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Sample records for electron transmission spectroscopy

  1. Unveiling nanometric plasmons optical properties with advanced electron spectroscopy in the Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kociak, Mathieu

    Since the pioneering work of Yamamoto, the use of electron spectroscopy such as Cathodoluminescence (CL) and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) in a Scanning (Transmission) Electron Microscope (STEM) has considerably helped improving our understanding of the optical properties of metallic nanoparticles. The resemblance of spectroscopic signals from electron and pure optical techniques leads to the intuition that both types of techniques are very close, an idea theoretically discussed by F.J. Garcia de Abajo and coworkers. However, it is also quite intuitive that CL and EELS should be different. For example, EELS helps detecting any sort of modes while CL can only detect radiative ones. On the other hand, even between optical spectroscopy techniques, clear differences such as energy shifts or spectral shapes changes are expected in the case of plasmons. The lack of adapted instrumentation capable of performing combined EELS and CL, as well as theoretical developments allowing to account for the generic difference between EELS and CL and their optical counterparts impeached a comprehensive understanding of plasmons physics with the otherwise amazing electron spectroscopies. In this talk, I will present recent experimental results showing combined EELS and CL spectral mapping of plasmonic properties for nanoparticles with several shapes (triangles, cubes, stars...) and composition (gold, silver, aluminum...). Helped with different theoretical tools, I will try to show how these results can be related to their optical counterparts (extinction, scattering), and what type of physical insights can be gained from these combined measurements. Finally, if time allows, pointing the weaknesses of state-of-the-art CL and EELS (in terms of spectral range and/or spectral resolution), I will present EELS results obtained on highly monochromated electron beams that could cope with these limitations

  2. Development of wavelength-dispersive soft X-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes--an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Terauchi, Masami; Koike, Masato; Fukushima, Kurio; Kimura, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Two types of wavelength-dispersive soft X-ray spectrometers, a high-dispersion type and a conventional one, for transmission electron microscopes were constructed. Those spectrometers were used to study the electronic states of valence electrons (bonding electrons). Both spectrometers extended the acceptable energy regions to higher than 2000 eV. The best energy resolution of 0.08 eV was obtained for an Al L-emission spectrum by using the high-dispersion type spectrometer. By using the spectrometer, C K-emission of carbon allotropes, Cu L-emission of Cu(1-x)Zn(x) alloys and Pt M-emission spectra were presented. The FWHM value of 12 eV was obtained for the Pt Malpha-emission peak. The performance of the conventional one was also presented for ZnS and a section specimen of a multilayer device. W-M and Si-K emissions were clearly resolved. Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has an advantage for obtaining spectra from a single crystalline specimen with a defined crystal setting. As an example of anisotropic soft X-ray emission, C K-emission spectra of single crystalline graphite with different crystal settings were presented. From the spectra, density of states of pi- and sigma-bondings were separately derived. These results demonstrated a method to analyse the electronic states of valence electrons of materials in the nanometre scale based on TEM. PMID:20371492

  3. Atomic-Scale Imaging and Spectroscopy for In Situ Liquid Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jungjohann, K. L.; Evans, James E.; Aguiar, Jeff; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

    2012-06-04

    Observation of growth, synthesis, dynamics and electrochemical reactions in the liquid state is an important yet largely unstudied aspect of nanotechnology. The only techniques that can potentially provide the insights necessary to advance our understanding of these mechanisms is simultaneous atomic-scale imaging and quantitative chemical analysis (through spectroscopy) under environmental conditions in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). In this study we describe the experimental and technical conditions necessary to obtain electron energy loss (EEL) spectra from a nanoparticle in colloidal suspension using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with the environmental liquid stage. At a fluid path length below 400 nm, atomic resolution images can be obtained and simultaneous compositional analysis can be achieved. We show that EEL spectroscopy can be used to quantify the total fluid path length around the nanoparticle, and demonstrate characteristic core-loss signals from the suspended nanoparticles can be resolved and analyzed to provide information on the local interfacial chemistry with the surrounding environment. The combined approach using aberration corrected STEM and EEL spectra with the in situ fluid stage demonstrates a plenary platform for detailed investigations of solution based catalysis and biological research.

  4. Probing plasmons in three dimensions by combining complementary spectroscopies in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachtel, J. A.; Marvinney, C.; Mouti, A.; Mayo, D.; Mu, R.; Pennycook, S. J.; Lupini, A. R.; Chisholm, M. F.; Haglund, R. F.; Pantelides, S. T.

    2016-04-01

    The nanoscale optical response of surface plasmons in three-dimensional metallic nanostructures plays an important role in many nanotechnology applications, where precise spatial and spectral characteristics of plasmonic elements control device performance. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) within a scanning transmission electron microscope have proven to be valuable tools for studying plasmonics at the nanoscale. Each technique has been used separately, producing three-dimensional reconstructions through tomography, often aided by simulations for complete characterization. Here we demonstrate that the complementary nature of the two techniques, namely that EELS probes beam-induced electronic excitations while CL probes radiative decay, allows us to directly obtain a spatially- and spectrally-resolved picture of the plasmonic characteristics of nanostructures in three dimensions. The approach enables nanoparticle-by-nanoparticle plasmonic analysis in three dimensions to aid in the design of diverse nanoplasmonic applications.

  5. Probing plasmons in three dimensions by combining complementary spectroscopies in a scanning transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Hachtel, J A; Marvinney, C; Mouti, A; Mayo, D; Mu, R; Pennycook, S J; Lupini, A R; Chisholm, M F; Haglund, R F; Pantelides, S T

    2016-04-15

    The nanoscale optical response of surface plasmons in three-dimensional metallic nanostructures plays an important role in many nanotechnology applications, where precise spatial and spectral characteristics of plasmonic elements control device performance. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) within a scanning transmission electron microscope have proven to be valuable tools for studying plasmonics at the nanoscale. Each technique has been used separately, producing three-dimensional reconstructions through tomography, often aided by simulations for complete characterization. Here we demonstrate that the complementary nature of the two techniques, namely that EELS probes beam-induced electronic excitations while CL probes radiative decay, allows us to directly obtain a spatially- and spectrally-resolved picture of the plasmonic characteristics of nanostructures in three dimensions. The approach enables nanoparticle-by-nanoparticle plasmonic analysis in three dimensions to aid in the design of diverse nanoplasmonic applications. PMID:26934391

  6. Characterization of polysilicon films by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Tallant, D.R.; Headley, T.J.; Medernach, J.W.; Geyling, F.

    1993-11-12

    Samples of chemically-vapor-deposited micrometer and sub-micrometer-thick films of polysilicon were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in cross-section and by Raman spectroscopy with illumination at their surface. TEM and Raman spectroscopy both find varying amounts of polycrystalline and amorphous silicon in the wafers. Raman spectra obtained using blue, green and red excitation wavelengths to vary the Raman sampling depth are compared with TEM cross-sections of these films. Films showing crystalline columnar structures in their TEM micrographs have Raman spectra with a band near 497 cm{sup {minus}1} in addition to the dominant polycrystalline silicon band (521 cm{sup {minus}1}). The TEM micrographs of these films have numerous faulted regions and fringes indicative of nanometer-scale silicon structures, which are believed to correspond to the 497cm{sup {minus}1} Raman band.

  7. Analysis of catalytic gas products using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and residual gas analysis for operando transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Benjamin K; Crozier, Peter A

    2014-06-01

    Operando transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of catalytic reactions requires that the gas composition inside the TEM be known during the in situ reaction. Two techniques for measuring gas composition inside the environmental TEM are described and compared here. First, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, both in the low-loss and core-loss regions of the spectrum was utilized. The data were quantified using a linear combination of reference spectra from individual gasses to fit a mixture spectrum. Mass spectrometry using a residual gas analyzer was also used to quantify the gas inside the environmental cell. Both electron energy-loss spectroscopy and residual gas analysis were applied simultaneously to a known 50/50 mixture of CO and CO2, so the results from the two techniques could be compared and evaluated. An operando TEM experiment was performed using a Ru catalyst supported on silica spheres and loaded into the TEM on a specially developed porous pellet TEM sample. Both techniques were used to monitor the conversion of CO to CO2 over the catalyst, while simultaneous atomic resolution imaging of the catalyst was performed. PMID:24815065

  8. Broadband Transmission EPR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9–10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin – nuclear spin interactions and electron spin – electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8–2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed. PMID:23555819

  9. Electron transmission spectroscopy of matrix-isolated N/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Sanche, L.; Perluzzo, G.; Michaud, M.

    1985-10-15

    Pseudovibrational levels of the /sup 2/Pi/sub g/ state of N/sup -//sub 2/ are detected via electron transmission through solid xenon films doped with varying concentrations of nitrogen molecules. The resonance is found to produce a significant increase in transmitted current arising from electrons having lost energy to vibrational excitation. The relaxation shifts of the anion in condensed N/sub 2/ (0.7 eV), argon (0.83 eV), and xenon (1.45 eV) are discussed and compared with calculations made within the framework of the Mott--Littleton and Born models.

  10. Transmission electron microscopy and time resolved optical spectroscopy study of the electronic and structural interactions of ZnO nanorods with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Klaumünzer, M; Weichsel, U; Mačković, M; Spiecker, E; Peukert, W; Kryschi, C

    2013-08-22

    The adsorption behavior and electronic interactions of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with ZnO nanorod surfaces were investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy as well as stationary and time-resolved optical spectroscopy techniques. Transmission electron microscopy shows that ZnO nanorod surfaces are surrounded by a homogeneous amorphous BSA film with thicknesses between ~2.5 and 5.0 nm. The electronic structure and adsorption geometry of BSA were examined using high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy. The adsorption process was observed to result into an unfolded conformation of BSA becoming predominantly bound in the side-on orientation at the ZnO surface. This adsorption mode of the BSA molecules allows for a strong interaction with surface states of the ZnO nanorods. This is obvious from its efficient quenching of the defect-center photoluminescence of ZnO. Complementary information of electronic interactions across the ZnO nanorod interface was obtained from femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy experiments. The rise dynamics of the measured transients revealed altered hole trapping dynamics and, thus, indicated to heterogeneous charge transfer as emerging from adsorbed BSA molecules to defect centers of the ZnO interface. PMID:23889004

  11. Optical spectroscopy and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy of surface plasmons in core-shell nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Eggeman, A. S.; Dobson, P. J.; Petford-Long, A. K.; Materials Science Division; Oxford Univ.

    2007-01-01

    Silica-silver core-shell nanoparticles were produced using colloidal chemistry methods. Surface plasmon resonances in the silver shells were investigated using optical absorption measurements in ultraviolet-to-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and the effect of shell thickness on the wavelength of the resonance was noted. Further studies of the resonances were performed using electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) imaging. The plasmon resonance was seen in an EELS spectrum at an energy corresponding to the wavelengths measured in an UV-vis spectrophotometer, and EFTEM images confirmed that the resonance was indeed localized at the surface of the silver shell. Further features were seen in the EELS spectrum and confirmed as bulk-plasmon features of silica and the carbon support film in the TEM specimen.

  12. 4D scanning transmission ultrafast electron microscopy: Single-particle imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ortalan, Volkan; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2011-07-20

    We report the development of 4D scanning transmission ultrafast electron microscopy (ST-UEM). The method was demonstrated in the imaging of silver nanowires and gold nanoparticles. For the wire, the mechanical motion and shape morphological dynamics were imaged, and from the images we obtained the resonance frequency and the dephasing time of the motion. Moreover, we demonstrate here the simultaneous acquisition of dark-field images and electron energy loss spectra from a single gold nanoparticle, which is not possible with conventional methods. The local probing capabilities of ST-UEM open new avenues for probing dynamic processes, from single isolated to embedded nanostructures, without being affected by the heterogeneous processes of ensemble-averaged dynamics. Such methodology promises to have wide-ranging applications in materials science and in single-particle biological imaging. PMID:21615171

  13. Microstructure of highly strained BiFeO3 thin films: Transmission electron microscopy and electron-energy loss spectroscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heon Kim, Young; Bhatnagar, Akash; Pippel, Eckhard; Alexe, Marin; Hesse, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Microstructure and electronic structure of highly strained bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) thin films grown on lanthanum aluminate substrates are studied using high-resolution transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopies and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Monoclinic and tetragonal phases were observed in films grown at different temperatures, and a mix of both phases was detected in a film grown at intermediate temperature. In this film, a smooth transition of the microstructure was found between the monoclinic and the tetragonal phases. A considerable increase in the c-axis parameters was observed in both phases compared with the rhombohedral bulk phase. The off-center displacement of iron (Fe) ions was increased in the monoclinic phase as compared with the tetragonal phase. EEL spectra show different electronic structures in the monoclinic and the tetragonal phases. These experimental observations are well consistent with the results of theoretical first-principle calculations performed.

  14. Microstructure of highly strained BiFeO{sub 3} thin films: Transmission electron microscopy and electron-energy loss spectroscopy studies

    SciTech Connect

    Heon Kim, Young; Bhatnagar, Akash; Pippel, Eckhard; Hesse, Dietrich; Alexe, Marin

    2014-01-28

    Microstructure and electronic structure of highly strained bismuth ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) thin films grown on lanthanum aluminate substrates are studied using high-resolution transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopies and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Monoclinic and tetragonal phases were observed in films grown at different temperatures, and a mix of both phases was detected in a film grown at intermediate temperature. In this film, a smooth transition of the microstructure was found between the monoclinic and the tetragonal phases. A considerable increase in the c-axis parameters was observed in both phases compared with the rhombohedral bulk phase. The off-center displacement of iron (Fe) ions was increased in the monoclinic phase as compared with the tetragonal phase. EEL spectra show different electronic structures in the monoclinic and the tetragonal phases. These experimental observations are well consistent with the results of theoretical first-principle calculations performed.

  15. Protein-nanoparticle interaction in bioconjugated silver nanoparticles: A transmission electron microscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reymond-Laruinaz, Sébastien; Saviot, Lucien; Potin, Valérie; Marco de Lucas, María del Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of interaction between proteins and noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) is crucial to extend the use of NPs in biological applications and nanomedicine. We report the synthesis of Ag-NPs:protein bioconjugates synthesized in total absence of citrates or other stabilizing agents in order to study the NP-protein interaction. Four common proteins (lysozyme, bovine serum albumin, cytochrome-C and hemoglobin) were used in this work. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) were mainly used to study these bioconjugated NPs. TEM images showed Ag NPs with sizes in the 5-40 nm range. The presence of a protein layer surrounding the Ag NPs was also observed by TEM. Moreover, the composition at different points of single bioconjugated NPs was probed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The thickness of the protein layer varies in the 3-15 nm range and the Ag NPs are a few nanometers away. This allowed to obtain an enhancement of the Raman signal of the proteins in the analysis of water suspensions of bioconjugates. SERS results showed a broadening of the Raman bands of the proteins which we attribute to the contribution of different configurations of the proteins adsorbed on the Ag NPs surface. Moreover, the assignment of an intense and sharp peak in the low-frequency range to Ag-N vibrations points to the chemisorption of the proteins on the Ag-NPs surface.

  16. Elemental analysis of sunflower cataract in Wilson's disease: a study using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyo Ju; Kim, Joon Mo; Choi, Chul Young

    2014-04-01

    Signature ophthalmic characteristics of Wilson's disease (WD) are regarded as diagnostically important manifestations of the disease. Previous studies have proved the common occurrence of copper accumulation in the liver of patients with WD. However, in the case of sunflower cataracts, one of the rare diagnostic signs of WD, no study has demonstrated copper accumulation in the lens capsules of sunflower cataracts in WD patients. To investigate the nanostructure and elemental composition of sunflower cataracts in WD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was done on the capsulorhexised anterior lens capsule of sunflower cataracts in WD in order to evaluate anatomical variation and elemental changes. We utilized energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to investigate the elemental composition of the lens capsule using both point and mapping spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis was performed for relative comparison of the elements. TEM showed the presence of granular deposits of varying size (20-350 nm), appearing mainly in the posterior one third of the anterior capsule. The deposits appeared in linear patterns with scattered dots. There were no electron-dense particles in the epithelial cell layer of the lens. Copper and sulfur peaks were consistently revealed in electron-dense granular deposits. In contrast, copper and sulfur peaks were absent in other tissues, including granule-free lens capsules and epithelial tissue. Most copper was exclusively located in clusters of electron-dense particles, and the copper distribution overlapped with sulfur on mapping spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis presented inconsistent ratios of copper to sulfur in each electron-dense granule. The mean ratio of copper to sulfur was about 3.25 (with a range of 2.39-3.78). This is the first elemental analysis of single electron particles in sunflower cataracts using EDS in the ophthalmic area. Sunflower cataracts with WD are assumed to be the result of accumulation of heterogeneous

  17. A Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeter System for the Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy Performed on a Scanning-Transmission Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehata, K.; Hara, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Hidaka, M.; Tanaka, K.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2015-11-01

    We are conducting the development of a transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter system for energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), performed using a scanning-transmission electron microscope (STEM). The operating temperature of the TES microcalorimeter was maintained using a compact dry 3 He-4 He dilution refrigerator. This was pre-cooled by a remote helium cooling loop system and a Gifford-McMahon cooler. These conditions allowed for high-resolution STEM imaging to be achieved. A single-pixel TES microcalorimeter with a polycapillary optic was selected to demonstrate the analytical operation of the EDS system in the STEM. For a Ti-It-Pt sample, an X-ray energy resolution of 8.6 eV full-width at half maximum (FWHM) was obtained at Ir M_{α 1} , Pt M_{α 1} , and Ir M_{β } . Using an electron device sample, element distribution maps of Si, Ti, and W were obtained using a Si K_{α 1} X-ray energy resolution of 9.7 eV FWHM.

  18. A Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeter System for the Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy Performed on a Scanning-Transmission Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehata, K.; Hara, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Hidaka, M.; Tanaka, K.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2016-07-01

    We are conducting the development of a transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter system for energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), performed using a scanning-transmission electron microscope (STEM). The operating temperature of the TES microcalorimeter was maintained using a compact dry 3He-4He dilution refrigerator. This was pre-cooled by a remote helium cooling loop system and a Gifford-McMahon cooler. These conditions allowed for high-resolution STEM imaging to be achieved. A single-pixel TES microcalorimeter with a polycapillary optic was selected to demonstrate the analytical operation of the EDS system in the STEM. For a Ti-It-Pt sample, an X-ray energy resolution of 8.6 eV full-width at half maximum (FWHM) was obtained at Ir M_{α 1}, Pt M_{α 1}, and Ir M_{β }. Using an electron device sample, element distribution maps of Si, Ti, and W were obtained using a Si K_{α 1} X-ray energy resolution of 9.7 eV FWHM.

  19. Neutron irradiation damage of nuclear graphite studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, R.; Jones, A. N.; McDermott, L.; Marsden, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear graphite components are produced from polycrystalline artificial graphite manufacture from a binder and filler coke with approximately 20% porosity. During the operational lifetime, nuclear graphite moderator components are subjected to fast neutron irradiation which contributes to the change of material and physical properties such as thermal expansion co-efficient, young's modulus and dimensional change. These changes are directly driven by irradiation-induced changes to the crystal structure as reflected through the bulk microstructure. It is therefore of critical importance that these irradiation changes and there implication on component property changes are fully understood. This work examines a range of irradiated graphite samples removed from the British Experimental Pile Zero (BEPO) reactor; a low temperature, low fluence, air-cooled Materials Test Reactor which operated in the UK. Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) have been employed to characterise the effect of increased irradiation fluence on graphite microstructure and understand low temperature irradiation damage processes. HRTEM confirms the structural damage of the crystal lattice caused by irradiation attributed to a high number of defects generation with the accumulation of dislocation interactions at nano-scale range. Irradiation-induced crystal defects, lattice parameters and crystallite size compared to virgin nuclear graphite are characterised using selected area diffraction (SAD) patterns in TEM and Raman Spectroscopy. The consolidated 'D'peak in the Raman spectra confirms the formation of in-plane point defects and reflected as disordered regions in the lattice. The reduced intensity and broadened peaks of 'G' and 'D' in the Raman and HRTEM results confirm the appearance of turbulence and disordering of the basal planes whilst maintaining their coherent layered graphite structure.

  20. Design and Performance of a TES X-ray Microcalorimeter Array for Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy on Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Haruka; Nagayoshi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Sakai, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Maehata, K.; Hara, T.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss the design and performance of a transition edge sensor (TES) X-ray microcalorimeter array for scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The TES X-ray microcalorimeter has better energy resolution compared to conventional silicon drift detector and STEM-EDS utilizing a TES detector makes it possible to map the distribution of elements on a specimen in addition to analyze the composition. The requirement for a TES detector is a high counting rate (> 20 kcps), wide energy band (0.5-15 keV) and good energy resolution (< 10 eV) full width at half maximum. The major improvement of this development is to increase the maximum counting rate. In order to accommodate the high counting rate, we adopted an 8 × 8 format, 64-pixel array and common biasing scheme for the readout method. We did all design and fabrication of the device in house. With the device we have fabricated most recently, the pulse decay time is 40 \\upmu s which is expected to achieve 50 kcps. For a single pixel, the measured energy resolution was 7.8 eV at 5.9 keV. This device satisfies the requirements of counting rate and energy resolution, although several issues remain where the performance must be confirmed.

