Sample records for electron transfer catalyst

  1. An efficient and reusable silica/dendrimer supported platinum catalyst for electron transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongfang; Lü, Jian; Zheng, Zhaoliang; Cao, Rong

    2011-01-01

    A series of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) smaller than 3 nm were successfully encapsulated in dendrimer/SBA-15 organic and inorganic hybrid composite. The obtained catalysts were characterized by XPS, XRD and TEM. The results of XPS and XRD indicate the existence of Pt NPs in the hybrid matrix. TEM images display the Pt NPs with narrow size distribution are monodispersed in SBA-15 channels. Catalytic property of the supported Pt catalysts was investigated in inorganic (ferricyanide to ferrocyanide by thiosulfate) and organic (p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol by sodium borohydride) electron transfer (redox) reactions. In both cases, the reduction reactions followed smoothly and the catalysts showed excellent catalytic activity. Moreover, the catalysts can be easily separated and reused several times preserving good catalytic performance. PMID:20943225

  2. Neutral red as electron transfer mediator: enhanced electrocatalytic activity of platinum catalyst for methanol electro-oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinxian Zhong; Jinhua Chen; Bo Liu; Yan Xu; Yafei Kuang

    2007-01-01

    Organic molecule neutral red (NR), as electron transfer mediator, was introduced in the anodic electrocatalyst system for\\u000a methanol oxidation and the resulting electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, polarization method, and electrochemical\\u000a impedance spectroscopy. For the same loading mass of platinum catalyst, 1.25 times larger exchange current density, 1.83 times\\u000a higher specific activity, and better long-term cycle stability can be

  3. Hydrogen Photogeneration Promoted by Efficient Electron Transfer from Iridium Sensitizers to Colloidal MoS2 Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong-Jun; Yu, Zhen-Tao; Liu, Xiao-Jie; Cai, Jian-Guang; Guan, Zhong-Jie; Zou, Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-01

    We report the utilization of colloidal MoS2 nanoparticles (NPs) for multicomponent photocatalytic water reduction systems in cooperation with a series of cyclometalated Ir(III) sensitizers. The effects of the particle size and particle dispersion of MoS2 NPs catalyst, reaction solvent and the concentration of the components on hydrogen evolution efficiency were investigated. The MoS2 NPs exhibited higher catalytic performance than did other commonly used water reduction catalysts under identical experiment conditions. The introduction of the carboxylate anchoring groups in the iridium complexes allows the species to be favorably chem-adsorbed onto the MoS2 NPs surface to increase the electron transfer, resulting in enhancement of hydrogen evolution relative to the non-attached systems. The highest apparent quantum yield, which was as high as 12.4%, for hydrogen evolution, was obtained (? = 400?nm). PMID:24509729

  4. Photoinduced electron transfer pathways in hydrogen-evolving reduced graphene oxide-boosted hybrid nano-bio catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Dimitrijevic, Nada M; Chang, Angela Y; Schaller, Richard D; Liu, Yuzi; Rajh, Tijana; Rozhkova, Elena A

    2014-08-26

    Photocatalytic production of clean hydrogen fuels using water and sunlight has attracted remarkable attention due to the increasing global energy demand. Natural and synthetic dyes can be utilized to sensitize semiconductors for solar energy transformation using visible light. In this study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and a membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) were employed as building modules to harness visible light by a Pt/TiO2 nanocatalyst. Introduction of the rGO boosts the nano-bio catalyst performance that results in hydrogen production rates of approximately 11.24 mmol of H2 (?mol protein)(-1) h(-1). Photoelectrochemical measurements show a 9-fold increase in photocurrent density when TiO2 electrodes were modified with rGO and bR. Electron paramagnetic resonance and transient absorption spectroscopy demonstrate an interfacial charge transfer from the photoexcited rGO to the semiconductor under visible light. PMID:25050831

  5. Anisotropic gold nanoparticle doped mesoporous boehmite films and their use as reusable catalysts in electron transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Jana, Debrina; Dandapat, Anirban; De, Goutam

    2010-07-20

    Anisotropic Au nanoparticle (NP) doped mesoporous and oriented boehmite films of about 2 microm in thickness were prepared and used as reusable catalysts. The films were characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), field emission scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies, optical absorptions and surface area and pore size measurements. GIXRD of the doped films showed a preferential growth of boehmite crystallites in the (020) plane. The electron microscopy studies revealed existence of dispersed anisotropic Au NPs of approximately 15-40 nm size range and irregular Au aggregates of approximately 200-300 nm inside the mesoporous boehmite films. The optical absorption of the films showed Au-plasmon bands at 605 nm and broad absorption covering the near-infrared (NIR) region due to the anisotropic Au nanostructures. These films showed excellent catalytic activities in both the organic (p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol by sodium borohydride) and inorganic (ferricyanide to ferrocyanide by thiosulphate) electron transfer (redox) reactions in aqueous solutions with high rate constant values. The films can be easily separated after the reaction and reused several times without any significant degradation of their original catalytic activity. PMID:20557082

  6. The electron is a catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, Armido; Curran, Dennis P.

    2014-09-01

    The electron is an efficient catalyst for conducting various types of radical cascade reaction that proceed by way of radical and radical ion intermediates. But because electrons are omnipresent, catalysis by electrons often passes unnoticed. In this Review, a simple analogy between acid/base catalysis and redox catalysis is presented. Conceptually, the electron is a catalyst in much the same way that a proton is a catalyst. The 'electron is a catalyst' paradigm unifies mechanistically an assortment of synthetic transformations that otherwise have little or no apparent relationship. Diverse radical cascades, including unimolecular radical substitution reactions (SRN1-type chemistry), base-promoted homolytic aromatic substitutions (BHAS), radical Heck-type reactions, radical cross-dehydrogenative couplings (CDC), direct arene trifluoromethylations and radical alkoxycarbonylations, can all be viewed as electron-catalysed reactions.

  7. Asymmetric cyclopropanation of chalcones using chiral phase-transfer catalysts.

    PubMed

    Herchl, Richard; Waser, Mario

    2013-05-15

    The first phase-transfer catalyzed cyclopropanation reaction of chalcones using bromomalonates as the nucleophiles in a Michael Initiated Ring Closing reaction (MIRC) was developed. Key to success was the use of a free OH-containing cinchona alkaloid ammonium salt catalyst and carefully optimized liquid/liquid reaction conditions. The reaction performed well for electron neutral and electron deficient chalcones giving the products in yields up to 98% and with enantiomeric ratios up to 91:9. PMID:24391288

  8. Asymmetric cyclopropanation of chalcones using chiral phase-transfer catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Herchl, Richard; Waser, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The first phase-transfer catalyzed cyclopropanation reaction of chalcones using bromomalonates as the nucleophiles in a Michael Initiated Ring Closing reaction (MIRC) was developed. Key to success was the use of a free OH-containing cinchona alkaloid ammonium salt catalyst and carefully optimized liquid/liquid reaction conditions. The reaction performed well for electron neutral and electron deficient chalcones giving the products in yields up to 98% and with enantiomeric ratios up to 91:9. PMID:24391288

  9. Electron transfer in quinoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor L. Davidson

    2004-01-01

    Soluble quinoprotein dehydrogenases oxidize a wide range of sugar, alcohol, amine, and aldehyde substrates. The physiological electron acceptors for these enzymes are not pyridine nucleotides but are other soluble redox proteins. This makes these enzymes and their electron acceptors excellent systems with which to study mechanisms of long-range interprotein electron transfer reactions. The tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ)-dependent methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) transfers

  10. Two-Electron Transfer Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiaxing; Balamurugan, D; Zhang, Peng; Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N

    2015-06-18

    The frontiers of electron-transfer chemistry demand that we develop theoretical frameworks to describe the delivery of multiple electrons, atoms, and ions in molecular systems. When electrons move over long distances through high barriers, where the probability for thermal population of oxidized or reduced bridge-localized states is very small, the electrons will tunnel from the donor (D) to acceptor (A), facilitated by bridge-mediated superexchange interactions. If the stable donor and acceptor redox states on D and A differ by two electrons, it is possible that the electrons will propagate coherently from D to A. While structure-function relations for single-electron superexchange in molecules are well established, strategies to manipulate the coherent flow of multiple electrons are largely unknown. In contrast to one-electron superexchange, two-electron superexchange involves both one- and two-electron virtual intermediate states, the number of virtual intermediates increases very rapidly with system size, and multiple classes of pathways interfere with one another. In the study described here, we developed simple superexchange models for two-electron transfer. We explored how the bridge structure and energetics influence multielectron superexchange, and we compared two-electron superexchange interactions to single-electron superexchange. Multielectron superexchange introduces interference between singly and doubly oxidized (or reduced) bridge virtual states, so that even simple linear donor-bridge-acceptor systems have pathway topologies that resemble those seen for one-electron superexchange through bridges with multiple parallel pathways. The simple model systems studied here exhibit a richness that is amenable to experimental exploration by manipulating the multiple pathways, pathway crosstalk, and changes in the number of donor and acceptor species. The features that emerge from these studies may assist in developing new strategies to deliver multiple electrons in condensed-phase redox systems, including multiple-electron redox species, multimetallic/multielectron redox catalysts, and multiexciton excited states. PMID:25583181

  11. Coupled electron transfers in artificial photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, Leif; Styring, Stenbjörn

    2007-01-01

    Light-induced charge separation in molecular assemblies has been widely investigated in the context of artificial photosynthesis. Important progress has been made in the fundamental understanding of electron and energy transfer and in stabilizing charge separation by multi-step electron transfer. In the Swedish Consortium for Artificial Photosynthesis, we build on principles from the natural enzyme photosystem II and Fe-hydrogenases. An important theme in this biomimetic effort is that of coupled electron-transfer reactions, which have so far received only little attention. (i) Each absorbed photon leads to charge separation on a single-electron level only, while catalytic water splitting and hydrogen production are multi-electron processes; thus there is the need for controlling accumulative electron transfer on molecular components. (ii) Water splitting and proton reduction at the potential catalysts necessarily require the management of proton release and/or uptake. Far from being just a stoichiometric requirement, this controls the electron transfer processes by proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET). (iii) Redox-active links between the photosensitizers and the catalysts are required to rectify the accumulative electron-transfer reactions, and will often be the starting points of PCET. PMID:17954432

  12. Easy To Synthesize, Robust Organo-osmium Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, James P C; Sanchez-Cano, Carlos; Clarkson, Guy J; Soni, Rina; Wills, Martin; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-05-26

    Asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) is an important process in organic synthesis for which the Noyori-type Ru(II) catalysts [(arene)Ru(Tsdiamine)] are now well established and widely used. We now demonstrate for the first time the catalytic activity of the osmium analogues. X-ray crystal structures of the 16-electron Os(II) catalysts are almost identical to those of Ru(II) . Intriguingly the precursor complex was isolated as a dichlorido complex with a monodentate amine ligand. The Os(II) catalysts are readily synthesised (within 1?h) and exhibit excellent enantioselectivity in ATH reactions of ketones. PMID:25853228

  13. Nonadiabatic anharmonic electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, P P

    2013-03-28

    The effect of an inner sphere, local mode vibration on an electron transfer is modeled using the nonadiabatic transition probability (rate) expression together with both the anharmonic Morse and the harmonic oscillator potential. For an anharmonic inner sphere mode, a variational analysis uses harmonic oscillator basis functions to overcome the difficulties evaluating Morse-model Franck-Condon overlap factors. Individual matrix elements are computed with the use of new, fast, robust, and flexible recurrence relations. The analysis therefore readily addresses changes in frequency and/or displacement of oscillator minimums in the different electron transfer states. Direct summation of the individual Boltzmann weighted Franck-Condon contributions avoids the limitations inherent in the use of the familiar high-temperature, gaussian form of the rate constant. The effect of harmonic versus anharmonic inner sphere modes on the electron transfer is readily seen, especially in the exoergic, inverted region. The behavior of the transition probability can also be displayed as a surface for all temperatures and values of the driving force/exoergicity ? = -?G. The temperature insensitivity of the transfer rate is clearly seen when the exoergicity equals the collective reorganization energy (? = ?(s)) along a maximum ln?(w) vs. ? ridge of the surface. The surface also reveals additional regions for ? where ln?(w) appears to be insensitive to temperature, or effectively activationless, for some kinds of inner sphere contributions. PMID:23556710

  14. Rational development of iron catalysts for asymmetric transfer hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Sues, Peter E; Demmans, Karl Z; Morris, Robert H

    2014-06-01

    The asymmetric reduction of ketones and imines by transfer of hydrogen from isopropanol as the solvent catalyzed by metal complexes is a very useful method for preparing valuable enantioenriched alcohols and amines. Described here is the development of three generations of progressively more active iron catalysts for this transformation. Key features of this process of discovery involved the realization that one carbonyl ligand was needed (as in hydrogenases), the synthesis of modular ligands templated by iron, the elucidation of the mechanisms of catalyst activation and action, as well as the rational synthesis of precursors that lead directly and easily to the species in the catalytic cycle. The discovery that iron, an abundant element that is essential to life, can form catalysts of these hydrogenation reactions is a contribution to green chemistry. PMID:24763699

  15. Electronic Transfer of School Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Describes the electronic transfer of student records, notably the use of a Web-server named CHARLOTTE sponsored by the National Forum on Education Statistics and an Electronic Data Exchange system named SPEEDE/ExPRESS. (PKP)

  16. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Dave; Gagliardi, Christopher J.; Hull, Jonathan F; Murphy, Christine Fecenko; Kent, Caleb A.; Westlake, Brittany C.; Paul, Amit; Ess, Daniel H; McCafferty, Dewey Granville; Meyer, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer (PCET) describes reactions in which there is a change in both electron and proton content between reactants and products. It originates from the influence of changes in electron content on acid?base properties and provides a molecular-level basis for energy transduction between proton transfer and electron transfer. Coupled electron?proton transfer or EPT is defined as an elementary step in which electrons and protons transfer from different orbitals on the donor to different orbitals on the acceptor. There is (usually) a clear distinction between EPT and H-atom transfer (HAT) or hydride transfer, in which the transferring electrons and proton come from the same bond. Hybrid mechanisms exist in which the elementary steps are different for the reaction partners. EPT pathways such as PhO•/PhOH exchange have much in common with HAT pathways in that electronic coupling is significant, comparable to the reorganization energy with H{sub DA} ~ ?. Multiple-Site Electron?Proton Transfer (MS-EPT) is an elementary step in which an electron?proton donor transfers electrons and protons to different acceptors, or an electron?proton acceptor accepts electrons and protons from different donors. It exploits the long-range nature of electron transfer while providing for the short-range nature of proton transfer. A variety of EPT pathways exist, creating a taxonomy based on what is transferred, e.g., 1e{sup -}/2H{sup +} MS-EPT. PCET achieves “redox potential leveling” between sequential couples and the buildup of multiple redox equivalents, which is of importance in multielectron catalysis. There are many examples of PCET and pH-dependent redox behavior in metal complexes, in organic and biological molecules, in excited states, and on surfaces. Changes in pH can be used to induce electron transfer through films and over long distances in molecules. Changes in pH, induced by local electron transfer, create pH gradients and a driving force for long-range proton transfer in Photosysem II and through other biological membranes. In EPT, simultaneous transfer of electrons and protons occurs on time scales short compared to the periods of coupled vibrations and solvent modes. A theory for EPT has been developed which rationalizes rate constants and activation barriers, includes temperature- and driving force (?G)-dependences implicitly, and explains kinetic isotope effects. The distance-dependence of EPT is dominated by the short-range nature of proton transfer, with electron transfer being far less demanding.Changes in external pH do not affect an EPT elementary step. Solvent molecules or buffer components can act as proton donor acceptors, but individual H2O molecules are neither good bases (pK{sub a}(H{sub 3}O{sup +}) = ?1.74) nor good acids (pK{sub a}(H{sub 2}O) = 15.7). There are many examples of mechanisms in chemistry, in biology, on surfaces, and in the gas phase which utilize EPT. PCET and EPT play critical roles in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of Photosystem II and other biological reactions by decreasing driving force and avoiding high-energy intermediates.

  17. Exploring the decomposition pathways of iron asymmetric transfer hydrogenation catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lagaditis, Paraskevi O; Sues, Peter E; Lough, Alan J; Morris, Robert H

    2015-07-01

    Our group has developed a series of iron-based asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) catalysts for the reduction of polar double bonds. The activation of the precatalysts as well as the catalytic mechanism have been thoroughly investigated, but the decomposition pathways of these systems are poorly understood. Herein, we report a study of the deactivation pathways for an iron ATH catalyst under catalytically relevant conditions. The decomposition pathways were examined using experimental techniques and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The major decomposition products that formed, Fe(CO)((Et)2PCH2CH2CHCHNCH2CH2P(Et)2) () and Fe(CO)((Et)2PCH2CH2C(Ph)C(Ph)NCH2CH2P(Et)2) (), had two amido donors as well as a C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond on the diamine backbone of the tetradentate ligand. These species were identified by NMR studies and one was isolated as a bimetallic complex with Ru(ii)Cp*. Two minor iron hydride species also formed concurrently with , as determined by NMR studies, one of which was isolated and contained a fully saturated ligand as well as a hydride ligand. None of the compounds that were isolated were found to be active ATH catalysts. PMID:25373607

  18. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Electron and Energy Transfer in Noble Metal-Zinc Oxide Composite Nanocrystals

    E-print Network

    Kim, Tae-Geun

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Electron and Energy Transfer in Noble Metal-Zinc Oxide Composite tagging, drug delivery, chemical sensors, catalysts, and photovoltaics.9­11 ZnO is a wide energy band gap is beneficial to light absorption/emission or electron transfer. Nanometer-scale noble metals have been

  19. Electron shuttling in electron transfer dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Diane; Smuczynska, Sylwia; Simons, Jack

    2009-06-01

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations have been performed on two model systems containing a disulfide linkage and one or two positively charged sites, aimed at gaining further insight into how and where electrons attach to positively charged peptides under electron capture (ECD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectroscopy conditions. Couplings among electronic states involving (i) an entrance-channel with the excess electron residing on a donor anion interacting with the positively charged peptide, (ii) a state in which the electron has been transferred to the SS [sigma]* orbital to cause bond cleavage, and (iii) a manifold of states in which the electron has been transferred to a ground- or excited-Rydberg orbital on a positive site. The results of this study suggest that specific excited Rydberg states play a key role in effecting electron shuttling to the SS [sigma]* orbital. The excited-Rydberg orbitals close in energy to the SS [sigma]* orbital and with sufficient radial extent to span the distance between the positive site and the SS [sigma]* orbital play the key role. Then, when the anion donor, excited-Rydberg, and SS [sigma]* orbitals achieve spatial proximity and similarity in energies, one can have what is termed here a shuttle of an electron from the donor to the SS [sigma]* orbital, which results in SS bond cleavage. For the singly and doubly charged systems studied here, it was the 3p and 3d Rydberg orbitals, respectively, that met these criteria of spatial and energetic proximity. For other peptides having different charge states, it will be other Rydberg orbitals that meet these criteria because the relative energies of the SS [sigma]* and Rydberg orbitals are governed by the (different) Coulomb stabilizations these orbitals experience. However, the evidence suggests that it is not very high-energy Rydberg states but states with 3 < n < 10 that are involved in the rate limiting steps in ECD, ETD, and ECID experiments.

  20. Polymerization catalysts containing electron-withdrawing amide ligands

    DOEpatents

    Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM); Click, Damon R. (Bloomington, IN)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention describes methods of making a series of amine-containing organic compounds which are used as ligands for group 3-10 and lanthanide metal compounds. The ligands have electron-withdrawing groups bonded to them. The metal compounds, when combined with a cocatalyst, are catalysts for the polymerization of olefins.

  1. Concerted proton-coupled electron transfer from a metal-hydride complex.

    PubMed

    Bourrez, Marc; Steinmetz, Romain; Ott, Sascha; Gloaguen, Frederic; Hammarström, Leif

    2014-02-01

    Metal hydrides are key intermediates in the catalytic reduction of protons and CO2 as well as in the oxidation of H2. In these reactions, electrons and protons are transferred to or from separate acceptors or donors in bidirectional protoncoupled electron transfer (PCET) steps. The mechanistic interpretation of PCET reactions of metal hydrides has focused on the stepwise transfer of electrons and protons. A concerted transfer may, however, occur with a lower reaction barrier and therefore proceed at higher catalytic rates. Here we investigate the feasibility of such a reaction by studying the oxidation–deprotonation reactions of a tungsten hydride complex. The rate dependence on the driving force for both electron transfer and proton transfer—employing different combinations of oxidants and bases—was used to establish experimentally the concerted, bidirectional PCET of a metal-hydride species. Consideration of the findings presented here in future catalyst designs may lead to more-efficient catalysts. PMID:25615667

  2. Theory of Electron Transfer in Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, David

    2004-10-20

    This research grant is the most recent of a continuous series of grants from the Department of Energy supporting our theoretical efforts to understand various electron transfer processes. In part, my research on this topic has focused on distributions of electric fields, as it is these fields that drive electron transfer. Additional focus has been concerned with kinetics, as the rates of electron transfer are central to the utility of electron transfer. Finally, we have found that the theoretical tools we originally developed to treat electron transfer can be suitably applied to understand the workings of molecular motors.

  3. Supramolecular electron transfer by anion binding.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Ohkubo, Kei; D'Souza, Francis; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2012-10-11

    Anion binding has emerged as an attractive strategy to construct supramolecular electron donor-acceptor complexes. In recent years, the level of sophistication in the design of these systems has advanced to the point where it is possible to create ensembles that mimic key aspects of the photoinduced electron-transfer events operative in the photosynthetic reaction centre. Although anion binding is a reversible process, kinetic studies on anion binding and dissociation processes, as well as photoinduced electron-transfer and back electron-transfer reactions in supramolecular electron donor-acceptor complexes formed by anion binding, have revealed that photoinduced electron transfer and back electron transfer occur at time scales much faster than those associated with anion binding and dissociation. This difference in rates ensures that the linkage between electron donor and acceptor moieties is maintained over the course of most forward and back electron-transfer processes. A particular example of this principle is illustrated by electron-transfer ensembles based on tetrathiafulvalene calix[4]pyrroles (TTF-C4Ps). In these ensembles, the TTF-C4Ps act as donors, transferring electrons to various electron acceptors after anion binding. Competition with non-redox active substrates is also observed. Anion binding to the pyrrole amine groups of an oxoporphyrinogen unit within various supramolecular complexes formed with fullerenes also results in acceleration of the photoinduced electron-transfer process but deceleration of the back electron transfer; again, this is ascribed to favourable structural and electronic changes. Anion binding also plays a role in stabilizing supramolecular complexes between sulphonated tetraphenylporphyrin anions ([MTPPS](4-): M = H(2) and Zn) and a lithium ion encapsulated C(60) (Li(+)@C(60)); the resulting ensemble produces long-lived charge-separated states upon photoexcitation of the porphyrins. PMID:22766725

  4. Synthesis of Externally Initiated Poly(3-alkylthiophene)s via Kumada Catalyst Transfer Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Avanzo, Antonella

    The ability of chemists to design and synthesize pi conjugated organic polymers with precise control over their physical and electronic properties remains the key to technological breakthroughs using polymeric material in electronic and photonic devices. Kumada catalyst transfer polymerization (KCTP) technique and Grignard metathesis (GRIM) method have enabled the synthesis of highly regioregular polymers with controlled molecular weights, narrow polydispersity index and uniform end groups. Applying this technique toward external initiation of polymers would enable the preparation of sophisticated and beneficial polymer architectures such as surface grafted polymers. This work presents an investigation of various mechanistic parameters for external initiation of poly(3-alkylthiophene). The effects of binding ligand variation on the Nickel catalyst were investigated utilizing a novel methodology allowing facile screening of ligands. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) was synthesized with high percentage initiator headgroup incorporation with triphenylphosphine ligand while the use of bidentate ligands such as diphenylphosphinopropane only resulted in quantitative initiation when ligand exchange followed initiation with the more active species. A variety of functionally substituted aryl and thiophene halides were explored for their potential to act as external small molecule initiators and the reaction intermediates were characterized via spectroscopic techniques as well as theoretical calculations. Aryl halides were found to be more stable than thiophene halides and the type and position of the initiator functionality has played a deciding role in the polymerization mechanism. Ortho substitution stabilized the aryl-Ni intermediate complex via favorable orbital overlap and kinetic effects as a result of steric hindrance were demonstrated to affect the success of the external initiation. Surface-grafted poly(3-methylthiophene) thin films were synthesized from indium tin oxide where polymer thin film thicknesses were regulated by the variation of monomer solution and polymerization time. Photoelectron spectroscopy analysis had demonstrated that electrochemical oxidation of surface grafted thin films affords the ability to tune the work function and ionization potential. Such materials with controllable thicknesses and electronic properties have the potential to be useful as components in organic photovoltaic devices.

  5. Effects of catalyst loading amount on the synthesis of poly(3-hexylthiophene) via externally initiated Kumada catalyst-transfer polycondensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Higashihara, Tomoya

    2014-12-01

    A series of model polymerization are carried out via the one-pot externally initiated Kumada catalyst-transfer polycondensation (KCTP) of 2-bromo-5-chloromagnesium thiophene monomers, and the excess amount of initiators or catalysts are found no need to be isolated during the polycondensation process. Especially, the impacts of the nickel catalyst loading variation on regioregularity (rr), yield, molecular weight ( M n), polydispersity (PDI) and initiation efficiency of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are systematically investigated. The 1H NMR, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy results indicated that an excess amount of catalyst does not influence yield, rr, M n, and PDI of P3HT, nor the initiation efficiency. However, the PDI of the product is broad, and the M n and rr values decreased in the absence of 1,3-bis (diphenylphosphino)propane (dppp). It can be concluded that the in-situ KCTP polymerization of P3HT is a practical and effective process. These results are especially valuable for the synthesis of all-conjugated block copolymers where macroinitiators are used.

  6. Electron transfer reactions in microporous solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallouk, T. E.

    1991-05-01

    We are studying the synthesis of light-induced electron transfer reactions which occur within microporous materials. Some highlights of our progress in the last year are in the fields of (1) electron transfer reactions of donor/acceptor molecules at the zeolite/solution interface; (2) photochemistry of zeolite/TiO2 composites; and (3) photochemistry of layered oxide semiconductors.

  7. Potential technology transfers of research on low-temperature carbon monoxide-oxygen recombination catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poziomek, Edward J.

    1990-01-01

    Results from research on catalytic recombination of CO-O2 for stable closed-cycle operation of CO2 lasers hold much promise for a variety of technology transfer. Expansion of CO2 laser remote sensing applications toward chemical detection and pollution monitoring would certainly be expected. However, the catalysts themselves may be especially effective in low-temperature oxidation of a number of chemicals in addition to CO. It is therefore of interest to compare the CO-O2 catalysts with chemical systems designed for chemical sensing, air purification and process catalysis. Success in understanding the catalytic mechanisms of the recombination of CO-O2 could help to shed light on how catalyst systems operate. New directions in low-temperature oxidation catalysts, coatings for chemical sensors and sorbents for air purification could well emerge.

  8. Catalysts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-19

    There are two types of catalysis reactions: homogeneous and heterogeneous. In a homogeneous reaction, the catalyst is in the same phase as the reactants. In a heterogeneous reaction, the catalyst is in a different phase from the reactants. This activity addresses homogeneous catalysis.

  9. Intermolecular Atom Transfer Radical Addition to Olefins Mediated by Oxidative Quenching of Photoredox Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, John D.; Tucker, Joseph W.; Konieczynska, Marlena D.; Stephenson, Corey R. J.

    2011-01-01

    Atom transfer radical addition of haloalkanes and ?-halocarbonyls to olefins is efficiently performed with the photocatalyst Ir[(dF(CF3)ppy)2(dtbbpy)]PF6. This protocol is characterized by excellent yields, mild conditions, low catalyst loading, and broad scope. In addition, the atom transfer protocol can be used to quickly and efficiently introduce vinyl trifluoromethyl groups to olefins and access 1,1-cyclopropane diesters. PMID:21381734

  10. Oxidation desulfurization of fuel using pyridinium-based ionic liquids as phase-transfer catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dishun Zhao; Yanan Wang; Erhong Duan; Juan Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this work, several ionic liquids based on pyridinium cations are prepared. The ionic liquids are employed as phase-transfer catalysts (PTCs) for phase-transfer catalytic oxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT) dissolved in n-octane. The partition coefficients of DBT between ionic liquids and n-octane are investigated. Then H2O2–formic acid is used as an oxidant and ionic liquids are used as PTCs. The reaction

  11. Prospects for Electron Holography of Nanoparticle Catalysts Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski1, *

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Prospects for Electron Holography of Nanoparticle Catalysts Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski1, * , Lionel in the literature, and we assess the prospects for using electron holography to obtain useful information about

  12. 3-D Heterogeneous Electronics by Transfer Printing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Bower; E. Menard; J. Carr; J. A. Rogers

    2007-01-01

    Here we describe an approach, called transfer printing, to allow the combination of broad classes of materials into three-dimensional (3-D) heterogeneously integrated electronic devices. The process involves fabrication of source wafers that contain high performance single crystal devices from materials including, but not limited to, silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride. These devices are then delineated and transferred to a

  13. Reaction of electron-transfer flavoprotein with electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe D. Beckmann; Frank E. Frerman

    1985-01-01

    The oxidative half-reaction of electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF), electron transfer from ETF to electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO), is dependent on complementary surface charges on the two proteins. ETF is the positively charged member of the redox pair. The evidence is based on the pH and ionic strength dependencies of the comproportionation of oxidized ETF and ETF hydroquinone catalyzed by ETF-QO and

  14. Phase transfer catalysts drive diverse organic solvent solubility of single-walled carbon nanotubes helically wrapped by ionic, semiconducting polymers.

    PubMed

    Deria, Pravas; Sinks, Louise E; Park, Tae-Hong; Tomezsko, Diana M; Brukman, Matthew J; Bonnell, Dawn A; Therien, Michael J

    2010-10-13

    Use of phase transfer catalysts such as 18-crown-6 enables ionic, linear conjugated poly[2,6-{1,5-bis(3-propoxysulfonicacidsodiumsalt)}naphthylene]ethynylene (PNES) to efficiently disperse single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in multiple organic solvents under standard ultrasonication methods. Steady-state electronic absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal that these SWNT suspensions are composed almost exclusively of individualized tubes. High-resolution TEM and AFM data show that the interaction of PNES with SWNTs in both protic and aprotic organic solvents provides a self-assembled superstructure in which a PNES monolayer helically wraps the nanotube surface with periodic and constant morphology (observed helical pitch length = 10 ± 2 nm); time-dependent examination of these suspensions indicates that these structures persist in solution over periods that span at least several months. Pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that the excited state lifetimes and exciton binding energies of these well-defined nanotube-semiconducting polymer hybrid structures remain unchanged relative to analogous benchmark data acquired previously for standard sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)-SWNT suspensions, regardless of solvent. These results demonstrate that the use of phase transfer catalysts with ionic semiconducting polymers that helically wrap SWNTs provide well-defined structures that solubulize SWNTs in a wide range of organic solvents while preserving critical nanotube semiconducting and conducting properties. PMID:20809609

  15. Metal Bridging for Directing and Accelerating Electron Transfer as Exemplified by Harnessing the Reactivity of AIBN.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yinjun; Guo, Shengmei; Wu, Longmin; Xia, Chungu; Huang, Hanmin

    2015-05-11

    A new strategy for tuning the electron transfer between radicals and enolates has been developed. This method elicits the innate reactivity of AIBN with a copper catalyst and enables a cascade reaction with cinnamic acids. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies and control experiments indicate that the redox-active copper species not only activates the radical by coordination, but also serves as a bridge to bring the radical and nucleophile within close proximity to facilitate electron transfer. By exploiting possible combinations of redox-active metals and radical entities with suitable coordinating functional groups, this strategy should contribute to the development of a broad range of radical-based reactions. PMID:25809686

  16. Mechanisms of metal ion-coupled electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Ohkubo, Kei; Morimoto, Yuma

    2012-06-28

    Redox inactive metal ions acting as Lewis acids can control electron transfer from electron donors (D) to electron acceptors (A) by binding to radical anions of electron acceptors which act as Lewis bases. Such electron transfer is defined as metal ion-coupled electron transfer (MCET). Mechanisms of metal ion-coupled electron transfer are classified mainly into two pathways, i.e., metal ion binding to electron acceptors followed by electron transfer (MB/ET) and electron transfer followed by metal ion binding to the resulting radical anions of electron acceptors (ET/MB). In the former case, electron transfer and the stronger binding of metal ions to the radical anions occur in a concerted manner. Examples are shown in each case to clarify the factors to control MCET reactions in both thermal and photoinduced electron-transfer reactions including back electron-transfer reactions. PMID:22596095

  17. Dynamic environmental transmission electron microscopy observation of platinum electrode catalyst deactivation in a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kenta; Xudong, Zhang; Bright, Alexander N; Saitoh, Koh; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2013-02-15

    Spherical-aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy (AC-ETEM) was applied to study the catalytic activity of platinum/amorphous carbon electrode catalysts in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). These electrode catalysts were characterized in different atmospheres, such as hydrogen and air, and a conventional high vacuum of 10(-5) Pa. A high-speed charge coupled device camera was used to capture real-time movies to dynamically study the diffusion and reconstruction of nanoparticles with an information transfer down to 0.1 nm, a time resolution below 0.2 s and an acceleration voltage of 300 kV. With such high spatial and time resolution, AC-ETEM permits the visualization of surface-atom behaviour that dominates the coalescence and surface-reconstruction processes of the nanoparticles. To contribute to the development of robust PEMFC platinum/amorphous carbon electrode catalysts, the change in the specific surface area of platinum particles was evaluated in hydrogen and air atmospheres. The deactivation of such catalysts during cycle operation is a serious problem that must be resolved for the practical use of PEMFCs in real vehicles. In this paper, the mechanism for the deactivation of platinum/amorphous carbon electrode catalysts is discussed using the decay rate of the specific surface area of platinum particles, measured first in a vacuum and then in hydrogen and air atmospheres for comparison. PMID:23340321

  18. Respiratory electron transfer pathways in plant mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Schertl, Peter; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory electron transport chain (ETC) couples electron transfer from organic substrates onto molecular oxygen with proton translocation across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The resulting proton gradient is used by the ATP synthase complex for ATP formation. In plants, the ETC is especially intricate. Besides the “classical” oxidoreductase complexes (complex I–IV) and the mobile electron transporters cytochrome c and ubiquinone, it comprises numerous “alternative oxidoreductases.” Furthermore, several dehydrogenases localized in the mitochondrial matrix and the mitochondrial intermembrane space directly or indirectly provide electrons for the ETC. Entry of electrons into the system occurs via numerous pathways which are dynamically regulated in response to the metabolic state of a plant cell as well as environmental factors. This mini review aims to summarize recent findings on respiratory electron transfer pathways in plants and on the involved components and supramolecular assemblies. PMID:24808901

  19. Electron transfer kinetics in water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swierk, John R.

    Water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical (WS-DSPECs) cells utilize molecular sensitizers absorbed on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes to harvest visible light, inject photoexcited electrons into the conduction band of TiO2, and finally transfer holes across the TiO2 surface to water oxidation catalysts, which in turn oxidize water to give molecular oxygen and four protons. Within the TiO2 layer photoinjected electrons are transported to a transparent conductor back contact and from there to a dark cathode to reduce protons to molecular hydrogen. WS-DSPECs offer several advantages for alternative solar fuels systems: the use of low-cost materials, tunable molecular sensitizers, and relaxed catalytic turnover requirements to name a few. Despite these advantageous features, power conversion efficiencies in WS-DSPECs are generally low. Broadly, this thesis explores the fundamental electron transfer processes that control the efficiency of these cells. Chapter 1 presents a survey of the previous literature and individually considers each component of a WS-DSPEC (water oxidation catalyst, sensitizers, electrode materials, redox mediators, and overall system design). Chapter 2 presents a novel method of preparing a WS-DSPEC that utilizes crystalline IrO2 nanoparticles directly sintered to TiO2 as a water oxidation catalyst and describes a previously unknown electron-scavenging pathway by IrO2. Chapter 3 explores how electron trapping by and proton intercalation into TiO2 controls the photoelectrochemical performance of WS-DSPECs. Chapter 4 characterizes how electron recombination with the oxidized sensitizer and electron scavenging by the IrO 2 catalyst combine to limit the concentration of conduction band electrons and by extension photocurrent in WS-DSPECs. Chapter 5 demonstrates the use of the first totally organic sensitizers for light driven water-splitting and explores how the molecular and electronic structure of a sensitizer affects the electron transfer steps of injection, recombination, and hole transfer among others. Finally, in Chapter 6 a model system that describes electron transfer between an oxidized sensitizer and water oxidation catalyst is demonstrated and provides insight into sensitizer regeneration in WS-DSPECs. Together the results in these chapters present a detailed picture of how electron scavenging, recombination, and transport combine to generate photocurrent in a fully characterized WS-DSPEC and serve as starting point for the further development of WS-DSPECs.

  20. Single Molecule Spectroscopy of Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Holman; Ling Zang; Ruchuan Liu; David M. Adams

    2009-10-20

    The objectives of this research are threefold: (1) to develop methods for the study electron transfer processes at the single molecule level, (2) to develop a series of modifiable and structurally well defined molecular and nanoparticle systems suitable for detailed single molecule/particle and bulk spectroscopic investigation, (3) to relate experiment to theory in order to elucidate the dependence of electron transfer processes on molecular and electronic structure, coupling and reorganization energies. We have begun the systematic development of single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) of electron transfer and summaries of recent studies are shown. There is a tremendous need for experiments designed to probe the discrete electronic and molecular dynamic fluctuations of single molecules near electrodes and at nanoparticle surfaces. Single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) has emerged as a powerful method to measure properties of individual molecules which would normally be obscured in ensemble-averaged measurement. Fluctuations in the fluorescence time trajectories contain detailed molecular level statistical and dynamical information of the system. The full distribution of a molecular property is revealed in the stochastic fluctuations, giving information about the range of possible behaviors that lead to the ensemble average. In the case of electron transfer, this level of understanding is particularly important to the field of molecular and nanoscale electronics: from a device-design standpoint, understanding and controlling this picture of the overall range of possible behaviors will likely prove to be as important as designing ia the ideal behavior of any given molecule.

  1. Protein electron transfer: Dynamics and statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2013-07-01

    Electron transfer between redox proteins participating in energy chains of biology is required to proceed with high energetic efficiency, minimizing losses of redox energy to heat. Within the standard models of electron transfer, this requirement, combined with the need for unidirectional (preferably activationless) transitions, is translated into the need to minimize the reorganization energy of electron transfer. This design program is, however, unrealistic for proteins whose active sites are typically positioned close to the polar and flexible protein-water interface to allow inter-protein electron tunneling. The high flexibility of the interfacial region makes both the hydration water and the surface protein layer act as highly polar solvents. The reorganization energy, as measured by fluctuations, is not minimized, but rather maximized in this region. Natural systems in fact utilize the broad breadth of interfacial electrostatic fluctuations, but in the ways not anticipated by the standard models based on equilibrium thermodynamics. The combination of the broad spectrum of static fluctuations with their dispersive dynamics offers the mechanism of dynamical freezing (ergodicity breaking) of subsets of nuclear modes on the time of reaction/residence of the electron at a redox cofactor. The separation of time-scales of nuclear modes coupled to electron transfer allows dynamical freezing. In particular, the separation between the relaxation time of electro-elastic fluctuations of the interface and the time of conformational transitions of the protein caused by changing redox state results in dynamical freezing of the latter for sufficiently fast electron transfer. The observable consequence of this dynamical freezing is significantly different reorganization energies describing the curvature at the bottom of electron-transfer free energy surfaces (large) and the distance between their minima (Stokes shift, small). The ratio of the two reorganization energies establishes the parameter by which the energetic efficiency of protein electron transfer is increased relative to the standard expectations, thus minimizing losses of energy to heat. Energetically efficient electron transfer occurs in a chain of conformationally quenched cofactors and is characterized by flattened free energy surfaces, reminiscent of the flat and rugged landscape at the stability basin of a folded protein.

  2. Photoinduced electron transfer in a porphyrin dyad

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.; Moore, A.L.; Leggett, L.; Lin, S.; DeGraziano, J.M.; Hermant, R.M.; Nicodem, D.; Craig, P.; Seely, G.R.; Nieman, R.A. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States))

    1993-07-29

    A prophyrin dyad designed to facilitate vectorial interporphyrin electron transfer has been synthesized and studied using steady-state and time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopies. The dyad features a zinc tetraaylporphyrin bearing electron-donating substituents linked by an amide bond to a free base porphyrin carrying electron-withdrawing groups. Excitation of the zinc porphyrin moiety in dichloromethane solution is followed by singlet energy transfer to the free base and concurrent electron transfer to the same moiety to yield a charge-separated state. The free base first excited singlet state decays by accepting an electron from the zinc porphyrin to form the same charge-separated state. Similar results are observed in butyronitrile. Transient absorption studies in butyronitrile verify the formation of a short-lived (8 ps) charge-separated state from the porphyrin first excited singlet states. The results support the suggestion that fluorescence quenching in related porphyrin dyads and carotenoid--diporphyrin triads is due to photoinduced electron transfer, rather than some other decay process. 17 refs., 8 refs.

  3. Transmission electron microscopy investigation of auto catalyst and cobalt germanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Haiping

    The modern ceria-zirconia based catalysts are used in automobiles to reduce exhaust pollutants. Cobalt germanides have potential applications as electrical contacts in the future Ge-based semiconductor devices. In this thesis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to study the atomic scale interactions between metallic nanostructures and crystalline substrates in the two material systems mentioned above. The model catalyst samples consisted of precious metal nano-particles (Pd, Rh) supported on the surface of (Ce,Zr)O2 thin films. The response of the microstructure of the metal-oxide interface to the reduction and oxidation treatments was investigated by cross-sectional high resolution TEM. Atomic detail of the metal-oxide interface was obtained. It was found that Pd and Rh showed different sintering and interaction behaviors on the oxide surface. The preferred orientation of Pd particles in this study was Pd(111)//CZO(111). Partial encapsulation of Pd particles by reduced (Ce,Zr)O 2 surface was observed and possible mechanisms of the encapsulation were discussed. The characteristics of the metal-oxide interaction depend on the properties of the oxide, as well as their relative orientation. The results provide experimental evidence for understanding the thermodynamics of the equilibrium morphology of a solid particle supported on a solid surface that is not considered as inert. The reaction of Co with Ge to form epitaxial Co5Ge7 was studied by in situ ultra-high vacuum (UHV) TEM using two methods. One was reactive deposition of Co on Ge, in which the Ge substrate was maintained at 350°C during deposition. The other method was solid state reaction, in which the deposition of Co on Ge was carried out at room temperature followed by annealing to higher temperatures. During reactive deposition, the deposited Co reacted with Ge to form nanosized 3D Co 5Ge7 islands. During solid state reaction, a continuous epitaxial Co5Ge7 film on the (001) Ge substrate was formed at ˜300°C. With further annealing at a higher temperature, the continuous Co5Ge 7 layer broke into 3D islands in order to relieve the strain energy in the epitaxial Co5Ge7 layer. Electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction were used to identify the cobalt germanide phase and epitaxial orientation relationships with respect to the substrate.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of novel antibacterial polymers and clay delivery systems and polymeric phase transfer catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bekir Dizman

    2005-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation involves the syntheses of both novel antibacterial polymers and nanocomposites and polymeric phase transfer catalysts. The first section describes the synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activities of new acrylate\\/methacrylate and acrylamide\\/methacrylamide polymers containing pendant quaternary ammonium compounds and norfloxacin. The first part of this section focuses on the syntheses and antibacterial activities of new water-soluble

  5. Electron transfer and catalysis with high-valent metal-oxo complexes.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2015-04-21

    High-valent metal-oxo complexes are produced by reductive activation of dioxygen via reduction of metal complexes with reductants and dioxygen. Photoinduced electron transfer from substrates to metal complexes with dioxygen also leads to the generation of high-valent metal-oxo complexes that can oxygenate substrates. In such a case metal complexes act as a photocatalyst to oxygenate substrates with dioxygen. High-valent metal-oxo complexes are also produced by proton-coupled electron-transfer oxidation of metal complexes by one-electron oxidants with water, oxygenating substrates to regenerate metal complexes. In such a case metal complexes act as a catalyst for electron-transfer oxygenation of substrates by one-electron oxidants with water that acts as an oxygen source. The one-electron oxidants which can oxidize metal complexes can be replaced by much weaker oxidants by a combination of redox photocatalysts and metal complexes. Thus, photocatalytic oxygenation of substrates proceeds via photoinduced electron transfer from a photocatalyst to reductants followed by proton-coupled electron transfer oxidation of metal complexes with the oxidized photocatalyst to produce high-valent metal-oxo complexes that oxygenate substrates. Thermal and photoinduced electron-transfer catalytic reactions of high-valent metal-oxo complexes for oxygenation of substrates using water or dioxygen as an oxygen source are summarized in this perspective. PMID:25710309

  6. Electron transfer in weakly interacting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sutin, N.; Brunschwig, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    A recently proposed semiclassical model, in which an electronic transmission coefficient and a nuclear tunneling factor are introduced as corrections to the classical activated-complex expression, is described. The nuclear tunneling corrections are shown to be important only at low temperatures or when the electron transfer is very exothermic. By contrast, corrections for nonadiabaticity may be significant for most outer-sphere reactions of metal complexes. The rate constants for the Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/-Fe(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 3 +/, Ru(NH/sub 3/)/sub 6//sup 2 +/-Ru(NH/sub 3/)/sub 6//sup 3 +/ and Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/-Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 3 +/ electron exchange reactions predicted by the semiclassical model are in very good agreement with the observed values. The implications of the model for optically-induced electron transfer in mixed-valence systems are noted.

  7. Group transfer and electron transfer reactions of organometallic complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, J.D.

    1994-12-01

    During 1994, despite the disruptions, the authors have made progress in several aspects of their research on electron transfer reactions between organometallic complexes. This summary covers three areas that are relatively complete: (1) reactions between metal carbonyl anions and metal carbonyl halides, (2) reactions of hydrido- and alkyl-containing anions (RFe(CO){sup {minus}}{sub 4} and RW (CO){sub 5}{sup {minus}}) with metal carbonyl cations and (3) reactions of a seventeen-electron complex (Cp{asterisk}Cr(CO){sub 3}{lg_bullet}) with metal carbonyl derivatives. Two areas of examination that have just begun (possible carbene transfer and the possible role of metal carbonyl anions in carbon-hydrogen bond activation) will also be described.

  8. Promoting Knowledge Transfer with Electronic Note Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Andrew D.; Shambaugh, R. Neal; Doctor, Tasneem

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the differences between (a) copying and pasting text versus typed note-taking methods of constructing study notes simultaneously with (b) vertically scaffolded versus horizontally scaffold notes on knowledge transfer. Forty-seven undergraduate educational psychology students participated. Materials included 2 electronic

  9. Solvent gating of intramolecular electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.M. (California State Univ., Chico, CA (United States)); Spears, K.G.; Gong, J.H.; Wach, M. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States))

    1994-02-03

    The rates for ionic photodissociation of malachite green leucocyanide to form cyanide ion and a malachite green carbonium ion were measured as a function of solvent and temperature. The observed rates in mixtures of polar and nonpolar solvents all had an activation energy of about 1 kcal/mol for a wide range of dielectric constants. This dissociative intramolecular electron transfer (DIET) is unusual because it is the first example where solvent configurational entropy changes are required to enable a large amplitude molecular distortion leading to a nonadiabatic electron transfer and ionic dissociation. This solvent gated intramolecular electron-transfer mechanism is supported by analysis of the preexponential and activation energy trends in dipolar aprotic solven mixtures and alcohol solvents. The large amplitude motion is not separately measurable due to the slow gating rates, but viscosity effects on both the preexponential and the activation energy are analyzed to demonstrate consistency with a barrierless diffusion model having a structural dependence on electron-transfer rate. The rate has an inverse dependence on viscosity raised to the 0.53 power. 36 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. The application of aberration-corrected electron microscopy to the characterization of gold-based catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew A. Herzing

    2007-01-01

    Electron microscopy has long been used to study the morphology of heterogeneous catalysts. Recent advances in electron optics now allow for the correction of the inherent spherical aberration (Cs) produced by the objective lens in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM, resulting in a significantly improved spatial resolution as well as the ability to use a much larger probe-current than

  11. Contributions of electron microscopy to understanding CO adsorption on powder Au/ceria-zirconia catalysts.

    PubMed

    Cíes, José María; Delgado, Juan José; López-Haro, Miguel; Pilasombat, Ratchaneekorn; Pérez-Omil, José Antonio; Trasobares, Susana; Bernal, Serafin; Calvino, José Juan

    2010-08-16

    The influence of the highly dispersed gold phase on the CO-support interaction occurring in two 2.5 wt % Au/Ce(0.62)Zr(0.38)O(2) catalysts with medium (Au/CZ-MD) and high (Au/CZ-HD) metal dispersion is quantitatively assessed. For this purpose, we have followed an approach in which high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), computer modelling, volumetric adsorption and FTIR spectroscopy studies are combined. This approach has already been fruitfully applied to the investigation of the specific CO-metal adsorption in Au/ceria-zirconia catalysts. As deduced from the experimental studies reported herein, the presence of gold dramatically increases the amount of CO strongly chemisorbed on the support. Moreover, this amount is sensitive to the metal dispersion, thus suggesting the occurrence of a mechanism in which the CO molecules that are initially adsorbed on the gold nanoparticles are further transferred to the support by means of a spillover process. An annular model is proposed for the growth of the CO phase adsorbed on the ceria-zirconia mixed oxide in the presence of Au. By assuming this model, we have estimated the width of the annulus, Delta r, of the adsorbed CO grown around the Au nanoparticles in Au/CZ-MD and Au/CZ-HD catalysts. This value is found to be very close to Delta r approximately 2 nm in both cases, the coincidence lending some additional support to the model. To further confirm this proposal, we have investigated the influence of CO pre-adsorption on the D(2)-Au/CZ-MD interaction, at 298 K. As revealed by FTIR spectroscopy, the kinetics of the deuterium spillover is significantly disturbed by the pre-adsorbed CO, which is fully consistent with an annular model for the CO adsorption. We conclude from the global analysis of the results reported here and those already available on CO-Au adsorption that the appropriate combination of nanostructural, computer modelling and chemical techniques is a powerful tool allowing us to gain a comprehensive picture of the complex series of processes involved in the CO adsorption on this relevant family of gold catalysts. PMID:20572188

  12. 14 CFR 1260.69 - Electronic funds transfer payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...by the Government by electronic funds transfer through...Treasury Fedline Payment System (FEDLINE) or...institution for receipt of electronic funds transfer payments...the Federal Reserve Communication System. (3)...

  13. 14 CFR 1260.69 - Electronic funds transfer payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...by the Government by electronic funds transfer through...Treasury Fedline Payment System (FEDLINE) or...institution for receipt of electronic funds transfer payments...the Federal Reserve Communication System. (3)...

  14. 14 CFR 1274.931 - Electronic funds transfer payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...by the Government by electronic funds transfer through...Treasury Fedline Payment System (FEDLINE) or the...institution for receipt of electronic funds transfer payments...the Federal Reserve Communication System. (3)...

  15. 14 CFR 1274.931 - Electronic funds transfer payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...by the Government by electronic funds transfer through...Treasury Fedline Payment System (FEDLINE) or the...institution for receipt of electronic funds transfer payments...the Federal Reserve Communication System. (3)...

  16. 14 CFR 1260.69 - Electronic funds transfer payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...by the Government by electronic funds transfer through...Treasury Fedline Payment System (FEDLINE) or...institution for receipt of electronic funds transfer payments...the Federal Reserve Communication System. (3)...

  17. 14 CFR 1260.69 - Electronic funds transfer payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...by the Government by electronic funds transfer through...Treasury Fedline Payment System (FEDLINE) or...institution for receipt of electronic funds transfer payments...the Federal Reserve Communication System. (3)...

  18. 14 CFR 1260.69 - Electronic funds transfer payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...by the Government by electronic funds transfer through...Treasury Fedline Payment System (FEDLINE) or...institution for receipt of electronic funds transfer payments...the Federal Reserve Communication System. (3)...

  19. 14 CFR 1274.931 - Electronic funds transfer payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...by the Government by electronic funds transfer through...Treasury Fedline Payment System (FEDLINE) or the...institution for receipt of electronic funds transfer payments...the Federal Reserve Communication System. (3)...

  20. 14 CFR 1274.931 - Electronic funds transfer payment methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...by the Government by electronic funds transfer through...Treasury Fedline Payment System (FEDLINE) or the...institution for receipt of electronic funds transfer payments...the Federal Reserve Communication System. (3)...

  1. 76 FR 709 - Electronic Funds Transfer of Depository Taxes; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ...Electronic Funds Transfer of Depository Taxes; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue...providing guidance relating to Federal tax deposits (FTDs) by Electronic Funds Transfer...List of Subjects 26 CFR Part 40 Excise taxes, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  2. The Liability of banks in electronic fund transfer transaction 

    E-print Network

    Algudah, Fayyad

    1993-01-01

    The liability of banks in electronic fund transfer (EFT) transactions is discussed in this thesis under the British and the United States law. The thesis covers banks’ liability in electronic credit and debit transfers. ...

  3. Metal-support and preparation influence on the structural and electronic properties of gold catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Pia Casaletto; Alessandro Longo; Anna Maria Venezia; Antonino Martorana; Antonio Prestianni

    2006-01-01

    Nanostructured gold catalysts supported on CeO2 and SiO2 were prepared by the deposition–precipitation (DP) and the solvated metal atom dispersion (SMAD) techniques. The structural and electronic properties of the catalysts were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Gold was found as small metal nanoparticles (cluster size ?2nm) in the SMAD-prepared samples and

  4. The electronic structure of iron and nickel catalysts and their activity in coal hydrogenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Gyul’maliev; A. S. Maloletnev; M. Ya. Shpirt; L. A. Zekel’; M. A. Gyul’malieva

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamic and quantum-chemical aspects of hydrogenation of coal organic matter in the presence of iron and nickel\\u000a compounds as catalysts were considered. A thermodynamic analysis of the formation reaction of catalytically active catalyst\\u000a entities under hydrogenation conditions was performed. The electronic structure of FeO, FeS, FeS2, NiO, and NiS with the minimal number of iron and nickel atoms and

  5. Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Extracellular Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Kato, Souichiro

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a type of microbial respiration that enables electron transfer between microbial cells and extracellular solid materials, including naturally-occurring metal compounds and artificial electrodes. Microorganisms harboring EET abilities have received considerable attention for their various biotechnological applications, in addition to their contribution to global energy and material cycles. In this review, current knowledge on microbial EET and its application to diverse biotechnologies, including the bioremediation of toxic metals, recovery of useful metals, biocorrosion, and microbial electrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells and microbial electrosynthesis), were introduced. Two potential biotechnologies based on microbial EET, namely the electrochemical control of microbial metabolism and electrochemical stimulation of microbial symbiotic reactions (electric syntrophy), were also discussed. PMID:26004795

  6. Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Extracellular Electron Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Souichiro

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a type of microbial respiration that enables electron transfer between microbial cells and extracellular solid materials, including naturally-occurring metal compounds and artificial electrodes. Microorganisms harboring EET abilities have received considerable attention for their various biotechnological applications, in addition to their contribution to global energy and material cycles. In this review, current knowledge on microbial EET and its application to diverse biotechnologies, including the bioremediation of toxic metals, recovery of useful metals, biocorrosion, and microbial electrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells and microbial electrosynthesis), were introduced. Two potential biotechnologies based on microbial EET, namely the electrochemical control of microbial metabolism and electrochemical stimulation of microbial symbiotic reactions (electric syntrophy), were also discussed. PMID:26004795

  7. Reaction coordinates for electron transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Rasaiah, Jayendran C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469 (United States); Zhu Jianjun [Department of Chemistry, State University of New York, Stonybrook, New York 11790 (United States) and Department of Chemistry, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan (China)

    2008-12-07

    The polarization fluctuation and energy gap formulations of the reaction coordinate for outer sphere electron transfer are linearly related to the constant energy constraint Lagrangian multiplier m in Marcus' theory of electron transfer. The quadratic dependence of the free energies of the reactant and product intermediates on m and m+1, respectively, leads to similar dependence of the free energies on the reaction coordinates and to the same dependence of the activation energy on the reorganization energy and the standard reaction free energy. Within the approximations of a continuum model of the solvent and linear response of the longitudinal polarization to the electric field in Marcus' theory, both formulations of the reaction coordinate are expected to lead to the same results.

  8. Constructing Regioregular Star Poly(3-hexylthiophene) via Externally Initiated Kumada Catalyst-Transfer Polycondensation

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Mingjian [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Okamoto, Ken [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Bronstein, Hugo A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Luscombe, Christine K. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-03-20

    A synthetic route was developed for the preparation of di- and trifunctional Ni complex-based initiators. Each initiator affords well-defined 2-arm (V-shaped) and 3-arm (Y-shaped) regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rr-P3HT) with controlled molecular weight and narrow polydispersities by the externally initiated Kumada catalyst-transfer polycondensation. The core spacer length and end o-tolylhalide group of the functional initiators exhibited differences in reactivity and show that the biphenyl spacers are effective for the synthesis of V-shaped and Y-shaped rr-P3HTs.

  9. A Systematic Investigation of Quaternary Ammonium Ions as Asymmetric Phase Transfer Catalysts. Synthesis of Catalyst Libraries and Evaluation of Catalyst Activity

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Gould, Nathan D.; Wolf, Larry M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite over three decades of research into asymmetric phase transfer catalysis (APTC), a fundamental understanding of the factors that affect the rate and stereoselectivity of this important process are still obscure. This paper describes the initial stages of a long-term program aimed at elucidating the physical organic foundations of APTC employing a chemoinformatic analysis of the alkylation of a protected glycine imine with a libraries of enantiomerically enriched quaternary ammonium ions. The synthesis of the quaternary ammonium ions follows a diversity oriented approach wherein the tandem inter[4+2]/intra[3+2] cycloaddition of nitroalkenes serves as the key transformation. A two part synthetic strategy comprised of: (1) preparation of enantioenriched scaffolds and (2) development of parallel synthesis procedures is described. The strategy allows for the facile introduction of four variable groups in the vicinity of a stereogenic quaternary ammonium ion. The quaternary ammonium ions exhibited a wide range of activity and to a lesser degree enantioselectivity. Catalyst activity and selectivity are rationalized in a qualitative way based on the effective positive potential of the ammonium ion. PMID:21446721

  10. THE APPLICATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION ELECTRON ENERGY LOSS SPECTROSCOPY TO THE STUDY OF MODEL SUPPORTED METAL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, L.H.; Hansma, P.K.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1980-03-01

    Model supported metal catalysts were fabricated by evaporating a small quantity of rhodium onto an oxidized aluminum substrate. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (ELS) was successfully used to obtain the vibrational spectra of carbon monoxide chemisorbed on these model catalysts. The ELS spectra are compared with vibrational spectra obtained by infrared spectroscopy and inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy for CO chemisorbed on similar model catalysts.

