
2016-05-18
We solve the transport equations of the electrons and phonons to understand the thermoelectric behaviour of the technologically important half-Heusler alloys MNiSn (M: Ti, Zr, Hf). Doping is simulated within the rigid band approximation. We clarify the origin of the electron dominated thermoelectric response and determine the carrier concentrations with maximal figures of merit. The phonon mean free path is studied to calculate the grain size below which grain refinement methods can enforce ballistic heat conduction to enhance the figure of merit. PMID:27156360
Current driven due to localized electron power deposition in DIII-D
Harvey, R.W.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Sauter, O.; Smirnov, A.P.
1999-05-01
Due to spatial localization of electron cyclotron wave injection in DIII-D, electrons heated in an off-axis region must toroidally transit the tokamak 25--50 times before re-entering the heating region. This distance is of the order of the mean free path. The effect of such RF localization is simulated with a time-dependent Fokker-Planck code which is 2D-in-velocity, 1D-in-space-along-B, and periodic in space. An effective parallel electric field arises to maintain continuity of the driven current. Somewhat surprisingly, the localized current drive efficiency remains equal to that for a uniform medium.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, L. D.
1996-01-01
Ballistic-Electron-Emission Microscopy (BEEM) spectroscopy has been performed on Au/Si(111) structures as a function of Au thickness and temperature. At 77 K a direct signature of parallel momentum conservation at the Au/Si interface is observed in the BEEM spectra. The variation in spectral shape with both Au thickness and temperature places restrictions on allowable values of inelastic and elastic mean-free paths in the metal, and also requires the presence of multiple electron passes within the Au layer. An independent indication of multiple reflections is directly observed in the attenuation of BEEM current with Au thickness.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, R. H.; Kolstad, R. B.; Holle, D. F.; Miller, T. J.; Krause, P.; Horton, K.; Macke, T.
1983-01-01
Path Pascal is high-level experimental programming language based on PASCAL, which incorporates extensions for systems and real-time programming. Pascal is extended to treat real-time concurrent systems.
Siekhaus, W J; Nelson, A J
2011-10-26
Energy dependent electron emission (counts per second) between zero and 1.4 keV generated by the natural reactivity of uranium was measured by an electrostatic spectrometer with known acceptance angle and acceptance area. The electron intensity decreases continuously with energy, but at different rates in different energy regimes, suggesting that a variety of processes may be involved in producing the observed electron emission. The spectrum was converted to energy dependent electron flux (e-/cm{sup 2} s) using the assumption that the emission has a cosine angular distribution. The flux decreased rapidly from {approx}10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2}s to {approx}10{sup 5}/cm{sup 2}s in the energy range from zero to 200 eV, and then more slowly from {approx}10{sup 5}/cm{sup 2}s to {approx}3*10{sup 4}/cm{sup 2} s in the range from 200 to 1400 eV. The energy dependent electron mean free path in gases together with literature cross sections for electron induced reactions were used to determine the number of ionization and dissociation reactions per cm{sup 2}s within the inelastic mean free path of electrons, and found to be about 1.3*10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}s and 1.5*10{sup 7}/cm{sup 2}s, respectively, for hydrogen. An estimate of the number of ionization and dissociation reactions occurring within the total range, rather than the mean free path of electrons in gases resulted in 6.2*10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2}s and 1.3*10{sup 9}/cm{sup 2}s, respectively. The total energy flux carried by electrons from the surface is suspiciously close to the total possible energy generated by one gram of uranium. A likely source of error is the assumption that the electron emission has a cosine distribution. Angular distribution measurements of the electron emission would check that assumption, and actual measurement of the total current emanating from the surface are needed to confirm the value of the current calculated in section II. These results must therefore be used with caution - until they are confirmed
Transport Properties of III-N Hot Electron Transistors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suntrup, Donald J., III
Unipolar hot electron transistors (HETs) represent a tantalizing alternative to established bipolar transistor technologies. During device operation electrons are injected over a large emitter barrier into the base where they travel along the device axis with very high velocity. Upon arrival at the collector barrier, high-energy electrons pass over the barrier and contribute to collector current while low-energy electrons are quantum mechanically reflected back into the base. Designing the base with thickness equal to or less than the hot electron mean free path serves to minimize scattering events and thus enable quasi-ballistic operation. Large current gain is achieved by increasing the ratio of transmitted to reflected electrons. Although III-N HETs have undergone substantial development in recent years, there remain ample opportunities to improve key device metrics. In order to engineer improved device performance, a deeper understanding of the operative transport physics is needed. Fortunately, the HET provides fertile ground for studying several prominent electron transport phenomena. In this thesis we present results from several studies that use the III-N HET as both emitter and analyzer of hot electron momentum states. The first provides a measurement of the hot electron mean free path and the momentum relaxation rate in GaN; the second relies on a new technique called electron injection spectroscopy to investigate the effects of barrier height inhomogeneity in the emitter. To supplement our analysis we develop a comprehensive theory of coherent electron transport that allows us to model the transfer characteristics of complex heterojunctions. Such a model provides a theoretical touchstone with which to compare our experimental results. While these studies are of potential interest in their own right, we interpret the results with an eye toward improving next-generation device performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, R. F.; Legut, D.; Wen, X. D.; Veprek, S.; Rajan, K.; Lookman, T.; Mao, H. K.; Zhao, Y. S.
2014-09-01
The energetically most stable orthorhombic structure of OsB2 and IrB2 is dynamically stable for OsB2 but unstable for IrB2. Both diborides have substantially lower shear strength in their easy slip systems than their metal counterparts. This is attributed to an easy sliding facilitated by out-of-plane weakening of metallic Os-Os bonds in OsB2 and by an in-plane bond splitting instability in IrB2. A much higher shear resistance of Os-B and B-B bonds than Os-Os ones is found, suggesting that the strengthened Os-B and B-B bonds are responsible for hardness enhancement in OsB2. In contrast, an in-plane electronic instability in IrB2 limits its strength. The electronic structure of deformed diborides suggests that the electronic instabilities of 5d orbitals are their origin of different bond deformation paths. Neither IrB2 nor OsB2 can be intrinsically superhard.
Copper foil provides uniform heat sink path
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, I. E., Jr.; Schreihans, F. A.
1966-01-01
Thermal path prevents voids and discontinuities which make heat sinks in electronic equipment inefficient. The thermal path combines the high thermal conductivity of copper with the resiliency of silicone rubber.
Carbon nanotubes: Electrons in one dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bockrath, Marc William
The work presented in this thesis will discuss transport measurements on individual single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and SWNT bundles. SWNTs, which are essentially rolled-up sheets of graphite, are either one-dimensional (1D) metals or 1D semiconductors depending on how they are rolled-up. Measurements on both metallic and semiconducting SWNTs will be presented. Chapter 1 will present an introductory overview to the thesis, discussing prior related experimental work and introducing basic concepts that are used in subsequent chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the experimental methods we have used to study transport in SWNTs. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss low temperature measurements of metallic SWNTs. Chapter 3 will discuss the low temperature behavior of the conductance of a SWNT bundle, or rope, that shows quantum mechanical effects resulting from the finite size of the sample. Chapter 4 will discuss how these finite size effects can be used to experimentally study the quantum level structure in metallic nanotubes and the effects of an applied magnetic field. In chapters 5 and 6, we discuss transport measurements of semiconducting SWNTs. In chapter 5, we show that semiconducting SWNT's can be doped with potassium. Chapter 6 presents experiment and theory that indicate that the elastic mean free path in metallic tubes is far longer than in semiconducting tubes. Chapters 7 and 8 address the effects of electron-electron (e-e) interactions on the transport properties of metallic SWNTs. Chapter 7 discusses some theoretical aspects of 1D wires when e-e interactions are taken account, giving a simplified picture of the Luttinger-liquid state expected for a 1D system of interacting electrons. Finally, chapter 8 will discuss measurements on metallic samples with extremely long mean free paths. These experiments show evidence of this Luttinger-liquid behavior, in which the electron-electron interactions lead to a qualitatively different ground state than what would be expected with
Tan, Lun C.; Shao, Xi; Reames, Donald V.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang, Linghua
2014-05-10
Three magnetic cloud events, in which solar impulsive electron events occurred in their outer region, are employed to investigate the difference of path lengths L {sub 0eIII} traveled by non-relativistic electrons from their release site near the Sun to the observer at 1 AU, where L {sub 0eIII} = v {sub l} × (t {sub l} – t {sub III}), v {sub l} and t {sub l} being the velocity and arrival time of electrons in the lowest energy channel (∼27 keV) of the Wind/3DP/SST sensor, respectively, and t {sub III} being the onset time of type III radio bursts. The deduced L {sub 0eIII} value ranges from 1.3 to 3.3 AU. Since a negligible interplanetary scattering level can be seen in both L {sub 0eIII} > 3 AU and ∼1.2 AU events, the difference in L {sub 0eIII} could be linked to the turbulence geometry (slab or two-dimensional) in the solar wind. By using the Wind/MFI magnetic field data with a time resolution of 92 ms, we examine the turbulence geometry in the dissipation range. In our examination, ∼6 minutes of sampled subintervals are used in order to improve time resolution. We have found that, in the transverse turbulence, the observed slab fraction is increased with an increasing L {sub 0eIII} value, reaching ∼100% in the L {sub 0eIII} > 3 AU event. Our observation implies that when only the slab spectral component exists, magnetic flux tubes (magnetic surfaces) are closed and regular for a very long distance along the transport route of particles.
Electronic thermal conductivity of 2-dimensional circular-pore metallic nanoporous materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Cong-Liang; Lin, Zi-Zhen; Luo, Dan-Chen; Huang, Zun
2016-09-01
The electronic thermal conductivity (ETC) of 2-dimensional circular-pore metallic nanoporous material (MNM) was studied here for its possible applications in thermal cloaks. A simulation method based on the free-electron-gas model was applied here without considering the quantum effects. For the MNM with circular nanopores, there is an appropriate nanopore size for thermal conductivity tuning, while a linear relationship exists for this size between the ETC and the porosity. The appropriate nanopore diameter size will be about one times that of the electron mean free path. The ETC difference along different directions would be less than 10%, which is valuable when estimating possible errors, because the nanoscale-material direction could not be controlled during its application. Like nanoparticles, the ETC increases with increasing pore size (diameter for nanoparticles) while the porosity was fixed, until the pore size reaches about four times that of electron mean free path, at which point the ETC plateaus. The specular coefficient on the surface will significantly impact the ETC, especially for a high-porosity MNM. The ETC can be decreased by 30% with a tuning specular coefficient.
A Deterministic Computational Procedure for Space Environment Electron Transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nealy, John E.; Chang, C. K.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.; Adamcyk, Anne M.
2010-01-01
A deterministic computational procedure for describing the transport of electrons in condensed media is formulated to simulate the effects and exposures from spectral distributions typical of electrons trapped in planetary magnetic fields. The primary purpose for developing the procedure is to provide a means of rapidly performing numerous repetitive transport calculations essential for electron radiation exposure assessments for complex space structures. The present code utilizes well-established theoretical representations to describe the relevant interactions and transport processes. A combined mean free path and average trajectory approach is used in the transport formalism. For typical space environment spectra, several favorable comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations are made which have indicated that accuracy is not compromised at the expense of the computational speed.
Electron Heat Conduction in the Solar Wind: Transition from Spitzer-Härm to the Collisionless Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bale, S. D.; Pulupa, M.; Salem, C.; Chen, C. H. K.; Quataert, E.
2013-06-01
We use a statistically significant set of measurements to show that the field-aligned electron heat flux q ∥ in the solar wind at 1 AU is consistent with the Spitzer-Härm collisional heat flux q sh for temperature gradient scales larger than a few mean free paths LT >~ 3.5λfp. This represents about 65% of the measured data and corresponds primarily to high β, weakly collisional plasma ("slow solar wind"). In the more collisionless regime λfp/LT >~ 0.28, the electron heat flux is limited to q ∥/q 0 ~ 0.3, independent of mean free path, where q 0 is the "free-streaming" value; the measured q ∥ does not achieve the full q 0. This constraint q ∥/q 0 ~ 0.3 might be attributed to wave-particle interactions, effects of an interplanetary electric potential, or inherent flux limitation. We also show a β e dependence to these results that is consistent with a local radial electron temperature profile Te ~ r -α that is a function of the thermal electron beta α = α(β e ) and that the β dependence of the collisionless regulation constraint is not obviously consistent with a whistler heat flux instability. It may be that the observed saturation of the measured heat flux is a simply a feature of collisional transport. We discuss the results in a broader astrophysical context.
Kavuma, Awusi; Glegg, Martin; Metwaly, Mohamed; Currie, Garry; Elliott, Alex
2010-01-21
In vivo dosimetry is one of the quality assurance tools used in radiotherapy to monitor the dose delivered to the patient. Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images for a set of solid water phantoms of varying thicknesses were acquired and the data fitted onto a quadratic equation, which relates the reduction in photon beam intensity to the attenuation coefficient and material thickness at a reference condition. The quadratic model is used to convert the measured grey scale value into water equivalent path length (EPL) at each pixel for any material imaged by the detector. For any other non-reference conditions, scatter, field size and MU variation effects on the image were corrected by relative measurements using an ionization chamber and an EPID. The 2D EPL is linked to the percentage exit dose table, for different thicknesses and field sizes, thereby converting the plane pixel values at each point into a 2D dose map. The off-axis ratio is corrected using envelope and boundary profiles generated from the treatment planning system (TPS). The method requires field size, monitor unit and source-to-surface distance (SSD) as clinical input parameters to predict the exit dose, which is then used to determine the entrance dose. The measured pixel dose maps were compared with calculated doses from TPS for both entrance and exit depth of phantom. The gamma index at 3% dose difference (DD) and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA) resulted in an average of 97% passing for the square fields of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm. The exit dose EPID dose distributions predicted by the algorithm were in better agreement with TPS-calculated doses than phantom entrance dose distributions. PMID:20019398
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kavuma, Awusi; Glegg, Martin; Metwaly, Mohamed; Currie, Garry; Elliott, Alex
2010-01-01
In vivo dosimetry is one of the quality assurance tools used in radiotherapy to monitor the dose delivered to the patient. Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images for a set of solid water phantoms of varying thicknesses were acquired and the data fitted onto a quadratic equation, which relates the reduction in photon beam intensity to the attenuation coefficient and material thickness at a reference condition. The quadratic model is used to convert the measured grey scale value into water equivalent path length (EPL) at each pixel for any material imaged by the detector. For any other non-reference conditions, scatter, field size and MU variation effects on the image were corrected by relative measurements using an ionization chamber and an EPID. The 2D EPL is linked to the percentage exit dose table, for different thicknesses and field sizes, thereby converting the plane pixel values at each point into a 2D dose map. The off-axis ratio is corrected using envelope and boundary profiles generated from the treatment planning system (TPS). The method requires field size, monitor unit and source-to-surface distance (SSD) as clinical input parameters to predict the exit dose, which is then used to determine the entrance dose. The measured pixel dose maps were compared with calculated doses from TPS for both entrance and exit depth of phantom. The gamma index at 3% dose difference (DD) and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA) resulted in an average of 97% passing for the square fields of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm. The exit dose EPID dose distributions predicted by the algorithm were in better agreement with TPS-calculated doses than phantom entrance dose distributions.
Nonadiabatic transition path sampling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.
2016-07-01
Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase.
Nonadiabatic transition path sampling.
Sherman, M C; Corcelli, S A
2016-07-21
Fewest-switches surface hopping (FSSH) is combined with transition path sampling (TPS) to produce a new method called nonadiabatic path sampling (NAPS). The NAPS method is validated on a model electron transfer system coupled to a Langevin bath. Numerically exact rate constants are computed using the reactive flux (RF) method over a broad range of solvent frictions that span from the energy diffusion (low friction) regime to the spatial diffusion (high friction) regime. The NAPS method is shown to quantitatively reproduce the RF benchmark rate constants over the full range of solvent friction. Integrating FSSH within the TPS framework expands the applicability of both approaches and creates a new method that will be helpful in determining detailed mechanisms for nonadiabatic reactions in the condensed-phase. PMID:27448877
A Hot-Electron Far-Infrared Direct Detector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; LeDuc, H. G.
2000-01-01
A new approach is proposed to improve the sensitivity of direct-detection bolometers at millimeter, submillimeter and far-infrared wavelengths. The idea is to adjust a speed of the thermal relaxation of hot-electrons in a nanometer size normal metal or super-conductive transition edge bolometer by controlling the elastic electron mean free path. If the bolometer contacts are made of a superconductor with high critical temperature (Nb, Pb etc.) then the thermal diffusion into the contacts is absent because of the Andreev's reflection and the electron-phonon relaxation is the only mechanism for heat removal. The relaxation rate should behave as T(sup 4)l at subkelvin temperatures (l is the electron elastic mean free path) and can be reduced by factor of 10-100 by decreasing l. Then an antenna- or waveguide-coupled bolometer with a time constant about 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) s at T approximately equals 0.1-0.3 K will exhibit photon-noise limited performance in millimeter and submillimeter range. The choice of the bolometer material is a tradeoff between a low electron heat capacity and fabrication. A state-of-the-art bolometer currently offers NEP = 10(exp -17) W(Square root of (Hz)) at 100 mK along with a approximately equals 2 msec time constant. The bolometer we propose will have a figure-of-merit, NEP(square root (r)), which is 10(exp 3) times smaller. This will allow for a tremendous increase in speed which will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications. Alternatively, the bolometer could operate at higher temperature with still superior sensitivity. This device can significantly increase a science return and reduce the cost for future observational missions. This research was performed by the Center for Space Microelectronics Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and was sponsored by NASA, Office of Space Science.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riquelme, Mario A.; Quataert, Eliot; Verscharen, Daniel
2016-06-01
In low-collisionality plasmas, velocity-space instabilities are a key mechanism providing an effective collisionality for the plasma. We use particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to study the interplay between electron- and ion-scale velocity-space instabilities and their effect on electron pressure anisotropy, viscous heating, and thermal conduction. The adiabatic invariance of the magnetic moment in low-collisionality plasmas leads to pressure anisotropy, {{Δ }}{p}j\\equiv {p}\\perp ,j-{p}\\parallel ,j\\gt 0, if the magnetic field {\\boldsymbol{B}} is amplified ({p}\\perp ,j and {p}\\parallel ,j denote the pressure of species j (electron, ion) perpendicular and parallel to {\\boldsymbol{B}}). If the resulting anisotropy is large enough, it can in turn trigger small-scale plasma instabilities. Our PIC simulations explore the nonlinear regime of the mirror, IC, and electron whistler instabilities, through continuous amplification of the magnetic field | {\\boldsymbol{B}}| by an imposed shear in the plasma. In the regime 1≲ {β }j≲ 20 ({β }j\\equiv 8π {p}j/| {\\boldsymbol{B}}{| }2), the saturated electron pressure anisotropy, {{Δ }}{p}{{e}}/{p}\\parallel ,{{e}}, is determined mainly by the (electron-lengthscale) whistler marginal stability condition, with a modest factor of ∼1.5–2 decrease due to the trapping of electrons into ion-lengthscale mirrors. We explicitly calculate the mean free path of the electrons and ions along the mean magnetic field and provide a simple physical prescription for the mean free path and thermal conductivity in low-collisionality β j ≳ 1 plasmas. Our results imply that velocity-space instabilities likely decrease the thermal conductivity of plasma in the outer parts of massive, hot, galaxy clusters. We also discuss the implications of our results for electron heating and thermal conduction in low-collisionality accretion flows onto black holes, including Sgr A* in the Galactic Center.
Electronic properties of whiskers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaidukov, Iu. P.
1984-04-01
Size effects on the electronic properties of metals are examined, summarizing the results of recent experiments on metal whiskers of thickness about 1 micron. Whisker-growth techniques, the general properties of whiskers, and the theoretical principles of size effects on metal resistivity in general and on the resistance of whiskers in particular are reviewed. The experiments discussed are performed at low temperatures so that the mean-free path length of the conductance electrons is much greater than the whisker diameter. Findings presented include the temperature dependence of resistance (deviation from Matthiessen's rule and the angular dependence of the specular-reflection probability), magnetoresistance (size and temperature effects and quantum oscillations), and the effect of tensile stress on whisker electrical properties. Special consideration is given to a dc skin effect (in a layer about one Larmor radius thick) and quantum changes (when the Larmor radius is greater than the whisker diameter) observed in a magnetic field. Graphs and diagrams are provided, and the feasibility of experiments on whiskers less than 100 nm thick is considered.
Electron transport in the solar wind -results from numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Håkan; Marsch, Eckart; Helander, Per
A conventional fluid approach is in general insufficient for a correct description of electron trans-port in weakly collisional plasmas such as the solar wind. The classical Spitzer-Hürm theory is a not valid when the Knudsen number (the mean free path divided by the length scale of tem-perature variation) is greater than ˜ 10-2 . Despite this, the heat transport from Spitzer-Hürm a theory is widely used in situations with relatively long mean free paths. For realistic Knud-sen numbers in the solar wind, the electron distribution function develops suprathermal tails, and the departure from a local Maxwellian can be significant at the energies which contribute the most to the heat flux moment. To accurately model heat transport a kinetic approach is therefore more adequate. Different techniques have been used previously, e.g. particle sim-ulations [Landi, 2003], spectral methods [Pierrard, 2001], the so-called 16 moment method [Lie-Svendsen, 2001], and approximation by kappa functions [Dorelli, 2003]. In the present study we solve the Fokker-Planck equation for electrons in one spatial dimension and two velocity dimensions. The distribution function is expanded in Laguerre polynomials in energy, and a finite difference scheme is used to solve the equation in the spatial dimension and the velocity pitch angle. The ion temperature and density profiles are assumed to be known, but the electric field is calculated self-consistently to guarantee quasi-neutrality. The kinetic equation is of a two-way diffusion type, for which the distribution of particles entering the computational domain in both ends of the spatial dimension must be specified, leaving the outgoing distributions to be calculated. The long mean free path of the suprathermal electrons has the effect that the details of the boundary conditions play an important role in determining the particle and heat fluxes as well as the electric potential drop across the domain. Dorelli, J. C., and J. D. Scudder, J. D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Jeong-Hee; Rapp, Richard H.
1990-01-01
In June 1986 a 1 x 1 deg/mean free-air anomaly data file containing 48955 anomalies was completed. In August 1986 a 30 x 30 min mean free-air anomaly file was defined containing 31787 values. For the past three years data has been collected to upgrade these mean anomaly files. The primary emphasis was the collection of data to be used for the estimation of 30 min means anomalies in land areas. The emphasis on land areas was due to the anticipated use of 30 min anomalies derived from satellite altimeter data in the ocean areas. There were 10 data sources in the August 1986 file. Twenty-eight sources were added based on the collection of both point and mean anomalies from a number of individuals and organizations. A preliminary 30 min file was constructed from the 38 data sources. This file was used to calculate 1 x 1 deg mean anomalies. This 1 x 1 deg file was merged with a 1 x 1 deg file which was a merger of the June 1986 file plus a 1 x 1 deg file made available by DMA Aerospace Center. Certain bad 30 min anomalies were identified and deleted from the preliminary 30 min file leading to the final 30 min file (the July 1989 30 min file) with 66990 anomalies and their accuracy. These anomalies were used to again compute 1 x 1 deg anomalies which were merged with the previous June 86 DMAAC data file. The final 1 x 1 deg mean anomaly file (the July 89 1 x 1 deg data base) contained 50793 anomalies and their accuracy. The anomaly data files were significantly improved over the prior data sets in the following geographic regions: Africa, Scandinavia, Canada, United States, Mexico, Central and South America. Substantial land areas remain where there is little or no available data.
Electron and phonon transport in Co-doped FeV0.6Nb0.4Sb half-Heusler thermoelectric materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Chenguang; Liu, Yintu; Xie, Hanhui; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Xinbing; Jeffrey Snyder, G.; Xie, Jian; Zhu, Tiejun
2013-10-01
The electron and phonon transport characteristics of n-type Fe1-xCoxV0.6Nb0.4Sb half-Heusler thermoelectric compounds is analyzed. The acoustic phonon scattering is dominant in the carrier transport. The deformation potential of Edef = 14.1 eV and the density of state effective mass m* ≈ 2.0 me are derived under a single parabolic band assumption. The band gap is calculated to be ˜0.3 eV. Electron and phonon mean free paths are estimated based on the low and high temperature measurements. The electron mean free path is higher than the phonon one above room temperature, which is consistent with the experimental result that the electron mobility decreases more than the lattice thermal conductivity by grain refinement to enhance boundary scattering. A maximum ZT value of ˜0.33 is obtained at 650 K for x = 0.015, an increase by ˜60% compared with FeVSb. The optimal doping level is found to be ˜3.0 × 1020 cm-3 at 600 K.
A Hot-electron Direct Detector for Radioastronomy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; LeDuc, H. G.
2000-01-01
A new approach is proposed to improve the sensitivity of direct-detection bolometers. The idea is to adjust a speed of the thermal relaxation of hot-electrons in a nanometer size normal metal or superconductive transition edge bolometer by controlling the elastic electron mean free path. If the bolometer contacts are made of a superconductor with high critical temperature then the thermal diffusion into the contacts is absent because of the Andreev's reflection and the electron-phonon relaxation is the only mechanism for heat removal. The relaxation rate should behave as 7(exp 4)l at subkelvin temperatures (l is the electron elastic mean free path) and can be reduced by factor of 10 - 100 by decreasing l. Then an antenna- or waveguide-coupled bolometer with a time constant approx. 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) S at T approx. = 0.1 - 0.3 K will exhibit photon-noise limited performance in millimeter and subn-millimeter range. The bolometer will have a figure-of-merit NEk square root of tau approx. = 10(exp -22) 10(exp -21) W/Hz at 100 mK which is 10(exp 3) times smaller than that of a state-of-the-art bolometer. This will allow for a tremendous increase in speed which will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications. Alternatively, the bolometer could operate at higher temperature with still superior sensitivity This research was performed by the Center for Space Microelectronics Technology, JPL, California Institute of Technology, under the contract for NASA.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fanaro, Maria de los Angeles; Arlego, Marcelo; Otero, Maria Rita
2012-01-01
This work comprises an investigation about basic Quantum Mechanics (QM) teaching in the high school. The organization of the concepts does not follow a historical line. The Path Integrals method of Feynman has been adopted as a Reference Conceptual Structure that is an alternative to the canonical formalism. We have designed a didactic sequence…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horton, Kent; Huffman, Mitch; Eppic, Brian; White, Harrison
2005-01-01
Path Loss Measurements were obtained on three (3) GPS equipped 757 aircraft. Systems measured were Marker Beacon, LOC, VOR, VHF (3), Glide Slope, ATC (2), DME (2), TCAS, and GPS. This data will provide the basis for assessing the EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) safety margins of comm/nav (communication and navigation) systems to portable electronic device emissions. These Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) include all devices operated in or around the aircraft by crews, passengers, servicing personnel, as well as the general public in the airport terminals. EMI assessment capability is an important step in determining if one system-wide PED EMI policy is appropriate. This data may also be used comparatively with theoretical analysis and computer modeling data sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center and others.
Bulk electronic structure of FeRh undergoing metamagnetic transition via hard x-ray photoemission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gray, Alexander; Cooke, David; Kruger, Peter; Bordel, Catherine; Fullerton, Eric; Ueda, Shigenori; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Hellman, Frances; Fadley, Charles
2012-02-01
In this study changes in the electronic structure accompanying a temperature-induced metamagnetic transition from anti-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic order are investigated in strained epitaxial FeRh thin films via valence-band and core-level hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a photon energy of 6 keV. At such high photon energy, the resulting inelastic mean-free paths of the photoemitted electrons and therefore the average probing depths are on the order of 60 å, corresponding to about 20 unit cells and ensuring truly bulk-sensitive measurement. Clear differences between the AFM and FM states are observed across the entire valence-band spectrum and these are well reproduced using density functional theory. Changes in the Fe 2p core-levels of Fe are also observed and interpreted using Anderson impurity model calculations. These results suggest that significant electronic structure changes are involved in this AFM-FM transition.
A universal equation for computing the beam broadening of incident electrons in thin films.
Gauvin, Raynald; Rudinsky, Samantha
2016-08-01
A universal equation for computing the beam broadening of incident electrons in thin films is presented. This equation is based on the concepts of anomalous diffusion with the Hurst exponent H. When the thickness to elastic mean free path ratio, t/λ, is greater than 1, the Hurst exponent goes to 0.5 and this random walk behavior leads to the Goldstein et al. [1] beam broadening equation when non-relativistic screened Rutherford elastic cross-sections are used. When t/λ≪1, the lack of elastic collisions for the electron trajectories gives an H exponent of 1 and a different beam broadening equation is obtained. A general equation to compute the beam broadening that takes into account the variation of H with t/λ is presented and this equation was fitted and validated with Monte Carlo simulations of electron trajectories in thin films. PMID:27161415
Chantler, C T; Bourke, J D
2015-11-18
We present new constraints for the transportation behaviour of low-momentum electronic excitations in condensed matter systems, and demonstrate that these have both a fundamental physical interpretation and a significant impact on the description of low-energy inelastic electron scattering. The dispersion behaviour and characteristic lifetime properties of plasmon and single-electron excitations are investigated using popular classical, semi-classical and quantum dielectric models. We find that, irrespective of constrained agreement to the well known high-momentum and high-energy Bethe ridge limit, standard descriptions of low-momentum electron excitations are inconsistent and unphysical. These observations have direct impact on calculations of transport properties such as inelastic mean free paths, stopping powers and escape depths of charged particles in condensed matter systems. PMID:26490726
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chantler, C. T.; Bourke, J. D.
2015-11-01
We present new constraints for the transportation behaviour of low-momentum electronic excitations in condensed matter systems, and demonstrate that these have both a fundamental physical interpretation and a significant impact on the description of low-energy inelastic electron scattering. The dispersion behaviour and characteristic lifetime properties of plasmon and single-electron excitations are investigated using popular classical, semi-classical and quantum dielectric models. We find that, irrespective of constrained agreement to the well known high-momentum and high-energy Bethe ridge limit, standard descriptions of low-momentum electron excitations are inconsistent and unphysical. These observations have direct impact on calculations of transport properties such as inelastic mean free paths, stopping powers and escape depths of charged particles in condensed matter systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diot, Emilie; Gavoille, Cyril
In this paper we investigate the structural properties of k-path separable graphs, that are the graphs that can be separated by a set of k shortest paths. We identify several graph families having such path separability, and we show that this property is closed under minor taking. In particular we establish a list of forbidden minors for 1-path separable graphs.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2012-05-11
The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it canmore » provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.« less
Moody, A.
2012-05-11
The ap command traveres all symlinks in a given file, directory, or executable name to identify the final absolute path. It can print just the final path, each intermediate link along with the symlink chan, and the permissions and ownership of each directory component in the final path. It has functionality similar to "which", except that it shows the final path instead of the first path. It is also similar to "pwd", but it can provide the absolute path to a relative directory from the current working directory.
Ellis, Jennifer L; Hickstein, Daniel D; Xiong, Wei; Dollar, Franklin; Palm, Brett B; Keister, K Ellen; Dorney, Kevin M; Ding, Chengyuan; Fan, Tingting; Wilker, Molly B; Schnitzenbaumer, Kyle J; Dukovic, Gordana; Jimenez, Jose L; Kapteyn, Henry C; Murnane, Margaret M
2016-02-18
We present ultrafast photoemission measurements of isolated nanoparticles in vacuum using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light produced through high harmonic generation. Surface-selective static EUV photoemission measurements were performed on nanoparticles with a wide array of compositions, ranging from ionic crystals to nanodroplets of organic material. We find that the total photoelectron yield varies greatly with nanoparticle composition and provides insight into material properties such as the electron mean free path and effective mass. Additionally, we conduct time-resolved photoelectron yield measurements of isolated oleylamine nanodroplets, observing that EUV photons can create solvated electrons in liquid nanodroplets. Using photoemission from a time-delayed 790 nm pulse, we observe that a solvated electron is produced in an excited state and subsequently relaxes to its ground state with a lifetime of 151 ± 31 fs. This work demonstrates that femotosecond EUV photoemission is a versatile surface-sensitive probe of the properties and ultrafast dynamics of isolated nanoparticles. PMID:26807653
Keszei, E.; Goulet, T.; Jay-Gerin, J.
1988-03-15
The probabilistic description of quasielastic particle transport given in a previous paper is used to analyze the results of low-energy electron transmission experiments on thin solid xenon and molecular nitrogen films deposited on a metal substrate. Values of the entrance probabilities of the incident electrons at the vacuum-film interface and of the electron scattering mean free paths in the films are extracted in the electron energy range 1.6--7.9 eV for xenon, and 2.4--7.4 eV for molecular nitrogen. The effects of anisotropy in the surface scattering and in the reflections at the two interfaces of the films are also discussed.
Current drive due to localized electron cyclotron power deposition in DIII-D
Harvey, R. W.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Sauter, O.; Smirnov, A. P.; Luce, T. C.; Prater, R.
1999-09-20
Due to spatial localization of electron cyclotron wave injection in DIII-D, electrons heated in an off-axis region must toroidally transit the tokamak 25-50 times before re-entering the heating region. This distance is of the order of the mean free path. The effect of such RF localization is simulated with a time-dependent Fokker-Planck code which is 2D-in-velocity, 1D-in-space-along-B, and periodic in space. An effective parallel electric field arises to maintain continuity of the driven current. Somewhat suprisingly, the localized current drive efficiency remains equal to that for a uniform medium. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernandez, F. G. G.; Ullah, S.; Ferreira, G. J.; Kawahala, N. M.; Gusev, G. M.; Bakarov, A. K.
2016-07-01
We imaged the transport of current-induced spin coherence in a two-dimensional electron gas confined in a triple quantum well. Nonlocal Kerr rotation measurements, based on the optical resonant amplification of the electrically-induced polarization, revealed a large spatial variation of the electron g factor and the efficient generation of a current-controlled spin-orbit field in a macroscopic Hall bar device. We observed coherence times in the nanoseconds range transported beyond half-millimeter distances in a direction transverse to the applied electric field. The measured long spin transport length can be explained by two material properties: large mean free path for charge diffusion in clean systems and enhanced spin-orbit coefficients in the triple well.
Evolution of the electron acoustic signal as function of doping level in III-V semiconductors
Bresse, J.F.; Papadopoulo, A.C.
1988-07-01
The evolution of the electron acoustic signal has been measured for Be- and Si-doped GaAs and Ga/sub 0.28/Al/sub 0.19/In/sub 0.53/As layers with doping levels from10/sup 17/ to 10/sup 20/ at. cm/sup -3/. The samples have also been analyzed by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy for near-band-edge transition and deep level emission. The results are explained by the reduction of the mean free path of phonons, giving rise to a lattice thermal conductivity decrease. Meanwhile, the electronic part of the thermal conductivity of these compounds is found to be nearly negligible.
Conditions for electron runaway under leader breakdown of long gaps
Ul'yanov, K. N.
2008-04-15
An original hydrodynamic model in which inelastic collisions in the equations of motion and energy balance play a decisive role is developed and applied to simulate electron avalanches in strong electric fields. The mean energy and drift velocity of electrons, as well as the ionization coefficient and electric field in a wide range of mean electron energies, are determined for helium and xenon. A criterion is derived for the runaway of the average electron in discharges with ionization multiplication. It is shown that runaway can take place at any value of E/p, provided that the momentum mean free path exceeds the gap length. The voltage corresponding to electron runaway is found for helium, xenon, and air as a function of the electric field, the electron mean energy, and the parameter pd. Conditions for the formation of a precursor in electronegative gases are analyzed. It is shown that the presence of a precursor with a high electric conductance is necessary for the formation of a new leader step. The voltage and time ranges corresponding to efficient electron runaway and X-ray generation during leader breakdown in air are determined.
Time-resolved electron kinetics in swift heavy ion irradiated solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvedev, N. A.; Rymzhanov, R. A.; Volkov, A. E.