  1. Design and Performance of a TES X-ray Microcalorimeter Array for Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy on Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Haruka; Nagayoshi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Sakai, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Maehata, K.; Hara, T.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the design and performance of a transition edge sensor (TES) X-ray microcalorimeter array for scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The TES X-ray microcalorimeter has better energy resolution compared to conventional silicon drift detector and STEM-EDS utilizing a TES detector makes it possible to map the distribution of elements on a specimen in addition to analyze the composition. The requirement for a TES detector is a high counting rate (>20 kcps), wide energy band (0.5-15 keV) and good energy resolution (<10 eV) full width at half maximum. The major improvement of this development is to increase the maximum counting rate. In order to accommodate the high counting rate, we adopted an 8 × 8 format, 64-pixel array and common biasing scheme for the readout method. We did all design and fabrication of the device in house. With the device we have fabricated most recently, the pulse decay time is 40 μs which is expected to achieve 50 kcps. For a single pixel, the measured energy resolution was 7.8 eV at 5.9 keV. This device satisfies the requirements of counting rate and energy resolution, although several issues remain where the performance must be confirmed.

  2. Design and Performance of a TES X-ray Microcalorimeter Array for Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy on Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Haruka; Nagayoshi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Sakai, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Maehata, K.; Hara, T.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the design and performance of a transition edge sensor (TES) X-ray microcalorimeter array for scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The TES X-ray microcalorimeter has better energy resolution compared to conventional silicon drift detector and STEM-EDS utilizing a TES detector makes it possible to map the distribution of elements on a specimen in addition to analyze the composition. The requirement for a TES detector is a high counting rate (>20 kcps), wide energy band (0.5-15 keV) and good energy resolution (<10 eV) full width at half maximum. The major improvement of this development is to increase the maximum counting rate. In order to accommodate the high counting rate, we adopted an 8 × 8 format, 64-pixel array and common biasing scheme for the readout method. We did all design and fabrication of the device in house. With the device we have fabricated most recently, the pulse decay time is 40 \\upmu s which is expected to achieve 50 kcps. For a single pixel, the measured energy resolution was 7.8 eV at 5.9 keV. This device satisfies the requirements of counting rate and energy resolution, although several issues remain where the performance must be confirmed.

  3. Analytical transmission electron microscopy in materials science

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    Microcharacterization of materials on a scale of less than 10 nm has been afforded by recent advances in analytical transmission electron microscopy. The factors limiting accurate analysis at the limit of spatial resolution for the case of a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are examined in this paper.

  4. Atomic level study of water-gas shift catalysts via transmission electron microscopy and x-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akatay, Mehmed Cem

    Water-gas shift (WGS), CO + H2O ⇆ CO2 + H2 (DeltaH° = -41 kJ mol -1), is an industrially important reaction for the production of high purity hydrogen. Commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts are employed to accelerate this reaction, yet these catalysts suffer from certain drawbacks, including costly regeneration processes and sulfur poisoning. Extensive research is focused on developing new catalysts to replace the current technology. Supported noble metals stand out as promising candidates, yet comprise intricate nanostructures complicating the understanding of their working mechanism. In this study, the structure of the supported Pt catalysts is explored by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of the supporting phase and the use of secondary metals on the reaction kinetics is investigated. Structural heterogeneities are quantified and correlated with the kinetic descriptors of the catalysts to develop a fundamental understanding of the catalytic mechanism. The effect of the reaction environment on catalyst structure is examined by in-situ techniques. This study benefitted greatly from the use of model catalysts that provide a convenient medium for the atomic level characterization of nanostructures. Based on these studies, Pt supported on iron oxide nano islands deposited on inert spherical alumina exhibited 48 times higher WGS turnover rate (normalized by the total Pt surface area) than Pt supported on bulk iron oxide. The rate of aqueous phase glycerol reforming reaction of Pt supported on multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) is promoted by co-impregnating with cobalt. The synthesis resulted in a variety of nanostructures among which Pt-Co bimetallic nanoparticles are found to be responsible for the observed promotion. The unprecedented WGS rate of Pt supported on Mo2C is explored by forming Mo 2C patches on top of MWCNTs and the rate promotion is found to be caused by the Pt-Mo bimetallic entities.

  5. Study of semiconductor valence plasmon line shapes via electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Kundmann, M.K.

    1988-11-01

    Electron energy-loss spectra of the semiconductors Si, AlAs, GaAs, InAs, InP, and Ge are examined in detail in the regime of outer-shell and plasmon energy losses (0--100eV). Particular emphasis is placed on modeling and analyzing the shapes of the bulk valence plasmon lines. A line shape model based on early work by Froehlich is derived and compared to single-scattering probability distributions extracted from the measured spectra. Model and data are found to be in excellent agreement, thus pointing the way to systematic characterization of the plasmon component of EELS spectra. The model is applied to three separate investigations. 82 refs.

  6. Electron-impact spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trajmar, S.

    1990-01-01

    The methods of electron impact spectroscopy and cross section measurements are discussed and compared to optical spectroscopy. A brief summary of the status of this field and the available data is given.

  7. Phase evolution in {sup 57}Fe/Al multilayers studied through dc magnetization, conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jani, Snehal; Lakshmi, N.; Venugopalan, K.; Sebastian, Varkey; Reddy, V. R.; Gupta, Ajay; Lalla, N. P.

    2008-12-15

    Fe/Al multilayer thin films with an overall atomic concentration ratio of Fe:Al=1:2 have been prepared by ion-beam sputtering. Phase formation and microstructural evolution with thermal annealing have been studied by x-ray reflectivity, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, dc magnetization, and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy. These studies show that although the starting composition is Al rich, the intermixing of Fe and Al at the interfaces leads to the formation of a magnetic Fe{sub 3}Al-like region at the interface. Thus, the magnetic contribution in the as-deposited multilayer structure (MLS) is not only from pure Fe but also from an Fe{sub 3}Al-like region formed at the interface. On annealing the MLS, a stable nonmagnetic MLS consisting of intermetallic B2Fe{sub 50}Al{sub 50} separated by thin Al layers is formed. Further annealing only induces better ordering of Fe{sub 50}Al{sub 50} and does not destroy the MLS.

  8. Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, James E.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2012-10-12

    Dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) combines the benefits of high spatial resolution electron microscopy with the high temporal resolution of ultrafast lasers. The incorporation of these two components into a single instrument provides a perfect platform for in situ observations of material processes. However, previous DTEM applications have focused on observing structural changes occurring in samples exposed to high vacuum. Therefore, in order to expand the pump-probe experimental regime to more natural environmental conditions, in situ gas and liquid chambers must be coupled with Dynamic TEM. This chapter describes the current and future applications of in situ liquid DTEM to permit time-resolved atomic scale observations in an aqueous environment, Although this chapter focuses mostly on in situ liquid imaging, the same research potential exists for in situ gas experiments and the successful integration of these techniques promises new insights for understanding nanoparticle, catalyst and biological protein dynamics with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.

  9. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  10. Transmission electron microscope studies of extraterrestrial materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    1995-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray spectrometry and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy are used to analyse carbon in interplanetary dust particles. Optical micrographs are shown depicting cross sections of the dust particles embedded in sulphur. Selected-area electron diffraction patterns are shown. Transmission Electron Microscope specimens of lunar soil were prepared using two methods: ion-milling and ultramicrotomy. A combination of high resolution TEM imaging and electron diffraction is used to characterize the opaque assemblages. The opaque assemblages analyzed in this study are dominated by ilmenite with lesser rutile and spinel exsolutions, and traces of Fe metal.

  11. Morphology and composition of oxidized InAs nanowires studied by combined Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanta, Rawa; Kanne, Thomas; Amaduzzi, Francesca; Liao, Zhiyu; Madsen, Morten H.; Alarcón-Lladó, Esther; Krogstrup, Peter; Johnson, Erik; Morral, Anna Fontcuberta i.; Vosch, Tom; Nygård, Jesper; Jespersen, Thomas S.

    2016-07-01

    Any device exposed to ambient conditions will be prone to oxidation. This may be of particular importance for semiconductor nanowires because of the high surface-to-volume ratio and only little is known about the consequences of oxidation for these systems. Here, we study the properties of indium arsenide nanowires which were locally oxidized using a focused laser beam. Polarization dependent micro-Raman measurements confirmed the presence of crystalline arsenic, and transmission electron microscopy diffraction showed the presence of indium oxide. The surface dependence of the oxidation was investigated in branched nanowires grown along the [0001] and [01\\bar{1}0] wurtzite crystal directions exhibiting different surface facets. The oxidation did not occur at the [01\\bar{1}0] direction. The origin of this selectivity is discussed in terms transition state kinetics of the free surfaces of the different crystal families of the facets and numerical simulations of the laser induced heating.

  12. In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy And Spectroscopy Studies Of Rechargeable Batteries Under Dynamic Operating Conditions: A Retrospective And Perspective View

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chong M.

    2015-02-14

    Since the advent of the transmission electron microscope (TEM), continuing efforts have been made to image material under native and reaction environments that typically involve liquids, gases, and external stimuli. With the advances of aberration-corrected TEM for improving the imaging resolution, steady progress has been made on developing methodologies that allow imaging under dynamic operating conditions, or in situ TEM imaging. The success of in situ TEM imaging is closely associated with advances in microfabrication techniques that enable manipulation of nanoscale objects around the objective lens of the TEM. This paper summarizes and highlights recent progress involving in situ TEM studies of energy storage materials, especially rechargeable batteries. The paper is organized to cover both the in situ TEM techniques and the scientific discoveries made possible by in situ TEM imaging.

  13. Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Maroncelli, Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-06-08

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electronic Spectroscopy and Dynamics was held at Colby College, Waterville, NH from 07/19/2009 thru 07/24/2009. The Conference was well-attended with participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. The GRC on Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics showcases some of the most recent experimental and theoretical developments in electronic spectroscopy that probes the structure and dynamics of isolated molecules, molecules embedded in clusters and condensed phases, and bulk materials. Electronic spectroscopy is an important tool in many fields of research, and this GRC brings together experts having diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biophysics, and materials science, making the meeting an excellent opportunity for the interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and techniques. Topics covered in this GRC include high-resolution spectroscopy, biological molecules in the gas phase, electronic structure theory for excited states, multi-chromophore and single-molecule spectroscopies, and excited state dynamics in chemical and biological systems.

  14. A transmission electron microscopy study of CoFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles in silica aerogel matrix using HREM and STEM imaging and EDX spectroscopy and EELS.

    PubMed

    Falqui, Andrea; Corrias, Anna; Wang, Peng; Snoeck, Etienne; Mountjoy, Gavin

    2010-04-01

    Magnetic nanocomposite materials consisting of 5 and 10 wt% CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in a silica aerogel matrix have been synthesized by the sol-gel method. For the CoFe2O4-10wt% sample, bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (BF STEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM) images showed distinct, rounded CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, with typical diameters of roughly 8 nm. For the CoFe2O4-5wt% sample, BF STEM images and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements showed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with diameters of roughly 3 +/- 1 nm. EDX measurements indicate that all nanoparticles consist of stoichiometric CoFe2O4, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurements from lines crossing nanoparticles in the CoFe2O4-10wt% sample show a uniform composition within nanoparticles, with a precision of at best than +/-0.5 nm in analysis position. BF STEM images obtained for the CoFe2O4-10wt% sample showed many "needle-like" nanostructures that typically have a length of 10 nm and a width of 1 nm, and frequently appear to be attached to nanoparticles. These needle-like nanostructures are observed to contain layers with interlayer spacing 0.33 +/- 0.1 nm, which could be consistent with Co silicate hydroxide, a known precursor phase in these nanocomposite materials. PMID:20199712

  15. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S. K.; Lambe, J.

    1983-01-01

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is a useful technique for the study of vibrational modes of molecules adsorbed on the surface of oxide layers in a metal-insulator-metal tunnel junction. The technique involves studying the effects of adsorbed molecules on the tunneling spectrum of such junctions. The data give useful information about the structure, bonding, and orientation of adsorbed molecules. One of the major advantages of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is its sensitivity. It is capable of detecting on the order of 10 to the 10th molecules (a fraction of a monolayer) on a 1 sq mm junction. It has been successfully used in studies of catalysis, biology, trace impurity detection, and electronic excitations. Because of its high sensitivity, this technique shows great promise in the area of solid-state electronic chemical sensing.

  16. Opto-mechano-electrical tripling in ZnO nanowires probed by photocurrent spectroscopy in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.; Golberg, D. E-mail: golberg.dmitri@nims.go.jp; Xu, Z. E-mail: golberg.dmitri@nims.go.jp; Kvashnin, D. G.; Tang, D.-M.; Xue, Y. M.; Bando, Y.; Sorokin, P. B.

    2015-08-31

    Photocurrent spectroscopy of individual free-standing ZnO nanowires inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) is reported. By using specially designed optical in situ TEM system capable of scanning tunneling microscopy probing paired with light illumination, opto-mechano-electrical tripling phenomenon in ZnO nanowires is demonstrated. Splitting of photocurrent spectra at around 3.3 eV under in situ TEM bending of ZnO nanowires directly corresponds to nanowire deformation and appearance of expanded and compressed nanowire sides. Theoretical simulation of a bent ZnO nanowire has an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The splitting effect could be explained by a change in the valence band structure of ZnO nanowires due to a lattice strain. The strain-induced splitting provides important clues for future flexible piezo-phototronics.

  17. Inexpensive read-out for coincident electron spectroscopy with a transmission electron microscope at nanometer scale using micro channel plates and multistrip anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollander, R. W.; Bom, V. R.; van Eijk, C. W. E.; Faber, J. S.; Hoevers, H.; Kruit, P.

    1994-09-01

    The elemental composition of a sample at nanometer scale is determined by measurement of the characteristic energy of Auger electrons, emitted in coincidence with incoming primary electrons from a microbeam in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Single electrons are detected with position sensitive detectors, consisting of MicroChannel Plates (MCP) and MultiStrip Anodes (MSA), one for the energy of the Auger electrons (Auger-detector) and one for the energy loss of primary electrons (EELS-detector). The MSAs are sensed with LeCroy 2735DC preamplifiers. The fast readout is based on LeCroy's PCOS III system. On the detection of a coincidence (Event) energy data of Auger and EELS are combined with timing data to an Event word. Event words are stored in list mode in a VME memory module. Blocks of Event words are scanned by transputers in VME and two-dimensional energy histograms are filled using the timing information to obtain a maximal true/accidental ratio. The resulting histograms are stored on disk of a PC-386, which also controls data taking. The system is designed to handle 10 5 Events per second, 90% of which are accidental. In the histograms the "true" to "accidental" ratio will be 5. The dead time is 15%.

  18. Thermal and structural stability of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes up to 1800 °C in Argon studied by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Soumya; Das, Probal Kr.

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Structural stability of carbon nanotubes up to 1800 °C in Argon (∼0.05 MPa). ► Thorough TEM and Raman spectroscopy of as received and heat treated CNTs. ► Analyses on the extent of structural changes during high temperature exposure. ► Discussion on safe upper temperature limit for practical use of SWCNTs and MWCNTs. -- Abstract: Effect of high temperature exposure (up to 1800 °C) on morphology of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes in Argon atmosphere has been studied using Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Although, as received nanotubes contained irregular graphene layers and other structural defects, microscopic observations revealed that heat treatment in Argon reduced the defect density and helped proper alignment of graphene layers. Raman spectra of as received and heat treated nanotubes strongly reinforced the microscopic observations. While, D-band to G-band intensity ratio in Raman spectra of 1800 °C heat treated multiwalled nanotubes reduced by ∼43% over as received one, this ratio for heat treated singlewalled nanotubes was ∼27% lower than that of the untreated specimen. Present study suggested that although, multiwalled nanotubes were structurally stable up to 1800 °C in an inert atmosphere having only a few nano-scale defects, singlewalled nanotubes suffered considerable damage at 1800 °C due to much thinner dimension than the former.

  19. Electron spectroscopy analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The Surface Science Laboratories at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) are equipped with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) facilities. These techniques provide information from the uppermost atomic layers of a sample, and are thus truly surface sensitive. XPS provides both elemental and chemical state information without restriction on the type of material that can be analyzed. The sample is placed into an ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber and irradiated with x-rays which cause the ejection of photoelectrons from the sample surface. Since x-rays do not normally cause charging problems or beam damage, XPS is applicable to a wide range of samples including metals, polymers, catalysts, and fibers. AES uses a beam of high energy electrons as a surface probe. Following electronic rearrangements within excited atoms by this probe, Auger electrons characteristic of each element present are emitted from the sample. The main advantage of electron induced AES is that the electron beam can be focused down to a small diameter and localized analysis can be carried out. On the rastering of this beam synchronously with a video display using established scanning electron microscopy techniques, physical images and chemical distribution maps of the surface can be produced. Thus very small features, such as electronic circuit elements or corrosion pits in metals, can be investigated. Facilities are available on both XPS and AES instruments for depth-profiling of materials, using a beam of argon ions to sputter away consecutive layers of material to reveal sub-surface (and even semi-bulk) analyses.

  20. Nanowire Electron Scattering Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Brian; Bronikowsky, Michael; Wong, Eric; VonAllmen, Paul; Oyafuso, Fablano

    2009-01-01

    Nanowire electron scattering spectroscopy (NESS) has been proposed as the basis of a class of ultra-small, ultralow-power sensors that could be used to detect and identify chemical compounds present in extremely small quantities. State-of-the-art nanowire chemical sensors have already been demonstrated to be capable of detecting a variety of compounds in femtomolar quantities. However, to date, chemically specific sensing of molecules using these sensors has required the use of chemically functionalized nanowires with receptors tailored to individual molecules of interest. While potentially effective, this functionalization requires labor-intensive treatment of many nanowires to sense a broad spectrum of molecules. In contrast, NESS would eliminate the need for chemical functionalization of nanowires and would enable the use of the same sensor to detect and identify multiple compounds. NESS is analogous to Raman spectroscopy, the main difference being that in NESS, one would utilize inelastic scattering of electrons instead of photons to determine molecular vibrational energy levels. More specifically, in NESS, one would exploit inelastic scattering of electrons by low-lying vibrational quantum states of molecules attached to a nanowire or nanotube.

  1. Electron Diffraction Using Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Leonid A.; Gayle, Frank W.

    2001-01-01

    Electron diffraction via the transmission electron microscope is a powerful method for characterizing the structure of materials, including perfect crystals and defect structures. The advantages of electron diffraction over other methods, e.g., x-ray or neutron, arise from the extremely short wavelength (≈2 pm), the strong atomic scattering, and the ability to examine tiny volumes of matter (≈10 nm3). The NIST Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory has a history of discovery and characterization of new structures through electron diffraction, alone or in combination with other diffraction methods. This paper provides a survey of some of this work enabled through electron microscopy.

  2. Abnormal cubic-tetragonal phase transition of barium strontium titanate nanoparticles studied by in situ Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy heating experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yin; Chen, Chen; Gao, Ran; Xia, Feng; Li, YueSheng; Che, Renchao

    2015-11-02

    Phase stability of the ferroelectric materials at high temperature is extremely important to their device performance. Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x}TiO{sub 3} (BST) nanoparticles with different Sr contents (x = 1, 0.91, 0.65, 0.4, and 0) are prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. Using Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses under in situ heating conditions (up to 300 °C), the phase transitions of BST nanoparticles between 25 °C and 280 °C are comprehensively investigated. The original Curie temperature of BST nanoparticles decreases abruptly with the increase in Sr content, which is more obvious than in the bulk or film material. Besides, an abnormal phase transition from cubic to tetragonal structure is observed from BST nanoparticles and the transition temperature rises along with the increase in Sr content. Direct TEM evidences including a slight lattice distortion have been provided. Differently, BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles remained in the tetragonal phase during the above temperature ranges.

  3. Multiple Scattering in Transit Transmission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Amit; Meadows, V.; Crisp, D.

    2014-01-01

    Exoplanet transit transmission spectroscopy is a powerful tool that has been used to characterize Jupiter and Neptune-sized transiting exoplanets, and a Super-Earth/Mini-Neptune. Because of the flat and featureless spectra for many of these planets, a large number of exoplanets are thought to have cloud or aerosol haze layers in their atmospheres. Clouds and aerosols lead to extinction of flux, but can also scatter photons into the beam to a distant observer. Most transit transmission spectroscopy models include extinction from cloud and aerosol particles, but do not include the effects of directional and multiple scattering from these particles. We have updated an existing transit transmission spectroscopy model to include a backwards Monte Carlo ray tracing scheme that simulates directional and multiple scattering from cloud and aerosol particles. For the paths which connect the host star to a distant observer, we generate a transit transmission spectrum using the calculated paths. We have run simulations for scattering functions ranging from isotropic to strongly forward scattering. We vary the optical depth from optically thin (max transmission of 10% on limb) to very optically thick (max transmission of 0.1%) and the particle vertical distribution from homogeneously distributed in the atmosphere to over a only one layer of the model atmosphere. We find that for a particle layer that is optically thin and confined to a narrow vertical extent, multiple scattering can lead to significant decreases in planetary absorption by nearly 30% when compared to model results with only extinction from clouds and aerosols.