  11. Elastic electron scattering from methane at high momentum transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vos; M. R. Went; G. Cooper; C. A. Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann

    2008-01-01

    We describe elastic electron scattering data at high momentum transfer (between ≈20 and ≈40 au) from methane and Xe. Under these conditions there is a significant recoil energy transferred to the target and electrons scattered elastically from methane are separated into two peaks: one due to electrons scattered from carbon, and one due to electrons scattered from hydrogen. The separation

  12. Elastic electron scattering from methane at high momentum transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Vos; M R Went; G Cooper; C A Chatzidimitriou-Dreismann

    2008-01-01

    We describe elastic electron scattering data at high momentum transfer (between ?20 and ?40 au) from methane and Xe. Under these conditions there is a significant recoil energy transferred to the target and electrons scattered elastically from methane are separated into two peaks: one due to electrons scattered from carbon, and one due to electrons scattered from hydrogen. The separation

  13. REGULAR PAPER The photosynthetic apparatus and photoinduced electron transfer

    E-print Network

    REGULAR PAPER The photosynthetic apparatus and photoinduced electron transfer in the aerobic Photosynthetic electron transfer has been examined in whole cells, isolated membranes and in par- tially purified to incomplete reduction of the primary electron acceptor (QA) prior to light excitation, however, electron

  14. Vectorial electron transfer in spatially ordered arrays. Progress report, January 1991--January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Objective was to find methods for rapid, controlled placement of light absorbers, relays, and multi-electron catalysts at defined sites with respect to a semiconductor or metal surface and thus to develop methods for preparing chemically modified photoactive surfaces as artificial photosynthetic units. Progress has been made in four areas: synthesis of new materials for directional electron transfer, preparation and characterization of anisotropic composites containing organic and inorganic components, elaboration of mechanisms of electrocatalysis, and development of new methods for surface modification of metals and semiconductors.

  15. Analytical and computational studies of intramolecular electron transfer pertinent to electron transfer and electron capture dissociation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Neff, Diane; Simons, Jack

    2010-01-28

    Earlier work from this group has suggested that, in electron capture and electron-transfer mass spectrometry experiments on positively charged gas-phase samples of polypeptides, the initial electron attachment event most likely occurs at one of the peptide's positively charged sites (e.g., protonated side chains), although electron attachment can occur at a disulfide or amide site ca. 1-10% of the time. Focusing on the 90-99% dominant channel in which initial electron attachment occurs at a positive site, this paper addresses to what extent and over what distances electron transfer can take place from a positively charged site to a disulfide sigma* or amide pi* orbital, because it is thought that it is through such orbitals that disulfide or N-C(alpha) backbone bond cleavage occurs. Ab initio electronic structure calculations show that, as long as an SS sigma* (or OCN pi*) orbital experiences sufficient Coulomb stabilization from proximal positively charged groups, there are a myriad of excited Rydberg states located on positive sites that are able to induce such intrapeptide electron transfer. Computational data show that the transfer rates decay exponentially with distance for a given Rydberg orbital. An analytical model is developed that allows us to estimate the rates of Rydberg-to-valence and Rydberg-to-Rydberg electron transfers as functions of the Rydberg orbitals' n quantum numbers. This model suggests that transfer can occur over very long distances at rates that are more than competitive with the rates of radiationless relaxation within the manifold of Rydberg states (the latter processes eventually terminate the electron-transfer process an thus the disulfide or N-C(alpha) bond cleavages), and it gives formulas for how these rates depend on n (and thus the radial span of the Rydberg orbitals). PMID:19731901

  16. Insights into proton-coupled electron transfer mechanisms of electrocatalytic H2 oxidation and production

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Samantha; Fernandez, Laura E.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The design of molecular electrocatalysts for H2 oxidation and production is important for the development of alternative renewable energy sources that are abundant, inexpensive, and environmentally benign. Recently, nickel-based molecular electrocatalysts with pendant amines that act as proton relays for the nickel center were shown to effectively catalyze H2 oxidation and production. We developed a quantum mechanical approach for studying proton-coupled electron transfer processes in these types of molecular electrocatalysts. This theoretical approach is applied to a nickel-based catalyst in which phosphorous atoms are directly bonded to the nickel center, and nitrogen atoms of the ligand rings act as proton relays. The catalytic step of interest involves electron transfer between the nickel complex and the electrode as well as intramolecular proton transfer between the nickel and nitrogen atoms. This process can occur sequentially, with either the electron or proton transferring first, or concertedly, with the electron and proton transferring simultaneously without a stable intermediate. The electrochemical rate constants are calculated as functions of overpotential for the concerted electron-proton transfer reaction and the two electron transfer reactions in the sequential mechanisms. Our calculations illustrate that the concerted electron-proton transfer standard rate constant will increase as the equilibrium distance between the nickel and nitrogen atoms decreases and as the pendant amines become more flexible to facilitate the contraction of this distance with a lower energy penalty. This approach identifies the favored mechanisms under various experimental conditions and provides insight into the impact of substituents on the nitrogen and phosphorous atoms. PMID:22529352

  17. Insights into proton-coupled electron transfer mechanisms of electrocatalytic H2 oxidation and production

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, Samantha; Fernandez, Laura; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2012-09-25

    The design of molecular electrocatalysts for H2 oxidation and production is important for the development of alternative renewable energy sources that are abundant, inexpensive, and environmentally benign. Recently nickel-based molecular electrocatalysts with pendant amines that act as proton relays for the nickel center were shown to effectively catalyze H2 oxidation and production. We developed a quantum mechanical approach for studying proton-coupled electron transfer processes in these types of molecular electrocatalysts. This theoretical approach is applied to a nickel-based catalyst in which phosphorous atoms are directly bonded to the nickel center and nitrogen atoms of the ligand rings act as proton relays. The cataly c step of interest involves electron transfer between the nickel complex and the electrode as well as intramolecular proton transfer between the nickel and nitrogen atoms. This process can occur sequentially, with either the electron or proton transferring first, or concertedly, with the electron and proton transferring simultaneously without a stable intermediate. The heterogeneous rate constants are calculated as functions of overpotential for the concerted electron-proton transfer reaction and the two electron transfer reactions in the sequential mechanisms. Our calculations illustrate that the concerted electron-proton transfer standard rate constant will increase as the equilibrium distance between the nickel and nitrogen atoms decreases and as the nitrogen atoms become more mobile to facilitate the contraction of this distance. This approach assists in the identification of the favored mechanisms under various experimental conditions and provides insight into the qualitative impact of substituents on the nitrogen and phosphorous atoms. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under FWP 56073.

  18. Dynamic imaging of structural changes in silver catalysts by environmental scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Uwins, P J; Millar, G J; Nelson, M L

    1997-03-01

    Polycrystalline silver catalysts are used extensively for the partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde, which is then primarily incorporated in the synthesis process for adhesives and resins. In order to maximize formaldehyde production it is essential to gain a comprehensive understanding of the complex microstructural changes which occur in the catalyst during reaction conditions. However, conventional electron microscopic techniques are incapable of imaging catalysts at high temperatures and in the presence of a gaseous atmosphere. Therefore, an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) has been used to image polycrystalline silver catalysts during simulated industrial conditions. The most dramatic effect of heating various catalysts to 700 degrees C in the ESEM chamber was the formation of "pinholes" in the silver surface. These "pinholes" occur at specific temperatures and are inherently associated with the catalytic process, resulting from near-surface explosions caused by subsurface hydroxyl recombination. Of particular interest was the nature and location of the holes, which preferentially occur in the vicinity of surface defects such as platelets and edge structures. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first time that the progress of a catalytic reaction has been observed under in situ conditions by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:9140940

  19. Photoinduced electron transfer reactions in zeolite cages

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes work in the two areas of zeolites and layered double hydroxides. Results of studies on structural aspects of Ru(bpy)[sub 3][sup 2+]-zeolite Y are summarized. Photoinduced electron transfer between entrapped Ru(bpy)[sub 3][sup 2+] and methylviologen (MV) in neighboring supercages was examined. Benzylviologen was also used. Since molecules larger than 13 [angstrom] cannot be accomodated in zeolite cages, the layered double metal hydroxides (LDH) LiAl[sub 2](OH)[sub 6][sup +]X[sup [minus

  20. Quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process in Lorentzian plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Woo-Pyo; Jung, Young-Dae

    2014-08-01

    The quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process between a positive ion and a neutral atom collision is investigated in nonthermal generalized Lorentzian plasmas. The result shows that the nonthermal effect enhances the resonant electron transfer cross section in Lorentzian plasmas. It is found that the nonthermal effect on the classical resonant electron transfer cross section is more significant than that on the quantum tunneling resonant charge transfer cross section. It is shown that the nonthermal effect on the resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with an increase of the Debye length. In addition, the nonthermal effect on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer cross section decreases with increasing collision energy. The variation of nonthermal and plasma shielding effects on the quantum tunneling resonant electron transfer process is also discussed.

  1. Electron Transfer versus Proton Transfer in Gas-Phase Ion/Ion Reactions of Polyprotonated Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Harsha P.; He, Min; Chrisman, Paul A.; Pitteri, Sharon J.; Hogan, Jason M.; Hodges, Brittany D. M.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    The ion/ion reactions of several dozen reagent anions with triply protonated cations of the model peptide KGAILKGAILR have been examined to evaluate predictions of a Landau–Zener-based model for the likelihood for electron transfer. Evidence for electron transfer was provided by the appearance of fragment ions unique to electron transfer or electron capture dissociation. Proton transfer and electron transfer are competitive processes for any combination of anionic and cationic reactants. For reagent anions in reactions with protonated peptides, proton transfer is usually significantly more exothermic than electron transfer. If charge transfer occurs at relatively long distances, electron transfer should, therefore, be favored on kinetic grounds because the reactant and product channels cross at greater distances, provided conditions are favorable for electron transfer at the crossing point. The results are consistent with a model based on Landau–Zener theory that indicates both thermodynamic and geometric criteria apply for electron transfer involving polyatomic anions. Both the model and the data suggest that electron affinities associated with the anionic reagents greater than about 60–70 kcal/mol minimize the likelihood that electron transfer will be observed. Provided the electron affinity is not too high, the Franck–Condon factors associated with the anion and its corresponding neutral must not be too low. When one or the other of these criteria is not met, proton transfer tends to occur essentially exclusively. Experiments involving ion/ion attachment products also suggest that a significant barrier exists to the isomerization between chemical complexes that, if formed, lead to either proton transfer or electron transfer. PMID:16144411

  2. Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Charge and Excitation Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Piotrowiak

    2004-09-28

    We report the and/or state of several subprojects of our DOE sponsored research on Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Electron and Excitation Transfer: (1) Construction of an ultrafast Ti:sapphire amplifier. (2) Mediation of electronic interactions in host-guest molecules. (3) Theoretical models of electrolytes in weakly polar media. (4) Symmetry effects in intramolecular excitation transfer.

  3. Dispersed Polaron Simulations of Electron Transfer in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Warshel; Z. T. Chu; W. W. Parson

    1989-01-01

    A microscopic method for simulating quantum mechanical, nuclear tunneling effects in biological electron transfer reactions is presented and applied to several electron transfer steps in photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers. In this ``dispersed polaron'' method the fluctuations of the protein and the electron carriers are projected as effective normal modes onto an appropriate reaction coordinate and used to evaluate the quantum

  4. Desulfurization of coal: Enhanced selectivity using phase transfer catalysts. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.R.; Hippo, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    Due to environmental problems related to the combustion of high sulfur Illinois coal, there continues to be interest in the development of viable pre-combustion desulfurization processes. Recent studies by the authors have obtained very good sulfur removals but the reagents that are used are too expensive. Use of cheaper reagents leads to a loss of desired coal properties. This study investigates the application of phase transfer catalysts to the selective oxidation of sulfur in coal using air and oxygen as oxidants. The phase transfer catalyst is expected to function as a selectivity moderator by permitting the use of milder reaction conditions than otherwise necessary. This would enhance the sulfur selectivity and help retain the heating value of the coal. The use of certain coal combustion wastes for desulfurization, and the application of cerium (IV) catalyzed air oxidations for selective sulfur oxidation are also being studied. If successful this project could lead to the rapid development of a commercially viable desulfurization process. This would significantly improve the marketability of Illinois coal. During this quarter aliquots of the IBC-101 coal have been ground to various particle sizes in an attempt to find the optimum physical pretreatment for mineral, especially pyrite, removal. Analysis of these various aliquots shows them to be representative of the original coal. In addition, preliminary desulfurization reactions using fly ash and scrubber sludges have been performed on an unoxidized IBC-101 sample. Results will be available next quarter. Also, SEM-EDAX analysis of the fly ash indicates that it contains oxides that have shown activity in base desulfurization reactions.

  5. Analytical model for rates of electron attachment and intramolecular electron transfer in electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Simons, Jack

    2010-05-26

    A new physical model is put forth to allow the prediction of electron transfer rates and distances for (i) intramolecular transfer from an n > or = 3 Rydberg orbital on a positive site to a disulfide or amide bond site and (ii) intermolecular transfer from an anion donor to an n > or = 3 Rydberg orbital of a positively charged polypeptide. Although ab initio methods have proven capable of handling such electron transfer events when the Rydberg orbital has principal quantum number n = 3, they have proven to be incapable of handling Rydberg states having quantum number n > 3, so having a new tool capable of handling n > 3 Rydberg states is important. The model (i) focuses on each Rydberg orbital's large peak of high amplitude, (ii) approximates the electron density within this peak as constant within a radial shell characterized by a radius and thickness T both of which depend on the quantum number n, and (iii) assumes that strong coupling (either with an orbital of an anion donor or to a disulfide sigma* or a backbone amide pi* orbital) occurs when the valence orbital penetrates fully within the radial shell of the Rydberg orbital. These assumptions permit a derivation of the ratios of rates of electron transfer for n > 3 to those for n = 3. Combining these ratios with ab initio rates for n = 3 allows one to make rate predictions for inter- and intramolecular electron transfer involving Rydberg orbitals appropriate to the electron transfer dissociation process. One important prediction of this model is that the combination of large-penetration and Landau-Zener surface-crossing conditions places very severe limitations on which Rydberg levels can initially be populated in electron transfer dissociation. Another prediction is that a Rydberg orbital of a given principal quantum number n has a limited range of distances over which it can transfer an electron; sigma* or pi* orbitals either too far from or too close to a given Rydberg orbital cannot accept an electron from that orbital. PMID:20438123

  6. Electron transfer reactions in microporous solids

    SciTech Connect

    Mallouk, T.E.

    1992-05-01

    We have studied electron transfer quenching of the excited state of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} in aqueous suspensions of zeolites Y, L, and mordenite. The internal pore network of the zeolite is ion-exchanged with methylviologen cations, which quench the excited state of the surface-bound sensitizer. A detailed study of the quenching and charge recombination kinetics, using time-resolved luminescence quenching and transient diffuse reflectance spectroscopies, shows to remarkable effects: first, the excited state quenching is entirely dynamic is large-pore zeolites (L and Y), even when they are prepared as apparently dry'' powders (which still contain significant amounts of internally sited water). Second, a lower limit for the diffusion coefficient of the MV{sup 2+} ion in these zeolites, determined by this technique, is 10{sup {minus}7} cm{sup 2}sec, i.e., only about one order of magnitude slower than a typical ion in liquid water, and 2--3 orders of magnitude faster than charge transfer diffusion of cations in polyelectrolyte films or membranes such as Nafion. Surface sensitization of internally platinized layered oxide semiconductors such as K{sub 4-x}H{sub x}Nb{sub 6}O{sub 17}{center dot}nH{sub 2}O (x {approx} 2.5) yields photocatalysts for the production of H{sub 2} and I{sub 3{minus}} in aqueous iodide solutions. Layered alkali niobates and titanates form a class of zeolitic wide-bandap semiconductors, and are the first examples of photocatalysts that evolve hydrogen from an electrochemically reversible (i.e., non-sacrificial) electron donor with visible light excitation.

  7. Electron-transfer processes in dendrimers and their implication in biology, catalysis, sensing and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astruc, Didier

    2012-04-01

    The extraordinary development of the design and synthesis of dendrimers has allowed scientists to locate redox sites at precise positions (core, focal points, branching points, termini, cavities) of these perfectly defined macromolecules, which have generation-controlled sizes and topologies matching those of biomolecules. Redox-dendrimer engineering has led to fine modelling studies of electron-transfer metalloproteins, in which the branches of the dendrimers hinder access to the active site in a manner reminiscent of that of the protein. It has also enabled the construction of remarkable catalysts, sensors and printboards, including by sophisticated design of the interface between redox dendrimers and solid-state devices -- for example by functionalizing electrodes and other surfaces. Electron-transfer processes between dendrimers and a variety of other molecules hold promising applications in diverse areas that range from bio-engineering to sensing, catalysis and energy materials.

  8. Iridium(III) Hydrido N-Heterocyclic Carbene–Phosphine Complexes as Catalysts in Magnetization Transfer Reactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The hyperpolarization (HP) method signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) uses para-hydrogen to sensitize substrate detection by NMR. The catalyst systems [Ir(H)2(IMes)(MeCN)2(R)]BF4 and [Ir(H)2(IMes)(py)2(R)]BF4 [py = pyridine; R = PCy3 or PPh3; IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene], which contain both an electron-donating N-heterocyclic carbene and a phosphine, are used here to catalyze SABRE. They react with acetonitrile and pyridine to produce [Ir(H)2(NCMe)(py)(IMes)(PPh3)]BF4 and [Ir(H)2(NCMe)(py)(IMes)(PCy3)]BF4, complexes that undergo ligand exchange on a time scale commensurate with observation of the SABRE effect, which is illustrated here by the observation of both pyridine and acetonitrile HP. In this study, the required symmetry breaking that underpins SABRE is provided for by the use of chemical inequivalence rather than the previously reported magnetic inequivalence. As a consequence, we show that the ligand sphere of the polarization transfer catalyst itself becomes hyperpolarized and hence that the high-sensitivity detection of a number of reaction intermediates is possible. These species include [Ir(H)2(NCMe)(py)(IMes)(PPh3)]BF4, [Ir(H)2(MeOH)(py)(IMes)(PPh3)]BF4, and [Ir(H)2(NCMe)(py)2(PPh3)]BF4. Studies are also described that employ the deuterium-labeled substrates CD3CN and C5D5N, and the labeled ligands P(C6D5)3 and IMes-d22, to demonstrate that dramatically improved levels of HP can be achieved as a consequence of reducing proton dilution and hence polarization wastage. By a combination of these studies with experiments in which the magnetic field experienced by the sample at the point of polarization transfer is varied, confirmation of the resonance assignments is achieved. Furthermore, when [Ir(H)2(pyridine-h5)(pyridine-d5)(IMes)(PPh3)]BF4 is examined, its hydride ligand signals are shown to become visible through para-hydrogen-induced polarization rather than SABRE. PMID:24215616

  9. Catalytic electron-transfer oxygenation of substrates with water as an oxygen source using manganese porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Mizuno, Takuya; Ojiri, Tetsuya

    2012-12-01

    Manganese(V)-oxo-porphyrins are produced by the electron-transfer oxidation of manganese-porphyrins with tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) ([Ru(bpy)(3)](3+); 2 equiv) in acetonitrile (CH(3)CN) containing water. The rate constants of the electron-transfer oxidation of manganese-porphyrins have been determined and evaluated in light of the Marcus theory of electron transfer. Addition of [Ru(bpy)(3)](3+) to a solution of olefins (styrene and cyclohexene) in CH(3)CN containing water in the presence of a catalytic amount of manganese-porphyrins afforded epoxides, diols, and aldehydes efficiently. Epoxides were converted to the corresponding diols by hydrolysis, and were further oxidized to the corresponding aldehydes. The turnover numbers vary significantly depending on the type of manganese-porphyrin used owing to the difference in their oxidation potentials and the steric bulkiness of the ligand. Ethylbenzene was also oxidized to 1-phenylethanol using manganese-porphyrins as electron-transfer catalysts. The oxygen source in the substrate oxygenation was confirmed to be water by using (18)O-labeled water. The rate constant of the reaction of the manganese(V)-oxo species with cyclohexene was determined directly under single-turnover conditions by monitoring the increase in absorbance attributable to the manganese(III) species produced in the reaction with cyclohexene. It has been shown that the rate-determining step in the catalytic electron-transfer oxygenation of cyclohexene is electron transfer from [Ru(bpy)(3)](3+) to the manganese-porphyrins. PMID:23129350

  10. Photoinitiated electron transfer in multichromophoric species: Synthetic tetrads and pentads

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This project involves the design, synthesis and study of molecules which mimic some of the important aspects of photosynthetic electron and energy transfer. This research project is leading to a better understanding of the energy conserving steps of photosynthesis via the study of synthetic model systems which abstract features of the natural photosynthetic apparatus. The knowledge gained from these studies will aid in the design of artificial photosynthetic reaction centers which employ the basic chemistry and physics of photosynthesis to help meet mankind`s energy needs. The approach to artificial photosynthesis employed in this project is to use synthetic pigments, electron donors, and electron acceptors similar to those found in biological reaction centers, but to replace the protein component with covalent bonds. These chemical linkages determine the electronic coupling between the various moieties by controlling separation, relative orientation, and overlap of electronic orbitals. The model systems are designed to mimic the following aspects of natural photosynthetic electron transfer: electron donation from a tetrapyrrole excited single state, electron transfer between tetrapyrroles, electron transfer from tetrapyrroles to quinones, and electron transfer between quinones with different redox properties. In addition, they mimic carotenoid antenna function in photosynthesis (singlet-singlet energy transfer from carotenoid polyenes to chlorophyll) and carotenoid photoprotection from singlet oxygen damage (triplet-triplet energy transfer from chlorophyll to carotenoids).

  11. Removal of VOCs by hybrid electron beam reactor with catalyst bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinkyu; Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Yuri; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Park, Chong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Chul; Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, Ki-Joon

    2004-09-01

    Electron beam decomposition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was studied in order to obtain information for developing effective treatment method of off-gases from industries. We have examined the combination of electron beam and catalyst honeycomb which is either 1% platinum based or ceramic honeycomb- based aluminum oxide, using a hybrid reactor in order to improve removal efficiency and CO 2 formation; and to suppress undesirable by-product formation e.g. O 3, aerosol, H xC y. , and tar. The experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale treatment system (maximum capacity; 1800 N m 3/h) that fitted the field size to scale up from the traditional laboratory scale system for VOC removal with electron beam irradiation. Toluene was selected as a typical VOC that was irradiated to investigate product formation, effect of ceramic and catalyst, and factors effecting overall efficiency of degradation. Styrene was selected as the most odorous compound among the VOCs of interest. It was found that VOCs could be destroyed more effectively using a hybrid system with catalyst bed than with electron beam irradiation only.

  12. PROTON-COUPLED ELECTRON TRANSFER: A Reaction Chemist's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, James M.

    2004-01-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions involve the concerted transfer of an electron and a proton. Such reactions play an important role in many areas of chemistry and biology. Concerted PCET is thermochemically more favorable than the first step in competing consecutive processes involving stepwise electron transfer (ET) and proton transfer (PT), often by >=1 eV. PCET reactions of the form X-H + Y X + H-Y can be termed hydrogen atom transfer (HAT). Another PCET class involves outersphere electron transfer concerted with deprotonation by another reagent, Y+ + XH-B Y + X-HB+ . Many PCET/HAT rate constants are predicted well by the Marcus cross relation. The cross-relation calculation uses rate constants for self-exchange reactions to provide information on intrinsic barriers. Intrinsic barriers for PCET can be comparable to or larger than those for ET. These properties are discussed in light of recent theoretical treatments of PCET.

  13. Integrating proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) and excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Christopher J.; Westlake, Brittany C.; Kent, Caleb A.; Paul, Jared J.; Papanikolas, John M.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    In many of the chemical steps in photosynthesis and artificial photosynthesis, proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) plays an essential role. An important issue is how excited state reactivity can be integrated with PCET to carry out solar fuel reactions such as water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen or water reduction of CO{sub 2} to methanol or hydrocarbons. The principles behind PCET and concerted electron–proton transfer (EPT) pathways are reasonably well understood. In Photosystem II antenna light absorption is followed by sensitization of chlorophyll P{sub 680} and electron transfer quenching to give P{sub 680}{sup +}. The oxidized chlorophyll activates the oxygen evolving complex (OEC), a CaMn4 cluster, through an intervening tyrosine–histidine pair, Y{sub Z}. EPT plays a major role in a series of four activation steps that ultimately result in loss of 4e{sup ?}/4H{sup +} from the OEC with oxygen evolution. The key elements in photosynthesis and artificial photosynthesis – light absorption, excited state energy and electron transfer, electron transfer activation of multiple-electron, multiple-proton catalysis – can also be assembled in dye sensitized photoelectrochemical synthesis cells (DS-PEC). In this approach, molecular or nanoscale assemblies are incorporated at separate electrodes for coupled, light driven oxidation and reduction. Separate excited state electron transfer followed by proton transfer can be combined in single semi-concerted steps (photo-EPT) by photolysis of organic charge transfer excited states with H-bonded bases or in metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited states in pre-associated assemblies with H-bonded electron transfer donors or acceptors. In these assemblies, photochemically induced electron and proton transfer occur in a single, semi-concerted event to give high-energy, redox active intermediates.

  14. Understanding catalyst behavior during in situ heating through simultaneous secondary and transmitted electron imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    By coupling techniques of simultaneous secondary (SE) and transmitted electron (TE) imaging at high resolution in a modern scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), with the ability to heat specimens using a highly stable MEMS-based heating platform, we obtained synergistic information to clarify the behavior of catalysts during in situ thermal treatments. Au/iron oxide catalyst 'leached' to remove surface Au was heated to temperatures as high as 700°C. The Fe2O3 support particle structure tended to reduce to Fe3O4 and formed surface terraces; the formation, coalescence, and mobility of 1- to 2-nm particles on the terraces were characterized in SE, STEM-ADF, and TEM-BF modes. If combined with simultaneous nanoprobe spectroscopy, this approach will open the door to a new way of studying the kinetics of nano-scaled phenomena. PMID:25419195

  15. Understanding catalyst behavior during in situ heating through simultaneous secondary and transmitted electron imaging.

    PubMed

    Howe, Jane Y; Allard, Lawrence F; Bigelow, Wilbur C; Demers, Hendrix; Overbury, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    By coupling techniques of simultaneous secondary (SE) and transmitted electron (TE) imaging at high resolution in a modern scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), with the ability to heat specimens using a highly stable MEMS-based heating platform, we obtained synergistic information to clarify the behavior of catalysts during in situ thermal treatments. Au/iron oxide catalyst 'leached' to remove surface Au was heated to temperatures as high as 700°C. The Fe2O3 support particle structure tended to reduce to Fe3O4 and formed surface terraces; the formation, coalescence, and mobility of 1- to 2-nm particles on the terraces were characterized in SE, STEM-ADF, and TEM-BF modes. If combined with simultaneous nanoprobe spectroscopy, this approach will open the door to a new way of studying the kinetics of nano-scaled phenomena. PMID:25419195

  16. Electron Transfer Dissociation of Milk Oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Liang; Costello, Catherine E.

    2011-06-01

    For structural identification of glycans, the classic collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectra are dominated by product ions that derived from glycosidic cleavages, which provide only sequence information. The peaks from cross-ring fragmentation are often absent or have very low abundances in such spectra. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is being applied to structural identification of carbohydrates for the first time, and results in some new and detailed information for glycan structural studies. A series of linear milk sugars was analyzed by a variety of fragmentation techniques such as MS/MS by CID and ETD, and MS3 by sequential CID/CID, CID/ETD, and ETD/CID. In CID spectra, the detected peaks were mainly generated via glycosidic cleavages. By comparison, ETD generated various types of abundant cross-ring cleavage ions. These complementary cross-ring cleavages clarified the different linkage types and branching patterns of the representative milk sugar samples. The utilization of different MS3 techniques made it possible to verify initial assignments and to detect the presence of multiple components in isobaric peaks. Fragment ion structures and pathways could be proposed to facilitate the interpretation of carbohydrate ETD spectra, and the main mechanisms were investigated. ETD should contribute substantially to confident structural analysis of a wide variety of oligosaccharides.

  17. Electronic transfer of sensitive patient data.

    PubMed

    Detterbeck, A M W; Kaiser, J; Hirschfelder, U

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop decision-making aids and recommendations for dental practitioners regarding the utilization and sharing of sensitive digital patient data. In the current environment of growing digitization, healthcare professionals need detailed knowledge of secure data management to maximize confidentiality and minimize the risks involved in both archiving patient data and sharing it through electronic channels. Despite well-defined legal requirements, an all-inclusive technological solution does not currently exist. The need for a preliminary review and critical appraisal of common practices of data transfer prompted a search of the literature and the Web to identify viable methods of secure data exchange and to develop a flowchart. A strong focus was placed on the transmission of datasets both smaller than and larger than 10 MB, and on secure communication by smartphone. Although encryption of patient-related data should be routine, it is often difficult to implement. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) are viable standards for secure e-mail encryption. Sharing of high-volume data should be accomplished with the help of file encryption. Careful handling of sensitive patient data is mandatory, and it is the end-user's responsibility to meet any requirements for encryption, preferably by using free, open-source (and hence transparent) software. PMID:25911828

  18. Vectorial electron transfer on designed surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, A. J.; Campion, A.; Fox, M. A.; Mallouk, T. E.; Webber, S. E.

    Bipolar CdSe/CoS semiconductor photoelectrode panels, capable of vectorial electron transfer, were used in series arrays to photodecompose water to yield hydrogen and oxygen in stoichiometric ratio with a maximum solar efficiency of about 1 precent. An analytical model was developed for these arrays which addresses the question of watersplitting and electrical power generation efficiencies as functions of the number of panels, the overpotential of the gas generating electrodes, incident light intensity, and the concentrations of the redox couples. Hydrogen production using a self-assembling zeolite system was discovered. Sensitized anatase TiO2 electrodes were used in photoelectrochemical cells employing variety of solution redox couples. The photoassisted production of hydrogen from methanol-water solutions containing mixtures of small particles of CdS/SiO2 and a wide bandgap semiconductor (TiO, ZnO, SnO2, or WO3), supported on silica and platinized was studied. The phenomenon of interparticle charge separation for Cds/SiO2 was found to be operative for CdS/SiO2 with WS sub 2/SiO2.

  19. Automatic control system of pneumatic catalyst transport studied on an electronic ÉMU-10 model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Kozlov; A. A. Orekhov; A. A. Oprichko

    1966-01-01

    1.The best automatic control system for the optimum gasodynamic regime of pneumatic transport is obtained by regulation of the deviations in the two parameters ?P and ?G of the gas.2.Since settling of the catalyst takes place in 5–6 sec, it is necessary to use fast electronic regulators in the automatic control system.3.The study on automatic control systems is applicable to

  20. Harvesting singlet fission for solar energy conversion: one versus two-electron transfer electron transfer from the quantum superposition state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Wai-Lun; Tritsch, John; Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2013-03-01

    Singlet fission (SF) is being explored to increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaics. A key question is how to effectively extract multiple electron-hole pairs from multiple excitons with the presence of other competing channels such as electron transfer from the singlet state. Recent experiments on the pentacene and tetracene show that a quantum superposition of the singlet (S1) and multiexciton (ME) state is formed during SF. However, little is known about the kinetics of electron transfer from this quantum superposition. Here, we apply time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to the tetracene/C60 interface to probe one and two electron transfer from S1 and ME states, respectively. Because of the relatively slow (7 ps) SF in tetracene, both one- and two-electron transfer are allowed. We show evidence for the formation of two distinct charge transfer states due to electron transfer from photo-excited tetracene to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and the LUMO+1 levels in C60. Kinetic analysis shows that 60% of the quantum superposition transfers one electron through the S1 state to C60 while 40% undergoes two-electron transfer through the ME state.

  1. Variable Electron Transfer Pathways in an Amphibian Cryptochrome

    PubMed Central

    Biskup, Till; Paulus, Bernd; Okafuji, Asako; Hitomi, Kenichi; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.; Weber, Stefan; Schleicher, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Electron transfer reactions play vital roles in many biological processes. Very often the transfer of charge(s) proceeds stepwise over large distances involving several amino acid residues. By using time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy, we have studied the mechanism of light-induced reduction of the FAD cofactor of cryptochrome/photolyase family proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that electron abstraction from a nearby amino acid by the excited FAD triggers further electron transfer steps even if the conserved chain of three tryptophans, known to be an effective electron transfer pathway in these proteins, is blocked. Furthermore, we were able to characterize this secondary electron transfer pathway and identify the amino acid partner of the resulting flavin-amino acid radical pair as a tyrosine located at the protein surface. This alternative electron transfer pathway could explain why interrupting the conserved tryptophan triad does not necessarily alter photoreactions of cryptochromes in vivo. Taken together, our results demonstrate that light-induced electron transfer is a robust property of cryptochromes and more intricate than commonly anticipated. PMID:23430261

  2. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. A comparative study on improvements due to heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    Monolithic catalysts with higher available active surface areas and better thermal conductivity than conventional pellets beds, making possible the steam reforming of fuels heavier than naphtha, were examined. Performance comparisons were made between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts using n-hexane as the fuel. Metal-supported monoliths were examined. These offer higher structural stability and higher thermal conductivity than ceramic supports. Data from two metal monoliths of different nickel catalyst loadings were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions. Improved heat transfer and better conversion efficiencies were obtained with the monolith having higher catalyst loading. Surface-gas interaction was observed throughout the length of the monoliths.

  3. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. A comparative study on improvements due to heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Monolithic catalysts with higher available active surface areas and better thermal conductivity than conventional pellets beds, making possible the steam reforming of fuels heavier than naphtha, were examined. Performance comparisons were made between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts using n-hexane as the fuel. Metal-supported monoliths were examined. These offer higher structural stability and higher thermal conductivity than ceramic supports. Data from two metal monoliths of different nickel catalyst loadings were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions. Improved heat transfer and better conversion efficiencies were obtained with the monolith having higher catalyst loading. Surface-gas interaction was observed throughout the length of the monoliths.

  4. Electron energy transfer rate coefficients of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Popari?, G B; Risti?, M M; Beli?, D S

    2010-02-01

    An extensive set of integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact vibrational excitation of the CO(2) molecule has been used to calculate electron energy transfer rate coefficients. The ICSs for electron impact symmetric stretch vibrational excitation are measured by using a high resolution double trochoidal electron spectrometer, while ICSs for the bending and asymmetric vibrations have been adopted from previous publications. Calculations of the energy transfer rate coefficients are performed for the equilibrium conditions in the mean electron energy range from 0 to 11 eV. By use of extended Monte Carlo simulations, electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) and electron energy transfer rate coefficients are determined in the nonequilibrium conditions, for low and moderate values of the electric field over gas number density ratios, E/N, up to 150 Td. Contributions of higher vibrational levels are emphasized. The results are compared with the data available in the literature. PMID:20043664

  5. Desulfurization of coal: Enhanced selectivity using phase transfer catalysts. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.R.; Hippo, E.J.

    1997-05-01

    Due to environmental problems related to the combustion of high sulfur Illinois coal, there continues to be interest in the development of viable pre-combustion desulfurization processes. Recent studies by the authors have obtained very good sulfur removals but the reagents that are used are too expensive. Use of cheaper reagents leads to a loss of desired coal properties. This study investigated the application of phase transfer catalysts to the selective oxidation of sulfur in coal using air and oxygen as oxidants. The phase transfer catalyst was expected to function as a selectivity moderator by permitting the use of milder reaction conditions than otherwise necessary. This would enhance the sulfur selectivity and help retain the heating value of the coal. The use of certain coal combustion wastes for desulfurization, and the application of cerium (IV) catalyzed air oxidations for selective sulfur oxidation were also studied. If successful this project would have lead to the rapid development of a commercially viable desulfurization process. This would have significantly improved the marketability of Illinois coal. However, the phase transfer catalysts, the cerium and the scrubber sledge did not catalize the sulfur removal significantly.

  6. Probing the Mechanism of Electron Capture and Electron Transfer Dissociation Using Tags with Variable Electron Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Chang Ho; Chung, Cheol K.; Yin, Sheng; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Loo, Joseph A.; Beauchamp, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Electron capture dissociation (ECD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) of doubly protonated electron affinity (EA)-tuned peptides were studied to further illuminate the mechanism of these processes. The model peptide FQpSEEQQQTEDELQDK, containing a phosphoserine residue, was converted to EA-tuned peptides via ?-elimination and Michael addition of various thiol compounds. These include propanyl, benzyl, 4-cyanobenzyl, perfluorobenzyl, 3,5-dicyanobenzyl, 3-nitrobenzyl and 3,5-dinitrobenzyl structural moieties, having a range of EA from -1.15 to 1.65 eV, excluding the propanyl group. Typical ECD or ETD backbone fragmentations are completely inhibited in peptides with substituent tags having EA over 1.00 eV, which are referred to as electron predators in this work. Nearly identical rates of electron capture by the dications substituted by the benzyl (EA = -1.15 eV) and 3-nitrobenzyl (EA = 1.00 eV) moieties are observed, which indicates the similarity of electron capture cross sections for the two derivatized peptides. This observation leads to the inference that electron capture kinetics are governed by the long range electron-dication interaction and are not affected by side chain derivatives with positive EA. Once an electron is captured to high-n Rydberg states, however, through-space or through-bond electron transfer to the EA-tuning tags or low-n Rydberg states via potential curve crossing occurs in competition with transfer to the amide ?* orbital. The energetics of these processes are evaluated using time-dependent density functional theory with a series of reduced model systems. The intramolecular electron transfer process is modulated by structure-dependent hydrogen bonds and is heavily affected by the presence and type of electron withdrawing groups in the EA-tuning tag. The anion radicals formed by electron predators have high proton affinities (approximately 1400 kJ/mol for the 3-nitrobenzyl anion radical) in comparison to other basic sites in the model peptide dication, facilitating exothermic proton transfer from one of the two sites of protonation. This interrupts the normal sequence of events in ECD or ETD leading to backbone fragmentation by forming a stable radical intermediate. The implications which these results have for previously proposed ECD and ETD mechanisms are discussed. PMID:19331417

  7. Microbial phenazine production enhances electron transfer in biofuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Korneel Rabaey; Nico Boon; M Hofte; Willy Verstraete

    2005-01-01

    High-rate electron transfer toward an anode in microbial fuel\\u000a cells(MFCs) has thus far not been described for bacteria-producing\\u000a soluble redox mediators. To study the mechanism of electron transfer, we\\u000a used a MFC isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KRP1. Bacterial\\u000a electron transfer toward the MFC anode was enabled through pyocyanin and\\u000a phenazine-l-carboxamide. The presence of the anode stimulated pyocyanin\\u000a production. Mutant strains,

  8. Electronic energy transfer in rare gas mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Szoke; Y. Binur; R. Shuker; E. Zamir

    1974-01-01

    In a spectroscopic study carried out in this laboratory a new energy transfer mechanism from a noble gas molecule to an atom was identified. This transfer process is similar to the Penning ionization in the sense that it populates energy levels of a guest atom selectively within a certain range. A mixture of Ar:Xe was studied. This report discusses these

  9. Coordinated photoinduced electron and proton transfer in a molecular triad

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, S.C.; Macpherson, A.N.; Lin, S.; Liddell, P.A.; Seely, G.R.; Moore, A.L.; Moore, T.A.; Gust, D. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States))

    1995-02-08

    Excitation of carotenoid-porphyrin-quinone (C-P-Q) triads yields the porphyrin first excited singlet state, which decays by electron transfer to give a C-P[sup [center dot]+]-Q[sup [center dot]-] charge-separated state. Competing with rapid charge recombination is electron transfer from the carotenoid to produce a long-lived C[sup [center dot]+]-P-Q[sup [center dot]-] species. High quantum yields of the final state require tuning of electronic and thermodynamic factors to favor forward electron transfer over charge recombination. Triad 1 illustrates a new strategy for slowing charge recombination based on coupling photoinduced electron transfer to a change in proton chemical potential. The quantum yields and lifetimes of the final charge-separated states in the triads were assessed by monitoring the transient carotenoid radical cation absorptions. The results demonstrate that the yield of charge separation in multicomponent molecular photovoltaics can be increased by a coordinated electron and proton transfer process. It is also interesting that in 1 a substantial fraction of the intramolecular redox potential produced by photoinduced electron transfer is transformed into proton chemical potential. Elaboration of this concept could lead to photoinduced generation of proton motive force in a heterogeneous system. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Frontier orbital symmetry control of intermolecular electron transfer. Final report, September 15, 1988--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, B.

    1997-07-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the recovery of intermolecular transfer parameters from fluorescence quenching in liquids; photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer in flexible donor/space/acceptor systems containing an extended unsaturated spacer; electron transfer sensitized reaction; the recovery of solute and fractal dimensions from electron transfer quenching data; and frontier orbital symmetry control of back electron transfer.

  11. Frontier orbital symmetry control of intermolecular electron transfer. Final report, September 15, 1988December 31, 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the recovery of intermolecular transfer parameters from fluorescence quenching in liquids; photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer in flexible donor\\/space\\/acceptor systems containing an extended unsaturated spacer; electron transfer sensitized reaction; the recovery of solute and fractal dimensions from electron transfer quenching data; and frontier orbital symmetry control of back electron transfer.

  12. Combining UV photodissociation with electron transfer for peptide structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Christopher J; Marek, Ales; Pepin, Robert; Slovakova, Kristina; Turecek, Frantisek

    2015-03-01

    The combination of near-UV photodissociation with electron transfer and collisional activation provides a new tool for structure investigation of isolated peptide ions and reactive intermediates. Two new types of pulse experiments are reported. In the first one called UV/Vis photodissociation-electron transfer dissociation (UVPD-ETD), diazirine-labeled peptide ions are shown to undergo photodissociation in the gas phase to form new covalent bonds, guided by the ion conformation, and the products are analyzed by electron transfer dissociation. In the second experiment, called ETD-UVPD wherein synthetic labels are not necessary, electron transfer forms new cation-peptide radical chromophores that absorb at 355?nm and undergo specific backbone photodissociation reactions. The new method is applied to distinguish isomeric ions produced by ETD of arginine containing peptides. PMID:25800183

  13. Electron beam induced radiation damage in the catalyst layer of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    He, Qianping; Chen, Jihua; Keffer, David J; Joy, David C

    2014-01-01

    Electron microscopy is an essential tool for the evaluation of microstructure and properties of the catalyst layer (CL) of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, electron microscopy has one unavoidable drawback, which is radiation damage. Samples suffer temporary or permanent change of the surface or bulk structure under radiation damage, which can cause ambiguity in the characterization of the sample. To better understand the mechanism of radiation damage of CL samples and to be able to separate the morphological features intrinsic to the material from the consequences of electron radiation damage, a series of experiments based on high-angle annular dark-field-scanning transmission scanning microscope (HAADF-STEM), energy filtering transmission scanning microscope (EFTEM), and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) are conducted. It is observed that for thin samples (0.3-1 times ?), increasing the incident beam energy can mitigate the radiation damage. Platinum nanoparticles in the CL sample facilitate the radiation damage. The radiation damage of the catalyst sample starts from the interface of Pt/C or defective thin edge and primarily occurs in the form of mass loss accompanied by atomic displacement and edge curl. These results provide important insights on the mechanism of CL radiation damage. Possible strategies of mitigating the radiation damage are provided. PMID:23897710

  14. Electron attachment step in electron capture dissociation (ECD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD).

    PubMed

    Anusiewicz, Iwona; Berdys-Kochanska, Joanna; Simons, Jack

    2005-07-01

    We have made use of classical dynamics trajectory simultions and ab initio electronic structure calculations to estimate the cross sections with which electrons are attached (in electron capture dissociation (ECD)) or transferred (in electron transfer dissociation (ETD)) to a model system that contained both an S-S bond that is cleaved and a -NH(3)(+) positively charged site. We used a Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg curve-crossing approximation to estimate the ETD rates for electron transfer from a CH(3)(-) anion to the -NH(3)(+) Rydberg orbital or the S-S sigma* orbital. We draw conclusions about ECD from our ETD results and from known experimental electron-attachment cross sections for cations and sigma-bonds. We predict the cross section for ETD at the positive site of our model compound to be an order of magnitude larger than that for transfer to the Coulomb-stabilized S-S bond site. We also predict that, in ECD, the cross section for electron capture at the positive site will be up to 3 orders of magnitude larger than that for capture at the S-S bond site. These results seem to suggest that attachment to such positive sites should dominate in producing S-S bond cleavage in our compound. However, we also note that cleavage induced by capture at the positive site will be diminished by an amount that is related to the distance from the positive site to the S-S bond. This dimunition can render cleavage through Coulomb-assisted S-S sigma* attachment competitive for our model compound. Implications for ECD and ETD of peptides and proteins in which SS or N-C(alpha) bonds are cleaved are also discussed, and we explain that such events are most likely susceptible to Coulomb-assisted attachment, because the S-S sigma* and C=O pi* orbitals are the lowest-lying antibonding orbitals in most peptides and proteins. PMID:16833914

  15. Measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted during Rapid Intramolecular Electron Transfer

    E-print Network

    Measurement of Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted during Rapid Intramolecular Electron Transfer the electromagnetic (EM) waveform broadcast by the charge-transfer process itself. Intermolecular and intramo- lecular antenna, broadcasting its dynamics by emitting an EM transient as charge moves between donor (D

  16. Single-molecule electron transfer reactions in nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Dehong; Lei, Chenghong; Ackerman, Eric J.

    2009-07-26

    Here we report the study of single molecule electron transfer dynamics by coupling fluorescence microscopy at a conventional electrochemical cell. The single-molecule fluorescence spectroelectrochemistry of cresyl violet in aqueous solution and on nanoparticle surface were studied. We observed that the single-molecule fluorescence intensity of cresyl violet is modulated synchronously with the cyclic voltammetric potential scanning. We attribute the fluorescence intensity change of single cresyl violet molecules to the electron transfer reaction driven by the electrochemical potential.

  17. Photoinduced electron transfer and energy transfer reactions of hydroxo-(2,2?:6?,2?-terpyridine) platinum(II)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauricio Cortes; Jessica T Carney; Jonathon D Oppenheimer; Karen E Downey; Scott D Cummings

    2002-01-01

    The luminescent complex [Pt(terpy)OH]BF4 undergoes photoinduced electron transfer reactions with phenyl amine electron donors and nitrophenyl electron acceptors. Stern–Volmer analysis of the quenching of metal-to-ligand charge transfer phosphorescence (3MLCT) was used to calculate bimolecular rate constants for electron transfer. Rate constants vary from 108 to >1010 M?1 s?1, depending on the thermodynamic driving force of the electron transfer reaction, with

  18. Vectorial electron transfer in spatially ordered arrays. Progress report, August 1994--January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    With DOE support from August 1994 to August 1997, this project sought to identify methods for controlled placement of light absorbers, relays, and multielectron catalysts at defined sites from a fixed semiconductor or metal surface and, thus, to develop methods for preparing chemically modified photoactive surfaces as artificial photosynthetic units. These designed materials have been evaluated as efficient light collection devices and as substrates for defining the key features that govern the efficiency of long distance electron transfer and energy migration. The authors have synthesized several different families of integrated chemical systems as soluble arrays, as solid thin films, and as adsorbates on solid electrodes, seeking to establish how spatial definition deriving from covalent attachment to a helical polymer backbone, from self assembly of functionalized tethers on gold or metal oxide surfaces, and from rigid or layered block polymers can lead to controlled electron and energy transfer. The authors have also conducted physical characterization of semiconductor-containing composites active in controlled interfacial electron transfer, with charge transport in these materials having been evaluated by photophysical and electrochemical methods.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of novel antibacterial polymers and clay delivery systems and polymeric phase transfer catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dizman, Bekir

    The research presented in this dissertation involves the syntheses of both novel antibacterial polymers and nanocomposites and polymeric phase transfer catalysts. The first section describes the synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activities of new acrylate/methacrylate and acrylamide/methacrylamide polymers containing pendant quaternary ammonium compounds and norfloxacin. The first part of this section focuses on the syntheses and antibacterial activities of new water-soluble bis-quaternary ammonium methacrylate monomers and polymers (Chapter II). The monomers and polymers showed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the activity increased as the alkyl chain length in ammonium groups increased from 4 to 6 carbons. The results are very encouraging since polymers with quaternary ammonium compounds containing short alkyl chains are generally not active against bacteria. The second part of the first section involves the syntheses and antibacterial activities of various new monomers and polymers with amine and mono-quaternary ammonium groups on the side chain (Chapter III). The monomers were either the derivatives of 3-(acryloyloxy)-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (AHM) or based on acrylamide and methacrylamide derivatives. All monomers were homopolymerized and copolymerized with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA). Amine monomers, their homopolymers and copolymers did not show any antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli while the quaternized AHM-3-(aminomethyl) pyridine monomer, its homopolymer and copolymer with HEMA showed antibacterial activities against both bacteria. It was also found that the antibacterial activity of the quaternized methacrylamide-3-(aminomethyl) pyridine monomers and polymers increased as the alkyl chain length in ammonium groups increased. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  20. Progress towards quantitative electron microscopy of catalysts Thomas W. Hansen1, Jakob B. Wagner1, Linus D. L. Duchstein1, Filippo Cavalca1,

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Progress towards quantitative electron microscopy of catalysts Thomas W. Dunin-Borkowski1 and Joerg R. Jinschek2 1Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical electron microscopy has resulted from the development of aberration correctors

  1. Femtosecond Dynamics of DNA Photolyase:  Energy Transfer of Antenna Initiation and Electron Transfer of Cofactor Reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaitanya Saxena; Aziz Sancar; Dongping Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Photolyase is an enzyme that uses light energy to repair UV-induced DNA damage. We report here our femtosecond studies of the complex dynamics of energy and electron transfer in E. coli photolyase. Under physiological conditions, the excitation energy transfer from the antenna molecule methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) to the fully reduced cofactor flavin (FADH - ) occurs in 292 ps, but it

  2. Activation of molecular catalysts using semiconductor quantum dots

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Thomas J. (Chapel Hill, NC); Sykora, Milan (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-10-04

    Photocatalytic materials based on coupling of semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQD) and molecular catalysts. These materials have capability to drive or catalyze non-spontaneous chemical reactions in the presence of visible radiation, ultraviolet radiation, or both. The NQD functions in these materials as a light absorber and charge generator. Following light absorption, the NQD activates a molecular catalyst adsorbed on the surface of the NQD via transfer of one or more charges (either electrons or electron-holes) from the NQD to the molecular catalyst. The activated molecular catalyst can then drive a chemical reaction. A photoelectrolytic device that includes such photocatalytic materials is also described.

  3. Chemical Reaction Dynamics accompanying Electron-Transfer Osamu SUGINO

    E-print Network

    Katsumoto, Shingo

    Chemical Reaction Dynamics accompanying Electron-Transfer Osamu SUGINO Institute for Solid State Physics, the University of Tokyo 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Chiba 277-8581 1. Introduction Many chemical reactions and the dynamics goes nonadiabatically. The former appears typically in chemical reactions that accompany electron

  4. Proton-coupled electron transfer in solution, proteins, and electrochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Soudackov, Alexander V.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in the theoretical treatment of proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions are reviewed. These reactions play an important role in a wide range of biological processes, as well as in fuel cells, solar cells, chemical sensors, and electrochemical devices. A unified theoretical framework has been developed to describe both sequential and concerted PCET, as well as hydrogen atom transfer (HAT). A quantitative diagnostic has been proposed to differentiate between HAT and PCET in terms of the degree of electronic nonadiabaticity, where HAT corresponds to electronically adiabatic proton transfer and PCET corresponds to electronically nonadiabatic proton transfer. In both cases, the overall reaction is typically vibronically nonadiabatic. A series of rate constant expressions have been derived in various limits by describing the PCET reactions in terms of nonadiabatic transitions between electron-proton vibronic states. These expressions account for the solvent response to both electron and proton transfer and the effects of the proton donor-acceptor vibrational motion. The solvent and protein environment can be represented by a dielectric continuum or described with explicit molecular dynamics. These theoretical treatments have been applied to numerous PCET reactions in solution and proteins. Expressions for heterogeneous rate constants and current densities for electrochemical PCET have also been derived and applied to model systems. PMID:18842015

  5. Substrate entasis and electronic coupling elements in electron transfer from Fe in a multicopper ferroxidase.

    PubMed

    Kosman, Daniel J

    2008-03-01

    Outersphere electron transfer in multicopper oxidases occurs at the type 1, blue Cu(II). One class of MCO proteins exhibits a specificity in this reaction towards Fe(II). In work carried out in collaboration with the Solomon lab over the past 7 years, we have delineated the structural motifs that support this ferroxidase specificity and have quantified the contributions that each makes to this outersphere electron transfer reaction from Fe(II) to the type 1 Cu(II). Two features of this electron transfer catalysis stand out. First, the protein provides a binding site for Fe(II) that actually favors Fe(III); this coordination sphere places the bound Fe(II) in a state of "entasis" that can be relieved by loss of an electron. In short, the E(O) of the bound Fe(II) is lowered relative to that of aqueous ferrous iron making electron transfer thermodynamically favorable. Second, carboxylates within this coordination sphere provide an electronic coupling pathway for the electron transfer via their H-bond network with type 1 Cu histidine ligands thus making electron transfer kinetically efficient. This brief report breaks down these contributions to ferroxidase specificity in terms of the semi-classical Marcus equation describing outersphere electron transfer. PMID:18443651

  6. Electron transfer in self-assembled orthogonal structures.

    PubMed

    Harriman, Anthony; Rostron, James P; Cesario, Michèle; Ulrich, Gilles; Ziessel, Raymond

    2006-07-01

    Two new molecular dyads, comprising pyrromethene (bodipy) and 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine (terpy) subunits, have been synthesized and fully characterized. Absorption and fluorescence spectral profiles are dominated by contributions from the bodipy unit. Zinc(II) cations bind to the vacant terpy ligand to form both 1:1 and 1:2 (cation:ligand) complexes, as evidenced by X-ray structural data, NMR and spectrophotometric titrations. Attachment of the cations is accompanied by a substantial decrease in fluorescence from the bodipy chromophore due to intramolecular electron transfer across the orthogonal structure. At low temperature, nuclear tunneling occurs and the rate of electron transfer is essentially activationless. However, activated electron transfer is seen at higher temperatures and allows calculation of the corresponding reorganization energy and electronic coupling matrix element. In both cases, charge recombination is faster than charge separation. PMID:16805483

  7. Ultrafast Intramolecular Electron and Proton Transfer in Bis(imino)isoindole Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Eric; Sorenson, Shayne; Dawlaty, Jahan M

    2015-06-01

    Concerted motion of electrons and protons in the excited state is pertinent to a wide range of chemical phenomena, including those relevant for solar-to-fuel light harvesting. The excited state dynamics of small proton-bearing molecules are expected to serve as models for better understanding such phenomena. In particular, for designing the next generation of multielectron and multiproton redox catalysts, understanding the dynamics of more than one proton in the excited state is important. Toward this goal, we have measured the ultrafast dynamics of intramolecular excited state proton transfer in a recently synthesized dye with two equivalent transferable protons. We have used a visible ultrafast pump to initiate the proton transfer in the excited state, and have probed the transient absorption of the molecule over a wide bandwidth in the visible range. The measurement shows that the signal which is characteristic of proton transfer emerges within ?710 fs. To identify whether both protons were transferred in the excited state, we have measured the ultrafast dynamics of a related derivative, where only a single proton was available for transfer. The measured proton transfer time in that molecule was ?427 fs. The observed dynamics in both cases were reasonably fit with single exponentials. Supported by the ultrafast observations, steady-state fluorescence, and preliminary computations of the relaxed excited states, we argue that the doubly protonated derivative most likely transfers only one of its two protons in the excited state. We have performed calculations of the frontier molecular orbitals in the Franck-Condon region. The calculations show that in both derivatives, the excitation is primarily from the HOMO to LUMO causing a large rearrangement of the electronic charge density immediately after photoexcitation. In particular, charge density is shifted away from the phenolic protons and toward the proton acceptor nitrogens. The proton transfer is hypothesized to occur both due to enhanced acidity of the phenolic proton and enhanced basicity of the nitrogen in the excited state. We hope this study can provide insight for better understanding of the general class of excited state concerted electron-proton dynamics. PMID:25932563

  8. Cu/MgAl(2)O(4) as bifunctional catalyst for aldol condensation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and selective transfer hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Pupovac, Kristina; Palkovits, Regina

    2013-11-01

    Copper supported on mesoporous magnesium aluminate has been prepared as noble-metal-free solid catalyst for aldol condensation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural with acetone, followed by hydrogenation of the aldol condensation products. The investigated mesoporous spinels possess high activity as solid-base catalysts. Magnesium aluminate exhibits superior activity compared to zinc and cobalt-based aluminates, reaching full conversion and up to 81?% yield of the 1:1 aldol product. The high activity can be correlated to a higher concentration of basic surface sites on magnesium aluminate. Applying continuous regeneration, the catalysts can be recycled without loss of activity. Focusing on the subsequent hydrogenation of aldol condensation products, Cu/MgAl2 O4 allows a selective hydrogenation and C?O bond cleavage, delivering 3-hydroxybutyl-5-methylfuran as the main product with up to 84?% selectivity avoiding ring saturation. Analysis of the hydrogenation activity reveals that the reaction proceeds in the following order: C?C>C?O>C?O?cleavage>ring hydrogenation. Comparable activity and selectivity can be also achieved utilizing 2-propanol as solvent in the transfer hydrogenation, providing the possibility for partial recycling of acetone and optimization of the hydrogen management. PMID:24038987

  9. Direct Interspecies Electron Transfer between Geobacter metallireducens and Methanosarcina barkeri

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Liu, Fanghua; Markovaite, Beatrice; Chen, Shanshan; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) is potentially an effective form of syntrophy in methanogenic communities, but little is known about the diversity of methanogens capable of DIET. The ability of Methanosarcina barkeri to participate in DIET was evaluated in coculture with Geobacter metallireducens. Cocultures formed aggregates that shared electrons via DIET during the stoichiometric conversion of ethanol to methane. Cocultures could not be initiated with a pilin-deficient G. metallireducens strain, suggesting that long-range electron transfer along pili was important for DIET. Amendments of granular activated carbon permitted the pilin-deficient G. metallireducens isolates to share electrons with M. barkeri, demonstrating that this conductive material could substitute for pili in promoting DIET. When M. barkeri was grown in coculture with the H2-producing Pelobacter carbinolicus, incapable of DIET, M. barkeri utilized H2 as an electron donor but metabolized little of the acetate that P. carbinolicus produced. This suggested that H2, but not electrons derived from DIET, inhibited acetate metabolism. P. carbinolicus-M. barkeri cocultures did not aggregate, demonstrating that, unlike DIET, close physical contact was not necessary for interspecies H2 transfer. M. barkeri is the second methanogen found to accept electrons via DIET and the first methanogen known to be capable of using either H2 or electrons derived from DIET for CO2 reduction. Furthermore, M. barkeri is genetically tractable, making it a model organism for elucidating mechanisms by which methanogens make biological electrical connections with other cells. PMID:24837373

  10. The role of excited Rydberg States in electron transfer dissociation.

    PubMed

    Sobczyk, Monika; Simons, Jack

    2006-04-13

    Ab initio electronic structure methods are used to estimate the cross sections for electron transfer from donor anions having electron binding energies ranging from 0.001 to 0.6 eV to each of three sites in a model disulfide-linked molecular cation. The three sites are (1) the S-S sigma(*) orbital to which electron attachment is rendered exothermic by Coulomb stabilization from the nearby positive site, (2) the ground Rydberg orbital of the -NH(3)(+) site, and (3) excited Rydberg orbitals of the same -NH(3)(+) site. It is found that attachment to the ground Rydberg orbital has a somewhat higher cross section than attachment to either the sigma orbital or the excited Rydberg orbital. However, it is through attachment either to the sigma(*) orbital or to certain excited Rydberg orbitals that cleavage of the S-S bond is most likely to occur. Attachment to the sigma(*) orbital causes prompt cleavage because the sigma energy surface is repulsive (except at very long range). Attachment to the ground or excited Rydberg state causes the S-S bond to rupture only once a through-bond electron transfer from the Rydberg orbital to the S-S sigma(*) orbital takes place. For the ground Rydberg state, this transfer requires surmounting an approximately 0.4 eV barrier that renders the S-S bond cleavage rate slow. However, for the excited Rydberg state, the intramolecular electron transfer has a much smaller barrier and is prompt. PMID:16599533

  11. Mathematics and electronics - the conceptual transfer problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waks, S.