2015-09-01
The event-by-event Monte Carlo model, TREKIS, was developed to describe the excitation of the electron subsystems of various solids by a penetrating swift heavy ion (SHI), the spatial spreading of generated fast electrons, and secondary electron and hole cascades. Complex dielectric function formalism is used to obtain relevant cross sections. This allows the recognition of fundamental effects resulting from the collective response of the electron subsystem of a target for excitation that is not possible within the binary collision approximation of these cross sections, e.g. the differences in the electronic stopping of an ion and in the electron mean free paths for different structures (phases) of a material. A systematic study performed with this model for different materials (insulators, semiconductors and metals) revealed effects which may be important for an ion track: e.g. the appearance of a second front of excess electronic energy propagation outwards from the track core following the primary front of spreading of generated electrons. We also analyze how the initial ballistic spatial spreading of fast electrons generated in a track turns to the diffusion ~10 fs after ion passage. Detailed time-resolved simulations of electronic subsystem kinetics helped in understanding the reasons behind enhanced silicon resistance to SHI irradiation in contrast to easily produced damage in this material by femtosecond laser pulses. We demonstrate that the fast spreading of excited electrons from the track core on a sub-100 fs timescale prevents the Si lattice from nonthermal melting in a relaxing SHI track.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adjizian, Jean-Joseph; Lherbier, Aurélien; M.-M. Dubois, Simon; Botello-Méndez, Andrés Rafael; Charlier, Jean-Christophe
2016-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) conjugated polymers exhibit electronic structures analogous to that of graphene with the peculiarity of π-π* bands which are fully symmetric and isolated. In the present letter, the suitability of these materials for electronic applications is analyzed and discussed. In particular, realistic 2D conjugated polymer networks with a structural disorder such as monomer vacancies are investigated. Indeed, during bottom-up synthesis, these irregularities are unavoidable and their impact on the electronic properties is investigated using both ab initio and tight-binding techniques. The tight-binding model is combined with a real space Kubo-Greenwood approach for the prediction of transport characteristics for monomer vacancy concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 2%. As expected, long mean free paths and high mobilities are predicted for low defect densities. At low temperatures and for high defect densities, strong localization phenomena originating from quantum interferences of multiple scattering paths are observed in the close vicinity of the Dirac energy region while the absence of localization effects is predicted away from this region suggesting a sharp mobility transition. These predictions show that 2D conjugated polymer networks are good candidates to pave the way for the ultimate scaling and performances of future molecular nanoelectronic devices.Two-dimensional (2D) conjugated polymers exhibit electronic structures analogous to that of graphene with the peculiarity of π-π* bands which are fully symmetric and isolated. In the present letter, the suitability of these materials for electronic applications is analyzed and discussed. In particular, realistic 2D conjugated polymer networks with a structural disorder such as monomer vacancies are investigated. Indeed, during bottom-up synthesis, these irregularities are unavoidable and their impact on the electronic properties is investigated using both ab initio and tight-binding techniques. The
The passage of fast electrons through matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sorini, Adam P.
This work regards the passage of fast electrons through matter, and in particular how electrons scatter and lose energy within a solid. The basic quantum theory of these scattering processes was first considered in the early- to mid-20th century by Bohr, Bethe, Fermi, and others. This work extends our understanding of how a relativistic electron scatters off, and loses energy to, a complex many-body system. The main idea of this work is that it is now possible to calculate, from first-principles, the inelastic losses of relativistic electrons in condensed matter. We present ab initio calculations based on a real-space Green's function approach, implemented in the FEFF8 computer program[1]. Our work focuses on three topics: Relativistic stopping power and associated loss parameters, electron energy loss spectroscopy in high energy transmission electron microscopes, and the inelastic electron scattering mixed dynamic form factor. We calculate, for the first time, ab initio stopping powers and inelastic mean free paths in real materials. The stopping powers are calculated over a broad energy range, from ten eV to above ten MeV. We also present the first ab initio calculations of the "mean excitation energy". We develop a relativistic theory of inelastic electron scattering, based on ab initio calculations of dielectric response, and the generalized Lorenz gauge. Using our relativistic dielectric theory, we calculate the EELS magic angle ratio for boron nitride and for graphite. In these anisotropic materials we find large relativistic corrections to the magic angle for high energy electron microscopes. We also predict and calculate large deviations in the EELS magic angle from the relativistic vacuum predictions in the low energy-loss regime. Finally, we present calculations of mixed dynamic form factor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook
2012-10-01
Spatial profiles of the plasma potential and electron energy distribution function (EEDF) were measured in inductively and capacitively coupled plasmas (ICP and CCP) under weakly collisional and nonlocal electron kinetic regimes [1]. The measured EEDF at the discharge center was a bi-Maxwellain distribution with low (T1) and high (T2) electron temperature groups at both the ICP and the CCP, while the EEDF at the radial boundary was closely Maxwellian distribution in the ICP due to cutting of the low energy electrons by relatively large ambipolar potential in this discharge regime. The ambipolar potential in the entire radial region was in the scale of Teff -1.5 Teff, where Teff is the effective electron temperature. At the boundary region with the ion mean free path scale, the ambipolar potential increased abruptly and was about Teff,edge/2, where the Teff,edge is the effective electron temperature at the boundary, which corresponds to the presheath scale. These results of the ICP, which are contrary to the ambipolar potential of the CCP in a nearly free-fall regime [2], are caused by relatively high T1 and a small portion of low energy electron group density to total electron density in the ICP under the weakly collisional and nonlocal electron kinetic regimes. [4pt] [1] H. C. Lee and C. W. Chung, Phys. Plasmas 19 033514 (2012).[0pt] [2] V. A. Godyak, V. P. Meytlis, and H. R. Strauss, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 23 728 (1995).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dröge, W.; Kartavykh, Y. Y.; Dresing, N.; Klassen, A.
2016-08-01
During 2010 August a series of solar particle events was observed by the two STEREO spacecraft as well as near-Earth spacecraft. The events, occurring on August 7, 14, and 18, originated from active regions 11093 and 11099. We combine in situ and remote-sensing observations with predictions from our model of three-dimensional anisotropic particle propagation in order to investigate the physical processes that caused the large angular spreads of energetic electrons during these events. In particular, we address the effects of the lateral transport of the electrons in the solar corona that is due to diffusion perpendicular to the average magnetic field in the interplanetary medium. We also study the influence of two coronal mass ejections and associated shock waves on the electron propagation, and a possible time variation of the transport conditions during the above period. For the August 18 event we also utilize electron observations from the MESSENGER spacecraft at a distance of 0.31 au from the Sun for an attempt to separate between radial and longitudinal dependencies in the transport process. Our modelings show that the parallel and perpendicular diffusion mean free paths of electrons can vary significantly not only as a function of the radial distance, but also of the heliospheric longitude. Normalized to a distance of 1 au, we derive values of λ ∥ in the range of 0.15–0.6 au, and values of λ ⊥ in the range of 0.005–0.01 au. We discuss how our results relate to various theoretical models for perpendicular diffusion, and whether there might be a functional relationship between the perpendicular and the parallel mean free path.
Hot Electron Scattering in Thin Metal Films Utilizing Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durcan, Christopher; Nolting, Westly; Balsano, Robert; Labella, Vincent
Electron scattering in nm-thick metal films has fundamental and technological importance. Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM) an STM based technique can be utilized to measure the scattering rate and understand the scattering mechanisms. By injecting electrons from the STM tip in the energy range of 0.2 eV- 1.5 eV into the metal base of a metal semiconductor diode and measuring the amount of current collected in the semiconductor a Schottky barrier height can be measured. In addition, by measuring the decay in the collector or BEEM current vs. metal film thickness, an electron attenuation length can be measured. One question has always been; what are these BEEM attenuation lengths sensitive to? Intrinsic properties of the metal, or extrinsic effects such as the structure of the film? By measuring the attenuation length of W and Cr and comparing to prior measurements of Cu, Ag, Au a comparison between the BEEM attenuation length and resistivity can be achieved over an order of magnitude in resistivity. The results show an inverse relationship that one expects for mean free path and resistivity, indicating that BEEM measurements are sensitive to the intrinsic properties of the metal and not solely the structure of the films.
Igor D. Kaganovich; Oleg Polomarov
2003-05-19
In low-pressure discharges, when the electron mean free path is larger or comparable with the discharge length, the electron dynamics is essentially non-local. Moreover, the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) deviates considerably from a Maxwellian. Therefore, an accurate kinetic description of the low-pressure discharges requires knowledge of the non-local conductivity operator and calculation of the non-Maxwellian EEDF. The previous treatments made use of simplifying assumptions: a uniform density profile and a Maxwellian EEDF. In the present study a self-consistent system of equations for the kinetic description of nonlocal, non-uniform, nearly collisionless plasmas of low-pressure discharges is derived. It consists of the nonlocal conductivity operator and the averaged kinetic equation for calculation of the non-Maxwellian EEDF. The importance of accounting for the non-uniform plasma density profile on both the current density profile and the EEDF is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lloyd, Seth; Dreyer, Olaf
2016-02-01
Path integrals calculate probabilities by summing over classical configurations of variables such as fields, assigning each configuration a phase equal to the action of that configuration. This paper defines a universal path integral, which sums over all computable structures. This path integral contains as sub-integrals all possible computable path integrals, including those of field theory, the standard model of elementary particles, discrete models of quantum gravity, string theory, etc. The universal path integral possesses a well-defined measure that guarantees its finiteness. The probabilities for events corresponding to sub-integrals can be calculated using the method of decoherent histories. The universal path integral supports a quantum theory of the universe in which the world that we see around us arises out of the interference between all computable structures.
Kolkowitz, S; Safira, A; High, A A; Devlin, R C; Choi, S; Unterreithmeier, Q P; Patterson, D; Zibrov, A S; Manucharyan, V E; Park, H; Lukin, M D
2015-03-01
Thermally induced electrical currents, known as Johnson noise, cause fluctuating electric and magnetic fields in proximity to a conductor. These fluctuations are intrinsically related to the conductivity of the metal. We use single-spin qubits associated with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to probe Johnson noise in the vicinity of conductive silver films. Measurements of polycrystalline silver films over a range of distances (20 to 200 nanometers) and temperatures (10 to 300 kelvin) are consistent with the classically expected behavior of the magnetic fluctuations. However, we find that Johnson noise is markedly suppressed next to single-crystal films, indicative of a substantial deviation from Ohm's law at length scales below the electron mean free path. Our results are consistent with a generalized model that accounts for the ballistic motion of electrons in the metal, indicating that under the appropriate conditions, nearby electrodes may be used for controlling nanoscale optoelectronic, atomic, and solid-state quantum systems. PMID:25636797
Generation and accretion of electrons in complex plasmas with cylindrical particles
Sodha, Mahendra Singh; Misra, Shikha; Mishra, S. K.
2009-12-15
This paper presents an analytical model for the physical understanding of the charging of cylindrical dust particles in an open complex plasma system. Two different mechanisms, viz., thermionic emission and photoelectric emission have been considered for the electron generation from the charged cylindrical dust particles; the corresponding expressions for the rate of emission of electrons and their mean energy have been derived. A simple approach has been adopted to derive the expression for the rate of electron accretion to the dust particle. Further a new expression for the mean energy associated with the accreted electrons due to cylindrical dust particle has been derived and presented. An interesting comparison of results obtained in the case of spherical and cylindrical dust particles has also been made. Using these expressions, a formalism has been developed for the electronic processes in an illuminated dust cloud with cylindrical particles, on the basis of charge neutrality condition and number and energy balance of electrons; the charge carried by the cylindrical dust particles, electron temperature, and electron density corresponding to a given situation have been determined. The limitation of the applicability of the theory, viz., that the mean free path of an electron for accretion by dust particles be less than the dimension of the dust cloud has been pointed out.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheldon, W. R.
2004-05-01
Electron precipitation from the outer belt is an important input of energy and electric charge to the atmosphere. The ionization profile (ionization rate vs. altitude) may be affected by the direction at which electrons enter the top of the atmosphere. Definitive measurements of the angular distribution of precipitating electrons at the top of the atmosphere have not been made; studies of the problem have made a number of assumptions in this regard. Consideration of the mechanism by which electrons in the drift loss cone enter the atmosphere due to eastward drift suggests horizontal entry: an electron in the process of mirroring near the top of the atmosphere encounters a region where its gyro-circumference is equal to its mean-free- path and it collides with an atmospheric molecule. In order to study whether horizontal entry at the top of the atmospere could have a significant effect, we have investigated this question by comparing horizontal to vertical entry with a Monte Carlo study using the FLUKA code. Assuming an energy spectrum typical of outer belt electrons up to 10 MeV at entry, both electrons and X rays were followed down to energies of 100 keV. The Monte Carlo results are compared to measurements in the atmosphere of electrons made below 80 km on rocket-boosted, parachute-deployed payloads, and to measurements of X rays made on balloon payloads at altitudes of about 35 km.
Electron-phonon mediated heat flow in disordered graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wei; Clerk, Aashish A.
2012-09-01
We calculate the heat flux and electron-phonon thermal conductance in a disordered graphene sheet, going beyond a Fermi’s golden rule approach to fully account for the modification of the electron-phonon interaction by disorder. Using the Keldysh technique combined with standard impurity averaging methods in the regime kFl≫1 (where kF is the Fermi wave vector and l is the mean free path), we consider both scalar potential (i.e., deformation potential) and vector-potential couplings between electrons and phonons. We also consider the effects of electronic screening at the Thomas-Fermi level. We find that the temperature dependence of the heat flux and thermal conductance is sensitive to the presence of disorder and screening, and reflects the underlying chiral nature of electrons in graphene and the corresponding modification of their diffusive behavior. In the case of weak screening, disorder enhances the low-temperature heat flux over the clean system (changing the associated power law from T4 to T3), and the deformation potential dominates. For strong screening, both the deformation potential and vector-potential couplings make comparable contributions, and the low-temperature heat flux obeys a T5 power law.
Effect of secondary electron emission on the plasma sheath
Langendorf, S. Walker, M.
2015-03-15
In this experiment, plasma sheath potential profiles are measured over boron nitride walls in argon plasma and the effect of secondary electron emission is observed. Results are compared to a kinetic model. Plasmas are generated with a number density of 3 × 10{sup 12} m{sup −3} at a pressure of 10{sup −4} Torr-Ar, with a 1%–16% fraction of energetic primary electrons. The sheath potential profile at the surface of each sample is measured with emissive probes. The electron number densities and temperatures are measured in the bulk plasma with a planar Langmuir probe. The plasma is non-Maxwellian, with isotropic and directed energetic electron populations from 50 to 200 eV and hot and cold Maxwellian populations from 3.6 to 6.4 eV and 0.3 to 1.3 eV, respectively. Plasma Debye lengths range from 4 to 7 mm and the ion-neutral mean free path is 0.8 m. Sheath thicknesses range from 20 to 50 mm, with the smaller thickness occurring near the critical secondary electron emission yield of the wall material. Measured floating potentials are within 16% of model predictions. Measured sheath potential profiles agree with model predictions within 5 V (∼1 T{sub e}), and in four out of six cases deviate less than the measurement uncertainty of 1 V.
Nonlocal electron transport in magnetized plasmas with arbitrary atomic number
Bennaceur-Doumaz, D.; Bendib, A.
2006-09-15
The numerical solution of the steady-state electron Fokker-Planck equation perturbed with respect to a global equilibrium is presented in magnetized plasmas with arbitrary atomic number Z. The magnetic field is assumed to be constant and the electron-electron collisions are described by the Landau collision operator. The solution is derived in the Fourier space and in the framework of the diffusive approximation which captures the spatial nonlocal effects. The transport coefficients are deduced and used to close a complete set of nonlocal electron fluid equations. This work improves the results of A. Bendib et al. [Phys. Plasmas 9, 1555 (2002)] and of A. V. Brantov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 10, 4633 (2003)] restricted to the local and nonlocal high-Z plasma approximations, respectively. The influence of the magnetic field on the nonlocal effects is discussed. We propose also accurate numerical fits of the relevant transport coefficients with respect to the collisionality parameter {lambda}{sub ei}/L and the atomic number Z, where L is the typical scale length and {lambda}{sub ei} is the electron-ion mean-free-path.
Effect of secondary electron emission on the plasma sheath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langendorf, S.; Walker, M.
2015-03-01
In this experiment, plasma sheath potential profiles are measured over boron nitride walls in argon plasma and the effect of secondary electron emission is observed. Results are compared to a kinetic model. Plasmas are generated with a number density of 3 × 1012 m-3 at a pressure of 10-4 Torr-Ar, with a 1%-16% fraction of energetic primary electrons. The sheath potential profile at the surface of each sample is measured with emissive probes. The electron number densities and temperatures are measured in the bulk plasma with a planar Langmuir probe. The plasma is non-Maxwellian, with isotropic and directed energetic electron populations from 50 to 200 eV and hot and cold Maxwellian populations from 3.6 to 6.4 eV and 0.3 to 1.3 eV, respectively. Plasma Debye lengths range from 4 to 7 mm and the ion-neutral mean free path is 0.8 m. Sheath thicknesses range from 20 to 50 mm, with the smaller thickness occurring near the critical secondary electron emission yield of the wall material. Measured floating potentials are within 16% of model predictions. Measured sheath potential profiles agree with model predictions within 5 V (˜1 Te), and in four out of six cases deviate less than the measurement uncertainty of 1 V.
Role of interface band structure on hot electron transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garramone, John J.
Knowledge of electron transport through materials and interfaces is fundamentally and technologically important. For example, metal interconnects within integrated circuits suffer increasingly from electromigration and signal delay due to an increase in resistance from grain boundary and sidewall scattering since their dimensions are becoming shorter than the electron mean free path. Additionally, all semiconductor based devices require the transport of electrons through materials and interfaces where scattering and parallel momentum conservation are important. In this thesis, the inelastic and elastic scattering of hot electrons are studied in nanometer thick copper, silver and gold films deposited on silicon substrates. Hot electrons are electron with energy greater than kBT above the Fermi level (EF). This work was performed utilizing ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) which is a three terminal scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) technique that measures the percentage of hot electrons transmitted across a Schottky barrier interface. Hot electron attenuation lengths of the metals were extracted by measuring the BEEM current as a function of metal overlayer thickness for both hot electron and hot hole injection at 80 K and under ultra high vacuum. The inelastic and elastic scattering lengths were extracted by fitting the energetic dependence of the measured attenuation lengths to a Fermi liquid based model. A sharp increase in the attenuation length is observed at low injection energies, just above the Schottky barrier height, only for metals on Si(001) substrates. In contrast, the attenuation length measured on Si(111) substrates shows a sharp decrease. These results indicate that interface band structure and parallel momentum conservation have significant impact upon the transport of hot electrons across non epitaxial metal-semiconductor interfaces. In addition, they help to separate effects upon hot electron transport that are inherent to the metal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deris, Jamileh; Hajati, Shaaker; Tougaard, Sven; Zaporojtchenko, Vladimir
2016-07-01
In this work, Au was deposited with nominal effective thickness of 0.8 nm on polystyrene (PS) at room temperature. According to previous study, using XPS peak shape analysis [S. Hajati, V. Zaporojtchenko, F. Faupel, S. Tougaard, Surf. Sci. 601 (2007) 3261-3267], Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs) of sizes 5.5 nm were formed corresponding to such effective thickness (0.8 nm). Then the sample was annealed to 200 °C, which is far above the glass transition of PS. At this temperature, the Au-NPs were diffused within the depth 0.5 nm-6.5 nm as found using nondestructive XPS peak shape analysis. Electrons with primary energy 500 eV were used because the electronic properties will then be probed in utmost surface (∼1 IMFP range of depths that is 1.8 nm for PS). By using QUEELS software, theoretical and experimental electron inelastic cross section, energy loss function, electron inelastic mean free path and surface excitation parameters were obtained for the sample. The information obtained here, does not rely on any previously known information on the sample. This means that the method, applied here, is suitable for the determination of the electronic properties of new and unknown composite nanostructures.
Electron inelastic interactions in bioorganic compounds in the energy range of 20 10000 eV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Z.; Xia, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhao, M.; Ji, Y.; Li, F.; Huang, B.
2005-09-01
Systematic calculations of stopping powers (SPs) and mean free paths (MFPs) for 10 bioorganic compounds have been performed for electrons with energies lower than 10 keV, based on dielectric response theory and Penn’s statistical approximation. The exchange effect is also taken into account in the calculations. An empirical approach to obtain an optical energy loss function is presented for those organic compounds without available optical data. Using this method, the calculated values of the optical energy loss function are in good agreement with experimental data. Comparisons of SP and MFP values derived in this study with other published values are presented. Using the described model, the calculated mean ionization potentials agree well with the predictions from Bragg’s rule and the calculated SPs have also been compared with the Bethe Bloch results at an energy of 10 keV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giannazzo, F.; Deretzis, I.; Nicotra, G.; Fisichella, G.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Spinella, C.; Roccaforte, F.; La Magna, A.
2014-05-01
In this paper, the structural and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene (EG) grown on 8°-off 4H-SiC (0001) by high temperature thermal processes have been extensively investigated by a combination of several high resolution characterization techniques. The increase in the number of graphene layers with the growth temperature (from 1600 to 1700 °C) was studied by microRaman spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) on cross-sectioned samples. The few layers of graphene reside on a stepped SiC surface with alternating (0001) terraces and (11-2n) facets. Peculiar corrugations (wrinkles) in the graphene membrane preferentially oriented perpendicularly to the substrate steps were also observed. Motivated by recent atomic resolution studies of the EG/SiC interface revealing a local delamination of the interfacial C buffer from the (11-2n) facets, we searched for a correlation of these interfacial structural properties with the macroscopic electronic transport in EG field effect transistors (FETs). In particular, electrical characterization of EG top gated FETs fabricated with the channel length parallel or perpendicular to the substrate steps revealed a peculiar anisotropy of the channel conductance with respect to the steps' orientation. This effect was explained in terms of a local enhancement of EG resistance on the (11-2n) facets with respect to the (0001) basal plane, which is consistent with a reduced doping due to the local buffer layer delamination from those facets. Furthermore, scanning probe microscopy-based local electron mean free path measurements on EG showed a ~3× enhancement of mean free path on the buffer-layer-free (11-2n) facets with respect to (0001) terraces, probably associated to a strong reduction of Coulomb scattering effects on graphene's electrons.
Wang, Zhiguo; Xie, YuLong; Campbell, Luke W.; Gao, Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien N.
2012-07-01
A Monte Carlo model of electron thermalization in inorganic scintillators, which was developed and applied to CsI in a previous publication [Wang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064903 (2011)], is extended to another material of the alkali halide class, NaI, and to two materials from the alkaline-earth halide class, CaF2 and BaF2. This model includes electron scattering with both longitudinal optical (LO) and acoustic phonons as well as the effects of internal electric fields. For the four pure materials, a significant fraction of the electrons recombine with self-trapped holes and the thermalization distance distributions of the electrons that do not recombine peak between approximately 25 and 50 {per_thousand}nm and extend up to a few hundreds of nanometers. The thermalization time distributions of CaF2, BaF2, NaI, and CsI extend to approximately 0.5, 1, 2, and 7 ps, respectively. The simulations show that the LO phonon energy is a key factor that affects the electron thermalization process. Indeed, the higher the LO phonon energy is, the shorter the thermalization time and distance are. The thermalization time and distance distributions show no dependence on the incident {gamma}-ray energy. The four materials also show different extents of electron-hole pair recombination due mostly to differences in their electron mean free paths (MFPs), LO phonon energies, initial densities of electron-hole pairs, and static dielectric constants. The effect of thallium doping is also investigated for CsI and NaI as these materials are often doped with activators. Comparison between CsI and NaI shows that both the larger size of Cs+ relative to Na+, i.e., the greater atomic density of NaI, and the longer electron mean free path in NaI compared to CsI contribute to an increased probability for electron trapping at Tl sites in NaI versus CsI.
Wang Zhiguo; Gao Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien; Xie Yulong; Campbell, Luke W.
2012-07-01
A Monte Carlo model of electron thermalization in inorganic scintillators, which was developed and applied to CsI in a previous publication [Wang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064903 (2011)], is extended to another material of the alkali halide class, NaI, and to two materials from the alkaline-earth halide class, CaF{sub 2} and BaF{sub 2}. This model includes electron scattering with both longitudinal optical (LO) and acoustic phonons as well as the effects of internal electric fields. For the four pure materials, a significant fraction of the electrons recombine with self-trapped holes and the thermalization distance distributions of the electrons that do not recombine peak between approximately 25 and 50 nm and extend up to a few hundreds of nanometers. The thermalization time distributions of CaF{sub 2}, BaF{sub 2}, NaI, and CsI extend to approximately 0.5, 1, 2, and 7 ps, respectively. The simulations show that the LO phonon energy is a key factor that affects the electron thermalization process. Indeed, the higher the LO phonon energy is, the shorter the thermalization time and distance are. The thermalization time and distance distributions show no dependence on the incident {gamma}-ray energy. The four materials also show different extents of electron-hole pair recombination due mostly to differences in their electron mean free paths (MFPs), LO phonon energies, initial densities of electron-hole pairs, and static dielectric constants. The effect of thallium doping is also investigated for CsI and NaI as these materials are often doped with activators. Comparison between CsI and NaI shows that both the larger size of Cs{sup +} relative to Na{sup +}, i.e., the greater atomic density of NaI, and the longer electron mean free path in NaI compared to CsI contribute to an increased probability for electron trapping at Tl sites in NaI versus CsI.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garcia-Munoz, M.; Simpson, J. A.; Guzik, T. G.; Wefel, J. P.; Margolis, S. H.
1987-01-01
The energy dependence of the path-length distribution of cosmic rays at low energies, below relativistic velocities, is studied, and its implications for models of cosmic-ray confinement and propagation in the Galaxy and Galactic halo, including the effects of a possible Galactic wind, are studied. It is found that the mean free path in Galactic propagation must be fully energy-dependent, with the mean of an exponential path-length distribution increasing with increasing energy below 1 GeV per nucleon and decreasing with increasing energy above 1 GeV per nucleon. This indicates that, at low energies, diffusion is not the controlling process. The path-length distribution is not purely exponential but is depleted in short path lengths at low energies. This depletion is energy-dependent, being largest at low energies and decreasing with increasing energy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stegemoller, William; Stegemoller, Rebecca
2004-01-01
The path taken and the turns made as a turtle traces a polygon are examined to discover an important theorem in geometry. A unique tool, the Angle Adder, is implemented in the investigation. (Contains 9 figures.)
Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator
Manginell, Ronald P.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Wheeler, David R.; Simonson, Robert J.
2010-09-21
A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.
A Hot-electron Direct Detector for Radioastronomy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karasik, Boris S.; McGrath, William R.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Gershenson, Michael E.
1999-01-01
A hot-electron transition-edge superconducting bolometer with adjustable thermal relaxation speed is proposed. The bolometer contacts are made from a superconductor with high critical temperature which blocks the thermal diffusion of hot carriers into the contacts. Thus electron-phonon interaction is the only mechanism for heat removal. The speed of thermal relaxation for hot electrons in a nanometer-size superconducting bolometer with T(sub c) = 100-300 mK is controlled by the elastic electron mean free path l. The relaxation rate behaves as T(sup 4)l at subkelvin temperatures and can be reduced by a factor of 10-100 by decreasing 1. Then an antenna- or wave guide-coupled bolometer with a time constant approx. = 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -4) s will exhibit photon-noise limited performance at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. The bolometer will have a figure-of-merit NEPtau = 10(exp -22) - 10(exp -21) W/Hz at 100 mK which is 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) times better (ie: smaller) than that of a state-of-the-art bolometer. A tremendous increase in speed and sensitivity will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilgrim, Ian; Scannell, Billy; See, Andrew; Montgomery, Rick; Morse, Peter; Fairbanks, Matt; Marlow, Colleen; Linke, Heiner; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David; Hamilton, Alex; Micolich, Adam; Eaves, Laurence; Taylor, Richard
2013-03-01
Since the 1950s, materials scientists have pursued the fabrication of solid-state heterostructure (HS) devices of sufficient purity to replicate electron interference effects originally observed in vacuum. The ultimate goal of HS engineering is to create a semiconductor ``billiard table'' in which electrons travel ballistically in a 2-D plane--that is, with scattering events minimized such that the electron's mean free path exceeds the device size. For the past two decades, the modulation-doped (MD) HS architecture has yielded devices supporting very high electron mobilities. In this architecture, ionized dopants are spatially removed from the plane of the electrons, such that their influence on electron trajectories is felt through presumably negligible small-angle scattering events. However, we observe that thermally induced charge redistribution in the doped layers of AlGaAs/GaAs and GaInAs/InP MD heterostructures significantly alters electron transport dynamics as measured by magnetoconductance fluctuations. This result demonstrates that small-angle scattering plays a far larger role than expected in influencing conduction properties. Funded by the Office of Naval Research, US Air Force, Australian Research Council, and Research Corporation for Science Advancement
Electron thermodynamics in GRMHD simulations of low-luminosity black hole accretion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ressler, S. M.; Tchekhovskoy, A.; Quataert, E.; Chandra, M.; Gammie, C. F.
2015-12-01
Simple assumptions made regarding electron thermodynamics often limit the extent to which general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations can be applied to observations of low-luminosity accreting black holes. We present, implement, and test a model that self-consistently evolves an entropy equation for the electrons and takes into account the effects of spatially varying electron heating and relativistic anisotropic thermal conduction along magnetic field lines. We neglect the backreaction of electron pressure on the dynamics of the accretion flow. Our model is appropriate for systems accreting at ≪10-5 of the Eddington accretion rate, so radiative cooling by electrons can be neglected. It can be extended to higher accretion rates in the future by including electron cooling and proton-electron Coulomb collisions. We present a suite of tests showing that our method recovers the correct solution for electron heating under a range of circumstances, including strong shocks and driven turbulence. Our initial applications to axisymmetric simulations of accreting black holes show that (1) physically motivated electron heating rates that depend on the local magnetic field strength yield electron temperature distributions significantly different from the constant electron-to-proton temperature ratios assumed in previous work, with higher electron temperatures concentrated in the coronal region between the disc and the jet; (2) electron thermal conduction significantly modifies the electron temperature in the inner regions of black hole accretion flows if the effective electron mean free path is larger than the local scaleheight of the disc (at least for the initial conditions and magnetic field configurations we study). The methods developed in this work are important for producing more realistic predictions for the emission from accreting black holes such as Sagittarius A* and M87; these applications will be explored in future work.
Adjizian, Jean-Joseph; Lherbier, Aurélien; M-M Dubois, Simon; Botello-Méndez, Andrés Rafael; Charlier, Jean-Christophe
2016-01-21
Two-dimensional (2D) conjugated polymers exhibit electronic structures analogous to that of graphene with the peculiarity of π-π* bands which are fully symmetric and isolated. In the present letter, the suitability of these materials for electronic applications is analyzed and discussed. In particular, realistic 2D conjugated polymer networks with a structural disorder such as monomer vacancies are investigated. Indeed, during bottom-up synthesis, these irregularities are unavoidable and their impact on the electronic properties is investigated using both ab initio and tight-binding techniques. The tight-binding model is combined with a real space Kubo-Greenwood approach for the prediction of transport characteristics for monomer vacancy concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 2%. As expected, long mean free paths and high mobilities are predicted for low defect densities. At low temperatures and for high defect densities, strong localization phenomena originating from quantum interferences of multiple scattering paths are observed in the close vicinity of the Dirac energy region while the absence of localization effects is predicted away from this region suggesting a sharp mobility transition. These predictions show that 2D conjugated polymer networks are good candidates to pave the way for the ultimate scaling and performances of future molecular nanoelectronic devices. PMID:26692370
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Sungmu
In this thesis, devices using the ballistic transport of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in GaAs High Electron Mobility Transistor(HEMT) structure is fabricated and their dc and ac properties are characterized. This study gives insight on operation and applications of modern submicron devices with ever reduced gate length comparable to electron mean free path. The ballistic transport is achieved using both temporal and spatial limits in this thesis. In temporal limit, when frequency is higher than the scattering frequency (1/(2pitau)), ballistic transport can be achieved. At room temperature, generally the scattering frequency is around 500 GHz but at cryogenic temperature (≤4K) with high mobility GaAs HEMT structure, the frequency is much lower than 2 GHz. On this temporal ballistic transport regime, effect of contact impedance and different dc mobility on device operation is characterized with the ungated 2DEG of HEMT structure. In this ballistic regime, impedance and responsivity of plasma wave detector are investigated using the gated 2DEG of HEMT at different ac boundary conditions. Plasma wave is generated at asymmetric ac boundary conditions of HEMTs, where source is short to ground and drain is open while rf power is applied to gate. The wave velocity can be tuned by gate bias voltage and induced drain to source voltage(Vds ) shows the resonant peak at odd number of fundamental frequency. Quantitative power coupling to plasma wave detector leads to experimental characterization of resonant response of plasma wave detector as a function of frequency. Because plasma wave resonance is not limited by transit time, the physics learned in this study can be directly converted to room temperature terahertz detection by simply reducing gate length(Lgate) to submicron for the terahertz application such as non destructive test, bio medical analysis, homeland security, defense and space. In same HEMT structure, the dc and rf characterization on device is also
Sampling diffusive transition paths
F. Miller III, Thomas; Predescu, Cristian
2006-10-12
We address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with sampling infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with sampling the coarse features of long paths. The fine-features sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm (FSA), and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. We use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature.
Sampling diffusive transition paths.
Miller, Thomas F; Predescu, Cristian
2007-04-14
The authors address the problem of sampling double-ended diffusive paths. The ensemble of paths is expressed using a symmetric version of the Onsager-Machlup formula, which only requires evaluation of the force field and which, upon direct time discretization, gives rise to a symmetric integrator that is accurate to second order. Efficiently sampling this ensemble requires avoiding the well-known stiffness problem associated with the sampling of infinitesimal Brownian increments of the path, as well as a different type of stiffness associated with the sampling of the coarse features of long paths. The fine-feature sampling stiffness is eliminated with the use of the fast sampling algorithm, and the coarse-feature sampling stiffness is avoided by introducing the sliding and sampling (S&S) algorithm. A key feature of the S&S algorithm is that it enables massively parallel computers to sample diffusive trajectories that are long in time. The authors use the algorithm to sample the transition path ensemble for the structural interconversion of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster at low temperature. PMID:17444696
Lee, Jongkyong; Gang, Suhyun; Jo, Yongcheol; Kim, Jongmin; Woo, Hyeonseok; Han, Jaeseok; Kim, Hyungsang Im, Hyunsik
2014-07-28
We have investigated the temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a 100 nm-long InGaAs/InAlAs metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor designed for millimeter-wavelength RF applications. To extract the temperature dependence of quasi-ballistic mobility, our experiment involves measurements of the effective mobility in the low-bias linear region of the transistor and of the collision-dominated Hall mobility using a gated Hall bar of the same epitaxial structure. The data measured from the experiment are consistent with that of modeled ballistic mobility based on ballistic transport theory. These results advance the understanding of ballistic transport in various transistors with a nano-scale channel length that is comparable to the carrier's mean free path in the channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jaeheon
2011-12-01
Short channel GaAs Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFETs) have been fabricated with gate length to 20 nm, in order to examine the characteristics of sub-50 nm MESFET scaling. Here the rise in the measured transconductance is mainly attributed to electron velocity overshoot. For gate lengths below 40 nm, however, the transconductance drops suddenly. The behavior of velocity overshoot and its degradation is investigated and simulated by using a transport model based on the retarded Langevin equation (RLE). This indicates the existence of a minimum acceleration length needed for the carriers to reach the overshoot velocity. The argument shows that the source resistance must be included as an internal element, or appropriate boundary condition, of relative importance in any model where the gate length is comparable to the inelastic mean free path of the carriers.
Qian, Weixian; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yingcheng; Xu, Jiang
2015-09-15
Both the Jones and Mueller matrices encounter difficulties when physically modeling mixed materials or rough surfaces due to the complexity of light-matter interactions. To address these issues, we derived a matrix called the paths correlation matrix (PCM), which is a probabilistic mixture of Jones matrices of every light propagation path. Because PCM is related to actual light propagation paths, it is well suited for physical modeling. Experiments were performed, and the reflection PCM of a mixture of polypropylene and graphite was measured. The PCM of the mixed sample was accurately decomposed into pure polypropylene's single reflection, pure graphite's single reflection, and depolarization caused by multiple reflections, which is consistent with the theoretical derivation. Reflection parameters of rough surface can be calculated from PCM decomposition, and the results fit well with the theoretical calculations provided by the Fresnel equations. These theoretical and experimental analyses verify that PCM is an efficient way to physically model light-matter interactions. PMID:26371930
Shagayda, Andrey
2012-08-15
Analytical studies and numerical simulations show that the electron velocity distribution function in a Hall thruster discharge with crossed electric and magnetic fields is not Maxwellian. This is due to the fact that the mean free path between collisions is greater than both the Larmor radius and the characteristic dimensions of the discharge channel. However in numerical models of Hall thrusters, a hydrodynamic approach is often used to describe the electron dynamics, because discharge simulation in a fully kinetic approach requires large computing resources and is time consuming. A more accurate modeling of the electron flow in the hydrodynamic approximation requires taking into account the non-Maxwellian character of the distribution function and finding its moments, an approach that reflects the properties of electrons drifting in crossed electric and magnetic fields better than the commonly used Euler or Navier-Stokes approximations. In the present paper, an expression for the electron velocity distribution function in rarefied spatially homogeneous stationary plasma with crossed electric and magnetic fields and predominance of collisions with heavy particles is derived in the relaxation approximation. The main moments of the distribution function including longitudinal and transversal temperatures, the components of the viscous stress tensor, and of the heat flux vector are calculated. Distinctive features of the hydrodynamic description of electrons with a strongly non-equilibrium distribution function and the prospects for further development of the proposed approach for calculating the distribution function in spatially inhomogeneous plasma are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y. F.; Su, P.; Kwei, C. M.; Tung, C. J.