  4. Terahertz homodyne self-mixing transmission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, Till Breuer, Stefan; Blömer, Dominik; Patel, Sanketkumar; Schlosser, Malte; Birkl, Gerhard; Elsäßer, Wolfgang; Simonetta, Marcello; Deninger, Anselm; Giuliani, Guido

    2015-02-09

    A compact homodyne self-mixing terahertz spectroscopy concept is experimentally investigated and confirmed by calculations. This method provides amplitude and phase information of the terahertz radiation emitted by a photoconductive antenna in a transmission experiment where a rotating chopper wheel serves as a feedback mirror. As a proof-of-principle experiment the frequency-dependent refractive index of Teflon is measured.

  5. A Site-isolated Mononuclear Iridium Complex Catalyst Supported on MgO: Characterization by Spectroscopy and Aberration-corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Uzun, A.; Ortalan, V; Browning, N; Gates , B

    2010-01-01

    Supported mononuclear iridium complexes with ethene ligands were prepared by the reaction of Ir(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}(acac) (acac is CH{sub 3}COCHCOCH{sub 3}) with highly dehydroxylated MgO. Characterization of the supported species by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopies showed that the resultant supported organometallic species were Ir(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}, formed by the dissociation of the acac ligand from Ir(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}(acac) and bonding of the Ir(C{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2} species to the MgO surface. Direct evidence of the site-isolation of these mononuclear complexes was obtained by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM); the images demonstrate the presence of the iridium complexes in the absence of any clusters. When the iridium complexes were probed with CO, the resulting IR spectra demonstrated the formation of Ir(CO){sub 2} complexes on the MgO surface. The breadth of the {nu}{sub CO} bands demonstrates a substantial variation in the metal-support bonding, consistent with the heterogeneity of the MgO surface; the STEM images are not sufficient to characterize this heterogeneity. The supported iridium complexes catalyzed ethene hydrogenation at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a flow reactor, and EXAFS spectra indicated that the mononuclear iridium species remained intact. STEM images of the used catalyst confirmed that almost all of the iridium complexes remained intact, but this method was sensitive enough to detect a small degree of aggregation of the iridium on the support.

  6. Nearly Uniform Decaosmium Clusters Supported on MgO: Characterization by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, A.; Mehraeen, S; Reed, B; Okamoto, N; Browning, N; Gates, B

    2009-01-01

    Samples containing small, nearly uniform clusters of a heavy metal, Os, were prepared on a high-area porous support consisting of light atoms, MgO, to provide an opportunity for a critical assessment of estimates of cluster size determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). Supported carbonyl clusters approximated as decaosmium were prepared by reductive carbonylation of adsorbed Os3(CO)12 at 548 K and 1 bar. Infrared (IR) spectra of the clusters resemble those attributed in earlier work to supported clusters similar to [Os10C(CO)24]2-, consistent with the EXAFS data. The spectra indicate a molar yield of decaosmium carbonyl clusters of about 65-70%. As these clusters were treated in flowing H2, they were partially decarbonylated, as shown by IR and EXAFS spectra. The rms (root-mean-square) radii of the undecarbonylated and partially decarbonylated clusters were found by HAADF-STEM to be 3.11 {+-} 0.09 and 3.06 {+-} 0.05 A, respectively, and the close agreement between these values is consistent with the inference that the cluster frame was essentially the same in each. The average rms radius of the undecarbonylated clusters, estimated on the basis of EXAFS data, was 2.94 {+-} 0.07 A, calculated on the basis of the assumption that the osmium frame matched that of [Os10C(CO)24]2-. EXAFS analysis of the data characterizing the partially decarbonylated sample, aided by the STEM results, showed, consistent with the STEM results, that the partial decarbonylation did not lead to a significant change in the rms radius of the metal frame.

  7. Evolution of titania nanotubes-supported WO{sub x} species by in situ thermo-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cortes-Jacome, M.A.; Angeles-Chavez, C.; Morales, M.; Lopez-Salinas, E.; Toledo-Antonio, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    Structural evolution of WO{sub x} species on the surface of titania nanotubes was followed by in situ thermo-Raman spectroscopy. A total of 15 wt% of W atoms were loaded on the surface of a hydroxylated titania nanotubes by impregnation with ammonium metatungstate solution and then, the sample was thermally treated in a Linkam cell at different temperatures in nitrogen flow. The band characteristic of the W=O bond was observed at 962 cm{sup -1} in the dried sample, which vanished between 300 and 700 deg. C, and reappear again after annealing at 800 deg. C, along with a broad band centered at 935 cm{sup -1}, attributed to the v{sub 1} vibration of W=O in tetrahedral coordination. At 900 and 1000 deg. C, the broad band decomposed into four bands at 923, 934, 940 and 950 cm{sup -1}, corresponding to the symmetric and asymmetric vibration of W=O bonds in Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}W{sub 2}O{sub 7} phases as determined by X-ray diffraction and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The structure of the nanotubular support was kept at temperatures below 450 deg. C, thereafter, it transformed into anatase being stabilized at temperatures as high as 900 deg. C. At 1000 deg. C, anatase phase partially converted into rutile. After annealing at 1000 deg. C, a core-shell model material was obtained, with a shell of ca. 5 nm thickness, composed of sodium tungstate nanoclusters, and a core composed mainly of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase. - Graphical abstract: Titania nanotubes loaded with 15 wt% W atoms were characterized from room temperature (rt) to 1000 deg. C by thermo-Raman spectroscopy in N{sub 2}. At 1000 deg. C, a core-shell model material was obtained, with a shell thickness of ca. 5 nm composed by nanoclusters of sodium tungstate, and a core composed mainly of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase.

  8. Evidence for anisotropic dielectric properties of monoclinic hafnia using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and ab initio time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedj, C.; Hung, L.; Zobelli, A.; Blaise, P.; Sottile, F.; Olevano, V.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of nanocrystal orientation on the energy loss spectra of monoclinic hafnia (m-HfO2) is measured by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and valence energy loss spectroscopy (VEELS) on high quality samples. For the same momentum-transfer directions, the dielectric properties are also calculated ab initio by time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). Experiments and simulations evidence anisotropy in the dielectric properties of m-HfO2, most notably with the direction-dependent oscillator strength of the main bulk plasmon. The anisotropic nature of m-HfO2 may contribute to the differences among VEELS spectra reported in literature. The good agreement between the complex dielectric permittivity extracted from VEELS with nanometer spatial resolution, TDDFT modeling, and past literature demonstrates that the present HRTEM-VEELS device-oriented methodology is a possible solution to the difficult nanocharacterization challenges given in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.

  9. Evidence for anisotropic dielectric properties of monoclinic hafnia using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and ab initio time-dependent density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Guedj, C.; Hung, L.; Sottile, F.; Zobelli, A.; Blaise, P.; Olevano, V.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of nanocrystal orientation on the energy loss spectra of monoclinic hafnia (m-HfO{sub 2}) is measured by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and valence energy loss spectroscopy (VEELS) on high quality samples. For the same momentum-transfer directions, the dielectric properties are also calculated ab initio by time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). Experiments and simulations evidence anisotropy in the dielectric properties of m-HfO{sub 2}, most notably with the direction-dependent oscillator strength of the main bulk plasmon. The anisotropic nature of m-HfO{sub 2} may contribute to the differences among VEELS spectra reported in literature. The good agreement between the complex dielectric permittivity extracted from VEELS with nanometer spatial resolution, TDDFT modeling, and past literature demonstrates that the present HRTEM-VEELS device-oriented methodology is a possible solution to the difficult nanocharacterization challenges given in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.

  10. Measurement of electron-spin transports in GaAs quantum wells using a transmission-grating-sampled circular dichroism absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hua-Liang; Fang, Shaoyin; Wen, Jinhui; Lai, Tianshu

    2014-11-07

    A transmission-grating-sampled circular dichroism absorption spectroscopy (TGS-CDAS) and its theoretical model are developed sensitively to measure decay dynamics of a transient spin grating (TSG). A binary transmission grating with the same period as TSG is set behind TSG. It allows only a same small part of each period in TSG measured by circular dichroism absorption effect of a probe. In this way, the zero average of spin-dependent effects measured over a whole period in TSG is avoided so that TGS-CDAS has a high sensitivity to spin evolution in TSG. Spin transport experiments are performed on GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. Experimental results prove the feasibility and reliability of TGS-CDAS.

  11. Measurement of electron-spin transports in GaAs quantum wells using a transmission-grating-sampled circular dichroism absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hua-Liang; Fang, Shaoyin; Wen, Jinhui; Lai, Tianshu

    2014-11-01

    A transmission-grating-sampled circular dichroism absorption spectroscopy (TGS-CDAS) and its theoretical model are developed sensitively to measure decay dynamics of a transient spin grating (TSG). A binary transmission grating with the same period as TSG is set behind TSG. It allows only a same small part of each period in TSG measured by circular dichroism absorption effect of a probe. In this way, the zero average of spin-dependent effects measured over a whole period in TSG is avoided so that TGS-CDAS has a high sensitivity to spin evolution in TSG. Spin transport experiments are performed on GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. Experimental results prove the feasibility and reliability of TGS-CDAS.

  12. Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hong-Gang; Zheng, Haimei

    2016-05-27

    Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has attracted significant interest in recent years. With nanofabricated liquid cells, it has been possible to image through liquids using TEM with subnanometer resolution, and many previously unseen materials dynamics have been revealed. Liquid cell TEM has been applied to many areas of research, ranging from chemistry to physics, materials science, and biology. So far, topics of study include nanoparticle growth and assembly, electrochemical deposition and lithiation for batteries, tracking and manipulation of nanoparticles, catalysis, and imaging of biological materials. In this article, we first review the development of liquid cell TEM and then highlight progress in various areas of research. In the study of nanoparticle growth, the electron beam can serve both as the illumination source for imaging and as the input energy for reactions. However, many other research topics require the control of electron beam effects to minimize electron beam damage. We discuss efforts to understand electron beam-liquid matter interactions. Finally, we provide a perspective on future challenges and opportunities in liquid cell TEM. PMID:27215823

  13. Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hong-Gang; Zheng, Haimei

    2016-05-01

    Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has attracted significant interest in recent years. With nanofabricated liquid cells, it has been possible to image through liquids using TEM with subnanometer resolution, and many previously unseen materials dynamics have been revealed. Liquid cell TEM has been applied to many areas of research, ranging from chemistry to physics, materials science, and biology. So far, topics of study include nanoparticle growth and assembly, electrochemical deposition and lithiation for batteries, tracking and manipulation of nanoparticles, catalysis, and imaging of biological materials. In this article, we first review the development of liquid cell TEM and then highlight progress in various areas of research. In the study of nanoparticle growth, the electron beam can serve both as the illumination source for imaging and as the input energy for reactions. However, many other research topics require the control of electron beam effects to minimize electron beam damage. We discuss efforts to understand electron beam-liquid matter interactions. Finally, we provide a perspective on future challenges and opportunities in liquid cell TEM.

  14. Constraining exoplanet mass from transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Julien; Seager, Sara

    2013-12-20

    Determination of an exoplanet's mass is a key to understanding its basic properties, including its potential for supporting life. To date, mass constraints for exoplanets are predominantly based on radial velocity (RV) measurements, which are not suited for planets with low masses, large semimajor axes, or those orbiting faint or active stars. Here, we present a method to extract an exoplanet's mass solely from its transmission spectrum. We find good agreement between the mass retrieved for the hot Jupiter HD 189733b from transmission spectroscopy with that from RV measurements. Our method will be able to retrieve the masses of Earth-sized and super-Earth planets using data from future space telescopes that were initially designed for atmospheric characterization. PMID:24357312

  15. Nonlinear transmission spectroscopy with dual frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Rachel; Mukamel, Shaul

    2014-08-01

    We show how two frequency combs E1, E2 can be used to measure single-photon, two-photon absorption (TPA), and Raman resonances in a molecule with three electronic bands, by detecting the radio frequency modulation of the nonlinear transmission signal. Some peaks are independent of the carrier frequency of the comb and others shift with that frequency and have a width close to the comb width. TPA and Raman resonances independent of the carrier frequency are selected by measuring the transmission signal ˜E12E22 and the single-photon resonances are selected by measuring the transmission signal ˜E13E2. Sinusoidal spectral phase shaping strongly affects the TPA, but not the Raman resonances.

  16. Nanowire electron scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Brian D. (Inventor); Bronikowski, Michael (Inventor); Wong, Eric W. (Inventor); von Allmen, Paul (Inventor); Oyafuso, Fabiano A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and devices for spectroscopic identification of molecules using nanoscale wires are disclosed. According to one of the methods, nanoscale wires are provided, electrons are injected into the nanoscale wire; and inelastic electron scattering is measured via excitation of low-lying vibrational energy levels of molecules bound to the nanoscale wire.

  17. Fabrication of large area plasmonic nanoparticle grating structure on silver halide based transmission electron microscope film and its application as a surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Sudheer, Tiwari, P.; Singh, M. N.; Sinha, A. K.; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K.; Bhartiya, S.; Mukherjee, C.

    2015-08-14

    The plasmonic responses of silver nanoparticle grating structures of different periods made on silver halide based electron microscope film are investigated. Raster scan of the conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to carry out electron beam lithography for fabricating the plasmonic nanoparticle grating (PNG) structures. Morphological characterization of the PNG structures, carried out by the SEM and the atomic force microscope, indicates that the depth of the groove decreases with a decrease in the grating period. Elemental characterization performed by the energy dispersive spectroscopy and the x-ray diffraction shows the presence of nanoparticles of silver in the PNG grating. The optical characterization of the gratings shows that the localized surface plasmon resonance peak shifts from 366 to 378 nm and broadens with a decrease in grating period from 10 to 2.5 μm. The surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of the Rhodamine-6G dye coated PNG structure shows the maximum enhancement by two orders of magnitude in comparison to the randomly distributed silver nanoparticles having similar size and shape as the PNG structure.

  18. Fabrication of large area plasmonic nanoparticle grating structure on silver halide based transmission electron microscope film and its application as a surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheer, Tiwari, P.; Bhartiya, S.; Mukherjee, C.; Singh, M. N.; Sinha, A. K.; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2015-08-01

    The plasmonic responses of silver nanoparticle grating structures of different periods made on silver halide based electron microscope film are investigated. Raster scan of the conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to carry out electron beam lithography for fabricating the plasmonic nanoparticle grating (PNG) structures. Morphological characterization of the PNG structures, carried out by the SEM and the atomic force microscope, indicates that the depth of the groove decreases with a decrease in the grating period. Elemental characterization performed by the energy dispersive spectroscopy and the x-ray diffraction shows the presence of nanoparticles of silver in the PNG grating. The optical characterization of the gratings shows that the localized surface plasmon resonance peak shifts from 366 to 378 nm and broadens with a decrease in grating period from 10 to 2.5 μm. The surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of the Rhodamine-6G dye coated PNG structure shows the maximum enhancement by two orders of magnitude in comparison to the randomly distributed silver nanoparticles having similar size and shape as the PNG structure.

  19. Detailed structural analysis of epitaxial MBE-grown Fe/Cr superlattices by x-ray diffraction and transmission-electron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, M.E.; Santamaria, J.; Kim, S.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Krishnan, Kannan M.

    2005-03-15

    We have performed a detailed quantitative structural analysis of epitaxial [Fe(3 nm)/Cr(1.2 nm)]{sub 20} superlattices by low- and high-angle x-ray diffraction, and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy on cross-section samples. The interface roughness was changed systematically by varying the substrate temperature (150-250 deg. C) maintaining all other growth parameters fixed. Direct imaging of the interfaces allows examining the roughness of the individual interfaces and its evolution with thickness. A statistical analysis of the local interface width for the individual layers supplies the roughness static and dynamic exponents. High-temperature samples (250 deg. C) show roughness decreasing with thickness as a result of surface-diffusion-dominated growth. Low-temperature samples (150 deg. C) show anomalous non-self-affine roughness characterized by a time-dependent local interface width.

  20. Electron energy loss spectroscopy in advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The combination of a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) with an electron energy loss spectrometer (EELS) yields a powerful tool for the microcharacterization of materials. However, the application of this technique to advanced materials problems can only be fully appreciated when the information obtained using EELS is related to that obtained from other analytical spectroscopies. In this chapter, we briefly discuss the relative performance of X-ray, Auger and Photoelectron Spectroscopies with EELS pointing out the limitations and merits of each. This comparison is followed by examples of the application of EELS to investigations involving high {Tc} superconductors, artificial metallic superlattices, amorphous magnetic materials and the characterization of metallic hydride phases. 14 refs., 22 figs.

  1. Image simulation for electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, Mark P.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2007-10-22

    In this paper, aberration correction of the probe forming optics of the scanning transmission electron microscope has allowed the probe-forming aperture to be increased in size, resulting in probes of the order of 1 Å in diameter. The next generation of correctors promise even smaller probes. Improved spectrometer optics also offers the possibility of larger electron energy loss spectrometry detectors. The localization of images based on core-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy is examined as function of both probe-forming aperture and detector size. The effective ionization is nonlocal in nature, and two common local approximations are compared to full nonlocal calculations. Finally, the affect of the channelling of the electron probe within the sample is also discussed.

  2. Image simulation for electron energy loss spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Oxley, Mark P.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2007-10-22

    In this paper, aberration correction of the probe forming optics of the scanning transmission electron microscope has allowed the probe-forming aperture to be increased in size, resulting in probes of the order of 1 Å in diameter. The next generation of correctors promise even smaller probes. Improved spectrometer optics also offers the possibility of larger electron energy loss spectrometry detectors. The localization of images based on core-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy is examined as function of both probe-forming aperture and detector size. The effective ionization is nonlocal in nature, and two common local approximations are compared to full nonlocal calculations.more » Finally, the affect of the channelling of the electron probe within the sample is also discussed.« less

  3. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    DOEpatents

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  4. Electronic spectroscopy of diatomic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the principal computational approaches and their accuracy for the study of electronic spectroscopy of diatomic molecules. We include a number of examples from our work that illustrate the range of application. We show how full configuration interaction benchmark calculations were instrumental in improving the understanding of the computational requirements for obtaining accurate results for diatomic spectroscopy. With this understanding it is now possible to compute radiative lifetimes accurate to within 10% for systems involving first- and second-row atoms. We consider the determination of the infrared vibrational transition probabilities for the ground states of SiO and NO, based on a globally accurate dipole moment function. We show how we were able to assign the a(sup "5)II state of CO as the upper state in the recently observed emission bands of CO in an Ar matrix. We next discuss the assignment of the photoelectron detachment spectra of NO and the alkali oxide negative ions. We then present several examples illustrating the state-of-the-art in determining radiative lifetimes for valence-valence and valence-Rydberg transitions. We next compare the molecular spectroscopy of the valence isoelectronic B2, Al2, and AlB molecules. The final examples consider systems involving transition metal atoms, which illustrate the difficulty in describing states with different numbers of d electrons.

  5. Practical aspects of monochromators developed for transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kimoto, Koji

    2014-01-01

    A few practical aspects of monochromators recently developed for transmission electron microscopy are briefly reviewed. The basic structures and properties of four monochromators, a single Wien filter monochromator, a double Wien filter monochromator, an omega-shaped electrostatic monochromator and an alpha-shaped magnetic monochromator, are outlined. The advantages and side effects of these monochromators in spectroscopy and imaging are pointed out. A few properties of the monochromators in imaging, such as spatial or angular chromaticity, are also discussed. PMID:25125333

  6. Spectroscopy of Sound Transmission in Solid Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Fitzjarrald, Tamara J.

    2013-01-01

    These laboratory experiments are designed to familiarize students with concepts of spectroscopy by using sound waves. Topics covered in these experiments include the structure of nitinol alloys and polymer chain stiffness as a function of structure and temperature. Generally, substances that are stiffer or have higher symmetry at the molecular…

  7. Transmission Electron Microscope Measures Lattice Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, William T.

    1996-01-01

    Convergent-beam microdiffraction (CBM) in thermionic-emission transmission electron microscope (TEM) is technique for measuring lattice parameters of nanometer-sized specimens of crystalline materials. Lattice parameters determined by use of CBM accurate to within few parts in thousand. Technique developed especially for use in quantifying lattice parameters, and thus strains, in epitaxial mismatched-crystal-lattice multilayer structures in multiple-quantum-well and other advanced semiconductor electronic devices. Ability to determine strains in indivdual layers contributes to understanding of novel electronic behaviors of devices.

  8. Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Bryan W.

    2012-07-10

    A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused laser crossover produces a scattering-angle-dependent phase shift in the electrons of the post-sample electron beam corresponding to a desired phase contrast transfer function.

  9. Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Aguiar, Jeffery A.

    2015-09-15

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to determine the chemistry and oxidation state of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 thin film battery electrodes in liquid cells for in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM). Using the L2,3 white line intensity ratio method we determine the oxidation state of Mn and Ti in a liquid electrolyte solvent and discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity.

  10. Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy of a Chiral Plasmonic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, G. W.; Karimullah, A.; Williamson, SDR; Kadodwala, M.; MacLaren, D. A.