    1988-07-01

    The article deals with the gap between the technological-school student's mastery of pure mathematical principles and his/her competence in their implementation in electronics and suggests a means for narrowing this, using a case study. A cooperative effort by mathematics and electronics teachers, involving coordination of content, teaching strategies and timing, was implemented on two groups (treatment and control). The treatment group achieved significantly higher average scores in tests in those questions where the mathematical reinforcement provided in the treatment process could be used - and this in spite of the group's weaker standing in the electronics course. Moreover, it was establised that treatment students adopted a more analytical approach in their solution strategies, while control students tended to rely more on recall and 'ready-made' formulae. The main conclusion of our case study is that mastery of mathematical theory and principles is a prerequisite to efficient tackling of technological problems, but is not always enough. Cooperation between the maths and electronics teachers contributes to improvement of the teaching-learning process in a technological discipline.

  12. Modification of quinone electrochemistry by the proteins in the biological electron transfer chains: examples

    E-print Network

    Gunner, Marilyn

    Modification of quinone electrochemistry by the proteins in the biological electron transfer chains . Electrochemistry Quinones are the primary intramembrane, mobile, electron carriers in the energy-coupling electron

  13. Water effects on electron transfer in azurin dimers.

    PubMed

    Migliore, Agostino; Corni, Stefano; Di Felice, Rosa; Molinari, Elisa

    2006-11-30

    Recent experimental and theoretical analyses indicate that water molecules between or near redox partners can significantly affect their electron-transfer (ET) properties. Here, we study the effects of intervening water molecules on the electron self-exchange reaction of azurin (Az) by using a newly developed ab-initio method to calculate transfer integrals between molecular sites. We show that the insertion of water molecules in the gap between the copper active sites of Az dimers slows down the exponential decay of the ET rates with the copper-to-copper distance. Depending on the distance between the redox sites, water can enhance or suppress the electron-transfer kinetics. We show that this behavior can be ascribed to the simultaneous action of two competing effects: the electrostatic interaction of water with the protein subsystem and its ability to mediate ET coupling pathways. PMID:17125342

  14. Electron transfer statistics and thermal fluctuations in molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Himangshu Prabal; Harbola, Upendra

    2015-02-01

    We derive analytical expressions for probability distribution function (PDF) for electron transport in a simple model of quantum junction in presence of thermal fluctuations. Our approach is based on the large deviation theory combined with the generating function method. For large number of electrons transferred, the PDF is found to decay exponentially in the tails with different rates due to applied bias. This asymmetry in the PDF is related to the fluctuation theorem. Statistics of fluctuations are analyzed in terms of the Fano factor. Thermal fluctuations play a quantitative role in determining the statistics of electron transfer; they tend to suppress the average current while enhancing the fluctuations in particle transfer. This gives rise to both bunching and antibunching phenomena as determined by the Fano factor. The thermal fluctuations and shot noise compete with each other and determine the net (effective) statistics of particle transfer. Exact analytical expression is obtained for delay time distribution. The optimal values of the delay time between successive electron transfers can be lowered below the corresponding shot noise values by tuning the thermal effects.

  15. Nanostructural and Chemical Characterization of Complex Oxide Catalysts by Analytical Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Weihao

    Complex oxide catalysts are used as heterogeneous catalysts for producing various important organic chemicals. In this thesis, three types of complex oxide catalysts prepared using novel preparation methods have been studied. Each of them has been evaluated for its catalytic performance, namely (i) the selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride over vanadium phosphate (V-P-O) materials; (ii) the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane to ethylene over niobium phosphate (Nb-P-O) materials, and (iii) the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde over iron molybdate (Fe-Mo-O) materials. Analytical electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and other related characterization techniques have been used to provide useful information regarding the morphology, crystallography and chemical composition of these complex oxide catalysts. The underlying aim of this work is to uncover meaningful synthesis-structure-performance relationships for these three complex catalyst systems. Firstly, a standard methodology for generating V-P-O materials, i.e. the VPD route, has been revisited and modified. A variety of alkanes have been added during the alcohol reduction step of VOPO4·2H2O (dihydrate), which were found to have a remarkable influence on the morphology and structure of the V-P-O materials produced. Either VOHPO4·0.5H2O (hemihydrate) or VO(H2PO4)2 material can be produced depending on the precise alcohol:alkane volume ratio used in the reaction. In addition, the specific order in which the alkane and alcohol are added to VOPO 4·2H2O during the VPD route has a dramatic effect on the morphology of the resultant precursor. Through detailed electron microscopy studies we have been able to unveil the epitaxial relationship between the dihyrate and hemihydrate crystalline phases as being [001]dihydrate // [001]hemihydrate and [100]dihydrate // [110]hemihydrate. A two-step mechanism by which the topotactic transformation from dihydrate to hemihydrate occurs has been proposed. Secondly, three different novel synthesis routes have been explored for producing V-P-O catalysts. The first route, involving the addition of various V-P-O 'seeds' during the VPD process, was found to have a profound effect on the morphology of the V-P-O precursor and on inducing certain unexpected phase transformations. Specifically, the V-P-O seed was found to induce the transformation of VO(H2PO4)2 to hemihydrate phase in a 3-octanol solution. The second route, namely the use of a di-block copolymer template in the VPO route, was found to generate a more crystalline hemihydrate precursor with a rhomboidal morphology, which could be activated in a much shorter time period as compared to conventional V-P-O precursors. The third route involved encapsulating the fragile V-P-O rosette-type catalysts within a mechanically protective SiO2 shell. When used in a circulating fluidized bed reactor, these core/shell V-P-O catalysts showed a promising initial catalytic performance, but suffered a severe degradation in performance after two years-on-line. We have been able to attribute this degradation to three contributing factors; namely (i) the generation of inactive V 5+ (e.g. beta-VOPO4) phases, (ii) densification of the SiO2 shell and (iii) loss of core V-P-O materials. In addition, through this latter study, the novel X-ray ultramicroscopy (XuM) technique has been shown to have great potential for the non-destructive study of micron-scale catalyst particles. Thirdly, three different niobium phosphate materials, namely the Nb 2P4O15, NbOPO4 and Nb1.91P 2.82O12 phases, have been synthesized. Each of them was evaluated for the ODH of ethane to ethylene and the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde, respectively. It was found that the Nb1.91P2.82O 12 phase is the most desirable structure for ethane ODH, whereas the NbOPO4 phase is more effective for methanol oxidation. The morphological and structural changes induced by both reactions on these Nb-P-O catalysts have been monitored, and correlated to the measured changes in their catalytic performance. Finally, a highly

  16. Theory of electron transfer and molecular state in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, Robert Gunter

    2002-09-01

    In this thesis, a mechanism for long-range electron transfer in DNA and a systematic search for high conductance DNA are developed. DNA is well known for containing the genetic code of all living species. On the other hand, there are some experimental indications that DNA can mediate effectively long-range electron transfer leading to the concept of chemistry at a distance. This can be important for DNA damage and healing. In the first part of the thesis, a possible mechanism for long-range electron transfer is introduced. The weak distance dependent electron transfer was experimentally observed using transition metal intercalators for donor and acceptor. In our model calculations, the transfer is mediated by the molecular analogue of a Kondo bound state well known from solid state physics of mixed-valence rare-earth compounds. We believe this is quite realistic, since localized d orbitals of the transition metal ions could function as an Anderson impurity embedded in a reservoir of rather delocalized molecular orbitals of the intercalator ligands and DNA pi orbitals. The effective Anderson model is solved with a physically intuitive variational ansatz as well as with the essentially exact DMRG method. The electronic transition matrix element, which is important because it contains the donor-acceptor distance dependence, is obtained with the Mulliken-Hush algorithm as well as from Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surfaces. Our possible explanation of long-range electron transfer is put in context to other more conventional mechanisms which also could lead to similar behavior. Another important issue of DNA is its possible use for nano-technology. Although DNA's mechanical properties are excellent, the question whether it can be conducting and be used for nano-wires is highly controversial. Experimentally, DNA shows conducting, semi-conducting and insulating properties. Motivated by these wide ranging experimental results on the conductivity of DNA, we have embarked on a theoretical effort to ascertain what conditions might induce such remarkable behavior. We use a combination of an ab initio density functional theory method and a parameterized Huckel-Slater-Koster model. Our focus here is to examine whether any likely DNA structures or environments can yield reduced activation gaps to conduction or enhanced electronic overlaps. In particular, we study a hypothetical stretched ribbon structure, A-, and B-form DNA, and the effects of counterions and humidity. Unlike solids, DNA and other molecules are considered soft condensed matter. Hence, we study the influence of vibrations upon the electronic structure of DNA. We calculate parameters for charge transfer rates between adjacent bases. We find good agreement between our estimated rates and recent experimental data assuming that torsional vibrations limit the charge transfer most significantly.

  17. Simulating electron transfer attachment to a positively charged model peptide.

    PubMed

    Anusiewicz, Iwona; Berdys-Kochanska, Joanna; Skurski, Piotr; Simons, Jack

    2006-02-01

    Ab initio electronic structure methods, including stabilization method tools for handling electronically metastable states, are used to treat a model system designed to probe the electron-transfer event characterizing electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectroscopic studies of peptides. The model system consists of a cation H(3)C-(C=O)NH-CH(2)-CH(2)-NH(3)(+), containing a protonated amine site and an amide site, that undergoes collisions with a CH(3)(-) anion. Cross-sections for electron transfer from CH(3)(-) to the protonated amine site are shown to exceed those for transfer to the Coulomb-stabilized amide site by 2 orders of magnitude. Moreover, it is shown that the fates of the amine-attached and amide-attached species are similar in that both eventually lead to the same carbon-centered radical species H(3)C-((*)C-OH)NH-CH(2)-CH(2)-NH(2), although the reaction pathways by which the two species produce this radical are somewhat different. The implications for understanding peptide fragmentation patterns under ETD conditions are also discussed in light of this work's findings. PMID:16435786

  18. Ion scattering and Auger electron spectroscopy analysis of alumina-supported rhodium model catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsmeier, Ch.; Knözinger, H.; Taglauer, E.

    1992-09-01

    Model systems for Rh/Al 2O 3 catalysts were prepared by anodic oxidation of high-purity aluminium foils followed by subsequent vapor deposition of the noble metal. The alumina layer with a thickness of some hundred Å can be altered by a calcination procedure which leads to a strong increase of the layer thickness. The elemental depth distribution of the model catalysts is characterized by low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy and sputter-etching (ISS) with different primary energies. With Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), the sample composition is determined qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The noble metal loading found with AES is in agreement with the layer thickness measured by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). For the quantification of the metal layer thickness by AES, a layer-by-layer attenuation model is applied. The stoichiometry of the Al 2O 3 layer is monitored with AES and RBS, showing an oxygen gradient from stoichiometric alumina to metallic Al, starting in a depth of only a few monolayers.

  19. Optical Measurements of Secondary Electron Transfer in Photosystem I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrice Rappaport; Bruce A. Diner; Kevin Redding

    All known photosynthetic reaction centers have symmetric structures, using two similar or identical integral membrane subunits\\u000a to form a dimeric core, which binds the cofactors through which electrons are shuttled across the membrane. This symmetric\\u000a arrangement gives rise to two similar branches of cofactors, down which light-driven electron transfer could proceed. The\\u000a first three members of each branch are chlorins,

  20. Electron-phonon heat transfer in monolayer and bilayer graphene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Viljas; T. T. Heikkilä

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the heat transfer between electrons to acoustic and optical phonons in monolayer and bilayer graphene (MLG and BLG) within the quasiequilibrium approximation. For acoustic phonons, we show how the temperature-power laws of the electron-phonon heat current for BLG differ from those previously derived for MLG and note that the high-temperature (neutral-regime) power laws for MLG and BLG are

  1. Magnetic resonance studies of photo-induced electron transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    van Willigen, H.

    1992-11-01

    Fourier Transform Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (FT EPR) is useful in study of photochemical reactions: a microwave pulse rotates the electron spin magnetization vector from z (magnetic field) into xy plane ([pi]/2 pulse); the time evolution of magnetization in xy plane, the free induction decay (FID), is sampled. Fourier transform of FID gives the frequency domain EPR spectrum of the free radicals, and the method is ideal for time-resolved studies of free radicals produced by pulsed-laser excitation. Investigations of electron transfer reactions focused on porphyrin (donor) - quinone (acceptor) systems. First, two hydrogen abstraction reactions were studied with FT EPR: photoreduction of acetone with 2-propanol, yielding the acetone ketyl radical, and the reaction of 2-propanol with t-butoxy radicals. Then, the FT EPR study of benzoquinone or duroquinone anion radicals generated by pulsed-laser induced electron transfer from zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP) or tetrasulfonated Zn(TPP), was carried out in homogeneous solution, micellar solutions, and silica gel. Finally, FT EPR was used to study electron transfer quenching of triplet C[sub 60] by electron donors.

  2. Energy and photoinduced electron transfer in porphyrin-fullerene dyads

    SciTech Connect

    Kuciauskas, D.; Lin, S.; Seely, G.R.; Moore, A.L.; Moore, T.A.; Gust, D. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)] [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Drovetskaya, T.; Reed, C.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Boyd, P.D.W. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand)] [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand)

    1996-09-26

    Time-resolved fluorescence and absorption techniques have been used to investigate energy and photoinduced electron transfer in a covalently linked free-base porphyrin-fullerene dyad and its zinc analogue. In toluene, the porphyrin first excited singlet states decay in about 20 ps by singlet-singlet energy transfer to the fullerene. The fullerene first excited singlet state is not quenched and undergoes intersystem crossing to the triplet, which exists in equilibrium with the porphyrin triplet state. In benzonitrile, photoinduced electron transfer from the porphyrin first excited singlet state to the fullerene competes with energy transfer. The fullerene excited singlet state is also quenched by electron transfer from the porphyrin. Overall, the charge-separated state is produced with a quantum yield approaching unity. This state lives for 290 ps in the free-base dyad and 50 ps in the zinc analog. These long lifetimes suggest that such dyads may be useful as components of more complex light-harvesting systems. 32 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A ?-electronic covalent organic framework catalyst: ?-walls as catalytic beds for Diels-Alder reactions under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Xu, Hong; Chen, Xiong; Gao, Jia; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-06-25

    We report a strategy for developing ?-electronic covalent organic frameworks as heterogeneous catalysts that enable the use of columnar ?-walls as catalytic beds to facilitate organic transformations in their one-dimensional open channels. The ?-frameworks exhibit outstanding catalytic activity, promote Diels-Alder reactions under ambient conditions and are robust for cycle use. PMID:26000867

  4. CORRELATING ELECTRONIC AND VIBRATIONAL MOTIONS IN CHARGE TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Munira

    2014-06-27

    The goal of this research program was to measure coupled electronic and nuclear motions during photoinduced charge transfer processes in transition metal complexes by developing and using novel femtosecond spectroscopies. The scientific highlights and the resulting scientific publications from the DOE supported work are outlined in the technical report.

  5. Interfacial Electron Transfer into Functionalized Crystalline Polyoxotitanate Nanoclusters

    E-print Network

    Coppens, Philip

    processes in a dye-sensitized solar cell. Theoretical simulations of the electron transfer of molecular adsorption are precisely defined. INTRODUCTION Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) promise the dye sensitizer into the conduction band of the semiconductor substrate. Naturally, the interfaces

  6. Theoretical studies of electron transfer through dendrimeric architecture.

    PubMed

    Rana, Dipankar; Gangopadhyay, Gautam

    2006-01-28

    We have analyzed the steady-state electron transfer rate through a bridge of dendrimeric architecture. The difference between the linear chain and the dendrimeric architecture has also been demonstrated with steady-state rate as a main observable in the coherent and incoherent regimes of interactions. It is shown that generally the rate of electron transfer in dendrimeric architecture is faster than the rate associated with their linear chain counterpart with similar kind of bonding connectivities. The rate depends upon the size of the molecule, core branching, and the nature of the coupling among the different nodes on the dendrimer molecule. Depending upon the nature of the donor and acceptor, phenomenological dephasing coefficient due to environment and the geometry of the dendrimeric architecture, the modification of electron transfer rate has been studied. In the regime of fully coherent interactions where all quantum effects are considered the rate shows a multiple inversion due to the dendrimer architecture which is neither available in the regime of incoherent interaction nor in the linear chain case in similar condition. We have discussed about the applicability of our model in metal-molecule-metal junction, photoinduced electron transfer process, and molecular conductor. PMID:16460214

  7. Electron transfer kinetics on mono- and multilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Velický, Mat?j; Bradley, Dan F; Cooper, Adam J; Hill, Ernie W; Kinloch, Ian A; Mishchenko, Artem; Novoselov, Konstantin S; Patten, Hollie V; Toth, Peter S; Valota, Anna T; Worrall, Stephen D; Dryfe, Robert A W

    2014-10-28

    Understanding of the electrochemical properties of graphene, especially the electron transfer kinetics of a redox reaction between the graphene surface and a molecule, in comparison to graphite or other carbon-based materials, is essential for its potential in energy conversion and storage to be realized. Here we use voltammetric determination of the electron transfer rate for three redox mediators, ferricyanide, hexaammineruthenium, and hexachloroiridate (Fe(CN)(6)(3-), Ru(NH3)(6)(3+), and IrCl(6)(2-), respectively), to measure the reactivity of graphene samples prepared by mechanical exfoliation of natural graphite. Electron transfer rates are measured for varied number of graphene layers (1 to ca. 1000 layers) using microscopic droplets. The basal planes of mono- and multilayer graphene, supported on an insulating Si/SiO(2) substrate, exhibit significant electron transfer activity and changes in kinetics are observed for all three mediators. No significant trend in kinetics with flake thickness is discernible for each mediator; however, a large variation in kinetics is observed across the basal plane of the same flakes, indicating that local surface conditions affect the electrochemical performance. This is confirmed by in situ graphite exfoliation, which reveals significant deterioration of initially, near-reversible kinetics for Ru(NH3)(6)(3+) when comparing the atmosphere-aged and freshly exfoliated graphite surfaces. PMID:25290250

  8. Regulating proton-coupled electron transfer for efficient water splitting by manganese oxides at neutral pH

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Inuzuka, Riko; Takashima, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Toru; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Ryuhei

    2014-01-01

    Manganese oxides have been extensively investigated as model systems for the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II. However, most bioinspired catalysts are inefficient at neutral pH and functional similarity to the oxygen-evolving complex has been rarely achieved with manganese. Here we report the regulation of proton-coupled electron transfer involved in water oxidation by manganese oxides. Pyridine and its derivatives, which have pKa values intermediate to the water ligand bound to manganese(II) and manganese(III), are used as proton-coupled electron transfer induction reagents. The induction of concerted proton-coupled electron transfer is demonstrated by the detection of deuterium kinetic isotope effects and compliance of the reactions with the libido rule. Although proton-coupled electron transfer regulation is essential for the facial redox change of manganese in photosystem II, most manganese oxides impair these regulatory mechanisms. Thus, the present findings may provide a new design rationale for functional analogues of the oxygen-evolving complex for efficient water splitting at neutral pH. PMID:24977746

  9. Regulating proton-coupled electron transfer for efficient water splitting by manganese oxides at neutral pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Inuzuka, Riko; Takashima, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Toru; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Ryuhei

    2014-06-01

    Manganese oxides have been extensively investigated as model systems for the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II. However, most bioinspired catalysts are inefficient at neutral pH and functional similarity to the oxygen-evolving complex has been rarely achieved with manganese. Here we report the regulation of proton-coupled electron transfer involved in water oxidation by manganese oxides. Pyridine and its derivatives, which have pKa values intermediate to the water ligand bound to manganese(II) and manganese(III), are used as proton-coupled electron transfer induction reagents. The induction of concerted proton-coupled electron transfer is demonstrated by the detection of deuterium kinetic isotope effects and compliance of the reactions with the libido rule. Although proton-coupled electron transfer regulation is essential for the facial redox change of manganese in photosystem II, most manganese oxides impair these regulatory mechanisms. Thus, the present findings may provide a new design rationale for functional analogues of the oxygen-evolving complex for efficient water splitting at neutral pH.

  10. The theory of electron transfer reactions: what may be missing?

    PubMed

    Small, David W; Matyushov, Dmitry V; Voth, Gregory A

    2003-06-18

    Molecular dynamics simulations are presented for condensed-phase electron transfer (ET) systems where the electronic polarizability of both the solvent and the solute is incorporated. The solute polarizability is allowed to change with electronic transition. The results display notable deviation from the standard free energy parabolas of traditional ET theories. A new three-parameter ET model is applied, and the theory is shown to accurately model the free energy surfaces. This paper presents conclusive evidence that the traditional theory for the free energy barrier of ET reactions requires modification. PMID:12797822

  11. Zwitterionic-surfactant-stabilized palladium nanoparticles as catalysts in the hydrogen transfer reductive amination of benzaldehydes.

    PubMed

    Drinkel, Emma E; Campedelli, Roberta R; Manfredi, Alex M; Fiedler, Haidi D; Nome, Faruk

    2014-03-21

    Palladium nanoparticles (NPs) stabilized by a zwitterionic surfactant are revealed here to be good catalysts for the reductive amination of benzaldehydes using formate salts as hydrogen donors in aqueous isopropanol. In terms of environmental impact and economy, metallic NPs offer several advantages over homogeneous and traditional heterogeneous catalysts. NPs usually display greater activity due to the increased metal surface area and sometimes exhibit enhanced selectivity. Thus, it is possible to use very low loadings of expensive metal. The methodology eliminates the use of a hydrogen gas atmosphere or toxic or expensive reagents. A range of aromatic aldehydes were converted to benzylamines when reacted with primary and secondary amines in the presence of the Pd NPs, which also displayed good activity when supported on alumina. In every case, the Pd NPs could be easily recovered and reused up to three more times, and at the end of the process, the product was metal-free. PMID:24552129

  12. Improving electronic structure methods to predict nano-optoelectronics and nano-catalyst functions.

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Ida Marie B.; Marzari, Nicola (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Shelnutt, John Allen; Kulik, Heather J. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Medforth, Craig John (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Leung, Kevin

    2009-10-01

    This report focuses on quantum chemistry and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations applied to elucidate the mechanism of the multi-step, 2-electron, electrochemical reduction of the green house gas molecule carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) to carbon monoxide (CO) in aqueous media. When combined with H{sub 2} gas to form synthesis ('syn') gas, CO becomes a key precursor to methane, methanol, and other useful hydrocarbon products. To elucidate the mechanism of this reaction, we apply computational electrochemistry which is a fledgling, important area of basic science critical to energy storage. This report highlights several approaches, including the calculation of redox potentials, the explicit depiction of liquid water environments using AIMD, and free energy methods. While costly, these pioneering calculations reveal the key role of hydration- and protonation-stabilization of reaction intermediates, and may inform the design of CO{sub 2}-capture materials as well as its electrochemical reduction. In the course of this work, we have also dealt with the challenges of identifying and applying electronic structure methods which are sufficiently accurate to deal with transition metal ion complex-based catalyst. Such electronic structure methods are also pertinent to the accurate modeling of actinide materials and therefore to nuclear energy research. Our multi-pronged effort towards achieving this titular goal of the LDRD is discussed.

  13. Membrane catalyst layer for fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A gas reaction fuel cell incorporates a thin catalyst layer between a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane and a porous electrode backing. The catalyst layer is preferably less than about 10 .mu.m in thickness with a carbon supported platinum catalyst loading less than about 0.35 mgPt/cm.sup.2. The film is formed as an ink that is spread and cured on a film release blank. The cured film is then transferred to the SPE membrane and hot pressed into the surface to form a catalyst layer having a controlled thickness and catalyst distribution. Alternatively, the catalyst layer is formed by applying a Na.sup.+ form of a perfluorosulfonate ionomer directly to the membrane, drying the film at a high temperature, and then converting the film back to the protonated form of the ionomer. The layer has adequate gas permeability so that cell performance is not affected and has a density and particle distribution effective to optimize proton access to the catalyst and electronic continuity for electron flow from the half-cell reaction occurring at the catalyst.

  14. Mechanistic studies of photo-induced proton-coupled electron transfer and oxygen atom transfer reactions in model systems

    E-print Network

    Hodgkiss, Justin M. (Justin Mark), 1978-

    2007-01-01

    Time-resolved optical spectroscopy has been employed for mechanistic studies in model systems designed to undergo photo-induced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) and oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactions, both of which ...

  15. Copper-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidations of Organic Molecules: Pathways for Two-Electron Oxidation with a Four-Electron Oxidant and a One-Electron Redox-Active Catalyst.

    PubMed

    McCann, Scott D; Stahl, Shannon S

    2015-06-16

    Selective oxidation reactions have extraordinary value in organic chemistry, ranging from the conversion of petrochemical feedstocks into industrial chemicals and polymer precursors to the introduction of heteroatom functional groups into pharmaceutical and agrochemical intermediates. Molecular oxygen (O2) would be the ideal oxidant for these transformations. Whereas many commodity-scale oxidations of simple hydrocarbon feedstocks employ O2 as an oxidant, methods for selective oxidation of more complex molecules bearing diverse functional groups are often incompatible with existing aerobic oxidation methods. The latter limitation provides the basis for our interest in the development of new catalytic transformations and the elucidation of mechanistic principles that underlie selective aerobic oxidation reactions. One challenge inherent in such methods is the incommensurate redox stoichiometry associated with the use of O2, a four-electron oxidant, in reactions that achieve two-electron oxidation of organic molecules. This issue is further complicated by the use of first-row transition-metal catalysts, which tend to undergo facile one-electron redox steps. In recent years, we have been investigating Cu-catalyzed aerobic oxidation reactions wherein the complexities just noted are clearly evident. This Account surveys our work in this area, which has emphasized three general classes of reactions: (1) single-electron-transfer reactions for oxidative functionalization of electron-rich substrates, such as arenes and heterocycles; (2) oxidative carbon-heteroatom bond-forming reactions, including C-H oxidations, that proceed via organocopper(III) intermediates; and (3) methods for aerobic oxidation of alcohols and amines that use Cu(II) in combination with an organic redox-active cocatalyst to dehydrogenate the carbon-heteroatom bond. These reaction classes demonstrate three different pathways to achieve two-electron oxidation of organic molecules via the cooperative involvement of two one-electron oxidants, either two Cu(II) species or Cu(II) and a nitroxyl cocatalyst. They show the ability of Cu to participate in traditional organometallic steps commonly associated with precious-metal catalysts, such as C-H activation and reductive elimination, but also demonstrate the accessibility of reaction steps not typically associated with precious-metal catalysts, such as single-electron transfer. Many of the Cu-catalyzed reactions offer advantages over analogous two-electron oxidation reactions mediated by palladium or other noble metals. For example, carbon-heteroatom oxidative coupling reactions in the first two reaction classes noted above are capable of using O2 as the terminal oxidant, while analogous reactions with Pd commonly require less desirable oxidants, such as hypervalent iodine or electrophilic halogen sources. In addition, the alcohol and amine oxidations in the third reaction class are significantly more efficient and show much broader scope and functional group tolerance than related Pd-catalyzed reactions. The mechanistic basis for these differences are described herein. PMID:26020118

  16. Electron transfer mechanisms of DNA repair by photolyase.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Dongping

    2015-04-01

    Photolyase is a flavin photoenzyme that repairs two DNA base damage products induced by ultraviolet (UV) light: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts. With femtosecond spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis, investigators have recently made significant advances in our understanding of UV-damaged DNA repair, and the entire enzymatic dynamics can now be mapped out in real time. For dimer repair, six elementary steps have been characterized, including three electron transfer reactions and two bond-breaking processes, and their reaction times have been determined. A unique electron-tunneling pathway was identified, and the critical residues in modulating the repair function at the active site were determined. The dynamic synergy between the elementary reactions for maintaining high repair efficiency was elucidated, and the biological nature of the flavin active state was uncovered. For 6-4 photoproduct repair, a proton-coupled electron transfer repair mechanism has been revealed. The elucidation of electron transfer mechanisms and two repair photocycles is significant and provides a molecular basis for future practical applications, such as in rational drug design for curing skin cancer. PMID:25830375

  17. Ultrafast Photoinduced Electron Transfer in Green Fluorescent Protein Bearing a Genetically Encoded Electron Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaoxuan; Yu, Yang; Zhou, Meng; Hu, Cheng; Gao, Feng; Li, Jiasong; Liu, Xiaohong; Deng, Kai; Zheng, Peng; Gong, Weimin; Xia, Andong; Wang, Jiangyun

    2015-06-17

    Electron transfer (ET) is widely used for driving the processes that underlie the chemistry of life. However, our abilities to probe electron transfer mechanisms in proteins and design redox enzymes are limited, due to the lack of methods to site-specifically insert electron acceptors into proteins in vivo. Here we describe the synthesis and genetic incorporation of 4-fluoro-3-nitrophenylalanine (FNO2Phe), which has similar reduction potentials to NAD(P)H and ferredoxin, the most important biological reductants. Through the genetic incorporation of FNO2Phe into green fluorescent protein (GFP) and femtosecond transient absorption measurement, we show that photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from the GFP chromophore to FNO2Phe occurs very fast (within 11 ps), which is comparable to that of the first electron transfer step in photosystem I, from P700* to A0. This genetically encoded, low-reduction potential unnatural amino acid (UAA) can significantly improve our ability to investigate electron transfer mechanisms in complex reductases and facilitate the design of miniature proteins that mimic their functions. PMID:26020364

  18. Alternating electron and proton transfer steps in photosynthetic water oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Klauss, André; Haumann, Michael; Dau, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Water oxidation by cyanobacteria, algae, and plants is pivotal in oxygenic photosynthesis, the process that powers life on Earth, and is the paradigm for engineering solar fuel–production systems. Each complete reaction cycle of photosynthetic water oxidation requires the removal of four electrons and four protons from the catalytic site, a manganese–calcium complex and its protein environment in photosystem II. In time-resolved photothermal beam deflection experiments, we monitored apparent volume changes of the photosystem II protein associated with charge creation by light-induced electron transfer (contraction) and charge-compensating proton relocation (expansion). Two previously invisible proton removal steps were detected, thereby filling two gaps in the basic reaction-cycle model of photosynthetic water oxidation. In the S2 ? S3 transition of the classical S-state cycle, an intermediate is formed by deprotonation clearly before electron transfer to the oxidant (). The rate-determining elementary step (?, approximately 30 µs at 20?°C) in the long-distance proton relocation toward the protein–water interface is characterized by a high activation energy (Ea = 0.46 ± 0.05 eV) and strong H/D kinetic isotope effect (approximately 6). The characteristics of a proton transfer step during the S0 ? S1 transition are similar (?, approximately 100 µs; Ea = 0.34 ± 0.08 eV; kinetic isotope effect, approximately 3); however, the proton removal from the Mn complex proceeds after electron transfer to . By discovery of the transient formation of two further intermediate states in the reaction cycle of photosynthetic water oxidation, a temporal sequence of strictly alternating removal of electrons and protons from the catalytic site is established. PMID:22988080

  19. 49 CFR 225.37 - Magnetic media transfer and electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Magnetic media transfer and electronic submission. ...INVESTIGATIONS § 225.37 Magnetic media transfer and electronic submission. ...updates, and amendments by way of magnetic media (computer diskette or magnetic...

  20. ELECTRON TRANSFER MECHANISM AT THE SOLID-LIQUID INTERFACE OF PHYLLOSILICATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interfacial electron transfer processes on clay minerals have significant impact in natural environments and geochemical systems. Nitrobenzene was used as molecular probes to study the electron transfer mechanism at the solid-water interfaces of Fe-containing phyllosicates. For...

  1. Nile blue can photosensitize DNA damage through electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Ota, Kazuhiro; Hirayama, Junya; Oikawa, Shinji; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2014-04-21

    The mechanism of DNA damage photosensitized by Nile blue (NB) was studied using (32)P-5'-end-labeled DNA fragments. NB bound to the DNA strand was possibly intercalated through an electrostatic interaction. Photoirradiated NB caused DNA cleavage at guanine residues when the DNA fragments were treated with piperidine. Consecutive guanines, the underlined G in 5'-GG and 5'-GGG, were selectively damaged through photoinduced electron transfer. The fluorescence lifetime of NB was decreased by guanine-containing DNA sequence, supporting this mechanism. Single guanines were also slightly damaged by photoexcited NB, and DNA photodamage by NB was slightly enhanced in D2O. These results suggest that the singlet oxygen mechanism also partly contributes to DNA photodamage by NB. DNA damage photosensitized by NB via electron transfer may be an important mechanism in medicinal applications of photosensitizers, such as photodynamic therapy in low oxygen. PMID:24576317

  2. Solvent reorganizational red-edge effect in intramolecular electron transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Demchenko, A P; Sytnik, A I

    1991-01-01

    Polar solvents are characterized by statistical distributions of solute-solvent interaction energies that result in inhomogeneous broadening of the solute electronic spectra. This allows photoselection of the high interaction energy part of the distribution by excitation at the red (long-wavelength) edge of the absorption bands. We observe that intramolecular electron transfer in the bianthryl molecule from the locally excited (LE) to the charge-transfer (CT) state, which requires solvent relaxation and does not occur in vitrified polar solutions, is dramatically facilitated in low-temperature propylene glycol glass by the red-edge excitation. This allows one to obtain spectroscopically the pure CT form and observe its dependence upon the relaxational properties of the solvent. A qualitative potential model of this effect is presented. PMID:11607224

  3. Laser decal transfer of electronic materials with thin film characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqué, Alberto; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Metkus, Kristin M.; Kim, Heungsoo; Mathews, Scott; Bailey, Thomas; Chen, Xianhai; Young, Lydia J.

    2008-02-01

    We describe a novel technique, called laser decal transfer, for the laser forward transfer of electronic inks that allows the non-contact direct writing of thin film-like patterns and structures on glass and plastic substrates. This technique allows the direct printing of materials such as metallic nano-inks from a donor substrate to the receiving substrate while maintaining the size and shape of the area illuminated by the laser transfer pulse. That is, the area of the donor substrate or ribbon exposed to the laser pulse releases an identical area of nano-ink material which retains its shape while it travels across the gap between the ribbon and the receiving substrate forming a deposited pattern of the same dimensions. As a result, this technique does not exhibit the limited resolution, non-uniform thickness, irregular edge features and surrounding debris associated with earlier laser forward transfer techniques. Continuous and uniform metallic lines typically 5 micrometers or less in width, and a few hundred nanometers in thickness were fabricated by laser decal transfer. These lines are of similar scale as patterns generated by lithographic techniques. Once transferred, the lines are laser-cured in-situ using a CW laser beam, becoming electrically conductive with resistivities as low as 3.4 ?? cm. This novel laser direct-write technique is a significant improvement in terms of quality and fidelity for directwrite processes and offers great promise for electronic applications such as in the development, customization, modification, and/or repair of microelectronic circuits.

  4. Mitochondrial copper(I) transfer from Cox17 to Sco1 is coupled to electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    Banci, Lucia; Bertini, Ivano; Ciofi-Baffoni, Simone; Hadjiloi, Theodoros; Martinelli, Manuele; Palumaa, Peep

    2008-01-01

    The human protein Cox17 contains three pairs of cysteines. In the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) it exists in a partially oxidized form with two S–S bonds and two reduced cysteines (HCox172S-S). HCox172S-S is involved in copper transfer to the human cochaperones Sco1 and Cox11, which are implicated in the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase. We show here that Cu(I)HCox172S-S, i.e., the copper-loaded form of the protein, can transfer simultaneously copper(I) and two electrons to the human cochaperone Sco1 (HSco1) in the oxidized state, i.e., with its metal-binding cysteines forming a disulfide bond. The result is Cu(I)HSco1 and the fully oxidized apoHCox173S-S, which can be then reduced by glutathione to apoHCox172S-S. The HSco1/HCox172S-S redox reaction is thermodynamically driven by copper transfer. These reactions may occur in vivo because HSco1 can be found in the partially oxidized state within the IMS, consistent with the variable redox properties of the latter compartment. The electron transfer-coupled metallation of HSco1 can be a mechanism within the IMS for an efficient specific transfer of the metal to proteins, where metal-binding thiols are oxidized. The same reaction of copper–electron-coupled transfer does not occur with the human homolog of Sco1, HSco2, for kinetic reasons that may be ascribed to the lack of a specific metal-bridged protein–protein complex, which is instead observed in the Cu(I)HCox172S-S/HSco1 interaction. PMID:18458339

  5. Marcus wins nobel prize in chemistry for electron transfer theory

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the work of Rudolf Marcus of Caltech leading to his receipt of the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry [open quotes]for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems.[close quotes] Applications of Marcus' theory include such diverse phenomena as photosynthesis, electrically conducting polymers, chemiluminescence, and corrosion. Historical aspects of his career are given. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Electron transfer in voltage tunable two-color infrared photodetectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amlan Majumdar; K. K. Choi; L. P. Rokhinson; J. L. Reno; D. C. Tsui

    2002-01-01

    Two-color quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) that are based on electron transfer between coupled QWs suffer from the presence of the shorter wavelength peak at all bias voltages. We investigate this problem in such detectors with 50 or 200 Å AlGaAs barriers between the QW pair. We deduce the absorption coefficient alpha and photoconductive gain g of the detectors with 50

  7. Low-momentum-transfer elastic electron scattering from 3He

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. M. Szalata; J. M. Finn; J. Flanz; F. J. Kline; G. A. Peterson; J. W. Lightbody Jr.; X. K. Maruyama; S. Penner

    1977-01-01

    Elastic electron scattering cross sections for 3He were measured relative to those of 12C in the range of momentum transfer squared between 0.032 and 0.34 fm-2. The 3He rms charge radius was determined from the data to be 1.89 +\\/- 0.05 fm. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 3He(e, e), E=28.8-95.0 MeV; measured sigma(E) at theta=75° deduced rms charge radius.

  8. Low activation barriers characterize intramolecular electron transfer in ascorbate oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1992-01-01

    Anaerobic reduction kinetics of the zucchini squash ascorbate oxidase (AO; L-ascorbate:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.3) by pulse radiolytically produced CO2- radical ions were investigated. Changes in the absorption bands of type 1 [Cu(II)] (610 nm) and type 3 [Cu(II)] (330 nm) were monitored over a range of reactant concentrations, pH, and temperature. The direct bimolecular reduction of type 1 [Cu(II)] [(1.2 +/- 0.2) x 10(9) M-1.s-1] was followed by its subsequent reoxidation in three distinct phases, all found to be unimolecular processes with the respective specific rates of 201 +/- 8, 20 +/- 4, and 2.3 +/- 0.2 s-1 at pH 5.5 and 298 K. While at this pH no direct bimolecular reduction was resolved in the 330-nm band, at pH 7.0 such a direct process was observed [(6.5 +/- 1.2) x 10(8) M-1.s-1]. In the same slower time domains where type 1 [Cu(I)] reoxidation was monitored, reduction of type 3 [Cu(II)] was observed, which was also concentration independent and with identical rate constants and amplitudes commensurate with those of type 1 [Cu(II)] reoxidation. These results show that after electron uptake by type 1 [Cu(II)], its reoxidation takes place by intramolecular electron transfer to type 3 [Cu(II)]. The observed specific rates are similar to values reported for the limiting-rate constants of AO reduction by excess substrate, suggesting that internal electron transfer is the rate-determining step of AO activity. The temperature dependence of the intramolecular electron transfer rate constants was measured from 275 to 308 K at pH 5.5 and, from the Eyring plots, low activation enthalpies were calculated--namely, 9.1 +/- 1.1 and 6.8 +/- 1.0 kJ.mol-1 for the fastest and slowest phases, respectively. The activation entropies observed for these respective phases were -170 +/- 9 and -215 +/- 16 J.K-1.mol-1. The exceptionally low enthalpy barriers imply the involvement of highly optimized electron transfer pathways for internal electron transfer. PMID:1518859

  9. The electron transfer system of synthrophically grown desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Christopher [University of Washington, Seattle; He, Zhili [University of Oklahoma; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Ringbauer, Joseph [University of Washington, Seattle; HE, Qiang [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma; Voordouw, Gerrit [University of Calgary, ALberta, Canada; Wall, Judy [University of Missouri, Columbia; Arkin, Adam [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hazen, Terry [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Stolyar, Sergey [University of Washington; Stahl, David [University of Washington

    2009-01-01

    Interspecies hydrogen transfer between organisms producing and consuming hydrogen promotes the decomposition of organic matter in most anoxic environments. Although syntrophic coupling between hydrogen producers and consumers is a major feature of the carbon cycle, mechanisms for energy recovery at the extremely low free energies of reactions typical of these anaerobic communities have not been established. In this study, comparative transcriptional analysis of a model sulfate-reducing microbe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, suggested the use of alternative electron transfer systems dependent on growth modality. During syntrophic growth on lactate with a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, numerous genes involved in electron transfer and energy generation were upregulated in D. vulgaris compared with their expression in sulfate-limited monocultures. In particular, genes coding for the putative membrane-bound Coo hydrogenase, two periplasmic hydrogenases (Hyd and Hyn), and the well-characterized high-molecular-weight cytochrome (Hmc) were among the most highly expressed and upregulated genes. Additionally, a predicted operon containing genes involved in lactate transport and oxidation exhibited upregulation, further suggesting an alternative pathway for electrons derived from lactate oxidation during syntrophic growth. Mutations in a subset of genes coding for Coo, Hmc, Hyd, and Hyn impaired or severely limited syntrophic growth but had little effect on growth via sulfate respiration. These results demonstrate that syntrophic growth and sulfate respiration use largely independent energy generation pathways and imply that to understand microbial processes that sustain nutrient cycling, lifestyles not captured in pure culture must be considered.

  10. Correlated Single Quantum Dot Blinking and Interfacial Electron Transfer Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shengye; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Zhu, Haiming; Song, Nianhui; Dickson, Robert M.; Lian, Tianquan

    2011-01-01

    The electron transfer (ET) dynamics from core/multi-shell (CdSe/CdS3MLZnCdS2MLZnS2ML) quantum dots (QDs) to adsorbed Fluorescein (F27) molecules have been studied by single particle spectroscopy to probe the relationship between single QD interfacial electron transfer and blinking dynamics. Electron transfer from the QD to F27 and the subsequent recombination were directly observed by ensemble-averaged transient absorption spectroscopy. Single QD-F27 complexes show correlated fluctuation of fluorescence intensity and lifetime, similar to those observed in free QDs. With increasing ET rate (controlled by F27-to-QD ratio), the lifetime of on states decreases and relative contribution of off states increases. It was shown that ET is active for QDs in on states, the excited state lifetime of which reflects the ET rate, whereas in the off state QD excitons decay by Auger relaxation and ET is not a competitive quenching pathway. Thus, the blinking dynamics of single QDs modulate their interfacial ET activity. Furthermore, interfacial ET provides an additional pathway for generating off states, leading to correlated single QD interfacial ET and blinking dynamics in QD-acceptor complexes. Because blinking is a general phenomenon of single QDs, it appears that the correlated interfacial ET and blinking and the resulting intermittent ET activity are general phenomena for single QDs. PMID:21915369

  11. Single turnover studies of oxidative halophenol dehalogenation by horseradish peroxidase reveal a mechanism involving two consecutive one electron steps: toward a functional halophenol bioremediation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Sumithran, Suganya; Sono, Masanori; Raner, Gregory M; Dawson, John H

    2012-12-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzes the oxidative para-dechlorination of the environmental pollutant/carcinogen 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). A possible mechanism for this reaction is a direct oxygen atom transfer from HRP compound I (HRP I) to trichlorophenol to generate 2,6-dichloro 1,4-benzoquinone, a two-electron transfer process. An alternative mechanism involves two consecutive one-electron transfer steps in which HRP I is reduced to compound II (HRP II) and then to the ferric enzyme as first proposed by Wiese et al. [F.W. Wiese, H.C. Chang, R.V. Lloyd, J.P. Freeman, V.M. Samokyszyn, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 34 (1998) 217-222]. To probe the mechanism of oxidative halophenol dehalogenation, the reactions between 2,4,6-TCP and HRP compounds I or II have been investigated under single turnover conditions (i.e., without excess H(2)O(2)) using rapid scan stopped-flow spectroscopy. Addition of 2,4,6-TCP to HRP I leads rapidly to HRP II and then more slowly to the ferric resting state, consistent with a mechanism involving two consecutive one-electron oxidations of the substrate via a phenoxy radical intermediate. HRP II can also directly dechlorinate 2,4,6-TCP as judged by rapid scan stopped-flow and mass spectrometry. This observation is particularly significant since HRP II can only carry out one-electron oxidations. A more detailed understanding of the mechanism of oxidative halophenol dehalogenation will facilitate the use of HRP as a halophenol bioremediation catalyst. PMID:23102773

  12. Electron Spectroscopy In Heavy-Ion Storage Rings: Resonant and Non-Resonant Electron Transfer Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, S. [Inst. f. Kernphysik Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); GSI-Helmholtz-Zentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Stoehlker, Th.; Trotsenko, S. [GSI-Helmholtz-Zentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena (Germany); Kozhuharov, Ch.; Spillmann, U.; Bosch, F.; Liesen, D.; Winters, D.; Hillenbrand, P.-M. [GSI-Helmholtz-Zentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Shabaev, V.; Tupitsyn, I.; Kozhedub, Y. [Dept. of Physics, St. Petersburg State Univ., St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Rothard, H. [CIMAO-CIRIL-GANIL, Caen (France); Reuschl, R. [GSI-Helmholtz-Zentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Univ. P. Marie Curie, ParisVI (France); Ullrich, J.; Moshammer, R.; Voitkiv, A.; Surzhykov, A.; Fischer, D. [Max Planck Inst. f. Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Doerner, R. [Inst. f. Kernphysik Univ. Frankfurt (Germany)

    2011-06-01

    Whereas our understanding of total cross sections for ionization and capture processes in ion-atom collisions is widely viewed as having arrived at a state of adequate maturity, the same cannot be said at all about the dynamics of collisions, multi-electron processes or the electron continua (in target and projectile) which are at the origin of total cross sections. We depict how these processes can be studied favourably in storage ring environments. We present examples of resonant and non-resonant electron transfer processes, radiative and non-radiative. This is elucidated via the relation of the electron nucleus bremsstrahlung at the high energy tip of the bremsstrahlung spectrum to the radiative electron capture cusp (RECC) and a new approach to determining molecular orbital binding energies in superheavy quasi-molecules in resonant KK charge transfer.

  13. Redox-linked conformation change and electron transfer between monoheme c-type cytochromes and oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nidhi Khare; David M. Lovelace; Carrick M. Eggleston; Michael Swenson; Timothy S. Magnuson

    2006-01-01

    Electron transfer between redox active proteins and mineral oxides is important in a variety of natural as well as technological processes, including electron transfer from dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria to minerals. One of the pathways that could trigger electron transfer between proteins and minerals is redox-linked conformation change. We present electrochemical evidence that mitochondrial cytochrome c (Mcc) undergoes significant conformation change

  14. Effect of protein dynamics on biological electron?transfer

    PubMed Central

    Daizadeh, Iraj; Medvedev, Emile S.; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A.

    1997-01-01

    Computer simulations of the effect of protein dynamics on the long distance tunneling mediated by the protein matrix have been carried out for a Ru-modified (His 126) azurin molecule. We find that the tunneling matrix element is a sensitive function of the atomic configuration of the part of the protein matrix in which tunneling currents (pathways) are localized. Molecular dynamics simulations show that fluctuations of the matrix element can occur on a time scale as short as 10 fs. These short time fluctuations are an indication of a strong dynamic coupling of a tunneling electron to vibrational motions of the protein nuclear coordinates. The latter results in a modification of the conventional Marcus picture of electron transfer in proteins. The new element in the modified theory is that the tunneling electron is capable of emitting or absorbing vibrational energy (phonons) from the medium. As a result, some biological reactions may occur in an activationless fashion. An analytical theoretical model is proposed to account for thermal fluctuations of the medium in long distance electron transfer reactions. The model shows that, at long distances, the phonon-modified inelastic tunneling always dominates over the conventional elastic tunneling. PMID:9108041

  15. Electron Transfer Dissociation (ETD) of Peptides Containing Intrachain Disulfide Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Scott R.; Ma, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Xinrong; Xia, Yu

    2012-02-01

    The fragmentation chemistry of peptides containing intrachain disulfide bonds was investigated under electron transfer dissociation (ETD) conditions. Fragments within the cyclic region of the peptide backbone due to intrachain disulfide bond formation were observed, including: c (odd electron), z (even electron), c-33 Da, z + 33 Da, c + 32 Da, and z-32 Da types of ions. The presence of these ions indicated cleavages both at the disulfide bond and the N-C? backbone from a single electron transfer event. Mechanistic studies supported a mechanism whereby the N-C? bond was cleaved first, and radical-driven reactions caused cleavage at either an S-S bond or an S-C bond within cysteinyl residues. Direct ETD at the disulfide linkage was also observed, correlating with signature loss of 33 Da (SH) from the charge-reduced peptide ions. Initial ETD cleavage at the disulfide bond was found to be promoted amongst peptides ions of lower charge states, while backbone fragmentation was more abundant for higher charge states. The capability of inducing both backbone and disulfide bond cleavages from ETD could be particularly useful for sequencing peptides containing intact intrachain disulfide bonds. ETD of the 13 peptides studied herein all showed substantial sequence coverage, accounting for 75%-100% of possible backbone fragmentation.

  16. Electron microscopy study of CeOx-Pd/?-Al2O3 catalysts for methane dry reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, M. S.; Wang, F.; Malac, M.; Kasama, T.; Gigola, C. E.; Costilla, I.; Sánchez, M. D.

    2009-04-01

    We have investigated the interaction between Pd and Ce in a (0.47 wt %) CeOx-Pd(1 wt %)/?-Al2O3 catalyst that is used in the reforming reaction of CH4 with CO2. The freshly reduced catalyst was characterized by various electron microscopy techniques, such as elemental mapping, Z-contrast imaging, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy to understand the role of Ce on a microscopic scale. The high spatial resolution elemental mapping indicates that CeOx is located in close proximity of the palladium nanoparticles. High-resolution lattice images and energy-loss spectra obtained in the vicinity of the Pd particles show an anisotropic distribution of CeOx crystallites limited to the interface region between Pd and the substrate but not covering the surface of the Pd nanoparticles. Energy-loss near edge fine structure of Pd M edges reveals that the Pd nanoparticles are not oxidized.

  17. Electronically conducting proton exchange polymers as catalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction, hydrogen oxidation, and methanol oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, M.C.; Qi, Z.; Pickup, P.G. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry] [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-06-01

    A variety of supported catalysts were prepared by the chemical deposition of Pt and Pt-Ru particles on chemically prepared poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) and PEDOT/polyvinylsulfate (PVS) composites. The polymer particles were designed to provide a porous, proton-conducting and electron-conducting catalyst support for use in fuel cells. These polymer-supported catalysts were characterized by electron microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and conductivity measurements. Their catalytic activities toward hydrogen and methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction were evaluated in proton exchange membrane fuel-cell-type gas diffusion electrodes. Activities for oxygen reduction comparable to that obtained with a commercial carbon-supported catalyst were observed, whereas those for hydrogen and methanol oxidation were significantly inferior, although still high for prototype catalysts.

  18. Molecular mimicry of photosynthetic energy and electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.; Moore, A.L. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Proper application of reaction design considerations can yield artificial photosynthetic devices which credibility mimic the three natural photochemical processes. One approach is to use pigments and electron donors and acceptors related to those found in natural photosynthesis (and thus presumably optimal for that system), but to replace the protein with covalent bonds as an organizing precept. Molecular pentads described herein exemplify the success of this approach. At the heart of these molecules, are two covalently linked synthetic porphyrin moieties (P-P). One of these models for chlorophyll is attached to a carotenoid polyene (C), whereas the other is linked to a rigid diquinone (Q-Q). As discussed later in this paper, excitation of such a pentad is followed by photoinitiated electron transfer steps which ultimately give a C[sup [center dot]+]-P-P-Q-Q[sup [center dot]-] charge-separated state. Depending upon the structure of the pentad and the conditions, these states are formed with quantum yields of up to 0.83, have lifetimes approaching 0.5 ms, and store about one-half of the energy of the exciting singlet state. Related photosynthesis mimics display singlet-singlet energy transfer from carotenoid polyenes to porphyrins and among porphyrin chromophores, and rapid quenching of porphyrin triplet states by attached carotenoids. How have the structures of these and other successful artificial reaction centers evolved, and what will be the next steps in their development The authors will address these questions from the point of view of photoinitiated electron transfer, and then singlet and triplet energy transfer will briefly be considered. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  19. 3 D characterization of gold nanoparticles supported on heavy metal oxide catalysts by HAADF-STEM electron tomography.

    PubMed

    González, J C; Hernández, J C; López-Haro, M; del Río, E; Delgado, J J; Hungría, A B; Trasobares, S; Bernal, S; Midgley, P A; Calvino, José Juan

    2009-01-01

    Living on the edge: Three-dimensional reconstructions from electron tomography data recorded from Au/Ce(0.50)Tb(0.12)Zr(0.38)O(2-x) catalysts show that gold nanoparticles (see picture; yellow) are preferentially located on stepped facets and nanocrystal boundaries. An epitaxial relationship between the metal and support plays a key role in the structural stabilization of the gold nanoparticles. PMID:19544338

  20. Suppression of electron transfer to dioxygen by charge transfer and electron transfer complexes in the FAD-dependent reductase component of toluene dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzong-Yuan; Werther, Tobias; Jeoung, Jae-Hun; Dobbek, Holger

    2012-11-01

    The three-component toluene dioxygenase system consists of an FAD-containing reductase, a Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin, and a Rieske-type dioxygenase. The task of the FAD-containing reductase is to shuttle electrons from NADH to the ferredoxin, a reaction the enzyme has to catalyze in the presence of dioxygen. We investigated the kinetics of the reductase in the reductive and oxidative half-reaction and detected a stable charge transfer complex between the reduced reductase and NAD(+) at the end of the reductive half-reaction, which is substantially less reactive toward dioxygen than the reduced reductase in the absence of NAD(+). A plausible reason for the low reactivity toward dioxygen is revealed by the crystal structure of the complex between NAD(+) and reduced reductase, which shows that the nicotinamide ring and the protein matrix shield the reactive C4a position of the isoalloxazine ring and force the tricycle into an atypical planar conformation, both factors disfavoring the reaction of the reduced flavin with dioxygen. A rapid electron transfer from the charge transfer complex to electron acceptors further reduces the risk of unwanted side reactions, and the crystal structure of a complex between the reductase and its cognate ferredoxin shows a short distance between the electron-donating and -accepting cofactors. Attraction between the two proteins is likely mediated by opposite charges at one large patch of the complex interface. The stability, specificity, and reactivity of the observed charge transfer and electron transfer complexes are thought to prevent the reaction of reductase(TOL) with dioxygen and thus present a solution toward conflicting requirements. PMID:22992736

  1. Suppression of Electron Transfer to Dioxygen by Charge Transfer and Electron Transfer Complexes in the FAD-dependent Reductase Component of Toluene Dioxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzong-Yuan; Werther, Tobias; Jeoung, Jae-Hun; Dobbek, Holger

    2012-01-01

    The three-component toluene dioxygenase system consists of an FAD-containing reductase, a Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin, and a Rieske-type dioxygenase. The task of the FAD-containing reductase is to shuttle electrons from NADH to the ferredoxin, a reaction the enzyme has to catalyze in the presence of dioxygen. We investigated the kinetics of the reductase in the reductive and oxidative half-reaction and detected a stable charge transfer complex between the reduced reductase and NAD+ at the end of the reductive half-reaction, which is substantially less reactive toward dioxygen than the reduced reductase in the absence of NAD+. A plausible reason for the low reactivity toward dioxygen is revealed by the crystal structure of the complex between NAD+ and reduced reductase, which shows that the nicotinamide ring and the protein matrix shield the reactive C4a position of the isoalloxazine ring and force the tricycle into an atypical planar conformation, both factors disfavoring the reaction of the reduced flavin with dioxygen. A rapid electron transfer from the charge transfer complex to electron acceptors further reduces the risk of unwanted side reactions, and the crystal structure of a complex between the reductase and its cognate ferredoxin shows a short distance between the electron-donating and -accepting cofactors. Attraction between the two proteins is likely mediated by opposite charges at one large patch of the complex interface. The stability, specificity, and reactivity of the observed charge transfer and electron transfer complexes are thought to prevent the reaction of reductaseTOL with dioxygen and thus present a solution toward conflicting requirements. PMID:22992736

  2. Free radical polymerization initiated via photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer process: kinetic study 3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janina Kabatc; Zdzis?aw Kucyba?a; Marek Pietrzak; Franciszek ?cigalski

    1999-01-01

    Various electron donors and electron acceptors have been tested in order to examine the possibility of the application of the Marcus equation to the description of the kinetics of free radical polymerization photoinitiated via photoinduced electron transfer (PET). Variations of the driving force of the electron transfer, for selected dyes (xanthene dyes, camphorquinone), were introduced by using: a series of

  3. Vibrational dynamics in photoinduced electron transfer. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, K.G.

    1993-09-08

    Objective is to perform a new type of measurement for optically excited electron transfer processes that can provide unique experimental insight into the molecular mechanism of electron transfer. Measurements of optically excited electron transfer are done with picosecond infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy to monitor the vibrational motions of the molecules immediately after electron transfer. Theory and experiment suggest that molecular vibrations and distortions are important controlling elements for electron transfer, and direct information has yet to be obtained on these elements of electron transfer mechanisms. The second period of funding has been dedicated to finishing technique development and performing studies of electron transfer in ion pair systems to identify if vibrational dependent electron transfer rates are present in this system. We have succeeded in measuring, for the first time, electron transfer rates as a function of vibrational state in an ion pair complex in solution. In a different area of electron transfer research we have proposed a new mechanism of solvent gated electron transfer.