1994-12-01
The influence of surface excitations on electrons elastically backscattered from solid surfaces is investigated. Elastic-scattering differential cross sections are calculated using the partial-wave expansion method and the finite difference techique for solid atoms with the Hartree-Fock-Wigner-Seitz potential. An extended Drude dielectric function which allows the characteristic oscillator strength, damping constant, and critical-point energy for each subband of valence electrons is employed to estimate electron inelastic mean free paths for volume excitations. The same dielectric function is applied to evaluate the probability of surface excitations for incident and escape electrons by including the recoil effect without the small-angle approximation. Results of Monte Carlo simulations on the elastic reflection coefficient and the angular distribution of electrons elastically backscattered from Cu and Ag surfaces are presented. It is revealed that surface excitations significantly reduce the elastic reflection coefficient for low-energy electrons, but less significantly influence the angular distribution for large escape angles. Our results agree very well with experimental data.
Da, B.; Li, Z. Y.; Chang, H. C.; Ding, Z. J.; Mao, S. F.
2014-09-28
It has been experimentally found that the carbon surface contamination influences strongly the spectrum signals in reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) especially at low primary electron energy. However, there is still little theoretical work dealing with the carbon contamination effect in REELS. Such a work is required to predict REELS spectrum for layered structural sample, providing an understanding of the experimental phenomena observed. In this study, we present a numerical calculation result on the spatially varying differential inelastic mean free path for a sample made of a carbon contamination layer of varied thickness on a SrTiO{sub 3} substrate. A Monte Carlo simulation model for electron interaction with a layered structural sample is built by combining this inelastic scattering cross-section with the Mott's cross-section for electron elastic scattering. The simulation results have clearly shown that the contribution of the electron energy loss from carbon surface contamination increases with decreasing primary energy due to increased individual scattering processes along trajectory parts carbon contamination layer. Comparison of the simulated spectra for different thicknesses of the carbon contamination layer and for different primary electron energies with experimental spectra clearly identifies that the carbon contamination in the measured sample was in the form of discontinuous islands other than the uniform film.
Mobile transporter path planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baffes, Paul; Wang, Lui
1990-01-01
The use of a genetic algorithm (GA) for solving the mobile transporter path planning problem is investigated. The mobile transporter is a traveling robotic vehicle proposed for the space station which must be able to reach any point of the structure autonomously. Elements of the genetic algorithm are explored in both a theoretical and experimental sense. Specifically, double crossover, greedy crossover, and tournament selection techniques are examined. Additionally, the use of local optimization techniques working in concert with the GA are also explored. Recent developments in genetic algorithm theory are shown to be particularly effective in a path planning problem domain, though problem areas can be cited which require more research.
Collisionless electron heating in periodic arrays of inductively coupled plasmas
Czarnetzki, U.; Tarnev, Kh.
2014-12-15
A novel mechanism of collisionless heating in large planar arrays of small inductive coils operated at radio frequencies is presented. In contrast to the well-known case of non-local heating related to the transversal conductivity, when the electrons move perpendicular to the planar coil, we investigate the problem of electrons moving in a plane parallel to the coils. Two types of periodic structures are studied. Resonance velocities where heating is efficient are calculated analytically by solving the Vlasov equation. Certain scaling parameters are identified. The concept is further investigated by a single particle simulation based on the ergodic principle and combined with a Monte Carlo code allowing for collisions with Argon atoms. Resonances, energy exchange, and distribution functions are obtained. The analytical results are confirmed by the numerical simulation. Pressure and electric field dependences are studied. Stochastic heating is found to be most efficient when the electron mean free path exceeds the size of a single coil cell. Then the mean energy increases approximately exponentially with the electric field amplitude.
Simulated performance of the calorimetric electron telescope (CALET) experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akaike, Y.; Taira, K.; Kasahara, K.; Torii, S.; Shimizu, Y.; Yoshida, K.; CALET Collaboration
2010-03-01
CALET is a detector planned to be on-board the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) of the International Space Station. The CALET mission aims at revealing unsolved problems in high energy phenomena of the Universe by carrying out a precise measurement of the high energy electrons in 1 GeV-20 TeV, the gamma-rays in 20 MeV to a few TeV and the nuclei in a few 10 GeV-1000 TeV. The main detector is composed of imaging calorimeter (IMC), total absorption calorimeter (TASC), silicon pixel array (SIA) and anti-coincidence detector (ACD) to detect various kinds of particles in very wide energy range. The total absorber thickness is 31 radiation lengths for electromagnetic particles and 1.4 interaction mean free paths for protons. Monte Carlo simulation study has been carried out for optimization of the detector performance in observing each kind of particles. We obtained following performance about the observation of very high energy (>100 GeV) electrons, which is a main target of the CALET experiment: (1) Effective geometrical factor is about 7000 cm2 sr. (2) Energy resolution is better than a few %. (3) Angular resolution is better than 0.1°. (4) Proton rejection power is ˜105 with the electron detection efficiency better than 95%. We also present the simulated performance of the CALET experiment in observing other particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheldon, W. R.; Andersen, V.; Pinsky, L. S.
Electron precipitation from the outer belt is an important input of energy and electric charge to the atmosphere. Its effect on the electrodynamics of the atmosphere depends on the resulting ionization profile (ionization rate vs. altitude). It is likely that the ionization profile is strongly affected by the angular distribution of precipitating electrons absorbed by the atmosphere. Definitive measurements of precipitating electrons at the top of the atmosphere have not been made; the usual assumption for calculations of this problem is that they have an isotropic distribution over the zenithal hemisphere. However, consideration of the mechanism leading to the precipitation of outer belt electrons suggests a different distribution: a trapped electron in the process of mirroring encounters a region near the top of the atmosphere where its gyro-circumference is equal to its mean-free-path and thus collides with an atmospheric molecule. In this case, precipitating electrons are traveling horizontally when they are absorbed in the atmosphere. In order to investigate differences in the ionization profile that may depend on the angular distribution of precipitating electrons, we have conducted a Monte Carlo study of this problem using the FLUKA code. The two angular distributions described previously were assumed with an energy spectrum typical for outer belt electrons up to 10 MeV; both electrons and X-rays were followed down to energies of 100 keV. The Monte Carlo results are compared to measurements of electrons in the atmosphere below 80 km made from rocket-boosted, parachute-deployed payloads, and to measurements of X-rays made on balloon payloads at altitudes of about 35 km. Also, the flux and energy spectrum of backscattered electrons traveling upward from the atmosphere are determined for the two angular distributions of precipitating electrons, isotropic over the zenithal hemisphere and horizontal absorption.
Improved initial guess for minimum energy path calculations.
Smidstrup, Søren; Pedersen, Andreas; Stokbro, Kurt; Jónsson, Hannes
2014-06-01
A method is presented for generating a good initial guess of a transition path between given initial and final states of a system without evaluation of the energy. An objective function surface is constructed using an interpolation of pairwise distances at each discretization point along the path and the nudged elastic band method then used to find an optimal path on this image dependent pair potential (IDPP) surface. This provides an initial path for the more computationally intensive calculations of a minimum energy path on an energy surface obtained, for example, by ab initio or density functional theory. The optimal path on the IDPP surface is significantly closer to a minimum energy path than a linear interpolation of the Cartesian coordinates and, therefore, reduces the number of iterations needed to reach convergence and averts divergence in the electronic structure calculations when atoms are brought too close to each other in the initial path. The method is illustrated with three examples: (1) rotation of a methyl group in an ethane molecule, (2) an exchange of atoms in an island on a crystal surface, and (3) an exchange of two Si-atoms in amorphous silicon. In all three cases, the computational effort in finding the minimum energy path with DFT was reduced by a factor ranging from 50% to an order of magnitude by using an IDPP path as the initial path. The time required for parallel computations was reduced even more because of load imbalance when linear interpolation of Cartesian coordinates was used. PMID:24907989
Improved initial guess for minimum energy path calculations
Smidstrup, Søren; Pedersen, Andreas; Stokbro, Kurt
2014-06-07
A method is presented for generating a good initial guess of a transition path between given initial and final states of a system without evaluation of the energy. An objective function surface is constructed using an interpolation of pairwise distances at each discretization point along the path and the nudged elastic band method then used to find an optimal path on this image dependent pair potential (IDPP) surface. This provides an initial path for the more computationally intensive calculations of a minimum energy path on an energy surface obtained, for example, by ab initio or density functional theory. The optimal path on the IDPP surface is significantly closer to a minimum energy path than a linear interpolation of the Cartesian coordinates and, therefore, reduces the number of iterations needed to reach convergence and averts divergence in the electronic structure calculations when atoms are brought too close to each other in the initial path. The method is illustrated with three examples: (1) rotation of a methyl group in an ethane molecule, (2) an exchange of atoms in an island on a crystal surface, and (3) an exchange of two Si-atoms in amorphous silicon. In all three cases, the computational effort in finding the minimum energy path with DFT was reduced by a factor ranging from 50% to an order of magnitude by using an IDPP path as the initial path. The time required for parallel computations was reduced even more because of load imbalance when linear interpolation of Cartesian coordinates was used.
Spin-Orbit Interaction and Related Transport Phenomena in 2d Electron and Hole Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khaetskii, A.
Spin-orbit interaction is responsible for many physical phenomena which are under intensive study currently. Here we discuss several of them. The first phenomenon is the edge spin accumulation, which appears due to spin-orbit interaction in 2D mesoscopic structures in the presence of a charge current. We consider the case of a strong spin-orbit-related splitting of the electron spectrum, i.e. a spin precession length is small compared to the mean free path l. The structure can be either in a ballistic regime (when the mean free path is the largest scale in the problem) or quasi-ballistic regime (when l is much smaller than the sample size). We show how physics of edge spin accumulation in different situations should be understood from the point of view of unitarity of boundary scattering. Using transparent method of scattering states, we are able to explain some previous puzzling theoretical results. We clarify the important role of the form of the spin-orbit Hamiltonian, the role of the boundary conditions, etc., and reveal the wrong results obtained in the field by other researchers. The relation between the edge spin density and the bulk spin current in different regimes is discussed. The detailed comparison with the existing theoretical works is presented. Besides, we consider several new transport phenomena which appear in the presence of spin-orbit interaction, for example, magnetotransport phenomena in an external classical magnetic field. In particular, new mechanism of negative magneto-resistance appears which is due to destruction of spin fluxes by the magnetic field, and which can be really pronounced in 2D systems with strong scatterers.
Coherence-path duality relations for N paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hillery, Mark; Bagan, Emilio; Bergou, Janos; Cottrell, Seth
2016-05-01
For an interferometer with two paths, there is a relation between the information about which path the particle took and the visibility of the interference pattern at the output. The more path information we have, the smaller the visibility, and vice versa. We generalize this relation to a multi-path interferometer, and we substitute two recently defined measures of quantum coherence for the visibility, which results in two duality relations. The path information is provided by attaching a detector to each path. In the first relation, which uses an l1 measure of coherence, the path information is obtained by applying the minimum-error state discrimination procedure to the detector states. In the second, which employs an entropic measure of coherence, the path information is the mutual information between the detector states and the result of measuring them. Both approaches are quantitative versions of complementarity for N-path interferometers. Support provided by the John Templeton Foundation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rodia, Becky
2004-01-01
This article profiles Diane Stanley, an author and illustrator of children's books. Although she was studying to be a medical illustrator in graduate school, Stanley's path changed when she got married and had children. As she was raising her children, she became increasingly enamored of the colorful children's books she would check out of the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGarvey, Lynn M.; Sterenberg, Gladys Y.; Long, Julie S.
2013-01-01
The authors elucidate what they saw as three important challenges to overcome along the path to becoming elementary school mathematics teacher leaders: marginal interest in math, low self-confidence, and teaching in isolation. To illustrate how these challenges were mitigated, they focus on the stories of two elementary school teachers--Laura and…
Photon-noise-limited direct detector based on disorder-controlled electron heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karasik, Boris S.; McGrath, William R.; Gershenson, Michael E.; Sergeev, Andrew V.
2000-05-01
We present a concept for a hot-electron direct detector capable of counting single millimeter-wave photons. The detector is based on a microbridge (1 μm size) transition edge sensor made from a disordered superconducting film. The electron-phonon coupling strength at temperatures of 100-300 mK is proportional to the elastic electron mean free path l and can be reduced by over an order of magnitude by decreasing l. The microbridge contacts are made from a different superconductor with higher critical temperature Nb, which blocks the thermal diffusion of hot carriers into the contacts. The low electron-phonon heat conductance and the high thermal resistance of the contacts determine the noise equivalent power of ˜10-20-10-21 W/√Hz at 100 mK, which is 102-103 times better than that of state-of-the-art bolometers. Due to the effect of disorder, the electron cooling time is ˜10-1-10-2 s at 0.1 K. By exploiting negative electrothermal feedback, the detector time constant can be made as short as 10-3-10-4 s without sacrificing sensitivity.
Inelastic scattering of electron and light ion beams in organic polymers
Vera, Pablo de; Abril, Isabel; Garcia-Molina, Rafael
2011-05-01
We have calculated the inelastic mean free path, stopping power, and energy-loss straggling of swift electron, proton, and {alpha}-particle beams in a broad incident energy range in four organic polymers: poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), Kapton, polyacetylene (PA), and poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP). These calculations have been done through a suitable description of their optical properties and its extension into the whole momentum and energy transfer excitation spectrum. For electrons, we take into account the exchange effect between the projectile and the target electrons, while the charge-state fractions have been considered for ions. Our results are compared with other models and with the available experimental data. An excellent agreement with experimental data is obtained in the case of proton and {alpha}-particle beams in Kapton and a reasonably good agreement has been achieved for electron beams in PMMA, Kapton, and PA. We have parameterized by means of simple analytical expressions our results for electron beams interacting with these four polymers, which can be easily implemented in Monte Carlo calculations.
Bulk and shear viscosities of the two-dimensional electron liquid in a doped graphene sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Principi, Alessandro; Vignale, Giovanni; Carrega, Matteo; Polini, Marco
2016-03-01
Hydrodynamic flow occurs in an electron liquid when the mean free path for electron-electron collisions is the shortest length scale in the problem. In this regime, transport is described by the Navier-Stokes equation, which contains two fundamental parameters, the bulk and shear viscosities. In this paper, we present extensive results for these transport coefficients in the case of the two-dimensional massless Dirac fermion liquid in a doped graphene sheet. Our approach relies on microscopic calculations of the viscosities up to second order in the strength of electron-electron interactions and in the high-frequency limit, where perturbation theory is applicable. We then use simple interpolation formulas that allow to reach the low-frequency hydrodynamic regime where perturbation theory is no longer directly applicable. The key ingredient for the interpolation formulas is the "viscosity transport time" τv, which we calculate in this paper. The transverse nature of the excitations contributing to τv leads to the suppression of scattering events with small momentum transfer, which are inherently longitudinal. Therefore, contrary to the quasiparticle lifetime, which goes as -1 /[T2ln(T /TF) ] , in the low-temperature limit we find τv˜1 /T2 .
Vlasov-Fokker-Planck Simulation of a Collisional Ion-Electron Shockwave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taitano, William; Knoll, Dana; Prinja, Anil
2012-10-01
There has been recent increased interest in a range of kinetic plasma physics phenomena which may be important in simulating ICF pellet performance. [1] have numerically demonstrated the limitations of the classic Spitzer, Braginski fluid closures in collisional plasmas for shockwave problems. [1] has shown the importance of modeling kinetic effects for scale lengths of shockwave much larger than the ion collision mean free path. In [1], the ions were modeled kinetically using the Fokker-Planck approximation while the electrons were modeled as a fluid. An investigation of a full kinetic treatment of electron with collision is computationally intractable with standard explicit schemes due to collision CFL limitation that requires resolving the electron-electron collision timescale. [2] has developed a new, fully implicit and discretely consistent moment based accelerator method to solve the full ion-electron kinetic Vlasov-Ampere system. A similar moment based accelerator will be extended to a collisionless shock problem in order to accelerate the Fokker-Planck collision source in the kinetic equations. In the presentation, we provide some preliminary results. [4pt] [1] M. Casanova and O. Larroche, Phys. Rev. Let. 67-(16), 1991. [0pt] [2] W.T. Taitano et al. SISC in review.
Studness, C.M.
1995-05-01
The financial community`s focus on utility competition has been riveted on the proceedings now in progress at state regulatory commissions. The fear that something immediately damaging will come out of these proceedings seems to have diminished in recent months, and the stock market has reacted favorably. However, regulatory developments are only one of four paths leading to competition; the others are the marketplace, the legislatures, and the courts. Each could play a critical role in the emergence of competition.
PATHS groundwater hydrologic model
Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.
1980-04-01
A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
Scientists created this overlay map by laying navigation and panoramic camera images taken from the surface of Mars on top of one of Spirit's descent images taken as the spacecraft descended to the martian surface. The map was created to help track the path that Spirit has traveled through sol 44 and to put into perspective the distance left to travel before reaching the edge of the large crater nicknamed 'Bonneville.'
The area boxed in yellow contains the ground images that have been matched to and layered on top of the descent image. The yellow line shows the path that Spirit has traveled and the red dashed line shows the intended path for future sols. The blue circles highlight hollowed areas on the surface, such as Sleepy Hollow, near the lander, and Laguna Hollow, the sol 45 drive destination. Scientists use these hollowed areas - which can be seen in both the ground images and the descent image - to correctly match up the overlay.
Field geologists on Earth create maps like this to assist them in tracking their observations.
Polarization of thermal bremsstrahlung emission due to electron pressure anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komarov, S. V.; Khabibullin, I. I.; Churazov, E. M.; Schekochihin, A. A.
2016-09-01
Astrophysical plasmas are typically magnetized, with the Larmor radii of the charged particles many orders of magnitude smaller than their collisional mean free paths. The fundamental properties of such plasmas, e.g. conduction and viscosity, may depend on the instabilities driven by the anisotropy of the particle distribution functions and operating at scales comparable to the Larmor scales. We discuss a possibility that the pressure anisotropy of thermal electrons could produce polarization of thermal bremsstrahlung emission. In particular, we consider coherent large-scale motions in galaxy clusters to estimate the level of anisotropy driven by stretching of the magnetic-field lines by plasma flow and by heat fluxes associated with thermal gradients. Our estimate of the degree of polarization is ˜0.1 per cent at energies ≳kT. While this value is too low for the forthcoming generation of X-ray polarimeters, it is potentially an important proxy for the processes taking place at extremely small scales, which are impossible to resolve spatially. The absence of the effect at the predicted level may set a lower limit on the electron collisionality in the ICM. At the same time, the small value of the effect implies that it does not preclude the use of clusters as (unpolarized) calibration sources for X-ray polarimeters at this level of accuracy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decisionmaker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its content
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, Judith L.; Charles, John B.; Rummel, John A. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Approximately three years ago, the Agency's lead center for the human elements of spaceflight (the Johnson Space Center), along with the National Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) (which has the lead role in developing countermeasures) initiated an activity to identify the most critical risks confronting extended human spaceflight. Two salient factors influenced this activity: first, what information is needed to enable a "go/no go" decision to embark on extended human spaceflight missions; and second, what knowledge and capabilities are needed to address known and potential health, safety and performance risks associated with such missions. A unique approach was used to first define and assess those risks, and then to prioritize them. This activity was called the Critical Path Roadmap (CPR) and it represents an opportunity to develop and implement a focused and evolving program of research and technology designed from a "risk reduction" perspective to prevent or minimize the risks to humans exposed to the space environment. The Critical Path Roadmap provides the foundation needed to ensure that human spaceflight, now and in the future, is as safe, productive and healthy as possible (within the constraints imposed on any particular mission) regardless of mission duration or destination. As a tool, the Critical Path Roadmap enables the decision maker to select from among the demonstrated or potential risks those that are to be mitigated, and the completeness of that mitigation. The primary audience for the CPR Web Site is the members of the scientific community who are interested in the research and technology efforts required for ensuring safe and productive human spaceflight. They may already be informed about the various space life sciences research programs or they may be newcomers. Providing the CPR content to potential investigators increases the probability of their delivering effective risk mitigations. Others who will use the CPR Web Site and its
Thermoalgebras and path integral
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khanna, F. C.; Malbouisson, A. P. C.; Malbouisson, J. M. C.; Santana, A. E.
2009-09-01
Using a representation for Lie groups closely associated with thermal problems, we derive the algebraic rules of the real-time formalism for thermal quantum field theories, the so-called thermo-field dynamics (TFD), including the tilde conjugation rules for interacting fields. These thermo-group representations provide a unified view of different approaches for finite-temperature quantum fields in terms of a symmetry group. On these grounds, a path integral formalism is constructed, using Bogoliubov transformations, for bosons, fermions and non-abelian gauge fields. The generalization of the results for quantum fields in (S1)d×R topology is addressed.
Path Integrals and Supersolids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceperley, D. M.
2008-11-01
Recent experiments by Kim and Chan on solid 4He have been interpreted as discovery of a supersolid phase of matter. Arguments based on wavefunctions have shown that such a phase exists, but do not necessarily apply to solid 4He. Imaginary time path integrals, implemented using Monte Carlo methods, provide a definitive answer; a clean system of solid 4He should be a normal quantum solid, not one with superfluid properties. The Kim-Chan phenomena must be due to defects introduced when the solid is formed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehhtz, Peter
2005-01-01
JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.
Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey
2012-01-01
We examine portage sites in the U.S. South, Mid-Atlantic, and Midwest, including those on the fall line, a geomorphological feature in the southeastern U.S. marking the final rapids on rivers before the ocean. Historically, waterborne transport of goods required portage around the falls at these points, while some falls provided water power during early industrialization. These factors attracted commerce and manufacturing. Although these original advantages have long since been made obsolete, we document the continuing importance of these portage sites over time. We interpret these results as path dependence and contrast explanations based on sunk costs interacting with decreasing versus increasing returns to scale. PMID:23935217
Bleakley, Hoyt; Lin, Jeffrey
2012-05-01
We examine portage sites in the U.S. South, Mid-Atlantic, and Midwest, including those on the fall line, a geomorphological feature in the southeastern U.S. marking the final rapids on rivers before the ocean. Historically, waterborne transport of goods required portage around the falls at these points, while some falls provided water power during early industrialization. These factors attracted commerce and manufacturing. Although these original advantages have long since been made obsolete, we document the continuing importance of these portage sites over time. We interpret these results as path dependence and contrast explanations based on sunk costs interacting with decreasing versus increasing returns to scale. PMID:23935217
High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential
Lu, Tzu -Ming; Laroche, Dominique; Huang, S. -H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J. -Y.; Liu, C. W.
2016-01-01
In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned overmore » a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm–2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm–2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. Lastly, this result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.« less
High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, T. M.; Laroche, D.; Huang, S.-H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J.-Y.; Liu, C. W.
2016-02-01
In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm-2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm-2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. This result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.
High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential
Lu, Tzu -Ming; Laroche, Dominique; Huang, S. -H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J. -Y.; Liu, C. W.
2016-01-01
In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 10^{10} cm^{–2} to 1.8 × 10^{11} cm^{–2}, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 10^{5} cm^{2}/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. Lastly, this result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.
Thermal flux limited electron Kapitza conductance in copper-niobium multilayers
Cheaito, Ramez; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Gaskins, John T.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Duda, John C.; Beechem, III, Thomas Edwin; Ihlefeld, Jon; Piekos, Edward S.; Baldwin, Jon K.; Misra, Amit; Hopkins, Patrick E.
2015-03-05
The interplay between the contributions of electron thermal flux and interface scattering to the Kapitza conductance across metal-metal interfaces through measurements of thermal conductivity of copper-niobium multilayers was studied. Thermal conductivities of copper-niobium multilayer films of period thicknesses ranging from 5.4 to 96.2 nm and sample thicknesses ranging from 962 to 2677 nm are measured by time-domain thermoreflectance over a range of temperatures from 78 to 500 K. The Kapitza conductances between the Cu and Nb interfaces in multilayer films are determined from the thermal conductivities using a series resistor model and are in good agreement with the electron diffuse mismatch model. The results for the thermal boundary conductance between Cu and Nb are compared to literature values for the thermal boundary conductance across Al-Cu and Pd-Ir interfaces, and demonstrate that the interface conductance in metallic systems is dictated by the temperature derivative of the electron energy flux in the metallic layers, rather than electron mean free path or scattering processes at the interface.
A deterministic computational model for the two dimensional electron and photon transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badavi, Francis F.; Nealy, John E.
2014-12-01
A deterministic (non-statistical) two dimensional (2D) computational model describing the transport of electron and photon typical of space radiation environment in various shield media is described. The 2D formalism is casted into a code which is an extension of a previously developed one dimensional (1D) deterministic electron and photon transport code. The goal of both 1D and 2D codes is to satisfy engineering design applications (i.e. rapid analysis) while maintaining an accurate physics based representation of electron and photon transport in space environment. Both 1D and 2D transport codes have utilized established theoretical representations to describe the relevant collisional and radiative interactions and transport processes. In the 2D version, the shield material specifications are made more general as having the pertinent cross sections. In the 2D model, the specification of the computational field is in terms of a distance of traverse z along an axial direction as well as a variable distribution of deflection (i.e. polar) angles θ where -π/2<θ<π/2, and corresponding symmetry is assumed for the range of azimuth angles (0<φ<2π). In the transport formalism, a combined mean-free-path and average trajectory approach is used. For candidate shielding materials, using the trapped electron radiation environments at low Earth orbit (LEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and Jupiter moon Europa, verification of the 2D formalism vs. 1D and an existing Monte Carlo code are presented.
High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential
Lu, T. M.; Laroche, D.; Huang, S.-H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J.-Y.; Liu, C. W.
2016-01-01
In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm−2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm−2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. This result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential. PMID:26865160
Thermal flux limited electron Kapitza conductance in copper-niobium multilayers
Cheaito, Ramez; Gaskins, John T.; Duda, John C.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Hattar, Khalid; Beechem, Thomas E.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Piekos, Edward S.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Baldwin, Jon K.; Misra, Amit
2015-03-02
We study the interplay between the contributions of electron thermal flux and interface scattering to the Kapitza conductance across metal-metal interfaces through measurements of thermal conductivity of copper-niobium multilayers. Thermal conductivities of copper-niobium multilayer films of period thicknesses ranging from 5.4 to 96.2 nm and sample thicknesses ranging from 962 to 2677 nm are measured by time-domain thermoreflectance over a range of temperatures from 78 to 500 K. The Kapitza conductances between the Cu and Nb interfaces in multilayer films are determined from the thermal conductivities using a series resistor model and are in good agreement with the electron diffuse mismatch model. Our results for the thermal boundary conductance between Cu and Nb are compared to literature values for the thermal boundary conductance across Al-Cu and Pd-Ir interfaces, and demonstrate that the interface conductance in metallic systems is dictated by the temperature derivative of the electron energy flux in the metallic layers, rather than electron mean free path or scattering processes at the interface.
Thermal flux limited electron Kapitza conductance in copper-niobium multilayers
Cheaito, Ramez; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Gaskins, John T.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Duda, John C.; Beechem, III, Thomas Edwin; Ihlefeld, Jon; Piekos, Edward S.; Baldwin, Jon K.; Misra, Amit; et al
2015-03-05
The interplay between the contributions of electron thermal flux and interface scattering to the Kapitza conductance across metal-metal interfaces through measurements of thermal conductivity of copper-niobium multilayers was studied. Thermal conductivities of copper-niobium multilayer films of period thicknesses ranging from 5.4 to 96.2 nm and sample thicknesses ranging from 962 to 2677 nm are measured by time-domain thermoreflectance over a range of temperatures from 78 to 500 K. The Kapitza conductances between the Cu and Nb interfaces in multilayer films are determined from the thermal conductivities using a series resistor model and are in good agreement with the electron diffusemore » mismatch model. The results for the thermal boundary conductance between Cu and Nb are compared to literature values for the thermal boundary conductance across Al-Cu and Pd-Ir interfaces, and demonstrate that the interface conductance in metallic systems is dictated by the temperature derivative of the electron energy flux in the metallic layers, rather than electron mean free path or scattering processes at the interface.« less
Siekhaus, W J; Nelson, A J
2011-10-26
Energy dependent electron emission between zero and 1.4 keV generated by the natural reactivity of plutonium was measured by an electrostatic spectrometer with known acceptance angle and acceptance area. The electron spectral intensity decreases continuously except for a distinctive feature of unknown origin at approximately 180eV. The spectrum was converted to energy dependent electron flux (e/cm{sup 2} s) using the assumption that the emission has a cosine angular distribution. The energy dependent electron mean free path in gases and literature cross sections for electron induced reactions were used to determine the number of ionization and dissociation reactions per cm{sup 2} second, found to be about 8*10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}s and 1.5*10{sup 8}/cm{sup 2}s, respectively, for hydrogen. These results are to be used with caution until complementary measurements can be made, e.g. independent measurement of the total emitted electron current, since the results here are based on the assumption that the electron emission has a cosine angular distribution. That is unlikely to be correct.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voronkov, R. A.; Rymzhanov, R. A.; Medvedev, N. A.; Volkov, A. E.
2015-12-01
Monte Carlo code TREKIS is applied to trace kinetics of excitation of the electron subsystem of ZnO and MgO after an impact of a swift heavy ion (SHI). The event-by-event simulations describe excitation of the electron subsystems by a penetrating SHI, spatial spreading of generated electrons and secondary electron cascades. Application of the complex dielectric function (CDF) formalism for calculation of the cross sections of charged particle interaction with a solid target allows to consider collective response of the target to perturbation, which arises from the spatial and temporal correlations in the target electrons ensemble. The method of CDF reconstruction from the experimental optical data is applied. Electron inelastic mean free paths calculated within the CDF formalism are in very good agreement with NIST database. SHI energy losses agree well with those from SRIM and CasP codes. The radial distributions of valence holes, core holes and delocalized electrons as well as their energy densities in SHI tracks are calculated. The analysis of these distributions is presented.
Internet's critical path horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valverde, S.; Solé, R. V.
2004-03-01
Internet is known to display a highly heterogeneous structure and complex fluctuations in its traffic dynamics. Congestion seems to be an inevitable result of user's behavior coupled to the network dynamics and it effects should be minimized by choosing appropriate routing strategies. But what are the requirements of routing depth in order to optimize the traffic flow? In this paper we analyse the behavior of Internet traffic with a topologically realistic spatial structure as described in a previous study [S.-H. Yook et al., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 13382 (2002)]. The model involves self-regulation of packet generation and different levels of routing depth. It is shown that it reproduces the relevant key, statistical features of Internet's traffic. Moreover, we also report the existence of a critical path horizon defining a transition from low-efficient traffic to highly efficient flow. This transition is actually a direct consequence of the web's small world architecture exploited by the routing algorithm. Once routing tables reach the network diameter, the traffic experiences a sudden transition from a low-efficient to a highly-efficient behavior. It is conjectured that routing policies might have spontaneously reached such a compromise in a distributed manner. Internet would thus be operating close to such critical path horizon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arifin, P.; Goldys, E.; Tansley, T. L.
1995-08-01
We present a method of simulating the electron transport in low-temperature-grown GaAs by the Monte Carlo method. Low-temperature-grown GaAs contains microscopic inclusions of As and these inhomogeneities render impossible the standard Monte Carlo mobility simulations. Our method overcomes this difficulty and allows the quantitative prediction of electron transport on the basis of principal microscopic material parameters, including the impurity and the precipitate concentrations and the precipitate size. The adopted approach involves simulations of a single electron trajectory in real space, while the influence of As precipitates on the GaAs matrix is treated in the framework of a Schottky-barrier model. The validity of this approach is verified by evaluation of the drift velocity in homogeneous GaAs where excellent agreement with other workers' results is reached. The drift velocity as a function of electric field in low-temperature-grown GaAs is calculated for a range of As precipitate concentrations. Effect of compensation ratio on drift velocity characteristics is also investigated. It is found that the drift velocity is reduced and the electric field at which the onset of the negative differential mobility occurs increases as the precipitate concentration increases. Both these effects are related to the reduced electron mean free path in the presence of precipitates. Additionally, comparatively high low-field electron mobilities in this material are theoretically explained.
Numerical evidence of mixing in rooms using the free path temporal distribution.
Billon, Alexis; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques
2011-09-01
The ergodic propriety of a room has strong effects on its reverberation. If the room is ergodic, the reverberation can be broken up in two steps: a deterministic process followed by a stochastic one. The late reverberation can be then modeled by a reverberation algorithm instead of more computationally consuming methods. In this study, the free path temporal distribution obtained by ray-tracing is used as an indicator of the room's mixing: the energetic average of the path lengths is computed at each time step. Ergodic rooms are thus characterized by rapidly convergent distributions. The free path value becomes independent of time. On the other hand, path selection mechanism and orbits are observed in non-ergodic rooms. The transition time from the deterministic process to the stochastic one is also studied through the evaluation of the room's time constant. It is shown that its value depends only on the mean free path and the boundaries scattering value. An empirical expression is obtained which agrees well with simulations carried out in a concert hall. This transition time from a deterministic model to a stochastic one can be used to speed up the acoustical predictions and auralizations in ergodic rooms. PMID:21895079
Design of III-Nitride Hot Electron Transistors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Geetak
III-Nitride based devices have made great progress over the past few decades in electronics and photonics applications. As the technology and theoretical understanding of the III-N system matures, the limitations on further development are based on very basic electronic properties of the material, one of which is electron scattering (or ballistic electron effects). This thesis explores the design space of III-N based ballistic electron transistors using novel design, growth and process techniques. The hot electron transistor (HET) is a unipolar vertical device that operates on the principle of injecting electrons over a high-energy barrier (φBE) called the emitter into an n-doped region called base and finally collecting the high energy electrons (hot electrons) over another barrier (φBC) called the collector barrier. The injected electrons traverse the base in a quasi-ballistic manner. Electrons that get scattered in the base contribute to base current. High gain in the HET is thus achieved by enabling ballistic transport of electrons in the base. In addition, low leakage across the collector barrier (I BCleak) and low base resistance (RB) are needed to achieve high performance. Because of device attributes such as vertical structure, ballistic transport and low-resistance n-type base, the HET has the potential of operating at very high frequencies. Electrical measurements of a HET structure can be used to understand high-energy electron physics and extract information like mean free path in semiconductors. The III-Nitride material system is particularly suited for HETs as it offers a wide range of DeltaEcs and polarization charges which can be engineered to obtain barriers which can inject hot-electrons and have low leakage at room temperature. In addition, polarization charges in the III-N system can be engineered to obtain a high-density and high-mobility 2DEG in the base, which can be used to reduce base resistance and allow vertical scaling. With these
Interactive cutting path analysis programs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weiner, J. M.; Williams, D. S.; Colley, S. R.
1975-01-01
The operation of numerically controlled machine tools is interactively simulated. Four programs were developed to graphically display the cutting paths for a Monarch lathe, Cintimatic mill, Strippit sheet metal punch, and the wiring path for a Standard wire wrap machine. These programs are run on a IMLAC PDS-ID graphic display system under the DOS-3 disk operating system. The cutting path analysis programs accept input via both paper tape and disk file.
Surface sensitivity of elastic peak electron spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jablonski, A.