    2015-10-01

    A detailed analysis of the plasmonic excitations within a nanopatterned gold chiral biosensor element, measured by scanning transmission electron microscopy electron energy loss spectroscopy, is presented. We discuss aspects of data acquisition, processing, analysis and simulation. The localised surface plasmonic resonance modes in the structure are extracted using non-negative matrix factorisation and we use simulations to correlate notable deviations from the idealised spectrum to nanometric fabrication imperfections. The methodology presented has wide applicability to a variety of metamaterials.

  11. Insights into complexation of dissolved organic matter and Al(III) and nanominerals formation in soils under contrasting fertilizations using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yongli; Li, Huan; Xiao, Jian; Wang, Chang; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; He, Xinhua; Zhou, Quansuo; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the organomineral associations in soils is of great importance. Using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques, this study compared the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils under short-term (3-years) and long-term (22-years) fertilizations. Three fertilization treatments were examined: (i) no fertilization (Control), (ii) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and (iii) NPK plus swine manure (NPKM). Soil spectra detected by the 2DCOS Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that fertilization modified the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM at both short- and long- term location sites. The CH deformations in aliphatic groups played an important role in binding to Al(III) but with minor differences among the Control, NPK and NPKM at the short-term site. While at the long-term site both C-O stretching of polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances and aliphatic O-H were bound to Al(III) under the Control, whereas only aliphatic O-H, and only polysaccharides and silicates, were bound to Al(III) under NPK and NPKM, respectively. Images from HRTEM demonstrated that crystalline nanominerals, composed of Fe and O, were predominant in soil DOM under NPK, while amorphous nanominerals, predominant in Al, Si, and O, were dominant in soil DOM under Control and NPKM. In conclusion, fertilization strategies, especially under long-term, could affect the binding of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM, which resulted in alterations in the turnover, reactivity, and bioavailability of soil organic matter. Our results demonstrated that the FTIR-2DCOS combined with HRTEM techniques could enhance our understanding in the binding characteristics of DOM to Al(III) and the resulted nanominerals in soils. PMID:24997950

  12. PAC spectroscopy of electronic ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.A.; Wang, Ruiping; Schwenker, R.; Evenson, W.E.; Rasera, R.L.; Sommers, J.A.

    1991-12-31

    Dilute indium dopants in cerium oxides and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} have been studied by{sup 111}In/Cd Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. By controlling oxygen vacancy concentration in the cerium oxides through doping or high-temperature vacuum annealing, we have found that indium always forms a defect complex unless the sample is doped to reduce greatly the oxygen vacancy concentration. Three different vacancy-associated complexes are found with concentrations that depend on doping and oxygen stoichiometry. Another defect complex occurs in samples having negligible vacancy concentration. At low temperatures, evidence is found of interaction with an electronic hole trapped by {sup 111}Cd after the radioactive decay of the {sup 111}In parent. In YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} the indium substitutes preferentially at the Y site but has measurable probability of substitution in at least one of the two copper sites. A symmetry change near 650 {degree}C is consistent with the well-documented orthorhombic/tetragonal transition for samples in air or oxygen.

  13. PAC spectroscopy of electronic ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.A.; Wang, Ruiping; Schwenker, R. . Dept. of Physics); Evenson, W.E. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Rasera, R.L. . Dept. of Physics); Sommers, J.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Dilute indium dopants in cerium oxides and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} have been studied by{sup 111}In/Cd Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. By controlling oxygen vacancy concentration in the cerium oxides through doping or high-temperature vacuum annealing, we have found that indium always forms a defect complex unless the sample is doped to reduce greatly the oxygen vacancy concentration. Three different vacancy-associated complexes are found with concentrations that depend on doping and oxygen stoichiometry. Another defect complex occurs in samples having negligible vacancy concentration. At low temperatures, evidence is found of interaction with an electronic hole trapped by {sup 111}Cd after the radioactive decay of the {sup 111}In parent. In YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} the indium substitutes preferentially at the Y site but has measurable probability of substitution in at least one of the two copper sites. A symmetry change near 650 {degree}C is consistent with the well-documented orthorhombic/tetragonal transition for samples in air or oxygen.

  14. Communication: Investigation of the electron momentum density distribution of nanodiamonds by electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhenbao; Yang, Bing; Lin, Yangming; Su, Dangsheng

    2015-12-01

    The electron momentum distribution of detonation nanodiamonds (DND) was investigated by recording electron energy-loss spectra at large momentum transfer in the transmission electron microscope (TEM), which is known as electron Compton scattering from solid (ECOSS). Compton profile of diamond film obtained by ECOSS was found in good agreement with prior photon experimental measurement and theoretical calculation that for bulk diamond. Compared to the diamond film, the valence Compton profile of DND was found to be narrower, which indicates a more delocalization of the ground-state charge density for the latter. Combining with other TEM characterizations such as high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy, diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements, ECOSS was shown to be a great potential technique to study ground-state electronic properties of nanomaterials. PMID:26646862

  15. Communication: Investigation of the electron momentum density distribution of nanodiamonds by electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhenbao; Yang, Bing; Lin, Yangming; Su, Dangsheng

    2015-12-07

    The electron momentum distribution of detonation nanodiamonds (DND) was investigated by recording electron energy-loss spectra at large momentum transfer in the transmission electron microscope (TEM), which is known as electron Compton scattering from solid (ECOSS). Compton profile of diamond film obtained by ECOSS was found in good agreement with prior photon experimental measurement and theoretical calculation that for bulk diamond. Compared to the diamond film, the valence Compton profile of DND was found to be narrower, which indicates a more delocalization of the ground-state charge density for the latter. Combining with other TEM characterizations such as high-resolution transmission electron spectroscopy, diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements, ECOSS was shown to be a great potential technique to study ground-state electronic properties of nanomaterials.

  16. Transmission electron microscopy of mercury metal.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Dalaver H; Sougrat, Rachid

    2016-09-01

    Transmission electron microcopy (TEM) analysis of liquid metals, especially mercury (Hg), is difficult to carry out because their specimen preparation poses a daunting task due to the unique surface properties of these metals. This paper reports a cryoTEM study on Hg using a novel specimen preparation technique. Hg metal is mixed with water using sonication and quenched in liquid ethane cryogen. This technique permits research into the morphological, phase and structural properties of Hg at nanoscale dimensions. PMID:27018645

  17. Study of lignification by noninvasive techniques in growing maize internodes. An investigation by Fourier transform infrared cross-polarization-magic angle spinning 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and immunocytochemical transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Joseleau, J P; Ruel, K

    1997-07-01

    Noninvasive techniques were used for the study in situ of lignification in the maturing cell walls of the maize (Zea mays L.) stem. Within the longitudinal axis of a developing internode all of the stages of lignification can be found. The synthesis of the three types of lignins, p-hydroxyphenylpropane (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S), was investigated in situ by cross-polarization-magic angle spinning 13C-solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and immunocytochemical electron microscopy. The first lignin appearing in the parenchyma is of the G-type preceeding the incorporation of S nuclei in the later stages. However, in vascular bundles, typical absorption bands of S nuclei are visible in the Fourier transform infrared spectra at the earliest stage of lignification. Immunocytochemical determination of the three types of lignin in transmission electron microscopy was possible thanks to the use of antisera prepared against synthetic H, G, and the mixed GS dehydrogenative polymers (K. Ruel, O. Faix, J.P. Joseleau [1994] J Trace Microprobe Tech 12: 247-265). The specificity of the immunological probes demonstrated that there are differences in the relative temporal synthesis of the H, G, and GS lignins in the different tissues undergoing lignification. Considering the intermonomeric linkages predominating in the antigens used for the preparation of the immunological probes, the relative intensities of the labeling obtained provided, for the first time to our knowledge, information about the macromolecular nature of lignins (condensed versus noncondensed) in relation to their ultrastructural localization and development stage. PMID:9232887

  18. 7 CFR 400.209 - Electronic transmission and receiving system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electronic transmission and receiving system. 400.209... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.209 Electronic transmission and receiving system. Any Contractor... Corporation approval of the electronic system as a condition to the electronic transmission and reception...

  19. 7 CFR 400.209 - Electronic transmission and receiving system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electronic transmission and receiving system. 400.209... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.209 Electronic transmission and receiving system. Any Contractor... Corporation approval of the electronic system as a condition to the electronic transmission and reception...

  20. 7 CFR 400.209 - Electronic transmission and receiving system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electronic transmission and receiving system. 400.209... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.209 Electronic transmission and receiving system. Any Contractor... Corporation approval of the electronic system as a condition to the electronic transmission and reception...

  1. Advanced experimental applications for x-ray transmission gratings spectroscopy using a novel grating fabrication method.

    PubMed

    Hurvitz, G; Ehrlich, Y; Strum, G; Shpilman, Z; Levy, I; Fraenkel, M

    2012-08-01

    A novel fabrication method for soft x-ray transmission grating and other optical elements is presented. The method uses focused-ion-beam technology to fabricate high-quality free standing grating bars on transmission electron microscopy grids. High quality transmission gratings are obtained with superb accuracy and versatility. Using these gratings and back-illuminated CCD camera, absolutely calibrated x-ray spectra can be acquired for soft x-ray source diagnostics in the 100-3000 eV spectral range. Double grating combinations of identical or different parameters are easily fabricated, allowing advanced one-shot application of transmission grating spectroscopy. These applications include spectroscopy with different spectral resolutions, bandwidths, dynamic ranges, and may serve for identification of high-order contribution, and spectral calibrations of various x-ray optical elements. PMID:22938276

  2. Advanced experimental applications for x-ray transmission gratings spectroscopy using a novel grating fabrication method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurvitz, G.; Ehrlich, Y.; Strum, G.; Shpilman, Z.; Levy, I.; Fraenkel, M.

    2012-08-01

    A novel fabrication method for soft x-ray transmission grating and other optical elements is presented. The method uses focused-ion-beam technology to fabricate high-quality free standing grating bars on transmission electron microscopy grids. High quality transmission gratings are obtained with superb accuracy and versatility. Using these gratings and back-illuminated CCD camera, absolutely calibrated x-ray spectra can be acquired for soft x-ray source diagnostics in the 100-3000 eV spectral range. Double grating combinations of identical or different parameters are easily fabricated, allowing advanced one-shot application of transmission grating spectroscopy. These applications include spectroscopy with different spectral resolutions, bandwidths, dynamic ranges, and may serve for identification of high-order contribution, and spectral calibrations of various x-ray optical elements.

  3. Electron spectrometer for gas-phase spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, J.D.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1997-04-01

    An electron spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy of gaseous samples using synchrotron radiation has been designed and constructed. The spectrometer consists of a gas cell, cylindrical electrostatic lens, spherical-sector electron energy analyzer, position-sensitive detector and associated power supplies, electronics and vacuum pumps. Details of the spectrometer design are presented together with some representative spectra.

  4. Transmission electron microscopic examination of phosphoric acid fuel cell components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pebler, A.

    1986-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to physically characterize tested and untested phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) components. Those examined included carbon-supported platinum catalysts, carbon backing paper, and Teflon-bonded catalyst layers at various stages of fabrication and after testing in pressurized PAFC's. Applicability of electron diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy for identifying the various phases was explored. The discussion focuses on the morphology and size distribution of platinum, the morphology and structural aspects of Teflon in catalyst layers, and the structural evidence of carbon corrosion. Reference is made to other physical characterization techniques where appropriate. A qualitative model of the catalyst layer that emerged from the TEM studies is presented.

  5. Quantitative characterization of electron detectors for transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ruskin, Rachel S.; Yu, Zhiheng; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    A new generation of direct electron detectors for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) promises significant improvement over previous detectors in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). However, the performance of these new detectors needs to be carefully monitored in order to optimize imaging conditions and check for degradation over time. We have developed an easy-to-use software tool, FindDQE, to measure MTF and DQE of electron detectors using images of a microscope’s built-in beam stop. Using this software, we have determined the DQE curves of four direct electron detectors currently available: the Gatan K2 Summit, the FEI Falcon I and II, and the Direct Electron DE-12, under a variety of total dose and dose rate conditions. We have additionally measured the curves for the Gatan US4000 and TVIPS F416 scintillator-based cameras. We compare the results from our new method with published curves. PMID:24189638

  6. Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver.

    PubMed

    French, David M; Hoff, Brad W; Tang, Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Allen-Flowers, Jordan; Shiffler, Don

    2012-12-01

    Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique. PMID:23277977

  7. Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, David M.; Hoff, Brad W.; Tang, Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Allen-Flowers, Jordan; Shiffler, Don

    2012-12-01

    Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique.

  8. Nonlinear transmission line based electron beam driver

    SciTech Connect

    French, David M.; Hoff, Brad W.; Tang Wilkin; Heidger, Susan; Shiffler, Don; Allen-Flowers, Jordan

    2012-12-15

    Gated field emission cathodes can provide short electron pulses without the requirement of laser systems or cathode heating required by photoemission or thermionic cathodes. The large electric field requirement for field emission to take place can be achieved by using a high aspect ratio cathode with a large field enhancement factor which reduces the voltage requirement for emission. In this paper, a cathode gate driver based on the output pulse train from a nonlinear transmission line is experimentally demonstrated. The application of the pulse train to a tufted carbon fiber field emission cathode generates short electron pulses. The pulses are approximately 2 ns in duration with emission currents of several mA, and the train contains up to 6 pulses at a frequency of 100 MHz. Particle-in-cell simulation is used to predict the characteristic of the current pulse train generated from a single carbon fiber field emission cathode using the same technique.

  9. Quantitative Phase Retrieval in Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Robert Alexander

    Phase retrieval in the transmission electron microscope offers the unique potential to collect quantitative data regarding the electric and magnetic properties of materials at the nanoscale. Substantial progress in the field of quantitative phase imaging was made by improvements to the technique of off-axis electron holography. In this thesis, several breakthroughs have been achieved that improve the quantitative analysis of phase retrieval. An accurate means of measuring the electron wavefront coherence in two-dimensions was developed and pratical applications demonstrated. The detector modulation-transfer function (MTF) was assessed by slanted-edge, noise, and the novel holographic techniques. It was shown the traditional slanted-edge technique underestimates the MTF. In addition, progress was made in dark and gain reference normalization of images, and it was shown that incomplete read-out is a concern for slow-scan CCD detectors. Last, the phase error due to electron shot noise was reduced by the technique of summation of hologram series. The phase error, which limits the finest electric and magnetic phenomena which can be investigated, was reduced by over 900 % with no loss of spatial resolution. Quantitative agreement between the experimental root-mean-square phase error and the analytical prediction of phase error was achieved.

  10. Nucleotide-Specific Contrast for DNA Sequencing by Electron Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Davis, Ronald W.

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequencing by imaging in an electron microscope is an approach that holds promise to deliver long reads with low error rates and without the need for amplification. Earlier work using transmission electron microscopes, which use high electron energies on the order of 100 keV, has shown that low contrast and radiation damage necessitates the use of heavy atom labeling of individual nucleotides, which increases the read error rates. Other prior work using scattering electrons with much lower energy has shown to suppress beam damage on DNA. Here we explore possibilities to increase contrast by employing two methods, X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy. Using bulk DNA samples with monomers of each base, both methods are shown to provide contrast mechanisms that can distinguish individual nucleotides without labels. Both spectroscopic techniques can be readily implemented in a low energy electron microscope, which may enable label-free DNA sequencing by direct imaging. PMID:27149617

  11. Probing Battery Chemistry with Liquid Cell Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren L.

    2015-11-25

    We demonstrate the ability to apply electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to follow the chemistry and oxidation states of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 battery electrodes within a battery solvent. The use and importance of in situ electrochemical cells coupled with a scanning/transmission electron microscope (S/TEM) has expanded and been applied to follow changes in battery chemistry during electrochemical cycling. Furthermore, we discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity and provide a framework to apply this important analytical method to future in situ electrochemical studies.

  12. Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Unocic, Raymond R; Baggetto, Loïc; Veith, Gabriel M; Aguiar, Jeffery A; Unocic, Kinga A; Sacci, Robert L; Dudney, Nancy J; More, Karren L

    2015-11-25

    We demonstrate the ability to apply electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to follow the chemistry and oxidation states of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 battery electrodes within a battery solvent. This is significant as the use and importance of in situ electrochemical cells coupled with a scanning/transmission electron microscope (S/TEM) has expanded and been applied to follow changes in battery chemistry during electrochemical cycling. We discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity and provide a framework to apply this important analytical method to future in situ electrochemical studies. PMID:26404766

  13. Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Aguiar, Jeffery A.

    2015-09-15

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to determine the chemistry and oxidation state of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 thin film battery electrodes in liquid cells for in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM). Using the L2,3 white line intensity ratio method we determine the oxidation state of Mn and Ti in a liquid electrolyte solvent and discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity.

  14. Electron spectroscopy of the diamond surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1981-01-01

    The diamond surface is studied by ionization loss spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. For surfaces heated to temperatures not exceeding 900 C, the band gap was found to be devoid of empty states in the absence of electron beam effects. The incident electron beam generates empty states in the band gap and loss of structure in the valence band for these surfaces. A cross section of 1.4 x 10 to the -19th sq cm was obtained for this effect. For surfaces heated to temperatures exceeding 900 C the spectra were identical to those from surfaces modified by the electron beam. The diamond surface undergoes a thermal conversion in its electronic structure at about 900 C.

  15. Deciphering the physics and chemistry of perovskites with transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Polking, Mark J

    2016-03-17

    Perovskite oxides exhibit rich structural complexity and a broad range of functional properties, including ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, and superconductivity. The development of aberration correction for the transmission electron microscope and concurrent progress in electron spectroscopy, electron holography, and other techniques has fueled rapid progress in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of these materials. New techniques based on the transmission electron microscope are first surveyed, and the applications of these techniques for the study of the structure, chemistry, electrostatics, and dynamics of perovskite oxides are then explored in detail, with a particular focus on ferroelectric materials. PMID:26762871

  16. Quantitative characterization of electron detectors for transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ruskin, Rachel S; Yu, Zhiheng; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2013-12-01

    A new generation of direct electron detectors for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) promises significant improvement over previous detectors in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). However, the performance of these new detectors needs to be carefully monitored in order to optimize imaging conditions and check for degradation over time. We have developed an easy-to-use software tool, FindDQE, to measure MTF and DQE of electron detectors using images of a microscope's built-in beam stop. Using this software, we have determined the DQE curves of four direct electron detectors currently available: the Gatan K2 Summit, the FEI Falcon I and II, and the Direct Electron DE-12, under a variety of total dose and dose rate conditions. We have additionally measured the curves for the Gatan US4000 and TVIPS TemCam-F416 scintillator-based cameras. We compare the results from our new method with published curves. PMID:24189638

  17. Dynamical effects in electron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianqiang Sky; Kas, J. J.; Sponza, Lorenzo; Reshetnyak, Igor; Guzzo, Matteo; Giorgetti, Christine; Gatti, Matteo; Sottile, Francesco; Rehr, J. J.; Reining, Lucia

    2015-11-01

    One of the big challenges of theoretical condensed-matter physics is the description, understanding, and prediction of the effects of the Coulomb interaction on materials properties. In electronic spectra, the Coulomb interaction causes a renormalization of energies and change of spectral weight. Most importantly, it can lead to new structures, often called satellites. These can be linked to the coupling of excitations, also termed dynamical effects. State-of-the-art methods in the framework of many-body perturbation theory, in particular, the widely used GW approximation, often fail to describe satellite spectra. Instead, approaches based on a picture of electron-boson coupling such as the cumulant expansion are promising for the description of plasmon satellites. In this work, we give a unified derivation of the GW approximation and the cumulant expansion for the one-body Green's function. Using the example of bulk sodium, we compare the resulting spectral functions both in the valence and in the core region, and we discuss the dispersion of quasi-particles and satellites. We show that self-consistency is crucial to obtain meaningful results, in particular, at large binding energies. Very good agreement with experiment is obtained when the intrinsic spectral function is corrected for extrinsic and interference effects. Finally, we sketch how one can approach the problem in the case of the two-body Green's function, and we discuss the cancellation of various dynamical effects that occur in that case.

  18. Dynamical effects in electron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jianqiang Sky Reshetnyak, Igor; Giorgetti, Christine; Sottile, Francesco; Reining, Lucia; Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Sponza, Lorenzo; Guzzo, Matteo; Gatti, Matteo

    2015-11-14

    One of the big challenges of theoretical condensed-matter physics is the description, understanding, and prediction of the effects of the Coulomb interaction on materials properties. In electronic spectra, the Coulomb interaction causes a renormalization of energies and change of spectral weight. Most importantly, it can lead to new structures, often called satellites. These can be linked to the coupling of excitations, also termed dynamical effects. State-of-the-art methods in the framework of many-body perturbation theory, in particular, the widely used GW approximation, often fail to describe satellite spectra. Instead, approaches based on a picture of electron-boson coupling such as the cumulant expansion are promising for the description of plasmon satellites. In this work, we give a unified derivation of the GW approximation and the cumulant expansion for the one-body Green’s function. Using the example of bulk sodium, we compare the resulting spectral functions both in the valence and in the core region, and we discuss the dispersion of quasi-particles and satellites. We show that self-consistency is crucial to obtain meaningful results, in particular, at large binding energies. Very good agreement with experiment is obtained when the intrinsic spectral function is corrected for extrinsic and interference effects. Finally, we sketch how one can approach the problem in the case of the two-body Green’s function, and we discuss the cancellation of various dynamical effects that occur in that case.