  4. Hydride transfer from NADH analogues to a nonheme manganese(IV)-oxo complex via rate-determining electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Heejung; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2014-11-01

    Hydride transfer from NADH analogues to a nonheme Mn(iv)-oxo complex, [(Bn-TPEN)Mn(IV)(O)](2+), proceeds via a rate-determining electron transfer step with no deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE = 1.0 ± 0.1); a charge-transfer complex formed between the Mn(IV)(O) complex and NADH analogues is involved in the hydride transfer reaction. PMID:25220234

  5. Scanning electron microscopy in nematode-induced giant transfer cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, M G; Dropkin, V H

    1976-01-01

    A study of giant cells induced by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in roots of Impatiens balsamina was made by scanning electron microscopy. The cytoplasmic contents of giant cells were removed by a procedure based on KOH digestion, to reveal inner wall structure. Wall ingrowths typical of transfer cells are present in giant cells from six days onwards after induction. They develop on walls adjacent to vascular tissues, and their distribution and development was examined. Pit fields contianing plasmodesmata become elaborated in walls between giant cells, but pit fields are lost between giant cells and cells outside them. The distribution of plasmodesmata in pit fields suggests that de novo formation of plasmodesmata occurs in walls between giant cells. Various aspects of giant cell formation and function are discussed and wall ingrowth development is compared in giant cells and normal transfer cells. PMID:1001022

  6. Single Electron Transfer Living Radical Polymerization via a New Initiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiongxiong; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Xu; Ai, Lingling; Cheng, Chuanjie

    2014-08-01

    Research and development of novel initiating system such as single electron transfer living radical polymerization (SET-LRP) is of high importance in polymer chemistry. A new SET-LRP initiator was synthesized and applied to prepare end-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in this study. ?-Trichloromethyl benzyl alcohol was firstly synthesized, followed by preparation of PMMA under SET-LRP conditions. Conversion of MMA was 81.9%, and the molecular weight of PMMA was about 2.5 kDa at 60 °C for 1 h. Consistency of the number-average molecular weight of PMMA from NMR, GPC and theoretical calculation indicated that the polymerization featured controllable property. Broad molecular weight distribution (MWD) may be ascribed to branched polymers formed by initiation and chain transfer.

  7. Modeling biofilms with dual extracellular electron transfer mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Renslow, Ryan; Babauta, Jerome; Kuprat, Andrew; Schenk, Jim; Ivory, Cornelius; Fredrickson, Jim; Beyenal, Haluk

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemically active biofilms have a unique form of respiration in which they utilize solid external materials as terminal electron acceptors for their metabolism. Currently, two primary mechanisms have been identified for long-range extracellular electron transfer (EET): a diffusion- and a conduction-based mechanism. Evidence in the literature suggests that some biofilms, particularly Shewanella oneidensis, produce the requisite components for both mechanisms. In this study, a generic model is presented that incorporates the diffusion- and the conduction-based mechanisms and allows electrochemically active biofilms to utilize both simultaneously. The model was applied to S. oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms using experimentally generated data found in the literature. Our simulation results show that 1) biofilms having both mechanisms available, especially if they can interact, may have a metabolic advantage over biofilms that can use only a single mechanism; 2) the thickness of G. sulfurreducens biofilms is likely not limited by conductivity; 3) accurate intrabiofilm diffusion coefficient values are critical for current generation predictions; and 4) the local biofilm potential and redox potential are two distinct parameters and cannot be assumed to have identical values. Finally, we determined that simulated cyclic and squarewave voltammetry based on our model are currently not capable of determining the specific percentages of extracellular electron transfer mechanisms in a biofilm. The developed model will be a critical tool for designing experiments to explain EET mechanisms. PMID:24113651

  8. Transcriptomic and Genetic Analysis of Direct Interspecies Electron Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Summers, Zarath M.; Shrestha, Minita; Liu, Fanghua; Lovley, Derek R.

    2013-01-01

    The possibility that metatranscriptomic analysis could distinguish between direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) and H2 interspecies transfer (HIT) in anaerobic communities was investigated by comparing gene transcript abundance in cocultures in which Geobacter sulfurreducens was the electron-accepting partner for either Geobacter metallireducens, which performs DIET, or Pelobacter carbinolicus, which relies on HIT. Transcript abundance for G. sulfurreducens uptake hydrogenase genes was 7-fold lower in cocultures with G. metallireducens than in cocultures with P. carbinolicus, consistent with DIET and HIT, respectively, in the two cocultures. Transcript abundance for the pilus-associated cytochrome OmcS, which is essential for DIET but not for HIT, was 240-fold higher in the cocultures with G. metallireducens than in cocultures with P. carbinolicus. The pilin gene pilA was moderately expressed despite a mutation that might be expected to repress pilA expression. Lower transcript abundance for G. sulfurreducens genes associated with acetate metabolism in the cocultures with P. carbinolicus was consistent with the repression of these genes by H2 during HIT. Genes for the biogenesis of pili and flagella and several c-type cytochrome genes were among the most highly expressed in G. metallireducens. Mutant strains that lacked the ability to produce pili, flagella, or the outer surface c-type cytochrome encoded by Gmet_2896 were not able to form cocultures with G. sulfurreducens. These results demonstrate that there are unique gene expression patterns that distinguish DIET from HIT and suggest that metatranscriptomics may be a promising route to investigate interspecies electron transfer pathways in more-complex environments. PMID:23377933

  9. Tetrathiomolybdate Modified Au Electrodes: Convenient Tuning of the kinetics of Electron Transfer and its application in Electrocatalysis

    E-print Network

    Sudipta Chatterjee; Kushal Sengupta; Abhishek Dey

    2014-09-10

    Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (ATM) spontaneously self assembles on Au electrodes forming a hydrophilic, air stable, pH (3-11) tolerant multilayer that is stable over a reasonably large potential window. The ATM functionalized Au electrodes can adsorb iron porphyrin catalysts and act as O2 reducing electrodes. These electrodes are stable enough to perform rotating disk electrochemistry (RDE) as well as rotating ring disk electrochemistry (RRDE) experiments. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data indicate that the sulphide atoms of ATM anchors a single ATM layer on to Au and the subsequent layers grow vertically due to the presence of hydrogen bonding NH4+ counter-ions. The formation and growth of these ATM adlayers is investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a series of electrochemical data. The ATM functionalized Au electrodes have double layer capacitance comparable to those reported for Au electrode bearing short chain alkyl thiol self assembled monolayer (SAM). Importantly, the rate of interfacial charge transfer (CT) can be tuned by controlling the thickness of the adlayers by simply adjusting the deposition time. Importantly the kinetics of a catalyst adsorbed on this ATM adlayer can be switched from mass transfer limited to CT limited regime by adjusting the deposition time.

  10. ATP-induced electron transfer by redox-selective partner recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Sandra E.; Goetzl, Sebastian; Jeoung, Jae-Hun; Bommer, Martin; Lendzian, Friedhelm; Hildebrandt, Peter; Dobbek, Holger

    2014-08-01

    Thermodynamically unfavourable electron transfers are enabled by coupling to an energy-supplying reaction. How the energy is transduced from the exergonic to the endergonic process is largely unknown. Here we provide the structural basis for an energy transduction process in the reductive activation of B12-dependent methyltransferases. The transfer of one electron from an activating enzyme to the cobalamin cofactor is energetically uphill and relies on coupling to an ATPase reaction. Our results demonstrate that the key to coupling is, besides the oxidation state-dependent complex formation, the conformational gating of the electron transfer. Complex formation induces a substitution of the ligand at the electron-accepting Co ion. Addition of ATP initiates electron transfer by provoking conformational changes that destabilize the complex. We show how remodelling of the electron-accepting Co2+ promotes ATP-dependent electron transfer; an efficient strategy not seen in other electron-transferring ATPases.

  11. Electron transfer into self-assembling monolayers on gold electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bunding Lee

    1990-01-01

    Electron transfer through a nonconjugated hydrocarbon film was studied. 1-Methyl-1â²-(10-(octadecylthio)decyl)-4,4â²-bipyridinium dibromide, 1-(7-(octadecylthio)heptyl)-1â²-propyl-4,4â²-bipyridinium dibromide, and 1-hexyl-1â²-(5-(octadecylthio)pentyl)-4,4â²-bipyridinium dibromide were synthesized and were separately self-assembled with octadecyl mercaptan onto Au electrodes. The sulfide attached to the gold, and the hydrocarbon chains oriented such that the resulting monolayer films had the electroactive group fixed a distance of 5, 7, or 10 CHâ groups from

  12. Ab initio quantum chemical study of electron transfer in carboranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, Ranjit; Pineda, Andrew C.; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P.

    2005-05-01

    The electron transfer (ET) properties of 10- and 12-vertex carboranes are investigated by the ab initio Hartree-Fock method within the Marcus-Hush (MH) two-state model and the Koopman theorem (KT) approach. The calculated value of the ET coupling matrix element, VAB, is consistently higher in the KT approach than in the MH two-state model. For the carborane molecules functionalized by -CH 2 groups at C-vertices, VAB strongly depends on the relative orientation of the planes containing the terminal -CH 2 groups. The predicted conformation dependence of VAB offers a molecular mechanism to control ET between two active centers in molecular systems.

  13. Photoinduced electron and energy transfer in molecular pentads

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.; Moore, A.L.; Macpherson, A.N.; Lopez, A.; DeGraziano, J.M.; Gouni, I.; Bittersmann, E.; Seely, G.R.; Gao, F.; Nieman, R.A.; Ma, X.C.; Demanche, L.J.; Hung, S.C.; Luttrull, D.K.; Lee, S.J.; Kerrigan, P.K. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States))

    1993-12-01

    A series of molecular pentads, each consisting of a porphyrin dyad (P-P) covalently linked to a carotenoid polyene (C) and a diquinone moiety (Q[sub A]-Q[sub B]), have been prepared, and the photochemical properties of these molecules have been studied using steady-state and transient absorption and emission spectroscopies. Each of the pentads undergoes photoinduced electron transfer from the C-P-[sup 1]P-Q[sub A]-Q[sub B] singlet state to yield the charge-separated state C-P-P[sup [sm bullet]+]-Q[sub A][sup [sm bullet][minus

  14. Single-electron transfer from NADH analogues to singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Peters, G; Rodgers, M A

    1981-08-12

    Laser flash photolysis techniques have yielded rate constants for physical and reactive quenching modes of O2(1 delta g) by nicotine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (oxidized and reduced forms) and the reduced forms of nicotinamide mononucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and nicotinamide hypoxanthine dinucleotide. In the case of the last four named compounds, kinetic spectroscopy furnished evidence for one-electron transfers to O2(1 delta g). Specifically, production of O2 was demonstrated unequivocally by reaction with 1,4-benzoquinone. Quantitative determinations revealed the extent of reactive quenching to be near 60% in each case. PMID:7284356

  15. Molecular structures of porphyrin-quinone models for electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Fajer, J.; Barkigia, K.M.; Melamed, D.; Sweet, R.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Kurreck, H.; Gersdorff, J. von; Plato, M.; Rohland, H.C.; Elger, G.; Moebius, K. [Free Univ. of Berlin (Germany)] [Free Univ. of Berlin (Germany)

    1996-08-15

    Synthetic porphyrin-quinone complexes are commonly used to mimic electron transport in photosynthetic reaction centers and to probe the effects of energetics, distances, and relative orientations on rates of electron transfer between donor-acceptor couples. The structures of two such models have been determined by X-ray diffraction. The redox pairs consist of a zinc porphyrin covalently linked to benzoquinone in cis and trans configurations via a cyclohexanediyl bridge. The crystallographic studies were undertaken to provide a structural foundation for the extensive body of experimental and theoretical results that exists for these compounds in both the ground and photoinduced charge-separated states. The results validate conclusions reached from theoretical calculations, EPR and two-dimensional NMR results for these states. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Characterization of Catalysts for Synthesis of Higher Alcohols using Electron Microscopy

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    alcohols are favorable due to the higher energy density and the facile application in today's internal combustion engines. However, the poor yield of higher alcohols in the chemical at predicting potential new catalysts with density functional theory and testing

  17. Ion scattering and electron spectroscopic study of catalysts prepared by adsorption of molybdate on alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcahy, F.M. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, Bradford, PA (USA)); Houalla, M.; Hercules, D.M. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-10-15

    A series of Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts was prepared by using an equilibrium adsorption method. The dispersion of the molybdenum phase and coverage of the alumina surface by Mo species as a function of Mo loading were monitored by ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, ESCA). By modeling changes in the ISS Mo/Al intensity ratio as a function of molybdenum coverage, it is shown that, for Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts prepared by equilibrium adsorption, coverage of the alumina surface should be complete at a loading of 47 {times} 10{sup 13} Mo atoms/cm{sup 2} for calcined catalysts and 55 {times} 10{sup 13} Mo atoms/cm{sup 2} for dried catalysts. These values agree with those obtained from modeling of the ISS Al/O intensity ratio as a function of Mo loading.

  18. Coupling capillary zone electrophoresis with electron transfer dissociation and activated ion electron transfer dissociation for top-down proteomics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yimeng; Riley, Nicholas M; Sun, Liangliang; Hebert, Alexander S; Yan, Xiaojing; Westphall, Michael S; Rush, Matthew J P; Zhu, Guijie; Champion, Matthew M; Mba Medie, Felix; Champion, Patricia A DiGiuseppe; Coon, Joshua J; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-05-19

    Top-down proteomics offers the potential for full protein characterization, but many challenges remain for this approach, including efficient protein separations and effective fragmentation of intact proteins. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) has shown great potential for separation of intact proteins, especially for differentially modified proteoforms of the same gene product. To date, however, CZE has been used only with collision-based fragmentation methods. Here we report the first implementation of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) with online CZE separations for top-down proteomics, analyzing a mixture of four standard proteins and a complex protein mixture from the Mycobacterium marinum bacterial secretome. Using a multipurpose dissociation cell on an Orbitrap Elite system, we demonstrate that CZE is fully compatible with ETD as well as higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and that the two complementary fragmentation methods can be used in tandem on the electrophoretic time scale for improved protein characterization. Furthermore, we show that activated ion electron transfer dissociation (AI-ETD), a recently introduced method for enhanced ETD fragmentation, provides useful performance with CZE separations to greatly increase protein characterization. When combined with HCD, AI-ETD improved the protein sequence coverage by more than 200% for proteins from both standard and complex mixtures, highlighting the benefits electron-driven dissociation methods can add to CZE separations. PMID:25893372

  19. Post-Mortem investigation of Fischer Tropsch catalysts using cryo- transmission electron microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dogan Ozkaya; Martin Lok; John Casci; Peter Ash

    Co\\/Al2O3 catalysts are widely used in the Fischer-Tropsch, gas to liquids (GTL), catalytic reaction where syngas (CO2 and H2) is converted into higher hydrocarbon wax products. One important use of the wax product is through cracking to produce clean\\u000a diesel fuel. In most production routes the catalyst is initially in the form of highly dispersed Co-oxide particles on a high

  20. Efficient multistep photoinitiated electron transfer in a molecular pentad

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.; Moore, A.L.; Lee, Seung-Joo; Bittersmann, E.; Luttrull, D.K.; Rehms, A.A.; DeGraziano, J.M.; Xiaochun C. Ma; Feng Gao; Belford, R.E.; Trier, T.T. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (USA))

    1990-04-13

    A synthetic five-part molecular device has been prepared that uses a multistep electron transfer strategy similar to that of photosynthetic organisms to capture light energy and convert it to chemical potential in the form of long-lived charge separation. It consists of two covalently linked porphyrin moieties, one containing a zinc ion (P{sub Zn}) and the other present as the free base (P). The metallated porphyrin bears a carotenoid polyene (C) and the other a diquinone species (Q{sub A}-Q{sub B}). Excitation of the free-base porphyrin in a chloroform solution of the pentad yields an initial charge-separated state, C-P{sub Zn}-P{sup {center dot}+}-Q{sub A}{sup {center dot}{minus}}-Q{sub B}, with a quantum yield of 0.85. Subsequent electron transfer steps lead to a final charge-separated state, C{sup {center dot}+}-P{sub Zn}-P-Q{sub A}-Q{sub B}{sup {center dot}{minus}}, which is formed with an overall quantum yield of 0.83 and has a lifetime of 55 microseconds. Irradiation of the free-base form of the pentad, C-P-P-Q{sub A}-Q{sub B}, gives a similar charge-separated state with a lower quantum yield (0.15 in dichloromethane), although the lifetime is increased to {approximately}340 microseconds. The artificial photosynthetic system preserves a significant fraction ({approximately}1.0 electron volt) of the initial excitation energy (1.9 electron volts) in the long-lived, charge-separated state.

  1. Pore structure modification of diatomite as sulfuric acid catalyst support by high energy electron beam irradiation and hydrothermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chong; Zhang, Guilong; Wang, Min; Chen, Jianfeng; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2014-08-01

    High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment (HT), were applied in order to remove the impurities and enlarge the pore size of diatomite, making diatomite more suitable to be a catalyst support. The results demonstrated that, through thermal, charge, impact and etching effects, HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose and remove some of them. Then HT could remove rest of them from the pores and contribute significantly to the modification of the pore size distribution of diatomite due to thermal expansion, water swelling and thermolysis effects. Moreover, the pore structure modification improved the properties (BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) specific surface area, bulk density and pore volume) of diatomite and the catalytic efficiency of the catalyst prepared from the treated diatomite.

  2. Dynamic structural evolution of supported palladium-ceria core-shell catalysts revealed by in situ electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyi; Chen, Chen; Cargnello, Matteo; Fornasiero, Paolo; Gorte, Raymond J; Graham, George W; Pan, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    The exceptional activity for methane combustion of modular palladium-ceria core-shell subunits on silicon-functionalized alumina that was recently reported has created renewed interest in the potential of core-shell structures as catalysts. Here we report on our use of advanced ex situ and in situ electron microscopy with atomic resolution to show that the modular palladium-ceria core-shell subunits undergo structural evolution over a wide temperature range. In situ observations performed in an atmospheric gas cell within this temperature range provide real-time evidence that the palladium and ceria nanoparticle constituents of the palladium-ceria core-shell participate in a dynamical process that leads to the formation of an unanticipated structure comprised of an intimate mixture of palladium, cerium, silicon and oxygen, with very high dispersion. This finding may open new perspectives about the origin of the activity of this catalyst. PMID:26160065

  3. The influence of diffusion on photoinduced electron transfer and geminate recombination

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    in some electron transfer reactions).' Many bio- chemical charge-transfer reactions take place in fluid media whose properties govern life processes.' Before current can flow in a fuel cell, the fuel has to diffuse to an electrode for electron transfer to occur and the spent fuel must diffuse away

  4. Determination of the electronics transfer function for current transient measurements

    E-print Network

    Christian Scharf; Robert Klanner

    2014-10-02

    We describe a straight-forward method for determining the transfer function of the readout of a sensor for the situation in which the current transient of the sensor can be precisely simulated. The method relies on the convolution theorem of Fourier transforms. The specific example is a planar silicon pad diode connected with a 50 $\\Omega $ cable to an amplifier followed by a 5 GS/s sampling oscilloscope. The charge carriers in the sensor were produced by picosecond lasers with light of wavelengths of 675 and 1060 nm. The transfer function is determined from the 1060 nm data with the pad diode biased at 1000 V. It is shown that the simulated sensor response convoluted with this transfer function provides an excellent description of the measured transients for the laser light of both wavelengths, at voltages 50 V above the depletion voltage of about 90 V up to the maximum applied voltage of 1000 V. The method has been developed for the precise measurement of the dependence of the drift velocity of electrons and holes in high-ohmic silicon on crystal orientation, electric field and temperature. It can also be applied for the analysis of transient-current measurements of radiation-damaged solid state sensors, as long as sensors properties, like high-frequency capacitance, are not too different.

  5. Determination of the electronics transfer function for current transient measurements

    E-print Network

    Scharf, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We describe a straight-forward method for determining the transfer function of the readout of a sensor for the situation in which the current transient of the sensor can be precisely simulated. The method relies on the convolution theorem of Fourier transforms. The specific example is a planar silicon pad diode connected with a 50 $\\Omega $ cable to an amplifier followed by a 5 GS/s sampling oscilloscope. The charge carriers in the sensor were produced by picosecond lasers with light of wavelengths of 675 and 1060 nm. The transfer function is determined from the 1060 nm data with the pad diode biased at 1000 V. It is shown that the simulated sensor response convoluted with this transfer function provides an excellent description of the measured transients for the laser light of both wavelengths, at voltages 50 V above the depletion voltage of about 90 V up to the maximum applied voltage of 1000 V. The method has been developed for the precise measurement of the dependence of the drift velocity of electrons an...

  6. Concerted Proton-Electron Transfers: Fundamentals and Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2014-06-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfers (PCET) are ubiquitous in natural and synthetic processes. This review focuses on reactions where the two events are concerted. Semiclassical models of such reactions allow their kinetic characterization through activation versus driving force relationships, estimates of reorganization energies, effects of the nature of the proton acceptor, and H/D kinetic isotope effect as well as their discrimination from stepwise pathways. Several homogeneous reactions (through stopped-flow and laser flash-quench techniques) and electrochemical processes are discussed in this framework. Once the way has been rid of the improper notion of pH-dependent driving force, water appears as a remarkable proton acceptor in terms of reorganization energy and pre-exponential factor, thanks to its H-bonded and H-bonding properties, similarly to purposely synthesized “H-bond train” molecules. The most recent developments are in modeling and description of emblematic concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) reactions associated with the breaking of a heavy-atom bond in an all-concerted process.

  7. Electronic Health Records and Adverse Drug Events after Patient Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Boockvar, Kenneth S.; Livote, Elayne E.; Goldstein, Nathan; Nebeker, Jonathan R.; Siu, Albert; Fried, Terri

    2009-01-01

    Background Our objective was to examine the frequencies of medication error and adverse drug events (ADEs) at the time of patient transfer in a system with an electronic health record (EHR) as compared to a system without an EHR. We hypothesized that the frequencies of these events would be lower in the EHR system because of better information exchange across sites of care. Methods 469 patients transferred between 7 nursing homes and 3 hospitals in New York and Connecticut between 1999-2005 were followed retrospectively. 2 groups of patients were compared: U.S. Veterans Affairs (VA) patients, with an EHR, and non-VA patients, without an EHR, on the following measures: 1) Medication prescribing discrepancies at nursing home/hospital transfer; 2) High-risk medication discrepancies; and 3) ADEs caused by medication discrepancies according to structured medical record review by pairs of physician and pharmacist raters. Results The overall incidence of ADE caused by medication discrepancies was 0.20 per hospitalization episode. After controlling for demographic and clinical covariates, there were no significant differences between VA and non-VA groups in medication discrepancies (mean difference 0.02; 95%CI ?0.81 to 0.85), high-risk medication discrepancies (?0.18; 95%CI ?0.22 to 0.58), or occurrence of an ADE caused by a medication discrepancy (odds ratio 0.96; 95%CI 0.18 to 5.01). Conclusions There was no difference, with and without an EHR, in the occurrence of medication discrepancies or ADEs caused by medication discrepancies at the time of transfer between sites of care. Reducing such problems may require specialized computer tools to facilitate medication review. PMID:20724395

  8. Water promoting electron hole transport between tyrosine and cysteine in proteins via a special mechanism: double proton coupled electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohua; Ma, Guangcai; Sun, Weichao; Dai, Hongjing; Xiao, Dong; Zhang, Yanfang; Qin, Xin; Liu, Yongjun; Bu, Yuxiang

    2014-03-26

    The proton/electron transfer reactions between cysteine residue (Cys) and tyrosinyl radical (Tyr(•)) are an important step for many enzyme-catalyzed processes. On the basis of the statistical analysis of protein data bank, we designed three representative models to explore the possible proton/electron transfer mechanisms from Cys to Tyr(•) in proteins. Our ab initio calculations on simplified models and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations on real protein environment reveal that the direct electron transfer between Cys and Tyr(•) is difficult to occur, but an inserted water molecule can greatly promote the proton/electron transfer reactions by a double-proton-coupled electron transfer (dPCET) mechanism. The inserted H2O plays two assistant roles in these reactions. The first one is to bridge the side chains of Tyr(•) and Cys via two hydrogen bonds, which act as the proton pathway, and the other one is to enhance the electron overlap between the lone-pair orbital of sulfur atom and the ?-orbital of phenol moiety and to function as electron transfer pathway. This water-mediated dPCET mechanism may offer great help to understand the detailed electron transfer processes between Tyr and Cys residues in proteins, such as the electron transfer from Cys439 to Tyr730(•) in the class I ribonucleotide reductase. PMID:24601637

  9. Theoretical study on a corrole-azafullerene dyad: Electronic structure, spectra and photoinduced electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petsalakis, Ioannis D.; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula

    2014-08-01

    Density Functional Theory and Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory calculations have been carried out on a recently synthesized amino-corrole and a corrole-azafullerene dyad which exhibits photoinduced electron transfer (PET). Good agreement of the theoretical results with experiment is obtained regarding the absorption and emission spectra of the corrole, the absorption spectra of the corrole-azafullerene dyad and the transient anionic and cationic radicals of azafullerene and corrole respectively. Application of Mulliken's theory for charge-transfer states yields the excitation energy of the charge-separated state of the dyad very close to the S1 excitation of amino-corrole, consistent with a PET process.

  10. Mass transfer of electron acceptor aross the capillary fringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Piepenbrink, M.; Grathwohl, P.

    2005-12-01

    Transverse dispersion has been identified as a potentially limiting parameter controlling the mixing of electron donors and electron acceptors for natural attenuation of plumes originating from continuously emitting sources, however determining reactive transverse dispersion coefficients is not a simple task. The objective of this work is to elaborate the mass transfer of electron acceptor across the capillary fringe. A two-dimensional numerical reactive transport model and a fully controlled tank experiment are set up to investigate the mass transfer across the capillary and reactive fringe, where the oxygen supply is the limiting factor. The tank (77.9 times 14 times 0.8 cm) is made from acrylic-glass and filled with glass beads (0.5-0.75mm). Sodium dithionite, an easily oxidizable compound, is used as a surrogate for contaminants and is continuously injected from the inlets of the tank and reaches a steady state flow. Air circulates on the top of the glass beads. The oxygen concentrations as well as the reactive products (sulfate) are measured at the outlets of the tank with an oxygen sensor and via IC. In addition to that, resazurine, a redox indicator, is added to visualize the redox zones. These two-dimensional experimental results show quantitatively and qualitatively how the oxygen concentrations decrease at the plume fringe. Two dimensional numerical simulations with Min3P predicted oxygen distributions are compared with the experimental results. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by Helmholtz Association and Helmholtz Research Center UFZ; Project: `Virtual Institute for isotope biogeochemistry-biologically mediated processes at geochemical gradients and interfaces in soil - aquifer systems', Contract VH-VI-155.

  11. Alternative Mitochondrial Electron Transfer as a Novel Strategy for Neuroprotection*

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Li, Wenjun; Poteet, Ethan C.; Xie, Luokun; Tan, Cong; Yan, Liang-Jun; Ju, Xiaohua; Liu, Ran; Qian, Hai; Marvin, Marian A.; Goldberg, Matthew S.; She, Hua; Mao, Zixu; Simpkins, James W.; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Neuroprotective strategies, including free radical scavengers, ion channel modulators, and anti-inflammatory agents, have been extensively explored in the last 2 decades for the treatment of neurological diseases. Unfortunately, none of the neuroprotectants has been proved effective in clinical trails. In the current study, we demonstrated that methylene blue (MB) functions as an alternative electron carrier, which accepts electrons from NADH and transfers them to cytochrome c and bypasses complex I/III blockage. A de novo synthesized MB derivative, with the redox center disabled by N-acetylation, had no effect on mitochondrial complex activities. MB increases cellular oxygen consumption rates and reduces anaerobic glycolysis in cultured neuronal cells. MB is protective against various insults in vitro at low nanomolar concentrations. Our data indicate that MB has a unique mechanism and is fundamentally different from traditional antioxidants. We examined the effects of MB in two animal models of neurological diseases. MB dramatically attenuates behavioral, neurochemical, and neuropathological impairment in a Parkinson disease model. Rotenone caused severe dopamine depletion in the striatum, which was almost completely rescued by MB. MB rescued the effects of rotenone on mitochondrial complex I-III inhibition and free radical overproduction. Rotenone induced a severe loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons, which was dramatically attenuated by MB. In addition, MB significantly reduced cerebral ischemia reperfusion damage in a transient focal cerebral ischemia model. The present study indicates that rerouting mitochondrial electron transfer by MB or similar molecules provides a novel strategy for neuroprotection against both chronic and acute neurological diseases involving mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:21454572

  12. Alternative mitochondrial electron transfer as a novel strategy for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yi; Li, Wenjun; Poteet, Ethan C; Xie, Luokun; Tan, Cong; Yan, Liang-Jun; Ju, Xiaohua; Liu, Ran; Qian, Hai; Marvin, Marian A; Goldberg, Matthew S; She, Hua; Mao, Zixu; Simpkins, James W; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Neuroprotective strategies, including free radical scavengers, ion channel modulators, and anti-inflammatory agents, have been extensively explored in the last 2 decades for the treatment of neurological diseases. Unfortunately, none of the neuroprotectants has been proved effective in clinical trails. In the current study, we demonstrated that methylene blue (MB) functions as an alternative electron carrier, which accepts electrons from NADH and transfers them to cytochrome c and bypasses complex I/III blockage. A de novo synthesized MB derivative, with the redox center disabled by N-acetylation, had no effect on mitochondrial complex activities. MB increases cellular oxygen consumption rates and reduces anaerobic glycolysis in cultured neuronal cells. MB is protective against various insults in vitro at low nanomolar concentrations. Our data indicate that MB has a unique mechanism and is fundamentally different from traditional antioxidants. We examined the effects of MB in two animal models of neurological diseases. MB dramatically attenuates behavioral, neurochemical, and neuropathological impairment in a Parkinson disease model. Rotenone caused severe dopamine depletion in the striatum, which was almost completely rescued by MB. MB rescued the effects of rotenone on mitochondrial complex I-III inhibition and free radical overproduction. Rotenone induced a severe loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons, which was dramatically attenuated by MB. In addition, MB significantly reduced cerebral ischemia reperfusion damage in a transient focal cerebral ischemia model. The present study indicates that rerouting mitochondrial electron transfer by MB or similar molecules provides a novel strategy for neuroprotection against both chronic and acute neurological diseases involving mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:21454572

  13. Aqueous systems from first-principles : structure, dynamics and electron-transfer reactions

    E-print Network

    Sit, Patrick Hoi Land

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, we show for the first time how it is possible to calculated fully from first-principles the diabatic free-energy surfaces of electron-transfer reactions. The excitation energy corresponding to the transfer ...

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of electron transfer in intact photosystem II and in the isolated reaction center

    E-print Network

    Roegner, Matthias

    Kinetics and mechanism of electron transfer in intact photosystem II and in the isolated reaction center: Pheophytin is the primary electron acceptor A. R. Holzwarth , M. G. Mu¨ ller , M. Reus , M and kinetics of electron transfer in isolated D1 D2-cytb559 photosystem (PS) II reaction centers (RCs

  15. Proton-coupled electron transfer reactions in solution: Molecular dynamics with quantum transitions for model systems

    E-print Network

    Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    Proton-coupled electron transfer reactions in solution: Molecular dynamics with quantum transitions A general minimal model for proton-coupled electron transfer PCET reactions in solution is presented. This model consists of three coupled degrees of freedom that represent an electron, a proton, and a solvent

  16. Gene expression and deletion analysis of mechanisms for electron transfer from electrodes to Geobacter sulfurreducens

    E-print Network

    Lovley, Derek

    ÔØ Å ÒÙ× Ö ÔØ Gene expression and deletion analysis of mechanisms for electron transfer from, Kelly P. Nevin, Derek R. Lovley, Gene expression and deletion analysis of mechanisms for electron MANUSCRIPT 1 Gene Expression and Deletion Analysis of Mechanisms for Electron Transfer from Electrodes

  17. DFT and time-resolved IR investigation of electron transfer between photogenerated 17-and 19-electron organometallic radicals q

    E-print Network

    Kling, Matthias

    -electron organometallic radicals q James F. Cahoon a,b , Matthias F. Kling a,b,1 , Karma R. Sawyer a Keywords: 19-Electron intermediates Transition-metal dimers Metal-centered radicals Electron transfer Cage to homolytically cleave the W­W bond, forming the 17- electron radicals CpW(CO)3 and initiating the reaction

  18. Electron transfer through 3D monolayers on Au25 clusters.

    PubMed

    Antonello, Sabrina; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Dainese, Tiziano; De Nardi, Marco; Parisio, Giulia; Perotti, Lorena; René, Alice; Venzo, Alfonso; Maran, Flavio

    2014-03-25

    The monolayer protecting small gold nanoparticles (monolayer-protected clusters, MPCs) is generally represented as the 3D equivalent of 2D self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on extended gold surfaces. However, despite the growing relevance of MPCs in important applied areas, such as catalysis and nanomedicine, our knowledge of the structure of 3D SAMs in solution is still extremely limited. We prepared a large series of monodisperse Au25(SCnH2n+1)18 clusters (n=2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18) and studied how electrons tunnel through these monolayers. Electron transfer results, nicely supported by 1H NMR spectroscopy, IR absorption spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics results, show that there is a critical ligand length marking the transition between short ligands, which form a quite fluid monolayer structure, and longer alkyl chains, which self-organize into bundles. At variance with the truly protecting 2D SAMs, efficient electronic communication of the Au25 core with the outer environment is thus possible even for long alkyl chains. These conclusions provide a different picture of how an ultrasmall gold core talks with the environment through/with its protecting but not-so-shielding monolayer. PMID:24460378

  19. Catalyst by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL] [ORNL; DeBusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The development of new catalytic materials is still dominated by trial and error methods. Although it has been successful, the empirical development of catalytic materials is time consuming and expensive with no guarantee of success. In our laboratories, we are developing a comprehensive catalysts by design that involves state-of-the-art first principle density functional theory calculations, experimental design of catalyst sites, and sub- ngstr m resolution imaging with an aberration-corrected electron microscope to characterize the microstructure. In this chapter, we focus on supported platinum cluster catalyst systems which are one of the most important industrial catalysts and attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of the catalyst by design concept.

  20. The hydrogenation/transfer hydrogenation network: asymmetric hydrogenation of ketones with chiral eta6-arene/N-Tosylethylenediamine-ruthenium(II) catalysts.

    PubMed

    Ohkuma, Takeshi; Utsumi, Noriyuki; Tsutsumi, Kunihiko; Murata, Kunihiko; Sandoval, Christian; Noyori, Ryoji

    2006-07-12

    Chiral eta6-arene/N-tosylethylenediamine-Ru(II) complexes, known as excellent catalysts for asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of aromatic ketones in basic 2-propanol, can be used for asymmetric hydrogenation using H2 gas. Active catalysts are generated from RuCl[(S,S)-TsNCH(C6H5)CH(C6H5)NH2](eta6-p-cymene) in methanol, but not 2-propanol, or by combination of Ru[(S,S)-TsNCH(C6H5)CH(C6H5)NH](eta6-p-cymene) and CF3SO3H or other non-nucleophilic acids. This method allows, for the first time, asymmetric hydrogenation of simple ketones under acidic conditions. Hydrogenation of base-sensitive 4-chromanone and its derivatives with the S,S catalyst proceeds in methanol with a substrate-to-catalyst molar ratio of 1000-3000 (10 atm) to 7000 (100 atm), giving (S)-4-chromanols with 97% ee quantitatively. The reaction can be achieved even on a 2.4 kg scale. The mechanistic rationale for the catalytic efficiency is presented. PMID:16819854

  1. Electron transfer of horse spleen ferritin at gold electrodes modified by self-assembled monolayers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd D. Martin; Scott A. Monheit; Robert J. Niichel; Susan C. Peterson; Corinne H. Campbell; Donald C. Zapien

    1997-01-01

    Electron transfer is known to be an important step in the sequestering of iron by cellular ferritin. In this work, direct electron transfer between ferritin and a gold electrode was performed in order to probe its electron transfer kinetics. Gold electrodes were modified by the formation of self-assembled monolayers of 3-mercapto-propionic acid on the gold surface. Cyclic voltammetry using these

  2. Photoinduced electron transfer reaction in polymer-surfactant aggregates: Photoinduced electron transfer between N,N-dimethylaniline and 7-amino coumarin dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Anjan; Seth, Debabrata; Setua, Palash; Sarkar, Nilmoni [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, West Bengal (India)

    2008-05-28

    Photoinduced electron transfer between coumarin dyes and N,N-dimethylaniline has been investigated by using steady state and picosecond time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) micelles and PVP-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (SDS) polymer-surfactant aggregates. A slower rate of electron transfer is observed in PVP-SDS aggregates than in polymer-free SDS micelles. A Marcus type inversion is observed in the correlation of free energy change in comparison with the electron transfer rate. The careful investigation reveals that C-151 deviates from the normal Marcus inverted region compared to its analogs C-152 and C-481 due to slower rotational relaxation and smaller translational diffusion coefficient.

  3. Light-induced electron transfer vs. energy transfer in molecular thin-film systems

    SciTech Connect

    Renschler, C. L.; Faulkner, L. R.

    1980-01-01

    Quenching of fluoranthene (FA) singlets by tetrabromo-o-benzoquinone (TBBQ) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) was studied both in xylene solutions and in spin-cast polystyrene (PS) films. Emphasis was placed on time-resolved fluorescence transients resulting from pulsed excitation. Linear Stern-Volmer plots were obtained for quenching in solution and gave diffusion-controlled rate constants, of 1.45 x 10/sup 10/ M/sup -1/ sec/sup -1/ and 1.53 x 10/sup 10/ M/sup -1/ sec/sup -1/ for TBBQ and TMPD, respectively. TBBQ was found to quench FA singlets in PS over the studied concentration range 12 mM < (TBBQ) < 48 mM, but in its presence FA singlets decayed nonexponentially. The results were interpreted quantitatively in terms of pure Foerster's transfer from FA to TBBQ without diffusion of excitons. The critical transfer radius R/sub 0/ was experimentally determined to be 24.3 A, which is in good agreement with the theoretical value of 23 A calculated from spectral data. Quenching of FA singlets in PS films was found to be independent of FA concentration over a 300 mM to 1200 mM FA concentration range for a constant TBBQ concentration of 24.0 mM. TMPD was only slightly effective as a quencher of FA singlets in PS because it apparently behaves strictly as a contact quencher based on reversible charge transfer. The implications of these results for the design of systems intended to exploit light-induced electron transfer are discussed.

  4. Assessment of the 3D localization of metallic nanoparticles in Pd/SiO2 cogelled catalysts by electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Gommes, Cédric J; de Jong, Krijn; Pirard, Jean-Paul; Blacher, Silvia

    2005-12-20

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the localization of palladium nanoparticles within their silica support, in two heterogeneous catalysts synthesized by the sol-gel process, with different metal loadings. Electron tomography demonstrates that the palladium particles are localized deep inside the silica skeleton. The use of digital image analysis further shows that the dispersion of palladium is optimal in the sample with the lowest loading. The particles are regularly spaced in the middle of the silica skeleton, with a distance between them comparable to the diameter of the struts of silica. PMID:16343017

  5. Reorganization energy of electron transfer processes in ionic fluids: A molecular Debye-Hueckel approach

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Tiejun; Song Xueyu [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2013-03-21

    The reorganization energy of electron transfer processes in ionic fluids is studied under the linear response approximation using a molecule Debye-Hueckel theory. Reorganization energies of some model reactants of electron transfer reactions in molten salts are obtained from molecular simulations and a molecule Debye-Hueckel approach. Good agreements between simulation results and the results from our theoretical calculations using the same model Hamiltonian are found. Applications of our theory to electron transfer reactions in room temperature ionic liquids further demonstrate that our theoretical approach presents a reliable and accurate methodology for the estimation of reorganization energies of electron transfer reactions in ionic fluids.

  6. Environmental TEM study of electron beam induced electro-chemistry of Pr????Ca????MnO? catalysts for oxygen evolution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mildner, Stephanie; Zhu, Yimei; Beleggia, Marco; Mierwaldt, Daniel; Hansen, Thoma Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Yazdi, Sadegh; Kasama, Takeshi; Ciston, Jim; Jooss, Christian

    2015-03-12

    Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy (ETEM) studies offer great potential for gathering atomic scale information on the electronic state of electrodes in contact with reactants but also pose big challenges due to the impact of the high energy electron beam. In this article, we present an ETEM study of a Pr????Ca????MnO? (PCMO) thin film electro-catalyst for water splitting and oxygen evolution in contact with water vapor. We show by means of off-axis electron holography and electrostatic modeling that the electron beam gives rise to a positive electric sample potential due to secondary electron emission. The value of the electric potential dependsmore »on the primary electron flux, the sample -conductivity and grounding, and gas properties. We present evidence that two observed electro-chemical reactions are driven by a beam induced electrostatic potential of the order of a volt. The first reaction is an anodic electrochemical oxidation reaction of oxygen depleted amorphous PCMO which results in recrystallization of the perovskite structure. The second reaction is oxygen evolution which can be detected by the oxidation of a silane additive and formation of SiO2–x at catalytically active surfaces. Recently published in-situ XANES observation of subsurface oxygen vacancy formation during oxygen evolution at a positive potential [³²] is confirmed in this work. The quantification of beam induced potentials is an important step for future controlled electro-chemical experiments in an ETEM.« less

  7. Studies of Supported Nickel Catalysts Using Electron Spectroscopy (ESCA) and Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milton Wu; Roland Chin; David M. Hercules

    1978-01-01

    Supported nickel catalysts were studied by two surface sensitive techniques, ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA). The relationship between the signal intensity ratio of Ni\\/Al and the bulk nickel content was examined and compared by the two techniques, which have different sampling depths. The nature of the nickel species on the surface was analyzed by ESCA as

  8. Electron microscopic study of the structure of nickel catalysts modified with heteropoly compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    É. I. Evko; M. D. Navalikhina; A. E. Chalykh; M. P. Glazunov

    1990-01-01

    The state of the active phase on the surface of low-percentage nickel catalysts on carbon supports in the presence of new modifiers, mixed series 12 heteropoly compounds (HPC), was investigated. The presence of a modifier causes an increase in the dispersion of the nickel, formation of nickel-HPC associates on the surface of the support, and determines the high dispersion and

  9. Thermal transfer structures coupling electronics card(s) to coolant-cooled structure(s)

    DOEpatents

    David, Milnes P; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Parida, Pritish R; Schmidt, Roger R

    2014-12-16

    Cooling apparatuses and coolant-cooled electronic systems are provided which include thermal transfer structures configured to engage with a spring force one or more electronics cards with docking of the electronics card(s) within a respective socket(s) of the electronic system. A thermal transfer structure of the cooling apparatus includes a thermal spreader having a first thermal conduction surface, and a thermally conductive spring assembly coupled to the conduction surface of the thermal spreader and positioned and configured to reside between and physically couple a first surface of an electronics card to the first surface of the thermal spreader with docking of the electronics card within a socket of the electronic system. The thermal transfer structure is, in one embodiment, metallurgically bonded to a coolant-cooled structure and facilitates transfer of heat from the electronics card to coolant flowing through the coolant-cooled structure.

  10. DETERMINATION OF HETEROGENEOUS ELECTRON TRANSFER RATE CONSTANTS AT MICROFABRICATED IRIDIUM ELECTRODES. (R825511C022)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been an increasing use of both solid metal and microfabricated iridium electrodes as substrates for various types of electroanalysis. However, investigations to determine heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants on iridium, especially at an electron beam evapor...

  11. Electron transfer in peptides: on the formation of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kracht, Sonja; Messerer, Matthias; Lang, Matthieu; Eckhardt, Sonja; Lauz, Miriam; Grobéty, Bernard; Fromm, Katharina M; Giese, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    Some microorganisms perform anaerobic mineral respiration by reducing metal ions to metal nanoparticles, using peptide aggregates as medium for electron transfer (ET). Such a reaction type is investigated here with model peptides and silver as the metal. Surprisingly, Ag(+) ions bound by peptides with histidine as the Ag(+)-binding amino acid and tyrosine as photoinducible electron donor cannot be reduced to Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) under ET conditions because the peptide prevents the aggregation of Ag atoms to form AgNPs. Only in the presence of chloride ions, which generate AgCl microcrystals in the peptide matrix, does the synthesis of AgNPs occur. The reaction starts with the formation of 100?nm Ag@AgCl/peptide nanocomposites which are cleaved into 15?nm AgNPs. This defined transformation from large nanoparticles into small ones is in contrast to the usually observed Ostwald ripening processes and can be followed in detail by studying time-resolved UV/Vis spectra which exhibit an isosbestic point. PMID:25663127

  12. Long-Range Photoinduced Electron Transfer Through a DNA Helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, C. J.; Arkin, M. R.; Jenkins, Y.; Ghatlia, N. D.; Bossmann, S. H.; Turro, N. J.; Barton, J. K.

    1993-11-01

    Rapid photoinduced electron transfer is demonstrated over a distance of greater than 40 angstroms between metallointercalators that are tethered to the 5' termini of a 15-base pair DNA duplex. An oligomeric assembly was synthesized in which the donor is Ru(phen)_2dppz^2+ (phen, phenanthroline, and dppz, dipyridophenazine) and the acceptor is Rh(phi)_2phen^3+ (phi, phenanthrenequinone diimine). These metal complexes are intercalated either one or two base steps m from the helix termini. Although the ruthenium-modified oligonucleotide hybridized to an unmodified complement luminesces intensely, the ruthenium-modified oligomer hybridized to the rhodium-modified oligomer shows no detectable luminescence. Time-resolved studies point to a lower limit of 109 per second for the quenching rate. No quenching was observed upon metallation of two complementary octamers by Ru(phen)_32+ and Rh(phen)_33+ under conditions where the phen complexes do not intercalate. The stacked aromatic heterocycles of the DNA duplex therefore serve as an efficient medium for coupling electron donors and acceptors over very long distances.

  13. Chlorophyll-quinone photochemical electron transfer in liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.K.; Castelli, F.; Tollin, G.

    1981-09-01

    The study described involves the reduction of electron acceptors (quinones) by photoexcited Chloroplasts (Chl). Chl a (from spinach) is incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (either synthetic or from hen egg yolks) liposomes suspended in 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The quinones are either present during liposome formation or added later, depending upon their water solubility. The measurement technique employed is laser flash photolysis. A pulsed nitrogen laser pumps a dye laser, which delivers a short light flash (10 ns) to the sample at a wavelength (655-660 nm) within an absorption band of Chl. This raises Chl to an excited singlet level, which can rapidly cross to the lowest excited triple level (/sup 3/Chl). From this state Chl can transfer an electron to acceptors such as quinones, resulting in the formation of the Chl cation radical (Chl./sup +/) and the semiquinone anion radical (Q./sup +/). Transient absorbance changes ocurring within the sample cell are monitored and can be attributed to processes such as excited state quenching (of /sup 3/Chl by Q) and radical product formation and decay. (JMT)

  14. Ions interacting with planar aromatic molecules: Modeling electron transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, B. O.; Alexander, J. D.; Chen, T.; Pettersson, A. T.; Gatchell, M.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H.

    2013-02-01

    We present theoretical absolute charge exchange cross sections for multiply charged cations interacting with the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules pyrene C14H10, coronene C24H12, or circumcoronene C54H18. These planar, nearly circular, PAHs are modelled as conducting, infinitely thin, and perfectly circular discs, which are randomly oriented with respect to straight line ion trajectories. We present the analytical solution for the potential energy surface experienced by an electron in the field of such a charged disc and a point-charge at an arbitrary position. The location and height of the corresponding potential energy barrier from this simple model are in close agreement with those from much more computationally demanding Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in a number of test cases. The model results compare favourably with available experimental data on single- and multiple electron transfer reactions and we demonstrate that it is important to include the orientation dependent polarizabilities of the molecules (model discs) in particular for the larger PAHs. PAH ionization energy sequences from DFT are tabulated and used as model inputs. Absolute cross sections for the ionization of PAH molecules, and PAH ionization energies such as the ones presented here may be useful when considering the roles of PAHs and their ions in, e.g., interstellar chemistry, stellar atmospheres, and in related photoabsorption and photoemission spectroscopies.

  15. Ions interacting with planar aromatic molecules: Modeling electron transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, B. O.; Alexander, J. D.; Chen, T.; Pettersson, A. T.; Gatchell, M.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-07

    We present theoretical absolute charge exchange cross sections for multiply charged cations interacting with the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules pyrene C{sub 14}H{sub 10}, coronene C{sub 24}H{sub 12}, or circumcoronene C{sub 54}H{sub 18}. These planar, nearly circular, PAHs are modelled as conducting, infinitely thin, and perfectly circular discs, which are randomly oriented with respect to straight line ion trajectories. We present the analytical solution for the potential energy surface experienced by an electron in the field of such a charged disc and a point-charge at an arbitrary position. The location and height of the corresponding potential energy barrier from this simple model are in close agreement with those from much more computationally demanding Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in a number of test cases. The model results compare favourably with available experimental data on single- and multiple electron transfer reactions and we demonstrate that it is important to include the orientation dependent polarizabilities of the molecules (model discs) in particular for the larger PAHs. PAH ionization energy sequences from DFT are tabulated and used as model inputs. Absolute cross sections for the ionization of PAH molecules, and PAH ionization energies such as the ones presented here may be useful when considering the roles of PAHs and their ions in, e.g., interstellar chemistry, stellar atmospheres, and in related photoabsorption and photoemission spectroscopies.

  16. Ions interacting with planar aromatic molecules: modeling electron transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, B O; Alexander, J D; Chen, T; Pettersson, A T; Gatchell, M; Cederquist, H; Zettergren, H

    2013-02-01

    We present theoretical absolute charge exchange cross sections for multiply charged cations interacting with the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules pyrene C(14)H(10), coronene C(24)H(12), or circumcoronene C(54)H(18). These planar, nearly circular, PAHs are modelled as conducting, infinitely thin, and perfectly circular discs, which are randomly oriented with respect to straight line ion trajectories. We present the analytical solution for the potential energy surface experienced by an electron in the field of such a charged disc and a point-charge at an arbitrary position. The location and height of the corresponding potential energy barrier from this simple model are in close agreement with those from much more computationally demanding Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in a number of test cases. The model results compare favourably with available experimental data on single- and multiple electron transfer reactions and we demonstrate that it is important to include the orientation dependent polarizabilities of the molecules (model discs) in particular for the larger PAHs. PAH ionization energy sequences from DFT are tabulated and used as model inputs. Absolute cross sections for the ionization of PAH molecules, and PAH ionization energies such as the ones presented here may be useful when considering the roles of PAHs and their ions in, e.g., interstellar chemistry, stellar atmospheres, and in related photoabsorption and photoemission spectroscopies. PMID:23406118

  17. Photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer in complex liquids: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavernier, H. L.; Kalashnikov, M. M.; Fayer, M. D.

    2000-12-01

    Photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer between Rhodamine 3B and N,N-dimethylaniline has been studied in a series of seven liquids: acetonitrile, ethanol, propylene glycol, and mixtures of ethanol, 2-butanol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and glycerol. In each liquid, the donor and acceptors have different diffusion constants and experience distinct dielectric properties. Ps time-dependent fluorescence measurements and steady-state fluorescence yield measurements were made and analyzed using a detailed statistical mechanical theory that includes a distance-dependent Marcus rate constant, diffusion with the hydrodynamic effect, and solvent structure. All solvent-dependent parameters necessary for calculations were measured, including dielectric constants, diffusion constants, and redox potentials, leaving the electronic coupling unknown. Taking the distance-dependence of the coupling to be ?=1 Å-1, data were fit to a single parameter, the coupling matrix element at contact, J0. The theory is able to reproduce both the functional form of the time-dependence and the concentration-dependence of the data in all seven liquids by fitting only J0. Despite the substantial differences in the properties of the experimental systems studied, fits to the data are very good and the values for J0 are very similar for all solvents.

  18. Nonspherical Nanoparticles with Controlled Morphologies via Seeded Surface-Initiated Single Electron Transfer Radical Polymerization in Soap-Free Emulsion.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jinfeng; Wang, Lixia; Zhu, Lei; Pan, Mingwang; Wang, Wenjie; Liu, Ying; Liu, Gang

    2015-04-14

    This work reports a facile novel approach to prepare asymmetric poly(vinylidene fluoride)/polystyrene (PVDF/PS) composite latex particles with controllable morphologies using one-step soap-free seeded emulsion polymerization, i.e., surface-initiated single electron transfer radical polymerization (SET-RP) of styrene (St) at the surface of PVDF seed particles. It was observed that the morphology was influenced mainly by the St/PVDF feed ratio, the polymerization temperature, and the length of the catalyst Cu(0) wire (? 1.00 mm). When the feed ratio was St/PVDF = 5.0 g/1.0 g, snowman-like Janus particles were exclusively obtained. Raspberry-like and popcorn-like composite particles were observed at a higher reaction temperature or a shorter length of the catalyst wire. The reaction kinetics plots demonstrated some unique features. The formation of nonspherical composite nanoparticles can be ascribed to the surface nucleation of PS bulges following the SET-RP. PMID:25797695

  19. Modeling Charge Transfer in Fullerene Collisions via Real-Time Electron Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jakowski, Jacek [ORNL; Irle, Stephan [ORNL; Morokuma, Keiji [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    An approach for performing real-time dynamics of electron transfer in a prototype redox reaction that occurs in reactive collisions between neutral and ionic fullerenes is discussed. The quantum dynamical simulations show that the electron transfer occurs within 60 fs directly preceding the collision of the fullerenes, followed by structural changes and relaxation of electron charge. The consequences of real-time electron dynamics are fully elucidated for the far from equilibrium processes of collisions between neutral and multiply charged fullerenes.

  20. Electronic modification effects induced by Fe in Pt-Ru-Fe ternary catalyst on the electrooxidation of CO/H? and methanol.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyoon; Kobayashi, Koichi; Take, Tetsuo; Nagai, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Electro-oxidation of CO/H? and methanol was performed over a carbon supported Pt-Ru-Fe ternary alloy catalyst prepared via the conventional NaBH? reduction method. Physicochemical and electrochemical measurements were used to elucidate the respective roles of Ru and Fe in the ternary catalyst, revealing synergistic effects in the Pt-Ru-Fe catalyst on the electro-oxidation of CO/H? and methanol. The methanol oxidation activity of Pt?Ru?Fe/C was ca. 2.5 times higher than that of PtRu/C at 0.45 V vs. RHE as a result of enhanced CO tolerance. The enhanced CO tolerance of the Pt-Ru-Fe ternary alloy catalysts was derived from the reaction between the high mobility, weakly adsorbed CO on the Pt site that was electronically modified by alloying with Fe and adsorbed water species on the Ru site. This combination of features produced an improvement in the electro-oxidation of CO/H? and methanol at lower potential. On the basis of the data, it was proposed that the addition of a water activator such as Ru is indispensible in the design of multicomponent alloy catalysts for methanol oxidation, and the additional effect derived from an electronic modifier is an important factor for improving the CO and methanol oxidation activity of the catalyst containing the water activator. PMID:22362143

  1. A Dinuclear Ruthenium-Based Water Oxidation Catalyst: Use of Non-Innocent Ligand Frameworks for Promoting Multi-Electron Reactions.

    PubMed

    Laine, Tanja M; Kärkäs, Markus D; Liao, Rong-Zhen; Siegbahn, Per E M; Åkermark, Björn

    2015-07-01

    Insight into how H2 O is oxidized to O2 is envisioned to facilitate the rational design of artificial water oxidation catalysts, which is a vital component in solar-to-fuel conversion schemes. Herein, we report on the mechanistic features associated with a dinuclear Ru-based water oxidation catalyst. The catalytic action of the designed Ru complex was studied by the combined use of high-resolution mass spectrometry, electrochemistry, and quantum chemical calculations. Based on the obtained results, it is suggested that the designed ligand scaffold in Ru complex 1 has a non-innocent behavior, in which metal-ligand cooperation is an important part during the four-electron oxidation of H2 O. This feature is vital for the observed catalytic efficiency and highlights that the preparation of catalysts housing non-innocent molecular frameworks could be a general strategy for accessing efficient catalysts for activation of H2 O. PMID:25925847

  2. Photoinduced electron transfer from semiconductor quantum dots to metal oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tvrdy, Kevin; Frantsuzov, Pavel A.; Kamat, Prashant V.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum dot-metal oxide junctions are an integral part of next-generation solar cells, light emitting diodes, and nanostructured electronic arrays. Here we present a comprehensive examination of electron transfer at these junctions, using a series of CdSe quantum dot donors (sizes 2.8, 3.3, 4.0, and 4.2 nm in diameter) and metal oxide nanoparticle acceptors (SnO2, TiO2, and ZnO). Apparent electron transfer rate constants showed strong dependence on change in system free energy, exhibiting a sharp rise at small driving forces followed by a modest rise further away from the characteristic reorganization energy. The observed trend mimics the predicted behavior of electron transfer from a single quantum state to a continuum of electron accepting states, such as those present in the conduction band of a metal oxide nanoparticle. In contrast with dye-sensitized metal oxide electron transfer studies, our systems did not exhibit unthermalized hot-electron injection due to relatively large ratios of electron cooling rate to electron transfer rate. To investigate the implications of these findings in photovoltaic cells, quantum dot-metal oxide working electrodes were constructed in an identical fashion to the films used for the electron transfer portion of the study. Interestingly, the films which exhibited the fastest electron transfer rates (SnO2) were not the same as those which showed the highest photocurrent (TiO2). These findings suggest that, in addition to electron transfer at the quantum dot-metal oxide interface, other electron transfer reactions play key roles in the determination of overall device efficiency. PMID:21149685

  3. Pattern transfer of electron beam modified self-assembled monolayers for high-resolution lithography

    E-print Network

    Parikh, Atul N.