2016-08-01
New theoretical model describing the sampling depth of elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) has been proposed. Surface sensitivity of this technique can be generally identified with the maximum depth reached by trajectories of elastically backscattered electrons. A parameter called the penetration depth distribution function (PDDF) has been proposed for this description. Two further parameters are descendant from this definition: the mean penetration depth (MPD) and the information depth (ID). From the proposed theory, relatively simple analytical expressions describing the above parameters can be derived. Although the Monte Carlo simulations can be effectively used to estimate the sampling depth of EPES, this approach may require a considerable amount of computations. In contrast, the analytical model proposed here (AN) is very fast and provides the parameters PDDF, MPD and ID that very well compare with results of MC simulations. As follows from detailed comparisons performed for four elements (Al, Ni, Pd and Au), the AN model practically reproduced complicated emission angle dependences of the MPDs and the IDs, correctly indicating numerous maximum and minimum positions. In the energy range from 200 eV to 5 keV, the averaged percentage differences between MPDs obtained from the MC and the AN models were close to 4%. An important conclusion resulting from the present studies refers to the procedure of determination of the inelastic mean free path (IMFP) from EPES. Frequently, the analyzed sample is deposited as a thin overlayer on a smooth substrate. From an analysis of the presently obtained IDs, is follows that 99% of trajectories in analyzed experimental configurations reaches depth not exceeding 2.39 in units of IMFP. Thus, one can postulate that a safe minimum thickness of an overlayer should be larger than about 3 IMFPs. For example, the minimum thickness of an Al overlayer shoud be about 8 nm at 5000 eV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammadi, E.; Hunter, A.
2012-07-01
Path finding solutions are becoming a major part of many GIS applications including location based services and web-based GIS services. Most traditional path finding solutions are based on shortest path algorithms that tend to minimize the cost of travel from one point to another. These algorithms make use of some cost criteria that is usually an attribute of the edges in the graph network. Providing one shortest path limits user's flexibility when choosing a possible route, especially when more than one parameter is utilized to calculate cost (e.g., when length, number of traffic lights, and number of turns are used to calculate network cost.) K shortest path solutions tend to overcome this problem by providing second, third, and Kth shortest paths. These algorithms are efficient as long as the graphs edge weight does not change dynamically and no other parameters affect edge weights. In this paper we try to go beyond finding shortest paths based on some cost value, and provide all possible paths disregarding any parameter that may affect total cost. After finding all possible paths, we can rank the results by any parameter or combination of parameters, without a substantial increase in time complexity.
Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; Kostarelos, Kostas
2011-09-01
The effect of bulk and surface excitations to inelastic scattering in low-energy electron beam irradiation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) is studied using the dielectric formalism. Calculations are based on a semiempirical dielectric response function for MWCNTs determined by means of a many-pole plasmon model with parameters adjusted to available experimental spectroscopic data under theoretical sum-rule constrains. Finite-size effects are considered in the context of electron gas theory via a boundary correction term in the plasmon dispersion relations, thus, allowing a more realistic extrapolation of the electronic excitation spectrum over the whole energy-momentum plane. Energy-loss differential and total inelastic scattering cross sections as a function of electron energy and distance from the surface, valid over the energy range {approx}50-30,000 eV, are calculated with the individual contribution of bulk and surface excitations separated and analyzed for the case of normally incident and escaping electrons. The sensitivity of the results to the various approximations for the spatial dispersion of the electronic excitations is quantified. Surface excitations are shown to have a strong influence upon the shape and intensity of the energy-loss differential cross section in the near surface region whereas the general notion of a spatially invariant inelastic mean free path inside the material is found to be of good approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; Kostarelos, Kostas
2011-09-01
The effect of bulk and surface excitations to inelastic scattering in low-energy electron beam irradiation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) is studied using the dielectric formalism. Calculations are based on a semiempirical dielectric response function for MWCNTs determined by means of a many-pole plasmon model with parameters adjusted to available experimental spectroscopic data under theoretical sum-rule constrains. Finite-size effects are considered in the context of electron gas theory via a boundary correction term in the plasmon dispersion relations, thus, allowing a more realistic extrapolation of the electronic excitation spectrum over the whole energy-momentum plane. Energy-loss differential and total inelastic scattering cross sections as a function of electron energy and distance from the surface, valid over the energy range ˜50-30,000 eV, are calculated with the individual contribution of bulk and surface excitations separated and analyzed for the case of normally incident and escaping electrons. The sensitivity of the results to the various approximations for the spatial dispersion of the electronic excitations is quantified. Surface excitations are shown to have a strong influence upon the shape and intensity of the energy-loss differential cross section in the near surface region whereas the general notion of a spatially invariant inelastic mean free path inside the material is found to be of good approximation.
Partial intensity approach for quantitative analysis of reflection-electron-energy-loss spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calliari, L.; Filippi, M.; A. Varfolomeev
2011-08-01
We have considered a formalism, known as partial intensity approach (PIA), previously developed to quantitatively analyze reflection electron energy loss (REEL) spectra [1,2]. The aim of the approach is, in particular, to recover the single scattering distribution of energy losses and to separate it into bulk and surface contributions, respectively referred to as the differential inverse inelastic mean free path (DIIMFP) and the differential surface excitation parameter (DSEP). As compared to [1] and [2], we have implemented a modified approach, and we have applied it to the specific geometry of the cylindrical mirror analyzer (CMA), used to acquire the REEL spectra shown here. Silicon, a material with well-defined surface and bulk plasmons, is taken as a case study to investigate the approach as a function of electron energy over the energy range typical of REELS, i.e. from 250 eV to 2 keV. Our goal is, on the one hand, to examine possible limits for the applicability of the approach and, on the other hand, to test a basic assumption of the PIA, namely that a unique DIIMFP and a unique DSEP account for REEL spectra, whatever the acquisition conditions (i.e. electron energy or angle of surface crossing) are. We find that a minimum energy exists below which the PIA cannot be applied and that the assumption of REEL spectra accounted for by unique DIIMFP and DSEP is indeed an approximation.
Probing Carrier Transport across Patterned Interfaces with Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nolting, Westly; Durcan, Christopher; Balsano, Robert; Labella, Viincent
Electron scattering from sidewalls within aggressively scaled metallic interconnects dramatically increases the resistance, since the mean free path (~40 nm) is larger than the dimensions of the structure. One method to study hot-electron scattering in nm-thick metallic films is Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM), which is an STM based technique. In this work, we perform BEEM imaging and scattering measurements on lithographically patterned nanoscale oxide ``fin'' structures with a Schottky diode interface to determine its ability to measure sidewall scattering. This is accomplished by acquiring data from BEEM images and spectra on a regularly spaced grid and fitting the results to determine both the Schottky barrier height and the amplitude of the spectra. The amplitude of the spectra is related to the scattering in the film and interface. The position of fin structures is then determined by mapping both the Schottky height and amplitude over a square micron to observe scattering at the interface caused by the patterned structures. The fabrication of the patterned 50-nm-pitched sidewall structures and the preliminary BEEM imaging measurements on these structures will be presented.
A DATABASE OF >20 keV ELECTRON GREEN'S FUNCTIONS OF INTERPLANETARY TRANSPORT AT 1 AU
Agueda, N.; Sanahuja, B.; Vainio, R.
2012-10-15
We use interplanetary transport simulations to compute a database of electron Green's functions, i.e., differential intensities resulting at the spacecraft position from an impulsive injection of energetic (>20 keV) electrons close to the Sun, for a large number of values of two standard interplanetary transport parameters: the scattering mean free path and the solar wind speed. The nominal energy channels of the ACE, STEREO, and Wind spacecraft have been used in the interplanetary transport simulations to conceive a unique tool for the study of near-relativistic electron events observed at 1 AU. In this paper, we quantify the characteristic times of the Green's functions (onset and peak time, rise and decay phase duration) as a function of the interplanetary transport conditions. We use the database to calculate the FWHM of the pitch-angle distributions at different times of the event and under different scattering conditions. This allows us to provide a first quantitative result that can be compared with observations, and to assess the validity of the frequently used term beam-like pitch-angle distribution.
Surface excitations in electron spectroscopy. Part I: dielectric formalism and Monte Carlo algorithm
Salvat-Pujol, F; Werner, W S M
2013-01-01
The theory describing energy losses of charged non-relativistic projectiles crossing a planar interface is derived on the basis of the Maxwell equations, outlining the physical assumptions of the model in great detail. The employed approach is very general in that various common models for surface excitations (such as the specular reflection model) can be obtained by an appropriate choice of parameter values. The dynamics of charged projectiles near surfaces is examined by calculations of the induced surface charge and the depth- and direction-dependent differential inelastic inverse mean free path (DIIMFP) and stopping power. The effect of several simplifications frequently encountered in the literature is investigated: differences of up to 100% are found in heights, widths, and positions of peaks in the DIIMFP. The presented model is implemented in a Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the electron transport relevant for surface electron spectroscopy. Simulated reflection electron energy loss spectra are in good agreement with experiment on an absolute scale. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23794766
Dependence of the electronic transport on the microstructure in annealed Bi thin films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bui, Thanh; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Malet, Loic; Godet, Stephane; Rodrigues Martins, Frederico; Faniel, Sebastien; Gonze, Xavier; Cabosart, Damien; Hackens, Benoit
2013-03-01
Bi thin films, with a thickness ranging from 10 to 100 nm, are deposited by electron-beam evaporation on a thermally oxidized Si(100) substrate. The deposition parameters are optimized in order to maximize the grain size of the polycrystalline films. The evolution of the crystal orientation is examined as a function of the deposition and annealing parameters, by electron back scattering diffraction. Low temperature (21 mK - 150 K) magnetoresistance measurements (up to 15 T) on polycrystalline films reveal weak anti-localization, superimposed by the classical magnetoresistance. The analysis of the weak anti-localization allows us to extract quantum transport parameters, such as the phase coherence and the spin orbit coupling time. From the evolution of the broad magnetoresistance background, we infer the evolution of electronic transport parameters: the mobility, the charge carrier concentration and the mean free path. Magneto-transport and ab initio calculations are combined in order to investigate on the controversial existence of the semimetal-semiconductor transition.
Salvat-Pujol, F; Werner, W S M
2013-05-01
The theory describing energy losses of charged non-relativistic projectiles crossing a planar interface is derived on the basis of the Maxwell equations, outlining the physical assumptions of the model in great detail. The employed approach is very general in that various common models for surface excitations (such as the specular reflection model) can be obtained by an appropriate choice of parameter values. The dynamics of charged projectiles near surfaces is examined by calculations of the induced surface charge and the depth- and direction-dependent differential inelastic inverse mean free path (DIIMFP) and stopping power. The effect of several simplifications frequently encountered in the literature is investigated: differences of up to 100% are found in heights, widths, and positions of peaks in the DIIMFP. The presented model is implemented in a Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the electron transport relevant for surface electron spectroscopy. Simulated reflection electron energy loss spectra are in good agreement with experiment on an absolute scale. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23794766
Primary cosmic ray electrons above 10 GeV: Evidence for a spectral break
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silverberg, R. F.; Ormes, J. F.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.
1973-01-01
A balloon borne measurement of the cosmic ray electron spectrum from 10 to 200 GeV is reported in which two new techniques have been used to remove proton background contamination. First, the depth of the spectrometer was more than 25 radiation lengths, the equivalent of more than 2 mean free paths of material, enabling hadronically and electromagnetically induced cascades to be differentiated for a subset of the data. Second, electromagnetic cascade starting points were determined to within + or - 0.1 radiation lengths based upon a calibration with electrons from 5.4 to 18 GeV at the Stanford Linear Accelerator, greatly reducing the chances for a proton to simulate an electron. The resulting spectrum, when fitted with a power law, is quite steep, -3.2 + or - 0.1, but the chi-square fit is marginal. A significantly better fit is achieved assuming a transition region model in which the source spectral index is 2.7 with a break occurring at about 50 GeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agueda, Neus; Lario, David
2016-07-01
We present a detailed study of four 300-800 keV electron events observed on 1980 May 28-29 by Helios-1, when the spacecraft was located at 0.31 AU from the Sun. We use two different techniques to extract the release time history of the electrons at the Sun: 1) an inversion method that makes use of particle transport simulation results, and 2) a data-driven method based on the assumption that the interplanetary propagation between the Sun and the spacecraft is essentially scatter free. Both methods make use of the particle angular distributions measured relative to the local direction of the magnetic field (i.e., pitch-angle distributions). The general characteristics of the release time profile obtained for the four events is remarkably similar, specially when the inferred value of the electron mean free path is large. We use these results to compute the expected intensities at 1 AU. For an observer at 1 AU magnetically connected with Helios-1, our simulations predict the observation of four separate events, which does not agree with the interpretation of the IMP-8 observations suggesting that the discrete events observed at 0.31 AU merged into a single event at 1 AU. We discuss the processes that could contribute to the observation of one single time-extended event at 1 AU and how these techniques could be used to analyze upcoming measurements by Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus close to the Sun.
Peters, John W; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K; King, Paul W; Adams, Michael Ww
2016-04-01
Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths. PMID:27016613
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alcock, B.; Kontar, E.; Agueda, N.
2015-12-01
In the past decade, analysis of near-relativistic (~27 keV - 300 keV) electron events at 1 AU have highlighted two transport effects which require explanation. Firstly, several events feature delayed electron arrival with respect to solar radio and hard x-ray emission, and secondly, the peak-flux spectrum of electrons at 1 AU does not match the predicted spectrum from hard x-ray observations. We analyse several near-relativistic electron events observed via both RHESSI hard x-ray observations at the Sun and in-situ measurements from the Wind/3DP detector at 1 AU. Numerical simulations of electron transport outwards from the Sun are made, which take the electron injection time and peak-flux spectrum from RHESSI data, and the flux subsequently passing 1 AU is calculated. We consider the effects of adiabatic focusing and pitch angle diffusion on the particle transport, and a momentum and distance dependent form of the parallel mean free path for electrons is employed. The simulated lightcurves, peak-flux spectrum, pitch angle distribution, and delay times are then compared with Wind observations. We find that, for higher energy electrons (>40 keV), the simulated flux matches well with observations, showing that stochastic pitch angle scattering is able to explain apparent delayed particle injection at the Sun. The lower energy observations, however, remain unmatched by models, which predict much more impulsive events at Earth than are observed. We also find that pitch angle scattering is too weak to vary the peak-flux spectrum sufficiently, thus requiring further exploration.
Reconfigurable data path processor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donohoe, Gregory (Inventor)
2005-01-01
A reconfigurable data path processor comprises a plurality of independent processing elements. Each of the processing elements advantageously comprising an identical architecture. Each processing element comprises a plurality of data processing means for generating a potential output. Each processor is also capable of through-putting an input as a potential output with little or no processing. Each processing element comprises a conditional multiplexer having a first conditional multiplexer input, a second conditional multiplexer input and a conditional multiplexer output. A first potential output value is transmitted to the first conditional multiplexer input, and a second potential output value is transmitted to the second conditional multiplexer output. The conditional multiplexer couples either the first conditional multiplexer input or the second conditional multiplexer input to the conditional multiplexer output, according to an output control command. The output control command is generated by processing a set of arithmetic status-bits through a logical mask. The conditional multiplexer output is coupled to a first processing element output. A first set of arithmetic bits are generated according to the processing of the first processable value. A second set of arithmetic bits may be generated from a second processing operation. The selection of the arithmetic status-bits is performed by an arithmetic-status bit multiplexer selects the desired set of arithmetic status bits from among the first and second set of arithmetic status bits. The conditional multiplexer evaluates the select arithmetic status bits according to logical mask defining an algorithm for evaluating the arithmetic status bits.
Park, Jeong Y.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Renzas, J. Russell; Zhang, Yawen; Somorjai, G.A.
2008-05-01
Hot electron flow generated on colloid platinum nanoparticles during exothermic catalytic carbon monoxide oxidation was directly detected with Au/TiO{sub 2} diodes. Although Au/TiO{sub 2} diodes are not catalytically active, platinum nanoparticles on Au/TiO{sub 2} exhibit both chemicurrent and catalytic turnover rate. Hot electrons are generated on the surface of the metal nanoparticles and go over the Schottky energy barrier between Au and TiO{sub 2}. The continuous Au layer ensures that the metal nanoparticles are electrically connected to the device. The overall thickness of the metal assembly (nanoparticles and Au thin film) is comparable to the mean free path of hot electrons, resulting in ballistic transport through the metal. The chemicurrent and chemical reactivity of nanoparticles with citrate, hexadecylamine, hexadecylthiol, and TTAB (Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide) capping agents were measured during catalytic CO oxidation at pressures of 100 Torr O{sub 2} and 40 Torr CO at 373-513 K. We found that chemicurrent yield varies with each capping agent, but always decreases with increasing temperature. We suggest that this inverse temperature dependence is associated with the influence of charging effects due to the organic capping layer during hot electron transport through the metal-oxide interface.
Electron-phonon coupling and thermal transport in the thermoelectric compound Mo3Sb7–xTex
Bansal, Dipanshu; Li, Chen W.; Said, Ayman H.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Yan, Jiaqiang; Delaire, Olivier A.
2015-12-07
Phonon properties of Mo3Sb7–xTex (x = 0, 1.5, 1.7), a potential high-temperature thermoelectric material, have been studied with inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering, and with first-principles simulations. The substitution of Te for Sb leads to pronounced changes in the electronic struc- ture, local bonding, phonon density of states (DOS), dispersions, and phonon lifetimes. Alloying with tellurium shifts the Fermi level upward, near the top of the valence band, resulting in a strong suppression of electron-phonon screening, and a large overall stiffening of interatomic force- constants. The suppression in electron-phonon coupling concomitantly increases group velocities and suppresses phonon scattering rates, surpassingmore » the effects of alloy-disorder scattering, and re- sulting in a surprising increased lattice thermal conductivity in the alloy. We also identify that the local bonding environment changes non-uniformly around different atoms, leading to variable perturbation strengths for different optical phonon branches. The respective roles of changes in phonon group velocities and phonon lifetimes on the lattice thermal conductivity are quantified. Lastly, our results highlight the importance of the electron-phonon coupling on phonon mean-free-paths in this compound, and also estimates the contributions from boundary scattering, umklapp scattering, and point-defect scattering.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhijian, Zheng; Guangcan, Wang; Yuqiu, Gu
2008-11-01
The experiment was performed with SILEX laser facility(Ti-saphhire) at LFRC in China. The SILEX parameter: wavelength 0.8μm, duration 35fs, output power 280TW, contrast 5*105, The focal spot φ10μm(F/1.7), intensity on target surface 1*10^19W/cm^2(F/3). The main diagnostic equipments are the electron spectrometer, OMA spectrometer, optical streak camera. Some experimental results are given: The spectrum of optical emission from rear surface is rather narrow around some particular frequencies(1φ, 2φ, 3φ), We ascribe and confirm that the spike-like spectral line that is coherent transition radiation; The coherent light is also seen on time-integrated image with ring-patter due to Weibel instability of the fast electron transport; Obtained experimental cure of target thickness vs OTR image intensity is relative to mean free path of fast electron; The measuring optical transition radiation(OTR) duration of 171ps much longer than 1ps duration of fast electron transport target, the possible explanation is that the OTR duration to be determined magnetic diffusion time.
Path Integral Simulations of Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yousif, Hosam
2007-10-01
Some properties of graphene are explored using a path integral approach. The path integral method allows us to simulate relatively large systems using monte carlo techniques and extract thermodynamic quantities. We simulate the effects of screening a large external charge potential, as well as conductivity and charge distributions in graphene sheets.
Collabortive Authoring of Walden's Paths
Li, Yuanling; Bogen II, Paul Logasa; Pogue, Daniel; Furuta, Richard Keith; Shipman, Frank Major
2012-01-01
This paper presents a prototype of an authoring tool to allow users to collaboratively build, annotate, manage, share and reuse collections of distributed resources from the World Wide Web. This extends on the Walden’s Path project’s work to help educators bring resources found on the World Wide Web into a linear contextualized structure. The introduction of collaborative authoring feature fosters collaborative learning activities through social interaction among participants, where participants can coauthor paths in groups. Besides, the prototype supports path sharing, branching and reusing; specifically, individual participant can contribute to the group with private collections of knowledge resources; paths completed by group can be shared among group members, such that participants can tailor, extend, reorder and/or replace nodes to have sub versions of shared paths for different information needs.
Pon, Allison; Jewison, Timothy; Su, Yilu; Liang, Yongjie; Knox, Craig; Maciejewski, Adam; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S
2015-07-01
PathWhiz (http://smpdb.ca/pathwhiz) is a web server designed to create colourful, visually pleasing and biologically accurate pathway diagrams that are both machine-readable and interactive. As a web server, PathWhiz is accessible from almost any place and compatible with essentially any operating system. It also houses a public library of pathways and pathway components that can be easily viewed and expanded upon by its users. PathWhiz allows users to readily generate biologically complex pathways by using a specially designed drawing palette to quickly render metabolites (including automated structure generation), proteins (including quaternary structures, covalent modifications and cofactors), nucleic acids, membranes, subcellular structures, cells, tissues and organs. Both small-molecule and protein/gene pathways can be constructed by combining multiple pathway processes such as reactions, interactions, binding events and transport activities. PathWhiz's pathway replication and propagation functions allow for existing pathways to be used to create new pathways or for existing pathways to be automatically propagated across species. PathWhiz pathways can be saved in BioPAX, SBGN-ML and SBML data exchange formats, as well as PNG, PWML, HTML image map or SVG images that can be viewed offline or explored using PathWhiz's interactive viewer. PathWhiz has been used to generate over 700 pathway diagrams for a number of popular databases including HMDB, DrugBank and SMPDB. PMID:25934797
Pon, Allison; Jewison, Timothy; Su, Yilu; Liang, Yongjie; Knox, Craig; Maciejewski, Adam; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S.
2015-01-01
PathWhiz (http://smpdb.ca/pathwhiz) is a web server designed to create colourful, visually pleasing and biologically accurate pathway diagrams that are both machine-readable and interactive. As a web server, PathWhiz is accessible from almost any place and compatible with essentially any operating system. It also houses a public library of pathways and pathway components that can be easily viewed and expanded upon by its users. PathWhiz allows users to readily generate biologically complex pathways by using a specially designed drawing palette to quickly render metabolites (including automated structure generation), proteins (including quaternary structures, covalent modifications and cofactors), nucleic acids, membranes, subcellular structures, cells, tissues and organs. Both small-molecule and protein/gene pathways can be constructed by combining multiple pathway processes such as reactions, interactions, binding events and transport activities. PathWhiz's pathway replication and propagation functions allow for existing pathways to be used to create new pathways or for existing pathways to be automatically propagated across species. PathWhiz pathways can be saved in BioPAX, SBGN-ML and SBML data exchange formats, as well as PNG, PWML, HTML image map or SVG images that can be viewed offline or explored using PathWhiz's interactive viewer. PathWhiz has been used to generate over 700 pathway diagrams for a number of popular databases including HMDB, DrugBank and SMPDB. PMID:25934797
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff path. 23.57 Section 23.57... path. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff path is as follows: (a) The takeoff path extends... completed; and (1) The takeoff path must be based on the procedures prescribed in § 23.45; (2) The...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff path. 23.57 Section 23.57... path. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff path is as follows: (a) The takeoff path extends... completed; and (1) The takeoff path must be based on the procedures prescribed in § 23.45; (2) The...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandler, J. A.
1983-01-01
Long helical vent path cools and releases hot pyrotechnical gas that exits along its spiraling threads. Current design uses 1/4-28 threads with outer diameter of stud reduced by 0.025 in. (0.62 mm). To open or close gassampler bottle, pyrotechnic charges on either one side or other of valve cylinder are actuated. Gases vented slowly over long path are cool enough to present no ignition hazard. Vent used to meter flow in refrigeration, pneumaticcontrol, and fluid-control systems by appropriately adjusting size and length of vent path.
Path Integrals on Ultrametric Spaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blair, Alan
A framework for the study of path integrals on adelic spaces is developed, and it is shown that a family of path space measures on the localizations of an algebraic number field may, under certain conditions, be combined to form a global path space measure on its adele ring. An operator on the field of p-adic numbers analogous to the harmonic oscillator operator is then analyzed, and used to construct an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type process on the adele ring of the rationals. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617 -253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).
Scattering theory with path integrals
Rosenfelder, R.
2014-03-15
Starting from well-known expressions for the T-matrix and its derivative in standard nonrelativistic potential scattering, I rederive recent path-integral formulations due to Efimov and Barbashov et al. Some new relations follow immediately.
Jovian modulation of interplanetary electrons as observed with Voyagers 1 and 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schardt, A. W.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Trainor, J. H.
1982-01-01
The release of magnetospheric electrons from Jupiter into interplanetary space is modulated by the Jovian rotation period. The Voyager 1 and 2 observations showed that the modulation period agrees on the average with the synodic period of Jupiter (9h 55m 33.12s), but over intervals of weeks it can differ from the synodic period by several minutes. The lack of exact synchronization is attributed to changes of the plasma population in the Jovian magnetosphere. The Jovian modulation appears to be a persistent feature of the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere and the disappearance of the modulation away from Jupiter is attributed to interplanetary propagation conditions. This leads to the following limits on the diffuse coefficient for interplanetary electrons: kappa perpendicular is or = 8 x 10 to the 19th power sq cm/s and kappa parallel is or = 10 to the 21st power sq cm/s. Modulation was still detectable at 3.8 A.U. behind Jupiter in the far magnetotail. This requires a mean free path in the tail 0.75 A.U. and good field connection along the tail to Jupiter.
Kinetic effects on the electron thermal transport in ignition target design
Honda, M.; Nishiguchi, A.; Takabe, H.; Azechi, H.; Mima, K.
1996-09-01
Preheating is one of the most critical issues in laser fusion, because of significant reduction of volume compression. The nonlocal heat transport in an ablative plasma is found to play an important role in the preheating under high intensity laser irradiation. Namely, the electron heat transport should be described by the Fokker{endash}Planck (FP) equation in the fluid implosion code. The Spitzer{endash}H{umlt a}rm (SH) thermal conduction model is not applicable because the electron mean free path is comparable to the temperature scale length. The numerical simulations of the implosion with the FP heat transport have been carried out for the fast (high entropy) implosion mode in which the implosion velocity reaches as high as 6{times}10{sup 7} cm/s. In the fast implosion, the required laser energy for ignition can be reduced. It is found in the simulation that the isentrope in the FP simulation code is higher by two to four times than that in the flux limited SH simulation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Paul, Samit; Dey, Indranuj
2013-04-15
This paper deals with random walk of electrons and collisional crossover in a gas evolving toward a plasma, in presence of electromagnetic (EM) waves and magnetostatic (B) fields, a fundamental subject of importance in areas requiring generation and confinement of wave assisted plasmas. In presence of EM waves and B fields, the number of collisions N suffered by an electron with neutral gas atoms while diffusing out of the volume during the walk is significantly modified when compared to the conventional field free square law diffusion; N=1.5({Lambda}/{lambda}){sup 2}, where {Lambda} is the characteristic diffusion length and {lambda} is the mean free path. There is a distinct crossover and a time scale associated with the transition from the elastic to inelastic collisions dominated regime, which can accurately predict the breakdown time ({tau}{sub c}) and the threshold electric field (E{sub BD}) for plasma initiation. The essential features of cyclotron resonance manifested as a sharp drop in {tau}{sub c}, lowering of E{sub BD} and enhanced electron energy gain is well reproduced in the constrained random walk.
Gusenleitner, S.; Hauschild, D.; Reinert, F.; Handick, E.
2014-03-28
Ruthenium capped multilayer coatings for use in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation regime have manifold applications in science and industry. Although the Ru cap shall protect the reflecting multilayers, the surface of the heterostructures suffers from contamination issues and surface degradation. In order to get a better understanding of the effects of these impurities on the optical parameters, reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) measurements of contaminated and H cleaned Ru multilayer coatings were taken at various primary electron beam energies. Experiments conducted at low primary beam energies between 100 eV and 1000 eV are very surface sensitive due to the short inelastic mean free path of the electrons in this energy range. Therefore, influences of the surface condition on the above mentioned characteristics can be appraised. In this paper, it can be shown that carbon and oxide impurities on the mirror surface decrease the transmission of the Ru cap by about 0.75% and the overall reflectance of the device is impaired as the main share of the non-transmitted EUV light is absorbed in the contamination layer.
TOPICAL REVIEW: Electron transport in indium arsenide nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dayeh, Shadi A.
2010-02-01
The vapor--liquid--solid growth of semiconductor nanowires led to the implementation of engineered electronic and optoelectronic one-dimensional nanostructures with outstanding promise for device applications. To realize this promise, detailed understanding and control over their growth, crystal structure, and transport properties and their combined impact on device performance is vital. Here, we review our work on electron transport in InAs nanowires in a variety of device schemes. First, we provide a brief introduction and historical perspective on growth and transport studies in InAs NWs. Second, we discuss and present experimental measurements of ballistic transport in InAs nanowires over ~200 nm length scale, which indicates a large electron mean free path and correlates with the high electron mobility measured on similar nanowires. Third, we devise a device model that enables accurate estimation of transport coefficients from field-effect transistor measurements by taking into account patristic device components. We utilize this model to reveal the impact of surface states, diameter, lateral and vertical fields, as well as crystal structure, on electron transport and transport coefficient calculation. We show in these studies that electron transport in InAs nanowires is dominated by surface state effects that introduce measurement artifacts in parameter extraction, reduce electron mobility for smaller diameters, and degrade the subthreshold characteristics of transistors made of Zinc Blende InAs nanowires. This device model is also used for isolating vertical and lateral field effects on electron transport in nanowire transistor channels and explaining observed negative differential conductance and mobility degradation at high injection fields, which is supported by electro-thermal simulations and microstructure failure analysis. We adopt the concept of lack of inversion symmetry in polar III-V materials and the resultant spontaneous polarization charges
Electron-phonon coupling and thermal transport in the thermoelectric compound Mo_{3}Sb_{7–x}Te_{x}
Bansal, Dipanshu; Li, Chen W.; Said, Ayman H.; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Yan, Jiaqiang; Delaire, Olivier A.
2015-12-07
Phonon properties of Mo_{3}Sb_{7–x}Te_{x} (x = 0, 1.5, 1.7), a potential high-temperature thermoelectric material, have been studied with inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering, and with first-principles simulations. The substitution of Te for Sb leads to pronounced changes in the electronic struc- ture, local bonding, phonon density of states (DOS), dispersions, and phonon lifetimes. Alloying with tellurium shifts the Fermi level upward, near the top of the valence band, resulting in a strong suppression of electron-phonon screening, and a large overall stiffening of interatomic force- constants. The suppression in electron-phonon coupling concomitantly increases group velocities and suppresses phonon scattering rates, surpassing the effects of alloy-disorder scattering, and re- sulting in a surprising increased lattice thermal conductivity in the alloy. We also identify that the local bonding environment changes non-uniformly around different atoms, leading to variable perturbation strengths for different optical phonon branches. The respective roles of changes in phonon group velocities and phonon lifetimes on the lattice thermal conductivity are quantified. Lastly, our results highlight the importance of the electron-phonon coupling on phonon mean-free-paths in this compound, and also estimates the contributions from boundary scattering, umklapp scattering, and point-defect scattering.
Automated path length and M{sub 56} measurements at Jefferson Lab
Hardy, D.; Tang, J.; Legg, R.
1997-08-01
Accurate measurement of path length and path length changes versus momentum (M{sub 56}) are critical for maintaining minimum beam energy spread in the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). The relative path length for each circuit of the beam (1256m) must be equal within 1.5 degrees of 1497 MHz RF phase. A relative path length measurement is made by measuring the relative phases of RF signals from a cavity that is separately excited for each pass of a 4.2 {mu}s pulsed beam. This method distinguishes the path length to less than 0.5 path length error. The development of a VME based automated measurement system for path length and M{sub 56} has contributed to faster machine setup time and has the potential for use as a feedback parameter for automated control.
Shortest Paths between Shortest Paths and Independent Sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamiński, Marcin; Medvedev, Paul; Milanič, Martin
We study problems of reconfiguration of shortest paths in graphs. We prove that the shortest reconfiguration sequence can be exponential in the size of the graph and that it is NP-hard to compute the shortest reconfiguration sequence even when we know that the sequence has polynomial length. Moreover, we also study reconfiguration of independent sets in three different models and analyze relationships between these models, observing that shortest path reconfiguration is a special case of independent set reconfiguration in perfect graphs, under any of the three models. Finally, we give polynomial results for restricted classes of graphs (even-hole-free and P 4-free graphs).
Rabani, Y.
1996-12-31
In the minimum path coloring problem, we are given a list of pairs of vertices of a graph. We are asked to connect each pair by a colored path. Paths of the same color must be edge disjoint. Our objective is to minimize the number of colors used. This problem was raised by Aggarwal et al and Raghavan and Upfal as a model for routing in all-optical networks. It is also related to questions in circuit routing. In this paper, we improve the O (ln N) approximation result of Kleinberg and Tardos for path coloring on the N x N mesh. We give an O(1) approximation algorithm to the number of colors needed, and a poly(ln ln N) approximation algorithm to the choice of paths and colors. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first sub-logarithmic bounds for any network other than trees, rings, or trees of rings. Our results are based on developing new techniques for randomized rounding. These techniques iteratively improve a fractional solution until it approaches integrality. They are motivated by the method used by Leighton, Maggs, and Rao for packet routing.
Study of Ballistic Carrier Transport Using Ballistic Electron-Emission Microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Edwin Yoon
Ballistic-electron-emission microscopy (BEEM) was used to study the ballistic carrier transport of electrons and holes. Several distinct transport processes were studied to model transport processes relevant to BEEM, in which a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM) tip functions as an emitter of electrons, and the electrons tunnel across the vacuum energy barrier into a metal overlayer region on a semiconductor substrate. Some of the injected electrons from the STM tip travel into the semiconductor and are collected as the BEEM current. By doing experiments in BEEM and by doing theoretical modeling, it was found that the quantum mechanical reflection and the phonon scattering at the Schottky barrier result in a nearly energy independent reduction of the ballistic transport across the Schottky barrier of Au/Si and of Au/GaAs. Also, the conservation of parallel wave vector and of energy at the plane of the Schottky barrier energy maximum was found necessary to explain the shape of the BEEM spectrum. For the coherent metal/semiconductor (M/S) interface formed by type-B CoSi _2/Si(111) (n-type), the conservation laws were found to hold even at the metallurgical M/S interface, and this gave rise to a novel phenomenon in which the electron transport across the M/S interface was forbidden at the energy of the top of the Schottky barrier. The transport in the metal overlayer was found to be dominated by elastic scattering of the electrons, and this was modeled by the Monte Carlo method. The Monte Carlo modeling showed that the ratio of the inelastic mean free path length to the elastic mean free path length for electron in Au should be about 10 in order to explain a set of existing BEEM data showing the attenuation of the BEEM current as a function of the metal overlayer thickness. The transport across the M/S interface was found to involve scattering involving M/S interface states and states in the semiconductor band gap near the interface. Among these processes, electron
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zuk, J.
1976-01-01
Improved gas-path seals are needed for better fuel economy, longer performance retention, and lower maintenance, particularly in advanced, high-performance gas turbine engines. Problems encountered in gas-path sealing are described, as well as new blade-tip sealing approaches for high-pressure compressors and turbines. These include a lubricant coating for conventional, porous-metal, rub-strip materials used in compressors. An improved hot-press metal alloy shows promise to increase the operating surface temperatures of high-pressure-turbine, blade-tip seals to 1450 K (2150 F). Three ceramic seal materials are also described that have the potential to allow much higher gas-path surface operating temperatures than are possible with metal systems.
Balanced Paths in Colored Graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianco, Alessandro; Faella, Marco; Mogavero, Fabio; Murano, Aniello
We consider finite graphs whose edges are labeled with elements, called colors, taken from a fixed finite alphabet. We study the problem of determining whether there is an infinite path where either (i) all colors occur with the same asymptotic frequency, or (ii) there is a constant which bounds the difference between the occurrences of any two colors for all prefixes of the path. These two notions can be viewed as refinements of the classical notion of fair path, whose simplest form checks whether all colors occur infinitely often. Our notions provide stronger criteria, particularly suitable for scheduling applications based on a coarse-grained model of the jobs involved. We show that both problems are solvable in polynomial time, by reducing them to the feasibility of a linear program.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.111 Takeoff path. (a) The takeoff path... and VFTO is reached, whichever point is higher. In addition— (1) The takeoff path must be based on...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.111 Takeoff path. (a) The takeoff path... and VFTO is reached, whichever point is higher. In addition— (1) The takeoff path must be based on...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.111 Takeoff path. (a) The takeoff path... and VFTO is reached, whichever point is higher. In addition— (1) The takeoff path must be based on...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.111 Takeoff path. (a) The takeoff path... and VFTO is reached, whichever point is higher. In addition— (1) The takeoff path must be based on...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Takeoff path. 23.57 Section 23.57... path. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than 6,000 pounds maximum weight and commuter category airplanes, the takeoff path is as follows: (a) The takeoff path extends...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Takeoff path. 23.57 Section 23.57... path. For normal, utility, and acrobatic category multiengine jets of more than 6,000 pounds maximum weight and commuter category airplanes, the takeoff path is as follows: (a) The takeoff path extends...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff path. 23.57 Section 23.57... path. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75753, December 2, 2011. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff path is as follows: (a) The takeoff path extends from a standing start to a point...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff path. 25.111 Section 25.111... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 25.111 Takeoff path. (a) The takeoff path... and VFTO is reached, whichever point is higher. In addition— (1) The takeoff path must be based on...