  19. Dynamical effects in electron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianqiang Sky; Kas, J J; Sponza, Lorenzo; Reshetnyak, Igor; Guzzo, Matteo; Giorgetti, Christine; Gatti, Matteo; Sottile, Francesco; Rehr, J J; Reining, Lucia

    2015-11-14

    One of the big challenges of theoretical condensed-matter physics is the description, understanding, and prediction of the effects of the Coulomb interaction on materials properties. In electronic spectra, the Coulomb interaction causes a renormalization of energies and change of spectral weight. Most importantly, it can lead to new structures, often called satellites. These can be linked to the coupling of excitations, also termed dynamical effects. State-of-the-art methods in the framework of many-body perturbation theory, in particular, the widely used GW approximation, often fail to describe satellite spectra. Instead, approaches based on a picture of electron-boson coupling such as the cumulant expansion are promising for the description of plasmon satellites. In this work, we give a unified derivation of the GW approximation and the cumulant expansion for the one-body Green's function. Using the example of bulk sodium, we compare the resulting spectral functions both in the valence and in the core region, and we discuss the dispersion of quasi-particles and satellites. We show that self-consistency is crucial to obtain meaningful results, in particular, at large binding energies. Very good agreement with experiment is obtained when the intrinsic spectral function is corrected for extrinsic and interference effects. Finally, we sketch how one can approach the problem in the case of the two-body Green's function, and we discuss the cancellation of various dynamical effects that occur in that case. PMID:26567648

  20. 7 CFR 400.209 - Electronic transmission and receiving system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electronic transmission and receiving system. 400.209... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.209 Electronic transmission and receiving system. Any Contractor...; (b) Maintain an electronic system which must be tested and approved by the Corporation; (c)...

  1. Fast neutron transmission spectroscopy for illicit substance detection

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, T.J.; Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1996-05-01

    Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS) is being investigated for detecting explosives in luggage and other small containers. It uses an accelerator to generate nanosecond-pulsed neutron beams that strike a target, producing a white source of neutrons. Elemental distributions along projections through the interrogated object are obtained by analyzing neutron transmission data. Tomographic reconstruction is used to determine the spatial variations of individual elemental densities. Elemental densities are combined in a detection algorithm that indicates presence or absence of explosives. The elemental unfolding and tomographic reconstruction algorithms have been validated by application to experimental data. System studies have been performed to study the operational characteristics and limitations of a FNTS system, and to determine the system`s sensitivity to several important parameters such as flight path length and position of the interrogated object.

  2. Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Alex; Koymen, A. R.; Mehl, David; Jensen, K. O.; Lei, Chun; Lee, K. H.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, Weiss et al. have demonstrated that it is possible to excite Auger transitions by annihilating core electrons using a low energy (less than 30eV) beam of positrons. This mechanism makes possible a new electron spectroscopy, Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES). The probability of exciting an Auger transition is proportional to the overlap of the positron wavefunction with atomic core levels. Since the Auger electron energy provides a signature of the atomic species making the transition, PAES makes it possible to determine the overlap of the positron wavefunction with a particular element. PAES may therefore provide a means of detecting positron-atom complexes. Measurements of PAES intensities from clean and adsorbate covered Cu surfaces are presented which indicate that approx. 5 percent of positrons injected into CU at 25eV produce core annihilations that result in Auger transitions.

  3. Dielectric relaxation of electrolyte solutions using terahertz transmission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaki, M. L. T.; Redondo, A.; Zawodzinski, T. A.; Taylor, A. J.

    2002-05-01

    We use terahertz (THz) transmission spectroscopy to obtain the frequency dependent complex dielectric constants of water, methanol, and propylene carbonate, and solutions of lithium salts in these solvents. The behavior of the pure solvents is modeled with either two (water) or three (methanol and propylene carbonate) Debye relaxations. We discuss the effects of ionic solvation on the relaxation behavior of the solvents in terms of modifications to the values of the Debye parameters of the pure solvents. In this way we obtain estimates for numbers of irrotationally bound solvent molecules, the numbers of bonds broken or formed, and the effects of ions on the higher-frequency relaxations.

  4. Electron energy loss spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnette, Drew; Roper, D. Keith

    2014-08-07

    Plasmon excitation decay by absorption, scattering, and hot electron transfer has been distinguished from effects induced by incident photons for gold nanoparticles on graphene monolayer using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Gold nano-ellipses were evaporated onto lithographed graphene, which was transferred onto a silicon nitride transmission electron microscopy grid. Plasmon decay from lithographed nanoparticles measured with EELS was compared in the absence and presence of the graphene monolayer. Measured decay values compared favorably with estimated radiative and non-radiative contributions to decay in the absence of graphene. Graphene significantly enhanced low-energy plasmon decay, increasing mode width 38%, but did not affect higher energy plasmon or dark mode decay. This decay beyond expected radiative and non-radiative mechanisms was attributed to hot electron transfer, and had quantum efficiency of 20%, consistent with previous reports.

  5. Characterizing Localized Surface Plasmons Using Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherqui, Charles; Thakkar, Niket; Li, Guoliang; Camden, Jon P.; Masiello, David J.

    2016-05-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) offers a window to view nanoscale properties and processes. When performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope, EELS can simultaneously render images of nanoscale objects with subnanometer spatial resolution and correlate them with spectroscopic information at a spectral resolution of ˜10-100 meV. Consequently, EELS is a near-perfect tool for understanding the optical and electronic properties of individual plasmonic metal nanoparticles and few-nanoparticle assemblies, which are significant in a wide range of fields. This review presents an overview of basic plasmonics and EELS theory and highlights several recent noteworthy experiments involving the interrogation of plasmonic metal nanoparticle systems using electron beams.

  6. Explosives detection studies using Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, C.L.; Micklich, B.J.; Sagalovsky, L.; Smith, D.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS) is being investigated for detection of explosives in luggage or air cargo. We present here the principle results of a two-year study of a few-view tomographic FNTS system using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP to simulate neutron transmission through simple luggage phantoms and Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves to determine system performance. Elemental distributions along projections through the interrogated object are obtained by analyzing MCNP generated neutron transmission data. Transmission data for few (3-5) angles and relatively coarse resolution ({approximately}2 cm) are used to create a tomographic reconstruction of elemental distributions within the object. The elemental unfolding and tomographic reconstruction algorithms and the concept of transmission-derived cross sections for use in elemental analysis have been validated by application to experimental data. Elemental distributions are combined in an explosives detection algorithm to provide an indication of the presence or absence of explosives. The algorithm in current use, termed the ``equivalent explosive`` algorithm, determines the quantity of explosive that can be formed using the measured amount of the constituent elements in each pixel. Reconstruction and explosives detection algorithms have been applied to a series of randomly packed suitcases to generated ROC that describe system performance in terms of the probability of detection and of false alarms. System studies have been performed to study the operational characteristics and limitations of a FNTS system, and to determine the system`s sensitivity to several important parameters such as neutron source reaction and incident particle energy, flight path length, and the position of the interrogated object.

  7. Single Molecule Spectroscopy of Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Holman; Ling Zang; Ruchuan Liu; David M. Adams

    2009-10-20

    The objectives of this research are threefold: (1) to develop methods for the study electron transfer processes at the single molecule level, (2) to develop a series of modifiable and structurally well defined molecular and nanoparticle systems suitable for detailed single molecule/particle and bulk spectroscopic investigation, (3) to relate experiment to theory in order to elucidate the dependence of electron transfer processes on molecular and electronic structure, coupling and reorganization energies. We have begun the systematic development of single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) of electron transfer and summaries of recent studies are shown. There is a tremendous need for experiments designed to probe the discrete electronic and molecular dynamic fluctuations of single molecules near electrodes and at nanoparticle surfaces. Single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) has emerged as a powerful method to measure properties of individual molecules which would normally be obscured in ensemble-averaged measurement. Fluctuations in the fluorescence time trajectories contain detailed molecular level statistical and dynamical information of the system. The full distribution of a molecular property is revealed in the stochastic fluctuations, giving information about the range of possible behaviors that lead to the ensemble average. In the case of electron transfer, this level of understanding is particularly important to the field of molecular and nanoscale electronics: from a device-design standpoint, understanding and controlling this picture of the overall range of possible behaviors will likely prove to be as important as designing ia the ideal behavior of any given molecule.

  8. 7 CFR 400.209 - Electronic transmission and receiving system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.209 Electronic transmission and receiving system. Any Contractor under the Contract is required to: (a) Adopt a plan for the purpose of transmitting and receiving... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic transmission and receiving system....

  9. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.

  10. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira

    2015-10-21

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a

  11. Transmission Kikuchi diffraction and transmission electron forescatter imaging of electropolished and FIB manufactured TEM specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Zieliński, W. Płociński, T.; Kurzydłowski, K.J.

    2015-06-15

    We present a study of the efficiency of the utility of scanning electron microscope (SEM)-based transmission methods for characterizing grain structure in thinned bulk metals. Foils of type 316 stainless steel were prepared by two methods commonly used for transmission electron microscopy — double-jet electropolishing and focused ion beam milling. A customized holder allowed positioning of the foils in a configuration appropriate for both transmission electron forward scatter diffraction, and for transmission imaging by the use of a forescatter detector with two diodes. We found that both crystallographic orientation maps and dark-field transmitted images could be obtained for specimens prepared by either method. However, for both methods, preparation-induced artifacts may affect the quality or accuracy of transmission SEM data, especially those acquired by the use of transmission Kikuchi diffraction. Generally, the quality of orientation data was better for specimens prepared by electropolishing, due to the absence of ion-induced damage. - Highlights: • The transmission imaging and diffraction techniques are emerging in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as promising new field of materials characterization. • The manuscript titled: “Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction and Transmission Electron Forescatter Imaging of Electropolished and FIB Manufactured TEM Specimens” documents how different specimen thinning procedures can effect efficiency of transmission Kikuchi diffraction and transmission electron forescatter imaging. • The abilities to make precision crystallographic orientation maps and dark-field images in transmission was studied on electropolished versus focus ion beam manufactured TEM specimens. • Depending on the need, electropolished and focused ion beam technique may produce suitable specimens for transmission imaging and diffraction in SEM.

  12. Single-atom electron energy loss spectroscopy of light elements

    PubMed Central

    Senga, Ryosuke; Suenaga, Kazu

    2015-01-01

    Light elements such as alkali metal (lithium, sodium) or halogen (fluorine, chlorine) are present in various substances and indeed play significant roles in our life. Although atomic behaviours of these elements are often a key to resolve chemical or biological activities, they are hardly visible in transmission electron microscope because of their smaller scattering power and higher knock-on probability. Here we propose a concept for detecting light atoms encaged in a nanospace by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy using inelastically scattered electrons. In this method, we demonstrate the single-atom detection of lithium, fluorine, sodium and chlorine with near-atomic precision, which is limited by the incident probe size, signal delocalization and atomic movement in nanospace. Moreover, chemical shifts of lithium K-edge have been successfully identified with various atomic configurations in one-dimensional lithium compounds. PMID:26228378

  13. Photoionizaton electronic spectroscopy of AgK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, C. S.; Robbins, D. L.; Pilgrim, J. S.; Duncan, M. A.

    1993-05-01

    An electronic spectrum is observed for the new heteronuclear metal dimer, AgK. Two electronic states are observed with origins near 315 nm. Spectra are detected for three isotopomers with mass-resolved one-color two-photon photoionization spectroscopy (R2PI). The vibrational bands in the more intense state (ω e = 85.8 cm -1) have rotational structure consistent with a 1Σ + → 1Π transition. This structure is red-shaded, consistent with an excited state having a significantly longer bond (3.02 Å) than the ground state (2.40 Å). The possible importance of ionic bonding is discussed.

  14. Collisional electron spectroscopy method for gas analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanova, M. S.; Pramatarov, P. M.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Peyeva, R. A.; Patrikov, T. B.

    2016-05-01

    Recently developed collisional electron spectroscopy (CES) method, based on identification of gas impurities by registration of groups of nonlocal fast electrons released by Penning ionization of the impurity particles by helium metastable atoms, is verified experimentally. Detection and identification of atoms and molecules of gas impurities in helium at pressures of 14 - 90 Torr with small admixtures of Ar, Kr, CO2, and N2 are carried out. The nonlocal negative glow plasma of short dc microdischarge is used as most suitable medium. Records of the energy spectra of penning electrons are performed by means of an additional electrode - sensor, located at the boundary of the discharge volume. Maxima appear in the electron energy spectra at the characteristic energies corresponding to Penning ionization of the impurity particles by helium metastable atoms.

  15. Nanoparticle analysis of cancer cells by light transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, N; Johnson, J; Stack, M S; Szajko, J; Sander, C; Rebuyon, R; Deatsch, A; Easton, J; Tanner, C E; Ruggiero, S T

    2015-09-01

    We have measured the optical properties of cancer and normal whole cells and lysates using light transmission spectroscopy (LTS). LTS provides both the optical extinction coefficient in the wavelength range from 220 to 1100nm and (by spectral inversion using a Mie model) the particle distribution density in the size range from 1 to 3000nm. Our current work involves whole cells and lysates of cultured human oral cells in liquid suspension. We found systematic differences in the optical extinction between cancer and normal whole cells and lysates, which translate to different particle size distributions (PSDs) for these materials. Specifically, we found that cancer cells have distinctly lower concentrations of nanoparticles with diameters less than 100nm and have higher concentrations of particles with diameters from 100 to 1000nm-results that hold for both whole cells and lysates. We also found a power-law dependence of particle density with diameter over several orders of magnitude. PMID:25981981

  16. Venus transit 2004: Illustrating the capability of exoplanet transmission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedelt, P.; Alonso, R.; Brown, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Rauer, H.; Schleicher, H.; Schmidt, W.; Schreier, F.; Titz, R.

    2011-09-01

    The transit of Venus in 2004 offered the rare possibility to remotely sense a well-known planetary atmosphere using ground-based absorption spectroscopy. Transmission spectra of Venus' atmosphere were obtained in the near infrared using the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) in Tenerife. Since the instrument was designed to measure the very bright photosphere of the Sun, extracting Venus' atmosphere was challenging. We were able to identify CO2 absorption lines in the upper Venus atmosphere. Moreover, the relative abundance of the three most abundant CO2 isotopologues could be determined. The observations resolved Venus' limb, showing Doppler-shifted absorption lines that are probably caused by high-altitude winds. We demonstrate the utility of ground-based measurements in analyzing the atmospheric constituents of a terrestrial planet atmosphere using methods that might be applied in future to terrestrial extrasolar planets.

  17. Electronic and optical spectroscopy of molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preiner, Michael J.

    Electronic transport through molecules has been intensively studied in recent years, due to scientific interest in fundamental questions about charge transport and the technological promise of nanoscale circuitry. A wide range of range of experimental platforms have been developed to electronically probe both single molecules and molecular monolayers. However, it remains challenging to fabricate reliable electronic contacts to molecules, and the vast majority of molecular electronic architectures are not amenable to standard characterization techniques, such as optical spectroscopy. Thus the field of molecular electronics has been hampered with problems of reproducibility, and many fundamental questions about electronic transport remain unanswered. This thesis describes four significant contributions towards the fabrication and characterization of molecular electronic devices: (1) The development of a new method for creating robust, large area junctions where the electronic transport is through a single monolayer of molecules. This method utilizes atomic layer deposition (ALD) to grow an ultrathin oxide layer on top of a molecular monolayer, which protects the molecules against subsequent processing. (2) A new method for rapid imaging and analysis of single defects in molecular monolayers. This method also electrically passivates defects as it labels them. (3) Hot carrier spectroscopy of molecular junctions. Using optically excited hot carriers, we demonstrate the ability to probe the energy level lineup inside buried molecular junctions. (4) Efficient coupling of optical fields to metal-insulator-metal (MIM) surface plasmon modes. We show both theoretical and experimental work illustrating the ability to create very intense optical fields inside MIM systems. The intense fields generated in this manner have natural extensions to a variety of applications, such as photon assisted tunneling in molecular junctions, optical modulators, and ultrafast optoelectronic

  18. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Itokawa Regolith Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Berger, E. L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In a remarkable engineering achievement, the JAXA space agency successfully recovered the Hayabusa space-craft in June 2010, following a non-optimal encounter and sur-face sampling mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa. These are the first direct samples ever obtained and returned from the surface of an asteroid. The Hayabusa samples thus present a special op-portunity to directly investigate the evolution of asteroidal sur-faces, from the development of the regolith to the study of the effects of space weathering. Here we report on our preliminary TEM measurements on two Itokawa samples. Methods: We were allocated particles RA-QD02-0125 and RA-QD02-0211. Both particles were embedded in low viscosity epoxy and thin sections were prepared using ultramicrotomy. High resolution images and electron diffraction data were ob-tained using a JEOL 2500SE 200 kV field-emission scanning-transmission electron microscope. Quantitative maps and anal-yses were obtained using a Thermo thin-window energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectrometer. Results: Both particles are olivine-rich (Fo70) with µm-sized inclusions of FeS and have microstructurally complex rims. Par-ticle RA-QD02-0125 is rounded and has numerous sub-µm grains attached to its surface including FeS, albite, olivine, and rare melt droplets. Solar flare tracks have not been observed, but the particle is surrounded by a continuous 50 nm thick, stuctur-ally disordered rim that is compositionally similar to the core of the grain. One of the surface adhering grains is pyrrhotite show-ing a S-depleted rim (8-10 nm thick) with nanophase Fe metal grains (<5 nm) decorating the outermost surface. The pyrrhotite displays a complex superstructure in its core that is absent in the S-depleted rim. Particle RA-QD02-0211 contains solar flare particle tracks (2x109 cm-2) and shows a structurally disordered rim 100 nm thick. The track density corresponds to a surface exposure of 103-104 years based on the track production rate

  19. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) of nanophase ferric oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Iron oxide minerals are the prime candidates for Fe(III) signatures in remotely sensed Martian surface spectra. Magnetic, Mossbauer, and reflectance spectroscopy have been carried out in the laboratory in order to understand the mineralogical nature of Martian analog ferric oxide minerals of submicron or nanometer size range. Out of the iron oxide minerals studied, nanometer sized ferric oxides are promising candidates for possible Martian spectral analogs. 'Nanophase ferric oxide (np-Ox)' is a generic term for ferric oxide/oxihydroxide particles having nanoscale (less than 10 nm) particle dimensions. Ferrihydrite, superparamagnetic particles of hematite, maghemite and goethite, and nanometer sized particles of inherently paramagnetic lepidocrocite are all examples of nanophase ferric oxides. np-Ox particles in general do not give X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns with well defined peaks and would often be classified as X-ray amorphous. Therefore, different np-Oxs preparations should be characterized using a more sensitive technique e.g., high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The purpose of this study is to report the particle size, morphology and crystalline order, of five np-Ox samples by HRTEM imaging and electron diffraction (ED).

  20. Uranium trioxide behavior during electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, Claude; Alekseev, Evgeny V.

    2015-03-01

    A sample of uranium trioxide (UO3) was produced by focused ion beam (~10 μm×~10 μm×<0.5 μm) for transmission electron and electron energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy examinations in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The EEL spectra were recorded as a function of the thickness for the P and O edges in the low energy range 0-350 eV and were compared to spectra of UO3 small grains attached to a TEM grid. The EEL spectrum was studied through a range of thicknesses going from ~60 to ~260 nm. The EEL spectra recorded for UO3 are compared with those recorded for UO2. The reduction of UO3 into U4O9 and/or UO2 is readily observed apparently during the TEM investigations and as confirmed by electron diffraction (eD). This redox effect is similar to that known for other redox sensitive oxides. Recommendations are suggested to avoid sample decomposition.

  1. Quantitative Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of Electronic and Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovich, Andrew B.