    . An Hitachi S-800 scan- ning electron microscope with a pattern generator was used for 1­25 keV exposures-resolution electron beam lithography. Focused electron beams from 1 to 50 keV and scanning tunneling microscopy at 10Pattern transfer of electron beam modified self-assembled monolayers for high

  4. Localization of alkali metal ions in sodium-promoted palladium catalysts as studied by low energy ion scattering and transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Liotta, L.F.; Deganello, G.; Delichere, P. [Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Prodotti Naturali, Palermo (Italy)] [and others] [Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Prodotti Naturali, Palermo (Italy); and others

    1996-12-01

    Three series of palladium-based catalysts have been studied by Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The first series is comprised of Na-Pd/SiO{sub 2} catalysts, obtained by addition of palladium to a silica support and by further addition of sodium ions with a Na/Pd atomic ratio (R) equal to 0,6.4 and 25.6. The second series consists of palladium catalysts supported on natural pumice, in which, due to a different loading of supported palladium, R{prime}, the (Na+K)/Pd atomic ratio, is equal to 17.0 and 39.4. The third series is represented by two palladium-based catalysts supported on {open_quotes}model pumices,{close_quotes} synthetic silico-aluminates, obtained by sol-gel techniques, with a different amount of sodium, and R equal to 2.1 and 6.1 respectively. LEIS experiments and electron microscopy demonstrate a different location of alkali metal ions in the first two series: in the Na-Pd/SiO{sub 2} catalysts sodium is distributed in a way which is not uniform on the support and on the palladium metal, which is partly decorated with Na ions, whereas in the Pd/natural-pumice series the palladium surface is sodium-free. The results on the third series of catalysts, Pd/model pumice, are not definitive on the basis of the LEIS and TEM analyses, but by FTIR study of CO and CO{sub 2} adsorption, the decoration of palladium by sodium ions could be excluded. The results confirm the importance of the alkali metal ion location in alkali-promoted palladium catalysts and open new possibilities in the design of palladium-supported catalysts by a better control of promoter location. 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Functional LH1 antenna complexes influence electron transfer in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald W. Visschers; Simone I. E. Vulto; Michael R. Jones; Rienk van Grondelle; Ruud Kraayenhof

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the light harvesting 1 (LH1) antenna complex on the driving force for light-driven electron transfer in the Rhodobacter sphaeroidesreaction center has been examined. Equilibrium redox titrations show that the presence of the LH1 antenna complex influences the free energy change for the primary electron transfer reaction through an effect on the reduction potential of the primary donor.

  6. Functional LH1 antenna complexes influence electron transfer in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald W. Visschers; Simone I. E. Vulto; Michael R. Jones; Rienk van Grondelle; Ruud Kraayenhof

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the light harvesting 1 (LH1) antenna complex on the driving force for light-driven electron transfer in the Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction center has been examined. Equilibrium redox titrations show that the presence of the LH1 antenna complex influences the free energy change for the primary electron transfer reaction through an effect on the reduction potential of the primary

  7. Electron transfer in voltage tunable two-color infrared photodetectors Amlan Majumdara)

    E-print Network

    Rokhinson, Leonid

    Electron transfer in voltage tunable two-color infrared photodetectors Amlan Majumdara) Department photodetectors QWIPs that are based on electron transfer between coupled QWs suffer from the presence of the shorter wavelength peak at all bias voltages. We investigate this problem in such detectors with 50 or 200

  8. Analysis of the Acidic Proteome with Negative Electron-Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Pagliarini, David J.

    Analysis of the Acidic Proteome with Negative Electron-Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry.g., acidic LC separations, positive ESI, and collision activated dissociation), and the resulting peptide electron-transfer dissociation (NETD) on a hybrid ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer and its application

  9. Thermochemistry of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reagents and its Implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Warren; Tristan A. Tronic; James M. Mayer

    2010-01-01

    Many, if not most, redox reactions are coupled to proton transfers. This includes most common sources of chemical potential energy, from the bioenergetic processes that power cells to the fossil fuel combustion that powers cars. These proton-coupled electron transfer or PCET processes may involve multiple electrons and multiple protons, as in the 4 e, 4 H+ reduction of dioxygen (O2)

  10. Electron Transfer from the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein (ISP) to Cytochrome f in Vitro

    E-print Network

    Cramer, William A.

    Electron Transfer from the Rieske Iron-Sulfur Protein (ISP) to Cytochrome f in Vitro IS A GUIDED soluble domains of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (ISP) and cytochrome f subunits of the cytochrome b6f, and one [2Fe-2S] cluster in the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (1­3). The electron transfer pathway

  11. Distance dependence of electron transfer from liposome-embedded (alkanephosphocholine-porphinato) zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchida, E.; Kaneko, M.; Nishide, H.; Hoshino, M.

    1986-05-22

    (Alkanephosphocholine-porphinato)zinc forms a geometrically well-defined bilayer liposome with phospholipid. Electron transfer from the liposome-embedded (porphinato)zincs with different alkyl chain lengths to methylviologen present in the outer bulk solution is measured by laser flash photolysis: the intermolecular electron transfer was observed only when the porphyrin plane is located within 12 A from the surface.

  12. Gene expression and deletion analysis of mechanisms for electron transfer from electrodes to Geobacter sulfurreducens

    E-print Network

    Lovley, Derek

    Gene expression and deletion analysis of mechanisms for electron transfer from electrodes, but had no impact on electron transfer to electrodes. These differences in gene expression patterns. Microarray analysis was used to compare gene transcript abundance in bio lms of G. sulfurreducens using

  13. Electron-Transfer Properties of Cytochrome c Langmuir-Blodgett Films and Interactions of Cytochrome

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yanchao

    Electron-Transfer Properties of Cytochrome c Langmuir-Blodgett Films and Interactions of Cytochrome and electron-transfer properties of cytochrome c (Cyt c) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films have been studied for biosensor applications.3,4 However, many metalloproteins, such as cytochrome c (Cyt c), often denature when

  14. Application of electron-transfer theory to several systems of biological interest

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, R.A.; Sutin, N.

    1985-01-01

    Electron-transfer reaction rates are compared with theoretically calculated values for several reactions in the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center. A second aspect of the theory, the cross-relation, is illustrated using protein-protein electron transfers. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. 77 FR 24667 - TANF Assistance and Electronic Benefit Transfer Transactions; Request for Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ...which provide adult-oriented entertainment...interested in learning about States...electronic benefit transfer transactions...which provides adult-oriented entertainment...Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) cards...establishment or adult entertainment...For those with knowledge of what has...

  16. Demonstrating Electron Transfer and Nanotechnology: A Natural Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Energy Converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg P. Smestad; Michael Gratzel

    1998-01-01

    A unique solar cell fabrication procedure has been developed using natural anthocyanin dyes extracted from berries. It can be reproduced with a minimum amount of resources in order to provide an interdisciplinary approach for lower-division undergraduate students learning the basic principles of biological extraction, physical chemistry, and spectroscopy as well as environmental science and electron transfer. Electron transfer is the

  17. When electron transfer meets electron transport in redox-active molecular nanojunctions.

    PubMed

    Janin, Marion; Ghilane, Jalal; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe

    2013-02-13

    A scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) was used to arrange two microelectrodes face-to-face separated by a micrometric gap. Polyaniline (PANI) was deposited electrochemically from the SECM tip side until it bridged the two electrodes. The junctions obtained were characterized by following the current through the PANI as a function of its electrochemical potential measured versus a reference electrode acting as a gate electrode in a solid-state transistor. PANI nanojunctions showed conductances below 100 nS in the oxidized state, indicating control of the charge transport within the whole micrometric gap by a limited number of PANI wires. The SECM configuration makes it possible to observe in the same experiment and in the same current range the electron-transfer and electron-transport processes. These two phenomena are distinguished here and characterized by following the variation of the current with the bias voltage and the scan rate. The electron-transfer current changes with the scan rate, while the charge-transport current varies with the bias voltage. Finally, despite the initially micrometric gap, a junction where the conductance is controlled by a single oligoaniline strand is achieved. PMID:23331168

  18. Theoretical study on the electronic structure of triphenyl sulfonium salts: Electronic excitation and electron transfer processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petsalakis, Ioannis D.; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula; Lathiotakis, Nektarios N.; Georgiadou, Dimitra G.; Vasilopoulou, Maria; Argitis, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) and Time Dependent DFT calculations on triphenyl sulfonium cation (TPS) and the salts of TPS with triflate, nonaflate, perfluoro-1-octanesulfonate and hexafluoro antimonate anions are presented. These systems are widely used as cationic photoinitiators and as electron ejection layer for polymer light-emitting diodes. While some differences exist in the electronic structure of the different salts, their lowest energy intense absorption maxima are calculated at nearly the same energy for all systems. The first excited state of TPS and of the TPS salts is dissociating. Electron addition to the TPS salts lowers their energy by 1.0-1.33 eV.

  19. Bio-batteries and bio-fuel cells: leveraging on electronic charge transfer proteins.

    PubMed

    Kannan, A M; Renugopalakrishnan, V; Filipek, S; Li, P; Audette, G F; Munukutla, L

    2009-03-01

    Bio-fuel cells are alternative energy devises based on bio-electrocatalysis of natural substrates by enzymes or microorganisms. Here we review bio-fuel cells and bio-batteries based on the recent literature. In general, the bio-fuel cells are classified based on the type of electron transfer; mediated electron transfer and direct electron transfer or electronic charge transfer (ECT). The ECT of the bio-fuel cells is critically reviewed and a variety of possible applications are considered. The technical challenges of the bio-fuel cells, like bioelectrocatalysis, immobilization of bioelectrocatalysts, protein denaturation etc. are highlighted and future research directions are discussed leveraging on the use of electron charge transfer proteins. In addition, the packaging aspects of the bio-fuel cells are also analyzed and the found that relatively little work has been done in the engineering development of bio-fuel cells. PMID:19435024

  20. Probing concerted proton–electron transfer in phenol–imidazoles

    PubMed Central

    Markle, Todd F.; Rhile, Ian J.; DiPasquale, Antonio G.; Mayer, James M.

    2008-01-01

    A series of seven substituted 4,6-di-tert-butyl-2-(4,5-diarylimidazolyl)-phenols have been prepared and characterized, along with two related benzimidazole compounds. X-ray crystal structures of all of the compounds show that the phenol and imidazole rings are close to coplanar and are connected by an intramolecular ArOH?N hydrogen bond. One-electron oxidation of these compounds occurs with movement of the phenolic proton to the imidazole base by concerted proton–electron transfer (CPET) to yield fairly stable distonic radical cations. These phenol–base compounds are a valuable system in which to examine the key features of CPET. Kinetic measurements of bimolecular CPET oxidations, with Erxn between +0.04 and ?0.33 V, give rate constants from (6.3 ± 0.6) × 102 to (3.0 ± 0.6) × 106 M?1 s?1. There is a good correlation of log(k) with ?G°, with only one of the 15 rate constants falling more than a factor of 5.2 from the correlation line. Substituents on the imidazole affect the (O–H?N) hydrogen bond, as marked by variations in the 1H NMR and calculated vibrational spectra and geometries. Crystallographic dO?N values appear to be more strongly affected by crystal packing forces. However, there is almost no correlation of rate constants with any of these measured or computed parameters. Over this range of compounds from the same structural family, the dominant contributor to the differences in rate constant is the driving force ?G°. PMID:18212121

  1. 77 FR 6310 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...appropriate to provide senders with additional time to change their minds about sending a transfer if, for example, circumstances...appropriate to provide senders with additional time to change their minds about sending a transfer if, for example, circumstances...

  2. An electron energy-loss study of picene and chrysene based charge transfer salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Eric; Mahns, Benjamin; Büchner, Bernd; Knupfer, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The electronic excitation spectra of charge transfer compounds built from the hydrocarbons picene and chrysene, and the strong electron acceptors F4TCNQ (2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) and TCNQ (7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethan) have been investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The corresponding charge transfer compounds have been prepared by co-evaporation of the pristine constituents. We demonstrate that all investigated combinations support charge transfer, which results in new electronic excitation features at low energy. This might represent a way to synthesize low band gap organic semiconductors.

  3. Pulse radiolytic and electrochemical investigations of intramolecular electron transfer in carotenoporphyrins and carotenoporphyrin-quinone triads

    SciTech Connect

    Land, E.J.; Lexa, D.; Bensasson, R.V.; Gust, D.; Moore, T.A. Moore, A.L.; Liddell, P.A.; Nemeth, G.A.

    1987-08-27

    Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of intramolecular electron-transfer reactions in carotenoporphyrin dyads and carotenoid-porphyrin-quinone triads have been studied by using pulse radiolysis and cyclic voltammetry. Rapid (<1 ..mu..s) electron transfer from carotenoid radical anions to attached porphyrins has been inferred. Carotenoid cations, on the other hand, do not readily accept electrons from attached porphyrins or pyropheophorbides. Electrochemical studies provide the thermodynamic basis for these observations and also allow estimation of the energetics of photoinitiated two-step electron transfer and two-step charge recombination in triad models for photosynthetic charge separation.

  4. Effects of quantum coherence in metalloprotein electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Dorner, Ross; Goold, John; Heaney, Libby; Farrow, Tristan; Vedral, Vlatko

    2012-09-01

    Many intramolecular electron transfer (ET) reactions in biology are mediated by metal centers in proteins. This process is commonly described by a model of diffusive hopping according to the semiclassical theories of Marcus and Hopfield. However, recent studies have raised the possibility that nontrivial quantum mechanical effects play a functioning role in certain biomolecular processes. Here, we investigate the potential effects of quantum coherence in biological ET by extending the semiclassical model to allow for the possibility of quantum coherent phenomena using a quantum master equation based on the Holstein Hamiltonian. We test the model on the structurally defined chain of seven iron-sulfur clusters in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide plus hydrogen:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), a crucial respiratory enzyme and one of the longest chains of metal centers in biology. Using experimental parameters where possible, we find that, in limited circumstances, a small quantum mechanical contribution can provide a marked increase in the ET rate above the semiclassical diffusive-hopping rate. Under typical biological conditions, our model reduces to well-known diffusive behavior. PMID:23030959

  5. Electron transfer dissociation of dipositive uranyl and plutonyl coordination complexes.

    PubMed

    Rios, Daniel; Rutkowski, Philip X; Shuh, David K; Bray, Travis H; Gibson, John K; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    Reported here is a comparison of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) of solvent-coordinated dipositive uranyl and plutonyl ions generated by electrospray ionization. Fundamental differences between the ETD and CID processes are apparent, as are differences between the intrinsic chemistries of uranyl and plutonyl. Reduction of both charge and oxidation state, which is inherent in ETD activation of [An(VI) O(2) (CH(3) COCH(3) )(4) ](2+) , [An(VI) O(2) (CH(3) CN)(4) ](2) , [U(VI) O(2) (CH(3) COCH(3) )(5) ](2+) and [U(VI) O(2) (CH(3) CN)(5) ](2+) (An?=?U or Pu), is accompanied by ligand loss. Resulting low-coordinate uranyl(V) complexes add O(2) , whereas plutonyl(V) complexes do not. In contrast, CID of the same complexes generates predominantly doubly-charged products through loss of coordinating ligands. Singly-charged CID products of [U(VI) O(2) (CH(3) COCH(3) )(4,5) ](2+) , [U(VI) O(2) (CH(3) CN)(4,5) ](2+) and [Pu(VI) O(2) (CH(3) CN)(4) ](2+) retain the hexavalent metal oxidation state with the addition of hydroxide or acetone enolate anion ligands. However, CID of [Pu(VI) O(2) (CH(3) COCH(3) )(4) ](2+) generates monopositive plutonyl(V) complexes, reflecting relatively more facile reduction of Pu(VI) to Pu(V). PMID:22223415

  6. Electron transfer precedes ATP hydrolysis during nitrogenase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Duval, Simon; Danyal, Karamatullah; Shaw, Sudipta; Lytle, Anna K; Dean, Dennis R; Hoffman, Brian M; Antony, Edwin; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2013-10-01

    The biological reduction of N2 to NH3 catalyzed by Mo-dependent nitrogenase requires at least eight rounds of a complex cycle of events associated with ATP-driven electron transfer (ET) from the Fe protein to the catalytic MoFe protein, with each ET coupled to the hydrolysis of two ATP molecules. Although steps within this cycle have been studied for decades, the nature of the coupling between ATP hydrolysis and ET, in particular the order of ET and ATP hydrolysis, has been elusive. Here, we have measured first-order rate constants for each key step in the reaction sequence, including direct measurement of the ATP hydrolysis rate constant: kATP = 70 s(-1), 25 °C. Comparison of the rate constants establishes that the reaction sequence involves four sequential steps: (i) conformationally gated ET (kET = 140 s(-1), 25 °C), (ii) ATP hydrolysis (kATP = 70 s(-1), 25 °C), (iii) Phosphate release (kPi = 16 s(-1), 25 °C), and (iv) Fe protein dissociation from the MoFe protein (kdiss = 6 s(-1), 25 °C). These findings allow completion of the thermodynamic cycle undergone by the Fe protein, showing that the energy of ATP binding and protein-protein association drive ET, with subsequent ATP hydrolysis and Pi release causing dissociation of the complex between the Fe(ox)(ADP)2 protein and the reduced MoFe protein. PMID:24062462

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, Photophysics and Photochemistry of Pyrylogen Electron Transfer Sensitizers

    SciTech Connect

    Clennan, Edward L. [University of Wyoming, Laramie] [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Liao, Chen [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A series of new dicationic sensitizers that are hybrids of pyrylium salts and viologens has been synthesized. The electrochemical and photophysical properties of these "pyrylogen" sensitizers are reported in sufficient detail to allow rationale design of new photoinduced electron transfer reactions. The range of their reduction potentials (+0.37-+0.05V vs SCE) coupled with their range of singlet (48-63 kcal mol(-1)) and triplet (48-57kcalmol(-1)) energies demonstrate that they are potent oxidizing agents in both their singlet and triplet excited states, thermodynamically capable of oxidizing substrates with oxidation potentials as high as 3.1eV. The pyrylogens are synthesized in three steps from readily available starting materials in modest overall 11.4-22.3% yields. These sensitizers have the added advantages that: (1) their radical cations do not react on the CV timescale with oxygen bypassing the need to run reactions under nitrogen or argon and (2) have long wavelength absorptions between 413 and 523nm well out of the range where competitive absorbance by most substrates would cause a problem. These new sensitizers do react with water requiring special precautions to operate in a dry reaction environment.

  8. Long-range electron transfer across Peptide bridges: the transition from electron superexchange to hopping.

    PubMed

    Malak, Rouba Abdel; Gao, Zhinong; Wishart, James F; Isied, Stephan S

    2004-11-01

    Long-range electron transfer rate constants for complexes of the type [(bpy)2RuIIL-Pron-apyRuIII)(NH3)5]5++ proline residues (n) varying from 0 to 9 were determined by complementary electron pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis techniques from the picosecond to the millisecond time scales. The activationless kmax values from both techniques coalesce into one data set. The distance dependence of the reactions is consistent with a smooth transition from a superexchange mechanism with attenuation constant beta = 1.4 A-1 to a hopping mechanism with attenuation constant beta = 0.17 A-1. The transition occurs between n = 3 and 4 prolines, and the virtual hopping rate constant at the shortest distance is about 1 x 106 times slower than that observed for the superexchange value. PMID:15506726

  9. Theory of proton-coupled electron transfer in energy conversion processes.

    PubMed

    Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2009-12-21

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions play an essential role in a broad range of energy conversion processes, including photosynthesis and respiration. These reactions also form the basis of many types of solar fuel cells and electrochemical devices. Recent advances in the theory of PCET enable the prediction of the impact of system properties on the reaction rates. These predictions may guide the design of more efficient catalysts for energy production, including those based on artificial photosynthesis and solar energy conversion. This Account summarizes the theoretically predicted dependence of PCET rates on system properties and illustrates potential approaches for tuning the reaction rates in chemical systems. A general theoretical formulation for PCET reactions has been developed over the past decade. In this theory, PCET reactions are described in terms of nonadiabatic transitions between the reactant and product electron-proton vibronic states. A series of nonadiabatic rate constant expressions for both homogeneous and electrochemical PCET reactions have been derived in various well-defined limits. Recently this theory has been extended to include the effects of solvent dynamics and to describe ultrafast interfacial PCET. Analysis of the rate constant expressions provides insight into the underlying physical principles of PCET and enables the prediction of the dependence of the rates on the physical properties of the system. Moreover, the kinetic isotope effect, which is the ratio of the rates for hydrogen and deuterium, provides a useful mechanistic probe. Typically the PCET rate will increase as the electronic coupling and temperature increase and as the total reorganization energy and equilibrium proton donor-acceptor distance decrease. The rate constant is predicted to increase as the driving force becomes more negative, rather than exhibit turnover behavior in the inverted region, because excited vibronic product states associated with low free energy barriers and relatively large vibronic couplings become accessible. The physical basis for the experimentally observed pH dependence of PCET reactions has been debated in the literature. When the proton acceptor is a buffer species, the pH dependence may arise from the protonation equilibrium of the buffer. It could also arise from kinetic complexity of competing concerted and sequential PCET reaction pathways. In electrochemical PCET, the heterogeneous rate constants and current densities depend strongly on the overpotential. The change in equilibrium proton donor-acceptor distance upon electron transfer may lead to asymmetries in the Tafel plots and deviations of the transfer coefficient from the standard value of one-half at zero overpotential. Applications of this theory to experimentally studied systems illustrate approaches that can be utilized to tune the PCET rate. For example, the rate can be tuned by changing the pH or using different buffer species as proton acceptors. The rate can also be tuned with site-specific mutagenesis in biological systems or chemical modifications that vary the substituents on the redox species in chemical systems. Understanding the impact of these changes on the PCET rate may assist experimental efforts to enhance energy conversion processes. PMID:19807148

  10. Photoinduced electron transfer and excitation energy transfer in directly linked zinc porphyrin/zinc phthalocyanine composite.

    PubMed

    Ito, Fuyuki; Ishibashi, Yukihide; Khan, Sazzadur Rahman; Miyasaka, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Kazuya; Morisue, Mitsuhiko; Satake, Akiharu; Ogawa, Kazuya; Kobuke, Yoshiaki

    2006-11-30

    Photoinduced electron transfer (ET) and excitation energy transfer (ENT) reactions in monomer and slipped-cofacial dimer systems of a directly linked Zn porphyrin (Por)-Zn phthalocyanine (Pc) heterodyad, ZnPc-ZnPor, were investigated by means of the picosecond and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopies. In the dimer dyad system of two heterodyads connected through the coordination bond between two imidazolyl-substituted ZnPor bearing ZnPc, ZnPc-ZnPor(D), the rapid ENT from the ZnPor to ZnPc in the subpicosecond time region was followed by photoinduced charge separation (CS) and charge recombination (CR) with time constants of 47 and 510 ps, respectively. On the other hand in the monomer dyad system, no clear charge-separated state was observed although the CS with a time constant of 200 ps and CR with < or =70 ps were estimated. These results indicated that the dimer slipped-cofacial arrangement of pair porphyrins is advantageous for the effective production of the CS state. This advantage was discussed from the viewpoint of a decrease in the reorganization energy of the dimer relative to that of the monomer system. In addition, the electrochemical measurements indicated that the strong interaction between ZnPc and ZnPor moieties also contributed to the fast CS process despite the marginal driving force for the CS process. The dimer dyad of ZnPc-ZnPor provides full advantages in efficiencies of the light harvesting and the CS state production. PMID:17125286

  11. Real-space transfer and hot-electron transport properties in III-V semiconductor heterostructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryoji Sakamoto; Kiyoyasu Akai; Masataka Inoue

    1989-01-01

    Real-space transfer (RST) of hot electrons in heterostructures was studied using Monte Carlo simulations. Hot-electron distributions in real space were determined self-consistently by taking into account the space-charge field across the heterointerface. Using the analysis of hot-electron distributions in heterostructures, high-field transport properties are discussed from the viewpoint of heterostructure engineering. The simulations indicate that the effects of real-space transfer

  12. Oxidation catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  13. Observation of orientation-dependent electron transfer in molecule–surface collisions

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Nils; Golibrzuch, Kai; Bartels, Christof; Chen, Li; Auerbach, Daniel J.; Wodtke, Alec M.; Schäfer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Molecules typically must point in specific relative directions to participate efficiently in energy transfer and reactions. For example, Förster energy transfer favors specific relative directions of each molecule’s transition dipole [Förster T (1948) Ann Phys 2(1-2):55–75] and electron transfer between gas-phase molecules often depends on the relative orientation of orbitals [Brooks PR, et al. (2007) J Am Chem Soc 129(50):15572–15580]. Surface chemical reactions can be many orders of magnitude faster than their gas-phase analogs, a fact that underscores the importance of surfaces for catalysis. One reason surface reactions can be so fast is the labile change of oxidation state that commonly takes place upon adsorption, a process involving electron transfer between a solid metal and an approaching molecule. By transferring electrons to or from the adsorbate, the process of bond weakening and/or cleavage is initiated, chemically activating the reactant [Yoon B, et al. (2005) Science 307(5708):403–407]. Here, we show that the vibrational relaxation of NO—an example of electronically nonadiabatic energy transfer that is driven by an electron transfer event [Gadzuk JW (1983) J Chem Phys 79(12):6341–6348]—is dramatically enhanced when the molecule approaches an Au(111) surface with the N atom oriented toward the surface. This represents a rare opportunity to investigate the steric influences on an electron transfer reaction happening at a surface. PMID:24127598

  14. Observation of orientation-dependent electron transfer in molecule-surface collisions.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Nils; Golibrzuch, Kai; Bartels, Christof; Chen, Li; Auerbach, Daniel J; Wodtke, Alec M; Schäfer, Tim

    2013-10-29

    Molecules typically must point in specific relative directions to participate efficiently in energy transfer and reactions. For example, Förster energy transfer favors specific relative directions of each molecule's transition dipole [Förster T (1948) Ann Phys 2(1-2):55-75] and electron transfer between gas-phase molecules often depends on the relative orientation of orbitals [Brooks PR, et al. (2007) J Am Chem Soc 129(50):15572-15580]. Surface chemical reactions can be many orders of magnitude faster than their gas-phase analogs, a fact that underscores the importance of surfaces for catalysis. One reason surface reactions can be so fast is the labile change of oxidation state that commonly takes place upon adsorption, a process involving electron transfer between a solid metal and an approaching molecule. By transferring electrons to or from the adsorbate, the process of bond weakening and/or cleavage is initiated, chemically activating the reactant [Yoon B, et al. (2005) Science 307(5708):403-407]. Here, we show that the vibrational relaxation of NO--an example of electronically nonadiabatic energy transfer that is driven by an electron transfer event [Gadzuk JW (1983) J Chem Phys 79(12):6341-6348]--is dramatically enhanced when the molecule approaches an Au(111) surface with the N atom oriented toward the surface. This represents a rare opportunity to investigate the steric influences on an electron transfer reaction happening at a surface. PMID:24127598

  15. High throughput electron transfer from carbon dots to chloroplast: a rationale of enhanced photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sourov; Pradhan, Saheli; Mitra, Shouvik; Patra, Prasun; Bhattacharya, Ankita; Pramanik, Panchanan; Goswami, Arunava

    2014-03-01

    A biocompatible amine functionalized fluorescent carbon dots were developed and isolated for gram scale applications. Such carbogenic quantum dots can strongly conjugate over the surface of the chloroplast and due to that strong interaction the former can easily transfer electrons towards the latter by assistance of absorbed light or photons. An exceptionally high electron transfer from carbon dots to the chloroplast can directly effect the whole chain electron transfer pathway in a light reaction of photosynthesis, where electron carriers play an important role in modulating the system. As a result, carbon dots can promote photosynthesis by modulating the electron transfer process as they are capable of fastening the conversion of light energy to the electrical energy and finally to the chemical energy as assimilatory power (ATP and NADPH).A biocompatible amine functionalized fluorescent carbon dots were developed and isolated for gram scale applications. Such carbogenic quantum dots can strongly conjugate over the surface of the chloroplast and due to that strong interaction the former can easily transfer electrons towards the latter by assistance of absorbed light or photons. An exceptionally high electron transfer from carbon dots to the chloroplast can directly effect the whole chain electron transfer pathway in a light reaction of photosynthesis, where electron carriers play an important role in modulating the system. As a result, carbon dots can promote photosynthesis by modulating the electron transfer process as they are capable of fastening the conversion of light energy to the electrical energy and finally to the chemical energy as assimilatory power (ATP and NADPH). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06079a

  16. Pathways for photoinduced electron transfer within a mixed-metal bisporphyrin

    SciTech Connect

    Harriman, A. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)); Heitz, V. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States) Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)); Sauvage, J.P. (Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France))

    1993-06-03

    The photophysical properties of an oblique bisporphyrin, comprised of gold(III) and zinc(II) porphyrinic subunits separated by a 2,9-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline spacer moiety, have been studied. Upon selective excitation of either porphyrin, rapid electron transfer occurs from the zinc porphyrin to the appended gold porphyrin and the ground-state system is restored by relatively slow reverse electron transfer. The rates of the various electron transfer steps correlate with both reaction exergonicity and temperature but only poorly with the solvent polarity because of limited applicability of the dielectric continuum model to this system and solvent-induced changes in redox potentials. The magnitude of electronic coupling between the reactants shows a marked dependence on the energy gap between relevant orbitals on the porphyrin and the spacer group, consistent with through-bond interaction. It is concluded that reaction via the zinc porphyrin excited singlet and triplet states proceeds via electron transfer through the LUMO of the spacer, while the gold porphrin triplet excited state reacts via hole transfer through the HOMO of the spacer moiety. Reverse electron transfer seems to show no preferred pathway and may involve through-space electron transfer. 43 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Persistence of Structure Over Fluctuations in Biological Electron-Transfer Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Balabin, Ilya A.; Beratan, David N.; Skourtis, Spiros S.

    2009-01-01

    In the soft-wet environment of biomolecular electron transfer, it is possible that structural fluctuations could wash out medium-specific electronic effects on electron tunneling rates. We show that beyond a transition distance (2-3 Å in water and 6-7 Å in proteins), fluctuation contributions to the mean-squared donor-to-acceptor tunneling matrix element are likely to dominate over the average matrix element. Even though fluctuations dominate the tunneling mechanism at larger distances, we find that the protein fold is “remembered” by the electronic coupling, and structure remains a key determinant of electron transfer kinetics. PMID:18999647

  18. Diameter selective electron transfer from encapsulated ferrocenes to single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizumi, Yoko; Suzuki, Hironori; Tange, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Toshiya

    2014-10-01

    The diameter selective photoluminescence quenching of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is observed upon ferrocene encapsulation, which can be attributed to electron transfer from the encapsulated ferrocenes to the SWCNTs. Interestingly, the dependence of the electron transfer process on the nanotube diameter is governed by the molecular orientation of the ferrocenes in the SWCNT rather than the reduction potentials of the SWCNT.The diameter selective photoluminescence quenching of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is observed upon ferrocene encapsulation, which can be attributed to electron transfer from the encapsulated ferrocenes to the SWCNTs. Interestingly, the dependence of the electron transfer process on the nanotube diameter is governed by the molecular orientation of the ferrocenes in the SWCNT rather than the reduction potentials of the SWCNT. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Calculated binding energies of FeCp2@SWCNTs and additional spectroscopic characterization are described in ESI. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04398g

  19. Structural effects on photoinduced electron transfer in carotenoid-porphyrin-quinone triads

    SciTech Connect

    Kuciauskas, D.; Liddell, P.A.; Hung, S.C.; Lin, S.; Stone, S.; Seely, G.R.; Moore, A.L.; Moore, T.A.; Gust, D. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)] [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1997-01-16

    meso-Polyarylporphyrins are often used as components of molecules that mimic photosynthetic reaction centers by carrying out photoinduced electron-transfer reactions. Studies of these systems have raised questions concerning the role of alkyl substituents at the `{beta}-pyrrolic` positions on the porphyrin periphery in limiting {pi}-{pi} overlap between the macrocycle and the aryl rings. The degree of overlap affects electronic coupling and, therefore, the rates of electron-transfer reactions. There is also evidence that when the linkages joining porphyrins to electron-acceptor or -donor moieties contain amide bonds, the sense of the amide linkage may strongly affect electron-transfer rate constants. In this study, three carotenoid-porphyrin-quinone molecular triads and various model compounds have been prepared, and electron-transfer has been studied using time-resolved emission and absorption techniques. The results show that steric hindrance due to methyl groups at the {beta}-pyrrolic positions reduces electron-transfer rate constants by a factor of approximately 1/5. In addition, amide-containing donor-acceptor linkages having the nitrogen atom attached to the porphyrin meso-aryl ring demonstrate electron-transfer rate constants approximately 30 times larger than those for similar linkages with the amide reversed, after correction for thermodynamic effects. 52 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. What difference one double bond makes: Electronic structure of saturated and unsaturated n-heterocyclic carbene ligands in Grubbs 2nd generation-type catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Lord; Huijun Wang; Mario Vieweger; Mu-Hyun Baik

    2006-01-01

    N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands are a versatile and useful class of ligands that have enjoyed much success over the past few decades in organometallic chemistry. This fact is exemplified most convincingly in Grubbs 2nd generation olefin metathesis catalysts. We explore the electronic impact of the NHC-ligand by decoupling electronic and steric effects through simplified model N-heterocyclic carbenes. Saturated and unsaturated

  1. Experimental insights on the electron transfer and energy transfer processes between Ce3+-Yb3+ and Ce3+-Tb3+ in borate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sontakke, Atul D.; Ueda, Jumpei; Katayama, Yumiko; Dorenbos, Pieter; Tanabe, Setsuhisa

    2015-03-01

    A facile method to describe the electron transfer and energy transfer processes among lanthanide ions is presented based on the temperature dependent donor luminescence decay kinetics. The electron transfer process in Ce3+-Yb3+ exhibits a steady rise with temperature, whereas the Ce3+-Tb3+ energy transfer remains nearly unaffected. This feature has been investigated using the rate equation modeling and a methodology for the quantitative estimation of interaction parameters is presented. Moreover, the overall consequences of electron transfer and energy transfer process on donor-acceptor luminescence behavior, quantum efficiency, and donor luminescence decay kinetics are discussed in borate glass host. The results in this study propose a straight forward approach to distinguish the electron transfer and energy transfer processes between lanthanide ions in dielectric hosts, which is highly advantageous in view of the recent developments on lanthanide doped materials for spectral conversion, persistent luminescence, and related applications.

  2. Full-electron calculation of effective electronic couplings and excitation energies of charge transfer states: Application to hole transfer in DNA ?-stacks

    PubMed Central

    Migliore, Agostino

    2009-01-01

    In this work I develop and apply a theoretical method for calculating effective electronic couplings (or transfer integrals) between redox sites involved in hole or electron transfer reactions. The resulting methodology is a refinement and a generalization of a recently developed approach for transfer integral evaluation. In fact, it holds for any overlap between the charge-localized states used to represent charge transfer (CT) processes in the two-state model. The presented theoretical and computational analyses show that the prototype approach is recovered for sufficiently small overlaps. The method does not involve any empirical parameter. It allows a complete multielectron description, therefore including electronic relaxation effects. Furthermore, its theoretical formulation holds at any value of the given reaction coordinate and yields a formula for the evaluation of the vertical excitation energy (i.e., the energy difference between the adiabatic ground and first-excited electronic states) that rests on the same physical quantities used in transfer integral calculation. In this paper the theoretical approach is applied to CT in B-DNA base dimers within the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT), although it can be implemented in other computational schemes. The results of this work, as compared with previous Hartree–Fock (HF) and post-HF evaluations, support the applicability of the current implementation of the method to larger ?-stacked arrays, where post-HF approaches are computationally unfeasible. PMID:19778106

  3. On the involvement of electron transfer reactions in the fluorescence decay kinetics heterogeneity of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ababou, Abdessamad; Bombarda, Elisa

    2001-01-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence study of single tryptophan-containing proteins, nuclease, ribonuclease T1, protein G, glucagon, and mastoparan, has been carried out. Three different methods were used for the analysis of fluorescence decays: the iterative reconvolution method, as reviewed and developed in our laboratory, the maximum entropy method, and the recent method that we called "energy transfer" method. All the proteins show heterogeneous fluorescence kinetics (multiexponential decay). The origin of this heterogeneity is interpreted in terms of current theories of electron transfer process, which treat the electron transfer process as a radiationless transition. The theoretical electron transfer rate was calculated assuming the peptide bond carbonyl as the acceptor site. The good agreement between experimental and theoretical electron-transfer rates leads us to suggest that the electron-transfer process is the principal quenching mechanism of Trp fluorescence in proteins, resulting in heterogeneous fluorescence kinetics. Furthermore, the origin of apparent homogeneous fluorescence kinetics (monoexponential decay) in some proteins also can be explained on the basis of electron-transfer mechanism. PMID:11567101

  4. On the involvement of electron transfer reactions in the fluorescence decay kinetics heterogeneity of proteins.

    PubMed

    Ababou, A; Bombarda, E

    2001-10-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence study of single tryptophan-containing proteins, nuclease, ribonuclease T1, protein G, glucagon, and mastoparan, has been carried out. Three different methods were used for the analysis of fluorescence decays: the iterative reconvolution method, as reviewed and developed in our laboratory, the maximum entropy method, and the recent method that we called "energy transfer" method. All the proteins show heterogeneous fluorescence kinetics (multiexponential decay). The origin of this heterogeneity is interpreted in terms of current theories of electron transfer process, which treat the electron transfer process as a radiationless transition. The theoretical electron transfer rate was calculated assuming the peptide bond carbonyl as the acceptor site. The good agreement between experimental and theoretical electron-transfer rates leads us to suggest that the electron-transfer process is the principal quenching mechanism of Trp fluorescence in proteins, resulting in heterogeneous fluorescence kinetics. Furthermore, the origin of apparent homogeneous fluorescence kinetics (monoexponential decay) in some proteins also can be explained on the basis of electron-transfer mechanism. PMID:11567101

  5. Multistep electron transfer between porphyrin modules assembled around a ruthenium center

    SciTech Connect

    Harriman, A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Odobel, F.; Sauvage, J.P. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)

    1995-09-20

    A new strategy has been devised for the construction of photoactive multicomponent arrays based on metal ion chelation whereby bisporphyrins have been assembled around a central ruthenium(II) bis(terpyridyl) complex. One of the terminal subunits is a gold (III) porphyrin while the second terminus is selected from a gold (III), zinc(II), or free-base porphyrin. Photophysical properties have been measured for each of the tripartitic compounds using ultrafast transient absorption and emission spectroscopy. Excitation into the central ruthenium(II) bis(terpyridyl) complex is followed by rapid intramolecular triplet energy transfer to one of the appended porphyrins. Direct excitation into the gold(III) porphyrin subunit generates the corresponding triplet excited state which is unreactive toward energy- or electron-transfer processes. In contrast, excitation into the zinc(II) or free-base porphyrin produces the corresponding excited singlet state which transfers an electron to the adjacent ruthenium(II) bis(terpyridyl) complex. Secondary electron transfer to the appended gold(III) porphyrin competes with reverse electron transfer such that the redox equivalents become separated by about 30 A. The original ground-state system is restored by relatively slow interporphyrin electron transfer. The energetics for each of these electron-transfer steps have been evaluated. 51 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Electron Transfer Processes to Continuum in Near-Relativistic Ion-Atom Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Stoehlker, Th.; Fritzsche, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Physik Institut, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany); Surzhykov, A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Physik Institut, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany); Jakubassa-Amundsen, D. [Mathemat. Inst., LMU-Muenchen (Germany); Najjari, B.; Voitkiv, A.; Ullrich, J.; Moshammer, R. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Kozhuharov, C.; Gumberidze, A.; Spillmann, U.; Reuschl, R.; Hess, S.; Trotsenko, S.; Bosch, F.; Liesen, D. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Nofal, M. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Doerner, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Univ. Frankfurt (Germany); Rothard, H. [CIRIL-Ganil, Caen (France)] (and others)

    2009-03-10

    Theories for electron transfer to the continuum have encountered considerable difficulties to take into account the intrinsic many-electron processes in the capture channel. This may partially be attributed to large momentum transfers involved and thus collision systems are mostly not in the realm of first order perturbation theories. For this reason we have studied collision systems where simultaneously distinct competing electron transfer processes are found to be active, like radiative (RECC) and non-radiative electron capture to continuum (ECC) in the relativistic domain where one or two even active electrons are involved; here another, though distinct, transfer process, the projectile electron loss to continuum (ELC), permits additionally to study the dynamics of ionization very close to threshold. We have studied these electron transfer processes simultaneously in forward electron emission in two systems of different projectile Compton profile, U{sup 88+}+N{sub 2} and Sn{sup 47+}+N{sub 2} collisions using the forward electron spectrometer at the supersonic jet-target of the ESR storage ring. We report first results and compare with theory.

  7. Chemical electron-transfer reactions in electrospray mass spectrometry: Effective oxidation potentials of electron-transfer reagents in methylene chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, G.J.; Zhou, F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1994-10-15

    Cyclic voltammetry (CV), UV/visible absorption spectroscopy, and electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) are used in conjunction to study the mono- and /or dications produced in solution from the reaction of three model compounds ([beta]-carotene, cobalt(II) octaethylporphyrin (Co[sup II]OEP), nickel(II) octaethylporphyrin (Ni[sup II]OEP), in three different solvent/electron-transfer reagent systems (methylene chloride/0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (v/v), methylene chloride/0.1% TFA/2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) v/v/200 [mu]M), methylene chloride/0.1% TFA/0.1% antimony pentafluoride (SbF[sub 5]) (v/v/v)). The reactions were carried out on-line with ES-MS by means of flow injection. Correlation of the CV data for these analytes with the ionic species determined to be in the solution on the basis of UV/visible absorption spectra and/or on the basis of the ionic species observed in the gas phase by ES-MS, along with our previously published data on these solvent/reagent systems, allowed an effective oxidation potential range, E, to be assigned to these solvent/reagent systems: methylene chloride/0.1% TFA (v/v), 0.6V [le] E[sub TFA] < 0.7 V; methylene chloride/0.1% TFA/DDQ (v/v/200 [mu]M), 0.8 [le] E[sub TFA/DDQ] < 1.0 V; methylene chloride/0.1% TFA/0.1% SbF[sub 5] (v/v/v), 1.3 [le] E[sub TFA/SbF(5)] < 1.5. 40 refs., 7 figs.

  8. The Role of Protein Fluctuation Correlations in Electron Transfer in Photosynthetic Complexes

    E-print Network

    Alexander I. Nesterov; Gennady P. Berman

    2014-11-28

    We consider the dependence of the electron transfer in photosynthetic complexes on correlation properties of random fluctuations of the protein environment. The electron subsystem is modeled by a finite network of connected electron (exciton) sites. The fluctuations of the protein environment are modeled by random telegraph processes, which act either collectively (correlated) or independently (uncorrelated) on the electron sites. We derived an exact closed system of first-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, for the average density matrix elements and for their first moments. Under some conditions, we obtain analytic expressions for the electron transfer rates. We compare the correlated and uncorrelated regimes, and demonstrated numerically that the uncorrelated fluctuations of the protein environment can, under some conditions, either increase or decrease the electron transfer rates.

  9. Role of protein fluctuation correlations in electron transfer in photosynthetic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterov, Alexander I.; Berman, Gennady P.

    2015-04-01

    We consider the dependence of the electron transfer in photosynthetic complexes on correlation properties of random fluctuations of the protein environment. The electron subsystem is modeled by a finite network of connected electron (exciton) sites. The fluctuations of the protein environment are modeled by random telegraph processes, which act either collectively (correlated) or independently (uncorrelated) on the electron sites. We derived an exact closed system of first-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, for the average density matrix elements and for their first moments. Under some conditions, we obtained analytic expressions for the electron transfer rates and found the range of parameters for their applicability by comparing with the exact numerical simulations. We also compared the correlated and uncorrelated regimes and demonstrated numerically that the uncorrelated fluctuations of the protein environment can, under some conditions, either increase or decrease the electron transfer rates.

  10. Enhanced electron-transfer reactivity of nonheme manganese(IV)-oxo complexes by binding scandium ions.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Heejung; Lee, Yong-Min; Wu, Xiujuan; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Nam, Wonwoo; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Fuhkuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-06-19

    One and two scandium ions (Sc(3+)) are bound strongly to nonheme manganese(IV)-oxo complexes, [(N4Py)Mn(IV)(O)](2+) (N4Py = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine) and [(Bn-TPEN)Mn(IV)(O)](2+) (Bn-TPEN = N-benzyl-N,N',N'-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminoethane), to form Mn(IV)(O)-(Sc(3+))1 and Mn(IV)(O)-(Sc(3+))2 complexes, respectively. The binding of Sc(3+) ions to the Mn(IV)(O) complexes was examined by spectroscopic methods as well as by DFT calculations. The one-electron reduction potentials of the Mn(IV)(O) complexes were markedly shifted to a positive direction by binding of Sc(3+) ions. Accordingly, rates of the electron transfer reactions of the Mn(IV)(O) complexes were enhanced as much as 10(7)-fold by binding of two Sc(3+) ions. The driving force dependence of electron transfer from various electron donors to the Mn(IV)(O) and Mn(IV)(O)-(Sc(3+))2 complexes was examined and analyzed in light of the Marcus theory of electron transfer to determine the reorganization energies of electron transfer. The smaller reorganization energies and much more positive reduction potentials of the Mn(IV)(O)-(Sc(3+))2 complexes resulted in remarkable enhancement of the electron-transfer reactivity of the Mn(IV)(O) complexes. Such a dramatic enhancement of the electron-transfer reactivity of the Mn(IV)(O) complexes by binding of Sc(3+) ions resulted in the change of mechanism in the sulfoxidation of thioanisoles by Mn(IV)(O) complexes from a direct oxygen atom transfer pathway without metal ion binding to an electron-transfer pathway with binding of Sc(3+) ions. PMID:23742163

  11. Enhanced Electron-Transfer Reactivity of Nonheme Manganese(IV)– Oxo Complexes by Binding Scandium Ions

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Heejung; Lee, Yong-Min; Wu, Xiujuan; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Sarangi, Ritimukta

    2014-01-01

    One and two scandium ions (Sc3+) are bound strongly to nonheme manganese(IV)–oxo complexes, [(N4Py)MnIV(O)]2+ (N4Py = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine) and [(Bn-TPEN)MnIV(O)]2+ (Bn-TPEN = N-benzyl-N,N?,N?-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminoethane), to form MnIV(O)–(Sc3+)1 and MnIV(O)–(Sc3+)2 complexes, respectively. The binding of Sc3+ ions to the MnIV(O) complexes was examined by spectroscopic methods as well as by DFT calculations. The one-electron reduction potentials of the MnIV(O) complexes were markedly shifted to a positive direction by binding of Sc3+ ions. Accordingly, rates of the electron transfer reactions of the MnIV(O) complexes were enhanced as much as 107–fold by binding of two Sc3+ ions. The driving force dependence of electron transfer from various electron donors to the MnIV(O) and MnIV(O)–(Sc3+)2 complexes was examined and analyzed in light of the Marcus theory of electron transfer to determine the reorganization energies of electron transfer. The smaller reorganization energies and much more positive reduction potentials of the MnIV(O)–(Sc3+)2 complexes resulted in remarkable enhancement of the electron-transfer reactivity of the MnIV(O) complexes. Such a dramatic enhancement of the electron-transfer reactivity of the MnIV(O) complexes by binding of Sc3+ ions resulted in the change of mechanism in the sulfoxidation of thioanisoles by MnIV(O) complexes from a direct oxygen atom transfer pathway without metal ion binding to an electron-transfer pathway with binding of Sc3+ ions. PMID:23742163

  12. The Mechanism and Properties of Electron Transfer in the Biological Organism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng

    2013-08-01

    The mechanism and properties of electron transfer along protein molecules at finite temperature T ? 0 in the life systems are studied using nonlinear theory of bio-energy transport and Green function method, in which the electrons are transferred from donors to acceptors in virtue of the supersound soliton excited by the energy released in ATP hydrolysis. The electron transfer is, in essence, a process of oxidation-reduction reaction. In this study we first give the Hamiltonian and wavefunction of the system and find out the soliton solution of the dynamical equation in the protein molecules with finite temperature, and obtain the dynamical coefficient of the electron transfer. The results show that the speed of the electron transfer is related to the velocity of motion of the soliton, distribution of electrons in the donor and acceptor as well as the interaction strength among them. We finally concluded the changed rule of electric current, arising from the electron transfer, with increasing time. These results are useful in molecular and chemical biology.

  13. Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer between porphyrinic subunits within a Bis(porphyrin)-stoppered rotaxane

    SciTech Connect

    Chambron, J.C.; Sauvage, J.P. (Universite Louis Pasteur, Strsbourg (France)); Harriman, A. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)); Heitz, V. (Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France) Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

    1993-07-14

    A rotaxane has been built around a central copper(I) bis(1,10-phenanthroline) complex with gold(III) and zinc(II) porphyrins acting as terminal stoppers. Upon selective excitation of either porphyrin, rapid electron transfer occurs from the zinc porphyrin to the appended gold porphyrin. The copper(I) complex donates an electron to the resultant zinc porphyrin [pi]-radical cation, and the ground-state system is restored by relatively slow electron transfer from the gold porphyrin neutral radical to the copper(II) complex. The rates of the various electron-transfer steps observed with the rotaxane are compared to those occurring in closely related systems, and it is concluded that the copper(I) complex mediates photoinduced electron transfer between the terminal porphyrinic subunits but not the reverse reaction. A qualitative understanding of the electron-transfer rate is presented in terms of a simple orbital energy diagram involving through-bond electron or hole transfer. 39 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Pulse radiolytic studies of electron transfer processes and applications to solar photochemistry. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Neta, P.

    1995-02-01

    The pulse radiolysis technique is applied to the study of electron transfer processes in a variety of chemical systems. Reactive intermediates are produced in solution by electron pulse irradiation and the kinetics of their reactions are followed by time resolved absorption spectrophotometry. Complementary experiments are carried out with excimer laser flash photolysis. These studies are concerned with mechanisms, kinetics, and thermodynamics of reactions of organic and inorganic radicals and unstable oxidation states of metal ions. Reactions are studied in both aqueous and non-aqueous solutions. The studies focus on the unique ability of pulse radiolysis to provide absolute rate constants for reactions of many inorganic radicals and organic peroxyl radicals, species that are key intermediates in many chemical processes. A special concern of this work is the study of electron transfer reactions of metalloporphyrins, which permits evaluation of these molecules as intermediates in solar energy conversion. Metalloporphyrins react with free radicals via electron transfer, involving the ligand or the metal center, or via bonding to the metal, leading to a variety of chemical species whose behavior is also investigated. The highlights of the results during the past three years are summarized below under the following sections: (a) electron transfer reactions of peroxyl radicals, concentrating on the characterization of new peroxyl radicals derived from vinyl, phenyl, other aryl, and pyridyl; (b) solvent effects on electron transfer reactions of inorganic and organic peroxyl radicals, including reactions with porphyrins, and (c) electron transfer and alkylation reactions of metalloporphyrins and other complexes.

  15. Density functional theory based analysis of photoinduced electron transfer in a triazacryptand based K? sensor.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Edward A; Besley, Nicholas A

    2015-03-26

    The electronic structure and photoinduced electron transfer processes in a K(+) fluorescent sensor that comprises a 4-amino-naphthalimide derived fluorophore with a triazacryptand ligand is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) in order to rationalize the function of the sensor. The absorption and emission energies of the intense electronic excitation localized on the fluorophore are accurately described using a ?SCF Kohn-Sham DFT approach, which gives excitation energies closer to experiment than TDDFT. Analysis of the molecular orbital diagram arising from DFT calculations for the isolated molecule or with implicit solvent cannot account for the function of the sensor, and it is necessary to consider the relative energies of the electronic states formed from the local excitation on the fluorophore and the lowest fluorophore ? chelator charge transfer state. The inclusion of solvent in these calculations is critical since the strong interaction of the charge transfer state with the solvent lowers its energy below the local fluorophore excited state making a reductive photoinduced electron transfer possible in the absence of K(+), while no such process is possible when the sensor is bound to K(+). The rate of electron transfer is quantified using Marcus theory, which gives a rate of electron transfer of k(ET) = 5.98 × 10(6) s(-1). PMID:25734899

  16. Enhanced photoinduced electron-transfer reduction of Li(+)@C60 in comparison with C60.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Yuki; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2012-09-13

    Kinetics of photoinduced electron transfer from a series of electron donors to the triplet excited state of lithium ion-encapsulated C60 (Li(+)@C60) was investigated in comparison with the corresponding kinetics of the photoinduced electron transfer to the triplet excited state of pristine C60. Femtosecond laser flash photolysis measurements of Li(+)@C60 revealed that singlet excited state of Li(+)@C60 (?max = 960 nm) underwent intersystem crossing to the triplet excited state [(3)(Li(+)@C60)*: ?max = 750 nm] with a rate constant of 8.9 × 10(8) s(-1) in deaerated benzonitrile (PhCN). The lifetime of (3)(Li(+)@C60)* was determined by nanosecond laser flash photolysis measurements to be 48 ?s, which is comparable to that of C60. Efficient photoinduced electron transfer from a series of electron donors to (3)(Li(+)@C60)* occurred to produce the radical cations and Li(+)@C60(•-). The rate constants of photoinduced electron transfer of Li(+)@C60(•-) are significantly larger than those of C60 when the rate constants are less than the diffusion-limited value in PhCN. The enhanced reactivity of (3)(Li(+)@C60)* as compared with (3)C60* results from the much higher one-electron reduction potential of Li(+)@C60 (0.14 V vs SCE) than that of C60 (-0.43 V vs SCE). The rate constants of photoinduced electron transfer reactions of Li(+)@C60 and C60 were evaluated in light of the Marcus theory of electron transfer to determine the reorganization energies of electron transfer. The reorganization energy of electron transfer of Li(+)@C60 was determined from the driving force dependence of electron transfer rate to be 1.01 eV, which is by 0.28 eV larger than that of C60 (0.73 eV), probably because of the change in electrostatic interaction of encapsulated Li(+) upon electron transfer in PhCN. PMID:22913766

  17. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY FOUNDATION* Electronic Fund Transfer Authorization Form

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Lucia

    and authorize all of the above as evidenced by my signature below. authorizing signature date ( ) contact number, BERKELEY FOUNDATION as gifts from me, into electronic debits. For accounting purposes, all electronic

  18. Application of Degenerately Doped Metal Oxides in the Study of Photoinduced Interfacial Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Farnum, Byron H; Morseth, Zachary A; Brennaman, M Kyle; Papanikolas, John M; Meyer, Thomas J

    2015-06-18

    Degenerately doped In2O3:Sn semiconductor nanoparticles (nanoITO) have been used to study the photoinduced interfacial electron-transfer reactivity of surface-bound [Ru(II)(bpy)2(4,4'-(PO3H2)2-bpy)](2+) (RuP(2+)) molecules as a function of driving force over a range of 1.8 eV. The metallic properties of the ITO nanoparticles, present within an interconnected mesoporous film, allowed for the driving force to be tuned by controlling their Fermi level with an external bias while their optical transparency allowed for transient absorption spectroscopy to be used to monitor electron-transfer kinetics. Photoinduced electron transfer from excited-state -RuP(2+*) molecules to nanoITO was found to be dependent on applied bias and competitive with nonradiative energy transfer to nanoITO. Back electron transfer from nanoITO to oxidized -RuP(3+) was also dependent on the applied bias but without complication from inter- or intraparticle electron diffusion in the oxide nanoparticles. Analysis of the electron injection kinetics as a function of driving force using Marcus-Gerischer theory resulted in an experimental estimate of the reorganization energy for the excited-state -RuP(3+/2+*) redox couple of ?* = 0.83 eV and an electronic coupling matrix element, arising from electronic wave function overlap between the donor orbital in the molecule and the acceptor orbital(s) in the nanoITO electrode, of Hab = 20-45 cm(-1). Similar analysis of the back electron-transfer kinetics yielded ? = 0.56 eV for the ground-state -RuP(3+/2+) redox couple and Hab = 2-4 cm(-1). The use of these wide band gap, degenerately doped materials provides a unique experimental approach for investigating single-site electron transfer at the surface of oxide nanoparticles. PMID:25668488

  19. Proton-coupled electron transfer : from basic principles to small molecule activation

    E-print Network

    Rosenthal, Joel, 1979-

    2007-01-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is the basic mechanism for bioenergetic conversion. Hallmark examples of such reactivities include water oxidation which is coupled to photosynthesis and oxygen reduction which is ...

  20. Steepest Descent Path Study of Electron-Transfer Reactions Jianshu Cao

    E-print Network

    Cao, Jianshu

    path of solvent polarization, thus providing a new perspective of electron- transfer reactions. Though of initial conditions: E b ) 0(, where is the friction coefficient and Eb is the transition state

  1. 77 FR 1555 - Administrative Simplification: Adoption of Standards for Health Care Electronic Funds Transfers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ...January 10, 2012 Part II Department of Health and Human Services...Simplification: Adoption of Standards for Health Care Electronic Funds Transfers (EFTs...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the...