Theory of bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy for tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levine, Zachary H.
2005-02-01
Radiation transport theory is applied to electron microscopy of samples composed of one or more materials. The theory, originally due to Goudsmit and Saunderson, assumes only elastic scattering and an amorphous medium dominated by atomic interactions. For samples composed of a single material, the theory yields reasonable parameter-free agreement with experimental data taken from the literature for the multiple scattering of 300-keV electrons through aluminum foils up to 25μm thick. For thin films, the theory gives a validity condition for Beer's law. For thick films, a variant of Molière's theory [V. G. Molière, Z. Naturforschg. 3a, 78 (1948)] of multiple scattering leads to a form for the bright-field signal for foils in the multiple-scattering regime. The signal varies as [tln(e1-2γt/τ)]-1 where t is the path length of the beam, τ is the mean free path for elastic scattering, and γ is Euler's constant. The Goudsmit-Saunderson solution interpolates numerically between these two limits. For samples with multiple materials, elemental sensitivity is developed through the angular dependence of the scattering. From the elastic scattering cross sections of the first 92 elements, a singular-value decomposition of a vector space spanned by the elastic scattering cross sections minus a delta function shows that there is a dominant common mode, with composition-dependent corrections of about 2%. A mathematically correct reconstruction procedure beyond 2% accuracy requires the acquisition of the bright-field signal as a function of the scattering angle. Tomographic reconstructions are carried out for three singular vectors of a sample problem with four elements Cr, Cu, Zr, and Te. The three reconstructions are presented jointly as a color image; all four elements are clearly identifiable throughout the image.
Optical Path, Phase, and Interference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newburgh, Ronald
2005-11-01
A powerful tool in wave optics is the concept of optical path length, a notion usually introduced with Fermat's principle.1-3 The analysis of Fermat's principle requires the application of the calculus of variations and the concept of an extremum, ideas too advanced for beginning students. However, the concept has proven its usefulness in the analysis4 of interference experiments such as those of Michelson and Fabry-Perot. In this paper we shall show how optical path length can aid in the analysis of a modified two-slit Young experiment.
Speckle imaging over horizontal paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrano, Carmen J.
2002-09-01
Atmospheric aberrations reduce the resolution and contrast in surveillance images recorded over horizontal or slant paths. This paper describes our recent horizontal and slant-path imaging experiments of extended scenes as well as the results obtained using speckle imaging. The experiments were performed with an 8-inch diameter telescope placed on either a rooftop or hillside and cover ranges of interest from 0.5 km up to 10 km. The scenery includes resolution targets, people, vehicles, and other structures. The improvement in image quality using speckle imaging is dramatic in many cases, and depends significantly upon the atmospheric conditions. We quantify resolution improvement through modulation transfer function measurement comparisons.
Speckle Imaging Over Horizontal Paths
Carrano, C J
2002-05-21
Atmospheric aberrations reduce the resolution and contrast in surveillance images recorded over horizontal or slant paths. This paper describes our recent horizontal and slant path imaging experiments of extended scenes as well as the results obtained using speckle imaging. The experiments were performed with an 8-inch diameter telescope placed on either a rooftop or hillside and cover ranges of interest from 0.5 km up to 10 km. The scenery includes resolution targets, people, vehicles, and other structures. The improvement in image quality using speckle imaging is dramatic in many cases, and depends significantly upon the atmospheric conditions. We quantify resolution improvement through modulation transfer function measurement comparisons.
Multiple paths in complex tasks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Galanter, Eugene; Wiegand, Thomas; Mark, Gloria
1987-01-01
The relationship between utility judgments of subtask paths and the utility of the task as a whole was examined. The convergent validation procedure is based on the assumption that measurements of the same quantity done with different methods should covary. The utility measures of the subtasks were obtained during the performance of an aircraft flight controller navigation task. Analyses helped decide among various models of subtask utility combination, whether the utility ratings of subtask paths predict the whole tasks utility rating, and indirectly, whether judgmental models need to include the equivalent of cognitive noise.
Code System to Perform Monte Carlo Simulation of Electron Gamma-Ray Showers in Arbitrary Marerials.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2002-10-15
Version 00 PENELOPE performs Monte Carlo simulation of electron-photon showers in arbitrary materials. Initially, it was devised to simulate the PENetration and Energy LOss of Positrons and Electrons in matter; photons were introduced later. The adopted scattering model gives a reliable description of radiation transport in the energy range from a few hundred eV to about 1GeV. PENELOPE generates random electron-photon showers in complex material structures consisting of any number of distinct homogeneous regions (bodies)more » with different compositions. The Penelope Forum list archives and other information can be accessed at http://www.nea.fr/lists/penelope.html. PENELOPE-MPI extends capabilities of PENELOPE-2001 (RSICC C00682MNYCP02; NEA-1525/05) by providing for usage of MPI type parallel drivers and extends the original version's ability to read different types of input data sets such as voxel. The motivation is to increase efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations for medical applications. The physics of the calculations have not been changed, and the original description of PENELOPE-2001 (which follows) is still valid. PENELOPE-2001 contains substantial changes and improvements to the previous versions 1996 and 2000. As for the physics, the model for electron/positron elastic scattering has been revised. Bremsstrahlung emission is now simulated using partial-wave data instead of analytical approximate formulae. Photoelectric absorption in K and L-shells is described from the corresponding partial cross sections. Fluorescence radiation from vacancies in K and L-shells is followed. Refinements were also introduced in electron/positron transport mechanics, mostly to account for energy dependence of the mean free paths for hard events. Simulation routines were re-programmed in a more structured way, and new example MAIN programs were written with a more flexible input and expanded output.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yang; Liu, Xin-Dian; Li, Zhi-Qing
2016-05-01
In three-dimensional (3D) disordered metals, the electron-phonon (e-ph) scattering is the sole significant inelastic process. Thus the theoretical prediction concerning the electron-electron (e\\text-e) scattering rate 1/τ_\\varphi as a function of temperature T in 3D disordered metal has not been fully tested thus far, though it was proposed 40 years ago (Schmid A., Z. Phys., 271 (1974) 251). We report here the simultaneous observation of small- and large-energy-transfer e\\text-e scattering in 3D indium oxide thick films. In the temperature region T≳100 \\text{K} , the temperature dependence of resistivity of each film obeys Bloch-Grüneisen law, indicating that the films possess degenerate-semiconductor characteristics in electrical transport property. In the low-temperature regime, 1/τ_\\varphi as a function of T for each film can not be ascribed to e-ph scattering. To quantitatively describe the temperature behavior of 1/τ_\\varphi , both the 3D small- and large-energy-transfer e\\text-e scattering processes should be considered. (The small- and large-energy-transfer e\\text-e scattering rates are proportional to T3/2 and T 2, respectively.) In addition, the experimental prefactors of T3/2 and T 2 are proportional to k_F-5/2 \\ell-3/2 and E_F-1 (k F is the Fermi wave number, ℓ is the electron elastic mean free path, and E F is the Fermi energy), respectively, which are completely consistent with the theoretical predictions. Our experimental results fully demonstrate the validity of the theoretical predictions concerning both small- and large-energy-transfer e\\text-e scattering rates.
Safont, Vicent S; González-Navarrete, Patricio; Oliva, Mónica; Andrés, Juan
2015-12-28
A detailed study on all stages associated with the reaction mechanisms for the denitrogenation of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene derivatives (DBX, with X substituents at the methano-bridge carbon atom, X = H and OH) is presented. In particular, we have characterized the processes leading to cycloalkene derivatives through migration-type mechanisms as well as the processes leading to cyclopentil-1,3-diradical species along concerted or stepwise pathways. The reaction mechanisms have been further analysed within the bonding evolution theory framework at B3LYP and M05-2X/6-311+G(2d,p) levels of theory. Analysis of the results allows us to obtain the intimate electronic mechanism for the studied processes, providing a new topological picture of processes underlying the correlation between the experimental measurements obtained by few-optical-cycle visible pulse radiation and the quantum topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) in terms of breaking/forming processes along this chemical rearrangement. The evolution of the population of the disynaptic basin V(N1,N2) can be related to the experimental observation associated with the N=N stretching mode evolution, relative to the N2 release, along the reaction process. This result allows us to determine why the N2 release is easier for the DBH case via a concerted mechanism compared to the stepwise mechanism found in the DBOH system. This holds the key to unprecedented insight into the mapping of the electrons making/breaking the bonds while the bonds change. PMID:26584857
Career Paths in Environmental Sciences
Career paths, current and future, in the environmental sciences will be discussed, based on experiences and observations during the author's 40 + years in the field. An emphasis will be placed on the need for integrated, transdisciplinary systems thinking approaches toward achie...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arredondo, Michael
2002-01-01
The author describes the difficulties of achieving his life-long dream of going to an Ivy League college, and how his Shawnee grandfather advised him to acquire the white man's skills and bring them back to his people. He advises young Native Americans to choose the more difficult, yet honorable path of serving their own people. (TD)
Perceived Shrinkage of Motion Paths
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sinico, Michele; Parovel, Giulia; Casco, Clara; Anstis, Stuart
2009-01-01
We show that human observers strongly underestimate a linear or circular trajectory that a luminous spot follows in the dark. At slow speeds, observers are relatively accurate, but, as the speed increases, the size of the path is progressively underestimated, by up to 35%. The underestimation imposes little memory load and does not require…
Career Paths of Academic Deans.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wolverton, Mimi; Gonzales, Mary Jo
This paper examines various career paths leading to deanship and considers the implications of the findings for women and minorities who aspire to this position. The paper is part of a larger study of academic deanship conducted by the Center for Academic Leadership at Washington State University between October 1996 and January 1997. Data for the…
Employer Resource Manual. Project Path.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kane, Karen R.; Del George, Eve
Project Path at Illinois' College of DuPage was established to provide pre-employment training and career counseling for disabled students. To encourage the integration of qualified individuals with disabilities into the workplace, the project compiled this resource manual for area businesses, providing tips for interacting with disabled people…
Samoilov, A.V.; Yeh, N.; Tsuei, C.C.
1998-01-01
The electrical resistivity {rho} of three-dimensional amorphous superconducting films a-Mo{sub 3}Si and a-Nb{sub 3}Ge is measured in magnetic fields {mu}{sub 0}H up to 30 T. At low temperatures and at magnetic fields above the upper critical field H{sub c2}, {rho} is temperature independent and decreases as a function of magnetic field. This field dependence is consistent with localization theory in the high-field limit [{mu}{sub 0}H{gt}{h_bar}/(4eL{sub {phi}}{sup 2}), where L{sub {phi}} is the phase-coherence length]. Above the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c}, the temperature dependence of the conductivity is consistent with inelastic scattering processes which are destructive to the phase coherence for electron localization, thereby allowing estimates for L{sub {phi}}(T). The Hall effect data on a-Mo{sub 3}Si, in conjunction with the resistivity data, allow the determination of the carrier concentration and mean free path. The upper critical field is comparable to (in a-Mo{sub 3}Si) and significantly larger than (in a-Nb{sub 3}Ge) the Clogston-Chandrasekhar paramagnetic limit. This phenomenon is discussed in the context of electron localization. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nag Chowdhury, Basudev; Chattopadhyay, Sanatan
2016-09-01
In the current work, the impact of electron-phonon scattering phenomena on the transport behaviour of silicon nanowire field-effect-transistors with sub-mean free path channel length has been investigated by developing a theoretical model that incorporates the responses of carrier effective mass mismatch between the channel and source/drain. For this purpose, a set of relevant quantum field equations has been solved by non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The obtained device current for a particular set of biases is found to decrease due to phonon scattering below a certain doping level of source/drain, above which it is observed to enhance anomalously. Analyses of the quantified scattering lifetime and power dissipation at various confinement modes of the device indicates that such unusual enhancement of current is originated from the power served by phonons instead of associated decay processes. The power generation has been observed to improve by using high-k materials as gate insulator. Such results may contribute significantly to the future nano-electronic applications for energy harvesting.
Path Integral Monte Carlo Methods for Fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ethan, Ethan; Dubois, Jonathan; Ceperley, David
2014-03-01
In general, Quantum Monte Carlo methods suffer from a sign problem when simulating fermionic systems. This causes the efficiency of a simulation to decrease exponentially with the number of particles and inverse temperature. To circumvent this issue, a nodal constraint is often implemented, restricting the Monte Carlo procedure from sampling paths that cause the many-body density matrix to change sign. Unfortunately, this high-dimensional nodal surface is not a priori known unless the system is exactly solvable, resulting in uncontrolled errors. We will discuss two possible routes to extend the applicability of finite-temperatue path integral Monte Carlo. First we extend the regime where signful simulations are possible through a novel permutation sampling scheme. Afterwards, we discuss a method to variationally improve the nodal surface by minimizing a free energy during simulation. Applications of these methods will include both free and interacting electron gases, concluding with discussion concerning extension to inhomogeneous systems. Support from DOE DE-FG52-09NA29456, DE-AC52-07NA27344, LLNL LDRD 10- ERD-058, and the Lawrence Scholar program.
Enzymatic reaction paths as determined by transition path sampling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masterson, Jean Emily
Enzymes are biological catalysts capable of enhancing the rates of chemical reactions by many orders of magnitude as compared to solution chemistry. Since the catalytic power of enzymes routinely exceeds that of the best artificial catalysts available, there is much interest in understanding the complete nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymatic reactions. Two specific questions pertaining to the source of enzymatic rate enhancements are investigated in this work. The first is the issue of how fast protein motions of an enzyme contribute to chemical barrier crossing. Our group has previously identified sub-picosecond protein motions, termed promoting vibrations (PVs), that dynamically modulate chemical transformation in several enzymes. In the case of human heart lactate dehydrogenase (hhLDH), prior studies have shown that a specific axis of residues undergoes a compressional fluctuation towards the active site, decreasing a hydride and a proton donor--acceptor distance on a sub-picosecond timescale to promote particle transfer. To more thoroughly understand the contribution of this dynamic motion to the enzymatic reaction coordinate of hhLDH, we conducted transition path sampling (TPS) using four versions of the enzymatic system: a wild type enzyme with natural isotopic abundance; a heavy enzyme where all the carbons, nitrogens, and non-exchangeable hydrogens were replaced with heavy isotopes; and two versions of the enzyme with mutations in the axis of PV residues. We generated four separate ensembles of reaction paths and analyzed each in terms of the reaction mechanism, time of barrier crossing, dynamics of the PV, and residues involved in the enzymatic reaction coordinate. We found that heavy isotopic substitution of hhLDH altered the sub-picosecond dynamics of the PV, changed the favored reaction mechanism, dramatically increased the time of barrier crossing, but did not have an effect on the specific residues involved in the PV. In the mutant systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng
2014-12-01
Solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) detection refers to photon detection specifically in the wavelength range of 200 nm-320 nm. Without background noises from solar radiation, it has broad applications from homeland security to environmental monitoring. The most commonly used solid state devices for this application are wide band gap (WBG) semiconductor photodetectors (Eg > 3.5 eV). However, WBG semiconductors are difficult to grow and integrate with Si readout integrated circuits (ROICs). In this paper, we design a nanophotonic metal-oxide-semiconductor structure on Si for solar-blind UV detectors. Instead of using semiconductors as the active absorber, we use Sn nano-grating structures to absorb UV photons and generate hot electrons for internal photoemission across the Sn/SiO2 interfacial barrier, thereby generating photocurrent between the metal and the n-type Si region upon UV excitation. Moreover, the transported hot electron has an excess kinetic energy >3 eV, large enough to induce impact ionization and generate another free electron in the conduction band of n-Si. This process doubles the quantum efficiency. On the other hand, the large metal/oxide interfacial energy barrier (>3.5 eV) also enables solar-blind UV detection by blocking the less energetic electrons excited by visible photons. With optimized design, ˜75% UV absorption and hot electron excitation can be achieved within the mean free path of ˜20 nm from the metal/oxide interface. This feature greatly enhances hot electron transport across the interfacial barrier to generate photocurrent. The simple geometry of the Sn nano-gratings and the MOS structure make it easy to fabricate and integrate with Si ROICs compared to existing solar-blind UV detection schemes. The presented device structure also breaks through the conventional notion that photon absorption by metal is always a loss in solid-state photodetectors, and it can potentially be extended to other active metal photonic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habash Krause, L.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Nishikawa, K.; Williams, A.
2013-12-01
Relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events occur when beams or bunches of relativistic electrons of magnetospheric origin enter the Earth's atmosphere, typically at auroral latitudes. REP events are associated with a variety of space weather effects, including production of transitional and bremsstrahlung radiation, catalytic depletion of stratospheric ozone, and scintillation of transionospheric radio waves. This study examines the intensities of x-rays produced at airliner, manned balloon, and suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV) altitudes. The monoenergetic beam is modeled in cylindrical symmetry using the paraxial ray equation. Bremsstrahlung photon production is calculated using the traditional Sauter-Elwert cross-section, providing x-ray emission spectra differential in energy and angle. Attenuation is computed for a plane-stratified standard atmosphere, and the loss processes include photoionization, Rayleigh and Compton scattering, electron-positron pair production, and photonuclear interaction. Peak altitudes of electron energy deposition and bremsstrahlung x-ray production were calculated for beams of energies from 1 MeV through 100 MeV. The altitude peak of bremsstrahlung deposition was consistently and significantly lower that that of the electron deposition due to the longer mean free paths of x-rays compared to electrons within the atmosphere. For example, for a nadir-directed monoenergetic 5 MeV beam, the peak deposition altitude was calculated to be 42 km, but the resulting bremmstrahlung deposition peaked at 25 km. This has implications for crew and passenger safety, especially with the growth of the space tourism industry that relies on sRLVs with a nominal apogee of 100 km. A survey of results covering the 1-100 MeV spectrum for the three altitude ranges of interest will be presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krause, L. Habsh; Gilchrist, B. E.; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi
2013-01-01
Relativisitic electron precipitation (REP) events occur when beams or bunches of relativistic electrons of magnetospheric origin enter the Earth's atmosphere, typically at auroral latitudes. REP events are associated with a variety of space weather effects, including production of transitional and bremsstrahlung radiation, catalytic depletion of stratospheric ozone, and scintillation of transionospheric radio waves. This study examines the intensities of x-rays produced at airliner, manned balloon, and space reuseable launch vehicles (sRLVs). The monoenergetic beam is modeled in cylindrical symetry using the paraxial ray equation. Bremsstrahlung photon production is calculated using the traditional Sauter-Elwert cross-section, providing x-ray emission spectra differential in energy and angle. Attenuation is computed for a plane-stratified standard atmosphere, and the loss processes include photoionization, Rayleigh and Compton scattering, electron-positron pair production, and photonuclear interaction. Peak altitudes of electron energy deposition and bremsstrahlung x-ray production were calculated for beams of energies from 1 MeV through 100 MeV. The altitude peak of bremsstrahlung deposition was consistently and significantly lower that that of the electron deposition due to the longer mean free paths of x-rays compared to electrons within the atmosphere. For example, for a nadir-directed monoenergetic 5 MeV beam, the peak deposition altitude was calculated to be 42 km, but the resulting bremsstrahlung deposition peaked at 25 km. This has implications for crew and passenger safety, especially with the growth of the space tourism industry. A survey of results covering the 1-100 MeV spectrum for the three altitude ranges of interest will be presented.
Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.
2007-01-01
Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.
Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.
2007-01-01
Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to better interference risk assessment.
Diffusive transport of energetic electrons in the 2004, May 21 solar flare
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musset, Sophie; Kontar, Eduard; Vilmer, Nicole
2016-07-01
Solar flares are associated with efficient particle acceleration, in particular with the production of energetic electrons which are diagnosed through the X-ray and radio emissions that they produce when interacting with the solar atmosphere. Particle transport from the acceleration sites to the radiation sites remains of the challenging topic in the field of high energy solar physics and has an important impact on the interpretation of the particle emissions in the context of acceleration models. In order to address the transport of flare associated energetic electrons in the low corona, we use imaging spectroscopic observations from RHESSI of the 2004 May 21 solar flare which presents together with the usually observed HXR footpoints a well observed coronal non-thermal X-ray source. The number of X-ray emitting energetic electrons in the coronal source is compared to the number of electrons needed to produce the hard X-ray emission in the footpoints and is found twice as large. Such an excess of the number of electrons in the coronal source cannot be explained in the context of the standard model of X-ray emissions in which the dominant electron transport is collisional. In the present flare, an additional process is needed to explain how energetic electrons can be efficiently trapped in the corona. In the hypothesis of turbulent pitch-angle scattering of hard X-ray producing energetic electrons (Kontar et al, 2014), diffusive transport can indeed lead to a confinement of energetic electrons in the coronal source. Based on this assumption, we estimated for the present event the mean-free path of energetic electrons and found a value of 10^8 - 10^9 meters, much smaller than the size of the observed flaring loop itself. This implies that a diffusive transport of energetic electrons is dominant in this flare which is in good agreement with the results of a previous study based on the gyrosynchrotron emissions from the energetic electrons (Kuznetsov & Kontar, 2015).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Zexi; Wang, Yan; Ruan, Xiulin
2016-02-01
The standard two-temperature equations for electron-phonon coupled thermal transport across metal/nonmetal interfaces are modified to include the possible coupling between metal electrons with substrate phonons. The previous two-temperature molecular dynamics (TT-MD) approach is then extended to solve these equations numerically at the atomic scale, and the method is demonstrated using Cu/Si interface as an example. A key parameter in TT-MD is the nonlocal coupling distance of metal electrons and nonmetal phonons, and here we use two different approximations. The first is based on Overhauser's "joint-modes" concept, while we use an interfacial reconstruction region as the length scale of joint region rather than the phonon mean-free path as in Overhauser's original model. In this region, the metal electrons can couple to the joint phonon modes. The second approximation is the "phonon wavelength" concept where electrons couple to phonons nonlocally within the range of one phonon wavelength. Compared with the original TT-MD, including the cross-interface electron-phonon coupling can slightly reduce the total thermal boundary resistance. Whether the electron-phonon coupling within the metal block is nonlocal or not does not make an obvious difference in the heat transfer process. Based on the temperature profiles from TT-MD, we construct a new mixed series-parallel thermal circuit. We show that such a thermal circuit is essential for understanding metal/nonmetal interfacial transport, while calculating a single resistance without solving temperature profiles as done in most previous studies is generally incomplete. As a comparison, the simple series circuit that neglects the cross-interface electron-phonon coupling could overestimate the interfacial resistance, while the simple parallel circuit in the original Overhauser's model underestimates the total interfacial resistance.
Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques
2015-08-15
An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.
Fetzer, Roman; Stadtmüller, Benjamin; Ohdaira, Yusuke; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo; Taira, Tomoyuki; Uemura, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Aeschlimann, Martin; Cinchetti, Mirko
2015-01-01
Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) is a powerful tool to study the electronic spin and symmetry features at both surfaces and interfaces to ultrathin top layers. However, the very low mean free path of the photoelectrons usually prevents a direct access to the properties of buried interfaces. The latter are of particular interest since they crucially influence the performance of spintronic devices like magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Here, we introduce spin-resolved extremely low energy photoemission spectroscopy (ELEPS) to provide a powerful way for overcoming this limitation. We apply ELEPS to the interface formed between the half-metallic Heusler compound Co2MnSi and the insulator MgO, prepared as in state-of-the-art Co2MnSi/MgO-based MTJs. The high accordance between the spintronic fingerprint of the free Co2MnSi surface and the Co2MnSi/MgO interface buried below up to 4 nm MgO provides clear evidence for the high interface sensitivity of ELEPS to buried interfaces. Although the absolute values of the interface spin polarization are well below 100%, the now accessible spin- and symmetry-resolved wave functions are in line with the predicted existence of non-collinear spin moments at the Co2MnSi/MgO interface, one of the mechanisms evoked to explain the controversially discussed performance loss of Heusler-based MTJs at room temperature. PMID:25702631
Fetzer, Roman; Stadtmüller, Benjamin; Ohdaira, Yusuke; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo; Taira, Tomoyuki; Uemura, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Aeschlimann, Martin; Cinchetti, Mirko
2015-01-01
Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) is a powerful tool to study the electronic spin and symmetry features at both surfaces and interfaces to ultrathin top layers. However, the very low mean free path of the photoelectrons usually prevents a direct access to the properties of buried interfaces. The latter are of particular interest since they crucially influence the performance of spintronic devices like magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Here, we introduce spin-resolved extremely low energy photoemission spectroscopy (ELEPS) to provide a powerful way for overcoming this limitation. We apply ELEPS to the interface formed between the half-metallic Heusler compound Co2MnSi and the insulator MgO, prepared as in state-of-the-art Co2MnSi/MgO-based MTJs. The high accordance between the spintronic fingerprint of the free Co2MnSi surface and the Co2MnSi/MgO interface buried below up to 4 nm MgO provides clear evidence for the high interface sensitivity of ELEPS to buried interfaces. Although the absolute values of the interface spin polarization are well below 100%, the now accessible spin- and symmetry-resolved wave functions are in line with the predicted existence of non-collinear spin moments at the Co2MnSi/MgO interface, one of the mechanisms evoked to explain the controversially discussed performance loss of Heusler-based MTJs at room temperature. PMID:25702631
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques
2015-08-01
An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.
Electron transport in p-wave superconductor-normal metal junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keles, Ahmet; Andreev, Anton; Spivak, Boris
2014-03-01
We study low temperature electron transport in p-wave superconductor-insulator-normal metal junctions. In diffusive metals the p-wave component of the order parameter decays exponentially at distances larger than the mean free path l. At the superconductor-normal metal boundary, due to spin-orbit interaction, there is a triplet to singlet conversion of the superconducting order parameter. The singlet component survives at distances much larger than l from the boundary. It is this component that controls the low temperature resistance of the junctions. As a result, the resistance of the system strongly depends on the angle between the insulating boundary and the d-vector characterizing the spin structure of the triplet superconducting order parameter. We also analyze the spatial dependence of the electric potential in the presence of the current, and show that the electric field is suppressed in the insulating boundary as well as in the normal metal at distances of order of the coherence length away from the boundary. This is very different from the case of the normal metal-insulator-normal metal junctions, where the voltage drop takes place predominantly at the insulator. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy through the grant DE-FG02-07ER46452.
Electron transport in p-wave superconductor-normal metal junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keles, A.; Andreev, A. V.; Spivak, B. Z.
2014-01-01
We study low-temperature electron transport in p-wave superconductor-insulator-normal metal junctions. In diffusive metals, the p-wave component of the order parameter is strongly suppressed at distances greater than the mean free path l. At the superconductor-normal metal boundary, due to spin-orbit interaction, there is a triplet to singlet conversion of the superconducting order parameter. The singlet component survives at distances much larger than l from the boundary. It is this component that controls the low-temperature resistance of the junctions. As a result, the resistance of the system strongly depends on the angle between the insulating boundary and the d vector characterizing the spin structure of the triplet superconducting order parameter. We also analyze the spatial dependence of the electric potential in the presence of the current and show that the electric field is suppressed in the insulating boundary as well as in the normal metal at distances of order of the coherence length away from the boundary. This is very different from the case of the normal metal-insulator-normal metal junctions, where the voltage drop takes place predominantly at the insulator.
Path querying system on mobile devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Xing; Wang, Yifei; Tian, Yuan; Wu, Lun
2006-01-01
Traditional approaches to path querying problems are not efficient and convenient under most circumstances. A more convenient and reliable approach to this problem has to be found. This paper is devoted to a path querying solution on mobile devices. By using an improved Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm and a natural language translating module, this system can help people find the shortest path between two places through their cell phones or other mobile devices. The chosen path is prompted in text of natural language, as well as a map picture. This system would be useful in solving best path querying problems and have potential to be a profitable business system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carles, R.; Bayle, M.; Benzo, P.; Benassayag, G.; Bonafos, C.; Cacciato, G.; Privitera, V.
2015-11-01
Since the discovery of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) 40 years ago, the origin of the "background" that is systematically observed in SERS spectra has remained questionable. To deeply analyze this phenomenon, plasmon-resonant Raman scattering was recorded under specific experimental conditions on a panel of composite multilayer samples containing noble metal (Ag and Au) nanoparticles. Stokes, anti-Stokes, and wide, including very low, frequency ranges have been explored. The effects of temperature, size (in the nm range), embedding medium (SiO2, Si3N4, or TiO2) or ligands have been successively analyzed. Both lattice (Lamb modes and bulk phonons) and electron (plasmon mode and electron-hole excitations) dynamics have been investigated. This work confirms that in Ag-based nanoplasmonics composite layers, only Raman scattering by single-particle electronic excitations accounts for the background. This latter appears as an intrinsic phenomenon independently of the presence of molecules on the metallic surface. Its spectral shape is well described by revisiting a model developed in the 1990s for analyzing electron scattering in dirty metals, and used later in superconductors. The gs factor, that determines the effective mean-free path of free carriers, is evaluated, gsexpt=0.33 ±0.04 , in good agreement with a recent evaluation based on time-dependent local density approximation gstheor=0.32 . Confinement and interface roughness effects at the nanometer range thus appear crucial to understand and control SERS enhancement and more generally plasmon-enhanced processes on metallic surfaces.
CURRENT SHEET REGULATION OF SOLAR NEAR-RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON INJECTION HISTORIES
Agueda, N.; Sanahuja, B.; Vainio, R.; Dalla, S.; Lario, D.
2013-03-10
We present a sample of three large near-relativistic (>50 keV) electron events observed in 2001 by both the ACE and the Ulysses spacecraft, when Ulysses was at high-northern latitudes (>60 Degree-Sign ) and close to 2 AU. Despite the large latitudinal distance between the two spacecraft, electrons injected near the Sun reached both heliospheric locations. All three events were associated with large solar flares, strong decametric type II radio bursts and accompanied by wide (>212 Degree-Sign ) and fast (>1400 km s{sup -1}) coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We use advanced interplanetary transport simulations and make use of the directional intensities observed in situ by the spacecraft to infer the electron injection profile close to the Sun and the interplanetary transport conditions at both low and high latitudes. For the three selected events, we find similar interplanetary transport conditions at different heliolatitudes for a given event, with values of the mean free path ranging from 0.04 AU to 0.27 AU. We find differences in the injection profiles inferred for each spacecraft. We investigate the role that sector boundaries of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) have on determining the characteristics of the electron injection profiles. Extended injection profiles, associated with coronal shocks, are found if the magnetic footpoints of the spacecraft lay in the same magnetic sector as the associated flare, while intermittent sparse injection episodes appear when the spacecraft footpoints are in the opposite sector or a wrap in the HCS bounded the CME structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakeri, Nadim; Jalili, Saeed; Ahmadi, Vahid; Rasoulzadeh Zali, Aref; Goliaei, Sama
2015-01-01
The problem of finding the Hamiltonian path in a graph, or deciding whether a graph has a Hamiltonian path or not, is an NP-complete problem. No exact solution has been found yet, to solve this problem using polynomial amount of time and space. In this paper, we propose a two dimensional (2-D) optical architecture based on optical electronic devices such as micro ring resonators, optical circulators and MEMS based mirror (MEMS-M) to solve the Hamiltonian Path Problem, for undirected graphs in linear time. It uses a heuristic algorithm and employs n+1 different wavelengths of a light ray, to check whether a Hamiltonian path exists or not on a graph with n vertices. Then if a Hamiltonian path exists, it reports the path. The device complexity of the proposed architecture is O(n2).
E-beam ionized channel guiding of an intense relativistic electron beam
Frost, Charles A.; Godfrey, Brendon B.; Kiekel, Paul D.; Shope, Steven L.
1988-01-01
An IREB is guided through a curved path by ionizing a channel in a gas with electrons from a filament, and confining the electrons to the center of the path with a magnetic field extending along the path. The magnetic field is preferably generated by a solenoid extending along the path.
E-beam ionized channel guiding of an intense relativistic electron beam
Frost, C.A.; Godfrey, B.B.; Kiekel, P.D.; Shope, S.L.
1988-05-10
An IREB is guided through a curved path by ionizing a channel in a gas with electrons from a filament, and confining the electrons to the center of the path with a magnetic field extending along the path. The magnetic field is preferably generated by a solenoid extending along the path. 2 figs.
Physarum can compute shortest paths.
Bonifaci, Vincenzo; Mehlhorn, Kurt; Varma, Girish
2012-09-21
Physarum polycephalum is a slime mold that is apparently able to solve shortest path problems. A mathematical model has been proposed by Tero et al. (Journal of Theoretical Biology, 244, 2007, pp. 553-564) to describe the feedback mechanism used by the slime mold to adapt its tubular channels while foraging two food sources s(0) and s(1). We prove that, under this model, the mass of the mold will eventually converge to the shortest s(0)-s(1) path of the network that the mold lies on, independently of the structure of the network or of the initial mass distribution. This matches the experimental observations by Tero et al. and can be seen as an example of a "natural algorithm", that is, an algorithm developed by evolution over millions of years. PMID:22732274
Squeezed states and path integrals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daubechies, Ingrid; Klauder, John R.
1992-01-01
The continuous-time regularization scheme for defining phase-space path integrals is briefly reviewed as a method to define a quantization procedure that is completely covariant under all smooth canonical coordinate transformations. As an illustration of this method, a limited set of transformations is discussed that have an image in the set of the usual squeezed states. It is noteworthy that even this limited set of transformations offers new possibilities for stationary phase approximations to quantum mechanical propagators.
Electron-hole quantum physics in ZnO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Versteegh, M. A. M.
2011-09-01
This dissertation describes several new aspects of the quantum physics of electrons and holes in zinc oxide (ZnO), including a few possible applications. Zinc oxide is a II-VI semiconductor with a direct band gap in the ultraviolet. Experimental and theoretical studies have been performed, both on bulk ZnO and on ZnO nanowires. Chapter 2 presents a new technique for an ultrafast all-optical shutter, based on two-photon absorption in a ZnO crystal. This shutter can be used for luminescence experiments requiring extremely high time-resolution. Chapter 3 describes a time-resolved study on the electron-hole many-body effects in highly excited ZnO at room temperature, in particular band-filling, band-gap renormalization, and the disappearance of the exciton resonance due to screening. In Chapter 4, the quantum many-body theory developed and experimentally verified in Chapter 3, is used to explain laser action in ZnO nanowires, and compared with experimental results. In contrast to current opinion, the results indicate that excitons are not involved in the laser action. The measured emission wavelength, the laser threshold, and the spectral distance between the laser modes are shown to be excellently explained by our quantum many-body theory. Multiple scattering of light in a forest of nanowires can be employed to enhance light absorption in solar cells. Optimization of this technique requires better understanding of light diffusion in such a nanowire forest. In Chapter 5 we demonstrate a method, based on two-photon absorption, to directly measure the residence time of light in a nanowire forest, and we show that scanning electron microscope (SEM) images can be used to predict the photon mean free path. In Chapter 6 we present a new ultrafast all-optical transistor, consisting of a forest of ZnO nanowires. After excitation, laser action in this forest causes rapid recombination of the majority of the electrons and holes, limiting the amplification to 1.2 picoseconds only
Path optimization for oil probe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, O'Neil; Rahmes, Mark; Blue, Mark; Peter, Adrian
2014-05-01
We discuss a robust method for optimal oil probe path planning inspired by medical imaging. Horizontal wells require three-dimensional steering made possible by the rotary steerable capabilities of the system, which allows the hole to intersect multiple target shale gas zones. Horizontal "legs" can be over a mile long; the longer the exposure length, the more oil and natural gas is drained and the faster it can flow. More oil and natural gas can be produced with fewer wells and less surface disturbance. Horizontal drilling can help producers tap oil and natural gas deposits under surface areas where a vertical well cannot be drilled, such as under developed or environmentally sensitive areas. Drilling creates well paths which have multiple twists and turns to try to hit multiple accumulations from a single well location. Our algorithm can be used to augment current state of the art methods. Our goal is to obtain a 3D path with nodes describing the optimal route to the destination. This algorithm works with BIG data and saves cost in planning for probe insertion. Our solution may be able to help increase the energy extracted vs. input energy.
Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure
Edwards, C.
1998-06-30
This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE`s national strategy, the Richland Operations Office`s Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established.
Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering
Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.
1993-01-01
Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.