    Electronic and nanostructured materials have been investigated using advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) techniques. The first topic is the microstructure of Ga and Sb-doped ZnO. Ga-doped ZnO is a candidate transparent conducting oxide material. The microstructure of GZO thin films grown by MBE under different growth conditions and different substrates were examined using various electron microscopy (EM) techniques. The microstructure, prevalent defects, and polarity in these films strongly depend on the growth conditions and substrate. Sb-doped ZnO nanowires have been shown to be the first route to stable p-type ZnO. Using Z-contrast STEM, I have showed that an unusual microstructure of Sb-decorated head-to-head inversion domain boundaries and internal voids contain all the Sb in the nanowires and cause the p-type conduction. InGaN thin films and InGaN / GaN quantum wells (QW) for light emitting diodes are the second topic. Low-dose Z-contrast STEM, PACBED, and EDS on InGaN QW LED structures grown by MOCVD show no evidence for nanoscale composition variations, contradicting previous reports. In addition, a new extended defect in GaN and InGaN was discovered. The defect consists of a faceted pyramid-shaped void that produces a threading dislocation along the [0001] growth direction, and is likely caused by carbon contamination during growth. Non-rigid registration (NRR) and high-precision STEM of nanoparticles is the final topic. NRR is a new image processing technique that corrects distortions arising from the serial nature of STEM acquisition that previously limited the precision of locating atomic columns and counting the number of atoms in images. NRR was used to demonstrate sub-picometer precision in STEM images of single crystal Si and GaN, the best achieved in EM. NRR was used to measure the atomic surface structure of Pt nanoacatalysts and Au nanoparticles, which revealed new bond length variation phenomenon of surface atoms. In

  2. Multidimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of Photochemical Reactions.

    PubMed

    Nuernberger, Patrick; Ruetzel, Stefan; Brixner, Tobias

    2015-09-21

    Coherent multidimensional electronic spectroscopy can be employed to unravel various channels in molecular chemical reactions. This approach is thus not limited to analysis of energy transfer or charge transfer (i.e. processes from photophysics), but can also be employed in situations where the investigated system undergoes permanent structural changes (i.e. in photochemistry). Photochemical model reactions are discussed by using the example of merocyanine/spiropyran-based molecular switches, which show a rich variety of reaction channels, in particular ring opening and ring closing, cis-trans isomerization, coherent vibrational wave-packet motion, radical ion formation, and population relaxation. Using pump-probe, pump-repump-probe, coherent two-dimensional and three-dimensional, triggered-exchange 2D, and quantum-control spectroscopy, we gain intuitive pictures on which product emerges from which reactant and which reactive molecular modes are associated. PMID:26382095

  3. Secondary Electron Emission Spectroscopy of Diamond Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainsky, Isay L.; Asnin, Vladimir M.; Petukhov, Andre G.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of the secondary electron emission spectroscopy study of hydrogenated diamond surfaces for single crystals and chemical vapor-deposited polycrystalline films. One-electron calculations of Auger spectra of diamond surfaces having various hydrogen coverages are presented, the major features of the experimental spectra are explained, and a theoretical model for Auger spectra of hydrogenated diamond surfaces is proposed. An energy shift and a change in the line shape of the carbon core-valence-valence (KVV) Auger spectra were observed for diamond surfaces after exposure to an electron beam or by annealing at temperatures higher than 950 C. This change is related to the redistribution of the valence-band local density of states caused by hydrogen desorption from the surface. A strong negative electron affinity (NEA) effect, which appeared as a large, narrow peak in the low-energy portion of the spectrum of the secondary electron energy distribution, was also observed on the diamond surfaces. A fine structure in this peak, which was found for the first time, reflected the energy structure of the bottom of the conduction band. Further, the breakup of the bulk excitons at the surface during secondary electron emission was attributed to one of the features of this structure. The study demonstrated that the NEA type depends on the extent of hydrogen coverage of the diamond surface, changing from the true type for the completely hydrogenated surface to the effective type for the partially hydrogenated surface.

  4. Image Resolution in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, S. J.; Lupini, A.R.

    2008-06-26

    Digital images captured with electron microscopes are corrupted by two fundamental effects: shot noise resulting from electron counting statistics and blur resulting from the nonzero width of the focused electron beam. The generic problem of computationally undoing these effects is called image reconstruction and for decades has proved to be one of the most challenging and important problems in imaging science. This proposal concerned the application of the Pixon method, the highest-performance image-reconstruction algorithm yet devised, to the enhancement of images obtained from the highest-resolution electron microscopes in the world, now in operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  5. Microstructural studies of dental amalgams using analytical transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooghan, Tejpal Kaur

    Dental amalgams have been used for centuries as major restorative materials for decaying teeth. Amalgams are prepared by mixing alloy particles which contain Ag, Sn, and Cu as the major constituent elements with liquid Hg. The study of microstructure is essential in understanding the setting reactions and improving the properties of amalgams. Until the work reported in this dissertation, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffractometry (XRD) were used commonly to analyze amalgam microstructures. No previous systematic transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study has been performed due to sample preparation difficulties and composite structure of dental amalgams. The goal of this research was to carry out detailed microstructural and compositional studies of dental amalgams. This was accomplished using the enhanced spatial resolution of the TEM and its associated microanalytical techniques, namely, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and micro-microdiffraction (mumuD). A new method was developed for thinning amalgam samples to electron transparency using the "wedge technique." Velvalloy, a low-Cu amalgam, and Tytin, a high-Cu amalgam, were the two amalgams characterized. Velvalloy is composed of a Agsb2Hgsb3\\ (gammasb1)/HgSnsb{7-9}\\ (gammasb2) matrix surrounding unreacted Agsb3Sn (gamma) particles. In addition, hitherto uncharacterized reaction layers between Agsb3Sn(gamma)/Agsb2Hgsb3\\ (gammasb2)\\ and\\ Agsb2Hgsb3\\ (gammasb1)/HgSnsb{7-9}\\ (gammasb2) were observed and analyzed. An Ag-Hg-Sn (betasb1) phase was clearly identified for the first time. In Tytin, the matrix consists of Agsb2Hgsb3\\ (gammasb1) grains. Fine precipitates of Cusb6Snsb5\\ (etasp') are embedded inside the gammasb1 and at the grain boundaries. These precipitates are responsible for the improved creep resistance of Tytin compared to Velvalloy. The additional Cu has completely eliminated the gammasb

  6. Angle resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy on graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, U.; Preisinger, A.; Schattschneider, P.; Varga, P.

    We report on angle resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in reflection mode with low primary energy on a graphite single crystal. Measurements with primary electron energy of 175 eV have been performed in off-Bragg-reflex geometry in two different directions within the (0001) surface plane of the graphite single crystal. In addition, EELS measurements in specular reflection mode with different primary energies and angles of incidence were done in order to distinguish between surface and bulk plasmon losses. The energy losses and the transferred momenta of the losses have been analyzed. The results are compared with the loss functions for bulk and surface excitations calculated from the dielectric function ɛ(ω, q) obtained from TEELS-data (EELS in transmission mode) [Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 54 (1970) 77].

  7. Data processing for atomic resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Paul; Hovden, Robert; Mundy, Julia A; Xin, Huolin L; Muller, David A

    2012-08-01

    The high beam current and subangstrom resolution of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopes has enabled electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) mapping with atomic resolution. These spectral maps are often dose limited and spatially oversampled, leading to low counts/channel and are thus highly sensitive to errors in background estimation. However, by taking advantage of redundancy in the dataset map, one can improve background estimation and increase chemical sensitivity. We consider two such approaches--linear combination of power laws and local background averaging--that reduce background error and improve signal extraction. Principal component analysis (PCA) can also be used to analyze spectrum images, but the poor peak-to-background ratio in EELS can lead to serious artifacts if raw EELS data are PCA filtered. We identify common artifacts and discuss alternative approaches. These algorithms are implemented within the Cornell Spectrum Imager, an open source software package for spectroscopic analysis. PMID:22697429

  8. Transmission and Reflection Terahertz Spectroscopy of Insensitive Melt-Cast High-Explosive Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palka, Norbert; Szala, Mateusz

    2016-05-01

    Currently, artillery shells and grenades that are introduced into the market are based on melt-castable insensitive high explosives (IHEs), which do not explode while they run a risk of impact, heat or shrapnel. Particles of explosives (such as hexogen, nitroguanidine and nitrotriazolone) are suspended in different proportions in a matrix of 2.4-dinitroanisole. In this paper, we investigated samples of commonly used IHEs: PAX-41, IMX-104 and IMX-101, whose internal structures were determined by a scanning electron microscope. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy was applied in both transmission and reflection configurations. At first, the complex refraction indices of four pure constituents creating IHEs were determined and became the basis of further calculations. Next, the experimentally determined transmission and reflection spectra of IHEs and pure constituents were compared with theoretical considerations. The influence of the grain size of constituent material and scattering on the reflection spectra was analysed, and good agreement between the experimental and theoretical data was achieved.

  9. Pu electronic structure and photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, John J; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Graham, Kevin S; Bauer, Eric D; Moore, David P; Mitchell, Jeremy N; Kennison, John A; Martin, Richard L; Roy, Lindsay E; Scuseria, G. E.

    2010-01-01

    The electronic structure of PuCoGa{sub 5}, Pu metal, and PuO{sub 2} is explored using photoelectron spectroscopy. Ground state electronic properties are inferred from temperature dependent photoemission near the Fermi energy for Pu metal. Angle-resolved photoemission details the energy vs. crystaJ momentum landscape near the Fermi energy for PuCoGa{sub 5} which shows significant dispersion in the quasiparticle peak near the Fermi energy. For the Mott insulators AnO{sub 2}(An = U, Pu) the photoemission results are compared against hybrid functional calculations and the model prediction of a cross over from ionic to covalent bonding is found to be reasonable.

  10. Probing core-electron orbitals by scanning transmission electron microscopy and measuring the delocalization of core-level excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jong Seok; Odlyzko, Michael L.; Xu, Peng; Jalan, Bharat; Mkhoyan, K. Andre

    2016-04-01

    By recording low-noise energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy maps from crystalline specimens using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, it is possible to probe core-level electron orbitals in real space. Both the 1 s and 2 p orbitals of Sr and Ti atoms in SrTi O3 are probed, and their projected excitation potentials are determined. This paper also demonstrates experimental measurement of the electronic excitation impact parameter and the delocalization of an excitation due to Coulombic beam-orbital interaction.

  11. Characterization of Red Blood Cells with Multiwavelength Transmission Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Serebrennikova, Yulia M.; Huffman, Debra E.; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    Multiwavelength transmission (MWT) spectroscopy was applied to the investigation of the morphological parameters and composition of red blood cells (RBCs). The MWT spectra were quantitatively analyzed with a Mie theory based interpretation model modified to incorporate the effects of the nonsphericity and orientation of RBCs. The MWT spectra of the healthy and anemic samples were investigated for the RBC indices in open and blinded studies. When MWT performance was evaluated against a standard reference system, very good agreement between two methods, with R2 > 0.85 for all indices studied, was demonstrated. The RBC morphological parameters were used to characterize three types of anemia and to draw an association between RBC morphology and anemia severity. The MWT spectra of RBCs infected with malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at different life cycle stages were analyzed for RBC morphological parameters. The changes in the RBC volume, surface area, aspect ratio, and hemoglobin composition were used to trace the morphological and compositional alterations in the infected RBCs occurring with parasites' development and to provide insights into parasite-host interactions. The MWT method was shown to be reliable for determination of the RBC morphological parameters and to be valuable for identification of the RBC pathologic changes and disease states. PMID:25654099

  12. Characterization of red blood cells with multiwavelength transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Serebrennikova, Yulia M; Huffman, Debra E; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H

    2015-01-01

    Multiwavelength transmission (MWT) spectroscopy was applied to the investigation of the morphological parameters and composition of red blood cells (RBCs). The MWT spectra were quantitatively analyzed with a Mie theory based interpretation model modified to incorporate the effects of the nonsphericity and orientation of RBCs. The MWT spectra of the healthy and anemic samples were investigated for the RBC indices in open and blinded studies. When MWT performance was evaluated against a standard reference system, very good agreement between two methods, with R (2) > 0.85 for all indices studied, was demonstrated. The RBC morphological parameters were used to characterize three types of anemia and to draw an association between RBC morphology and anemia severity. The MWT spectra of RBCs infected with malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at different life cycle stages were analyzed for RBC morphological parameters. The changes in the RBC volume, surface area, aspect ratio, and hemoglobin composition were used to trace the morphological and compositional alterations in the infected RBCs occurring with parasites' development and to provide insights into parasite-host interactions. The MWT method was shown to be reliable for determination of the RBC morphological parameters and to be valuable for identification of the RBC pathologic changes and disease states. PMID:25654099

  13. Angularly-selective transmission imaging in a scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jason; Keller, Robert R

    2016-08-01

    This work presents recent advances in transmission scanning electron microscopy (t-SEM) imaging control capabilities. A modular aperture system and a cantilever-style sample holder that enable comprehensive angular selectivity of forward-scattered electrons are described. When combined with a commercially available solid-state transmission detector having only basic bright-field and dark-field imaging capabilities, the advances described here enable numerous transmission imaging modes. Several examples are provided that demonstrate how contrast arising from diffraction to mass-thickness can be obtained. Unanticipated image contrast at some imaging conditions is also observed and addressed. PMID:27179301

  14. Electron transmission through a class of anthracene aldehyde molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petreska, Irina; Ohanesjan, Vladimir; Pejov, Ljupco; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-03-01

    Transmission of electrons via metal-molecule-metal junctions, involving rotor-stator anthracene aldehyde molecules is investigated. Two model barriers having input parameters evaluated from accurate ab initio calculations are proposed and the transmission coefficients are obtained by using the quasiclassical approximation. Transmission coefficients further enter in the integral for the net current, utilizing Simmons' method. Conformational dependence of the tunneling processes is evident and the presence of the side groups enhances the functionality of the future single-molecule based electronic devices.

  15. Elastic and inelastic transmission of electrons through tapered glass capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramarachchi, S. J.; Keerthisinghe, D.; Dassanayake, B. S.; Tanis, J. A.; Ikeda, T.

    2013-05-01

    The transmission of electrons through tapered borosilicate glass capillaries has been studied for 500 and 1000 eV incident electrons. The energy and angular dependence of the transmitted electrons as well as the temporal charge deposition has been investigated. The capillaries had inlet/outlet diameters of 800 μm/100 μm and 700 μm/20 μm and lengths of 35 mm. Transmission was observed for tilt angles up to 9.5o, and 1.5o, respectively, for the two capillaries. The transmitted electrons were found to have both elastic and inelastic behavior as was observed for electrons through PET and single straight glass capillaries. The charge deposition with time consisted of stable transmission, fluctuations, blocking, and self discharging for both capillaries depending on the sample tilt angle.

  16. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy: a preliminary study of the distribution of Cu2+ and Cu2+/Pb2+ on a Bt horizon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, B; Vega, F A; Serra, C; Silva, L F O; Andrade, M L

    2011-11-15

    Relatively new techniques can help in determining the occurrence of mineral species and the distribution of contaminants on soil surfaces such as natural minerals and organic matter. The Bt horizon from an Endoleptic Luvisol was chosen because of its well-known sorption capability. The samples were contaminated with Cu(2+) and/or Pb(2+) and both sorption and desorption experiments were performed. The preferential distribution of the contaminant species ((63)Cu and (208)Pb) to the main soil components and their associations were studied together with the effectiveness of the surface sorption and desorption processes. The results obtained were compared with non-contaminated samples as well as with previous results obtained by different analytical techniques and advanced statistical analysis. Pb(2+) competes favorably for the sorption sites in this soil, mainly in oxides and the clay fraction. Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) were mainly associated with hematite, gibbsite, vermiculite and chlorite. This study will serve as a basis for further scientific research on the soil retention of heavy metals. New techniques such as spectroscopic imaging and transmission electron microscopy make it possible to check which soil components retain heavy metals, thereby contributing to propose effective measures for the remediation of contaminated soil. PMID:21920666

  17. In situ electron energy-loss spectroscopy in liquids.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Megan E; Yu, Yingchao; Gao, Jie; Abruña, Héctor D; Muller, David A

    2013-08-01

    In situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) through liquids is a promising approach for exploring biological and materials processes. However, options for in situ chemical identification are limited: X-ray analysis is precluded because the liquid cell holder shadows the detector and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is degraded by multiple scattering events in thick layers. Here, we explore the limits of EELS in the study of chemical reactions in their native environments in real time and on the nanometer scale. The determination of the local electron density, optical gap, and thickness of the liquid layer by valence EELS is demonstrated. By comparing theoretical and experimental plasmon energies, we find that liquids appear to follow the free-electron model that has been previously established for solids. Signals at energies below the optical gap and plasmon energy of the liquid provide a high signal-to-background ratio regime as demonstrated for LiFePO4 in an aqueous solution. The potential for the use of valence EELS to understand in situ STEM reactions is demonstrated for beam-induced deposition of metallic copper: as copper clusters grow, EELS develops low-loss peaks corresponding to metallic copper. From these techniques, in situ imaging and valence EELS offer insights into the local electronic structure of nanoparticles and chemical reactions. PMID:23721691

  18. Ultrafast spectroscopy of correlated electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Benjamin Andrew

    This dissertation attempts to illuminate and expand our understanding of charge dynamics in a number of different semiconductor materials, in particular the behavior of electron-hole pairs which are correlated via the long-range Coulomb interaction. Terahertz spectroscopy gives us direct access to probe the fundamental excitations of quasiparticles in a wide range of materials systems. By probing the low-energy excitations of materials on short time scales, one can learn a great deal about their quasiparticles and dynamics as well as explore new tools for their manipulation. Carriers in semiconductors, existing either as bound electron-hole pairs or "free" carriers (or both), are particularly amenable to this avenue of study. The internal structure of excitons in semiconductors lies energetically in the far- to mid-infrared. Free carriers moving under the influence of a free-space electric field reveal much about themselves. By exploiting this unique window, one can both characterize and manipulate these systems in novel ways, as well as seek to understand the physics of new materials. I study the ferromagnetic semiconductor gallium manganese phosphide (GaMnP) to better understand the role of charge carriers in the origins of ferromagnetism. By applying the tools of terahertz spectroscopy, I am able to make contact free measurements of hole populations in a novel GaMnP film. I exploit THz spectroscopy to provide a direct gauge of bound and unbound pair densities in gallium arsenide quantum wells, enabling the observation of the excitonic fine structure as it evolves under high-density conditions. And finally I have observed for the first time stimulated emission of far-infrared radiation from internal transitions in excitons in the semiconductor Cu 2O. Broadband THz spectroscopy is employed to directly map out the ultrafast dynamics, spectral positions, and line broadenings of intra-excitonic transitions. This work has opened up new possibilities for the quantum

  19. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of corroded metal waste forms.

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, N. L.

    2005-04-15

    This report documents the results of analyses with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selected area electron diffraction (ED) of samples of metallic waste form (MWF) materials that had been subjected to various corrosion tests. The objective of the TEM analyses was to characterize the composition and microstructure of surface alteration products which, when combined with other test results, can be used to determine the matrix corrosion mechanism. The examination of test samples generated over several years has resulted in refinements to the TEM sample preparation methods developed to preserve the orientation of surface alteration layers and the underlying base metal. The preservation of microstructural spatial relationships provides valuable insight for determining the matrix corrosion mechanism and for developing models to calculate radionuclide release in repository performance models. The TEM results presented in this report show that oxide layers are formed over the exposed steel and intermetallic phases of the MWF during corrosion in aqueous solutions and humid air at elevated temperatures. An amorphous non-stoichiometric ZrO{sub 2} layer forms at the exposed surfaces of the intermetallic phases, and several nonstoichiometric Fe-O layers form over the steel phases in the MWF. These oxide layers adhere strongly to the underlying metal, and may be overlain by one or more crystalline Fe-O phases that probably precipitated from solution. The layer compositions are consistent with a corrosion mechanism of oxidative dissolution of the steel and intermetallic phases. The layers formed on the steel and intermetallic phases form a continuous layer over the exposed waste form, although vertical splits in the layer and corrosion in pits and crevices were seen in some samples. Additional tests and analyses are needed to verify that these layers passivate the underlying metals and if passivation can break

  20. Nanoparticle–Film Plasmon Ruler Interrogated with Transmission Visible Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of plasmonic nanorulers (PNRs) in sensing platforms has been plagued by technical challenges associated with the development of methods to fabricate precisely controlled nanostructures with high yield and characterize them with high throughput. We have previously shown that creating PNRs in a nanoparticle–film (NP–film) format enables the fabrication of an extremely large population of uniform PNRs with 100% yield using a self-assembly approach, which facilitates high-throughput PNR characterization using ensemble spectroscopic measurements and eliminates the need for expensive microscopy systems required by many other PNR platforms. We expand upon this prior work herein, showing that the NP–film PNR can be made compatible with aqueous sensing studies by adapting it for use in a transmission localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy format, where the coupled NP–film resonance responsible for the PNR signal is directly probed using an extinction measurement from a standard spectrophotometer. We designed slide holders that fit inside standard spectrophotometer cuvettes and position NP–film samples so that the coupled NP–film resonance can be detected in a collinear optical configuration. Once the NP–film PNR samples are cuvette-compatible, it is straightforward to calibrate the PNR in aqueous solution and use it to characterize dynamic, angstrom-scale distance changes resulting from pH-induced swelling of polyelectrolyte (PE) spacer layers as thin as 1 PE layer and also of a self-assembled monolayer of an amine-terminated alkanethiol. This development is an important step toward making PNR sensors more user-friendly and encouraging their widespread use in various sensing schemes. PMID:25541618

  1. DNA-based species detection capabilities using laser transmission spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, A. R.; Barnes, M. A.; Li, F.; Egan, S. P.; Tanner, C. E.; Ruggiero, S. T.; Feder, J. L.; Lodge, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of invasive species is critical for effective biocontrol to mitigate potential ecological and economic damage. Laser transmission spectroscopy (LTS) is a powerful solution offering real-time, DNA-based species detection in the field. LTS can measure the size, shape and number of nanoparticles in a solution and was used here to detect size shifts resulting from hybridization of the polymerase chain reaction product to nanoparticles functionalized with species-specific oligonucleotide probes or with the species-specific oligonucleotide probes alone. We carried out a series of DNA detection experiments using the invasive freshwater quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) to evaluate the capability of the LTS platform for invasive species detection. Specifically, we tested LTS sensitivity to (i) DNA concentrations of a single target species, (ii) the presence of a target species within a mixed sample of other closely related species, (iii) species-specific functionalized nanoparticles versus species-specific oligonucleotide probes alone, and (iv) amplified DNA fragments versus unamplified genomic DNA. We demonstrate that LTS is a highly sensitive technique for rapid target species detection, with detection limits in the picomolar range, capable of successful identification in multispecies samples containing target and non-target species DNA. These results indicate that the LTS DNA detection platform will be useful for field application of target species. Additionally, we find that LTS detection is effective with species-specific oligonucleotide tags alone or when they are attached to polystyrene nanobeads and with both amplified and unamplified DNA, indicating that the technique may also have versatility for broader applications. PMID:23015524

  2. Electronic properties of Mn-phthalocyanine–C{sub 60} bulk heterojunctions: Combining photoemission and electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Friedrich; Lupulescu, Cosmin; Darlatt, Erik; Gottwald, Alexander; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2015-11-14

    The electronic properties of co-evaporated mixtures (blends) of manganese phthalocyanine and the fullerene C{sub 60} (MnPc:C{sub 60}) have been studied as a function of the concentration of the two constituents using two supplementary electron spectroscopic methods, photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in transmission. Our PES measurements provide a detailed picture of the electronic structure measured with different excitation energies as well as different mixing ratios between MnPc and C{sub 60}. Besides a relative energy shift, the occupied electronic states of the two materials remain essentially unchanged. The observed energy level alignment is different compared to that of the related CuPc:C{sub 60} bulk heterojunction. Moreover, the results from our EELS investigations show that, despite the rather small interface interaction, the MnPc related electronic excitation spectrum changes significantly by admixing C{sub 60} to MnPc thin films.