  2. Photoinduced electron transfer from rail to rung within a self-assembled oligomeric porphyrin ladderw

    E-print Network

    Photoinduced electron transfer from rail to rung within a self-assembled oligomeric porphyrin ladder structure comprising oligomeric porphyrin rails and ligated dipyridyltetrazine rungs delocalized on the oligomer and subsequent charge recombination in 0.19 ns. Highly conjugated porphyrin

  3. Evidence for two active branches for electron transfer in photosystem I

    E-print Network

    is used as a terminal acceptor. PS I uses iron-sulfur clusters as terminal acceptors, and the quinone, the electrons are transferred to an iron-sulfur cluster, FX, and then to the terminal iron-sulfur acceptors, FA

  4. Electron impact excitation of SO2 - Differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Trajmar, S.

    1982-01-01

    Electron impact excitation of the electronic states of SO2 was investigated. Differential, integral, and inelastic momentum transfer cross sections were obtained by normalizing the relative measurements to the elastic cross sections. The cross sections are given for seven spectral ranges of the energy-loss spectra extending from the lowest electronic state to near the first ionization limit. Most of the regions represent the overlap of several electronic transitions. No measurements for these cross sections have been reported previously.

  5. Photo-induced water oxidation at the aqueous GaN (101?0) interface: Deprotonation kinetics of the first proton-coupled electron-transfer step

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ertem, Mehmed Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Kharche, Neerav [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Batista, Victor S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hybertsen, Mark S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tully, John C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Muckerman, James T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-04-03

    Photoeclectrochemical water splitting plays a key role in a promising path to the carbon-neutral generation of solar fuels. Wurzite GaN and its alloys (e.g., GaN/ZnO and InGaN) are demonstrated photocatalysts for water oxidation, and they can drive the overall water splitting reaction when coupled with co-catalysts for proton reduction. In the present work, we investigate the water oxidation mechanism on the prototypical GaN (101?0) surface using a combined ab initio molecular dynamics and molecular cluster model approach taking into account the role of water dissociation and hydrogen bonding within the first solvation shell of the hydroxylated surface. The investigation of free-energy changes for the four proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) steps of the water oxidation mechanism shows that the first PCET step for the conversion of –Ga-OH to –Ga-O?? requires the highest energy input. We further examine the sequential PCETs, with the proton transfer (PT) following the electron transfer (ET), and find that photo-generated holes localize on surface –NH sites is thermodynamically more favorable than –OH sites. However, proton transfer from –OH sites with subsequent localization of holes on oxygen atoms is kinetically favored owing to hydrogen bonding interactions at the GaN (101?0)–water interface. We find that the deprotonation of surface –OH sites is the limiting factor for the generation of reactive oxyl radical ion intermediates and consequently for water oxidation.

  6. 77 FR 30923 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...include transfers initiated through an automated teller machine (ATM), point-of-sale (POS) terminal, automated...for goods or services, or usable at automated teller machines.'' EFTA Section 915(a)(2)(A); 12 CFR...

  7. 78 FR 49365 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ...final rules issued by the Bureau in February, July, and August 2012 (collectively the 2012 Final Rule) that implement section 1073 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) regarding remittance transfers....

  8. A method for the determination of the transfer function of electronic circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BASIL L. COCHRUN; ARVIN GRABEL

    1973-01-01

    A general method based on the Laplace expansion for determining the transfer function of a wide variety of linear electronic circuits is discussed. The technique developed requires only the calculation of a number of driving-point resistances to specify the coefficients of the transfer function. Dominant-pole techniques are used and extended, making the procedure useful in both analysis and design. As

  9. Mass transfer and kinetics of the three-phase hydrogenation of a dinitrile over a Raney-type nickel catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. W. Hoffer; P. H. J. Schoenmakers; P. R. M. Mooijman; G. M. Hamminga; R. J. Berger; A. D. van Langeveld; J. A. Moulijn

    2004-01-01

    The hydrogenation kinetics of a dinitrile over a Raney-type nickel catalyst was evaluated from experiments performed in a fed-batch operating autoclave at 320–355K and 2–7MPa hydrogen pressure. This complex catalytic reaction consists of two main parts: almost 100% selective hydrogenation of the dinitrile to the corresponding aminonitrile and consecutive hydrogenation to either the desired primary diamine or to pyrrolidine via

  10. Transfer of hydrogen by hydroaromatics. 1. Mechanism of dehydrogenation\\/hydrogenation in tetralin\\/iron catalyst systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Gangwer

    1980-01-01

    At 400°C, the gas-phase dehydrogenation of tetralin over iron catalysts is found to result in formation of naphthalene via the reaction of intermediate 1,2-dihydronaphthalene. The kinetic data for these systems were found to follow heterogeneous, first-order rate laws. A mechanism is presented which quantitatively describes the measured tetralin and naphthalene kinetic behavior and successfully predicts the kinetic data observed for

  11. An electrochemically preanodized screen-printed carbon electrode for achieving direct electron transfer to glucose oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting-Hao Yang; Chi-Lung Hung; Jyh-Harng Ke; Jyh-Myng Zen

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the unique property of a preanodized screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE?) that can allow direct electron transfer (DET) reaction of glucose oxidase (GOx). The GOx can be immobilized in the composite of oxygen functionalities and edge plane sites generated during preanodization without additional cross-linking agents. The electron transfer rate of GOx is greatly enhanced to 4.38s?1 as a

  12. Photo-induced electron transfer processes in thin-film solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoru Isoda

    2011-01-01

    Power conversion efficiency of single heterojuntion and bulk heterojunction thin-film solar cells has been analyzed in terms of sequential processes of photo-induced electron transfer. Furthermore, a numerical model was developed to predict current-voltage characteristics of solar cells on the basis of photo-induced electron transfer processes. As an application of this modeling, the power conversion efficiency was analyzed for the donor\\/acceptor

  13. Diameter selective electron transfer from encapsulated ferrocenes to single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Iizumi, Yoko; Suzuki, Hironori; Tange, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Toshiya

    2014-11-21

    The diameter selective photoluminescence quenching of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is observed upon ferrocene encapsulation, which can be attributed to electron transfer from the encapsulated ferrocenes to the SWCNTs. Interestingly, the dependence of the electron transfer process on the nanotube diameter is governed by the molecular orientation of the ferrocenes in the SWCNT rather than the reduction potentials of the SWCNT. PMID:25310793

  14. A carotenoid-diporphyrin-quinone model for photosynthetic mutistep electron and energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.; Moore, A.L.; Makings, L.R.; Seely, G.R.; Ma, Xiaochun; Trier, T.T.; Gao, F. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (USA))

    1988-10-26

    A four-component molecular device, which consists of two covalently linked porphyrins, one bearing a carotenoid polyene and the other a napthoquinone electron-acceptor, has been prepared to attempt to explain the electron-transfer strategy of photosynthesis. This tetrad was found to demonstrate singlet and triplet energy transfer behavior, which mimics photosynthetic antenna function by chlorophylls and carotenoids and carotenoid photoprotection from singlet oxygen damage. 27 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Sensitizer-catalyst assemblies for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Mirmohades, Mohammad; Brown, Allison; Duan, Lele; Li, Fusheng; Daniel, Quentin; Lomoth, Reiner; Sun, Licheng; Hammarström, Leif

    2015-03-16

    Two molecular assemblies with one Ru(II)-polypyridine photosensitizer covalently linked to one Ru(II)(bda)L2 catalyst (1) (bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate) and two photosensitizers covalently linked to one catalyst (2) have been prepared using a simple C-C bond as the linkage. In the presence of sodium persulfate as a sacrificial electron acceptor, both of them show high activity for catalytic water oxidation driven by visible light, with a turnover number up to 200 for 2. The linked photocatalysts show a lower initial yield for light driven oxygen evolution but a much better photostability compared to the three component system with separate sensitizer, catalyst and acceptor, leading to a much greater turnover number. Photocatalytic experiments and time-resolved spectroscopy were carried out to probe the mechanism of this catalysis. The linked catalyst in its Ru(II) state rapidly quenches the sensitizer, predominantly by energy transfer. However, a higher stability under photocatalytic condition is shown for the linked sensitizer compared to the three component system, which is attributed to kinetic stabilization by rapid photosensitizer regeneration. Strategies for employment of the sensitizer-catalyst molecules in more efficient photocatalytic systems are discussed. PMID:25700086

  16. pH-Dependent Reduction Potentials and Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Mechanisms in Hydrogen-Producing Nickel Molecular Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, Samantha; Fernandez, Laura; Appel, Aaron M.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2013-04-01

    The nickel-based Ph Bz 2 2 P N electrocatalysts, which are comprised of a nickel atom and two 1,5-dibenzyl-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane ligands, have been shown to effectively catalyze H2 production in acetonitrile. Recent electrochemical experiments revealed a linear dependence of the NiII/I reduction potential on pH, suggesting a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction. In the proposed mechanism, the catalytic cycle begins with a PCET process involving electrochemical electron transfer to the nickel center and intermolecular proton transfer from an acid to the pendant amine ligand. This paper presents quantum mechanical calculations of this PCET process to examine the thermodynamics of the sequential mechanisms, in which either the electron or the proton transfers first (ET–PT and PT–ET, respectively), and the concerted mechanism (EPT). The favored mechanism depends on a balance among many factors, including the acid strength, association free energy for the acid–catalyst complex, PT free energy barrier, and ET reduction potential. The ET reduction potential is less negative after PT, favoring the PT–ET mechanism, and the association free energy is less positive after reduction, favoring the ET–PT mechanism. The calculations, along with analysis of the experimental data, indicate that the sequential ET–PT mechanism is favored for weak acids because of the substantial decrease in the association free energy after reduction. For strong acids, however, the PT–ET mechanism may be favored because the association free energy is somewhat smaller and PT is more thermodynamically favorable. The concerted mechanism could also occur, particularly for intermediate acid strengths. In the context of the entire catalytic cycle for H2 production, the initial PCET process involving intermolecular PT has a more negative reduction potential than the subsequent PCET process involving intramolecular PT. As a result, the second PCET should occur spontaneously, which is consistent with cyclic voltammogram experiments. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  17. Electron-Transfer Reactions of Electronically Excited Zinc Tetraphenylporphyrin with Multinuclear Ruthenium Complexes.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Jane; Glover, Starla D; Lear, Benjamin J; Walker, Don; Winkler, Jay R; Gray, Harry B; Kubiak, Clifford P

    2015-06-18

    Transient absorption decay rate constants (kobs) for reactions of electronically excited zinc tetraphenylporphyrin ((3)ZnTPP*) with triruthenium oxo-centered acetate-bridged clusters [Ru3(?3-O)(?-CH3CO2)6(CO)(L)]2(?-pz), where pz = pyrazine and L = 4-cyanopyridine (cpy) (1), pyridine (py) (2), or 4-dimethylaminopyridine (dmap) (3), were obtained from nanosecond flash-quench spectroscopic data (quenching constants, kq, for (3)ZnTPP*/1-3 are 3.0 × 10(9), 1.5 × 10 (9), and 1.1 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), respectively). Values of kq for reactions of (3)ZnTPP* with 1-3 and Ru3(?3-O)(?-CH3CO2)6(CO)(L)2 [L = cpy (4), py (5), dmap (6)] monomeric analogues suggest that photoinduced electron transfer is the main pathway of excited-state decay; this mechanistic proposal is consistent with results from a photolysis control experiment, where growth of characteristic near-IR absorption bands attributable to reduced (mixed-valence) Ru3O-cluster products were observed. PMID:25494985

  18. Photoinduced Electron Transfer in DNA: Charge Shift Dynamics Between 8-Oxo-Guanine Anion and Adenine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuyuan; Dood, Jordan; Beckstead, Ashley A; Li, Xi-Bo; Nguyen, Khiem V; Burrows, Cynthia J; Improta, Roberto; Kohler, Bern

    2015-06-18

    Femtosecond time-resolved IR spectroscopy is used to investigate the excited-state dynamics of a dinucleotide containing an 8-oxoguanine anion at the 5'-end and neutral adenine at the 3'-end. UV excitation of the dinucleotide transfers an electron from deprotonated 8-oxoguanine to its ?-stacked neighbor adenine in less than 1 ps, generating a neutral 8-oxoguanine radical and an adenine radical anion. These species are identified by the excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated IR difference spectra. The quantum efficiency of this ultrafast charge shift reaction approaches unity. Back electron transfer from the adenine radical anion to the 8-oxguanine neutral radical occurs in 9 ps, or approximately 6 times faster than between the adenine radical anion and the 8-oxoguanine radical cation (Zhang, Y. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2014, 111, 11612-11617). The large asymmetry in forward and back electron transfer rates is fully rationalized by semiclassical nonadiabatic electron transfer theory. Forward electron transfer is ultrafast because the driving force is nearly equal to the reorganization energy, which is estimated to lie between 1 and 2 eV. Back electron transfer is highly exergonic and takes place much more slowly in the Marcus inverted region. PMID:25660103

  19. The Theory of Electron Transfer Reactions: What May Be David W. Small, Dmitry V. Matyushov, and Gregory A. Voth*,

    E-print Network

    Matyushov, Dmitry

    The Theory of Electron Transfer Reactions: What May Be Missing? David W. Small, Dmitry V. Matyushov for condensed-phase electron transfer (ET) systems where the electronic polarizability of both the solvent and the solute is incorporated. The solute polarizability is allowed to change with electronic transition

  20. Molecular Computational Investigation of Electron Transfer Kinetics across Cytochrome-Iron Oxide Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Dupuis, Michel; Valiev, Marat

    2007-08-02

    The interface between electron transfer proteins such as cytochromes and solid phase mineral oxides is central to the activity of dissimilatory-metal reducing bacteria. A combination of potential-based molecular dynamics simulations and ab initio electronic structure calculations are used in the framework of Marcus’ electron transfer theory to compute elementary electron transfer rates from a well-defined cytochrome model, namely the small tetraheme cytochrome (STC) from Shewanella oneidensis, to surfaces of the iron oxide mineral hematite (?-Fe2O3). Room temperature molecular dynamics simulations show that an isolated STC molecule favors surface attachment via direct contact of hemes I and IV at the poles of the elongated axis, with electron transfer distances as small as 9 Å. The cytochrome remains attached to the mineral surface in the presence of water and shows limited surface diffusion at the interface. Ab initio electronic coupling matrix element (VAB) calculations of configurations excised from the molecular dynamics simulations reveal VAB values ranging from 1 to 20 cm-1, consistent with nonadiabaticity. Using these results, together with experimental data on the redox potential of hematite and hemes in relevant cytochromes and calculations of the reorganization energy from cluster models, we estimate the rate of electron transfer across this model interface to range from 1 to 1000 s-1 for the most exothermic driving force considered in this work, and from 0.01 to 20 s-1 for the most endothermic. This fairly large range of electron transfer rates highlights the sensitivity of the rate upon the electronic coupling matrix element, which is in turn dependent on the fluctuations of the heme configuration at the interface. We characterize this dependence using an idealized bis-imidazole heme to compute from first principles the VAB variation due to porphyrin ring orientation, electron transfer distance, and mineral surface termination. The electronic matrix element and consequently the rate of electron transfer are found to be sensitive to all parameters considered. This work indicates that biomolecularly similar solvent-exposed bis-histidine hemes in outer-membrane cytochromes such as MtrC or OmcA are likely to have an affinity for the oxide surface in water governing the approach and interfacial conformation and, if allowed sufficient conformational freedom, will achieve distances and configurations required for direct interfacial electron transfer.

  1. Charge transfer dynamics from adsorbates to surfaces with single active electron and configuration interaction based approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; Nest, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    We employ wavepacket simulations based on many-body time-dependent configuration interaction (TD-CI), and single active electron theories, to predict the ultrafast molecule/metal electron transfer time scales, in cyano alkanethiolates bonded to model gold clusters. The initial states represent two excited states where a valence electron is promoted to one of the two virtual ?? molecular orbitals localized on the cyanide fragment. The ratio of the two time scales indicate the efficiency of one charge transfer channel over the other. In both our one-and many-electron simulations, this ratio agree qualitatively with each other as well as with the previously reported experimental time scales (Blobner et al., 2012), measured for a macroscopic metal surface. We study the effect of cluster size and the description of electron correlation on the charge transfer process.

  2. Probing the contribution of electronic coupling to the directionality of electron transfer in photosynthetic reaction centers.

    PubMed

    Kirmaier, Christine; Bautista, James A; Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K; Holten, Dewey

    2005-12-22

    Subpicosecond transient absorption studies are reported for a set of Rhodobacter (R.) capsulatus bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) designed to probe the origins of the unidirectionality of charge separation via one of two electron transport chains in the native pigment-protein complex. All of the RCs have been engineered to contain a heterodimeric primary electron donor (D) consisting of a bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) and a bacteriopheophytin (BPh). The BPh component of the M heterodimer (Mhd) or L heterodimer (Lhd) is introduced by substituting a Leu for His M200 or His L173, respectively. Previous work on primary charge separation in heterodimer mutants has not included the Lhd RC from R. capsulatus, which we report for the first time. The Lhd and Mhd RCs are used as controls against which we assess RCs that combine the heterodimer mutations with a second mutation (His substituted for Leu at M212) that results in replacement of the native L-side BPh acceptor with a BChl (beta). The transient absorption spectra reveal clear evidence for charge separation to the normally inactive M-side BPh acceptor (H(M)) in Lhd-beta RCs to form D+H(M)- with a yield of approximately 6%. This state also forms in Mhd-beta RCs but with about one-quarter the yield. In both RCs, deactivation to the ground state is the predominant pathway of D decay, as it is in the Mhd and Lhd single mutants. Analysis of the results indicates an upper limit ofV2L/V2m < or = 4 for the contribution of the electronic coupling elements to the relative rates of electron transfer to the L versus M sides of the wild-type RC. In comparison to the L/M rate ratio (kL/kM) approximately 30 for wild-type RCs, our findings indicate that electronic factors contribute approximately 35% at most to directionality with the other 65% deriving from energetic considerations, which includes differences in free energies, reorganization energies, and contributions of one- and two-step mechanisms on the two sides of the RC. PMID:16375408

  3. Building model systems to understand Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in heme : spectroscopic investigation of charge transfer to axially bound diimide acceptors

    E-print Network

    Hanson, Christina J

    2013-01-01

    Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer (PCET) is an important mechanistic motif in chemistry, which allows for efficient charge transport in many biological systems. We seek to understand how the proton and electron motions are ...

  4. A dynamic periplasmic electron transfer network enables respiratory flexibility beyond a thermodynamic regulatory regime.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Gunnar; Richter, Katrin; Doetsch, Andreas; Heide, Heinrich; Louro, Ricardo O; Gescher, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    Microorganisms show an astonishing versatility in energy metabolism. They can use a variety of different catabolic electron acceptors, but they use them according to a thermodynamic hierarchy, which is determined by the redox potential of the available electron acceptors. This hierarchy is reflected by a regulatory machinery that leads to the production of respiratory chains in dependence of the availability of the corresponding electron acceptors. In this study, we showed that the ?-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis produces several functional electron transfer chains simultaneously. Furthermore, these chains are interconnected, most likely with the aid of c-type cytochromes. The cytochrome pool of a single S. oneidensis cell consists of ca. 700?000 hemes, which are reduced in the absence on an electron acceptor, but can be reoxidized in the presence of a variety of electron acceptors, irrespective of prior growth conditions. The small tetraheme cytochrome (STC) and the soluble heme and flavin containing fumarate reductase FccA have overlapping activity and appear to be important for this electron transfer network. Double deletion mutants showed either delayed growth or no growth with ferric iron, nitrate, dimethyl sulfoxide or fumarate as electron acceptor. We propose that an electron transfer machinery that is produced irrespective of a thermodynamic hierarchy not only enables the organism to quickly release catabolic electrons to a variety of environmental electron acceptors, but also offers a fitness benefit in redox-stratified environments. PMID:25635641

  5. Concerted electron-proton transfer in the optical excitation of hydrogen-bonded dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Westlake, Brittany C. [Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Brennaman, Kyle M. [Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Concepcion, Javier J. [Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Paul, Jared J. [Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Bettis, Stephanie E. [Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Hampton, Shaun D. [Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Miller, Stephen A. [Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Lebedeva, Natalia V. [Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Forbes, Malcolm D. E. [Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Moran, Andrew M. [Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Meyer, Thomas J. [Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Papanikolas, John M. [Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-05-24

    The simultaneous, concerted transfer of electrons and protons—electron-proton transfer (EPT)—is an important mechanism utilized in chemistry and biology to avoid high energy intermediates. There are many examples of thermally activated EPT in ground-state reactions and in excited states following photoexcitation and thermal relaxation. Here we report application of ultrafast excitation with absorption and Raman monitoring to detect a photochemically driven EPT process (photo-EPT). In this process, both electrons and protons are transferred during the absorption of a photon. Photo-EPT is induced by intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) excitation of hydrogen-bonded-base adducts with either a coumarin dye or 4-nitro-4'-biphenylphenol. Femtosecond transient absorption spectral measurements following ICT excitation reveal the appearance of two spectroscopically distinct states having different dynamical signatures. One of these states corresponds to a conventional ICT excited state in which the transferring H? is initially associated with the proton donor. Proton transfer to the base (B) then occurs on the picosecond time scale. The other state is an ICT-EPT photoproduct. Upon excitation it forms initially in the nuclear configuration of the ground state by application of the Franck–Condon principle. However, due to the change in electronic configuration induced by the transition, excitation is accompanied by proton transfer with the protonated base formed with a highly elongated ?H–B bond. Coherent Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of a vibrational mode corresponding to the protonated base in the optically prepared state.

  6. Photoinduced Electron and H-atom Transfer Reactions of Xanthone by Laser Flash Photolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-ting; Pan, Yang; Zhang, Li-min; Yu, Shu-qin

    2007-08-01

    The property of the lowest excited triplet states of xanthone in acetonitrile was investigated using time-resolved laser flash photolysis at 355 nm. The transient absorption spectra and the quenching rate constants (kq) of the excited xanthone with several amines were determined. Good correlation between lgkq and the driving force of the reactions suggests the electron transfer mechanism, except aniline and 3-nitroaniline (3-NO2-A) which showed energy transfer mechanism. With the appearance of ketyl radical, hydrogen atom transfer also happened between xanthone and dimethyl-p-toluidine, 3,5,N,N-tetramethylaniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, and triethylamine. Therefore, both electron transfer and H-atom transfer occured in these systems. Great discrepancies of kq values were discovered in H-atom abstraction reactions for alcohols and phenols, which can be explained by different abstraction mechanisms. The quenching rate constants between xanthone and alcohols correlate well with the ?-C-H bonding energy of alcohols.

  7. Photoinduced energy and electron transfer in phenylethynyl-bridged zinc porphyrin-oligothienylenevinylene-C60 ensembles.

    PubMed

    Urbani, Maxence; Ohkubo, Kei; Islam, D M Shafiqul; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Langa, Fernando

    2012-06-11

    Donor-bridge-acceptor triad (Por-2TV-C(60)) and tetrad molecules ((Por)(2)-2TV-C(60)), which incorporated C(60) and one or two porphyrin molecules that were covalently linked through a phenylethynyl-oligothienylenevinylene bridge, were synthesized. Their photodynamics were investigated by fluorescence measurements, and by femto- and nanosecond laser flash photolysis. First, photoinduced energy transfer from the porphyrin to the C(60) moiety occurred rather than electron transfer, followed by electron transfer from the oligothienylenevinylene to the singlet excited state of the C(60) moiety to produce the radical cation of oligothienylenevinylene and the radical anion of C(60). Then, back-electron transfer occurred to afford the triplet excited state of the oligothienylenevinylene moiety rather than the ground state. Thus, the porphyrin units in (Por)-2TV-C(60) and (Por)(2)-2TV-C(60) acted as efficient photosensitizers for the charge separation between oligothienylenevinylene and C(60). PMID:22556056

  8. Direct heterogeneous electron transfer reactions of bilirubin oxidase at a spectrographic graphite electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey Shleev; Asma El Kasmi; Tautgirdas Ruzgas; Lo Gorton

    2004-01-01

    Mediatorless (direct) electron transfer between Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase and spectroscopic graphite electrode has been demonstrated. The electrochemical activity of the enzyme under aerobic and anaerobic conditions is clearly shown using cyclic voltammetry. It is concluded that the T1 site of the enzyme is the first electron acceptor, both in solution (homogenous case) and when the bilirubin oxidase is adsorbed

  9. Non-adiabatic molecular dynamics simulation of ultrafast solar cell electron transfer

    E-print Network

    in solar cells, photocatalysis and photoelectrolysis. The electronic structure of the dye confinement devices [1­5]. Solar cells of the Graetzel type [6,7] are based on dye sensitized nanocrystallineNon-adiabatic molecular dynamics simulation of ultrafast solar cell electron transfer William Stier

  10. Directing electron transfer within Photosystem I by breaking H-bonds in the cofactor branches

    E-print Network

    Directing electron transfer within Photosystem I by breaking H-bonds in the cofactor branches Paris, France; and ¶Center for the Study of Early Events in Photosynthesis, School of Life Science for review July 30, 2005) Photosystem I has two branches of cofactors down which light- driven electron

  11. Excitation of the ligand-to-metal charge transfer band induces electron tunnelling in azurin

    SciTech Connect

    Baldacchini, Chiara [Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, DEB-CNISM, Università della Tuscia, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy); Institute of Agro-environmental and Forest Biology, National Research Council, I-05010 Porano (Italy); Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore, E-mail: cannistr@unitus.it [Biophysics and Nanoscience Centre, DEB-CNISM, Università della Tuscia, I-01100 Viterbo (Italy)

    2014-03-03

    Optical excitation of azurin blue copper protein immobilized on indium-tin oxide, in resonance with its ligand-to-metal charge transfer absorption band, resulted in a light-induced current tunnelling within the protein milieu. The related electron transport rate is estimated to be about 10{sup 5}?s{sup ?1}. A model based on resonant tunnelling through an azurin excited molecular state is proposed. The capability of controlling electron transfer processes through light pulses opens interesting perspectives for implementation of azurin in bio-nano-opto-electronic devices.

  12. Electron transfer and physical and chemical processes at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Strongin, M.; Xia, B.; Jacobsen, F.M.

    1995-10-01

    We summarize some phenomena that occur at temperatures of the order of 15K, and are dominated by quantum mechanical tunneling. Although electron tunneling dominates many conduction processes at low temperatures, we discuss evidence that phenomena like oxidation, as well as the solution of alkali metals in ammonia, can also be dominated by electron tunneling. Both phenomena demonstrate that the chemical potential of a metastable system can equilibrate at low temperatures by electron tunneling. The case of alkali metal clusters covered with ammonia is contrasted to covering the clusters with Xe. In this case changes in the activated conduction are observed which are consistent with the dielectric constant of the rare gas.

  13. Electron transfer from sulfate-reducing becteria biofilm promoted by reduced graphene sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yi; Zhang, Dun; Wang, Yi; Wu, Jiajia

    2012-01-01

    Reduced graphene sheets (RGSs) mediate electron transfer between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and solid electrodes, and promote the development of microbial fuel cells (MFC). We have investigated RSG-promoted electron transfer between SRB and a glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The RGSs were produced at high yield by a chemical sequence involving graphite oxidation, ultrasonic exfoliation of nanosheets, and N2H4 reduction. Cyclic voltammetric testing showed that the characteristic anodic peaks (around 0.3 V) might arise from the combination of bacterial membrane surface cytochrome c3 and the metabolic products of SRB. After 6 d, another anodic wave gradually increased to a maximum current peak and a third anodic signal became visible at around 0 V. The enhancements of two characteristic anodic peaks suggest that RSGs mediate electron-transfer kinetics between bacteria and the solid electrode. Manipulation of these recently-discovered electron-transport mechanisms will lead to significant advances in MFC engineering.

  14. Charge transfer by electronic excitation: Direct measurement by high resolution spectroscopy in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, A J; Morgan, P J; Pratt, D W

    2009-12-01

    We report a quantitative measurement of the amount of charge that is transferred when the single ammonia complex of the photoacid beta-naphthol (2HNA) is excited by light. The measurement was made by comparing the permanent electric dipole moments of cis-2HNA in its ground (S(0)) and excited (S(1)) states, determined by Stark-effect studies of its fully resolved S(1)<--S(0) electronic spectrum. While the increase in electron transfer from the donor (NH(3)) to the acceptor (2HN) upon excitation is small ( approximately 0.05e), it is sufficient to redshift the electronic spectrum of the complex by approximately 600 cm(-1) ( approximately 0.1 eV). Thereby explored is the incipient motion of the acid-base complex along the excited state (electron-coupled) proton transfer coordinate. PMID:19968329

  15. Average electron tunneling route of the electron transfer in protein media.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Hirotaka; Kakitani, Toshiaki

    2008-08-14

    We present a new theoretical method to determine and visualize the average tunneling route of the electron transfer (ET) in protein media. In this, we properly took into account the fluctuation of the tunneling currents and the quantum-interference effect. The route was correlated with the electronic factor in the case of ET by the elastic tunneling mechanism. We expanded by the interatomic tunneling currents 's. Incorporating the quantum-interference effect into the mean-square interatomic tunneling currents, denoted as , we could express as a sum of variant Planck's over 2pi(2). Drawing the distribution of on the protein structure, we obtain the map which visually represents which parts of bonds and spaces most significantly contribute to . We applied this method to the ET from the bacteriopheophytin anion to the primary quinone in the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. We obtained 's by a combined method of molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations. In calculating , we found that much destructive interference works among the interatomic tunneling currents even after taking the average. We drew the map by a pipe model where atoms a and b are connected by a pipe with width proportional to the magnitude of . We found that two groups of 's, which are mutually coupled with high correlation in each group, have broad pipes and form the average tunneling routes, called Trp route and Met route. Each of the two average tunneling routes is composed of a few major pathways in the Pathways model which are fused at considerable part to each other. We also analyzed the average tunneling route for the ET by the inelastic tunneling mechanism. PMID:18630851

  16. Ultrafast Charge-Transfer-to-Solvent Dynamics of Iodide in Tetrahydrofuran. 2. Photoinduced Electron Transfer to Counterions in Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur E. Bragg; Benjamin J. Schwartz

    2008-01-01

    The excited states of atomic anions in liquids are bound only by the polarization of the surrounding solvent. Thus, the electron-detachment process following excitation to one of these solvent-bound states, known as charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) states, provides a useful probe of solvent structure and dynamics. These transitions and subsequent relaxation dynamics also are influenced by other factors that alter the solution

  17. Tuning intramolecular electron and energy transfer processes in novel conjugates of La2@C80 and electron accepting subphthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lai; Rudolf, Marc; Trukhina, Olga; Slanina, Zdenek; Uhlik, Filip; Lu, Xing; Torres, Tomas; Guldi, Dirk M; Akasaka, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    A series of two conjugates with La2@C80 and subphthalocyanine (SubPc) have been prepared and characterized by means of cyclic voltammetry, absorption, fluorescence, and femtosecond resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The strong electron-donating character of La2@C80 is essential to power an intramolecular electron-transfer in the La2@C80-SubPc conjugates upon photoexcitation. PMID:25407560

  18. Si Multidot FETs for Single-Electron Transfer and Single-Photon Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabe, M.; Nuryadi, R.; Moraru, D.; Burhanudin, Z. A.; Yokoi, K.; Ikeda, H.

    2008-03-01

    Recently, there have been increasing demands for controlling individual electrons, photons, and dopants in developing nm scale Si devices. Our most recent results on Si single-electron nano-devices will be presented. We have demonstrated single-electron transfer in random-tunnel-junctions by a cycle of ac gate bias, detection of photons and detection of individual acceptor ions by Si single-hole transistor.

  19. Si Multidot FETs for Single-Electron Transfer and Single-Photon Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tabe; R. Nuryadi; D. Moraru; Z. A. Burhanudin; K. Yokoi; H. Ikeda

    2008-01-01

    Recently, there have been increasing demands for controlling individual electrons, photons, and dopants in developing nm scale Si devices. Our most recent results on Si single-electron nano-devices will be presented. We have demonstrated single-electron transfer in random-tunnel-junctions by a cycle of ac gate bias, detection of photons and detection of individual acceptor ions by Si single-hole transistor.

  20. Designed Surface Residue Substitutions in [NiFe] Hydrogenase that Improve Electron Transfer Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Yonemoto, Isaac T.; Smith, Hamilton O.; Weyman, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an attractive, carbon-neutral means to convert solar energy to hydrogen. We build on previous research improving the Alteromonas macleodii “Deep Ecotype” [NiFe] hydrogenase, and report progress towards creating an artificial electron transfer pathway to supply the hydrogenase with electrons necessary for hydrogen production. Ferredoxin is the first soluble electron transfer mediator to receive high-energy electrons from photosystem I, and bears an electron with sufficient potential to efficiently reduce protons. Thus, we engineered a hydrogenase-ferredoxin fusion that also contained several other modifications. In addition to the C-terminal ferredoxin fusion, we truncated the C-terminus of the hydrogenase small subunit, identified as the available terminus closer to the electron transfer region. We also neutralized an anionic patch surrounding the interface Fe-S cluster to improve transfer kinetics with the negatively charged ferredoxin. Initial screening showed the enzyme tolerated both truncation and charge neutralization on the small subunit ferredoxin-binding face. While the enzyme activity was relatively unchanged using the substrate methyl viologen, we observed a marked improvement from both the ferredoxin fusion and surface modification using only dithionite as an electron donor. Combining ferredoxin fusion and surface charge modification showed progressively improved activity in an in vitro assay with purified enzyme. PMID:25603181

  1. Electron transfer-induced blinking in Ag nanodot fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sandeep A.; Cozzuol, Matteo; Hales, Joel M.; Richards, Chris I.; Sartin, Matthew; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Vosch, Tom; Perry, Joseph. W.; Dickson, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Various single-standed DNA-encapsulated Ag nanoclusters (nanodots) exhibit strong, discrete fluorescence with solvent polarity-dependent absorption and emission throughout the visible and near-IR. All species examined, regardless of their excitation and emission energies, show similar µs single-molecule blinking dynamics and near IR transient absorptions. The polarity dependence, µsec blinking, and indistinguishable µsec-decaying transient absorption spectra for multiple nanodots suggest a common charge transfer-based mechanism that gives rise to nanodot fluorescence intermittency. Photoinduced charge transfer that is common to all nanodot emitters is proposed to occur from the Ag cluster into the nearby DNA bases to yield a long-lived charge-separated trap state that results in blinking on the single molecule level. PMID:20161463

  2. Tuning the reorganization energy of electron transfer in supramolecular ensembles - metalloporphyrin, oligophenylenevinylenes, and fullerene - and the impact on electron transfer kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stangel, Christina; Schubert, Christina; Kuhri, Susanne; Rotas, Georgios; Margraf, Johannes T.; Regulska, Elzbieta; Clark, Timothy; Torres, Tomás; Tagmatarchis, Nikos; Coutsolelos, Athanassios G.; Guldi, Dirk M.

    2015-01-01

    Oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) (oPPV) wires of various lengths featuring pyridyls at one terminal and C60 moieties at the other, have been used as molecular building blocks in combination with porphyrins to construct a novel class of electron donor-acceptor architectures. These architectures, which are based on non-covalent, directional interactions between the zinc centers of the porphyrins and the pyridyls, have been characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Complementary physico-chemical assays focused on the interactions between electron donors and acceptors in the ground and excited states. No appreciable electron interactions were noted in the ground state, which was being probed by electrochemistry, absorption spectroscopy, etc.; the electron acceptors are sufficiently decoupled from the electron donors. In the excited state, a different picture evolved. In particular, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and transient absorption measurements revealed substantial electron donor-acceptor interactions. These led, upon photoexcitation of the porphyrins, to tunable intramolecular electron-transfer processes, that is, the oxidation of porphyrin and the reduction of C60. In this regard, the largest impact stems from a rather strong distance dependence of the total reorganization energy in stark contrast to the distance independence seen for covalently linked conjugates.Oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) (oPPV) wires of various lengths featuring pyridyls at one terminal and C60 moieties at the other, have been used as molecular building blocks in combination with porphyrins to construct a novel class of electron donor-acceptor architectures. These architectures, which are based on non-covalent, directional interactions between the zinc centers of the porphyrins and the pyridyls, have been characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Complementary physico-chemical assays focused on the interactions between electron donors and acceptors in the ground and excited states. No appreciable electron interactions were noted in the ground state, which was being probed by electrochemistry, absorption spectroscopy, etc.; the electron acceptors are sufficiently decoupled from the electron donors. In the excited state, a different picture evolved. In particular, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and transient absorption measurements revealed substantial electron donor-acceptor interactions. These led, upon photoexcitation of the porphyrins, to tunable intramolecular electron-transfer processes, that is, the oxidation of porphyrin and the reduction of C60. In this regard, the largest impact stems from a rather strong distance dependence of the total reorganization energy in stark contrast to the distance independence seen for covalently linked conjugates. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05165c

  3. Effect of water sorption on the electronic conductivity of porous polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell catalyst layers.

    PubMed

    Morris, David R P; Liu, Selina P; Villegas Gonzalez, David; Gostick, Jeff T

    2014-11-12

    A method is described for measuring the effective electronic conductivity of porous fuel cell catalyst layers (CLs) as a function of relative humidity (RH). Four formulations of CLs with different carbon black (CB) contents and ionomer equivalent weights (EWs) were tested. The van der Pauw method was used to measure the sheet resistance (RS), which increased with RH for all samples. The increase was attributed to ionomer swelling upon water uptake, which affects the connectivity of CB aggregates. Greater increases in RS were observed for samples with lower EW, which uptake more water on a mass basis per mass ionomer. Transient RS measurements were taken during absorption and desorption, and the resistance kinetics were fit using a double exponential decay model. No hysteresis was observed, and the absorption and desorption kinetics were virtually symmetric. Thickness measurements were attempted at different RHs, but no discernible changes were observed. This finding led to the conclusion that the conducting Pt/C volume fraction does not change with RH, which suggests that effective medium theory models that depend on volume fraction alone cannot explain the reduction in conductivity with RH. The merits of percolation-based models were discussed. Optical micrographs revealed an extensive network of "mud cracks" in some samples. The influence of water sorption on CL conductivity is primarily explained by ionomer swelling, and its effects on the quantity and quality of interaggregate contacts were discussed. PMID:25275957

  4. Electron Transfer Mechanism in Gold Surface Modified with Self-Assembly Monolayers from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Filipe C. D. A.; Iost, Rodrigo M.; Crespilho, Frank N.; Caldas, Marília J.; Calzolari, Arrigo; Petrilli, Helena M.

    2013-03-01

    We report the investigation of electron tunneling mechanism of peptide ferrocenyl-glycylcystamine self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) onto Au (111) electrode surfaces. Recent experimental investigations showed that electron transfer in peptides can occur across long distances by separating the donor from the acceptor. This mechanism can be further fostered by the presence of electron donor terminations of Fc terminal units on SAMs but the charge transfer mechanism is still not clear. We study the interaction of the peptide ferrocenyl-glycylcystamine on the Au (111) from first principles calculations to evaluate the electron transfer mechanism. For this purpose, we used the Kohn Sham (KS) scheme for the Density Functional Theory (DFT) as implemented in the Quantum-ESPRESSO suit of codes, using Vandebilt ultrasoft pseudopotentials and GGA-PBE exchange correlation functional to evaluate the ground-state atomic and electronic structure of the system. The analysis of KS orbital at the Fermi Energy showed high electronic density localized in Fc molecules and the observation of a minor contribution from the solvent and counter ion. Based on the results, we infer evidences of electron tunneling mechanism from the molecule to the Au(111). We report the investigation of electron tunneling mechanism of peptide ferrocenyl-glycylcystamine self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) onto Au (111) electrode surfaces. Recent experimental investigations showed that electron transfer in peptides can occur across long distances by separating the donor from the acceptor. This mechanism can be further fostered by the presence of electron donor terminations of Fc terminal units on SAMs but the charge transfer mechanism is still not clear. We study the interaction of the peptide ferrocenyl-glycylcystamine on the Au (111) from first principles calculations to evaluate the electron transfer mechanism. For this purpose, we used the Kohn Sham (KS) scheme for the Density Functional Theory (DFT) as implemented in the Quantum-ESPRESSO suit of codes, using Vandebilt ultrasoft pseudopotentials and GGA-PBE exchange correlation functional to evaluate the ground-state atomic and electronic structure of the system. The analysis of KS orbital at the Fermi Energy showed high electronic density localized in Fc molecules and the observation of a minor contribution from the solvent and counter ion. Based on the results, we infer evidences of electron tunneling mechanism from the molecule to the Au(111). We acknowledge FAPESP for grant support. Also, LCCA/USP, RICE and CENAPAD for computational resources.

  5. Redox-linked conformation change and electron transfer between monoheme c-type cytochromes and oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Nidhi; Lovelace, David M.; Eggleston, Carrick M.; Swenson, Michael; Magnuson, Timothy S.

    2006-09-01

    Electron transfer between redox active proteins and mineral oxides is important in a variety of natural as well as technological processes, including electron transfer from dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria to minerals. One of the pathways that could trigger electron transfer between proteins and minerals is redox-linked conformation change. We present electrochemical evidence that mitochondrial cytochrome c (Mcc) undergoes significant conformation change upon interaction with hematite and indium-tin oxide (ITO) surfaces. The apparent adsorption-induced conformation change causes the protein to become more reducing, which makes it able to transfer electrons to the hematite conduction band. Although Mcc is not a protein thought to be involved in interaction with mineral surfaces, it shares (or can be conformed so as to share) some characteristics with multiheme outer-membrane cytochromes thought to be involved in the transfer of electrons from dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria to ferric minerals during respiration. We present evidence that a 10.1 kDa monohoeme cytochrome isolated and purified from Acidiphilium cryptum, with properties similar to those of Mcc, also undergoes conformation change as a result of interaction with hematite surfaces.

  6. Redox-linked conformation change and electron transfer between monoheme c-type cytochromes and oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Khare, Nidhi; Lovelace, David M.; Eggleston, Carrick M.; Swenson, Michael; Magnuson, Timothy S.

    2006-06-15

    Electron transfer between redox active proteins and mineral oxides is important in a variety of natural as well as technological processes, including electron transfer from dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria to minerals. One of the pathways that could trigger electron transfer between proteins and minerals is redox-linked conformation change. We present electrochemical evidence that mitochondrial cytochrome c (Mcc) undergoes significant conformation change upon interaction with hematite and indium-tin oxide (ITO) surfaces. The apparent adsorption-induced conformation change causes the protein to become more reducing, which makes it able to transfer electrons to the hematite conduction band. Although Mcc is not a protein thought to be involved in interaction with mineral surfaces, it shares (or can be conformed so as to share) some characteristics with multiheme outer-membrane cytochromes thought to be involved in the transfer of electrons from dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria to ferric minerals during respiration. We present evidence that a 10.1 kDa monohoeme cytochrome isolated and purified from Acidiphilium cryptum, with properties similar to those of Mcc, also undergoes conformation change as a result of interaction with hematite surfaces.

  7. Multistep electron transfer in a porphyrin-ruthenium(II) bis(terpyridyl)-porphyrin triad

    SciTech Connect

    Harriman, A. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)); Odobel, F.; Sauvage, J.P. (Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France))

    1994-06-15

    Natural photosynthesis generates an energy gradient using successive electron-transfer reactions to span a lipid membrane. Biomimetic model systems also have relied on successive electron-transfer steps to achieve long-range charge separation and to reduce the rate of reverse electron transfer. Several systems have been extended by addition of ancillary chromophores, forming molecular tetrads and pentads. We now describe a new triad in which a central ruthenium(II) bisterpy (terpy=2,2[prime]:6[prime],2[double prime]-terpyridyl) complex is used as spacer for a zinc(II)-gold(III) bisporphyrin. The interesting features of this molecular triad may be summarized as follows: (1) Rapid interporphyrin electron transfer occurs between linear, fixed-distance subunits having a center-to-center separation of ca. 30 [angstrom]. (2) The ultimate charge-separated state, which is formed with a quantum yield of ca. 0.6, retains approximately 1.2 eV out of a photonic energy input of 2.1 eV. (3) Photoinduced electron transfer occurs in an ethanol glass at 77 K, albeit at a slower rate than observed at room temperature. (4) The modular synthetic approach is highly versatile and facilitates preparation of many different D-A[sub 1]-A[sub 2] triads and higher order, linear oligomers. (5) The system exhibits a relatively small reorganization energy (i.e. 0.45 eV). 22 refs.

  8. 40 CFR Table I-2 to Subpart I - Examples of Fluorinated GHGs and Fluorinated Heat Transfer Fluids Used by the Electronics Industry

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Fluorinated GHGs and Fluorinated Heat Transfer Fluids Used by the Electronics Industry I...Fluorinated GHGs and Fluorinated Heat Transfer Fluids Used by the Electronics Industry Product...Fluorinated GHGs and fluorinated heat transfer fluids used during manufacture...

  9. 40 CFR Table I-2 to Subpart I of... - Examples of Fluorinated GHGs and Fluorinated Heat Transfer Fluids Used by the Electronics Industry

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Fluorinated GHGs and Fluorinated Heat Transfer Fluids Used by the Electronics Industry I...Fluorinated GHGs and Fluorinated Heat Transfer Fluids Used by the Electronics Industry Product...Fluorinated GHGs and fluorinated heat transfer fluids used during manufacture...

  10. Electron transfer study of dye sensitized nanocrystalline metal-oxide semiconductors and design of multilayered dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Liu

    2006-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) and their interfacial electron transfer kinetics have been a subject of intense interests. Within the field many fundamental and applied questions about the structure and optimization still exist. This thesis describes efforts toward answering two questions about DSSCs. First, the electron injection and back electron transfer (bET) kinetics were explored with femtosecond and nanosecond laser systems.

  11. Using Wave-Packet Interferometry to Monitor the External Vibrational Control of Electronic Excitation Transfer

    E-print Network

    Biggs, Jason D

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the control of electronic energy transfer in molecular dimers through the preparation of specific vibrational coherences prior to electronic excitation, and its observation by nonlinear wave-packet interferometry. Laser-driven coherent nuclear motion can affect the instantaneous resonance between site-excited electronic states and thereby influence short-time electronic excitation transfer (EET). We first illustrate this control mechanism with calculations on a dimer whose constituent monomers undergo harmonic vibrations. We then consider the use of nonlinear wave-packet interferometry (nl-WPI) experiments to monitor the nuclear dynamics accompanying EET in general dimer complexes following impulsive vibrational excitation by a sub-resonant control pulse (or control pulse sequence). In measurements of this kind, two pairs of polarized phase-related femtosecond pulses following the control pulse generate superpositions of coherent nuclear wave packets in optically accessible electronic states. I...

  12. Noise breaking the twofold symmetry of photosynthetic reaction centers: electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Pincák, R; Pudlak, M

    2001-09-01

    In this work we present a stochastic model to elucidate the unidirectionality of the primary charge separation process in the bacterial reaction centers where two symmetric ways of electron transfer (ET), starting from the common electron donor, are possible. We have used a model of three sites/molecules with ET beginning at site 1 with the option to proceed to site 2 or site 3. If the direct ET between sites 2 and 3 is not allowed and electron cannot escape from the system then it is shown that the different stochastic fluctuations in the energy of sites and the interaction between sites on these two ways are sufficient to cause the transient asymmetric electron distribution at site 2 and 3 during relaxation to the steady state. This means that overall asymmetric ET can be caused by the transient asymmetric electron distribution if there is a possibility for an electron to escape from the three-site system. To explore this possibility we have introduced a sink into the model at the end of each of the sites 2 and 3. The dependence of the asymmetry in electron transfer on the value of the sink parameter, introduced through an additional imaginary diagonal matrix element of the Hamiltonian, was investigated. Results show indeed that the unidirectionality of the electron transfer generated in the system of three molecules depends strongly on the sink parameter value. PMID:11580366

  13. A redox beginning: Which came first phosphoryl, acyl, or electron transfer ?. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic information available on the synthesis of prebiotic monomers and polymers will be examined in order to illuminate the prebiotic plausibility of polymer syntheses based on (a) phosphoryl transfer that yields phosphodiester polymers, (b) acyl transfer that gives polyamides, and (c) electron transfer that produces polydisulfide or poly(thio)ester polymers. New experimental results on the oxidative polymerization of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol by ferric ions on the surface of ferric hydroxide oxide will be discussed as a chemical model of polymerization by electron transfer. This redox polymerization that yields polymers with a polydisulfide backbone was found to give oligomers up to the 15-mer from 1 mM of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol after one day at 25 C. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the oligomers was carried out on an Alltech OH-100 column eluted with acetonitrile-water.

  14. Charge transfer across transition-metal oxide interfaces: Emergent conductance and electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hanghui; Park, Hyowon; Millis, Andrew J.; Marianetti, Chris A.

    2014-12-01

    We perform density functional theory plus dynamical mean-field theory calculations to investigate internal charge transfer in a superlattice composed of alternating layers of vanadate and manganite perovskite and Ruddlesden-Popper structure materials. We show that the electronegativity difference between vanadium and manganese causes moderate charge transfer from VO2 to MnO2 layers in both perovskite and Ruddlesden-Popper-based superlattices, leading to hole doping of the VO2 layer and electron doping of the MnO2 layer. Comparison of the perovskite and Ruddlesden-Popper-based heterostructures shows that apical oxygen motion in the perovskite superlattice enhances charge transfer. Our first principles simulations demonstrate that the combination of internal charge transfer and quantum confinement provided by heterostructuring is a powerful approach to engineering electronic structure and tailoring correlation effects in transition metal oxides.

  15. Driving force dependent, photoinduced electron transfer at degenerately doped, optically transparent semiconductor nanoparticle interfaces.

    PubMed

    Farnum, Byron H; Morseth, Zachary A; Brennaman, M Kyle; Papanikolas, John M; Meyer, Thomas J

    2014-11-12

    Photoinduced, interfacial electron injection and back electron transfer between surface-bound [Ru(II)(bpy)2(4,4'-(PO3H2)2-bpy)](2+) and degenerately doped In2O3:Sn nanoparticles, present in mesoporous thin films (nanoITO), have been studied as a function of applied external bias. Due to the metallic behavior of the nanoITO films, application of an external bias was used to vary the Fermi level in the oxide and, with it, the driving force for electron transfer (?G(o)'). By controlling the external bias, ?G(o)' was varied from 0 to -1.8 eV for electron injection and from -0.3 to -1.3 eV for back electron transfer. Analysis of the back electron-transfer data, obtained from transient absorption measurements, using Marcus-Gerischer theory gave an experimental estimate of ? = 0.56 eV for the reorganization energy of the surface-bound Ru(III/II) couple in acetonitrile with 0.1 M LiClO4 electrolyte. PMID:25330285

  16. Molecular mimicry of photosynthetic energy and electron transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devens Gust; Thomas A. Moore; Ana L. Moore

    1993-01-01

    Proper application of reaction design considerations can yield artificial photosynthetic devices which credibility mimic the three natural photochemical processes. One approach is to use pigments and electron donors and acceptors related to those found in natural photosynthesis (and thus presumably optimal for that system), but to replace the protein with covalent bonds as an organizing precept. Molecular pentads described herein

  17. Extracellular electron transfer via microbial Gemma Reguera1

    E-print Network

    Lovley, Derek

    could also be induced during growth on the alternative electron acceptor fumarate if the cells were with the conserved amino-terminal amino acid characteristics of type IV pilins12 . Phylogenetic analyses placed distance tree derived from amino- terminal amino acid sequence alignments (see Supplementary Information

  18. Vibrational coherence transfer in an electronically decoupled molecular dyad

    PubMed Central

    Schweighöfer, Felix; Dworak, Lars; Braun, Markus; Zastrow, Marc; Wahl, Jan; Burghardt, Irene; Rück-Braun, Karola; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The ring opening of a dithienylethene photoswitch incorporated in a bridged boron-dipyrromethene - dithienylethene molecular dyad was investigated with ultrafast spectroscopy. Coherent vibrations in the electronic ground state of the boron-dipyrromethene are triggered after selective photoexcitation of the closed dithienylethene indicating vibrational coupling although the two moieties are electronically isolated. A distribution of short-lived modes and a long-lived mode at 143?cm?1 are observed. Analysis of the theoretical frequency spectrum indicates two modes at 97?cm?1 and 147?cm?1 which strongly modulate the electronic transition energy. Both modes exhibit a characteristic displacement of the bridge suggesting that the mechanical momentum of the initial geometry change after photoexcitation of the dithienylethene is transduced to the boron-dipyrromethene. The relaxation to the dithienylethene electronic ground state is accompanied by significant heat dissipation into the surrounding medium. In the investigated dyad, the boron-dipyrromethene acts as probe for the ultrafast photophysical processes in the dithienylethene. PMID:25797419

  19. Strong metal-support interaction: the role of electronic and geometric factors in real Me/TiO/sub 2/ catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Shpiro, E.S.; Dysenbina, B.B.; Tkachenko, O.P.; Antoshin, G.V.; Minachev, K.M.

    1988-04-01

    XPS, X-ray-induced AES (XAES), AES, SIMS, and ISS studies of metals (Pt, Rh) supported on TiO/sub 2/ powder catalysts combine to give new evidence in favor of electronic nature of SMSI. When reduced at high temperatures (HTR), the XPS spectra, of MeTiO/sub 2/, corrected for extra-atomic relaxation, exhibit negative chemical shifts of core levels along with a gain in intensity of the density of states near the Fermi edge, indicating an increase of electron density on metal clusters. Tauster's model of SMSI is further confirmed by the appearance of mixed RhTi/sup +/ and RhTiO/sup +/ clusters in SIMS spectra of RhTiO/sub 2/ (HTR), which reflect direct interaction between metal atoms and Ti/sup 3 +/ cations. The latter were detected by Ti L/sub 3/M/sup 23/V Auger peaks. The Rh/sup +/Ti/sup +/ depth profile and the ISS RhTi ratio reveal some migration of TiO/sub x/ entities onto metal surface, but not strong encapsulation of metallic particles is observed in real TiO/sub 2/-supported catalysts reduced at temperatures as high as 500/sup 0/C. Thus, the observed decrease in the activities of MeTiO/sub 2/ in the C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ hydrogenolysis and C/sub 6/H/sub 6/ hydrogenation reactions seems to be accounted for by both geometric and electronic factors. The kinetics of /sup 16/O-/sup 18/O homomolecular isotopic exchange measured for the first time on these catalysts is in accordance with the proposed SMSI model and explains its degradation during catalyst exposure to O/sub 2/ at low or elevated temperatures

  20. Electronic promotion effect of double proton transfer on conduction of DNA through improvement of transverse electronic communication of base pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiying; Li, Genqin; Zhang, Laibin; Li, Jilai; Wang, Meishan; Bu, Yuxiang

    2011-10-01

    The effect of double proton transfer (DPT) on charge migration of DNA was investigated by the nonequilibrium Green's function method combined with density functional theory. The results revealed that DPT not only lowers ionization potentials, but also improves the delocalization of the localized ?-orbitals at each base moiety through adjusting energy levels and spatial distributions of their molecular orbitals. Furthermore, DPT leads to both the strengthening of the second-order interactions of the Watson-Crick H-bond zones, and the promotion of the charge transfer transitions between two pairing bases in the UV absorption spectra. Electronic transport calculations indicated that DPT can improve the charge migration along the DNA duplex for specific sequences through enhancing transverse base-to-base electronic communication. This work will provide a new insight into the understanding of DNA charge conduction which can be electronically promoted or regulated by DPT.

  1. Femtosecond laser field induced modifications of electron-transfer processes in Ne{sup +}-He collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Zhenzhong; Chen Deying; Fan Rongwei; Xia Yuanqin

    2012-01-02

    We demonstrate the presence of femtosecond laser induced charge transfer in Ne{sup +}-He collisions. Electron transfer in ion-atom collisions is considerably modified when the collision is embedded in a strong laser field with the laser intensity of {approx}10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The observed anisotropy of the He{sup +} angular distribution confirms the prediction of early work that the capture probability varies significantly with the laser polarization angle.

  2. Molecular simulations of outersphere reorganization energies for intramolecular electron and hole transfer in polar solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. V. Leontyev; A. V. Tovmash; M. V. Vener; I. V. Rostov; M. V. Basilevsky

    2005-01-01

    Outersphere reorganization energies (?) for intramolecular electron transfer (ET) and hole transfer are studied in anion- and cation-radical forms of complex organic substrates (biphenylyl-spacer-naphtyl) in polar solvents simulated by means of the nonpolarizable models of water and 1,2-dichloroethane. The earlier elaborated molecular\\/continuum approach (the MD\\/FRCM, J. Chem. Phys., 119 (2003) 8024) is used; this method provides a physically relevant background

  3. Intramolecular photo-induced electron transfer in a rigid anthracene-N, N-dimethylaniline system

    SciTech Connect

    Minsek, D.W.; Yang, N.C. Yang (Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Niemczyk, M.P.; Svec, W.A.; Wasielewski, M.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    2-(N,N-Dimethylamino)-5, 14-ethanopentacene (1) was synthesized and spectroscopic behaviors investigated. Results suggest that 1 undergoes photoinduced electron transfer (PET) in solvents more polar than saturated hydrocarbons. The resulting charge-transfer (CT) state undergoes CT fluorescence efficiently in solvents of low dielectric constants. Fluorescence excitation studies of the CT emission reveal the existence of an EDA interaction in the ground state. The implications of these results are discussed.

  4. Intramolecular photo-induced electron transfer in a rigid anthracene-N, N-dimethylaniline system

    SciTech Connect

    Minsek, D.W.; Yang, N.C. Yang [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Niemczyk, M.P.; Svec, W.A.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    2-(N,N-Dimethylamino)-5, 14-ethanopentacene (1) was synthesized and spectroscopic behaviors investigated. Results suggest that 1 undergoes photoinduced electron transfer (PET) in solvents more polar than saturated hydrocarbons. The resulting charge-transfer (CT) state undergoes CT fluorescence efficiently in solvents of low dielectric constants. Fluorescence excitation studies of the CT emission reveal the existence of an EDA interaction in the ground state. The implications of these results are discussed.

  5. Characterization of Electron Transfer Dissociation in the Orbitrap Velos HCD Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frese, Christian K.; Nolting, Dirk; Altelaar, A. F. Maarten; Griep-Raming, Jens; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J. R.

    2013-11-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is commonly employed in ion traps utilizing rf fields that facilitate efficient electron transfer reactions. Here, we explore performing ETD in the HCD collision cell on an Orbitrap Velos instrument by applying a static DC gradient axially to the rods. This gradient enables simultaneous three dimensional, charge sign independent, trapping of cations and anions, initiating electron transfer reactions in the center of the HCD cell where oppositely charged ions clouds overlap. Here, we evaluate this mode of operation for a number of tryptic peptide populations and the top-down sequence analysis of ubiquitin. Our preliminary data show that performing ETD in the HCD cell provides similar fragmentation as ion trap-ETD but requires further optimization to match performance of ion trap-ETD.