Multiple Paths to Encephalization and Technical Civilizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwartzman, David; Middendorf, George
2011-12-01
We propose consideration of at least two possible evolutionary paths for the emergence of intelligent life with the potential for technical civilization. The first is the path via encephalization of homeothermic animals; the second is the path to swarm intelligence of so-called superorganisms, in particular the social insects. The path to each appears to be facilitated by environmental change: homeothermic animals by decreased climatic temperature and for swarm intelligence by increased oxygen levels.
Evaluation of the Learning Path Specification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Janssen, Jose; Berlanga, Adriana J.; Koper, Rob
2011-01-01
Flexible lifelong learning requires that learners can compare and select learning paths that best meet individual needs, not just in terms of learning goals, but also in terms of planning, costs etc. To this end a learning path specification was developed, which describes both the contents and the structure of any learning path, be it formal,…
Performance Analysis of Path Planning Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhirui; Li, Shuanghong; Zhang, Ying; Du, Qiaoling
Ant colony system (ACS) algorithm was applied to the path planning for the robot. In the same working environment, path planning based on MAKLINK graph theory and Voronoi diagram were simulated and compared. MAKLINK graph theory is appropriate to apply to precise searching in small-scale district, and Voronoi diagram is suitable for fast path planning in a large area.
Characterizing the Evolutionary Path(s) to Early Homo
Schroeder, Lauren; Roseman, Charles C.; Cheverud, James M.; Ackermann, Rebecca R.
2014-01-01
Numerous studies suggest that the transition from Australopithecus to Homo was characterized by evolutionary innovation, resulting in the emergence and coexistence of a diversity of forms. However, the evolutionary processes necessary to drive such a transition have not been examined. Here, we apply statistical tests developed from quantitative evolutionary theory to assess whether morphological differences among late australopith and early Homo species in Africa have been shaped by natural selection. Where selection is demonstrated, we identify aspects of morphology that were most likely under selective pressure, and determine the nature (type, rate) of that selection. Results demonstrate that selection must be invoked to explain an Au. africanus—Au. sediba—Homo transition, while transitions from late australopiths to various early Homo species that exclude Au. sediba can be achieved through drift alone. Rate tests indicate that selection is largely directional, acting to rapidly differentiate these taxa. Reconstructions of patterns of directional selection needed to drive the Au. africanus—Au. sediba—Homo transition suggest that selection would have affected all regions of the skull. These results may indicate that an evolutionary path to Homo without Au. sediba is the simpler path and/or provide evidence that this pathway involved more reliance on cultural adaptations to cope with environmental change. PMID:25470780
Attention trees and semantic paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura
2007-02-01
In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial
Link prediction based on path entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zhongqi; Pu, Cunlai; Yang, Jian
2016-08-01
Information theory has been taken as a prospective tool for quantifying the complexity of complex networks. In this paper, first we study the information entropy or uncertainty of a path using the information theory. After that, we apply the path entropy to the link prediction problem in real-world networks. Specifically, we propose a new similarity index, namely Path Entropy (PE) index, which considers the information entropies of shortest paths between node pairs with penalization to long paths. Empirical experiments demonstrate that PE index outperforms the mainstream of link predictors.
Relations between Coherence and Path Information.
Bagan, Emilio; Bergou, János A; Cottrell, Seth S; Hillery, Mark
2016-04-22
We find two relations between coherence and path information in a multipath interferometer. The first builds on earlier results for the two-path interferometer, which used minimum-error state discrimination between detector states to provide the path information. For visibility, which was used in the two-path case, we substitute a recently defined l_{1} measure of quantum coherence. The second is an entropic relation in which the path information is characterized by the mutual information between the detector states and the outcome of the measurement performed on them, and the coherence measure is one based on relative entropy. PMID:27152780
Optical path control in the MAM testbed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Regehr, M. W.; Hines, B.; Holmes, B.
2003-01-01
Future space-based optical interferometers will require control of the optical path delay to accomplish some or all of the three objectives: balancing the optical path in the two arms to within a tolerance corresponding to the coherence length of the star light being observed, modulating the optical path in order to observe the phase of the star light interference fringe, and modulating the path length in order to reduce the effect of cyclic errors in the laser metrology system used to measure the optical path length in the two arms of the interferometer.
Relations between Coherence and Path Information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagan, Emilio; Bergou, János A.; Cottrell, Seth S.; Hillery, Mark
2016-04-01
We find two relations between coherence and path information in a multipath interferometer. The first builds on earlier results for the two-path interferometer, which used minimum-error state discrimination between detector states to provide the path information. For visibility, which was used in the two-path case, we substitute a recently defined l1 measure of quantum coherence. The second is an entropic relation in which the path information is characterized by the mutual information between the detector states and the outcome of the measurement performed on them, and the coherence measure is one based on relative entropy.
Multiple order common path spectrometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.
Communication path for extreme environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Betts, Bradley J. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
Methods and systems for using one or more radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs), or other suitable signal transmitters and/or receivers, to provide a sensor information communication path, to provide location and/or spatial orientation information for an emergency service worker (ESW), to provide an ESW escape route, to indicate a direction from an ESW to an ES appliance, to provide updated information on a region or structure that presents an extreme environment (fire, hazardous fluid leak, underwater, nuclear, etc.) in which an ESW works, and to provide accumulated thermal load or thermal breakdown information on one or more locations in the region.
Staff detection with stable paths.
Dos Santos Cardoso, Jaime; Capela, Artur; Rebelo, Ana; Guedes, Carlos; Pinto da Costa, Joaquim
2009-06-01
The preservation of musical works produced in the past requires their digitalization and transformation into a machine-readable format. The processing of handwritten musical scores by computers remains far from ideal. One of the fundamental stages to carry out this task is the staff line detection. We investigate a general-purpose, knowledge-free method for the automatic detection of music staff lines based on a stable path approach. Lines affected by curvature, discontinuities, and inclination are robustly detected. Experimental results show that the proposed technique consistently outperforms well-established algorithms. PMID:19372615
Manfra, M.J.; Baldwin, K.W.; Sergent, A.M.; West, K.W.; Molnar, R.J.; Caissie, J.
2004-11-29
We report on the transport properties of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on a semi-insulating GaN template prepared by hydride vapor phase epitaxy with a threading dislocation density of {approx}5x10{sup 7} cm{sup -2}. Using a gated Hall bar structure, the electron density (n{sub e}) is varied from 4.1 to 9.1x10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. At T=300 mK, the 2DEG displays a maximum mobility of 167 000 cm{sup 2}/V s at a sheet density of 9.1x10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, corresponding to a mean-free-path of {approx}3 {mu}m. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, typically not observed at magnetic fields below 2 T in GaN, commence at B=0.6 T.
Hauschild, Dirk; Handick, Evelyn; Göhl-Gusenleitner, Sina; Meyer, Frank; Schwab, Holger; Benkert, Andreas; Pohlner, Stephan; Palm, Jörg; Tougaard, Sven; Heske, Clemens; Weinhardt, Lothar; Reinert, Friedrich
2016-08-17
Using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS), we have investigated the optical properties at the surface of a chalcopyrite-based Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSSe) thin-film solar cell absorber, as well as an indium sulfide (InxSy) buffer layer before and after annealing. By fitting the characteristic inelastic scattering cross-section λK(E) to cross sections evaluated by the QUEELS-ε(k,ω)-REELS software package, we determine the surface dielectric function and optical properties of these samples. A comparison of the optical values at the surface of the InxSy film with bulk ellipsometry measurements indicates a good agreement between bulk- and surface-related optical properties. In contrast, the properties of the CIGSSe surface differ significantly from the bulk. In particular, a larger (surface) band gap than for bulk-sensitive measurements is observed, providing a complementary and independent confirmation of earlier photoelectron spectroscopy results. Finally, we derive the inelastic mean free path λ for electrons in InxSy, annealed InxSy, and CIGSSe at a kinetic energy of 1000 eV. PMID:27463021
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, C. W.; Huang, M. S.; Tsai, T. H.; Chang, S. C.
2012-12-01
Is crystalline ZnO(0 0 0 1¯) O-face surface believed to be enriched by Zn atoms? This study may get the answer. We proposed a simplified model to simulate surface concentration ratio on (0 0 0 1¯)-O or (0 0 0 1)-Zn surface based on the hard-sphere model. The simulation ratio was performed by integrating electron signals from the assumed Auger emission, in which the electron mean free path and relative atomic layer arrangements inside the different polarity ZnO crystal surface were considered as relevant parameters. After counting more than 100 experimental observations of Zn/O ratios, the high frequency peak ratio was found at around 0.428, which was near the value predicted by the proposed model using the IMFP database. The ratio larger than the peak value corresponds to that observed in the annealed samples. A downward trend of the ratio evaluated on the post-sputtering sample indicates the possibility of a Zn-enriched phase appearing on the annealed O-face surface. This phenomenon can further elucidate the O-deficiency debate on most ZnO materials.
Arithmetic area for m planar Brownian paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desbois, Jean; Ouvry, Stéphane
2012-05-01
We pursue the analysis made in Desbois and Ouvry (2011 J. Stat. Mech. P05024) on the arithmetic area enclosed by m closed Brownian paths. We pay particular attention to the random variable Sn1, n2,..., nm(m), which is the arithmetic area of the set of points, also called winding sectors, enclosed n1 times by path 1, n2 times by path 2,..., and nm times by path m. Various results are obtained in the asymptotic limit m\\to \\infty . A key observation is that, since the paths are independent, one can use in the m-path case the SLE information, valid in the one-path case, on the zero-winding sectors arithmetic area.
Mechanics of the crack path formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Asher A.
1991-01-01
A detailed analysis of experimentally obtained curvilinear crack path trajectories formed in a heterogeneous stress field is presented. Experimental crack path trajectories were used as data for the numerical simulations, recreating the actual stress field governing the development of the crack path. Thus, the current theories of crack curving and kinking could be examined by comparing them with the actual stress field parameters as they develop along the experimentally observed crack path. The experimental curvilinear crack path trajectories were formed in the tensile specimens with a hole positioned in the vicinity of a potential crack path. The numerical simulation, based on the solution of equivalent boundary value problems with the possible perturbations of the crack path, is presented.
Mechanics of the crack path formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Asher A.
1989-01-01
A detailed analysis of experimentally obtained curvilinear crack path trajectories formed in a heterogeneous stress field is presented. Experimental crack path trajectories were used as data for numerical simulations, recreating the actual stress field governing the development of the crack path. Thus, the current theories of crack curving and kinking could be examined by comparing them with the actual stress field parameters as they develop along the experimentally observed crack path. The experimental curvilinear crack path trajectories were formed in the tensile specimens with a hole positioned in the vicinity of a potential crack path. The numerical simulation, based on the solution of equivalent boundary value problems with the possible perturbations of the crack path, is presented here.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thakoor, Anil
1990-01-01
Viewgraphs on electronic neural networks for space station are presented. Topics covered include: electronic neural networks; electronic implementations; VLSI/thin film hybrid hardware for neurocomputing; computations with analog parallel processing; features of neuroprocessors; applications of neuroprocessors; neural network hardware for terrain trafficability determination; a dedicated processor for path planning; neural network system interface; neural network for robotic control; error backpropagation algorithm for learning; resource allocation matrix; global optimization neuroprocessor; and electrically programmable read only thin-film synaptic array.
Quasi-phasematched acceleration of electrons in a density modulated plasma waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Sung Jun
Two quasi-phasematching schemes are proposed for efficient acceleration of electrons to relativistic energies using moderate intensity laser pulses. In the first scheme, Direct Laser Acceleration (DLA) in a corrugated plasma waveguide is proposed for acceleration of relativistic electrons with sub-terawatt laser systems, using the laser field directly as the accelerating field. The second scheme uses the fact that a plasma wakefield generated by an intense guided pulse in a corrugated plasma waveguide can accelerate relativistic electrons significantly beyond the well-known dephasing limit. In each case, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are used to validate the acceleration concept, demonstrating linear acceleration by either the phase matched laser field or phase-matched wakefield. In the phase matched wakefield case, theory and PIC simulations demonstrate a significant increase in energy gain compared to the standard laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) scheme. Corrugated plasma waveguides can be generated by the interaction between an ionizing laser pulse and an atomic cluster flow interrupted by an array of thin wires,. When the collisional mean free path of the clusters is greater than the wire diameter, shadows of the periodically located wires are imparted on the cluster flow, leading to the production of axially modulated plasma waveguides after laser heating of the flow. This occurs when the population ratio of clusters to monomers in the gas is high. At other limit, dominated by gas monomer flow, shock waves generated off the wires by the supersonic gas flow disrupts modulated waveguide generation. Lastly, we experimentally demonstrate LWFA with ionization injection in a N5+ plasma waveguide. It is first shown that the plasma waveguide is almost completely composed of He-like nitrogen (N5+). It is then shown that intense pulse channeling in the plasma waveguide drives stronger wakefields, while the ionization injection process is critical to lowering the
Filtered backprojection proton CT reconstruction along most likely paths
Rit, Simon; Dedes, George; Freud, Nicolas; Sarrut, David; Letang, Jean Michel
2013-03-15
Purpose: Proton CT (pCT) has the potential to accurately measure the electron density map of tissues at low doses but the spatial resolution is prohibitive if the curved paths of protons in matter is not accounted for. The authors propose to account for an estimate of the most likely path of protons in a filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Methods: The energy loss of protons is first binned in several proton radiographs at different distances to the proton source to exploit the depth-dependency of the estimate of the most likely path. This process is named the distance-driven binning. A voxel-specific backprojection is then used to select the adequate radiograph in the distance-driven binning in order to propagate in the pCT image the best achievable spatial resolution in proton radiographs. The improvement in spatial resolution is demonstrated using Monte Carlo simulations of resolution phantoms. Results: The spatial resolution in the distance-driven binning depended on the distance of the objects from the source and was optimal in the binned radiograph corresponding to that distance. The spatial resolution in the reconstructed pCT images decreased with the depth in the scanned object but it was always better than previous FBP algorithms assuming straight line paths. In a water cylinder with 20 cm diameter, the observed range of spatial resolutions was 0.7 - 1.6 mm compared to 1.0 - 2.4 mm at best with a straight line path assumption. The improvement was strongly enhanced in shorter 200 Degree-Sign scans. Conclusions: Improved spatial resolution was obtained in pCT images with filtered backprojection reconstruction using most likely path estimates of protons. The improvement in spatial resolution combined with the practicality of FBP algorithms compared to iterative reconstruction algorithms makes this new algorithm a candidate of choice for clinical pCT.
One hundred years of electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Frank
2005-03-01
The computers of today are the result of the evolution of electronics over the past one hundred years. This path has led from the glass diode and valves, via transistors based on semiconductors, to integrated circuits and modern microprocessors.
Path Integration: Effect of Curved Path Complexity and Sensory System on Blindfolded Walking
Koutakis, Panagiotis; Mukherjee, Mukul; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Blanke, Daniel J.; Stergiou, Nicholas
2012-01-01
Path integration refers to the ability to integrate continuous information of the direction and distance travelled by the system relative to the origin. Previous studies have investigated path integration through blindfolded walking along simple paths such as straight line and triangles. However, limited knowledge exists regarding the role of path complexity in path integration. Moreover, little is known about how information from different sensory input systems (like vision and proprioception) contributes to accurate path integration. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how sensory information and curved path complexity affect path integration. Forty blindfolded participants had to accurately reproduce a curved path and return to the origin. They were divided into four groups that differed in the curved path, circle (simple) or figure-eight (complex), and received either visual (previously seen) or proprioceptive (previously guided) information about the path before they reproduced it. The dependent variables used were average trajectory error, walking speed, and distance travelled. The results indicated that (a) both groups that walked on a circular path and both groups that received visual information produced greater accuracy in reproducing the path. Moreover, the performance of the group that received proprioceptive information and later walked on a figure-eight path was less accurate than their corresponding circular group. The groups that had the visual information also walked faster compared to the group that had proprioceptive information. Results of the current study highlight the roles of different sensory inputs while performing blindfolded walking for path integration. PMID:22840893
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khrabrov, Alexander V.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Ventzek, Peter L. G.; Ranjan, Alok; Chen, Lee
2015-10-01
Low-pressure capacitively-coupled discharges with additional dc bias applied to a separate electrode are utilized in plasma-assisted etching for semiconductor device manufacturing. Measurements of the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) of the flux impinging on the wafer, as well as in the plasma bulk, show a thermal population and additional peaks within a broad range of energies. That range extends from the thermal level up to the value for the ‘ballistic’ peak, corresponding to the bias potential. The non-thermal electron flux has been correlated to alleviating the electron shading effect and providing etch-resistance properties to masking photoresist layers. ‘Middle-energy peak electrons’ at energies of several hundred eV may provide an additional sustaining mechanism for the discharge. These features in the electron velocity (or energy) distribution functions are possibly caused by secondary electrons emitted from the electrodes and interacting with two high-voltage sheaths: a stationary sheath at the dc electrode and an oscillating self-biased sheath at the powered electrode. Since at those energies the mean free path for large-angle scattering (momentum relaxation length) is comparable to, or exceeds the size of the discharge gap, these ‘ballistic’ electrons will not be fully scattered by the background gas as they traverse the inter-electrode space. We have performed test-particle simulations in which the features in the EVDF of electrons impacting the RF electrode are fully resolved at all energies. An analytical model has been developed to predict existence of peaked and step-like structures in the EVDF. Those features can be explained by analyzing the kinematics of electron trajectories in the discharge gap. Step-like structures in the EVDF near the powered electrode appear due to accumulation of electrons emitted from the dc electrode within a portion of the RF cycle, and their subsequent release. Trapping occurs when the RF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Galatà, A.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Thuillier, T.; Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L.; Mascali, D.; Neri, L.
2016-05-01
This work describes the utilization of an injected 23Na1+ ion beam as a diagnostics of the helium plasma of a charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion source. The obtained data allows estimating the upper limit for the ion-ion collision mean-free path of the incident sodium ions, the lower limit of ion-ion collision frequencies for all charge states of the sodium ions and the lower limit of the helium plasma density. The ion-ion collision frequencies of high charge state ions are shown to be at least on the order of 1-10 MHz and the plasma density is estimated to be on the order of 1011 cm-3 or higher. The experimental results are compared to simulations of the 23Na1+ capture into the helium plasma. The results indicate that the lower breeding efficiency of light ions in comparison to heavier elements is probably due to different capture efficiencies in which the in-flight ionization of the incident 1 + ions plays a vital role.
Integrated assignment and path planning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphey, Robert A.
2005-11-01
A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact
Electron IMFPs in bulk Cd 0.88Mn 0.12Te crystals determined by EPES
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krawczyk, M.; Kosiński, A.; Jablonski, A.; Mycielski, A.
2006-09-01
The inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of electrons is a basic parameter for surface-sensitive electron spectroscopies (AES, XPS, EELS) in quantitative analyses. Cd 1- xMn xTe mixed crystals are currently of great interest due to their magnetic and magneto-optical properties. Since information on electron transport processes in these semimagnetic compounds is scarce, their systematic studies are highly desirable. In the present work, the IMFPs in Cd 0.88Mn 0.12Te (1 1 0) crystal samples were obtained from EPES with use of the Ni standard in the electron energy range 500-2000 eV. In addition, we also explored the effect of bulk Mn content in the determination of the IMFP. Relative EPES measurements were carried out using the MICROLAB 350 spectrometer. The sample surface was sputter cleaned and amorphized by Ar + ions. Surface composition of the samples was monitored in situ by XPS and AES. The measured IMFPs were uncorrected for surface excitations and compared with those predicted from the TPP-2M and G-1 formulae. Also, the values of the IMFPs determined here were compared with those evaluated from the expression of Sekine et al. However, accuracy of this expression is rather poor except the case of pure CdTe ( x = 0). In general, good agreement was found between the measured IMFPs in Cd 0.88Mn 0.12Te and the corresponding predicted IMFPs. The root-mean-square deviation from IMFP values predicted from the TPP-2M formula was 1.2 Å. The mean percentage deviation from the TPP-2M IMFPs was 9.3%.
ELECTRON HEAT FLUX IN THE SOLAR WIND: ARE WE OBSERVING THE COLLISIONAL LIMIT IN THE 1 AU DATA?
Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Pantellini, F.
2014-07-20
Using statistically significant data at 1 AU, it has recently been shown (Bale et al.) that in the solar wind, when the Knudsen number K {sub T} (the ratio between the electron mean free path and the electron temperature scale height) drops below about 0.3, the electron heat flux q intensity rapidly approaches the classical collisional Spitzer-Härm limit. Using a fully kinetic model including the effect of Coulomb collisions and the expansion of the solar wind with heliocentric distance, we observe that the heat flux strength does indeed approach the collisional value for Knudsen numbers smaller than about 0.3 in very good agreement with the observations. However, closer inspection of the heat flux properties, such as its variation with the heliocentric distance and its dependence on the plasma parameters, shows that for Knudsen numbers between 0.02 and 0.3 the heat flux is not conveniently described by the Spitzer-Härm formula. We conclude that even though observations at 1 AU seem to indicate that the electron heat flux intensity approaches the collisional limit when the Knudsen drops below ∼0.3, the collisional limit is not a generally valid closure for a Knudsen larger than 0.01. Moreover, the good agreement between the heat flux from our model and the heat flux from solar wind measurements in the high-Knudsen number regime seems to indicate that the heat flux at 1 AU is not constrained by electromagnetic instabilities as both wave-particle and wave-wave interactions are neglected in our calculations.
Weatherford, Brandon R. E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Barnat, E. V. E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Xiong, Zhongmin E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Kushner, Mark J. E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu
2014-09-14
Fast ionization waves (FIWs), often generated with high voltage pulses over nanosecond timescales, are able to produce large volumes of ions and excited states at moderate pressures. The mechanisms of FIW propagation were experimentally and computationally investigated to provide insights into the manner in which these large volumes are excited. The two-dimensional structure of electron and metastable densities produced by short-pulse FIWs sustained in helium were measured using laser-induced fluorescence and laser collision-induced fluorescence diagnostics for times of 100–120 ns after the pulse, as the pressure was varied from 1 to 20 Torr. A trend of center-peaked to volume-filling to wall-peaked electron density profiles was observed as the pressure was increased. Instantaneous FIW velocities, obtained from plasma-induced emission, ranged from 0.1 to 3×10⁹cm s⁻¹, depending on distance from the high voltage electrode and pressure. Predictions from two-dimensional modeling of the propagation of a single FIW correlated well with the experimental trends in electron density profiles and wave velocity. Results from the model show that the maximum ionization rate occurs in the wavefront, and the discharge continues to propagate forward after the removal of high voltage from the powered electrode due to the potential energy stored in the space charge. As the pressure is varied, the radial distribution of the ionization rate is shaped by changes in the electron mean free path, and subsequent localized electric field enhancement at the walls or on the centerline of the discharge.
Energy-loss- and thickness-dependent contrast in atomic-scale electron energy-loss spectroscopy
Tan, Haiyan; Zhu, Ye; Dwyer, Christian; Xin, Huolin L.
2014-12-31
Atomic-scale elemental maps of materials acquired by core-loss inelastic electron scattering often exhibit an undesirable sensitivity to the unavoidable elastic scattering, making the maps counter-intuitive to interpret. Here, we present a systematic study that scrutinizes the energy-loss and sample-thickness dependence of atomic-scale elemental maps acquired using 100 keV incident electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope. For single-crystal silicon, the balance between elastic and inelastic scattering means that maps generated from the near-threshold Si-L signal (energy loss of 99 eV) show no discernible contrast for a thickness of 0.5λ (λ is the electron mean-free path, here approximately 110 nm). At greater thicknesses we observe a counter-intuitive “negative” contrast. Only at much higher energy losses is an intuitive “positive” contrast gradually restored. Our quantitative analysis shows that the energy-loss at which a positive contrast is restored depends linearly on the sample thickness. This behavior is in very good agreement with our double-channeling inelastic scattering calculations. We test a recently-proposed experimental method to correct the core-loss inelastic scattering and restore an intuitive “positive” chemical contrast. The method is demonstrated to be reliable over a large range of energy losses and sample thicknesses. The corrected contrast for near-threshold maps is demonstrated to be (desirably) inversely proportional to sample thickness. As a result, implications for the interpretation of atomic-scale elemental maps are discussed.
Energy-loss- and thickness-dependent contrast in atomic-scale electron energy-loss spectroscopy
Tan, Haiyan; Zhu, Ye; Dwyer, Christian; Xin, Huolin L.
2014-12-31
Atomic-scale elemental maps of materials acquired by core-loss inelastic electron scattering often exhibit an undesirable sensitivity to the unavoidable elastic scattering, making the maps counter-intuitive to interpret. Here, we present a systematic study that scrutinizes the energy-loss and sample-thickness dependence of atomic-scale elemental maps acquired using 100 keV incident electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope. For single-crystal silicon, the balance between elastic and inelastic scattering means that maps generated from the near-threshold Si-L signal (energy loss of 99 eV) show no discernible contrast for a thickness of 0.5λ (λ is the electron mean-free path, here approximately 110 nm). Atmore » greater thicknesses we observe a counter-intuitive “negative” contrast. Only at much higher energy losses is an intuitive “positive” contrast gradually restored. Our quantitative analysis shows that the energy-loss at which a positive contrast is restored depends linearly on the sample thickness. This behavior is in very good agreement with our double-channeling inelastic scattering calculations. We test a recently-proposed experimental method to correct the core-loss inelastic scattering and restore an intuitive “positive” chemical contrast. The method is demonstrated to be reliable over a large range of energy losses and sample thicknesses. The corrected contrast for near-threshold maps is demonstrated to be (desirably) inversely proportional to sample thickness. As a result, implications for the interpretation of atomic-scale elemental maps are discussed.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weatherford, Brandon R.; Xiong, Zhongmin; Barnat, E. V.; Kushner, Mark J.
2014-09-01
Fast ionization waves (FIWs), often generated with high voltage pulses over nanosecond timescales, are able to produce large volumes of ions and excited states at moderate pressures. The mechanisms of FIW propagation were experimentally and computationally investigated to provide insights into the manner in which these large volumes are excited. The two-dimensional structure of electron and metastable densities produced by short-pulse FIWs sustained in helium were measured using laser-induced fluorescence and laser collision-induced fluorescence diagnostics for times of 100-120 ns after the pulse, as the pressure was varied from 1 to 20 Torr. A trend of center-peaked to volume-filling to wall-peaked electron density profiles was observed as the pressure was increased. Instantaneous FIW velocities, obtained from plasma-induced emission, ranged from 0.1 to 3 × 109 cm s-1, depending on distance from the high voltage electrode and pressure. Predictions from two-dimensional modeling of the propagation of a single FIW correlated well with the experimental trends in electron density profiles and wave velocity. Results from the model show that the maximum ionization rate occurs in the wavefront, and the discharge continues to propagate forward after the removal of high voltage from the powered electrode due to the potential energy stored in the space charge. As the pressure is varied, the radial distribution of the ionization rate is shaped by changes in the electron mean free path, and subsequent localized electric field enhancement at the walls or on the centerline of the discharge.
Electronic Paths to Resource Sharing: Widening Opportunities through the Internet.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Engle, Mary E.
1991-01-01
Discussion of computer networking and information retrieval technology focuses on the usefulness of accessing remote library catalogs. Experiences with the University of California MELVYL online catalog and Internet are described, problems of remote access for the user are considered, and future possibilities are suggested. (nine references) (LRW)
The path to adaptive microsystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zolper, John C.; Biercuk, Michael J.
2006-05-01
Scaling trends in microsystems are discussed frequently in the technical community, providing a short-term perspective on the future of integrated microsystems. This paper looks beyond the leading edge of technological development, focusing on new microsystem design paradigms that move far beyond today's systems based on static components. We introduce the concept of Adaptive Microsystems and outline a path to realizing these systems-on-a-chip. The role of DARPA in advancing future components and systems research is discussed, and specific DARPA efforts enabling and producing adaptive microsystems are presented. In particular, we discuss efforts underway in the DARPA Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) including programs in novel circuit architectures (3DIC), adaptive imaging and sensing (AFPA, VISA, MONTAGE, A-to-I) and reconfigurable RF/Microwave devices (SMART, TFAST, IRFFE).
The Logic Behind Feynman's Paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García Álvarez, Edgardo T.
The classical notions of continuity and mechanical causality are left in order to reformulate the Quantum Theory starting from two principles: (I) the intrinsic randomness of quantum process at microphysical level, (II) the projective representations of symmetries of the system. The second principle determines the geometry and then a new logic for describing the history of events (Feynman's paths) that modifies the rules of classical probabilistic calculus. The notion of classical trajectory is replaced by a history of spontaneous, random and discontinuous events. So the theory is reduced to determining the probability distribution for such histories accordingly with the symmetries of the system. The representation of the logic in terms of amplitudes leads to Feynman rules and, alternatively, its representation in terms of projectors results in the Schwinger trace formula.
Individual carbon nanotubes for quantum electronic and quantum photonic devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ai, Nan
2011-12-01
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising materials since their unique one dimensional geometry leads to remarkable physical properties such as ballistic transport, long mean free path, large direct band gaps, high mechanical tensile strength and strong exciton binding energies, which make them attractive candidates for applications in high-performance nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. CNT-based field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) are considered to be ideally suited for future nanoelectronics. Single CNT-FETs made by depositing metal electrodes on top of individual CNTs with E-beam lithography have achieved great performance but are limited for massive large area integrated circuit fabrication. Therefore, this thesis demonstrates characteristics of CNT-FETs made by registered in-plane growth utilizing tailored nanoscale catalyst patterns and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), resulting in CNT arrays directly bridging source and drain. The demonstrated access to individual CNTs with pronounced semiconducting behavior opens also the possibility to form more advanced nanoelectronic structures such as CNT quantum dots. CNT-based single electron transistors (CNT-SETS) are promising for quantum electronic devices operating with ultra-low power consumption and allow fundamental studies of electron transport. In addition to existing CNT-SETS based on individual CNTs, we have fabricated the first CNT-SETS based on in-plane grown CNTs using the CVD technique. The demonstrated utilization of registered in-plane growth opens possibilities to create novel SET device geometries which are more complex, i.e. laterally ordered and scalable, as required for advanced quantum electronic devices. Blinking and spectral diffusion are hallmarks of nanoscale light emitters and a challenge for creating stable fluorescent biomarkers or efficient nonclassical light sources. The studies of blinking of CNTs are still in the explorative stage. In this thesis, I show the first experimental
Flexible-Path Human Exploration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherwood, B.; Adler, M.; Alkalai, L.; Burdick, G.; Coulter, D.; Jordan, F.; Naderi, F.; Graham, L.; Landis, R.; Drake, B.; Hoffman, S.; Grunsfeld, J.; Seery, B. D.
2010-01-01
In the fourth quarter of 2009 an in-house, multi-center NASA study team briefly examined "Flexible Path" concepts to begin understanding characteristics, content, and roles of potential missions consistent with the strategy proposed by the Augustine Committee. We present an overview of the study findings. Three illustrative human/robotic mission concepts not requiring planet surface operations are described: assembly of very large in-space telescopes in cis-lunar space; exploration of near Earth objects (NEOs); exploration of Mars' moon Phobos. For each, a representative mission is described, technology and science objectives are outlined, and a basic mission operations concept is quantified. A fourth type of mission, using the lunar surface as preparation for Mars, is also described. Each mission's "capability legacy" is summarized. All four illustrative missions could achieve NASA's stated human space exploration objectives and advance human space flight toward Mars surface exploration. Telescope assembly missions would require the fewest new system developments. NEO missions would offer a wide range of deep-space trip times between several months and two years. Phobos exploration would retire several Marsclass risks, leaving another large remainder set (associated with entry, descent, surface operations, and ascent) for retirement by subsequent missions. And extended lunar surface operations would build confidence for Mars surface missions by addressing a complementary set of risks. Six enabling developments (robotic precursors, ISS exploration testbed, heavy-lift launch, deep-space-capable crew capsule, deep-space habitat, and reusable in-space propulsion stage) would apply across multiple program sequence options, and thus could be started even without committing to a specific mission sequence now. Flexible Path appears to be a viable strategy, with meaningful and worthy mission content.
Extracting Critical Path Graphs from MPI Applications
Schulz, M
2005-07-27
The critical path is one of the fundamental runtime characteristics of a parallel program. It identifies the longest execution sequence without wait delays. In other words, the critical path is the global execution path that inflicts wait operations on other nodes without itself being stalled. Hence, it dictates the overall runtime and knowing it is important to understand an application's runtime and message behavior and to target optimizations. We have developed a toolset that identifies the critical path of MPI applications, extracts it, and then produces a graphical representation of the corresponding program execution graph to visualize it. To implement this, we intercept all MPI library calls, use the information to build the relevant subset of the execution graph, and then extract the critical path from there. We have applied our technique to several scientific benchmarks and successfully produced critical path diagrams for applications running on up to 128 processors.
Spatial and frequency coherence of oblique, one-hop, high-frequency paths
Fitzgerald, T.J.
1995-10-01
We consider the effect of random index of refraction fluctuations upon long-distance, ionospherically-reflected, hf paths. Along with deterministic effects such as multipath and dispersion, such fluctuations have a deleterious impact on hf communication including nonabsorptive fading, time-of-arrival spread, angle-of-arrival spread, and Doppler spread. We develop a formalism to calculate the mutual coherence functions for spatial and frequency separations based upon a path integral solution of the parabolic wave equation for a single refracted path through an ionosphere which contains random electron density fluctuations. The statistics of the hf path depend directly on the strength and statistics of the electron density fluctuations; we model the spatial power spectrum of the density fluctuation as a power law behavior versus frequency and with outer and inner scales.
A note on the path interval distance.
Coons, Jane Ivy; Rusinko, Joseph
2016-06-01
The path interval distance accounts for global congruence between locally incongruent trees. We show that the path interval distance provides a lower bound for the nearest neighbor interchange distance. In contrast to the Robinson-Foulds distance, random pairs of trees are unlikely to be maximally distant from one another under the path interval distance. These features indicate that the path interval distance should play a role in phylogenomics where the comparison of trees on a fixed set of taxa is becoming increasingly important. PMID:27040521
Geodesics on path spaces and double category
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Saikat
2016-09-01
Let M be a Riemannian manifold and 𝒫M be the space of all smooth paths on M. We describe geodesics on path space 𝒫M. Normal neighborhoods on 𝒫M have been discussed. We identify paths on M under “back-track” equivalence. Under this identification, we show that if M is complete, then geodesics on the path space yield a double category. This double category has a natural interpretation in terms of the worldsheets generated by freely moving (without any external force) strings.
Brau, Charles A.; Kurnit, Norman A.; Cooper, Richard K.
1984-01-01
A high efficiency, free electron laser utilizing a circular relativistic electron beam accelerator and a circular whispering mode optical waveguide for guiding optical energy in a circular path in the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator such that the circular relativistic electron beam and the optical energy are spatially contiguous in a resonant condition for free electron laser operation. Both a betatron and synchrotron are disclosed for use in the present invention. A free electron laser wiggler is disposed around the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator for generating a periodic magnetic field to transform energy from the circular relativistic electron beam to optical energy.
Path-integral simulation of solids.
Herrero, C P; Ramírez, R
2014-06-11
The path-integral formulation of the statistical mechanics of quantum many-body systems is described, with the purpose of introducing practical techniques for the simulation of solids. Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics methods for distinguishable quantum particles are presented, with particular attention to the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. Applications of these computational techniques to different types of solids are reviewed, including noble-gas solids (helium and heavier elements), group-IV materials (diamond and elemental semiconductors), and molecular solids (with emphasis on hydrogen and ice). Structural, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of these materials are discussed. Applications also include point defects in solids (structure and diffusion), as well as nuclear quantum effects in solid surfaces and adsorbates. Different phenomena are discussed, as solid-to-solid and orientational phase transitions, rates of quantum processes, classical-to-quantum crossover, and various finite-temperature anharmonic effects (thermal expansion, isotopic effects, electron-phonon interactions). Nuclear quantum effects are most remarkable in the presence of light atoms, so that especial emphasis is laid on solids containing hydrogen as a constituent element or as an impurity. PMID:24810944
Visualizing the Path of DNA through Proteins Using DREEM Imaging.