  3. Electronic properties of Mn-phthalocyanine-C60 bulk heterojunctions: Combining photoemission and electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Friedrich; Herzig, Melanie; Lupulescu, Cosmin; Darlatt, Erik; Gottwald, Alexander; Knupfer, Martin; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    The electronic properties of co-evaporated mixtures (blends) of manganese phthalocyanine and the fullerene C60 (MnPc:C60) have been studied as a function of the concentration of the two constituents using two supplementary electron spectroscopic methods, photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in transmission. Our PES measurements provide a detailed picture of the electronic structure measured with different excitation energies as well as different mixing ratios between MnPc and C60. Besides a relative energy shift, the occupied electronic states of the two materials remain essentially unchanged. The observed energy level alignment is different compared to that of the related CuPc:C60 bulk heterojunction. Moreover, the results from our EELS investigations show that, despite the rather small interface interaction, the MnPc related electronic excitation spectrum changes significantly by admixing C60 to MnPc thin films.

  4. Transmission Electron Microscopy Characterization of Helium Bubbles in Aged Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A J; Wall, M A; Zocco, T G; Blobaum, K M

    2004-11-02

    The self-irradiation damage generated by alpha decay of plutonium results in the formation of lattice defects, helium, and uranium atoms. Over time, microstructural evolution resulting from the self-irradiation may influence the physical and mechanical properties of the material. In order to assess microstructural changes, we have developed and applied procedures for the specimen preparation, handling, and transmission electron microscopy characterization of Pu alloys. These transmission electron microscopy investigations of Pu-Ga alloys ranging in age up to 42-years old reveal the presence of nanometer-sized helium bubbles. The number density of bubbles and the average size have been determined for eight different aged materials.

  5. Electronic structure of Fe-based amorphous alloys studied using electron-energy-loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. J.; Gu, X. J.; Poon, S. J.; Shiflet, G. J.

    2008-01-01

    The local atomic electronic structures of Fe-Mo-C-B metallic glasses are investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The fracture behavior of this Fe-based amorphous alloy system undergoes the transition from being ductile to exhibiting brittleness when alloyed with Cr or Er atoms. In addition, the glass-forming ability is also enhanced. This plastic-to-brittle transition is suggested to correlate with the change of local atomic short-range order or bonding configurations. Therefore, the bonding configuration of Fe-Mo-C-B-Er(Cr) amorphous alloys is investigated by studying the electronic structure of Fe and C atoms using electron energy-loss spectroscopy. It is shown that the normalized EELS white line intensities of Fe-L2,3 edges decrease slightly with an increasing amount of Er additions, while no noticeable difference is obtained with Cr additions. As for the C K edge, a prominent change of edge shape is observed for both alloy systems, where the first peak corresponding to a 1s→1π* transition increases with increasing Er and Cr additions. Accordingly, it is concluded that changes in the local atomic and electronic structure occur around Fe and C atoms when Er and Cr are introduced into the alloys. Furthermore, it is pointed out that the formation of Er-C and Cr-C carbide like local order inferred from the observed C K edge spectra can provide a plausible explanation for the plastic-to-brittle transition observed in these Fe-based amorphous alloys. In spite of the complexity of electronic and atomic structure in this multicomponent Fe-based metallic glass system, this study could serve as a starting point for providing a qualitative interpretation between electronic structure and plasticity in the Fe-Mo-C-B amorphous alloy system. Complimentary techniques, such as x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscope are also employed, providing a more complete structural characterization.

  6. Quantification of the Information Limit of Transmission Electron Microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Barthel, J.; Thust, A.

    2008-11-14

    The resolving power of high-resolution transmission electron microscopes is characterized by the information limit, which reflects the size of the smallest object detail observable with a particular instrument. We introduce a highly accurate measurement method for the information limit, which is suitable for modern aberration-corrected electron microscopes. An experimental comparison with the traditionally applied Young's fringe method yields severe discrepancies and confirms theoretical considerations according to which the Young's fringe method does not reveal the information limit.

  7. Metal resist for extreme ultraviolet lithography characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toriumi, Minoru; Sato, Yuta; Koshino, Masanori; Suenaga, Kazu; Itani, Toshiro

    2016-03-01

    We characterized the structures of metal resists used in EUV lithography by low-voltage aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). This study presents the first atomic-level observation of resist components in resist film. The structures of metal (zirconium or titanium) oxide cores are unambiguously identified, and the local elemental distribution in the resist film is obtained. The initial size of zirconium oxide cores is well maintained in the resist film. However, titanium oxide cores tend to aggregate to form an indefinite structure. The spatial distribution of metal cores may influence lithographic characteristics.

  8. Surface sensitivity of elastic peak electron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, A.

    2016-08-01

    New theoretical model describing the sampling depth of elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) has been proposed. Surface sensitivity of this technique can be generally identified with the maximum depth reached by trajectories of elastically backscattered electrons. A parameter called the penetration depth distribution function (PDDF) has been proposed for this description. Two further parameters are descendant from this definition: the mean penetration depth (MPD) and the information depth (ID). From the proposed theory, relatively simple analytical expressions describing the above parameters can be derived. Although the Monte Carlo simulations can be effectively used to estimate the sampling depth of EPES, this approach may require a considerable amount of computations. In contrast, the analytical model proposed here (AN) is very fast and provides the parameters PDDF, MPD and ID that very well compare with results of MC simulations. As follows from detailed comparisons performed for four elements (Al, Ni, Pd and Au), the AN model practically reproduced complicated emission angle dependences of the MPDs and the IDs, correctly indicating numerous maximum and minimum positions. In the energy range from 200 eV to 5 keV, the averaged percentage differences between MPDs obtained from the MC and the AN models were close to 4%. An important conclusion resulting from the present studies refers to the procedure of determination of the inelastic mean free path (IMFP) from EPES. Frequently, the analyzed sample is deposited as a thin overlayer on a smooth substrate. From an analysis of the presently obtained IDs, is follows that 99% of trajectories in analyzed experimental configurations reaches depth not exceeding 2.39 in units of IMFP. Thus, one can postulate that a safe minimum thickness of an overlayer should be larger than about 3 IMFPs. For example, the minimum thickness of an Al overlayer shoud be about 8 nm at 5000 eV.

  9. Highlighting material structure with transmission electron diffraction correlation coefficient maps.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Ákos K; Rauch, Edgar F; Lábár, János L

    2016-04-01

    Correlation coefficient maps are constructed by computing the differences between neighboring diffraction patterns collected in a transmission electron microscope in scanning mode. The maps are shown to highlight material structural features like grain boundaries, second phase particles or dislocations. The inclination of the inner crystal interfaces are directly deduced from the resulting contrast. PMID:26866276

  10. Nanowire growth kinetics in aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yi-Chia; Panciera, Federico; Reuter, Mark C; Stach, Eric A; Ross, Frances M

    2016-04-14

    We visualize atomic level dynamics during Si nanowire growth using aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy, and compare with lower pressure results from ultra-high vacuum microscopy. We discuss the importance of higher pressure observations for understanding growth mechanisms and describe protocols to minimize effects of the higher pressure background gas. PMID:27041654

  11. In situ nanoindentation in a transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, Andrew M.

    2002-12-02

    This dissertation presents the development of the novel mechanical testing technique of in situ nanoindentation in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This technique makes it possible to simultaneously observe and quantify the mechanical behavior of nano-scale volumes of solids.

  12. Electronic resonances in broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batignani, G.; Pontecorvo, E.; Giovannetti, G.; Ferrante, C.; Fumero, G.; Scopigno, T.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy is a formidable tool to probe molecular vibrations. Under electronic resonance conditions, the cross section can be selectively enhanced enabling structural sensitivity to specific chromophores and reaction centers. The addition of an ultrashort, broadband femtosecond pulse to the excitation field allows for coherent stimulation of diverse molecular vibrations. Within such a scheme, vibrational spectra are engraved onto a highly directional field, and can be heterodyne detected overwhelming fluorescence and other incoherent signals. At variance with spontaneous resonance Raman, however, interpreting the spectral information is not straightforward, due to the manifold of field interactions concurring to the third order nonlinear response. Taking as an example vibrational spectra of heme proteins excited in the Soret band, we introduce a general approach to extract the stimulated Raman excitation profiles from complex spectral lineshapes. Specifically, by a quantum treatment of the matter through density matrix description of the third order nonlinear polarization, we identify the contributions which generate the Raman bands, by taking into account for the cross section of each process.

  13. Electronic resonances in broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Batignani, G.; Pontecorvo, E.; Giovannetti, G.; Ferrante, C.; Fumero, G.; Scopigno, T.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy is a formidable tool to probe molecular vibrations. Under electronic resonance conditions, the cross section can be selectively enhanced enabling structural sensitivity to specific chromophores and reaction centers. The addition of an ultrashort, broadband femtosecond pulse to the excitation field allows for coherent stimulation of diverse molecular vibrations. Within such a scheme, vibrational spectra are engraved onto a highly directional field, and can be heterodyne detected overwhelming fluorescence and other incoherent signals. At variance with spontaneous resonance Raman, however, interpreting the spectral information is not straightforward, due to the manifold of field interactions concurring to the third order nonlinear response. Taking as an example vibrational spectra of heme proteins excited in the Soret band, we introduce a general approach to extract the stimulated Raman excitation profiles from complex spectral lineshapes. Specifically, by a quantum treatment of the matter through density matrix description of the third order nonlinear polarization, we identify the contributions which generate the Raman bands, by taking into account for the cross section of each process. PMID:26728791

  14. Coherent pump pulses in Double Electron Electron Resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tait, Claudia E; Stoll, Stefan

    2016-07-21

    The recent introduction of shaped pulses to Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER) spectroscopy has led to significant enhancements in sensitivity through increased excitation bandwidths and improved control over spin dynamics. The application of DEER has so far relied on the presence of an incoherent pump channel to average out most undesired coherent effects of the pump pulse(s) on the observer spins. However, in fully coherent EPR spectrometers that are increasingly used to generate shaped pulses, the presence of coherent pump pulses means that these effects need to be explicitly considered. In this paper, we examine the effects of coherent rectangular and sech/tanh pump pulses in DEER experiments with up to three pump pulses. We show that, even in the absence of significant overlap of the observer and pump pulse excitation bandwidths, coherence transfer pathways involving both types of pulses generate spin echoes of considerable intensity. These echoes introduce artefacts, which, if not identified and removed, can easily lead to misinterpretation. We demonstrate that the observed echoes can be quantitatively modelled using a simple spin quantum dynamics approach that includes instrumental transfer functions. Based on an analysis of the echo crossing artefacts, we propose efficient phase cycling schemes for their suppression. This enables the use of advanced DEER experiments, characterized by high sensitivity and increased accuracy for long-distance measurements, on novel fully coherent EPR spectrometers. PMID:27339858

  15. Near-infrared transmission and reflectance spectroscopy for the measurement of dietary fiber in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near-infrared (NIR) transmission and reflectance spectroscopy were investigated as rapid screening tools to evaluate the total dietary fiber content of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars. A Foss Grainspec Rice Analyzer and an NIR Systems 6500 spectrometer were used to obtain transmission and ref...

  16. NEAR-INFRARED TRANSMISSION AND REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY FOR DETERMINATION OF DIETARY FIBER IN BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near-infrared (NIR) transmission and reflectance spectroscopy were investigated as rapid screening tools to evaluate the total dietary fiber content of barley. The Foss Grainspec Rice Analyzer and the NIR Systems 6500 monochromator were used to obtain transmission and reflectance spectra, respectiv...

  17. Foucault imaging by using non-dedicated transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Yoshifumi; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Harada, Ken

    2012-08-01

    An electron optical system for observing Foucault images was constructed using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any special equipment for Lorentz microscopy. The objective lens was switched off and an electron beam was converged by a condenser optical system to the crossover on the selected area aperture plane. The selected area aperture was used as an objective aperture to select the deflected beam for Foucault mode, and the successive image-forming lenses were controlled for observation of the specimen images. The irradiation area on the specimen was controlled by selecting the appropriate diameter of the condenser aperture.

  18. Transmission of electrons inside the cryogenic pumps of ITER injector.

    PubMed

    Veltri, P; Sartori, E

    2016-02-01

    Large cryogenic pumps are installed in the vessel of large neutral beam injectors (NBIs) used to heat the plasma in nuclear fusion experiments. The operation of such pumps can be compromised by the presence of stray secondary electrons that are generated along the beam path. In this paper, we present a numerical model to analyze the propagation of the electrons inside the pump. The aim of the study is to quantify the power load on the active pump elements, via evaluation of the transmission probabilities across the domain of the pump. These are obtained starting from large datasets of particle trajectories, obtained by numerical means. The transmission probability of the electrons across the domain is calculated for the NBI of the ITER and for its prototype Megavolt ITer Injector and Concept Advancement (MITICA) and the results are discussed. PMID:26932041

  19. Transmission of electrons inside the cryogenic pumps of ITER injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltri, P.; Sartori, E.

    2016-02-01

    Large cryogenic pumps are installed in the vessel of large neutral beam injectors (NBIs) used to heat the plasma in nuclear fusion experiments. The operation of such pumps can be compromised by the presence of stray secondary electrons that are generated along the beam path. In this paper, we present a numerical model to analyze the propagation of the electrons inside the pump. The aim of the study is to quantify the power load on the active pump elements, via evaluation of the transmission probabilities across the domain of the pump. These are obtained starting from large datasets of particle trajectories, obtained by numerical means. The transmission probability of the electrons across the domain is calculated for the NBI of the ITER and for its prototype Megavolt ITer Injector and Concept Advancement (MITICA) and the results are discussed.

  20. Minerals in coal: a transmission electron microscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Wert, C.A.; Hsieh, K.C.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques of electron microscopy have been applied to identification of minerals in coal and coal conversion products. The principal problem is making satisfactory thin-samples. Ion-milling has been used, but grinding and microtoming also show promise. Principal attention has been given to characterization of sulfides and clays, but many other minerals have been identified. Application of the technique to identification of the minerals in oil shale has been demonstrated. The great value of this method is the extraordinary detail with which mineral inclusions can be characterized. General topography, crystal type (including space group of complex crystalline forms), planar spacing and chemical composition can be determined using the large array of techniques available - bright and dark field imaging, electron diffraction, including convergent beam electron diffraction, x-ray emission spectroscopy and energy loss spectroscopy. 63 refences, 10 figures.

  1. Transmission of electrons through tapered glass capillaries: Temporal dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramarachchi, S.; Keerthisinghe, D.; Tanis, J. A.; Ikeda, T.; Dassanayake, B. S.

    2014-05-01

    Electron transmission through a funnel-shaped borosilicate glass capillary as a function of the time evolution of the charge deposition has been studied for 500 and 1000 eV incident electrons. These measurements were done at Western Michigan University. The capillary had inlet/outlet diameters of 800 μm/100 μm and a length of 35 mm. The time dependence was studied for deposited charge in the range 0 - 1000 nC for each angle investigated, except for 5° at 1000 eV for which the measurements extended to 7000 nC. Measurements were obtained for the direct region near zero degree tilt angle where there are no collisions with the capillary walls, and for the indirect region for larger tilt angles (up to 5°) where electrons are deflected by the deposited charge or they collide with the capillary walls. In the direct region, the transmission showed no stable behavior with erratic fluctuations occurring for all deposited charges. In the indirect region, the transmission showed some fluctuations with rapid self-discharging but the transmission slowly increased with deposited charge. Total blocking was observed for 1000 eV at the tilt angle of 5° when the incident charge was higher than 6500 nC.

  2. Electron impact spectroscopy. [for atom and molecule quantum state investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trajmar, S.

    1980-01-01

    The concepts of electron impact spectroscopy are discussed, comparing the electron spectroscopy techniques with those of the optical spectroscopy. The main advantage of the electron spectroscopy is to be found in the elimination of optical selection rules in excitation processes and the ability to scan the spectrum from the infrared to the X-ray region. The range of the method is indicated through a review of several examples, including electron impact excitation of Ba and rotational excitation of H2. The sensitivity of the method is demonstrated by vibrational excitation spectrum of N2. It is shown that the application of the method to the inner-shell excitation allows to obtain information about molecular species which are not commonly available, while spectroscopy of negative ions yields information about their energy and symmetry properties. However, the techniques are still under development and more data are expected to become available in the coming years.

  3. Probing plasmons in three dimensions in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachtel, Jordan; Mouti, Anas; Mayo, Daniel; Marvinney, Claire; Mu, Richard; Haglund, Richard; Pennycook, Stephen; Chisholm, Matthew; Pantelides, Sokrates

    2015-03-01

    The optical behavior of nanostructured materials is of significant interest across many fields. Surface plasmons and their interactions with emitters in nanoscale devices allow us to control light below the coherence limit. By understanding the nature of plasmonics at the local level we can move towards unlocking the full potential of photonic devices. To this end, we examine plasmonic Ag nanoparticles suspended on insulating nanowires by combining cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and high resolution annular dark field imaging in a scanning transmission electron microscope. The complementary nature of CL and EELS allow us to extract optical data from a randomly shaped and oriented nanoparticle, and understand its plasmonic behavior in all three spatial dimensions. This work was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, as well as NSF-EPS-1004083 and NSF-TN-SCORE.

  4. Low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy: An atomic-resolution complement to optical spectroscopies and application to graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Kapetanakis, Myron; Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P.; Lee, Jaekwang; Prange, Micah P.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2015-09-25

    Photon-based spectroscopies have played a central role in exploring the electronic properties of crystalline solids and thin films. They are a powerful tool for probing the electronic properties of nanostructures, but they are limited by lack of spatial resolution. On the other hand, electron-based spectroscopies, e.g., electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), are now capable of subangstrom spatial resolution. Core-loss EELS, a spatially resolved analog of x-ray absorption, has been used extensively in the study of inhomogeneous complex systems. In this paper, we demonstrate that low-loss EELS in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope, which probes low-energy excitations, combined with a theoretical framework for simulating and analyzing the spectra, is a powerful tool to probe low-energy electron excitations with atomic-scale resolution. The theoretical component of the method combines density functional theory–based calculations of the excitations with dynamical scattering theory for the electron beam. We apply the method to monolayer graphene in order to demonstrate that atomic-scale contrast is inherent in low-loss EELS even in a perfectly periodic structure. The method is a complement to optical spectroscopy as it probes transitions entailing momentum transfer. The theoretical analysis identifies the spatial and orbital origins of excitations, holding the promise of ultimately becoming a powerful probe of the structure and electronic properties of individual point and extended defects in both crystals and inhomogeneous complex nanostructures. The method can be extended to probe magnetic and vibrational properties with atomic resolution.