  6. Single electron transfer between selectfluor and chloride: A mass spectrometric and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang

    2013-10-01

    The reaction between 1-chloromethyl-4-fluoro-1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bis-tetrafluoroborate (selectfluor) and chloride has been studied experimentally and modeled computationally at the ab initio levels. Based on the interception experiments by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), it is found that only 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) succeeds in trapping the chlorine free radical. This result indicates that the single electron transfer (SET) is likely to occur between selectfluor and chloride. According to the Marcus' theory, the activation and reaction free energies for this electron transfer have been calculated. The theoretical study shows that the electron transfer reaction is both thermodynamically and kinetically beneficial, which is consistent with the experiment.

  7. Linker rectifiers for covalent attachment of transition-metal catalysts to metal-oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wendu; Negre, Christian F A; Palma, Julio L; Durrell, Alec C; Allen, Laura J; Young, Karin J; Milot, Rebecca L; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H; Batista, Victor S

    2014-04-14

    Linkers that favor rectification of interfacial electron transfer are likely to be required for efficient photo-driven catalysis of multi-electron reactions at electrode surfaces. Design principles are discussed, together with the synthesis and characterization of a specific pair of molecular linkers, related by inversion of the direction of an amide bond in the heart of the molecule. The linkers have a terpyridyl group that can covalently bind Mn as in a well-known water oxidation catalyst and an acetylacetonate group that allows attachment to TiO2 surfaces. The appropriate choice of the sense of the amide linkage yields directionality of interfacial electron transfer, essential to enhance electron injection and slow back-electron transfer. Support comes from electron paramagnetic resonance and terahertz spectroscopic measurements, as well as computational modeling characterizing the asymmetry of electron transfer properties. PMID:24668518

  8. The optical control of electronic energy transfer through single and dual auxiliary beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, David S.; Andrews, David L.

    2008-04-01

    The electronic transfer of energy from a donor particle to an acceptor is a mechanism that plays a key role in a wide range of optical and photophysical phenomena. The ability to exert control on this transfer is of immense importance. It now emerges that there are all-optical routes which can be introduced to achieve this very purpose. We demonstrate the possibility of promoting energy transfer, in the optical near field, that is rigorously forbidden (on geometric or symmetric grounds) in the absence of laser light. The effect operates through coupled stimulated Raman scattering by the donor-acceptor pair. The absorption of a photon takes place at one particle and stimulated emission at either, coupled with energy transfer between the pair. At this fundamental level, transfer phenomena arise for both single and dual input auxiliary beams. In the latter case the emitted photon may differ from the absorbed photon. In either situation energy transfer will not occur in the absence of auxiliary radiation, if either the donor or acceptor transition is single-quantum forbidden. By engaging input laser light, energy transfer may proceed through two or three quantum allowed transitions. The results for this novel type of optical control suggest transfer efficiency levels comparable to Förster transfer. Many applications are envisaged, chief of which is the potential for all-optical switching.

  9. The Critical Role of Arabidopsis Electron-Transfer Flavoprotein:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase during Dark-Induced Starvation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimitsune Ishizaki; Tony R. Larson; Nicolas Schauer; Alisdair R. Fernie; Ian A. Graham; Christopher J. Leavera

    2005-01-01

    In mammals, electron-transfer flavoprotein:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETFQO) and electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF) are functionally associated, and ETF accepts electrons from at least nine mitochondrial matrix flavoprotein dehydrogenases and transfers them to ubiquinone in the inner mitochondrial membrane. In addition, the mammalian ETF\\/ETFQO system plays a key role in b-oxidation of fatty acids and catabolism of amino acids and choline. By contrast, nothing

  10. Imaging charge and energy transfer in molecules using free-electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, Artem

    2014-05-01

    Charge and energy transfer reactions drive numerous important processes in physics, chemistry and biology, with applications ranging from X-ray astrophysics to artificial photosynthesis and molecular electronics. Experimentally, the central goal in studies of transfer phenomena is to trace the spatial localization of charge at a given time. Because of their element and site sensitivity, ultrafast X-rays provide a promising tool to address this goal. In this talk I will discuss several experiments where free-electron lasers were employed to study charge and energy transfer dynamics in fragmenting molecules. In a first example, we used intense, 70 femtosecond 1.5 keV pulses from the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) to study distance dependence of electron transfer in laser-dissociated methyl iodide molecules. Inducing well-localized positive charge on the heavy iodine atom, we observe signature of electron transition from the separated methyl group up to the distances of 35 atomic units. In a complementary experiment, we studied charge exchange between two partners in a dissociating molecular iodine employing a pump-probe arrangement with two identical 90 eV pulses from the Free-Electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH). In both cases, the effective spatial range of the electron transfer can be reasonably described by a classical over-the-barrier model developed for ion-atom collisions. Finally, I will discuss a time-resolved measurement on non-local relaxation mechanism based on a long-range energy transfer, the so-called interatomic Coulombic decay. This work was supported by Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, US Department of Energy and by the Kansas NSF ``First Award'' program.

  11. Electronic and quantum dynamical insight into the ultrafast proton transfer of 1-hydroxy-2-acetonaphthone

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz-Sanchez, Juan Manuel; Gelabert, Ricard; Moreno, Miquel; Lluch, Jose M. [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-08-28

    The ultrafast proton-transfer dynamics of 1-hydroxy-2-acetonaphthone has been theoretically analyzed in the ground and first singlet excited electronic states by density functional theory calculations and quantum dynamics. The potential energies obtained in the ground electronic state reveal that the proton-transfer process does not lead to a stable keto tautomer unless the transfer of the hydrogen from the enol form is accompanied by an internal rotation of the newly formed O-H bond. Calculations in the first singlet excited electronic state point to a very low barrier for the formation of the keto tautomer. The analysis of the calculated frequencies of the two tautomers in the excited state unveils a coupling of the skeletal motions (low frequency modes) with the proton-transfer process, as it has been stated from time-resolved experiments. The electronic energies obtained by the time-dependent density functional theory formalism have been fitted to a monodimensional potential energy surface in order to perform an exact quantum dynamics study of the process. Our results show that the proton-transfer process is completed within 25.5 fs, in remarkable good agreement with experiments.

  12. Multiple electron transfer processes in collisions of N6+ and O7+ with methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, N. L.; Teixeira, E.; Hall, B.; Deumens, E.; Öhrn, Y.; Sabin, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Recent experiments on collision processes of O7+ and N6+ ions colliding with methane at the same velocity show unexpected differences in the fragmentation cross sections of the methane. Despite the expected similarity of these two processes, as both projectiles are hydrogenic, the mechanisms of electron transfer are different and lead to different fragmentation cross sections. In the present work, the collisions between N6+ and O7+ ions and methane are investigated theoretically at equal velocities corresponding to projectile energies of 30 and 35 keV, respectively. Electron-nuclear dynamics is used to study multiple electron transfer processes occurring in these collisions. Several multiple charge transfer probabilities are calculated and results, averaged over various orientations of the methane molecule, are reported. The collisions proceed in two stages: a fast stage of electron transfer from methane to the ion, and a much slower stage of breakup of the methane. We find and explain the intuitively unexpected result that the total charge transfer cross section for N6+ is slightly larger, but that the O7+ leaves the methane in a higher charged state with higher probability, leading to more fragmentation in the collisions with O7+ .

  13. Challenges in reduction of dinitrogen by proton and electron transfer.

    PubMed

    van der Ham, Cornelis J M; Koper, Marc T M; Hetterscheid, Dennis G H

    2014-08-01

    Ammonia is an important nutrient for the growth of plants. In industry, ammonia is produced by the energy expensive Haber-Bosch process where dihydrogen and dinitrogen form ammonia at a very high pressure and temperature. In principle one could also reduce dinitrogen upon addition of protons and electrons similar to the mechanism of ammonia production by nitrogenases. Recently, major breakthroughs have taken place in our understanding of biological fixation of dinitrogen, of molecular model systems that can reduce dinitrogen, and in the electrochemical reduction of dinitrogen at heterogeneous surfaces. Yet for efficient reduction of dinitrogen with protons and electrons major hurdles still have to be overcome. In this tutorial review we give an overview of the different catalytic systems, highlight the recent breakthroughs, pinpoint common grounds and discuss the bottlenecks and challenges in catalytic reduction of dinitrogen. PMID:24802308

  14. Modes of electron transfer from molecular hydrogen in Anabaena cylindrica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Eisbrenner; H. Bothe

    1979-01-01

    Several natural and artificial electron donors were assayed in the C2H2-reduction of heterocysts isolated from the cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica. Among these, molecular hydrogen was the most effective one when the assays were performed in the light. The C2H2-reduction and the Knallgas reaction of intact Anabaena filaments as well as the H2-supported C2H2-reduction of isolated heterocysts were compared for their sensitivity

  15. Photoinduced energy–electron transfer studies with naphthalene diimides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serap Alp; ?ule Erten; Canan Karapire; Banu Köz; Andrey O Doroshenko; Siddik ?çli

    2000-01-01

    Seven derivatives of naphthalene diimides, synthesized, have shown similar photophysical properties. Low fluorescence quantum yields (0.002–0.006) and short fluorescence lifetimes (5–18ps) have suggested rapid intersystem crossing processes from excited singlet state. Quenching of fluorescence emissions of aromatic donor molecules, i.e. naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene, at rates reaching to diffusion limits in acetonitrile (2–8×1010M?1s?1), have proven the electron acceptor capacities of

  16. Interfacial Electron Transfer Dynamics Following Laser Flash Photolysis of [Ru(bpy)2((4,4?-PO3H2)2bpy)]2+ in TiO2 Nanoparticle Films in Aqueous Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Brennaman, Kyle M; Patrocinio, Antonio O T; Song, Wenjing; Jurss, Jonah W.; Concepcion, Javier J; Hoertz, Paul G.; Traub, Matthew C; Murakami Iha, Neyde Y; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Nanosecond laser flash photolysis has been used to investigate injection and back electron transfer from the complex [(Ru(bpy){sub 2}(4,4?-(PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}){sub 2}bpy)]{sup 2+} surface-bound to TiO{sub 2} (TiO2-Ru{sup II}). The measurements were conducted under conditions appropriate for water oxidation catalysis by known single-site water oxidation catalysts. Systematic variations in average lifetimes for back electron transfer, , were observed with changes in pH, surface coverage, incident excitation intensity, and applied bias. The results were qualitatively consistent with a model involving rate-limiting thermal activation of injected electrons from trap sites to the conduction band or shallow trap sites followed by site-to-site hopping and interfacial electron transfer, TiO{sub 2}(e?)-Ru{sup 3+}{yields}TiO{sub 2}-Ru{sup 2+}. The appearance of pH-dependent decreases in the efficiency of formation of TiO{sub 2}-Ru{sup 3+} and in incident-photon-to-current efficiencies with the added reductive scavenger hydroquinone point to pH-dependent back electron transfer processes on both the sub-nanosecond and millisecond–microsecond time scales, which could be significant in limiting long-term storage of multiple redox equivalents.

  17. Nonlinear response of metal nanoparticles: Double plasmon excitation and electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shiwu

    2015-06-21

    We investigate the dynamical response of a metal nanoparticle and the electron transfer to a molecule near its surface using time-dependent density functional theory. In addition to the linear response of the Mie resonance, double plasmon excitations and a low-frequency charge transfer band emerge and become prominent at high laser intensities. Both modes are nonlinear processes, which are derived from the re-excitation and decay of the primary plasmon mode, respectively. Our results shed light on the localised characters of the plasmon-molecule coupling and hot electron distributions. These findings have general implications to photoinduced phenomena in nanosystems. PMID:26093567

  18. Nonlinear response of metal nanoparticles: Double plasmon excitation and electron transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shiwu

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the dynamical response of a metal nanoparticle and the electron transfer to a molecule near its surface using time-dependent density functional theory. In addition to the linear response of the Mie resonance, double plasmon excitations and a low-frequency charge transfer band emerge and become prominent at high laser intensities. Both modes are nonlinear processes, which are derived from the re-excitation and decay of the primary plasmon mode, respectively. Our results shed light on the localised characters of the plasmon-molecule coupling and hot electron distributions. These findings have general implications to photoinduced phenomena in nanosystems.

  19. Electric-field dependent redox electron transfer in an organic solid: study of carrier photogeneration efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Minoru; Nishizawa, Matsuhiko; Itoh, Takashi; Selman, J. Robert; Uchida, Isamu

    2000-08-01

    We have investigated the electric field dependence of the carrier photogeneration efficiency in an organic photoconductor with high sensitivity. The rate-determining step to generate photocarriers was considered to be the electron transfer between the neighboring two-redox molecules, which is influenced by the electric field. The overall carrier photogeneration efficiency was expressed by employing the electron-transfer velocity at the rate-determining step as a function of electric-field-dependent activation energy. This model successfully fits the experimental results for an organic photoconductor over a wide range of field strengths.

  20. An efficient implementation of the localized operator partitioning method for electronic energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagesh, Jayashree; Izmaylov, Artur F.; Brumer, Paul

    2015-02-01

    The localized operator partitioning method [Y. Khan and P. Brumer, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 194112 (2012)] rigorously defines the electronic energy on any subsystem within a molecule and gives a precise meaning to the subsystem ground and excited electronic energies, which is crucial for investigating electronic energy transfer from first principles. However, an efficient implementation of this approach has been hindered by complicated one- and two-electron integrals arising in its formulation. Using a resolution of the identity in the definition of partitioning, we reformulate the method in a computationally efficient manner that involves standard one- and two-electron integrals. We apply the developed algorithm to the 9 - ((1 - naphthyl) - methyl) - anthracene (A1N) molecule by partitioning A1N into anthracenyl and CH2 - naphthyl groups as subsystems and examine their electronic energies and populations for several excited states using configuration interaction singles method. The implemented approach shows a wide variety of different behaviors amongst the excited electronic states.

  1. The First Events in Photosynthesis: Electronic Coupling and Energy Transfer Dynamics in the Photosynthetic Reaction Center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    E-print Network

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    The First Events in Photosynthesis: Electronic Coupling and Energy Transfer Dynamics in photosynthesis. The reaction center contains six chlorophyll-like pigments arranged with approximate C2 symmetry

  2. Opto-electronic conversion logic behaviour through dynamic modulation of electron/energy transfer states at the TiO2-carbon quantum dot interface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yonglai; Liu, Yang; Wang, Xuefeng; Shen, Mingrong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-03-01

    Here we show a bias-mediated electron/energy transfer process at the CQDs-TiO(2) interface for the dynamic modulation of opto-electronic properties. Different energy and electron transfer states have been observed in the CQDs-TNTs system due to the up-conversion photoluminescence and the electron donation/acceptance properties of the CQDs decorated on TNTs. PMID:23386113

  3. A de novo designed 2[4Fe-4S] ferredoxin mimic mediates electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anindya; Sommer, Dayn Joseph; Schmitz, Robert Arthur; Brown, Chelsea Lynn; Gust, Devens; Astashkin, Andrei; Ghirlanda, Giovanna

    2014-12-10

    [Fe-S] clusters, nature's modular electron transfer units, are often arranged in chains that support long-range electron transfer. Despite considerable interest, the design of biomimetic artificial systems emulating multicluster-binding proteins, with the final goal of integrating them in man-made oxidoreductases, remains elusive. Here, we report a novel bis-[4Fe-4S] cluster binding protein, DSD-Fdm, in which the two clusters are positioned within a distance of 12 Å, compatible with the electronic coupling necessary for efficient electron transfer. The design exploits the structural repeat of coiled coils as well as the symmetry of the starting scaffold, a homodimeric helical protein (DSD). In total, eight hydrophobic residues in the core of DSD were replaced by eight cysteine residues that serve as ligands to the [4Fe-4S] clusters. Incorporation of two [4Fe-4S] clusters proceeds with high yield. The two [4Fe-4S] clusters are located in the hydrophobic core of the helical bundle as characterized by various biophysical techniques. The secondary structure of the apo and holo proteins is conserved; further, the incorporation of clusters results in stabilization of the protein with respect to chemical denaturation. Most importantly, this de novo designed protein can mimic the function of natural ferredoxins: we show here that reduced DSD-Fdm transfers electrons to cytochrome c, thus generating the reduced cyt c stoichiometrically. PMID:25437708

  4. DFT and time-resolved IR investigation of electron transfer between photogenerated 17- and 19-electron organometallic radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Cahoon, James B.; Kling, Matthias F.; Sawyer, Karma R.; Andersen, Lars K.; Harris, Charles B.

    2008-04-30

    The photochemical disproportionation mechanism of [CpW(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} in the presence of Lewis bases PR{sub 3} was investigated on the nano- and microsecond time-scales with Step-Scan FTIR time-resolved infrared spectroscopy. 532 nm laser excitation was used to homolytically cleave the W-W bond, forming the 17-electron radicals CpW(CO){sub 3} and initiating the reaction. With the Lewis base PPh{sub 3}, disproportionation to form the ionic products CpW(CO){sub 3}PPh{sub 3}{sup +} and CpW(CO){sub 3}{sup -} was directly monitored on the microsecond time-scale. Detailed examination of the kinetics and concentration dependence of this reaction indicates that disproportionation proceeds by electron transfer from the 19-electron species CpW(CO){sub 3}PPh{sub 3} to the 17-electron species CpW(CO){sub 3}. This result is contrary to the currently accepted disproportionation mechanism which predicts electron transfer from the 19-electron species to the dimer [CpW(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2}. With the Lewis base P(OMe){sub 3} on the other hand, ligand substitution to form the product [CpW(CO){sub 2}P(OMe){sub 3}]{sub 2} is the primary reaction on the microsecond time-scale. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations support the experimental results and suggest that the differences in the reactivity between P(OMe){sub 3} and PPh{sub 3} are due to steric effects. The results indicate that radical-to-radical electron transfer is a previously unknown but important process for the formation of ionic products with the organometallic dimer [CpW(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} and may also be applicable to the entire class of organometallic dimers containing a single metal-metal bond.

  5. Single-electron transmetalation: an enabling technology for secondary alkylboron cross-coupling.

    PubMed

    Primer, David N; Karakaya, Idris; Tellis, John C; Molander, Gary A

    2015-02-18

    Single-electron-mediated alkyl transfer affords a novel mechanism for transmetalation, enabling cross-coupling under mild conditions. Here, general conditions are reported for cross-coupling of secondary alkyltrifluoroborates with an array of aryl bromides mediated by an Ir photoredox catalyst and a Ni cross-coupling catalyst. PMID:25650892

  6. Molecular ionic junction for enhanced electronic charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Bolink, Henk J; Baranoff, Etienne; Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio; Lopéz-Muñoz, Angel; Repetto, Diego; Sessolo, Michele; Nazeeruddin, Md K

    2009-01-01

    We present the first evidence of charge injection improvement in an organic electroluminescent device provided by a single ionic molecular layer. A hole-dominated, hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting device is used as a probe to verify the effectiveness of the ionic compound monolayer on modifying the metal oxide cathode. The rearrangement of ions under an applied bias induces a strong field at the electrode-organic interface resulting in an enhancement of the electron injection into the organic semiconductor. A strong decrease in turn-on voltage for electroluminescence is observed for the device containing the ionic molecular monolayer. PMID:19209442

  7. Chlorophyll-quinone photochemical electron transfer in liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.K.; Castelli, F.; Tollin, G.

    1981-09-01

    A study is described which involves the reduction of electron acceptors (quinones) by photoexcited chlorophyll (Chl). The experimental samples consisted of Chl a (from spinach) incorporated into phosphatidylcholine (either synthetic or from hen egg yolks) liposomes suspended in 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The quinones were either present during liposome formation or added later, depending on their water solubility. The measurement technique employed was laser flash photolysis. Results have provided considerable insight into the ways in which membranes may modify the photochemical properties of Chl by allowing molecular compartmentalization and by permitting cooperative interactions.

  8. Projectile charge state effects on electron emission in transfer ionization processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. T.; Zhu, X. L.; Feng, W. T.; Guo, D. L.; Gao, Y.; Qian, D. B.; Li, B.; Yan, S. C.; Xu, S.; Zhang, P.; Ma, X.

    2015-07-01

    Electron emissions in transfer ionization processes were studied for 75 keV u?1 He2+, and 80 keV u?1 Ne8+on He collisions, using the well-developed reaction microscope techniques. Momentum distributions in the scattering plane, doubly differential distributions as a function of longitudinal momentum and emission angles of the ejected electrons were obtained. An apparent enhancement of electrons distributed around the projectile in the scattering plane was found for the Ne8+ incident case. Furthermore, we report the ratio of doubly differential distributions at the emission angle of 0° between these two transfer ionization processes, in which an abrupt rise is found at and above the electron capture to the continuum peak. This rise qualitatively agrees with the prediction within the framework of Dettmann’s theory. We conclude that this kind of enhancement was caused by the charge state effect of the projectile.

  9. Inhibition of Plastocyanin to P700+ Electron Transfer in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Hyperosmotic Stress1

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Jeffrey A.; Salbilla, Brian A.; Kanazawa, Atsuko; Kramer, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Oxygen electrode and fluorescence studies demonstrate that linear electron transport in the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii can be completely abolished by abrupt hyperosmotic shock. We show that the most likely primary site of inhibition of electron transfer by hyperosmotic shock is a blockage of electron transfer between plastocyanin (PC) or cytochrome c6 and P700. The effects on this reaction were reversible upon dilution of the osmolytes and the stability of plastocyanin or photosystem (PS) I was unaffected. Electron micrographs of osmotically shocked cells showed a significant decrease in the thylakoid lumen volume. Comparison of estimated lumenal width with the x-ray structures of plastocyanin and PS I suggest that lumenal space contracts during HOS so as to hinder the movement of docking to PS I of plastocyanin or cytochrome c6. PMID:11706196

  10. Photoinduced electron transfer in donor-acceptor complexes of ethylene with molecular and atomic iodine.

    PubMed

    Kalume, Aimable; George, Lisa; Powell, Andrew D; Dawes, Richard; Reid, Scott A

    2014-08-28

    Building upon our recent studies of radical addition pathways following excitation of the I2 chromophore in the donor-acceptor complex of ethylene and I2 (C2H4···I2), in this article, we extend our studies to examine photoinduced electron transfer. Thus, irradiation into the intense charge-transfer band of the complex (?max = 247 nm) gave rise to a band at 366 nm that is assigned to the bridged ethylene-I radical complex on the basis of our prior work. The formation of the radical complex is explained by a mechanism that involves rapid back electron transfer leading to I-I bond fission. Excitation into the charge-transfer band of the radical complex led to regeneration of the parent complex and the formation of the final photoproduct, anti- and gauche-1,2-diiodoethane, which confirms that the reaction proceeds ultimately by a radical addition mechanism. This finding is contrasted with our previous study of the C2H4···Br2 complex, where CT excitation led to only one product, anti-1,2-dibromoethane, a result explained by a single electron-transfer mechanism proceeding via a bridged bromonium ion intermediate. For the I2 complex, the breakup of the photolytically generated I2(-•) anion radical is apparently sufficiently slow to render it uncompetitive with back electron transfer. Finally, we report a detailed computational examination of the parent and radical complexes of both bromine and iodine, using high-level single- and multireference methods, which provide insight into the different behaviors of the charge-transfer states of the two radicals and the role of spin-orbit coupling. PMID:25075444

  11. [Comparison of group transfer, inner shere and outer sphere electron transfer mechanisms for organometallic complexes]. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Our studies of reactions of metal carbonyl cations and anions have shown that metal carbonyl cations can catalyze CO exchange reactions on metal carbonyl anions. This result provides further evidence for a mechanism involving attack of the metal carbonyl anion on a carbon of the metal carbonyl cation in CO{sup 2+} transfer reactions. Reaction of metal carbonyl anions with metal carbonyl halides is a common approach to formation of metal-metal bonds. We have begun to use kinetic data and product analysis to understand the formation of homobimetallic versus heterobimetallic products in such reactions. Initial data indicate a nucleophilic attack, possibly through a ring-slippage mechanism.

  12. (Comparison of group transfer, inner shere and outer sphere electron transfer mechanisms for organometallic complexes)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Our studies of reactions of metal carbonyl cations and anions have shown that metal carbonyl cations can catalyze CO exchange reactions on metal carbonyl anions. This result provides further evidence for a mechanism involving attack of the metal carbonyl anion on a carbon of the metal carbonyl cation in CO{sup 2+} transfer reactions. Reaction of metal carbonyl anions with metal carbonyl halides is a common approach to formation of metal-metal bonds. We have begun to use kinetic data and product analysis to understand the formation of homobimetallic versus heterobimetallic products in such reactions. Initial data indicate a nucleophilic attack, possibly through a ring-slippage mechanism.

  13. Role of 3,5-dimethyl anisole (DMA) as an electron donor in photoinduced electron transfer (ET) reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, S.; De, R.; Ganguly, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to reveal the nature of photoinduced bimolecular quenching reactions, e.g. electron transfer (ET) and energy transfer processes within the donor DMA and acceptor 2-nitrofluorene (2NF) molecules in polar acetonitrile (ACN) fluid solution at the ambient temperature. From the observed large negative values of ?G (the energy gap between the locally excited, LE and radical ion pair or RIP states) when one of the chromorphores was excited along with large R0 ( ˜27 Å), Förster critical transfer distance between the donor and acceptor measured from the considerable overlapping region of donor DMA emission with acceptor absorption and nearly 100% theoretical transfer efficiency ( T) value of the Förster type energy transfer the concurrent occurrences of the two processes, photoinduced ET and excitational energy transfer, were inferred. Moreover it was suggested that ET reaction within the present donor and acceptor systems is of outersphere type as evidenced from the large negative value of ?G (˜ -2.3 eV).

  14. Interaction of Ferredoxin–NADP + Reductase with its Substrates: Optimal Interaction for Efficient Electron Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milagros Medina; Carlos Gómez-Moreno

    2004-01-01

    Electron transfer (ET) reactions in systems involving proteins require an oriented interaction between electron donor and\\u000a acceptor in order to accommodate their respective redox centres in optimal orientation for efficient ET. Such type of reactions\\u000a are critical for the maintenance of the physiological functions of living organisms, since they are implicated in vital actions,\\u000a as is, for example, in the

  15. Negative Polarization through Photon to Electron Spin Polarization Transfer in GaAs Quantum Wells

    E-print Network

    H. Kosaka; Y. Rikitake; H. Imamura; Y. Mitsumori; K. Edamatsu

    2006-09-20

    We demonstrate negative polarization created by light-hole exciton excitation in g-factor engineered GaAs quantum wells measured by time-resolved Kerr rotation and polarization-resolved photoluminescence. This negative polarization is a result of polarization transfer from a photon to an electron spin mediated by a light hole. This demonstration is an important step towards achieving quantum media conversion from a photonic qubit to an electron spin qubit required for building a quantum repeater.

  16. Contrast transfer function correction applied to cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram averaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giulia Zanetti; James D. Riches; Stephen D. Fuller; John A. G. Briggs

    2009-01-01

    Cryo-electron tomography together with averaging of sub-tomograms containing identical particles can reveal the structure of proteins or protein complexes in their native environment. The resolution of this technique is limited by the contrast transfer function (CTF) of the microscope. The CTF is not routinely corrected in cryo-electron tomography because of difficulties including CTF detection, due to the low signal to

  17. Constraint-Based Modeling of Carbon Fixation and the Energetics of Electron Transfer in Geobacter metallireducens

    PubMed Central

    Feist, Adam M.; Nagarajan, Harish; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Zhang, Tian; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.; Zengler, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Geobacter species are of great interest for environmental and biotechnology applications as they can carry out direct electron transfer to insoluble metals or other microorganisms and have the ability to assimilate inorganic carbon. Here, we report on the capability and key enabling metabolic machinery of Geobacter metallireducens GS-15 to carry out CO2 fixation and direct electron transfer to iron. An updated metabolic reconstruction was generated, growth screens on targeted conditions of interest were performed, and constraint-based analysis was utilized to characterize and evaluate critical pathways and reactions in G. metallireducens. The novel capability of G. metallireducens to grow autotrophically with formate and Fe(III) was predicted and subsequently validated in vivo. Additionally, the energetic cost of transferring electrons to an external electron acceptor was determined through analysis of growth experiments carried out using three different electron acceptors (Fe(III), nitrate, and fumarate) by systematically isolating and examining different parts of the electron transport chain. The updated reconstruction will serve as a knowledgebase for understanding and engineering Geobacter and similar species. PMID:24762737

  18. Structural insights into electron transfer in caa3-type cytochrome oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Joseph A.; Aragão, David; Slattery, Orla; Pisliakov, Andrei V.; Soulimane, Tewfik; Caffrey, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Summary Paragraph Cytochrome c oxidase is a member of the heme copper oxidase superfamily (HCO)1. HCOs function as the terminal enzymes in the respiratory chain of mitochondria and aerobic prokaryotes, coupling molecular oxygen reduction to transmembrane proton pumping. Integral to the enzyme’s function is the transfer of electrons from cytochrome c to the oxidase via a transient association of the two proteins. Electron entry and exit are proposed to occur from the same site on cytochrome c2–4. Here we report the crystal structure of the caa3-type cytochrome oxidase from Thermus thermophilus, which has a covalently tethered cytochrome c domain. Crystals were grown in a bicontinuous mesophase using a synthetic short-chain monoacylglycerol as the hosting lipid. From the electron density map, at 2.36 Å resolution, a novel integral membrane subunit and a native glycoglycerophospholipid embedded in the complex were identified. Contrary to previous electron transfer mechanisms observed for soluble cytochrome c, the structure reveals the architecture of the electron transfer complex for the fused cupredoxin/cytochrome c domain which implicates different sites on cytochrome c for electron entry and exit. Support for an alternative to the classical proton gate characteristic of this HCO class is presented. PMID:22763450

  19. Investigation on the effective mass of Ge1?xSnx alloys and the transferred-electron effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Liang, Renrong; Wang, Jing; Xu, Jun

    2015-03-01

    The electron band structures of Ge1?xSnx alloys were calculated using the nonlocal empirical pseudopotential method. The electron and hole effective masses were extracted, and the mobility enhancement over Ge was comprehensively analyzed. For the direct gap Ge1?xSnx with high Sn compositions, only a small fraction of electrons occupy the ? valley with high mobility at room temperature. Hence, the negative differential mobility resulting from the transferred-electron effect may not be observed, and the electron mobility enhancement over Ge is only two-fold. Low temperature conditions may lead to the transferred-electron effect and a significantly enhanced electron mobility.

  20. Fast electron transfer through a single molecule natively structured redox protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio; Chi, Qijin; MacDonald, J. Emyr; Ulstrup, Jens; Jones, D. Dafydd; Elliott, Martin

    2012-10-01

    The electron transfer properties of proteins are normally measured as molecularly averaged ensembles. Through these and related measurements, proteins are widely regarded as macroscopically insulating materials. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), we present new measurements of the conductance through single-molecules of the electron transfer protein cytochrome b562 in its native conformation, under pseudo-physiological conditions. This is achieved by thiol (SH) linker pairs at opposite ends of the molecule through protein engineering, resulting in defined covalent contact between a gold surface and a platinum-iridium STM tip. Two different orientations of the linkers were examined: a long-axis configuration (SH-LA) and a short-axis configuration (SH-SA). In each case, the molecular conductance could be `gated' through electrochemical control of the heme redox state. Reproducible and remarkably high conductance was observed in this relatively complex electron transfer system, with single-molecule conductance values peaking around 18 nS and 12 nS for the SH-SA and SH-LA cytochrome b562 molecules near zero electrochemical overpotential. This strongly points to the important role of the heme co-factor bound to the natively structured protein. We suggest that the two-step model of protein electron transfer in the STM geometry requires a multi-electron transfer to explain such a high conductance. The model also yields a low value for the reorganisation energy, implying that solvent reorganisation is largely absent.The electron transfer properties of proteins are normally measured as molecularly averaged ensembles. Through these and related measurements, proteins are widely regarded as macroscopically insulating materials. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), we present new measurements of the conductance through single-molecules of the electron transfer protein cytochrome b562 in its native conformation, under pseudo-physiological conditions. This is achieved by thiol (SH) linker pairs at opposite ends of the molecule through protein engineering, resulting in defined covalent contact between a gold surface and a platinum-iridium STM tip. Two different orientations of the linkers were examined: a long-axis configuration (SH-LA) and a short-axis configuration (SH-SA). In each case, the molecular conductance could be `gated' through electrochemical control of the heme redox state. Reproducible and remarkably high conductance was observed in this relatively complex electron transfer system, with single-molecule conductance values peaking around 18 nS and 12 nS for the SH-SA and SH-LA cytochrome b562 molecules near zero electrochemical overpotential. This strongly points to the important role of the heme co-factor bound to the natively structured protein. We suggest that the two-step model of protein electron transfer in the STM geometry requires a multi-electron transfer to explain such a high conductance. The model also yields a low value for the reorganisation energy, implying that solvent reorganisation is largely absent. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods, DNA and protein sequences, additional STM statistical analysis and images, electrochemical data and It-z data analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32131a

  1. The ‘porin–cytochrome’ model for microbe-to-mineral electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, David J.; Butt, Julea N.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Shi, Liang; Edwards, Marcus J.; White, Gaye F.; Baiden, Nanakow; Gates, Andrew J.; Marritt, Sophie; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2012-05-30

    Many species of bacteria can couple anaerobic growth to the respiratory reduction of insoluble minerals containing Fe(III) or Mn(III/IV). It has been suggested that in Shewanella species electrons cross the outer membrane to extracellular substrates via 'porin-cytochrome' electron transport modules. The molecular structure of an outer-membrane extracellular-facing deca-haem terminus for such a module has recently been resolved. It is debated how, once outside the cells, electrons are transferred from outer-membrane cytochromes to insoluble electron sinks. This may occur directly or by assemblies of cytochromes, perhaps functioning as 'nanowires', or via electron shuttles. Here we review recent work in this field and explore whether it allows for unification of the electron transport mechanisms supporting extracellular mineral respiration in Shewanella that may extend into other genera of Gram-negative bacteria.

  2. Calculating Electron-Transfer Coupling with Density Functional Theory: The Long-Range-Corrected Density Functionals.

    PubMed

    You, Zhi-Qiang; Hung, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Chao-Ping

    2015-06-18

    The density functional theory (DFT) with commonly used functionals is known to be incorrect for charge-transfer problems. With long-range-corrected (LC) density functionals, the asymptotic exchange potential is gradually switched to the Hartree-Fock exchange at a long range, and the prediction for charge-transfer states is greatly improved. In this work, we test LC-DFT's performance on charge-transfer couplings. The range-separation parameter can be tuned nonempirically for properties of a generalized DFT. We propose to minimize the difference of highest-occupied Kohn-Sham orbital energy and the ionization potential (for hole transfer) or the lowest-unoccupied orbital energy and the electron affinity (for electron transfer). For photoinduced charge transfer, the minimum in the sum of such differences for the donor and the acceptor is proposed. With the range-separation parameters optimized, we found that ET couplings derived from the LC-DFT are close to those derived from coupled cluster with singles and doubles. When compared with experimentally derived Mulliken-Hush couplings, LC-DFT couplings are greatly improved as well. We also found that the couplings from BNL and LC-BLYP functionals are generally better than those from LC-?PBE and LC-?PBE0. LC-DFT is suitable for calculating ET coupling, especially with this nonempirical approach for the range-separation parameter. PMID:25599406

  3. Modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency of electron bombarded charge coupled device detector for low energy electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Horacek, Miroslav [Institute of Scientific Instruments, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, CZ-61264 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2005-09-15

    The use of a thinned back-side illuminated charge coupled device chip as two-dimensional sensor working in direct electron bombarded mode at optimum energy of the incident signal electrons is demonstrated and the measurements of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are described. The MTF was measured for energy of electrons 4 keV using an edge projection method and a stripe projection method. The decrease of the MTF for a maximum spatial frequency of 20.8 cycles/mm, corresponding to the pixel size 24x24 {mu}m, is 0.75{approx_equal}-2.5 dB, and it is approximately the same for both horizontal and vertical directions. DQE was measured using an empty image and the mixing factor method. Empty images were acquired for energies of electrons from 2 to 5 keV and for various doses, ranging from nearly dark image to a nearly saturated one. DQE increases with increasing energy of bombarded electrons and reaches 0.92 for electron energy of 5 keV. For this energy the detector will be used for the angle- and energy-selective detection of signal electrons in the scanning low energy electron microscope.

  4. A COMPUTATIONAL STUDY IN THE THERMODYNAMIC AND DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF ELECTRON TRANSFER PROTEINS

    E-print Network

    Thorpe, Michael

    of the thesis turns toward the bacterial reaction center (RC), a protein with a charge separation reaction of electron transfer appear funnel-shaped. Additionally, parameters from MD simulations of RC can be used reorganization energy with the onset of increasing protein flexibility. This idea lead back to PC, where MD

  5. Electron transfer based voltage tunable two-color quantum-well infrared photodetectors

    E-print Network

    Rokhinson, Leonid

    Electron transfer based voltage tunable two-color quantum-well infrared photodetectors Amlan of photoresponse of voltage tunable two-color quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) that are based.V. All rights reserved. PACS: 78.30.Fs; 78.67.De Keywords: Quantum-well infrared photodetectors; Two

  6. Electroinitiated Polymerization of Acrolein by Direct and Indirect Electron Transfer Via Controlled Potential Electrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Toppare; B. Hacio?lu; U. Akbulut

    1990-01-01

    Electroinitiated polymerization of acrolein has been achieved by controlled potential electrolysis at the reduction peak potential of the monomer for direct electron transfer. Kinetics and type of mechanism of the polymerization have been investigated. the structure of the polymer has also been examined by IR spectroscopy. in a separate experiment, a small amount of CCI4 was added to a polymerization

  7. Direct electron transfer to cytochrome c oxidase in self-assembled monolayers on gold electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinghong Li; Guangjin Cheng; Shaojun Dong

    1996-01-01

    The monolayer of cytochrome c oxidase maintaining physiological activity and attached covalently to the self-assembled monolayers of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on a gold electrode was obtained. The results of cyclic voltammetry show that direct electron transfer between cytochrome c oxidase and the electrode surface is a fast and diffusionless process. MPA has a dual role as both electrode modifier and

  8. Ultrafast Energy-Electron Transfer Cascade in a Multichromophoric Light-Harvesting Molecular Square

    E-print Network

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    Ultrafast Energy-Electron Transfer Cascade in a Multichromophoric Light-Harvesting Molecular Square, 2004; E-mail: wuerthner@chemie.uni-wuerzburg.de; williams@science.uva.nl Abstract: A molecular square with the closely packed structure of 20 chromophoric units, indicate that we can consider the molecular square

  9. Oxygen Isotope Effects as Probes of Electron Transfer Mechanisms and Structures of

    E-print Network

    Roth, Justine P.

    Oxygen Isotope Effects as Probes of Electron Transfer Mechanisms and Structures of Activated O2, Maryland 21218 RECEIVED ON JULY 26, 2008 C O N S P E C T U S Competitively determined oxygen (18 O) isotope- dative processes. This Account describes efforts to advance oxygen kinetic isotope effects (18 O KIEs

  10. FROM PAPER TO PLASTIC BY 2002: RETAILERS' PERSPECTIVE ON ELECTRONIC BENEFIT TRANSFER SYSTEMS FOR FOOD STAMPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana R. Quinones; Jean D. Kinsey

    2000-01-01

    The Food Stamp Program (FSP) is working under the deadline of October 1, 2002, to coordinate a change from the current paper disbursement system of paper food stamps to an electronic transfer system of benefits, known as EBT. The Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture has been studying the effectiveness of differing vehicles for benefit dispersal

  11. 77 FR 22067 - Proposed Collection of Information: Trace Request for Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) Payment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ...Service solicits comments concerning forms FMS-150.1 ``Trace Request for Electronic Funds Transfer Payment'' and FMS-150.2 ``Trace Request Direct Deposit...OMB Number: 1510-0045. Form Number: FMS 150.1, FMS 150.2. Abstract:...

  12. 27 CFR 26.112a - Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment of tax by electronic fund transfer. 26.112a...Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...and Articles in Puerto Rico Payment of Tax by Return § 26.112a Payment of...

  13. RNA with iron(II) as a cofactor catalyses electron transfer

    E-print Network

    Williams, Loren

    RNA with iron(II) as a cofactor catalyses electron transfer Chiaolong Hsiao, I-Chun Chou, C. Denise with abundant and benign Fe21 . We hypothesize that Fe21 was an RNA cofactor when iron was abundant iron and essentially no O2 (refs 1,2). The `great oxidation' led to Fe2þ /O2-mediated cellular damage3

  14. Convergent Iterative Constrained Variation Algorithm for Calculation of Electron-Transfer Transition States

    E-print Network

    Pitsch, Heinz

    interaction with an electric field17 using ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations. Many the potential-dependent transition states of electron transfer reactions by quantum calculations. This approach a vital role in the analysis of reaction mechanisms and in understanding the chemistry involved. While

  15. Electron-transfer equilibria and kinetics of N-alkylphenothiazines in micellar systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelizzetti, E.; Fisicaro, E. (Universita di Parma (Italy)); Minero, C.; Sassi, A. (Universita di Torino (Italy)); Hidaka, Hisao (Meisei Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-01-24

    The kinetics and equilibria of electron transfer between N-alkylphenothiazines (alkyl = methyl, ethyl, butyl, dodecyl) and aquoiron(III)/(II) in the presence of various micellar forming surfactants (hexadecyltrimethylammonium methanesulfonate, sodium dodecylsulfate, and Triton X100) were investigated. The presence of the micelles strongly affects rates and equilibria, and the dependence of these changes on the hydrophobicity of the alkyl chain is examined.

  16. ELUCIDATING THE ROLE OF ELECTRON TRANSFER MEDIATORS IN REDUCTIVE TRANSFORMATIONS IN NATURAL SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To study the identity and reactivity of electron transfer mediators (ETMs) in natural sediments, the reduction kinetics of a glass bead-azo dye complex were measured in abiotic and biotic model systems, as well as in natural sediments. In abiotic model systems, the bead-dye comp...

  17. A study of the electron transfer and photothermal effect of gold nanorods on a glucose biosensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiyu Liu; Dong Chen; Liuqing Yang; Xiangling Ren; Fangqiong Tang; Jun Ren

    2010-01-01

    A new glucose biosensor based on the electron transfer and photothermal effect of gold nanorods (GNRs) is reported here. The biosensor was prepared by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) on a platinum (Pt) electrode by a composite film consisting of GNRs, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and glutaraldehyde. GNRs were synthesized by a gold seed-mediated cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant-assisted approach. The fabrication, characterization

  18. Proton-coupled electron transfer and multielectron oxidations in complexes of ruthenium and osmium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dovletoglou

    1992-01-01

    This doctoral research concerns the mechanism of proton-coupled electron transfer over an extended pH range. These processes between ruthenium and osmium complexes and hydroquinones have been studied using spectrophotometric methods and cyclic voltammetry. Elucidation of the mechanistic details has been attempted by using isotopic labelling, kinetic analysis, and numerical simulation of complex kinetic schemes. The coordination and redox chemistry of

  19. Absorption Spectra Related to Heterogeneous Electron Transfer Reactions: The Perylene TiO2 System

    E-print Network

    Röder, Beate

    Absorption Spectra Related to Heterogeneous Electron Transfer Reactions: The Perylene TiO2 System Form: March 16, 2005 Linear absorption spectra of dye-semiconductor systems (perylene attached displaying line broadenings follow the qualitative trend obtained from transient absorption spectra. I

  20. Accelerated Publications High Yield of M-Side Electron Transfer in Mutants of Rhodobacter capsulatus

    E-print Network

    Boxer, Steven G.

    on the DLL mutant in chromatophore preparations showed that RCs assembled without the bacteriopheophytin HL isolated poly-His-tagged DLL RCs by using the detergent Deriphat 160-C and shown that the RCs are devoid in governing the rates and yields of electron transfer in bacterial RCs and provides a basis for systematically

  1. Ultrafast heterogeneous electron transfer reactions: Comparative theoretical studies on time-and frequency-domain data

    E-print Network

    Röder, Beate

    -domain description. The latter underlines the central importance of the self-energy caused by the coupling of the dye place on a 10 fs time scale, just offering an example for an ul- trafast electron transfer process con- tinuum beyond any perturbation theory, and which 3 in- cludes intraperylene vibrational motion

  2. Crossed-beam studies of electron transfer to oriented trichloronitromethane, CCl3NO2, molecules

    E-print Network

    Brooks, Philip R.

    . Electron transfer collisions produce a positive and negative ion pair which are separated and detected in coincidence when the collision energy E can overcome the Coulomb attraction be- tween the ions, i.e., if E IE+BDE-EA, where IE is the ionization energy of K, B

  3. FAD oxidizes the ERO1-PDI electron transfer chain: The role of membrane integrity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eszter Papp; Gábor Nardai; József Mandl; Gábor Bánhegyi; Péter Csermely

    2005-01-01

    The molecular steps of the electron transfer in the endoplasmic reticulum from the secreted proteins during their oxidation are relatively unknown. We present here that flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a powerful oxidizer of the oxidoreductase system, Ero1 and PDI, besides the proteins of rat liver microsomes and HepG2 hepatoma cells. Inhibition of FAD transport hindered the action of FAD.

  4. Ground and Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Salicylic Acid: an Ab Initio Electronic Structure Investigation

    E-print Network

    Chowdhury, Arindam

    emission in the fluorescence spectrum of salicylic acid and methyl salicylate and attributedGround and Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Salicylic Acid: an Ab Initio Electronic in salicylic acid have been studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations using the 6-31G** basis set

  5. Deuterium isotope effects on outer-sphere electron-transfer reactins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ephraim Buhks; Mordechai Bixon; Joshua Jortner

    1981-01-01

    In this paper we present a theoretical study of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) on outer-sphere electron-transfer (ET) reactions, which provides one of the manifestations of quantum effects in such systems. The KIE arising from the deuteration of the ligands in the first coordination layer originates from frequency changes and from distortion of the equilibrium configurations of the totally symmetric

  6. Electron transfer as the initiation mechanism of photocurable maleimide–vinyl ether based resins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justus von Sonntag; Dieter Beckert; Wolfgang Knolle; Reiner Mehnert

    1999-01-01

    Maleimide–vinyl ether resins polymerise upon UV irradiation without the addition of a photoinitiator. The first step of initiation is an electron transfer from a ground state vinyl ether molecule to the triplet maleimide. Absolute rate constants for the reaction of triplet maleimide (?max=260 and 320 nm) with maleimide itself, unsaturated monomers, inorganic ions, and alcohols were determined by laser flash photolysis.

  7. De Novo Design of a Cytochrome b Maquette for Electron Transfer and Coupled Reactions on Electrodes

    E-print Network

    Gibney, Brian R.

    De Novo Design of a Cytochrome b Maquette for Electron Transfer and Coupled Reactions on Electrodes maquettes that bis-histidine ligate protoporphyrin IX (heme), much like native b cytochromes, as well as contain charged surface patches, much like native cytochrome c. The positively charged residues aid

  8. Laser pulse control of ultrafast heterogeneous electron transfer: A computational study

    E-print Network

    Röder, Beate

    Laser pulse control of ultrafast heterogeneous electron transfer: A computational study Luxia Wang, Germany Received 31 March 2004; accepted 30 July 2004 Laser pulse control of the photoinduced 90 fs charge in which way the charge injection time can be changed by tailored laser pulses. In a second step a pump

  9. The impact of driving force on electron transfer rates in photovoltaic donor-acceptor blends.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alexander J; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Kareem, Mohanad Mousa; Ebenhoch, Bernd; Serrano, Luis A; Al-Eid, Manal; Fitzpatrick, Brian; Rotello, Vincent M; Cooke, Graeme; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2015-04-17

    The effect of acceptor energy level on electron transfer rate in blends of the polymer solar-cell material poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  10. Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Micro-Machined Porous Channels for Electronics Cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navas Khan; K. C. Toh; D. Pinjala

    2008-01-01

    Boiling heat transfer enhancement for a passive electronics cooling design is presented in this paper. A novel pool boiling enhancement technique is developed and characterized. A combination of surface modification by metallic coating and micro-machined porous channels attached to the modified surface is tested and reported. An experimental rig is set up using a standard BGA package with 12 mm

  11. Cyclic electron transfer in plant leaf Pierre Joliot* and Anne Joliot

    E-print Network

    that the cyclic and the linear transfer chains are structurally isolated one from the other. We propose) in broken chloroplasts. In unicellular algae, a cyclic electron flow operates in anaerobic conditions (3, 4 similar to those of Complex I have been identified in the chloroplast genome of higher plants (10). Recent

  12. Thermal conductivity and the electron-ion heat transfer coefficient in condensed media with a strongly excited electron subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Yu. V.; Inogamov, N. A.; Migdal, K. P.

    2013-03-01

    The two-temperature ( T e > T i ) thermal conductivity coefficient ?2 T and electron-ion heat transfer coefficient ?, which are necessary for the quantitative description of the processes initiated by ultrashort laser pulse, have been calculated using a kinetic equation, the matrix element for the scattering probability, and a screened Coulomb potential describing the interaction between charged particles. Quantitative information has been obtained for coefficients ?2 T and ? values for noble and transition metals, where the d-band electrons play a significant role.

  13. Reorganization Parameters of Electronic Transitions in Electronically Delocalized Systems. 1. Charge Transfer Reactions

    E-print Network

    Matyushov, Dmitry

    . Charge Transfer Reactions Dmitry V. Matyushov*, and Gregory A. Voth* Department of Chemistry and Henry Eyring Center for Theoretical Chemistry, UniVersity of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah

  14. Concerted electron/proton transfer mechanism in the oxidation of phenols by laccase.

    PubMed

    Galli, Carlo; Madzak, Catherine; Vadalà, Raffaella; Jolivalt, Claude; Gentili, Patrizia

    2013-12-16

    This study aimed to assess structural requirements in the enzyme/substrate interactions that are responsible for tuning the enzymatic reactivity. To better assess the role of the aspartic residue in the substrate-binding pocket of basidiomycete-type laccases, we compared the catalytic efficiency of wild-type enzymes to that of a mutant in which carboxylic acid residue Asp206 was changed to alanine. Oxidation efficiency towards phenolic substrates by laccases of Trametes villosa, Trametes versicolor and a T. versicolor D206A mutant was studied at two pH values. By the Hammett approach and Marcus analysis, we obtained unambiguous evidence that the oxidation takes place by a concerted electron/proton transfer (EPT) mechanism, and that at pH 5 (optimum pH for enzyme activity) the phenolic proton is transferred to Asp206 during the concerted electron/proton transfer process. PMID:24151197

  15. Electrochemical control over photoinduced electron transfer and trapping in CdSe-CdTe quantum-dot solids.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Simon C; Walvis, T Ardaan; Infante, Ivan; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël; Siebbeles, Laurens D A; Houtepen, Arjan J

    2014-07-22

    Understanding and controlling charge transfer between different kinds of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) is important for devices such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells and for thermoelectric applications. Here we study photoinduced electron transfer between CdTe and CdSe QDs in a QD film. We find that very efficient electron trapping in CdTe QDs obstructs electron transfer to CdSe QDs under most conditions. Only the use of thiol ligands results in somewhat slower electron trapping; in this case the competition between trapping and electron transfer results in a small fraction of electrons being transferred to CdSe. However, we demonstrate that electron trapping can be controlled and even avoided altogether by using the unique combination of electrochemistry and transient absorption spectroscopy. When the Fermi level is raised electrochemically, traps are filled with electrons and electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe QDs occurs with unity efficiency. These results show the great importance of knowing and controlling the Fermi level in QD films and open up the possibility of studying the density of trap states in QD films as well as the systematic investigation of the intrinsic electron transfer rates in donor-acceptor films. PMID:24883930

  16. A structural basis for electron transfer in bacterial photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, J.R.; DiMagno, T.J.; Angerhofer, A.; Chang, C.H.; El-Kabbani, O.; Schiffer, M.

    1989-01-01

    Triplet data for the primary donor in single crystals of bacterial reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas viridis are interpreted in terms of the corresponding x-ray structures. The analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance data from single crystals (triplet zero field splitting and cation and triplet linewidth of the primary special pair donor of bacterial reaction centers) is extended to systems of a non-crystalline nature. A unified interpretation based on frontier molecular orbitals concludes that the special pair behaves like a supermolecule in all wild-type bacteria investigated here. However, in heterodimers of Rb. capsulatus (His/sup M200/ changed to Leu or Phe with the result that the M-half of the special pair is converted to bacteriopheophytin) the special pair possesses the EPR properties more appropriately described in terms of a monomer. In all cases the triplet state and cation EPR properties appear to be dominated by the highest occupied molecular orbitals. These conclusions derived from EPR experiments are supplemented by data from Stark spectroscopy of reaction centers from Rb. capsulatus. 41 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Control of interspecies electron transfer flow during anaerobic digestion: dynamic diffusion reaction models for hydrogen gas transfer in microbial flocs.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, S S; Palsson, B O; Thiele, J H

    1989-02-01

    Dynamic reaction diffusion models were used to analyze the consequences of aggregation for syntrophic reactions in methanogenic ecosystems. Flocs from a whey digestor were used to measure all model parameters under the in situ conditions of a particular defined biological system. Fermentation simulations without adjustable parameters could precisely predict the kinetics of H(2) gas production of digestor flocs during syntrophic methanogenesis from ethanol. The results demonstrated a kinetic compartmentalization of H(2) metabolism inside the flocs. The interspecies electron transfer reaction was mildly diffusion controlled. The H(2) gas profiles across the flocs showed high H (2) concentrations inside the flocs at any time. Simulations of the syntrophic metabolism at low substrate concentrations such as in digestors or sediments showed that it is impossible to achieve high H(2) gas turnovers at simultaneously low steady-state H(2) concentrations. This showed a mechanistic contradiction in the concept of postulated low H(2) microenvironments for the anaerobic digestion process. The results of the computer experiments support the conclusion that syntrophic H(2) production may only be a side reaction of H(2) independent interspecies electron transfer in methanogenic ecosystems. PMID:18587976

  18. Performance degradation of direct formic acid fuel cell incorporating a Pd anode catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Won Suk; Han, Jonghee; Yoon, Sung Pil; Nam, Suk Woo; Lim, Tae-Hoon; Hong, Seong-Ahn

    2011-05-01

    Electrochemical and physical analysis is employed to verify the performance degradation mechanism in direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). The power density of a single cell measured at 200 mA cm-2 decreases by 40% after 11 h of operation. The performance of the single cell is partly recovered however, by a reactivation process. Various analytical methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used to investigate the mechanism of performance degradation. The analytical results show that the electrolyte membranes in the DFAFC are stable for 11 h of operation after the reactivation process. The major factors causing performance degradation in the DFAFC are an increment in the anode charge-transfer resistance and a growth in the particle size of the Pd anode catalyst. The anode charge-transfer resistance, confirmed by EIS, increases with operation time and is due to poisoning of the catalyst surface. Although it is not clear what chemical species poisons the catalyst surface, the catalyst surface is cleaned by the reactivation process. Performance losses caused by surface poisoning are completely recovered by the reactivation process. Increase in catalyst size induces a reduction in active surface area, and the performance loss caused by the growth in catalyst size cannot be recovered by the reactivation process.

  19. Photo-induced water oxidation at the aqueous GaN (101?0) interface: Deprotonation kinetics of the first proton-coupled electron-transfer step

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Kharche, Neerav; Batista, Victor S.; Hybertsen, Mark S.; Tully, John C.; Muckerman, James T.

    2015-04-03

    Photoeclectrochemical water splitting plays a key role in a promising path to the carbon-neutral generation of solar fuels. Wurzite GaN and its alloys (e.g., GaN/ZnO and InGaN) are demonstrated photocatalysts for water oxidation, and they can drive the overall water splitting reaction when coupled with co-catalysts for proton reduction. In the present work, we investigate the water oxidation mechanism on the prototypical GaN (101?0) surface using a combined ab initio molecular dynamics and molecular cluster model approach taking into account the role of water dissociation and hydrogen bonding within the first solvation shell of the hydroxylated surface. The investigation ofmore »free-energy changes for the four proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) steps of the water oxidation mechanism shows that the first PCET step for the conversion of –Ga-OH to –Ga-O?? requires the highest energy input. We further examine the sequential PCETs, with the proton transfer (PT) following the electron transfer (ET), and find that photo-generated holes localize on surface –NH sites is thermodynamically more favorable than –OH sites. However, proton transfer from –OH sites with subsequent localization of holes on oxygen atoms is kinetically favored owing to hydrogen bonding interactions at the GaN (101?0)–water interface. We find that the deprotonation of surface –OH sites is the limiting factor for the generation of reactive oxyl radical ion intermediates and consequently for water oxidation.« less

  20. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in Solution Mark N. Kobrak and Sharon Hammes-Schiffer*

    E-print Network

    Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in Solution Mark N. Kobrak for the molecular dynamics simulation of proton-coupled electron transfer reactions in solution is presented with a procedure based on a series of purely classical molecular dynamics simulations. The resulting mixed

  1. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in DNA-Acrylamide Complexes Claudio Carra, Nedialka Iordanova, and Sharon Hammes-Schiffer*

    E-print Network

    Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in DNA-Acrylamide Complexes Claudio Carra, Nedialka Iordanova study of proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) in the radical anionic thymine-acrylamide complex. The influence of neighboring DNA base pairs is determined by studying solvated DNA-acrylamide models in addition

  2. The functions of the flavin contact residues, ?Arg249 and ?Tyr16, in human electron transfer flavoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy M. Dwyer; Lening Zhang; Michelle Muller; Fedri Marrugo; Frank Frerman

    1999-01-01

    Arg249 in the large (?) subunit of human electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) heterodimer is absolutely conserved throughout the ETF superfamily. The guanidinium group of ?Arg249 is within van der Waals contact distance and lies perpendicular to the xylene subnucleus of the flavin ring, near the region proposed to be involved in electron transfer with medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The backbone

  3. Pulse radiolytic studies of electron transfer processes and applications to solar photochemistry. Progress report, [March 1992--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Neta, P.

    1993-04-01

    Electron transfer and other reactions of various short-lived intermediates have been studied by pulse radiolysis and laser flash photolysis. Highlights of results during the past year are summarized under two main sections: Metalloporphyrin electron transfer and associated reactions, and solvent effects on reactions of inorganic radicals and organic peroxyl radicals.