Wu, Dong; Kaur, Parminder; Li, Zimeng M; Bradford, Kira C; Wang, Hong; Erie, Dorothy A
2016-01-21
Many cellular functions require the assembly of multiprotein-DNA complexes. A growing area of structural biology aims to characterize these dynamic structures by combining atomic-resolution crystal structures with lower-resolution data from techniques that provide distributions of species, such as small-angle X-ray scattering, electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A significant limitation in these combinatorial methods is localization of the DNA within the multiprotein complex. Here, we combine AFM with an electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) method to develop an exquisitely sensitive dual-resonance-frequency-enhanced EFM (DREEM) capable of resolving DNA within protein-DNA complexes. Imaging of nucleosomes and DNA mismatch repair complexes demonstrates that DREEM can reveal both the path of the DNA wrapping around histones and the path of DNA as it passes through both single proteins and multiprotein complexes. Finally, DREEM imaging requires only minor modifications of many existing commercial AFMs, making the technique readily available. PMID:26774284
Electron and ion acceleration in relativistic shocks with applications to GRB afterglows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warren, Donald C.; Ellison, Donald C.; Bykov, Andrei M.; Lee, Shiu-Hang
2015-09-01
We have modelled the simultaneous first-order Fermi shock acceleration of protons, electrons, and helium nuclei by relativistic shocks. By parametrizing the particle diffusion, our steady-state Monte Carlo simulation allows us to follow particles from particle injection at non-relativistic thermal energies to above PeV energies, including the non-linear smoothing of the shock structure due to cosmic ray (CR) backpressure. We observe the mass-to-charge (A/Z) enhancement effect believed to occur in efficient Fermi acceleration in non-relativistic shocks and we parametrize the transfer of ion energy to electrons seen in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. For a given set of environmental and model parameters, the Monte Carlo simulation determines the absolute normalization of the particle distributions and the resulting synchrotron, inverse Compton, and pion-decay emission in a largely self-consistent manner. The simulation is flexible and can be readily used with a wide range of parameters typical of γ-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. We describe some preliminary results for photon emission from shocks of different Lorentz factors and outline how the Monte Carlo simulation can be generalized and coupled to hydrodynamic simulations of GRB blast waves. We assume Bohm diffusion for simplicity but emphasize that the non-linear effects we describe stem mainly from an extended shock precursor where higher energy particles diffuse further upstream. Quantitative differences will occur with different diffusion models, particularly for the maximum CR energy and photon emission, but these non-linear effects should be qualitatively similar as long as the scattering mean-free path is an increasing function of momentum.
Leak Path Development in CO2 Wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torsater, M.; Todorovic, J.; Opedal, N.; Lavrov, A.
2014-12-01
Wells have in numerous scientific works been denoted the "weak link" of safe and cost-efficient CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS). Whether they are active or abandoned, all wells are man-made intrusions into the storage reservoir with sealing abilities depending on degradable materials like steel and cement. If dense CO2 is allowed to expand (e.g. due to leakage) it will cool down its surroundings and cause strong thermal and mechanical loading on the wellbore. In addition, CO2 reacts chemically with rock, cement and steel. To ensure long-term underground containment, it is therefore necessary to study how, why, where and when leakage occurs along CO2wells. If cement bonding to rock or casing is poor, leak paths can form already during drilling and completion of the well. In the present work, we have mapped the bonding quality of cement-rock and cement-steel interfaces - and measured their resistance towards CO2 flow. This involved a large experimental matrix including different rocks, steels, cement types and well fluids. The bonding qualities were measured on composite cores using micro computed tomography (µ-CT), and CO2 was flooded through the samples to determine leakage rates. These were further compared to numerical simulations of leakage through the digitalized µ-CT core data, and CO2chemical interactions with the materials were mapped using electron microscopy. We also present a new laboratory set-up for measuring how well integrity is affected by downhole temperature variations - and we showcase some initial results. Our work concludes that leak path development in CO2 wells depends critically on the drilling fluids and presflushes/spacers chosen already during drilling and completion of a well. Fluid films residing on rock and casing surfaces strongly degrade the quality of cement bonding. The operation of the well is also important, as even slight thermal cycling (between 10°C and 95°C on casing) leads to significant de-bonding of the annular cement.
Gerbertian paths for the Jubilee
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sigismondi, Costantino
2015-04-01
Gerbert before becoming Pope Sylvester II came several times in Rome, as reported in his Letters and in the biography of Richerus. Eight places in Rome can be connected with Gerbertian memories. 1. The Cathedral of St. John in the Lateran where the gravestone of his tumb is still preserved near the Holy Door; 2. the “Basilica Hierusalem” (Santa Croce) where Gerbert had the stroke on May 3rd 1003 which lead him to death on May 12th; 3. the Aventine hill, with the church of the Knights of Malta in the place where the palace of the Ottonian Emperors was located; 4. the church of St. Bartholomew in the Tiber Island built in 997 under Otto III; 5. the Obelisk of Augustus in Montecitorio to remember the relationship between Gerbert, Astronomy and numbers which led the birth of the legends on Gerbert magician; 6. St. Mary Major end of the procession of August 15, 1000; 7. St. Paul outside the walls with the iconography of the Popes and 8. St. Peter's tumb end of all Romaei pilgrimages. This Gerbertian path in Rome suggests one way to accomplish the pilgrimage suggested by Pope Francis in the Bulla Misericordiae Vultus (14) of indiction of the new Jubilee.
Path integral for inflationary perturbations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prokopec, Tomislav; Rigopoulos, Gerasimos
2010-07-01
The quantum theory of cosmological perturbations in single-field inflation is formulated in terms of a path integral. Starting from a canonical formulation, we show how the free propagators can be obtained from the well-known gauge-invariant quadratic action for scalar and tensor perturbations, and determine the interactions to arbitrary order. This approach does not require the explicit solution of the energy and momentum constraints, a novel feature which simplifies the determination of the interaction vertices. The constraints and the necessary imposition of gauge conditions is reflected in the appearance of various commuting and anticommuting auxiliary fields in the action. These auxiliary fields are not propagating physical degrees of freedom but need to be included in internal lines and loops in a diagrammatic expansion. To illustrate the formalism we discuss the tree-level three-point and four-point functions of the inflaton perturbations, reproducing the results already obtained by the methods used in the current literature. Loop calculations are left for future work.
Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mackler, Scott E.
2008-01-01
ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.
Decision paths in complex tasks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Galanter, Eugene
1991-01-01
Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Hua; Oh, Suhk Kun; Kang, Hee Jae; Tougaard, Sven
2006-10-01
Quantitative analysis of reflection electron energy loss spectra for ultrathin HfO2, Al2O3, and Hf-Al-O dielectric thin films on Si(100) were carried out by using Tougaard-Yubero [Surf. Interface Anal. 36, 824 (2004)] QUEELS-ɛ(k ,ω)-REELS software. Experimental cross sections obtained from reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy were compared with theoretical inelastic scattering cross section Ksc deduced from the simulated energy loss function (ELF). The ELF is expressed as a sum of Drude oscillators. For HfO2, the ELF shows peaks in the vicinity of 10, 17, 22, 27, 37, and 47eV. For Al2O3, a broad peak at 22eV with a very weak shoulder at 14eV and a shoulder at 32eV were observed, while for the Al2O3 doped HfO2, the peak position is similar to that of HfO2. This indicates that when Hf-Al-O film is used as a gate dielectric in a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor transistor, its electronic structure is mainly determined by the d state of Hf. In addition, the inelastic mean free path (IMFP) was also calculated from the theoretical inelastic scattering cross section. The IMFPs at 300eV were about 7.05, 9.62, and 8.48Å and those at 500eV were 11.42, 15.40, and 13.64Å for HfO2, Al2O3, and Hf-Al-O, respectively. The method of determining the IMFP from the ELF is a convenient tool for ultrathin dielectric materials.
Career Paths in Sport Management
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schwab, Keri A.; Legg, Eric; Tanner, Preston; Timmerman, Danielle; Dustin, Daniel; Arthur-Banning, Skye G.
2015-01-01
Sport management alumni (N = 268) from five universities that offer undergraduate programs with an emphasis in sport management within departments of parks, recreation, and tourism were sampled via an electronic survey. The survey sought to learn where alumni were working, and how they felt about their career choice and undergraduate professional…
Evaluation of Calcine Disposition Path Forward
Birrer, S.A.; Heiser, M.B.
2003-02-26
This document describes an evaluation of the baseline and two alternative disposition paths for the final disposition of the calcine wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The pathways are evaluated against a prescribed set of criteria and a recommendation is made for the path forward.
Evaluation of Calcine Disposition - Path Forward
Steve Birrer
2003-02-01
This document describes an evaluation of the baseline and two alternative disposition paths for the final disposition of the calcine wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The pathways are evaluated against a prescribed set of criteria and a recommendation is made for the path forward.
The path dependence of deformation texture development
Takeshita, T.; Kocks, U.F.; Wenk, H.R.
1987-01-01
It is demonstrated for the case of three different strain paths, all of which end up with the same, elongated specimen shape, that the texture developed during straining is path dependent. This is true both for experiments on aluminum polycrystals and for simulations using the LApp code.
The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis VI.
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Calvin, M.
1949-06-30
This paper is a compilation of the essential results of our experimental work in the determination of the path of carbon in photosynthesis. There are discussions of the dark fixation of photosynthesis and methods of separation and identification including paper chromatography and radioautography. The definition of the path of carbon in photosynthesis by the distribution of radioactivity within the compounds is described.
Career Path Guide for Adult Career Choices.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Case, Clydia
Intended for adults who are considering career choices or changes, this booklet provides opportunities for self-study and reflection in six career paths. The booklet begins with tips for long-term career survival and myths and realities of career planning. After a brief career survey, readers are introduced to six career paths: arts and…
Adaptively Ubiquitous Learning in Campus Math Path
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shih, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Liu, Yu-Lung
2012-01-01
The purposes of this study are to develop and evaluate the instructional model and learning system which integrate ubiquitous learning, computerized adaptive diagnostic testing system and campus math path learning. The researcher first creates a ubiquitous learning environment which is called "adaptive U-learning math path system". This system…
A Random Walk on a Circular Path
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ching, W.-K.; Lee, M. S.
2005-01-01
This short note introduces an interesting random walk on a circular path with cards of numbers. By using high school probability theory, it is proved that under some assumptions on the number of cards, the probability that a walker will return to a fixed position will tend to one as the length of the circular path tends to infinity.
Cooperative organic mine avoidance path planning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCubbin, Christopher B.; Piatko, Christine D.; Peterson, Adam V.; Donnald, Creighton R.; Cohen, David
2005-06-01
The JHU/APL Path Planning team has developed path planning techniques to look for paths that balance the utility and risk associated with different routes through a minefield. Extending on previous years' efforts, we investigated real-world Naval mine avoidance requirements and developed a tactical decision aid (TDA) that satisfies those requirements. APL has developed new mine path planning techniques using graph based and genetic algorithms which quickly produce near-minimum risk paths for complicated fitness functions incorporating risk, path length, ship kinematics, and naval doctrine. The TDA user interface, a Java Swing application that obtains data via Corba interfaces to path planning databases, allows the operator to explore a fusion of historic and in situ mine field data, control the path planner, and display the planning results. To provide a context for the minefield data, the user interface also renders data from the Digital Nautical Chart database, a database created by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency containing charts of the world's ports and coastal regions. This TDA has been developed in conjunction with the COMID (Cooperative Organic Mine Defense) system. This paper presents a description of the algorithms, architecture, and application produced.
Shortest path and Schramm-Loewner Evolution
Posé, N.; Schrenk, K. J.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.
2014-01-01
We numerically show that the statistical properties of the shortest path on critical percolation clusters are consistent with the ones predicted for Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) curves for κ = 1.04 ± 0.02. The shortest path results from a global optimization process. To identify it, one needs to explore an entire area. Establishing a relation with SLE permits to generate curves statistically equivalent to the shortest path from a Brownian motion. We numerically analyze the winding angle, the left passage probability, and the driving function of the shortest path and compare them to the distributions predicted for SLE curves with the same fractal dimension. The consistency with SLE opens the possibility of using a solid theoretical framework to describe the shortest path and it raises relevant questions regarding conformal invariance and domain Markov properties, which we also discuss. PMID:24975019
Evolution paths for advanced automation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Healey, Kathleen J.
1990-01-01
As Space Station Freedom (SSF) evolves, increased automation and autonomy will be required to meet Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) objectives. As a precursor to the use of advanced automation within the SSFP, especially if it is to be used on SSF (e.g., to automate the operation of the flight systems), the underlying technologies will need to be elevated to a high level of readiness to ensure safe and effective operations. Ground facilities supporting the development of these flight systems -- from research and development laboratories through formal hardware and software development environments -- will be responsible for achieving these levels of technology readiness. These facilities will need to evolve support the general evolution of the SSFP. This evolution will include support for increasing the use of advanced automation. The SSF Advanced Development Program has funded a study to define evolution paths for advanced automaton within the SSFP's ground-based facilities which will enable, promote, and accelerate the appropriate use of advanced automation on-board SSF. The current capability of the test beds and facilities, such as the Software Support Environment, with regard to advanced automation, has been assessed and their desired evolutionary capabilities have been defined. Plans and guidelines for achieving this necessary capability have been constructed. The approach taken has combined indepth interviews of test beds personnel at all SSF Work Package centers with awareness of relevant state-of-the-art technology and technology insertion methodologies. Key recommendations from the study include advocating a NASA-wide task force for advanced automation, and the creation of software prototype transition environments to facilitate the incorporation of advanced automation in the SSFP.
The behavioural final common path.
McFarland, D J; Sibly, R M
1975-05-15
In this paper it is argued that any model of the motivational (i.e. reversible) processes governing the behaviour of an animal can be represented by means of isoclines in a multidimensional 'causal-factor space'. The argument is axiomatic, based upon the two prime assumptions: that (1) it is always possible to classify the behavioural repertoire of a species in such a way that the classes are mutually exclusive in the sense that the members of different classes cannot occur simultaneously, and (2) these incompatible actions are uniquely determined by a particular set of causal factors. The isoclines join all points in the space which present a given 'degree of competitiveness' of a particular 'candidate' for overt behavioural expression. The competition between candidates is an inevitable consequence of the fact that animals cannot 'do more than one thing at a time', and is envisaged as taking place in the behavioural final common path. An empirical method of determining the motivational state (i.e. point in causal-factor space) is outlined. This is a 'relative' method, independent of the arbitrary calibration of the axes of the causal-factor space. It is shown that an arbitrary scale of measurement along any two axes of the causal-factor space is all that is necessary for empirical determination of the shape of a motivational isocline. Experiments in which this method has been applied to the measurement of hunger and thirst in doves are outlined, and the results are discussed in terms of their implications for motivation theory in general. PMID:239416
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feibel, C. S.
2004-12-01
A complex series of evolutionary steps, contingent upon a dynamic environmental context and a long biological heritage, have led to the ascent of Homo sapiens as a dominant component of the modern biosphere. In a field where missing links still abound and new discoveries regularly overturn theoretical paradigms, our understanding of the path of human evolution has made tremendous advances in recent years. Two major trends characterize the development of the hominin clade subsequent to its origins with the advent of upright bipedalism in the Late Miocene of Africa. One is a diversification into two prominent morphological branches, each with a series of 'twigs' representing evolutionary experimentation at the species or subspecies level. The second important trend, which in its earliest manifestations cannot clearly be ascribed to one or the other branch, is the behavioral complexity of an increasing reliance on technology to expand upon limited inherent morphological specializations and to buffer the organism from its environment. This technological dependence is directly associated with the expansion of hominin range outside Africa by the genus Homo, and is accelerated in the sole extant form Homo sapiens through the last 100 Ka. There are interesting correlates between the evolutionary and behavioral patterns seen in the hominin clade and environmental dynamics of the Neogene. In particular, the tempo of morphological and behavioral innovation may be tracking major events in Neogene climatic development as well as reflecting intervals of variability or stability. Major improvements in analytical techniques, coupled with important new collections and a growing body of contextual data are now making possible the integration of global, regional and local environmental archives with an improved biological understanding of the hominin clade to address questions of coincidence and causality.
Evaluation of an infrared open-path spectrometer using an exposure chamber and a calibration cell.
Todd, L; Ramachandran, G
1995-02-01
This study evaluated the use of a controlled exposure chamber and calibration cell to investigate the performance of open-path remote sensing instruments for workplace monitoring of pollutants. An open-path infrared spectrometer was deployed in a chamber, and a range of homogeneous air concentrations were generated using the tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Open-path measurements were compared with point-sample measurements taken along the beam and analyzed using an infrared (IR) and electron capture detector (ECD). A five-compartment calibration cell placed in the optical path was used to simulate heterogeneous concentrations of pollutants. Fifteen concentration patterns were created by injecting different volumes of SF6 into each compartment. Open-path spectrometer measurements were compared with compartment concentrations measured using an ECD. Results indicated that stable homogeneous and heterogeneous concentrations of SF6 were generated in the controlled exposure chamber and five-compartment calibration cell, respectively. Overall, individual open-path measurements were within 20% of point samples measured with the IR and ECDs. The open-path spectrometer measurements had a consistent positive bias of about 12%. Exposure chamber experiments uncovered remote sensing instrument design aspects that could adversely impact its use for indoor monitoring. The weight and size of the instrument make it useable only in a fixed position, thus limiting spatial coverage of the beam in a room. The instrument components were not air-tight, resulting in overestimation of some open-path concentrations. A controlled test chamber and a long calibration cell placed in the optical path are useful tools for evaluating a variety of open-path spectrometer instrument performance issues relevant to industrial hygiene monitoring. PMID:7856516
Methodology for Augmenting Existing Paths with Additional Parallel Transects
Wilson, John E.
2013-09-30
Visual Sample Plan (VSP) is sample planning software that is used, among other purposes, to plan transect sampling paths to detect areas that were potentially used for munition training. This module was developed for application on a large site where existing roads and trails were to be used as primary sampling paths. Gap areas between these primary paths needed to found and covered with parallel transect paths. These gap areas represent areas on the site that are more than a specified distance from a primary path. These added parallel paths needed to optionally be connected together into a single path—the shortest path possible. The paths also needed to optionally be attached to existing primary paths, again with the shortest possible path. Finally, the process must be repeatable and predictable so that the same inputs (primary paths, specified distance, and path options) will result in the same set of new paths every time. This methodology was developed to meet those specifications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wu
2015-08-01
We demonstrate the ab initio electrical transport calculation limited by electron-phonon coupling by using the full solution of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), which applies equally to metals and semiconductors. Numerical issues are emphasized in this work. We show that the simple linear interpolation of the electron-phonon coupling matrix elements from a relatively coarse grid to an extremely fine grid can ease the calculational burden, which makes the calculation feasible in practice. For the Brillouin zone (BZ) integration of the transition probabilities involving one δ function, the Gaussian smearing method with a physical choice of locally adaptive broadening parameters is employed. We validate the calculation in the cases of n -type Si and Al. The calculated conductivity and mobility are in good agreement with experiments. In the metal case we also demonstrate that the Gaussian smearing method with locally adaptive broadening parameters works excellently for the BZ integration with double δ functions involved in the Eliashberg spectral function and its transport variant. The simpler implementation is the advantage of the Gaussian smearing method over the tetrahedron method. The accuracy of the relaxation time approximation and the approximation made by Allen [Phys. Rev. B 17, 3725 (1978), 10.1103/PhysRevB.17.3725] has been examined by comparing with the exact solution of BTE. We also apply our method to n -type monolayer MoS2, for which a mobility of 150 cm2 v-1 s-1 is obtained at room temperature. Moreover, the mean free paths are less than 9 nm, indicating that in the presence of grain boundaries the mobilities should not be effectively affected if the grain boundary size is tens of nanometers or larger. The ab initio approach demonstrated in this paper can be directly applied to other materials without the need for any a priori knowledge about the electron-phonon scattering processes, and can be straightforwardly extended to study cases with
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marocchino, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.
2014-01-01
In some regions of a laser driven inertial fusion target, the electron mean-free path can become comparable to or even longer than the electron temperature gradient scale-length. This can be particularly important in shock-ignited (SI) targets, where the laser-spike heated corona reaches temperatures of several keV. In this case, thermal conduction cannot be described by a simple local conductivity model and a Fick's law. Fluid codes usually employ flux-limited conduction models, which preserve causality, but lose important features of the thermal flow. A more accurate thermal flow modeling requires convolution-like non-local operators. In order to improve the simulation of SI targets, the non-local electron transport operator proposed by Schurtz-Nicolaï-Busquet [G. P. Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] has been implemented in the DUED fluid code. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) simulations of SI targets have been performed. 1D simulations of the ablation phase highlight that while the shock profile and timing might be mocked up with a flux-limiter; the electron temperature profiles exhibit a relatively different behavior with no major effects on the final gain. The spike, instead, can only roughly be reproduced with a fixed flux-limiter value. 1D target gain is however unaffected, provided some minor tuning of laser pulses. 2D simulations show that the use of a non-local thermal conduction model does not affect the robustness to mispositioning of targets driven by quasi-uniform laser irradiation. 2D simulations performed with only two final polar intense spikes yield encouraging results and support further studies.
Marocchino, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A.
2014-01-15
In some regions of a laser driven inertial fusion target, the electron mean-free path can become comparable to or even longer than the electron temperature gradient scale-length. This can be particularly important in shock-ignited (SI) targets, where the laser-spike heated corona reaches temperatures of several keV. In this case, thermal conduction cannot be described by a simple local conductivity model and a Fick's law. Fluid codes usually employ flux-limited conduction models, which preserve causality, but lose important features of the thermal flow. A more accurate thermal flow modeling requires convolution-like non-local operators. In order to improve the simulation of SI targets, the non-local electron transport operator proposed by Schurtz-Nicolaï-Busquet [G. P. Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] has been implemented in the DUED fluid code. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) simulations of SI targets have been performed. 1D simulations of the ablation phase highlight that while the shock profile and timing might be mocked up with a flux-limiter; the electron temperature profiles exhibit a relatively different behavior with no major effects on the final gain. The spike, instead, can only roughly be reproduced with a fixed flux-limiter value. 1D target gain is however unaffected, provided some minor tuning of laser pulses. 2D simulations show that the use of a non-local thermal conduction model does not affect the robustness to mispositioning of targets driven by quasi-uniform laser irradiation. 2D simulations performed with only two final polar intense spikes yield encouraging results and support further studies.
Nonholonomic catheter path reconstruction using electromagnetic tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lugez, Elodie; Sadjadi, Hossein; Akl, Selim G.; Fichtinger, Gabor
2015-03-01
Catheter path reconstruction is a necessary step in many clinical procedures, such as cardiovascular interventions and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. To overcome limitations of standard imaging modalities, electromagnetic tracking has been employed to reconstruct catheter paths. However, tracking errors pose a challenge in accurate path reconstructions. We address this challenge by means of a filtering technique incorporating the electromagnetic measurements with the nonholonomic motion constraints of the sensor inside a catheter. The nonholonomic motion model of the sensor within the catheter and the electromagnetic measurement data were integrated using an extended Kalman filter. The performance of our proposed approach was experimentally evaluated using the Ascension's 3D Guidance trakStar electromagnetic tracker. Sensor measurements were recorded during insertions of an electromagnetic sensor (model 55) along ten predefined ground truth paths. Our method was implemented in MATLAB and applied to the measurement data. Our reconstruction results were compared to raw measurements as well as filtered measurements provided by the manufacturer. The mean of the root-mean-square (RMS) errors along the ten paths was 3.7 mm for the raw measurements, and 3.3 mm with manufacturer's filters. Our approach effectively reduced the mean RMS error to 2.7 mm. Compared to other filtering methods, our approach successfully improved the path reconstruction accuracy by exploiting the sensor's nonholonomic motion constraints in its formulation. Our approach seems promising for a variety of clinical procedures involving reconstruction of a catheter path.
Automated flight path planning for virtual endoscopy.
Paik, D S; Beaulieu, C F; Jeffrey, R B; Rubin, G D; Napel, S
1998-05-01
In this paper, a novel technique for rapid and automatic computation of flight paths for guiding virtual endoscopic exploration of three-dimensional medical images is described. While manually planning flight paths is a tedious and time consuming task, our algorithm is automated and fast. Our method for positioning the virtual camera is based on the medial axis transform but is much more computationally efficient. By iteratively correcting a path toward the medial axis, the necessity of evaluating simple point criteria during morphological thinning is eliminated. The virtual camera is also oriented in a stable viewing direction, avoiding sudden twists and turns. We tested our algorithm on volumetric data sets of eight colons, one aorta and one bronchial tree. The algorithm computed the flight paths in several minutes per volume on an inexpensive workstation with minimal computation time added for multiple paths through branching structures (10%-13% per extra path). The results of our algorithm are smooth, centralized paths that aid in the task of navigation in virtual endoscopic exploration of three-dimensional medical images. PMID:9608471
Robot path planning using a genetic algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cleghorn, Timothy F.; Baffes, Paul T.; Wang, Liu
1988-01-01
Robot path planning can refer either to a mobile vehicle such as a Mars Rover, or to an end effector on an arm moving through a cluttered workspace. In both instances there may exist many solutions, some of which are better than others, either in terms of distance traversed, energy expended, or joint angle or reach capabilities. A path planning program has been developed based upon a genetic algorithm. This program assumes global knowledge of the terrain or workspace, and provides a family of good paths between the initial and final points. Initially, a set of valid random paths are constructed. Successive generations of valid paths are obtained using one of several possible reproduction strategies similar to those found in biological communities. A fitness function is defined to describe the goodness of the path, in this case including length, slope, and obstacle avoidance considerations. It was found that with some reproduction strategies, the average value of the fitness function improved for successive generations, and that by saving the best paths of each generation, one could quite rapidly obtain a collection of good candidate solutions.
Vittitoe, C.N.
1993-08-01
A method is presented to unfold the two-dimensional vertical structure in electron density by using data on the total electron content for a series of paths through the ionosphere. The method uses a set of orthonormal basis functions to represent the vertical structure and takes advantage of curved paths and the eikonical equation to reduce the number of iterations required for a solution. Curved paths allow a more thorough probing of the ionosphere with a given set of transmitter and receiver positions. The approach can be directly extended to more complex geometries.
Mach flow angularity probes for scramjet engine flow path diagnostics
Jalbert, P.A.; Hiers, R.S. Jr.
1993-12-31
Mach-flow angularity (MFA) probes were developed for use in scramjet flow path probe rakes. Prototype probes were fabricated to demonstrate the assembly processes (numerical control machining, furnace brazing, and electron beam welding). Tests of prototype probes confirmed the thermal durability margins and life cycle. Selected probes were calibrated in air at Mach numbers from 1.75 to 6.0. Acceptance criteria for the production probes stressed thermal durability and pressure (and, consequently, Mach number) measurement quality. This new water-cooled MFA probe has 0.397-cm shaft diameter and is capable of withstanding heat fluxes of 2.724 kW/sq cm.
Steering Chiral Swimmers along Noisy Helical Paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Jülicher, Frank
2009-08-01
Chemotaxis along helical paths towards a target releasing a chemoattractant is found in sperm cells and many microorganisms. We discuss the stochastic differential geometry of the noisy helical swimming path of a chiral swimmer. A chiral swimmer equipped with a simple feedback system can navigate in a concentration gradient of chemoattractant. We derive an effective equation for the alignment of helical paths with a concentration gradient which is related to the alignment of a dipole in an external field and discuss the chemotaxis index.
The terminal area automated path generation problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsin, C.-C.
1977-01-01
The automated terminal area path generation problem in the advanced Air Traffic Control System (ATC), has been studied. Definitions, input, output and the interrelationships with other ATC functions have been discussed. Alternatives in modeling the problem have been identified. Problem formulations and solution techniques are presented. In particular, the solution of a minimum effort path stretching problem (path generation on a given schedule) has been carried out using the Newton-Raphson trajectory optimization method. Discussions are presented on the effect of different delivery time, aircraft entry position, initial guess on the boundary conditions, etc. Recommendations are made on real-world implementations.
Crack-path effect on material toughness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Asher A.
1990-01-01
The main features of a toughening mechanism associated with a curvilinear crack path are examined using a model consisting of a macrocrack in a brittle solid with a curvilinear segment at the crack tip. A numerical procedure for finite and semiinfinite cracks is formulated and evaluated using an example which has an exact solution (a finite crack in the form of a circular arc in a uniform stress field). It is shown that, for a relatively small amplitude of crack path oscillations, the toughening ratio can be taken equal to the ratio of the corresponding crack path lengths.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blair, Alan D.
A framework for the study of path integrals on adèlic spaces is developed, and it is shown that a family of path space measures on the localizations of an algebraic number field may, under certain conditions, be combined to form a global path space measure on its adèle ring. An operator on the field of p-adic numbers analogous to the harmonic oscillator operator is then analyzed, and used to construct an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type process on the adèle ring of the rationals.
Path planning strategies for autonomous ground vehicles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gifford, Kevin Kent
Several key issues involved with the planning and executing of optimally generated paths for autonomous vehicles are addressed. Two new path planning algorithms are developed, and examined, which effectively minimize replanning as unmapped hazards are encountered. The individual algorithms are compared via extensive simulation. The search strategy results are implemented and tested using the University of Colorado's autonomous vehicle test-bed, RoboCar, and results show the advantages of solving the single-destination all-paths problem for autonomous vehicle path planning. Both path planners implement a graph search methodology incorporating dynamic programming that solves the single-destination shortest-paths problem. Algorithm 1, termed DP for dynamic programming, searches a state space where each state represents a potential vehicle location in a breadth-first fashion expanding from the goal to all potential start locations in the state space. Algorithm 2, termed DP*, couples the heuristic search power of the well-known A* search procedure (Nilsson-80) with the dynamic programming principle applied to graph searching to efficiently make use of overlapping subproblems. DP* is the primary research contribution of the work contained within this thesis. The advantage of solving the single-destination shortest-paths problem is that the entire terrain map is solved in terms of reaching a specified goal. Therefore, if the robot is diverted from the pre-planned path, an alternative path is already computed. The search algorithms are extended to include a probabilistic approach using empirical loss functions to incorporate terrain map uncertainties into the path considering terrain planning process. The results show the importance of considering terrain uncertainty. If the map representation ignores uncertainty by marking any area with less than perfect confidence as unpassable or assigns it the worst case rating, then the paths are longer than intuitively necessary. A
Path integral approach to the quantum fidelity amplitude
2016-01-01
The Loschmidt echo is a measure of quantum irreversibility and is determined by the fidelity amplitude of an imperfect time-reversal protocol. Fidelity amplitude plays an important role both in the foundations of quantum mechanics and in its applications, such as time-resolved electronic spectroscopy. We derive an exact path integral formula for the fidelity amplitude and use it to obtain a series of increasingly accurate semiclassical approximations by truncating an exact expansion of the path integral exponent. While the zeroth-order expansion results in a remarkably simple, yet non-trivial approximation for the fidelity amplitude, the first-order expansion yields an alternative derivation of the so-called ‘dephasing representation,’ circumventing the use of a semiclassical propagator as in the original derivation. We also obtain an approximate expression for fidelity based on the second-order expansion, which resolves several shortcomings of the dephasing representation. The rigorous derivation from the path integral permits the identification of sufficient conditions under which various approximations obtained become exact. PMID:27140973
Excitation of nucleobases from a computational perspective I: reaction paths.
Giussani, Angelo; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Roca-Sanjuán, Daniel; Merchán, Manuela
2015-01-01
The main intrinsic photochemical events in nucleobases can be described on theoretical grounds within the realm of non-adiabatic computational photochemistry. From a static standpoint, the photochemical reaction path approach (PRPA), through the computation of the respective minimum energy path (MEP), can be regarded as the most suitable strategy in order to explore the electronically excited isolated nucleobases. Unfortunately, the PRPA does not appear widely in the studies reported in the last decade. The main ultrafast decay observed experimentally for the gas-phase excited nucleobases is related to the computed barrierless MEPs from the bright excited state connecting the initial Franck-Condon region and a conical intersection involving the ground state. At the highest level of theory currently available (CASPT2//CASPT2), the lowest excited (1)(ππ*) hypersurface for cytosine has a shallow minimum along the MEP deactivation pathway. In any case, the internal conversion processes in all the natural nucleobases are attained by means of interstate crossings, a self-protection mechanism that prevents the occurrence of photoinduced damage of nucleobases by ultraviolet radiation. Many alternative and secondary paths have been proposed in the literature, which ultimately provide a rich and constructive interplay between experimentally and theoretically oriented research. PMID:24264958
Path integral approach to the quantum fidelity amplitude.
Vaníček, Jiří; Cohen, Doron
2016-06-13
The Loschmidt echo is a measure of quantum irreversibility and is determined by the fidelity amplitude of an imperfect time-reversal protocol. Fidelity amplitude plays an important role both in the foundations of quantum mechanics and in its applications, such as time-resolved electronic spectroscopy. We derive an exact path integral formula for the fidelity amplitude and use it to obtain a series of increasingly accurate semiclassical approximations by truncating an exact expansion of the path integral exponent. While the zeroth-order expansion results in a remarkably simple, yet non-trivial approximation for the fidelity amplitude, the first-order expansion yields an alternative derivation of the so-called 'dephasing representation,' circumventing the use of a semiclassical propagator as in the original derivation. We also obtain an approximate expression for fidelity based on the second-order expansion, which resolves several shortcomings of the dephasing representation. The rigorous derivation from the path integral permits the identification of sufficient conditions under which various approximations obtained become exact. PMID:27140973
IRIS Optical Instrument and Light Paths
The optical portion of the instrument and the light paths from the primary and secondary mirror of the telescope assembly into the spectrograph. The spectrograph then breaks the light into 2 Near U...
Exploring Zika's Path Through the Placenta
... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159075.html Exploring Zika's Path Through the Placenta Researchers find the virus ... research seems to shed light on how the Zika virus infects, but doesn't kill, placenta cells. ...
Exploring Zika's Path Through the Placenta
... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159075.html Exploring Zika's Path Through the Placenta Researchers find the virus ... research seems to shed light on how the Zika virus infects, but doesn't kill, placenta cells. ...
Orbital Path of the International Space Station
Astronauts Don Pettit, Andre Kuipers and Dan Burbank explain the orbital path of the International Space Station. Earth video credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA's Johnson Space Cen...
Animation: Path of 2010 Solar Eclipse
On Sunday, 2010 July 11, a total eclipse of the Sun is visible from within a narrow corridor that traverses Earth's southern hemisphere. The path of the Moon's umbral shadow crosses the South Pacif...
Local-time representation of path integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jizba, Petr; Zatloukal, Václav
2015-12-01
We derive a local-time path-integral representation for a generic one-dimensional time-independent system. In particular, we show how to rephrase the matrix elements of the Bloch density matrix as a path integral over x -dependent local-time profiles. The latter quantify the time that the sample paths x (t ) in the Feynman path integral spend in the vicinity of an arbitrary point x . Generalization of the local-time representation that includes arbitrary functionals of the local time is also provided. We argue that the results obtained represent a powerful alternative to the traditional Feynman-Kac formula, particularly in the high- and low-temperature regimes. To illustrate this point, we apply our local-time representation to analyze the asymptotic behavior of the Bloch density matrix at low temperatures. Further salient issues, such as connections with the Sturm-Liouville theory and the Rayleigh-Ritz variational principle, are also discussed.
Identifying decohering paths in closed quantum systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albrecht, Andreas
1990-01-01
A specific proposal is discussed for how to identify decohering paths in a wavefunction of the universe. The emphasis is on determining the correlations among subsystems and then considering how these correlations evolve. The proposal is similar to earlier ideas of Schroedinger and of Zeh, but in other ways it is closer to the decoherence functional of Griffiths, Omnes, and Gell-Mann and Hartle. There are interesting differences with each of these which are discussed. Once a given coarse-graining is chosen, the candidate paths are fixed in this scheme, and a single well defined number measures the degree of decoherence for each path. The normal probability sum rules are exactly obeyed (instantaneously) by these paths regardless of the level of decoherence. Also briefly discussed is how one might quantify some other aspects of classicality. The important role that concrete calculations play in testing this and other proposals is stressed.
Nonclassical Paths in Quantum Interference Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawant, Rahul; Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Aninda; Sinha, Supurna; Sinha, Urbasi
2014-09-01
In a double slit interference experiment, the wave function at the screen with both slits open is not exactly equal to the sum of the wave functions with the slits individually open one at a time. The three scenarios represent three different boundary conditions and as such, the superposition principle should not be applicable. However, most well-known text books in quantum mechanics implicitly and/or explicitly use this assumption that is only approximately true. In our present study, we have used the Feynman path integral formalism to quantify contributions from nonclassical paths in quantum interference experiments that provide a measurable deviation from a naive application of the superposition principle. A direct experimental demonstration for the existence of these nonclassical paths is difficult to present. We find that contributions from such paths can be significant and we propose simple three-slit interference experiments to directly confirm their existence.
Riemann Curvature Tensor and Closed Geodesic Paths
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morganstern, Ralph E.