  4. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 138, 114105 (2013) Reorganization energy of electron transfer processes in ionic fluids

    E-print Network

    Song, Xueyu

    2013-01-01

    processes in ionic fluids: A molecular Debye-Hückel approach Tiejun Xiao and Xueyu Song Department; published online 15 March 2013) The reorganization energy of electron transfer processes in ionic fluids energies of electron transfer reactions in ionic fluids. © 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http

  5. The single electron transfer chemistry of coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.; Flowers, R.A. II

    1994-12-31

    This research addressed electron donar properties and radical reactions in coal. Solid residues from pyridine Soxhlet extractions of Pocahontas No. 3, Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh No. 8, Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak coals were exposed to 4-vinylpyridine vapors and swelled. All of the 4-vinylpyridine could not be removed under vacuum at 100{degree}C. Diffuse reflectance FTIR revealed the presence of poly-(4-vinylpyridine) in the Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak coals. EPR spectra displayed the loss of inertinite radicals in Upper Freeport, Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak residues after exposure to 4-vinylpyridine. There was little change in the vitrinite radical density or environment. The molecule N,N{prime}-Diphenyl-p-phenylene diamine (DPPD) was exposed to the solid residues from pyridine Soxhlet extractions of the above coals. Diffuse reflectance FTIR failed to detect the imine product from radical reaction with DPPD. EPR spectra displayed the loss of inertinite radicals in Upper Freeport and Wyodak residues. 7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and Tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) were deposited into coals in pyridine. FTIR indicated complete conversion of TCNQ to a material with a singly occupied LUMO. In TCNE the LUMO is about 30% occupied. TCNQ and TCNE were deposited into the pyridine extracts and residues of Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coals. Only a small amount of the TCNQ and TCNE displayed nitrile shifts in the IR spectrum of a material with an occupied LUMO. It has been concluded that TCNQ must be part of the aromatic stacks in coal and the TCNQ LUMO is part of an extended band.

  6. Theory of ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer from a bulk semiconductor to a quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Andrew M., E-mail: andyras@gmail.com; Ramakrishna, S.; Weiss, Emily A.; Seideman, Tamar, E-mail: t-seideman@northwestern.edu [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States)

    2014-04-14

    This paper describes analytical and numerical results from a model Hamiltonian method applied to electron transfer (ET) from a quasicontinuum (QC) of states to a set of discrete states, with and without a mediating bridge. Analysis of the factors that determine ET dynamics yields guidelines for achieving high-yield electron transfer in these systems, desired for instance for applications in heterogeneous catalysis. These include the choice of parameters of the laser pulse that excites the initial state into a continuum electronic wavepacket and the design of the coupling between the bridge molecule and the donor and acceptor. The vibrational mode on a bridging molecule between donor and acceptor has an influence on the yield of electron transfer via Franck-Condon factors, even in cases where excited vibrational states are only transiently populated. Laser-induced coherence of the initial state as well as energetic overlap is crucial in determining the ET yield from a QC to a discrete state, whereas the ET time is influenced by competing factors from the coupling strength and the coherence properties of the electronic wavepacket.

  7. Structure, energetics, and electronic properties of the surface of a promoted MoS{sub 2} catalyst: An ab initio local density functional study

    SciTech Connect

    Raybaud, P.; Hafner, J.; Kresse, G.; Kasztelan, S.; Toulhoat, H.

    2000-02-15

    The determination of the local structure of cobalt- or nickel-promoted MoS{sub 2}-based hydrodesulfurization catalysts is of interest for understanding the mechanism leading to an increased activity brought by cobalt or nickel, the so-called synergetic effect. For that reason, the authors carried out ab initio calculations using density functional theory under the generalized gradient approximation for periodic systems. The edge substitution model emerges as the most stable structure and provides an excellent agreement with local structures experimentally determined on real catalysts by in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure. The authors studied the absorption of sulfur on the active edge surface of the promoted MoS{sub 2} catalyst and determined the equilibrium coverage under sulfiding conditions. It is demonstrated that the incorporation of promoter atoms has a strong influence on the sulfur-metal bond energy at the surface and in particular leads to a reduction of the equilibrium S coverage of the active metal sites. A comparative study on the effects of Co, Ni, and Cu atoms as promoters was performed. Detailed results on the surface electronic structure of promoted MoS{sub 2} are presented.

  8. Possibility of the determination of tunneling parameters from experimental data on photoinduced electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Khairutdinov, R.F.

    1986-03-01

    The author proposes a simple method for determining the parameters (a and v) in the expression for the dependence of the tunneling probability (w) on the distance (r) between reactants (w=v exp (-2r/a)) for reactions involving tunneling electron transfer from electronically excited donor molecules to acceptor additions from experimental data on the photogeneration of radical ions. The method presented is based on the study of the dependence of the concentration of the unionized donor particles on the irradiation time. The method has been used to determine the tunneling parameters for photoinduced electron transfer from zinc and magnesium porphyrins to CCL/sub 4/ in glassy alcoholic matrices at 77 degrees K.

  9. Nitrogen doped carbon nanoparticles enhanced extracellular electron transfer for high-performance microbial fuel cells anode.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang-Yang; Guo, Chun Xian; Yong, Yang-Chun; Li, Chang Ming; Song, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen doped carbon nanoparticles (NDCN) were applied to modify the carbon cloth anodes of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) inoculated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, one of the most well-studied exoelectrogens. Experimental results demonstrated that the use of NDCN increased anodic absorption of flavins (i.e., the soluble electron mediator secreted by S. oneidensis MR-1), facilitating shuttle-mediated extracellular electron transfer. In addition, we also found that NDCN enabled enhanced contact-based direct electron transfer via outer-membrane c-type cytochromes. Taken together, the performance of MFCs with the NDCN-modified anode was enormously enhanced, delivering a maximum power density 3.5 times' higher than that of the MFCs without the modification of carbon cloth anodes. PMID:25439129

  10. Molecular control of electron and hole transfer processes: Theory and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Cave, R.J. [Harvey Mudd Coll., Claremont, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-02-01

    Recent decades have seen remarkable advances in microscopic understanding of electron transfer (ET) processes in widely ranging contexts, including solid-state, liquid solution, and complex biological assemblies. The primary goal of this chapter is to report recent advances in the modeling, calculation, and analysis of electronic coupling in complex molecular aggregates, thereby allowing an assessment of current progress toward the goal of molecular-level control and design. The control of electron transfer kinetics (i.e., enhancing desired processes, while inhibiting others) involves, of course, system energetics (especially activation and reorganization energies) as well as electronic coupling, which is most directly relevant only after the system has reached the appropriate point (or region) along the reaction coordinate. Nevertheless, to focus the discussion in this chapter, the authors will consider such energetics, and the associated molecular and solvent coordinates which control then, only to the extent that they bear on the analysis of the electronic coupling. In the following sections they first discuss the formulation of basic ET models, including the definition of initial and final states, the role of orbitals and 1-particle models in a many-electron context, the utility of various effective Hamiltonians, and the role of vibronic as well as purely electronic effects. With these theoretical tools in hand, they then examine very recent applications to complex molecular systems using the techniques of computational quantum chemistry, followed by detailed analysis of the numerical results. They then conclude with some comments regarding the current ``state of the art`` and remaining challenges.

  11. Comparative Effects of Electron Transfer Mediators on the Bioreduction of Fe(III) Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    The transfer of electrons from microbes to sparingly-soluble, extracellular electron acceptors such as Fe(III) oxides can occur via direct contact with the mineral surface, by dissolution of the mineral facilitated by exogenous or endogenous ligands and subsequent reduction of the dissolved Fe(III) ligand complex, and by facilitated electron transfer involving endogenous or exogenous electron transfer mediators (ETMs, also commonly referred to as electron shuttles) that are reduced by the microbes and then subsequently diffuse away from the cell and transfer electrons to the Fe(III) mineral surface, regenerating the oxidized form of the ETM. This study examines the effects of a series of compounds representing major classes of natural and synthetic organic ETMs (including low molecular-mass quinones, humic substances, phenazines, phenoxazines, phenothiazines, and indigo derivatives) on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite (?-FeOOH) by the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens CN32. S. putrefaciens CN32 was able to reduce lepidocrocite in the absence of exogenous ETMs; however, relative to the control, all of the synthetic ETMs examined in this study enhanced the bioreduction of lepidocrocite. The extent of the enhanced bioreduction increased with decreasing reduction potential of the given ETM redox couple. However, the addition of Suwannee River fulvic acid, humic acid, or unfractionated NOM (10 mg organic C L-1) resulted in, at best, a minimal enhancement of lepidocrocite bioreduction relative to the control that did not contain any added exdogenous ETM. These results suggest that the relative contribution of humic substances to microbially mediated Fe(III) reduction may be minimal in low-carbon environments such as oligotrophic lakes and typical groundwaters.

  12. Efficient Plasmon-Induced Hot Electron Transfer and Photochemistry in Semiconductor-Au Nanorod Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Tianquan

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that excitation of plasmons in metal nanostructures can lead to the injection of hot electrons into semiconductors and enhanced photochemistry. This novel plasmon-exciton interaction mechanism suggests that plasmonic nanostructures can potentially function as a new class of widely tunable and robust light harvesting materials for photo-detection or solar energy conversion. However, plasmon-induced hot electron injections from metal to semiconductor or molecules are still inefficient because of the competing ultrafast hot electron relaxation (via ultrafast electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering) processes within the metallic domain. In this paper we discuss a recent study on the plasmon-exciton interaction mechanisms in colloidal quantum-confined epitaxially-grown semiconductor-gold plexcitonic nanorod heterostructures. Using transient absorption spectroscopy, we show that optical excitation of plasmons in the Au tip leads to efficient hot electron injection into the semiconductor nanorod. In the presence of sacrificial electron donors, this plasmon induced hot electron transfer process can be utilized to drive photoreduction reactions under continuous illumination. Ongoing studies are examining how to further improve the plasmon induced hot electron injection efficiency through controlling the size and shape of the plasmonic and excitonic domains.

  13. Control of Interspecies Electron Flow during Anaerobic Digestion: Significance of Formate Transfer versus Hydrogen Transfer during Syntrophic Methanogenesis in Flocs.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Jurgen H; Zeikus, J Gregory

    1988-01-01

    Microbial formate production and consumption during syntrophic conversion of ethanol or lactate to methane was examined in purified flocs and digestor contents obtained from a whey-processing digestor. Formate production by digestor contents or purified digestor flocs was dependent on CO(2) and either ethanol or lactate but not H(2) gas as an electron donor. During syntrophic methanogenesis, flocs were the primary site for formate production via ethanol-dependent CO(2) reduction, with a formate production rate and methanogenic turnover constant of 660 muM/h and 0.044/min, respectively. Floc preparations accumulated fourfold-higher levels of formate (40 muM) than digestor contents, and the free flora was the primary site for formate cleavage to CO(2) and H(2) (90 muM formate per h). Inhibition of methanogenesis by CHCl(3) resulted in formate accumulation and suppression of syntrophic ethanol oxidation. H(2) gas was an insignificant intermediary metabolite of syntrophic ethanol conversion by flocs, and its exogenous addition neither stimulated methanogenesis nor inhibited the initial rate of ethanol oxidation. These results demonstrated that >90% of the syntrophic ethanol conversion to methane by mixed cultures containing primarily Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanobacterium formicicum was mediated via interspecies formate transfer and that <10% was mediated via interspecies H(2) transfer. The results are discussed in relation to biochemical thermodynamics. A model is presented which describes the dynamics of a bicarbonate-formate electron shuttle mechanism for control of carbon and electron flow during syntrophic methanogenesis and provides a novel mechanism for energy conservation by syntrophic acetogens. PMID:16347526

  14. Electron spin relaxation enhancement measurements of interspin distances in human, porcine, and Rhodobacter electron transfer flavoprotein–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF–QO)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alistair J. Fielding; Robert J. Usselman; Nicholas Watmough; Martin Simkovic; Frank E. Frerman; Gareth R. Eaton; Sandra S. Eaton

    2008-01-01

    Electron transfer flavoprotein–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF–QO) is a membrane-bound electron transfer protein that links primary flavoprotein dehydrogenases with the main respiratory chain. Human, porcine, and Rhodobacter sphaeroides ETF–QO each contain a single [4Fe–4S]2+,1+ cluster and one equivalent of FAD, which are diamagnetic in the isolated enzyme and become paramagnetic on reduction with the enzymatic electron donor or with dithionite. The anionic

  15. [Catalytic effect of ferricyanide on the rate of electron transfer between myoglobin and cytochrome c].

    PubMed

    Moiseeva, S A; Postnikova, G B; Sivozhelezov, V S

    2001-01-01

    The influence of small amounts of low-molecular electron acceptor, potassium ferricyanide, 1 to 20% relative to the cytohrome c concentration, on the rate of electron transfer in the sperm whale oxymyoglobin--horse heart cytochrome c and deoxymyoglobin--cytochrome c systems (under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively) was studied. At low ionic strength, the redox reaction rate was found to increase proportionally to the concentration of ferricyanide in both redox systems. The effect depends on pH in the pH range 5-8, increasing sharply at pH < 6. It was shown that the enhancing of electron transfer is caused by the complexing of [Fe(CN)6]3- with cytohrome c in the Lys72 region, where one of the two strong binding sites for this anion is determined by NMR. Both the high ionic strength and the chemical modification of Lys72 residue inhibit this effect at low ionic strength, markedly decreasing the rate of reaction with myoglobin. Under the same conditions, the effect of ferricyanide in the reaction of oxy-Mb with yeast cytohrome c, which is isopotential to animal cytochromes c but possesses trimethylated Lys72, was several times smaller. In turn, the chemical modification of His residues in myoglobin and the complexing of zinc ion to His119(GH1) almost completely inhibit electron transfer in the systems. Thus, electron transfer between the proteins must proceed through the formation of the Mb.[Fe(CN)6]3-.Cyt c ternary complex, the contacting sites being localized in the His119(GH1) region of myoglobin and near Lys72 of cytohrome c. The increased electron transfer rate in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3- can be explained by that its binding near Lys72, firstly, provides better electrostatic interactions in the electron transfer complex and, besides, decreases significantly (about 2-fold) the tunneling distance between the two hemes (two lengths of 1.7 and 1.2 nm instead of one of 2.9 nm). PMID:11449539

  16. The radiative transfer equations for Compton scattering of polarized low frequency radiation on a hot electron gas

    E-print Network

    Frode K. Hansen; Per B. Lilje

    1999-01-07

    We deduce the equations that describe how polarized radiation is Comptonized by a hot electron gas. Low frequencies are considered, and the equations are expanded to second order in electron velocities. Induced scattering terms are included and a Maxwellian velocity distribution for the electrons is assumed. The special case of an axisymmetric radiation field is also considered, and the corresponding radiative transfer equations are found. Our results correct errors and misprints in previosly published transfer equations. The extension to a moving electron gas is made, and the radiative transfer equations are deduced to second order in gas velocity. We use the equations to study polarization in the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect.

  17. Electronically and ionically conductive gels of ionic liquids and charge-transfer tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane.

    PubMed

    Mei, Xiaoguang; Ouyang, Jianyong

    2011-09-01

    Electronically and ionically conductive gels were fabricated by mixing and mechanically grinding neutral tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) in ionic liquids (ILs) like 3-ethyl-1-methylimidazolium dicyanoamide (EMIDCA), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate (EMISCN), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMITf(2)N), trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (P(14,6,6,6)Tf(2)N), and methyl-trioctylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (MOATf(2)N). Charge-transfer TTF-TCNQ crystallites were generated during the mechanical grinding as indicated by the UV-visibile-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The charge-transfer TTF-TCNQ crystallites have a needle-like shape. They form solid networks to gelate the ILs. The gel behavior is confirmed by the dynamic mechanical measurements. It depends on both the anions and cations of the ILs. In addition, when 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIBF(4)) and 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (PMII) were used, the TTF-TCNQ/IL mixtures did not behave as gels. The TTF-TCNQ/IL gels are both electronically and ionically conductive, because the solid phase formed by the charge-transfer TTF-TCNQ crystallites is electronically conductive, while the ILs are ionically conductive. The gel formation is related to needle-like charge-transfer TTF-TCNQ cyrstallites and the ?-? and Coulombic interactions between TTF-TCNQ and ILs. PMID:21800893

  18. An application protocol for CAD to CAD transfer of electronic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azu, Charles C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The exchange of Computer Aided Design (CAD) information between dissimilar CAD systems is a problem. This is especially true for transferring electronics CAD information such as multi-chip module (MCM), hybrid microcircuit assembly (HMA), and printed circuit board (PCB) designs. Currently, there exists several neutral data formats for transferring electronics CAD information. These include IGES, EDIF, and DXF formats. All these formats have limitations for use in exchanging electronic data. In an attempt to overcome these limitations, the Navy's MicroCIM program implemented a project to transfer hybrid microcircuit design information between dissimilar CAD systems. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) format is used since it is well established within the CAD industry. The goal of the project is to have a complete transfer of microelectronic CAD information, using IGES, without any data loss. An Application Protocol (AP) is being developed to specify how hybrid microcircuit CAD information will be represented by IGES entity constructs. The AP defines which IGES data items are appropriate for describing HMA geometry, connectivity, and processing as well as HMA material characteristics.

  19. Transferring Electrons One by One in Single Electron Devices with Long Arrays of Tunnel Junctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Y. Hu; R. F. O'Connell; Young Bong Kang; Jai Yon Ryu

    1996-01-01

    We review recent theoretical work on an analytical approach to the charge dynamics of electron tunneling in single electron devices consisting of long arrays with equal stray capacitances and equal junction capacitances. Our approach to the problem has two basic steps. First, we find the exact solution for the potential profiles and the associated Gibbs free energy, based on a

  20. Electronic Coupling between Heme Electron-Transfer Centers and Its Decay with Distance Depends Strongly on Relative Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Dayle MA; Rosso, Kevin M.; Dupuis, Michel; Valiev, Marat; Straatsma, TP

    2006-08-10

    A method for calculating the electron-transfer matrix element VRP using density functional theory Kohn-Sham orbitals is presented and applied to heme dimers of varying relative orientation. The electronic coupling decays with increased iron separation according to VRP ) V0RP exp(-?r/2) with a distance dependence parameter ? ? 2 Å-1 for hemes with parallel porphyrins and either 1.1 or 4.0 Å-1 when the porphyrin planes are perpendicular, depending on the alignment of the iron d? orbital. These findings are used to interpret the observed orientation of the hemes in tetraheme redox proteins such as Flavocytochrome c3 fumarate reductase (Ifc3, PDB code 1QJD) of Shewanella frigidimarina, another flavocytochrome from the same bacterium (Fcc3, 1E39) and a small tetraheme cytochrome of Shewanella oneidensis strain MR1 (1M1P). Our results show that shifting and rotating the hemes controls the adiabaticity of the three electron hopping steps.

  1. Long-distance electronic energy transfer in light-harvesting supramolecular polymers.

    PubMed

    Winiger, Christian B; Li, Shaoguang; Kumar, Ganesh R; Langenegger, Simon M; Häner, Robert

    2014-12-01

    The efficient collection of solar energy relies on the design and construction of well-organized light-harvesting systems. Herein we report that supramolecular phenanthrene polymers doped with pyrene are effective collectors of light energy. The linear polymers are formed through the assembly of short amphiphilic oligomers in water. Absorption of light by phenanthrene residues is followed by electronic energy transfer along the polymer over long distances (>100?nm) to the accepting pyrene molecules. The high efficiency of the energy transfer, which is documented by large fluorescence quantum yields, suggests a quantum coherent process. PMID:25345576

  2. DFT study of electronic transfer properties of carboxyl and nitro substituted benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Megala.; Rajkumar, Beulah J. M.

    2015-06-01

    The electronic and optical transfer properties of Benzene, Benzoic Acid (BA), Nitrobenzene (NB) and Para Nitro Benzoic Acid (PNBA) at ground and first excited state has been investigated by the Density functional theory (DFT)and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) using SVWN functional/3-21G basis set respectively. Possible intra-molecular charge transfer and n to ?* transitions in the ground and the first excitation states have been predicted by the molecular orbitals and the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. The simulated absorption spectra have been generated and the result compared with existing experimental results.

  3. Measurement of the Nuclear Dependence and Momentum Transfer Dependence of Quasielastic (electron, Electron'proton) Scattering at Large Momentum Transfer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makins, Naomi C. R.

    Experiment NE18, performed at SLAC, has measured the coincidence quasielastic cross-section for (e,e'p) scattering from Q^2 of 1 to 6.8 (GeV/c)^2. This extends the existing Q^2 range of such measurements by over an order of magnitude. Five targets were used: ^1H, ^2H, ^{12}C, ^{56 }Fe, and ^{197}Au. To test our understanding of quasielastic scattering, the data were compared with a Monte Carlo calculation of the experiment based on a conventional nuclear physics picture. This calculation included radiative effects, using a prescription based on the work of Mo and Tsai and recalculated in a coincidence framework. The elastic hydrogen data were found to be well explained by standard parametrizations of the proton form factor. Spectral functions were extracted from the nuclear data and found to be in good agreement with the Plane Wave Impulse Approximation (PWIA), the deForest offshell electron -proton cross section sigma_{ rm cc1}, and Independent Particle Shell Model spectral functions based on measurements made at Q^2 ~ 0.2 (GeV/c)^2. The nuclear transparency was extracted from the data, and examined for evidence of colour transparency. This phenomenon, motivated by perturbative QCD considerations, is predicted to cause a rise of the transparency with Q^2. No evidence of such a rise was observed in the data. Also, the A-dependence of the transparency was found to be well parametrized by a classical model of transmission through the nucleus. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  4. Potential for Direct Interspecies Electron Transfer in Methanogenic Wastewater Digester Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Masahiko; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Franks, Ashley E.; Summers, Zarath M.; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Rotaru, Amelia E.; Rotaru, Camelia; Lovley, Derek R.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mechanisms for electron transfer within microbial aggregates derived from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor converting brewery waste to methane were investigated in order to better understand the function of methanogenic consortia. The aggregates were electrically conductive, with conductivities 3-fold higher than the conductivities previously reported for dual-species aggregates of Geobacter species in which the two species appeared to exchange electrons via interspecies electron transfer. The temperature dependence response of the aggregate conductance was characteristic of the organic metallic-like conductance previously described for the conductive pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens and was inconsistent with electron conduction through minerals. Studies in which aggregates were incubated with high concentrations of potential electron donors demonstrated that the aggregates had no significant capacity for conversion of hydrogen to methane. The aggregates converted formate to methane but at rates too low to account for the rates at which that the aggregates syntrophically metabolized ethanol, an important component of the reactor influent. Geobacter species comprised 25% of 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from the aggregates, suggesting that Geobacter species may have contributed to some but probably not all of the aggregate conductivity. Microorganisms most closely related to the acetate-utilizing Methanosaeta concilii accounted for more than 90% of the sequences that could be assigned to methane producers, consistent with the poor capacity for hydrogen and formate utilization. These results demonstrate for the first time that methanogenic wastewater aggregates can be electrically conductive and suggest that direct interspecies electron transfer could be an important mechanism for electron exchange in some methanogenic systems. PMID:21862629

  5. Thermochemistry of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reagents and its Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Jeffrey J.; Tronic, Tristan A.; Mayer, James M.

    2010-12-08

    Many, if not most, redox reactions are coupled to proton transfers. This includes most common sources of chemical potential energy, from the bioenergetic processes that power cells to the fossil fuel combustion that powers cars. These proton-coupled electron transfer or PCET processes may involve multiple electrons and multiple protons, as in the 4 e–, 4 H+ reduction of dioxygen (O2) to water (eq 1), or can involve one electron and one proton such as the formation of tyrosyl radicals from tyrosine residues (TyrOH) in enzymatic catalytic cycles (eq 2). In addition, many multi-electron, multi-proton processes proceed in one-electron and one-proton steps. Organic reactions that proceed in one-electron steps involve radical intermediates, which play critical roles in a wide range of chemical, biological, and industrial processes. This broad and diverse class of PCET reactions are central to a great many chemical and biochemical processes, from biological catalysis and energy transduction, to bulk industrial chemical processes, to new approaches to solar energy conversion. PCET is therefore of broad and increasing interest, as illustrated by this issue and a number of other recent reviews.

  6. Beyond vibrationally mediated electron transfer: interfacial charge injection on a sub-10-fs time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Robert; Moser, Jacques E.; Gratzel, Michael; Wachtveitl, Josef L.

    2003-12-01

    The electron transfer (ET) from organic dye molecules to semiconductor-colloidal systems is characterized by a special energetic situation with a charge transfer reaction from a system of discrete donor levels to a continuum of acceptor states. If these systems show a strong electronic coupling they are amongst the fastest known ET systems with transfer times of less than 10 fs. In the first part a detailed discussion of the direct observation of an ET reaction with a time constant of about 6 fs will be given, with an accompanying argumentation concerning possible artifacts or other interfering signal contributions. In a second part we will try to give a simple picture for the scenario of such superfast ET reactions and one main focus will be the discussion of electronic dephasing and its consequences for the ET reaction. The actual ET process can be understood as a kind of dispersion process of the initially located electron into the colloid representing a real motion of charge density from the alizarin to the colloid.

  7. Sandwiched confinement of quantum dots in graphene matrix for efficient electron transfer and photocurrent production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Nan; Zheng, Kaibo; Karki, Khadga J; Abdellah, Mohamed; Zhu, Qiushi; Carlson, Stefan; Haase, Dörthe; Žídek, Karel; Ulstrup, Jens; Canton, Sophie E; Pullerits, Tõnu; Chi, Qijin

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) and graphene are both promising materials for the development of new-generation optoelectronic devices. Towards this end, synergic assembly of these two building blocks is a key step but remains a challenge. Here, we show a one-step strategy for organizing QDs in a graphene matrix via interfacial self-assembly, leading to the formation of sandwiched hybrid QD-graphene nanofilms. We have explored structural features, electron transfer kinetics and photocurrent generation capacity of such hybrid nanofilms using a wide variety of advanced techniques. Graphene nanosheets interlink QDs and significantly improve electronic coupling, resulting in fast electron transfer from photoexcited QDs to graphene with a rate constant of 1.3?×?10(9) s(-1). Efficient electron transfer dramatically enhances photocurrent generation in a liquid-junction QD-sensitized solar cell where the hybrid nanofilm acts as a photoanode. We thereby demonstrate a cost-effective method to construct large-area QD-graphene hybrid nanofilms with straightforward scale-up potential for optoelectronic applications. PMID:25996307

  8. Mechanisms for the Direct Electron Transfer of Cytochrome c Induced by Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua-Zhang; Du, Qian; Li, Zhen-Shan; Yang, Qin-Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified electrodes can promote the direct electron transfer (DET) of cytochrome c (Cyt c). There are several possible mechanisms that explain the DET of Cyt c. In this study, several experimental methods, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the conformational changes of Cyt c induced by MWCNTs. The DET mechanism was demonstrated at various nano-levels: secondary structure, spatial orientation, and spin state. In the presence of MWCNTs, the secondary structure of Cyt c changes, which exposes the active site, then, the orientation of the heme is optimized, revolving the exposed active center to the optimum spatial orientation for DET; and finally, a transition of spin states is induced, providing relatively high energy and a more open microenvironment for electron transfer. These changes at different nano-levels are closely connected and form a complex process that promotes the electron transfer of Cyt c. PMID:23112609

  9. Evidence of short-range electron transfer of a redox enzyme on graphene oxide electrodes.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marccus V A; Pereira, Andressa R; Luz, Roberto A S; Iost, Rodrigo M; Crespilho, Frank N

    2014-09-01

    Direct electron transfer (DET) between redox enzymes and electrode surfaces is of growing interest and an important strategy in the development of biofuel cells and biosensors. Among the nanomaterials utilized at electrode/enzyme interfaces to enhance the electronic communication, graphene oxide (GO) has been identified as a highly promising candidate. It is postulated that GO layers decrease the distance between the flavin cofactor (FAD/FADH2) of the glucose oxidase enzyme (GOx) and the electrode surface, though experimental evidence concerning the distance dependence of the rate constant for heterogeneous electron-transfer (k(het)) has not yet been observed. In this work, we report the experimentally observed DET of the GOx enzyme adsorbed on flexible carbon fiber (FCF) electrodes modified with GO (FCF-GO), where the k(het) between GO and electroactive GOx has been measured at a structurally well-defined interface. The curves obtained from the Marcus theory were used to obtain k(het), by using the model proposed by Chidsey. In agreement with experimental data, this model proved to be useful to systematically probe the dependence of electron transfer rates on distance, in order to provide an empirical basis to understand the origin of interfacial DET between GO and GOx. We also demonstrate that the presence of GO at the enzyme/electrode interface diminishes the activation energy by decreasing the distance between the electrode surface and FAD/FADH2. PMID:24676540

  10. Unexpected electron transfer mechanism upon AdoMet cleavage in radical SAM proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nicolet, Yvain; Amara, Patricia; Mouesca, Jean-Marie; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    Radical S-adenosine-L-methionine (SAM or AdoMet) proteins are involved in chemically difficult reactions including the synthesis of cofactors, the generation of protein radicals, and the maturation of complex organometallic catalytic sites. In the first and common step of the reaction, a conserved [Fe4S4] cluster donates an electron to perform the reductive cleavage of AdoMet into methionine and a reactive radical 5?-dA· species. The latter extracts a hydrogen atom from substrate eliciting one of the about 40 reactions so far characterized for this family of proteins. It has been suggested that the radical-generating mechanism differs depending on whether AdoMet is a cofactor or a substrate. It has also been speculated that electron transfer from the [Fe4S4] cluster to AdoMet is sulfur-based. Here we have used protein crystallography and theoretical calculations to show that regardless whether AdoMet serves as a cofactor or a substrate, the 5?-dA· generating mechanism should be common to the radical SAM proteins studied so far, and that electron transfer is mediated by a unique Fe from the conserved [Fe4S4] cluster. This unusual electron transfer is determined by the sulfonium ion in AdoMet. PMID:19706452

  11. Effect of the spacer moiety on the rates of electron transfer within bis-porphyrin-stoppered rotaxanes

    SciTech Connect

    Chambron, J.; Sauvage, J. (Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)); Harriman, A. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)); Heitz, V. (Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France) Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

    1993-08-11

    A set of rotaxanes has been constructed consisting of a 30-membered macrocyclic ring, incorporating a 2,9-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline residue, threaded onto a second 2,9-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline residue with gold-(III) and zinc(II) porphyrins acting as terminal stoppers. The two chelating groups may be coordinated to copper(I) or zinc(II) cations or left free. Upon selective excitation of either porphyrin, rapid electron transfer occurs from the zinc porphyrin to the appended gold porphyrin and the ground state is restored by relatively slow reverse electron transfer. The rates of the various electron-transfer steps show a marked dependence on the molecular architecture and may be understood in terms of a frontier molecular orbital energy diagram involving through-bond electron or hole transfer. The coordinating cation modulates the energy of orbitals on the spacer and, thereby, affects the rate of electron transfer. The central metal complex may also be involved as a [open quotes]real[close quotes] intermediate in the electron-transfer pathway. Compared to the corresponding bis-porphyrin, rates of electron transfer at zero activation free energy change and the magnitude of electronic coupling between the porphyrins are significantly lower in the rotaxanes. This may be a consequence of subtle changes in the stereochemistry. 41 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Generation of Phosphorescent Triplet States via Photoinduced Electron Transfer: Energy and Electron Transfer Dynamics in Pt Porphyrin-Rhodamine B Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Vinogradov, Sergei A.

    2012-01-01

    Control over generation and dynamics of excited electronic states is fundamental to their utilization in all areas of technology. We present the first example of multichromophoric systems in which emissive triplet states are generated via a pathway involving photoinduced electron transfer (ET), as opposed to local intrachromophoric processes. In model dyads, PtP-Phn-pRhB+ (1-3, n=1-3), comprising platinum(II) meso-tetraarylporphyrin (PtP) and rhodamine B piperazine derivative (pRhB+), linked by oligo-p-phenylene bridges (Phn), upon selective excitation of pRhB+ at a frequency below that of the lowest allowed transition of PtP, room-temperature T1?S0 phosphorescence of PtP was observed. The pathway leading to the emissive PtP triplet state includes excitation of pRhB+, ET with formation of the singlet radical pair, intersystem crossing within that pair and subsequent radical recombination. Due to the close proximity of the triplet energy levels of PtP and pRhB+, reversible triplet-triplet (TT) energy transfer between these states was observed in dyads 1 and 2. As a result, the phosphorescence of PtP was extended in time by the long decay of the pRhB+ triplet. Observation of ET and TT in the same series of molecules enabled direct comparison of the distance attenuation factors ? between these two closely related processes. PMID:22400988

  13. Tetramethoxybenzene is a Good Building Block for Molecular Wires: Insights from Photoinduced Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Luisa G; Yushchenko, Oleksandr; Neuburger, Markus; Vauthey, Eric; Wenger, Oliver S

    2015-06-01

    Two donor bridge-acceptor molecules with terminal triarylamine and Ru(bpy)3(2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) redox partners were synthesized and investigated by cyclic voltammetry, optical absorption, luminescence, and transient absorption spectroscopy. The two dyads differ only by the central bridging unit, which was tetramethoxybenzene (tmb) in one case and unsubstituted phenylene (ph) in the other case. Photoirradiation of the Ru(bpy)3(2+) complex of the two dyads triggers intramolecular electron transfer from the triarylamine to the (3)MLCT-excited metal complex, and this process occurs with time constants of 1.5 and 6.8 ns for the tmb- and ph-bridged dyads, respectively. Thermal electron transfer in the reverse direction then leads to disappearance of the photoproduct with a time constant of 10 ns in both dyads. The faster rate of photoinduced charge transfer in the tmb-bridged dyad can be understood in the framework of a hole-tunneling model in which the electron-rich tmb bridge imposes a more shallow barrier than the less electron-rich ph spacer. Until now tmb-based molecular wires have received very little attention, and alkoxy substituents have been mostly used for improving the solubility of oligo-p-phenylene vinylene (OPV) and oligo-p-phenylene ethynylene (OPE) wires. Our study illustrates how four alkoxy-substituents on a phenylene backbone can have a significant influence on the charge-transfer properties of a molecular wire, and this is relevant in the greater context of a future molecular electronics technology. PMID:25974891

  14. Computational methods for intramolecular electron transfer in a ferrous-ferric iron complex.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Piotr; Kerisit, Sebastien; Rosso, Kevin

    2011-09-01

    The limitations of common theoretical and molecular computational approaches for predicting electron transfer quantities were assessed, using an archetypal bridged ferrous-ferric electron transfer system in aqueous solution. The basis set effect on the magnitude of the electronic coupling matrix element computed using the quasi-diabatic method was carefully examined, and it was found that the error related to a poor basis set could exceed the thermal energy at room temperature. A range of approaches to determining the external (solvent) reorganization energy were also investigated. Significant improvements from the Marcus continuum model can be obtained by including dipolar Born-Kirkwood-Onsager correction. In this regard, we also found that Klamt's Conductor-Like Screening Model (COSMO) yields estimations of the external reorganization energy similar to those obtained with explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations if the fast-frequency modes are neglected, which makes it an attractive alternative to laborious umbrella sampling simulations. By using the COSMO model, we also confirm that a decrease in curvature of the potential energy surface is a manifestation of the dielectric saturation observed in the first solvation layer. The linearity of solvent response to the charge redistribution was assessed by analyzing the energy gap autocorrelation function as well as the solvent density and dipole moment fluctuations. Molecular dynamics was also used to evaluate the sign and magnitude of the solvent reorganization entropy and to determine its effect on the predicted electron transfer rate. Finally, we present a simple way of estimating the vibration frequency along the reaction coordinate, which also enables prediction of the mass-dependent isotopic signature of electron transfer reactions. PMID:21696749

  15. Computational methods for intramolecular electron transfer in a ferrous-ferric iron complex

    SciTech Connect

    Zarzycki, Piotr P.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2011-07-29

    The limitations of common theoretical and molecular computational approaches for predicting electron transfer quantities were assessed, using an archetypal bridged ferrous-ferric electron transfer system in aqueous solution. The basis set effect on the magnitude of the electronic coupling matrix element computed using the quasi-diabatic method was carefully examined, and it was found that the error related to a poor basis set could exceed the thermal energy at room temperature. A range of approaches to determining the external (solvent) reorganization energy were also investigated. Significant improvements from the Marcus continuum model can be obtained by including dipolar Born-Kirkwood-Onsager correction. In this regard we also found that Klamt’s Conductor-Like Screening Model (COSMO) yields estimations of the external reorganization energy similar to those obtained with explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations, if the fast-frequency modes are neglected, which makes it an attractive alternative to laborious umbrella sampling simulations. As expected, dielectric saturation observed in the first solvation shell decreases the curvature of the potential energy surface, but it nonetheless remains a quadratic function of the reaction coordinate. The linearity of solvent response to the charge redistribution was assessed by analyzing the energy gap autocorrelation function as well as the solvent density and dipole moment fluctuations. Molecular dynamics was also used to evaluate the sign and magnitude of the solvent reorganization entropy, to determine its effect on the predicted electron transfer rate. Finally, we present a simple way of estimating the vibration frequency along the reaction coordinate, which also enables prediction of the mass dependent isotopic signature of electron-transfer reactions.

  16. A systematic study of electron or hole transfer along DNA dimers, trimers and polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simserides, Constantinos

    2014-08-01

    A systematic study of carrier transfer along DNA dimers, trimers and polymers including poly(dG)-poly(dC), poly(dA)-poly(dT), GCGCGC…, ATATAT… is presented allowing to determine the spatiotemporal evolution of electrons or holes along a N base-pair DNA segment. Physical quantities are defined including maximum transfer percentage p and pure maximum transfer rate p/T when a period T is defined; pure mean transfer rate k and speed u=kd, where d is the charge transfer distance. The inverse decay length ? for the exponential fit k=k0exp(-?d) and the exponent ? for the power-law fit k=k0?N are computed. ?? 0.2-2 Å-1, k0 is usually 10-2-10-1 PHz, generally ?10-4-10 PHz. ??1.7-17, k0? is usually 10-2-10-1 PHz, generally ?10-4-103 PHz. The results are compared with theoretical and experimental works. This method allows to assess the extent at which a specific DNA segment can serve for charge transfer.

  17. Atom-transfer cyclization with CuSO4/KBH4: a formal "activators generated by electron transfer" process also applicable to atom-transfer polymerization.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew J; Collis, Alana E C; Fox, David J; Halliwell, Lauren L; James, Natalie; O'Reilly, Rachel K; Parekh, Hemal; Ross, Andrew; Sellars, Andrew B; Willcock, Helen; Wilson, Paul

    2012-08-17

    The 4-exo and 5-exo-trig atom-transfer cyclizations of 1, 8a-e, 9, 12, and 13 can be mediated with as little as 0.05 mol % of Cu(TPMA)SO(4)·5H(2)O in the presence of 2.5 mol % of borohydride salts in 10 min at room temperature in air. This formal "activators generated by electron transfer" (AGET) procedure utilizes a cheap and oxidatively stable copper source (CuSO(4)·5H(2)O) and can be carried out in environmentally benign solvents (EtOH). It is possible to alter the product distribution in the 5-endo radical-polar crossover reactions of 10a,b and 11 by tailoring the amount of borohydride. Cyclization onto alkynes 14 and 15 is also possible in only 20 min. Controlled radical polymerization of styrene, with increased rates over conventional atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), can be carried out in a controlled fashion (Mn, PDI) using either CuBr or CuSO(4)·5H(2)O and Bu(4)NBH(4). PMID:22860762

  18. Voltammetric determination of electron transfer kinetic parameters in hydroquinone-terminated self-assembled monolayers on gold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hun-Gi Hong; Euykyung Yu

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the electron tunneling constant (?) and distance dependence of the long range electron transfer kinetic parameters in the 2-(n-mercaptoalkyl)hydroquinone (abbreviated as H2Q(CH2)nSH, where n=1, 4, 6, 8, and 10) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold electrodes in acidic solution. A logarithmic dependence of the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant for the redox reaction of hydroquinone (H2Q) on the

  19. The role of electronic symmetry in charge-transfer-to-solvent reactions: Quantum nonadiabatic computer simulation of photoexcited sodium anions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Jay Smallwood; Wayne B. Bosma; Ross E. Larsen; Benjamin J. Schwartz

    2003-01-01

    Since charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) reactions represent the simplest class of solvent-driven electron transfer reactions, there has been considerable interest in understanding the solvent motions responsible for electron ejection. The major question that we explore in this paper is what role the symmetry of the electronic states plays in determining the solvent motions that account for CTTS. To this end, we have

  20. Photoinduced hydrogen evolution by a Zwitterionic diquat electron acceptor. The functions of SiOâ colloid in controlling the electron-transfer process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinon Degani; Itamar Willner

    1983-01-01

    Photosensitized hydrogen evolution from a basic aqueous silicon dioxide (SiOâ) colloid (pH 9 to 10) is accomplished with N,N'-bis-(3-sulfonatopropyl)-2,2'-bipyridinium (DQS°) and colloidal platinum as mediating catalysts. In this system Ru(bpy)â\\/sup 2 +\\/ (ruthenium (bipyridium)â\\/sup 2 +\\/) acts as a photosensitizer and triethanolamine (TEOA) as ultimate electron donor. No hydrogen formation is observed in a homogeneous aqueous solution under similar conditions.

  1. Communication: Predictive partial linearized path integral simulation of condensed phase electron transfer dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Huo, Pengfei; Miller, Thomas F. III [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Coker, David F. [Department of Chemistry, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

    2013-10-21

    A partial linearized path integral approach is used to calculate the condensed phase electron transfer (ET) rate by directly evaluating the flux-flux/flux-side quantum time correlation functions. We demonstrate for a simple ET model that this approach can reliably capture the transition between non-adiabatic and adiabatic regimes as the electronic coupling is varied, while other commonly used semi-classical methods are less accurate over the broad range of electronic couplings considered. Further, we show that the approach reliably recovers the Marcus turnover as a function of thermodynamic driving force, giving highly accurate rates over four orders of magnitude from the normal to the inverted regimes. We also demonstrate that the approach yields accurate rate estimates over five orders of magnitude of inverse temperature. Finally, the approach outlined here accurately captures the electronic coherence in the flux-flux correlation function that is responsible for the decreased rate in the inverted regime.

  2. Supported foam-silver catalysts for alcohol partial oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Pestryakov; V. V. Lunin; N. E. Bogdanchikova; V. P. Petranovskii; A. Knop-Gericke

    2003-01-01

    Structural, mechanical, gas-dynamic and catalytic properties of silver catalysts supported on foam ceramics have been studied. The foam catalysts have high gas permeability, mechanical strength, and low density. Catalytic activity and selectivity of the foam catalysts in the process of oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde exceed the characteristics of the commercial crystalline and granulated catalysts. Different electronic states (ions, charged

  3. Photoinduced electron transfer and persistent spectral hole-burning in natural emerald.

    PubMed

    Riesen, Hans

    2011-06-01

    Wavelength-selective excited-state lifetime measurements and absorption, luminescence, and hole-burning spectra of a natural African emerald crystal are reported. The (2)E excited-state lifetime displays an extreme wavelength dependence, varying from 190 to 37 ?s within 1.8 nm of the R(1)-line. Overall, the excited state is strongly quenched, in comparison to laboratory-created emerald (?=1.3 ms), with an average quenching rate of ?6 × 10(3) s(-1) at 2.5 K. This quenching is attributed to photoinduced electron transfer caused by a relatively high concentration of Fe(2+) ions. The forward electron-transfer rate, k(f), from the nearest possible Fe(2+) sites at around 5 Å is estimated to be ?20 × 10(3) s(-1) at 2.5 K. The photoreductive quenching of the excited Cr(3+) ions by Fe(2+) is followed by rapid electron back-transfer in the ground state upon deactivation. The exchange interaction based quenching can be modeled by assuming a random quencher distribution within the possible Fe(2+) sites with the forward electron-transfer rate, k(f), given as a function of acceptor-donor separation R by exp[(R(f)-R)/a(f)]; R(f) and a(f) values of 13.5 and 2.7 Å are obtained at 2.5 K. The electron transfer/back-transfer reorganizes the local crystal lattice, occasionally leading to a minor variation of the short-range structure around the Cr(3+) ions. This provides a mechanism for spectral hole-burning for which a moderately high quantum efficiency of about ?0.005% is observed. Spectral holes are subject to spontaneous hole-filling and spectral diffusion, and both effects can be quantified within the standard two-level systems for non-photochemical hole-burning. Importantly, the absorbance increases on both sides of broad spectral holes, and isosbestic points are observed, in accord with the expected distribution of the "photoproduct" in a non-photochemical hole-burning process. PMID:21548614

  4. Dynamics of Radical Ion Pairs following Photoinduced Electron Transfer in Solvents with Low and Intermediate Polarities.

    PubMed

    Mentel, Kamila K; Nunes, Rui M D; Serpa, Carlos; Arnaut, Luis G

    2015-06-18

    Fluorescence quenching of p-xylene, naphthalene, or pyrene by fumaronitrile in apolar solvents and in solvents of intermediate polarities leads to weakly fluorescent radical ion pairs. This emission is assigned to ion pairs in close contact on the basis of their solvent polarity dependence, kinetics, and thermodynamics. The temperature-dependence of the intensity and fluorescence emission maxima of ion pairs in methyl acetate reveals that they have decay channels competitive with their thermal equilibration. The results presented in this work are consistent with the direct formation of contact ion pairs in weakly polar solvents and in solvents of intermediate polarities as the result of bimolecular photoinduced electron transfer reactions between aromatic hydrocarbons and nitriles. The implications of these findings in free-energy relationships of electron transfer reactions are discussed. PMID:25588979

  5. Photoinduced electron transfer in arylacridinium conjugates in a solid glass matrix.

    PubMed

    Jones, Guilford; Yan, Dingxue; Hu, Jingqiu; Wan, Jiandi; Xia, Bing; Vullev, Valentine I

    2007-06-21

    The photophysical properties of a series of 9-arylacridinium conjugates in solid glass matrices composed of sucrose octaacetate have been determined. The fluorescence of the charge-shift states is significantly enhanced because of the retardation of nonradiative pathways for back-electron transfer. Changes of more than 3 orders of magnitude in back-electron-transfer rates (sucrose octaacetate glass vs conventional solvents at room temperature) were observed. Transient spectra displayed long-lived charge-shift species in the microsecond time regime for thianthrene acridinium conjugates. The rate retardation is associated with slow solvation times for surrounding solvent layers in the solid matrix. The red-edge effect (excitation wavelength-dependent fluorescence) for the arylacridinium ions in solid glass confirms the microheterogeneity of the sucrose octaacetate medium. PMID:17539680

  6. Light- induced electron transfer and ATP synthesis in a carotene synthesizing insect

    PubMed Central

    Valmalette, Jean Christophe; Dombrovsky, Aviv; Brat, Pierre; Mertz, Christian; Capovilla, Maria; Robichon, Alain

    2012-01-01

    A singular adaptive phenotype of a parthenogenetic insect species (Acyrthosiphon pisum) was selected in cold conditions and is characterized by a remarkable apparition of a greenish colour. The aphid pigments involve carotenoid genes well defined in chloroplasts and cyanobacteria and amazingly present in the aphid genome, likely by lateral transfer during evolution. The abundant carotenoid synthesis in aphids suggests strongly that a major and unknown physiological role is related to these compounds beyond their canonical anti-oxidant properties. We report here that the capture of light energy in living aphids results in the photo induced electron transfer from excited chromophores to acceptor molecules. The redox potentials of molecules involved in this process would be compatible with the reduction of the NAD+ coenzyme. This appears as an archaic photosynthetic system consisting of photo-emitted electrons that are in fine funnelled into the mitochondrial reducing power in order to synthesize ATP molecules. PMID:22900140

  7. Potassium-uracil/thymine ring cleavage enhancement as studied in electron transfer experiments and theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Almeida, D; Bacchus-Montabonel, M-C; da Silva, F Ferreira; García, G; Limão-Vieira, P

    2014-08-21

    We report experimental and theoretical studies on ring cleavage enhancement in collisions of potassium atoms with uracil/thymine to further increase the understanding of the complex mechanisms yielding such fragmentation pathways. In these electron transfer processes time-of-flight (TOF) negative ion mass spectra were obtained in the collision energy range 13.5-23.0 eV. We note that CNO(-) is the major ring breaking anion formed and its threshold formation is discussed within the collision energy range studied. Such a decomposition process is supported by the first theoretical calculations to clarify how DNA/RNA pyrimidine base fragmentation is enhanced in electron transfer processes yielding ion-pair formation. PMID:24818533

  8. Charge transfer in gas surface scattering: the three electronic state system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Daren; Yi, Xizhang; Ding, Shiliang; Gu, Lichuan; Olson, John A.

    1998-07-01

    A general theoretical treatment for near-resonant charge exchange in gas-surface scattering is presented for a coupled three electronic state system. Specifically, the quadratic form method in linear algebra is used to solve a coupled set of differential equations within the framework of Micha's common eikonal formalism to determine evolution of nuclear transition amplitudes. The electron transfer probability was thus given analytically. It is also found that if the diabatic potentials Vd for the system satisfy the condition that D>0, where D is the discriminant of characteristic polynomial of eigenvalue equation of the matrix Vd, the charge transfer will be forbidden due to the hermicity of Vd. Comparison with a previous calculation of the ionization probability for a sodium atom scattering from a W(110) surface shows quite good agreement. The results demonstrate that the method appears to have a wide range of validity for the description of a variety of nonadiabatic phenomena in gas-surface scattering.

  9. Peptide Sequence Analysis by Electron Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry: A Web-Based Tutorial.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Donald F; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Bai, Dina L

    2015-07-01

    We created a web-based tutorial designed to teach manual interpretation and identification of spectra acquired using electron transfer dissociation (ETD). The tutorial provides an explanation of the ETD fragmentation process with the goal of identifying all of the significant peaks in a spectrum. We discuss determination of the precursor mass and charge state, neutral losses, electron transfer without dissociation (ETnoD), and the mechanisms by which fragment ions are created. Our hope is to provide a tool that presents the information already taught in D.F.H.'s short courses in a way that is easy for any student or researcher in the mass spectrometry community to access. The tutorial may be found at http://www.huntlab.org . Graphical Abstract ?. PMID:25821049

  10. A nucleus-coupled electron transfer mechanism for TiO2-catalyzed water splitting.

    PubMed

    Lucking, Michael; Sun, Yi-Yang; West, Damien; Zhang, Shengbai

    2015-06-24

    Based on first-principles calculations, we reveal that in the photocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) at the TiO2/water interface, the formation of an O-O bond always involves the anti-bonding ?2p* state elevated from the valence band into the conduction band of TiO2 regardless of a detailed reaction pathway. The role of photoholes is to deplete this anti-bonding state once it emerges into the band gap. The reaction barrier is thus determined by the onset where photoholes enter the reaction. This process represents a new reaction mechanism, termed nucleus-coupled electron transfer (NCET), where electron transfer is enabled by the movement of nuclei that promotes the reactive orbital to become the frontier orbital. The NCET mechanism for the OER is shown to exhibit an overall kinetic barrier surmountable at room temperature. PMID:26050615

  11. Resonant transfer and excitation: Dependence on projectile charge state and target-electron momentum distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Tanis, J.A.; Bernstein, E.M.; Clark, M.W.; Graham, W.G.; McFarland, R.H.; Morgan, T.J.; Mowat, J.R.; Mueller, D.W.; Mueller, A.; Stockli, M.P.

    1986-09-01

    Resonant transfer and excitation (RTE) involving simultaneous electron capture and projectile K-shell excitation has been measured for calcium ions in charge states ranging from neon-like to hydrogen-like incident on molecular hydrogen over an energy range 100--370 MeV. The results establish a projectile charge-state dependence for RTE and provide a detailed test of theoretical calculations. The effect of the target-electron momentum distribution on the RTE process is demonstrated by comparing with previous results for calcium ions incident on helium.

  12. Photoinduced Electron Transfer in Ordered Macromolecular Assemblies. Final report for May 1, 1988 - June 30, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.

    2005-02-11

    The final report describes studies over a 13 year period having to do with photoinduced electron transfer for active chromophores and redox agents, including assembly of the components in water soluble polymers or polypeptides. The findings include observation of long range charge separation and electron transport using laser phototransient spectroscopy. The systems targeted in these studies include peptide assemblies for which helical conformations and aggregation are documented. Oligomeric peptides modified with non-native redox active groups were also selected for investigation. Highly charged polymers or peptides were investigated as host agents that resemble proteins. The overall goal of these investigations focused on the design and characterization of systems capable of artificial photosynthesis.

  13. Vectorially photoinduced electron-transfer processes across water-in-oil interfaces of microemulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Willner, I.; Otvos, J.W.; Calvin, M.

    1980-07-01

    Artificial photosynthetic devices are potential fuel sources. The basic idea in the design of such devices is a photosensitized electron-transfer that yields chemical species capable of reducing and oxidizing water to hydrogen and oxygen. A fundamental difficulty in effecting this transfer is the thermodynamically favored back reactions of the intermediary redox species. An interfacial model composed of a water-in-oil microemulsion is suggested to provide the separation of these redox species, thereby preventing back-reactions. This model is designed to accomplish the photodecomposition of water in two separate water-in-oil microemulsions coupled by a redox reaction. Phase-transfer of one of the redox products from the water-in-oil interface to the continuous organic phase is the principle by which separation is achieved. The oxidation and reduction sites of the general model have been constructed. One system includes the photosensitized oxidation of a donor, EDTA, solubilized in the water pool, benzylnicotinamide acts as a primary acceptor that mediates by the phase transfer principle the reduction of a secondary acceptor, dimethylamino-azobenzene, solubilized in the continuous organic phase. In system two, involving the photosensitized reduction of methyl viologen, by tris(2,2'bipyridine)Ru(2+), thioophenol is used as the donor and its oxidation product is phase transferred to the continuous organic phase. The photoinduced processes accomplished in the two systems proceed along an uphill gradient of free energy. Two water soluble zinc-porphyrins can substitute for the Ru(2+) complex in the second system. As the two Zn-porphyrins are oppositely charged, the effect of electrostatic interactions on the quantum yields of viologen reduction could be evaluated. The results suggest that the surface charge of the wateroil interface strongly influences the efficiency of electron-transfer.

  14. GaN based transfer electron and avalanche transit time devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Parida; A. K. Panda

    2012-01-01

    A new model is developed to study the microwave\\/mm wave characteristics of two-terminal GaN-based transfer electron devices (TEDs), namely a Gunn diode and an impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) device. Microwave characteristics such as device efficiency and the microwave power generated are computed and compared at D-band (140 GHz center frequency) to see the potentiality of each device under the

  15. Metal complex-based electron-transfer mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, C. Michael (Fort Collins, CO); Sapp, Shawn A. (Broomfield, CO); Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto (Ferrara, IT); Contado, Cristiano (Legnago, IT); Caramori, Stefano (Viconovo, IT)

    2006-03-28

    This present invention provides a metal-ligand complex and methods for using and preparing the same. In particular, the metal-ligand complex of the present invention is of the formula: L.sub.a-M-X.sub.b where L, M, X, a, and b are those define herein. The metal-ligand complexes of the present invention are useful in a variety of applications including as electron-transfer mediators in dye-sensitized solar cells and related photoelectrochromic devices.

  16. Electron transfer of quinone self-assembled monolayers on a gold electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morio Nagata; Masaharu Kondo; Yoshiharu Suemori; Tsuyoshi Ochiai; Takehisa Dewa; Toshiaki Ohtsuka; Mamoru Nango

    2008-01-01

    Dialkyl disulfide-linked naphthoquinone, (NQ-Cn-S)2, and anthraquinone, (AQ-Cn-S)2, derivatives with different spacer alkyl chains (Cn: n=2, 6, 12) were synthesized and these quinone derivatives were self-assembled on a gold electrode. The formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of these derivatives on a gold electrode was confirmed by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IR-RAS). Electron transfer between the derivatives and the gold electrode was studied

  17. Kinetics of electron transfer through ferrocene-terminated alkanethiol monolayers on gold

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, J.F.; Feldberg, S.W.; Newton, M.D.; Liu, Y.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chidsey, C.E.D.; Linford, M.R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-08-31

    The kinetics of electron transfer between a substrate gold electrode and a self-assembled monolayer formed from CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub n-1}SH and ({eta}{sup 5} C{sub 5}H{sub 5})Fe ({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 4})CO{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub n}SH were studied as a function of n, the number of methylenes in the alkyl chain tethering the ferrocene moiety to the electrode, using the indirect laser-induced temperature jump method (ILIT). For 5 {<=} n {<=} 9 the standard electron-transfer rate constants vary according to {kappa}{sub {tau}a,n=0} exp[-{beta}{sub n}n] where {kappa}{sub {tau}a,n=0} is the (extrapolated) rate constant for the electron transfer at n = 0. At {Tau} = 25{degree}C, {kappa}{sub {tau}a,n} 0 {approx_equal} 6 x 10{sup 8} s{sup -1} and {beta}{sub n} = 1.21 x 0.05. The ILIT method allows rates to be measured that are too fast to be measured by conventional chronoamperometry at a macroelectrode, which is limited to rate constants of {<=} 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}. Using a Marcus formalism, the reorganization energy, {lambda}, for the electron-transfer process at a given n was determined from the slope of an Arrhenius plot over the temperature range 15-55{degree}C. Values of {lambda} determined from Arrhenius slopes for n = 8 and 9 using ILIT are in reasonable agreement with the value of {lambda} previously deduced from the potential dependence of the rate constant for n = 16. 39 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Inverse hydrogen migration in arginine-containing peptide ions upon electron transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhasis Panja; Steen Brøndsted Nielsen; Preben Hvelplund; František Ture?ek

    2008-01-01

    Collisional electron transfer from gaseous Cs atoms was studied for singly and doubly protonated peptides Gly-Arg (GR) and\\u000a Ala-Arg (AR) at 50- and 100-keV kinetic energies. Singly protonated GR and AR were discharged to radicals that in part rearranged\\u000a by migration of a C? hydrogen atom onto the guanidine group. The C?-radical isomers formed were detected as stable anions following

  19. Electron traps and transfer efficiency of cerium-doped aluminate scintillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Bartram; D. S. Hamilton; L. A. Kappers; A. Lempicki

    1997-01-01

    Comparative measurements of thermoluminescence and scintillation light outputs of gamma-ray irradiated Ce;LuAlO3 (LuAP) and Ce:YAlO3 (YAP) reveal that electron trapping significantly depresses transfer efficiency in these scintillator materials, but fails to explain fully either their performance differential or their departures from ideal efficiency. In the limit of short radiation times, the ratio of integrated thermoluminescence light output to integrated scintillation

  20. Protein Environments and Electron Transfer Processes Probed with High-Frequency ENDOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oleg G. Poluektov; Lisa M. Utschig

    Natural photosynthetic conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is a unique phenomenon which sustains all life on Earth.\\u000a The key step of photosynthetic energy conversion involves rapid, photoinduced sequential electron transfers (ET) resulting\\u000a in efficient charge separation across a biological membrane. Fundamental to fully understanding these ET events is discerning\\u000a the involvement of heterogeneous polypeptide environments surrounding the redox