1977-01-01
Demonstrates erroneous results obtained if change in a vector under parallel transport about a closed path in Riemannian spacetime is made in a complete circuit rather than just half a circuit. (Author/SL)
Numerical evaluation of Feynman path integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baird, William Hugh
1999-11-01
The notion of path integration developed by Feynman, while an incredibly successful method of solving quantum mechanical problems, leads to frequently intractable integrations over an infinite number of paths. Two methods now exist which sidestep this difficulty by defining "densities" of actions which give the relative number of paths found at different values of the action. These densities are sampled by computer generation of paths and the propagators are found to a high degree of accuracy for the case of a particle on the infinite half line and in a finite square well in one dimension. The problem of propagation within a two dimensional radial well is also addressed as the precursor to the problem of a particle in a stadium (quantum billiard).
Create three distinct career paths for innovators.
O'Connor, Gina Colarelli; Corbett, Andrew; Pierantozzi, Ron
2009-12-01
Large companies say they Create Three Distinct want to be Career Paths for Innovators innovative, but they fundamentally mismanage their talent. Expecting innovators to grow along with their projects-from discovery to incubation to acceleration--sets them up to fail. Most people excel at one of the phases, not all three. By allowing innovation employees to develop career paths suited to their strengths, companies will create a sustainable innovation function. PMID:19968059
Practical correction procedures for elastic electron scattering effects in ARXPS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lassen, T. S.; Tougaard, S.; Jablonski, A.
2001-06-01
Angle-resolved XPS and AES (ARXPS and ARAES) are widely used for determination of the in-depth distribution of elements in the surface region of solids. It is well known that elastic electron scattering has a significant effect on the intensity as a function of emission angle and that this has a great influence on the determined overlayer thicknesses by this method. However the applied procedures for ARXPS and ARAES generally neglect this because no simple and practical procedure for correction has been available. However recently, new algorithms have been suggested. In this paper, we have studied the efficiency of these algorithms to correct for elastic scattering effects in the interpretation of ARXPS and ARAES. This is done by first calculating electron distributions by Monte Carlo simulations for well-defined overlayer/substrate systems and then to apply the different algorithms. We have found that an analytical formula based on a solution of the Boltzmann transport equation provides a good account for elastic scattering effects. However this procedure is computationally very slow and the underlying algorithm is complicated. Another much simpler algorithm, proposed by Nefedov and coworkers, was also tested. Three different ways of handling the scattering parameters within this model were tested and it was found that this algorithm also gives a good description for elastic scattering effects provided that it is slightly modified so that it takes into account the differences in the transport properties of the substrate and the overlayer. This procedure is fairly simple and is described in detail. The model gives a much more accurate description compared to the traditional straight-line approximation (SLA). However it is also found that when attenuation lengths instead of inelastic mean free paths are used in the simple SLA formalism, the effects of elastic scattering are also reasonably well accounted for. Specifically, from a systematic study of several
Path optimization with limited sensing ability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Sung Ha; Kim, Seong Jun; Zhou, Haomin
2015-10-01
We propose a computational strategy to find the optimal path for a mobile sensor with limited coverage to traverse a cluttered region. The goal is to find one of the shortest feasible paths to achieve the complete scan of the environment. We pose the problem in the level set framework, and first consider a related question of placing multiple stationary sensors to obtain the full surveillance of the environment. By connecting the stationary locations using the nearest neighbor strategy, we form the initial guess for the path planning problem of the mobile sensor. Then the path is optimized by reducing its length, via solving a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), while maintaining the complete scan of the environment. Furthermore, we use intermittent diffusion, which converts the ODEs into stochastic differential equations (SDEs), to find an optimal path whose length is globally minimal. To improve the computation efficiency, we introduce two techniques, one to remove redundant connecting points to reduce the dimension of the system, and the other to deal with the entangled path so the solution can escape the local traps. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Path optimization with limited sensing ability
Kang, Sung Ha Kim, Seong Jun Zhou, Haomin
2015-10-15
We propose a computational strategy to find the optimal path for a mobile sensor with limited coverage to traverse a cluttered region. The goal is to find one of the shortest feasible paths to achieve the complete scan of the environment. We pose the problem in the level set framework, and first consider a related question of placing multiple stationary sensors to obtain the full surveillance of the environment. By connecting the stationary locations using the nearest neighbor strategy, we form the initial guess for the path planning problem of the mobile sensor. Then the path is optimized by reducing its length, via solving a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), while maintaining the complete scan of the environment. Furthermore, we use intermittent diffusion, which converts the ODEs into stochastic differential equations (SDEs), to find an optimal path whose length is globally minimal. To improve the computation efficiency, we introduce two techniques, one to remove redundant connecting points to reduce the dimension of the system, and the other to deal with the entangled path so the solution can escape the local traps. Numerical examples are shown to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Multi-Level Indoor Path Planning Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Q.; Zhu, Q.; Zlatanova, S.; Du, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zeng, L.
2015-05-01
Indoor navigation is increasingly widespread in complex indoor environments, and indoor path planning is the most important part of indoor navigation. Path planning generally refers to finding the most suitable path connecting two locations, while avoiding collision with obstacles. However, it is a fundamental problem, especially for 3D complex building model. A common way to solve the issue in some applications has been approached in a number of relevant literature, which primarily operates on 2D drawings or building layouts, possibly with few attached attributes for obstacles. Although several digital building models in the format of 3D CAD have been used for path planning, they usually contain only geometric information while losing abundant semantic information of building components (e.g. types and attributes of building components and their simple relationships). Therefore, it becomes important to develop a reliable method that can enhance application of path planning by combining both geometric and semantic information of building components. This paper introduces a method that support 3D indoor path planning with semantic information.
Equivalence of trans paths in ion channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarez, Juan; Hajek, Bruce
2006-04-01
We explore stochastic models for the study of ion transport in biological cells. Analysis of these models explains and explores an interesting feature of ion transport observed by biophysicists. Namely, the average time it takes ions to cross certain ion channels is the same in either direction, even if there is an electric potential difference across the channels. It is shown for simple single ion models that the distribution of a path (i.e., the history of location versus time) of an ion crossing the channel in one direction has the same distribution as the time-reversed path of an ion crossing the channel in the reverse direction. Therefore, not only is the mean duration of these paths equal, but other measures, such as the variance of passage time or the mean time a path spends within a specified section of the channel, are also the same for both directions of traversal. The feature is also explored for channels with interacting ions. If a system of interacting ions is in reversible equilibrium (net flux is zero), then the equivalence of the left-to-right trans paths with the time-reversed right-to-left trans paths still holds. However, if the system is in equilibrium, but not reversible equilibrium, then such equivalence need not hold.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agueda, N.; Lario, D.; Dalla, S.; Sanahuja, B.; Vainio, R. O.
2012-12-01
We present a sample of three large near-relativistic (NR; >50 keV) electron events observed in 2001 by both the ACE and the Ulysses spacecraft, when Ulysses was at high-northern latitudes and close to 2 AU. All three events are associated with large solar flares, strong decametric type II radio bursts and accompanied by wide (> 212 deg) and fast (> 1400 km/s) coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We use advanced interplanetary transport simulations and make use of the directional intensities observed in-situ by the spacecraft, to infer the electron injection profiles close to the Sun and the interplanetary transport conditions. For the three selected events, we find similar interplanetary transport conditions at low and at high latitudes, with values of the mean free path ranging from 0.05 AU to 0.27 AU. Despite the similar solar origin signatures, we find differences in the injection profiles inferred for each spacecraft. The injection timescales seem to be ordered by the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) sector boundaries; that is, extended injection profiles (associated with coronal shocks) are found if the footpoint of the spacecraft laid in the flare magnetic sector, while intermittent spare injection episodes appear when the spacecraft footpoint is in the opposite sector or a wrap in the HCS bounded the CME structure. Our results suggest that the large-scale coronal magnetic field might play a role in the expansion of coronal shocks and support an scenario in which reconnection processes during restructuring of coronal magnetic fields contribute to solar energetic particle release.
Automatic alignment of double optical paths in excimer laser amplifier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dahui; Zhao, Xueqing; Hua, Hengqi; Zhang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yun; Yi, Aiping; Zhao, Jun
2013-05-01
A kind of beam automatic alignment method used for double paths amplification in the electron pumped excimer laser system is demonstrated. In this way, the beams from the amplifiers can be transferred along the designated direction and accordingly irradiate on the target with high stabilization and accuracy. However, owing to nonexistence of natural alignment references in excimer laser amplifiers, two cross-hairs structure is used to align the beams. Here, one crosshair put into the input beam is regarded as the near-field reference while the other put into output beam is regarded as the far-field reference. The two cross-hairs are transmitted onto Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) by image-relaying structures separately. The errors between intersection points of two cross-talk images and centroid coordinates of actual beam are recorded automatically and sent to closed loop feedback control mechanism. Negative feedback keeps running until preset accuracy is reached. On the basis of above-mentioned design, the alignment optical path is built and the software is compiled, whereafter the experiment of double paths automatic alignment in electron pumped excimer laser amplifier is carried through. Meanwhile, the related influencing factors and the alignment precision are analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the alignment system can achieve the aiming direction of automatic aligning beams in short time. The analysis shows that the accuracy of alignment system is 0.63μrad and the beam maximum restoration error is 13.75μm. Furthermore, the bigger distance between the two cross-hairs, the higher precision of the system is. Therefore, the automatic alignment system has been used in angular multiplexing excimer Main Oscillation Power Amplification (MOPA) system and can satisfy the requirement of beam alignment precision on the whole.
Infiltration Flow Path Distributions in Unsaturated Rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tokunaga, T. K.; Olson, K. R.; Wan, J.
2004-12-01
Spatial distributions of infiltration flow paths through rock formations are complex networks that determine flow velocities, control rates of natural geochemical reactions in the subsurface, as well as rates of contaminant transport to underlying groundwater. Despite these important consequences, distributions of infiltration paths and locally fast seepage rates through rocks are not well understood. Laboratory-based studies on fractured rocks cannot easily be conducted on systems large enough to include sufficient fracture network complexity, so that inferences of field-scale flux distributions cannot be reliably made. Field-based studies to date have permitted quantification of only a small fraction of the flow distribution, typically while imposing extremely high fluxes, and therefore have not allowed comprehensive delineation of flow distributions expected under natural recharge. Based on hydraulic scaling considerations, we hypothesize that unsaturated flow path distributions in rock deposits will be similar to those occurring in fractured rock formations under low overall infiltration rates. Talus rock deposits and mine waste rock piles control flow and transport into their respective underlying groundwaters. All of these reasons motivated infiltration experiments in rock packs. Experiments have been conducted on 4 different rock types and system scales ranging from 1 to 46 rock layers. Our experiments showed that infiltration through rocks conforms to no previously reported behavior in soils, and that flow paths do not progressively converge into fewer and fewer flow paths. Instead, a fundamentally different hydraulic structure develops, having an exponential (geometric) flux distribution, with the characteristic scale determined by the characteristic rock size. Although the phenomena are very different, the evolution of flow path distributions and local seepage rate distributions is predictable based on a statistical mechanical model for energy
Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Inaniwa, Taku; Koba, Yusuke
2012-02-15
Purpose: In treatment planning of charged-particle radiotherapy, patient heterogeneity is conventionally modeled as variable-density water converted from CT images to best reproduce the stopping power, which may lead to inaccuracies in the handling of multiple scattering and nuclear interactions. Although similar conversions can be defined for these individual interactions, they would be valid only for specific CT systems and would require additional tasks for clinical application. This study aims to improve the practicality of the interaction-specific heterogeneity correction. Methods: The authors calculated the electron densities and effective densities for stopping power, multiple scattering, and nuclear interactions of protons and ions, using the standard elemental-composition data for body tissues to construct the invariant conversion functions. The authors also simulated a proton beam in a lung-like geometry and a carbon-ion beam in a prostate-like geometry to demonstrate the procedure and the effects of the interaction-specific heterogeneity correction. Results: Strong correlations were observed between the electron density and the respective effective densities, with which the authors formulated polyline conversion functions. Their effects amounted to 10% differences in multiple-scattering angle and nuclear interaction mean free path for bones compared to those in the conventional heterogeneity correction. Although their realistic effect on patient dose distributions would be generally small, it could be at the level of a few percent when a carbon-ion beam traverses a large bone. Conclusions: The present conversion functions are invariant and may be incorporated in treatment planning systems with a common function relating CT number to electron density. This will enable improved beam dose calculation while minimizing initial setup and quality management of the user's specific system.
Nanoscale heat transport via electrons and phonons by molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Keng-Hua
Nanoscale heat transport has become a crucial research topic due to the growing importance of nanotechnology for manufacturing, energy conversion, medicine and electronics. Thermal transport properties at the nanoscale are distinct from the macroscopic ones since the sizes of nanoscale features, such as free surfaces and interfaces, are comparable to the wavelengths and mean free paths of the heat carriers (electrons and phonons), and lead to changes in thermal transport properties. Therefore, understanding how the nanoscale features and energy exchange between the heat carriers affect thermal transport characteristics are the goals of this research. Molecular dynamics (MD) is applied in this research to understand the details of nanoscale heat transport. The advantage of MD is that the size effect, anharmonicity, atomistic structure, and non-equilibrium behavior of the system can all be captured since the dynamics of atoms are described explicitly in MD. However, MD neglects the thermal role of electrons and therefore it is unable to describe heat transport in metal or metal-semiconductor systems accurately. To address this limitation of MD, we develop a method to simulate electronic heat transport by implementing electronic degrees of freedom to MD. In this research, nanoscale heat transport in semiconductor, metal, and metal-semiconductor systems is studied. Size effects on phonon thermal transport in SiGe superlattice thin films and nanowires are studied by MD. We find that, opposite to the macroscopic trend, superlattice thin films can achieve lower thermal conductivity than nanowires at small scales due to the change of phonon nature caused by adjusting the superlattice periodic length and specimen length. Effects of size and electron-phonon coupling rate on thermal conductivity and thermal interface resistivity in Al and model metal-semiconductor systems are studied by MD with electronic degrees of freedom. The results show that increasing the specimen
Minimal entropy probability paths between genome families.
Ahlbrandt, Calvin; Benson, Gary; Casey, William
2004-05-01
We develop a metric for probability distributions with applications to biological sequence analysis. Our distance metric is obtained by minimizing a functional defined on the class of paths over probability measures on N categories. The underlying mathematical theory is connected to a constrained problem in the calculus of variations. The solution presented is a numerical solution, which approximates the true solution in a set of cases called rich paths where none of the components of the path is zero. The functional to be minimized is motivated by entropy considerations, reflecting the idea that nature might efficiently carry out mutations of genome sequences in such a way that the increase in entropy involved in transformation is as small as possible. We characterize sequences by frequency profiles or probability vectors, in the case of DNA where N is 4 and the components of the probability vector are the frequency of occurrence of each of the bases A, C, G and T. Given two probability vectors a and b, we define a distance function based as the infimum of path integrals of the entropy function H( p) over all admissible paths p(t), 0 < or = t< or =1, with p(t) a probability vector such that p(0)=a and p(1)=b. If the probability paths p(t) are parameterized as y(s) in terms of arc length s and the optimal path is smooth with arc length L, then smooth and "rich" optimal probability paths may be numerically estimated by a hybrid method of iterating Newton's method on solutions of a two point boundary value problem, with unknown distance L between the abscissas, for the Euler-Lagrange equations resulting from a multiplier rule for the constrained optimization problem together with linear regression to improve the arc length estimate L. Matlab code for these numerical methods is provided which works only for "rich" optimal probability vectors. These methods motivate a definition of an elementary distance function which is easier and faster to calculate, works on non
DNA computing the Hamiltonian path problem.
Lee, C M; Kim, S W; Kim, S M; Sohn, U
1999-10-31
The directed Hamiltonian path (DHP) problem is one of the hard computational problems for which there is no practical algorithm on a conventional computer available. Many problems, including the traveling sales person problem and the longest path problem, can be translated into the DHP problem, which implies that an algorithm for DHP can also solve all the translated problems. To study the robustness of the laboratory protocol of the pioneering DNA computing for the DHP problem performed by Leonard Adleman (1994), we investigated how the graph size, multiplicity of the Hamiltonian paths, and the size of oligonucleotides that encode the vertices would affect the laboratory procedures. We applied Adleman's protocol with 18-mer oligonucleotide per node to a graph with 8 vertices and 14 edges containing two Hamiltonian paths (Adleman used 20-mer oligonucleotides for a graph with 7 nodes, 14 edges and one Hamiltonian path). We found that depending on the graph characteristics such as the number of short cycles, the oligonucleotide size, and the hybridization conditions that used to encode the graph, the protocol should be executed with different parameters from Adleman's. PMID:10597033
Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path
Babaeian, Amir; Bayestehtashk, Alireza; Bandarabadi, Mojtaba
2015-01-01
The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering. PMID:26375819
Unbiased sampling of lattice Hamilton path ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mansfield, Marc L.
2006-10-01
Hamilton paths, or Hamiltonian paths, are walks on a lattice which visit each site exactly once. They have been proposed as models of globular proteins and of compact polymers. A previously published algorithm [Mansfield, Macromolecules 27, 5924 (1994)] for sampling Hamilton paths on simple square and simple cubic lattices is tested for bias and for efficiency. Because the algorithm is a Metropolis Monte Carlo technique obviously satisfying detailed balance, we need only demonstrate ergodicity to ensure unbiased sampling. Two different tests for ergodicity (exact enumeration on small lattices, nonexhaustive enumeration on larger lattices) demonstrate ergodicity unequivocally for small lattices and provide strong support for ergodicity on larger lattices. Two other sampling algorithms [Ramakrishnan et al., J. Chem. Phys. 103, 7592 (1995); Lua et al., Polymer 45, 717 (2004)] are both known to produce biases on both 2×2×2 and 3×3×3 lattices, but it is shown here that the current algorithm gives unbiased sampling on these same lattices. Successive Hamilton paths are strongly correlated, so that many iterations are required between statistically independent samples. Rules for estimating the number of iterations needed to dissipate these correlations are given. However, the iteration time is so fast that the efficiency is still very good except on extremely large lattices. For example, even on lattices of total size 10×10×10 we are able to generate tens of thousands of uncorrelated Hamilton paths per hour of CPU time.
Path analysis in genetic epidemiology: a critique.
Karlin, S; Cameron, E C; Chakraborty, R
1983-01-01
Path analysis, a form of general linear structural equation models, is used in studies of human genetics data to discern genetic, environmental, and cultural factors contributing to familial resemblance. It postulates a set of linear and additive parametric relationships between phenotypes and genetic and cultural variables and then essentially uses the assumption of multivariate normality to estimate and perform tests of hypothesis on parameters. Such an approach has been advocated for the analysis of genetic epidemiological data by D. C. Rao, N. Morton, C. R. Cloninger, L. J. Eaves, and W. E. Nance, among others. This paper reviews and evaluates the formulations, assumptions, methodological procedures, interpretations, and applications of path analysis. To give perspective, we begin with a discussion of path analysis as it occurs in the form of general linear causal models in several disciplines of the social sciences. Several specific path analysis models applied to lipoprotein concentrations, IQ, and twin data are then reviewed to keep the presentation self-contained. The bulk of the critical discussion that follows is directed toward the following four facets of path analysis: (1) coherence of model specification and applicability to data; (2) plausibility of modeling assumptions; (3) interpretability and utility of the model; and (4) validity of statistical and computational procedures. In the concluding section, a brief discussion of the problem of appropriate model selection is presented, followed by a number of suggestions of essentially model-free alternative methods of use in the treatment of complex structured data such as occurs in genetic epidemiology. PMID:6349335
Studies of the interactions of ionizing radiations with communications materials
Ashley, J.C.; Williams, M.W.
1982-01-01
Various models were developed for calculating the energy loss per unit length, or stopping power, and the inelastic mean free path for electrons in a material. We have included both organic materials such as polyethylene and inorganic materials such as SiO/sub 2/. In each case, the calculated values of stopping power and mean free path have been compared with experimental values where available and, in the case of mean free paths for organic materials, with those predicted from our universal formula. In addition the various models for stopping power and mean free path have been compared with each other. Measurements have been made of electron attenuation lengths (approx. = electron mean free paths) as a function of incident electron energy for electrons in amorphous carbon films, as a direct check on the values predicted by our universal formula for electron mean free paths in solid organic insulators. A theory has been developed to describe charged-particle track structure in nonmetallic solids, as the track evolves in time and space. Work has continued in the field of microdosimetry with the calculation of the energy densities deposited by high-energy photons as a function of depth in traversing a SiO/sub 2/ slab sandwiched between two slabs of Si.
Quantum state of wormholes and path integral
Garay, L.J. )
1991-08-15
The quantum state of a wormhole can be represented by a path integral over all asymptotically Euclidean four-geometries and all matter fields which have prescribed values, the arguments of the wave function, on a three-surface {ital S} which divides the spacetime manifold into two disconnected parts. The ground-state wave function is picked out by requiring that there be no matter excitations in the asymptotic region. Once the path integrals over the lapse and shift functions are evaluated, the requirement that the spacetime be asymptotically Euclidean can be accomplished by fixing the asymptotic gravitational momentum in the remaining path integral. It is claimed that no wave function exists which corresponds to asymptotic field configurations such that the effective gravitational constant is negative in the asymptotic region. The wormhole wave functions are worked out in minisuperspace models with massless minimal and conformal scalar fields.
A taxonomy of integral reaction path analysis
Grcar, Joseph F.; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.
2004-12-23
W. C. Gardiner observed that achieving understanding through combustion modeling is limited by the ability to recognize the implications of what has been computed and to draw conclusions about the elementary steps underlying the reaction mechanism. This difficulty can be overcome in part by making better use of reaction path analysis in the context of multidimensional flame simulations. Following a survey of current practice, an integral reaction flux is formulated in terms of conserved scalars that can be calculated in a fully automated way. Conditional analyses are then introduced, and a taxonomy for bidirectional path analysis is explored. Many examples illustrate the resulting path analysis and uncover some new results about nonpremixed methane-air laminar jets.
Fermionic path integrals and local anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roepstorff, G.
2003-05-01
No doubt, the subject of path integrals proved to be an immensely fruitful human, i.e. Feynman's idea. No wonder it is more timely than ever. Some even claim that it is the most daring, innovative and revolutionary idea since the days of Heisenberg and Bohr. It is thus likely to generate enthusiasm, if not addiction among physicists who seek simplicity together with perfection. Professor Devreese's long-lasting interest in, if not passion on the subject stems from his firm conviction that, beyond being the tool of choice, path integration provides the key to all quantum phenomena, be it in solid state, atomic, molecular or particle physics as evidenced by the impressive list of publications at the address http://lib.ua.ac.be/AB/a867.html. In this note, I review a pitfall of fermionic path integrals and a way to get around it in situations relevant to the Standard Model of particle physics.
Paths to Licensure: Things Physicists Should Know
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, Gay; Stewart, John
2016-03-01
The path to licensure can be quite complicated, and can thwart a physics department's efforts to produce more and better prepared high school physics teachers. Each state has different pathways to licensure. Acronyms like CAEP and SPA are not within the normal physicist's vocabulary. Some understanding of this topic can allow physics faculty advisers to help our students so that fewer are derailed on their path to the classroom, or take a path that will leave them less well prepared if they do find themselves there. Examples of different approaches that work within state licensure systems from two different states will be presented. Physics teacher preparation efforts in both Arkansas and West Virginia have been supported in part by the Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC).
Self-calibrating common-path interferometry.
Porras-Aguilar, Rosario; Falaggis, Konstantinos; Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio C; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben
2015-02-01
A quantitative phase measuring technique is presented that estimates the object phase from a series of phase shifted interferograms that are obtained in a common-path configuration with unknown phase shifts. The derived random phase shifting algorithm for common-path interferometers is based on the Generalized Phase Contrast theory [pl. Opt.40(2), 268 (2001)10.1063/1.1404846], which accounts for the particular image formation and includes effects that are not present in two-beam interferometry. It is shown experimentally that this technique can be used within common-path configurations employing nonlinear liquid crystal materials as self-induced phase filters for quantitative phase imaging without the need of phase shift calibrations. The advantages of such liquid crystal elements compared to spatial light modulator based solutions are given by the cost-effectiveness, self-alignment, and the generation of diminutive dimensions of the phase filter size, giving unique performance advantages. PMID:25836191
14 CFR 171.267 - Glide path automatic monitor system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Glide path automatic monitor system. 171... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.267 Glide path automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS glide path equipment... control points when any of the following occurs: (1) A shift of the mean ISMLS glide path angle...
14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61... flight path. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff flight path must be determined as follows: (a) The takeoff flight path begins 35 feet above the takeoff surface at the end of the...
14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61... flight path. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff flight path must be determined as follows: (a) The takeoff flight path begins 35 feet above the takeoff surface at the end of the...
14 CFR 171.267 - Glide path automatic monitor system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glide path automatic monitor system. 171... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.267 Glide path automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS glide path equipment... control points when any of the following occurs: (1) A shift of the mean ISMLS glide path angle...
14 CFR 171.267 - Glide path automatic monitor system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glide path automatic monitor system. 171... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.267 Glide path automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS glide path equipment... control points when any of the following occurs: (1) A shift of the mean ISMLS glide path angle...
14 CFR 171.267 - Glide path automatic monitor system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Glide path automatic monitor system. 171... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.267 Glide path automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS glide path equipment... control points when any of the following occurs: (1) A shift of the mean ISMLS glide path angle...
14 CFR 23.61 - Takeoff flight path.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Takeoff flight path. 23.61 Section 23.61... flight path. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75753, December 2, 2011. For each commuter category airplane, the takeoff flight path must be determined as follows: (a) The takeoff flight path begins 35...
14 CFR 171.267 - Glide path automatic monitor system.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glide path automatic monitor system. 171... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.267 Glide path automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS glide path equipment... control points when any of the following occurs: (1) A shift of the mean ISMLS glide path angle...
An Adaptive Path Planning Algorithm for Cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles
Cunningham, C.T.; Roberts, R.S.
2000-09-12
An adaptive path planning algorithm is presented for cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) that are used to deploy and operate land-based sensor networks. The algorithm employs a global cost function to generate paths for the UAVs, and adapts the paths to exceptions that might occur. Examples are provided of the paths and adaptation.
Adaptive path planning algorithm for cooperating unmanned air vehicles
Cunningham, C T; Roberts, R S
2001-02-08
An adaptive path planning algorithm is presented for cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) that are used to deploy and operate land-based sensor networks. The algorithm employs a global cost function to generate paths for the UAVs, and adapts the paths to exceptions that might occur. Examples are provided of the paths and adaptation.
Path Analysis: A Link between Family Theory and Reseach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rank, Mark R.; Sabatelli, Ronald M.
This paper discusses path analysis and the applicability of this methodology to the field of family studies. The statistical assumptions made in path analysis are presented along with a description of the two types of models within path analysis, i.e., recursive and non-recursive. Methods of calculating in the path model and the advantages of…
Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.
Elsner, James B; Jagger, Thomas H; Elsner, Ian J
2014-01-01
The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1) for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width. PMID:25229242
Tornado Intensity Estimated from Damage Path Dimensions
Elsner, James B.; Jagger, Thomas H.; Elsner, Ian J.
2014-01-01
The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s−1 for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width. PMID:25229242
Which coordinate system for modelling path integration?
Vickerstaff, Robert J; Cheung, Allen
2010-03-21
Path integration is a navigation strategy widely observed in nature where an animal maintains a running estimate, called the home vector, of its location during an excursion. Evidence suggests it is both ancient and ubiquitous in nature, and has been studied for over a century. In that time, canonical and neural network models have flourished, based on a wide range of assumptions, justifications and supporting data. Despite the importance of the phenomenon, consensus and unifying principles appear lacking. A fundamental issue is the neural representation of space needed for biological path integration. This paper presents a scheme to classify path integration systems on the basis of the way the home vector records and updates the spatial relationship between the animal and its home location. Four extended classes of coordinate systems are used to unify and review both canonical and neural network models of path integration, from the arthropod and mammalian literature. This scheme demonstrates analytical equivalence between models which may otherwise appear unrelated, and distinguishes between models which may superficially appear similar. A thorough analysis is carried out of the equational forms of important facets of path integration including updating, steering, searching and systematic errors, using each of the four coordinate systems. The type of available directional cue, namely allothetic or idiothetic, is also considered. It is shown that on balance, the class of home vectors which includes the geocentric Cartesian coordinate system, appears to be the most robust for biological systems. A key conclusion is that deducing computational structure from behavioural data alone will be difficult or impossible, at least in the absence of an analysis of random errors. Consequently it is likely that further theoretical insights into path integration will require an in-depth study of the effect of noise on the four classes of home vectors. PMID:19962387
Path planning for everday robotics with SANDROS
Watterberg, P.; Xavier, P.; Hwang, Y.
1997-02-01
We discuss the integration of the SANDROS path planner into a general robot simulation and control package with the inclusion of a fast geometry engine for distance calculations. This creates a single system that allows the path to be computed, simulated, and then executed on the physical robot. The architecture and usage procedures are presented. Also, we present examples of its usage in typical environments found in our organization. The resulting system is as easy to use as the general simulation system (which is in common use here) and is fast enough (example problems are solved in seconds) to be used interactively on an everyday basis.
Optical tomography with discretized path integral.
Yuan, Bingzhi; Tamaki, Toru; Kushida, Takahiro; Mukaigawa, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Hiroyuki; Raytchev, Bisser; Kaneda, Kazufumi
2015-07-01
We present a framework for optical tomography based on a path integral. Instead of directly solving the radiative transport equations, which have been widely used in optical tomography, we use a path integral that has been developed for rendering participating media based on the volume rendering equation in computer graphics. For a discretized two-dimensional layered grid, we develop an algorithm to estimate the extinction coefficients of each voxel with an interior point method. Numerical simulation results are shown to demonstrate that the proposed method works well. PMID:26839903
Mars PathFinder Rover Traverse Image
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1998-01-01
This figure contains an azimuth-elevation projection of the 'Gallery Panorama.' The original Simple Cylindrical mosaic has been reprojected to the inside of a sphere so that lines of constant azimuth radiate from the center and lines of constant elevation are concentric circles. This projection preserves the resolution of the original panorama. Overlaid onto the projected Martian surface is a delineation of the Sojourner rover traverse path during the 83 Sols (Martian days) of Pathfinder surface operations. The rover path was reproduced using IMP camera 'end of day' and 'Rover movie' image sequences and rover vehicle telemetry data as references.
Practical path planning among movable obstacles
Chen, Pang C.; Hwang, Yong K.
1990-09-05
Path planning among movable obstacles is a practical problem that is in need of a solution. In this paper an efficient heuristic algorithm that uses a generate-and-test paradigm: a good'' candidate path is hypothesized by a global planner and subsequently verified by a local planner. In the process of formalizing the problem, we also present a technique for modeling object interactions through contact. Our algorithm has been tested on a variety of examples, and was able to generate solutions within 10 seconds. 5 figs., 27 refs.
Gas Path Sealing in Turbine Engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ludwig, L. P.
1978-01-01
A survey of gas path seals is presented with particular attention given to sealing clearance effects on engine component efficiency. The effects on compressor pressure ratio and stall margin are pointed out. Various case-rotor relative displacements, which affect gas path seal clearances, are identified. Forces produced by nonuniform sealing clearances and their effect on rotor stability are discussed qualitatively, and recent work on turbine-blade-tip sealing for high temperature is described. The need for active clearance control and for engine structural analysis is discussed. The functions of the internal-flow system and its seals are reviewed.
A Comparison of Two Path Planners for Planetary Rovers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tarokh, M.; Shiller, Z.; Hayati, S.
1999-01-01
The paper presents two path planners suitable for planetary rovers. The first is based on fuzzy description of the terrain, and genetic algorithm to find a traversable path in a rugged terrain. The second planner uses a global optimization method with a cost function that is the path distance divided by the velocity limit obtained from the consideration of the rover static and dynamic stability. A description of both methods is provided, and the results of paths produced are given which show the effectiveness of the path planners in finding near optimal paths. The features of the methods and their suitability and application for rover path planning are compared
Bonded Paths and van der Waals Interactions in Orpiment, As2S3
Gibbs, Gerald V.; Wallace, Adam F.; Zallen, Richard; Downs, R. T.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.
2010-06-17
Bond critical properties and bond paths have been calculated for the thioarsenide molecular crystal orpiment, As2S3. In addition to the intramolecular As-S bond paths and van der Waals As-S and S-S bond paths within the layers, intermolecular S-S, As-S and As-As van der Waals paths exist between the layers. The S-S bond paths between the layers are identified with the main interlayer restoring forces responsible for the vibrational internal-mode splitting and the low frequency rigid layer modes previously documented in infrared and Raman studies of orpiment. These S-S bond paths are comparable with those calculated for orthorhombic native sulfur and the As4Sn (n = 3,4,5) molecules for several arsenide molecular crystals. The As-S bond paths show that the two nonequivalent arsenic atoms are each coordinated by a highly distorted octahedral array of sulfur atoms. The octahedra consist of three As-S intramolecular bonded interactions and three longer van der Waals interactions (two intramolecular and one intermolecular). One of the arsenic atoms is also coordinated by an arsenic atom in an interlayer As-As bonded interaction. Laplacian isosurface envelopes calculated for the arsenic and sulfur atoms are comparable with those calculated for native arsenic and orthorhombic sulfur. The intermolecular As-S bond paths connect Lewis acid domains on arsenic and an Lewis base domains on sulfur. Van der Waals interactions are traditionally defined as attractive interactions other than those ascribed to bond formation. However, theoretical evidence and arguments, as well as the connection between the bond paths and the vibrational spectra, indicate that the van der Waals interactions in orpiment are directed bonded interactions in the Slater sense. The experimental bond lengths for the As-S and S-S bonded interactions decrease nonlinearly with the increasing value of the electron density at the bond critical point, concomitant with a decrease in the bonded radii of arsenic and
Modular electronics packaging system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunter, Don J. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A modular electronics packaging system includes multiple packaging slices that are mounted horizontally to a base structure. The slices interlock to provide added structural support. Each packaging slice includes a rigid and thermally conductive housing having four side walls that together form a cavity to house an electronic circuit. The chamber is enclosed on one end by an end wall, or web, that isolates the electronic circuit from a circuit in an adjacent packaging slice. The web also provides a thermal path between the electronic circuit and the base structure. Each slice also includes a mounting bracket that connects the packaging slice to the base structure. Four guide pins protrude from the slice into four corresponding receptacles in an adjacent slice. A locking element, such as a set screw, protrudes into each receptacle and interlocks with the corresponding guide pin. A conduit is formed in the slice to allow electrical connection to the electronic circuit.
Finding the optimal-path maps for path planning across weighted regions
Rowe, N.C.; Alexander, R.S.
2000-02-01
Optimal-path maps tell robots or people the best way to reach a goal point from anywhere in a known terrain area, eliminating most of the need to plan during travel. The authors address the construction of optimal-path maps for two-dimensional polygonal weighted-region terrain, terrain partitioned into polygonal areas such that the cost per unit of distance traveled is homogeneous and isotropic within each area. This is useful for overland route planning across varied ground surfaces and vegetation. The authors propose a new algorithm that recursively partitions terrain into regions of similar optimal-path behavior, and defines corresponding path subspaces for these regions. This process constructs a piecewise-smooth function of terrain position whose gradient direction is everywhere the optimal-path direction, permitting quick path finding. The algorithm used is more complicated than the current path-caching and wavefront-propagation algorithms, but it gives more accurate maps requiring less space to represent. Experiments with an implementation confirm the practicality of the authors' algorithm.
Wai-Yeung Yip; Inan, U.S. ); Orville, R.E. )
1991-01-01
A study has been made of the spatial relationship between propagation paths of subionospheric VLF/LF signals exhibiting sudden amplitude perturbations (Trimpi events) and time correlated cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. On each of the 4 days examined the storm centers were located close to the signal path from the NAU transmitter (28.5-kHz) in Puerto Rico to Stanford (SU) and were at large distances from the propagation path of the 48.5-kHz transmitter signal from Nebraska to SU. Nevertheless, no Trimpi events were observed on the former path, while many were seen on the latter. Furthermore, the detected Trimpi perturbations of the 48.5-kHz signal received at Stanford were found to be associated with the lightning activity in the distant storm centers. Since the NAU-SU path lies entirely at L < 2 and the 48.5-SU path is located mostly at 2< L <3, the L dependent magnetospheric conditions which determine the level of lightning-induced electron precipitation are different along the two paths. Thus, the authors postulate that the observed difference in Trimpi occurence on the two paths was due to the different magnetospheric conditions. Hence the occurence of Trimpi events over the geographical region corresponding to L <3 may be more dominantly controlled by magnetospheric conditions than the source lightning distribution.