  5. Low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy: An atomic-resolution complement to optical spectroscopies and application to graphene

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kapetanakis, Myron; Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P.; Lee, Jaekwang; Prange, Micah P.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2015-09-25

    Photon-based spectroscopies have played a central role in exploring the electronic properties of crystalline solids and thin films. They are a powerful tool for probing the electronic properties of nanostructures, but they are limited by lack of spatial resolution. On the other hand, electron-based spectroscopies, e.g., electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), are now capable of subangstrom spatial resolution. Core-loss EELS, a spatially resolved analog of x-ray absorption, has been used extensively in the study of inhomogeneous complex systems. In this paper, we demonstrate that low-loss EELS in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope, which probes low-energy excitations, combined with amore » theoretical framework for simulating and analyzing the spectra, is a powerful tool to probe low-energy electron excitations with atomic-scale resolution. The theoretical component of the method combines density functional theory–based calculations of the excitations with dynamical scattering theory for the electron beam. We apply the method to monolayer graphene in order to demonstrate that atomic-scale contrast is inherent in low-loss EELS even in a perfectly periodic structure. The method is a complement to optical spectroscopy as it probes transitions entailing momentum transfer. The theoretical analysis identifies the spatial and orbital origins of excitations, holding the promise of ultimately becoming a powerful probe of the structure and electronic properties of individual point and extended defects in both crystals and inhomogeneous complex nanostructures. The method can be extended to probe magnetic and vibrational properties with atomic resolution.« less

  6. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy using incoherent light: theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Daniel B; Howey, Dylan J; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J

    2013-07-25

    Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I((4)) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and new opportunities. PMID:23176195

  7. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy study of thin film hafnium aluminates for novel gate dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Stemmer, S; Chen, Z Q; Zhu, W J; Ma, T P

    2003-04-01

    We have used conventional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in scanning transmission electron microscopy to investigate the microstructure and electronic structure of hafnia-based thin films doped with small amounts (6.8 at.%) of Al grown on (001) Si. The as-deposited film is amorphous with a very thin (approximately 0.5 nm) interfacial SiOx layer. The film partially crystallizes after annealing at 700 degrees C and the interfacial SiO2-like layer increases in thickness by oxygen diffusion through the Hf-aluminate layer and oxidation of the silicon substrate. Oxygen K-edge EELS fine-structures are analysed for both films and interpreted in the context of the films' microstructure. We also discuss valence electron energy-loss spectra of these ultrathin films. PMID:12694419

  8. Synthesis and Cs-Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Characterization of Multimetallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Subarna; Bhattarai, Nabraj; Velázquez-Salazar, Jesus; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel; Subarna Khanal Team

    2014-03-01

    Multimetallic nanoparticles have been attracted greater attention both in materials science and nanotechnology due to its unique electronic, optical, biological, and catalytic properties lead by physiochemical interactions among different atoms and phases. The distinct features of multimetallic nanoparticles enhanced synergetic properties, large surface to volume ratio and quantum size effects ultimately lead to novel and wide range of possibilities for different applications than monometallic counterparts. For instance, PtPd, Pt/Cu, Au-Au3Cu, AgPd/Pt, AuCu/Pt and many other multimetallic nanoparticles have raised interest for their various applications in fuel cells, ethanol and methanol oxidation reactions, hydrogen storage, and so on. The nanostructures were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-corrected STEM), in combination with high angle annular dark field (HAADF), bright field (BF), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) detectors. These techniques allowed us to probe the structure at the atomic level of the nanoparticles revealing new structural information and elemental composition of the nanoparticles. The authors would like to acknowledge NSF grants DMR-1103730, ``Alloys at the Nanoscale: The Case of Nanoparticles Second Phase'' and NSF PREM Grant # DMR 0934218.

  9. TOF Electron Energy Analyzer for Spin and Angular Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Gennadi; Jozwiak, Chris; Andresen, Nord; Lanzara, Alessandra; Hussain, Zahid

    2008-07-09

    Current pulsed laser and synchrotron x-ray sources provide new opportunities for Time-Of- Flight (TOF) based photoemission spectroscopy to increase photoelectron energy resolution and efficiency compared to current standard techniques. The principals of photoelectron timing front formation, temporal aberration minimization, and optimization of electron beam transmission are presented. We have developed these concepts into a high resolution Electron Optical Scheme (EOS) of a TOF Electron Energy Analyzer (TOF-EEA) for photoemission spectroscopy. The EOS of the analyzer includes an electrostatic objective lens, three columns of transport lenses and a 90 degree energy band pass filter (BPF). The analyzer has two modes of operation: Spectrometer Mode (SM) with straight passage of electrons through the EOS undeflected by the BPF, allowing the entire spectrum to be measured, and Monochromator Mode (MM) in which the BPF defines a certain energy window inside the scope of the electron energy spectrum.

  10. Secondary electron imaging of monolayer materials inside a transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Cretu, Ovidiu Lin, Yung-Chang; Suenaga, Kazutomo

    2015-08-10

    A scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with a backscattered and secondary electron detector is shown capable to image graphene and hexagonal boron nitride monolayers. Secondary electron contrasts of the two lightest monolayer materials are clearly distinguished from the vacuum level. A signal difference between these two materials is attributed to electronic structure differences, which will influence the escape probabilities of the secondary electrons. Our results show that the secondary electron signal can be used to distinguish between the electronic structures of materials with atomic layer sensitivity, enhancing its applicability as a complementary signal in the analytical microscope.

  11. Transmission of High-Power Electron Beams Through Small Apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Tschalaer, Christoph; Alarcon, Ricardo O.; Balascuta, S.; Benson, Stephen V.; Bertozzi, William; Boyce, James R.; Cowan, Ray Franklin; Douglas, David R.; Evtushenko, Pavel; Fisher, Peter H.; Ihloff, Ernest E.; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kelleher, Aidan Michael; Legg, Robert A.; Milner, Richard; Neil, George R.; Ou, Longwu; Schmookler, Barak Abraham; Tennant, Christopher D.; Williams, Gwyn P.; Zhang, Shukui

    2013-11-01

    Tests were performed to pass a 100 MeV, 430 kWatt c.w. electron beam from the energy-recovery linac at the Jefferson Laboratory's FEL facility through a set of small apertures in a 127 mm long aluminum block. Beam transmission losses of 3 p.p.m. through a 2 mm diameter aperture were maintained during a 7 hour continuous run.

  12. High Brightness and high polarization electron source using transmission photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Naoto; Jin Xiuguang; Ujihara, Toru; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Mano, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Yasuhide; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Okumi, Shoji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Konomi, Taro; Ohshima, Takashi; Saka, Takashi; Kato, Toshihiro; Horinaka, Hiromichi; Yasue, Tsuneo; Koshikawa, Takanori

    2009-08-04

    A transmission photocathode was fabricated based on GaAs-GaAsP strained superlattice layers on a GaP substrate and a 20 kV-gun was built to generate the polarized electron beams with the diameter of a few micro-meter. As the results, the reduced brightness of 1.3x10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}/sr and the polarization of 90% were achieved.

  13. Studying localized corrosion using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chee, See Wee; Pratt, Sarah H.; Hattar, Khalid; Duquette, David; Ross, Frances M.; Hull, Robert

    2014-11-07

    Using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM), localized corrosion of Cu and Al thin films immersed in aqueous NaCl solutions was studied. We demonstrate that potentiostatic control can be used to initiate pitting and that local compositional changes, due to focused ion beam implantation of Au+ ions, can modify the corrosion susceptibility of Al films. Likewise, a discussion on strategies to control the onset of pitting is also presented.

  14. 8 CFR 217.7 - Electronic data transmission requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... manifest data relative to that alien passenger in accordance with 19 CFR 4.7b or 19 CFR 122.49a. Upon... relative to that alien passenger in accordance with 19 CFR 4.64 and 19 CFR 122.75a. (b) If a carrier fails... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electronic data transmission...

  15. 8 CFR 217.7 - Electronic data transmission requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... manifest data relative to that alien passenger in accordance with 19 CFR 4.7b or 19 CFR 122.49a. Upon... relative to that alien passenger in accordance with 19 CFR 4.64 and 19 CFR 122.75a. (b) If a carrier fails... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electronic data transmission...

  16. 8 CFR 217.7 - Electronic data transmission requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... manifest data relative to that alien passenger in accordance with 19 CFR 4.7b or 19 CFR 122.49a. Upon... relative to that alien passenger in accordance with 19 CFR 4.64 and 19 CFR 122.75a. (b) If a carrier fails... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electronic data transmission...

  17. 8 CFR 217.7 - Electronic data transmission requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... manifest data relative to that alien passenger in accordance with 19 CFR 4.7b or 19 CFR 122.49a. Upon... relative to that alien passenger in accordance with 19 CFR 4.64 and 19 CFR 122.75a. (b) If a carrier fails... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electronic data transmission...

  18. 8 CFR 217.7 - Electronic data transmission requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... manifest data relative to that alien passenger in accordance with 19 CFR 4.7b or 19 CFR 122.49a. Upon... relative to that alien passenger in accordance with 19 CFR 4.64 and 19 CFR 122.75a. (b) If a carrier fails... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electronic data transmission...

  19. Studying localized corrosion using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chee, See Wee; Pratt, Sarah H.; Hattar, Khalid; Duquette, David; Ross, Frances M.; Hull, Robert

    2014-11-07

    Using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM), localized corrosion of Cu and Al thin films immersed in aqueous NaCl solutions was studied. We demonstrate that potentiostatic control can be used to initiate pitting and that local compositional changes, due to focused ion beam implantation of Au+ ions, can modify the corrosion susceptibility of Al films. Likewise, a discussion on strategies to control the onset of pitting is also presented.

  20. Concurrent in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hattar, K.; Bufford, D. C.; Buller, D. L.

    2014-08-29

    An in situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscope has been developed and is operational at Sandia National Laboratories. This facility permits high spatial resolution, real time observation of electron transparent samples under ion irradiation, implantation, mechanical loading, corrosive environments, and combinations thereof. This includes the simultaneous implantation of low-energy gas ions (0.8–30 keV) during high-energy heavy ion irradiation (0.8–48 MeV). In addition, initial results in polycrystalline gold foils are provided to demonstrate the range of capabilities.

  1. Imaging Nanobubbles in Water with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Edward R.; Mecklenburg, Matthew; Singer, Scott B.; Aloni, Shaul; Regan, Brian Christopher

    2011-05-01

    We present a technique based on scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) that is capable of probing nanobubble dynamics with nanometer spatial resolution. A vacuum-tight vessel holds a sub-micrometer layer of water between two electron-transparent dielectric membranes. Electrical current pulses passing through a platinum wire on one of the membranes inject sufficient heat locally to initiate single bubble formation. In the absence of power input, all bubbles are observed to be unstable against collapse, but the STEM beam alone can cause a shrinking bubble to grow.

  2. Transmission electron microscopy of a model crystalline organic, theophylline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattle, J.; S'ari, M.; Hondow, N.; Abellán, P.; Brown, A. P.; Brydson, R. M. D.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to analyse the diffraction patterns of the model crystalline organic theophylline to investigate beam damage in relation to changing accelerating voltage, sample temperature and TEM grid support films. We find that samples deposited on graphene film grids have the longest lifetimes when also held at -190 °C and imaged at 200 kV accelerating voltage. Finally, atomic lattice images are obtained in bright field STEM by working close to the estimated critical electron dose for theophylline.

  3. Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of InN Nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Li, X.; Kryliouk, Olga; Park, H.J.; Mangum,J.; Anderson, T.

    2006-07-13

    InN nanorods were grown on a, c-, and r-plane of sapphire and also on Si (111) and GaN (0001) by non-catalytic, template-free hydride metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and studied by transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss (EELS) and photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature. These nanocrystals have different shapes and different faceting depending on the substrate used and their crystallographic orientation. EELS measurements have confirmed the high purity of these crystals. The observed PL peak was in the range of 0.9-0.95 eV. The strongest PL intensity was observed for the nanocrystals with the larger diameters.

  4. Pulsed Power for a Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    dehope, w j; browning, n; campbell, g; cook, e; king, w; lagrange, t; reed, b; stuart, b; Shuttlesworth, R; Pyke, B

    2009-06-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has converted a commercial 200kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) into an ultrafast, nanoscale diagnostic tool for material science studies. The resulting Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) has provided a unique tool for the study of material phase transitions, reaction front analyses, and other studies in the fields of chemistry, materials science, and biology. The TEM's thermionic electron emission source was replaced with a fast photocathode and a laser beam path was provided for ultraviolet surface illumination. The resulting photoelectron beam gives downstream images of 2 and 20 ns exposure times at 100 and 10 nm spatial resolution. A separate laser, used as a pump pulse, is used to heat, ignite, or shock samples while the photocathode electron pulses, carefully time-synchronized with the pump, function as probe in fast transient studies. The device functions in both imaging and diffraction modes. A laser upgrade is underway to make arbitrary cathode pulse trains of variable pulse width of 10-1000 ns. Along with a fast e-beam deflection scheme, a 'movie mode' capability will be added to this unique diagnostic tool. This talk will review conventional electron microscopy and its limitations, discuss the development and capabilities of DTEM, in particularly addressing the prime and pulsed power considerations in the design and fabrication of the DTEM, and conclude with the presentation of a deflector and solid-state pulser design for Movie-Mode DTEM.

  5. Tailoring of electron flow current in magnetically insulated transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. P.; Savage, M. E.; Pointon, T. D.; Gilmore, M. A.

    2009-03-01

    It is desirable to optimize (minimizing both the inductance and electron flow) the magnetically insulated vacuum sections of low impedance pulsed-power drivers. The goal of low inductance is understandable from basic efficiency arguments. The goal of low electron flow results from two observations: (1) flowing electrons generally do not deliver energy to (or even reach) most loads, and thus constitute a loss mechanism; (2) energetic electrons deposited in a small area can cause anode damage and anode plasma formation. Low inductance and low electron flow are competing goals; an optimized system requires a balance of the two. While magnetically insulated systems are generally forgiving, there are times when optimization is crucial. For example, in large pulsed-power drivers used to energize high energy density physics loads, the electron flow as a fraction of total current is small, but that flow often reaches the anode in relatively small regions. If the anode temperature becomes high enough to desorb gas, the resulting plasma initiates a gap closure process that can impact system performance. Magnetic-pressure driven (z pinches and material equation of state) loads behave like a fixed inductor for much of the drive pulse. It is clear that neither fixed gap nor constant-impedance transmission lines are optimal for driving inductive loads. This work shows a technique for developing the optimal impedance profile for the magnetically insulated section of a high-current driver. Particle-in-cell calculations are used to validate the impedance profiles developed in a radial disk magnetically insulated transmission line geometry. The input parameters are the spacing and location of the minimum gap, the effective load inductance, and the desired electron flow profile. The radial electron flow profiles from these simulations are in good agreement with theoretical predictions when driven at relatively high voltage (i.e., V≥2MV).

  6. Precision electron flow measurements in a disk transmission line.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Waylon T.; Pelock, Michael D.; Martin, Jeremy Paul; Jackson, Daniel Peter Jr.; Savage, Mark Edward; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.; Pointon, Timothy David

    2008-01-01

    An analytic model for electron flow in a system driving a fixed inductive load is described and evaluated with particle in cell simulations. The simple model allows determining the impedance profile for a magnetically insulated transmission line given the minimum gap desired, and the lumped inductance inside the transition to the minimum gap. The model allows specifying the relative electron flow along the power flow direction, including cases where the fractional electron flow decreases in the power flow direction. The electrons are able to return to the cathode because they gain energy from the temporally rising magnetic field. The simulations were done with small cell size to reduce numerical heating. An experiment to compare electron flow to the simulations was done. The measured electron flow is {approx}33% of the value from the simulations. The discrepancy is assumed to be due to a reversed electric field at the cathode because of the inductive load and falling electron drift velocity in the power flow direction. The simulations constrain the cathode electric field to zero, which gives the highest possible electron flow.

  7. Photocathode Optimization for a Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P; Flom, Z; Heinselman, K; Nguyen, T; Tung, S; Haskell, R; Reed, B W; LaGrange, T

    2011-08-04

    The Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) team at Harvey Mudd College has been sponsored by LLNL to design and build a test setup for optimizing the performance of the DTEM's electron source. Unlike a traditional TEM, the DTEM achieves much faster exposure times by using photoemission from a photocathode to produce electrons for imaging. The DTEM team's work is motivated by the need to improve the coherence and current density of the electron cloud produced by the electron gun in order to increase the image resolution and contrast achievable by DTEM. The photoemission test setup is nearly complete and the team will soon complete baseline tests of electron gun performance. The photoemission laser and high voltage power supply have been repaired; the optics path for relaying the laser to the photocathode has been finalized, assembled, and aligned; the internal setup of the vacuum chamber has been finalized and mostly implemented; and system control, synchronization, and data acquisition has been implemented in LabVIEW. Immediate future work includes determining a consistent alignment procedure to place the laser waist on the photocathode, and taking baseline performance measurements of the tantalum photocathode. Future research will examine the performance of the electron gun as a function of the photoemission laser profile, the photocathode material, and the geometry and voltages of the accelerating and focusing components in the electron gun. This report presents the team's progress and outlines the work that remains.

  8. Installation of electric field electron beam blanker in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashida, Misa; Kimura, Yoshihide; Taniguchi, Yoshifumi; Otsuka, Masayuki; Takai, Yoshizo

    2006-11-15

    We have newly installed an electric field electron beam blanker in a transmission electron microscopy, which chops an electron beam very quickly without the effect of hysteresis. The electric field, which is generated by the electron beam blanker, deflects the electron beam, and the electron beam is intercepted by an aperture. The response time of the beam blanker is 50 {mu}s. Therefore, a very short pulsed electron beam enables a charge-coupled device camera to directly expose an electron beam spot or diffraction pattern. Moreover, we measured the response of a deflector coil, which is usually used as an electron beam blanker, using our electron beam blanker. Our beam blanker will become a key component in a computer-assisted minimal dose system, which enables us to reduce the electron dose of the sample.

  9. Analytical Chemistry of Surfaces: Part II. Electron Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hercules, David M.; Hercules, Shirley H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses two surface techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Focuses on fundamental aspects of each technique, important features of instrumentation, and some examples of how ESCA and AES have been applied to analytical surface problems. (JN)

  10. Iron redistribution in a zirconium alloy after neutron and proton irradiation studied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) using an aberration-corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, E. M.; Harte, A.; Frankel, P.; Haigh, S. J.; Jädernäs, D.; Romero, J.; Hallstadius, L.; Preuss, M.

    2014-11-01

    Zirconium alloys used as cladding materials in nuclear reactors can exhibit accelerated irradiation induced growth, often termed linear growth, after sustained neutron irradiation. This phenomenon has been linked to the formation of -component dislocation loops and to the concentration of interstitial solute atoms. It is well documented for the Zircaloys that Fe dissolves from second phase particles (SPPs) during irradiation thus increasing the interstitial solute concentration in the matrix. However, no progress has yet been made into understanding whether a similar process occurs for the newer ZIRLO™ alloys. We aim to overcome this shortcoming here by studying compositional changes in second phase particles in Low Tin ZIRLO™ after neutron and proton irradiation using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Material irradiated to 18 dpa (displacements per atom) using neutrons and to 2.3 and 7 dpa by protons was investigated. The results show that Fe is lost from Zr-Nb-Fe-SPPs during both neutron and proton irradiation. Prior to irradiation, Fe was detected at the interface of β-Nb-SPPs. This Fe enrichment is also dispersed during irradiation. Qualitatively, excellent agreement was found regarding the elemental redistribution processes observed after proton and neutron irradiation.

  11. Analysis of Electron Beam Damage of Crystalline Pharmaceutical Materials by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S'ari, M.; Cattle, J.; Hondow, N.; Blade, H.; Cosgrove, S.; Brydson, R. M.; Brown, A. P.

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the impact of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and low dose electron diffraction on ten different crystalline pharmaceutical compounds, covering a diverse chemical space and with differing physical properties. The aim was to establish if particular chemical moieties were more susceptible to damage within the electron beam. We have measured crystalline diffraction patterns for each and indexed nine out of ten of them. Characteristic electron dosages are reported for each material, with no apparent correlation between chemical structure and stability within the electron beam. Such low dose electron diffraction protocols are suitable for the study of pharmaceutical compounds.

  12. Post-ion beam induced degradation of copper layers in transmission electron microscopy specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, F.; Richard, O.; Bender, H.; Vandervorst, W.

    2015-11-01

    Copper containing transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens frequently show corrosion after focused ion beam (FIB) preparation. This paper reveals that the corrosion product is a Cu-S phase growing over the specimen surface. The layer is identified by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and lattice spacing indexing of power spectra patterns. The corrosion process is further studied by TEM on cone-shaped specimens, which are intentionally stored after FIB preparation with S flakes for short time. Furthermore, a protective method against corrosion is developed by varying the time in the FIB vacuum and the duration of a subsequent plasma cleaning.

  13. Single-Electron Detection and Spectroscopy via Relativistic Cyclotron Radiation.

    PubMed

    Asner, D M; Bradley, R F; de Viveiros, L; Doe, P J; Fernandes, J L; Fertl, M; Finn, E C; Formaggio, J A; Furse, D; Jones, A M; Kofron, J N; LaRoque, B H; Leber, M; McBride, E L; Miller, M L; Mohanmurthy, P; Monreal, B; Oblath, N S; Robertson, R G H; Rosenberg, L J; Rybka, G; Rysewyk, D; Sternberg, M G; Tedeschi, J R; Thümmler, T; VanDevender, B A; Woods, N L

    2015-04-24

    It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges must emit electromagnetic radiation. Although first derived in 1904, cyclotron radiation from a single electron orbiting in a magnetic field has never been observed directly. We demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radio-frequency spectrometer. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta electron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay end point, and this work demonstrates a fundamentally new approach to precision beta spectroscopy for future neutrino mass experiments. PMID:25955048

  14. Pushing the envelope of in situ transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ramachandramoorthy, Rajaprakash; Bernal, Rodrigo; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2015-05-26

    Recent major improvements to the transmission electron microscope (TEM) including aberration-corrected electron optics, light-element-sensitive analytical instrumentation, sample environmental control, and high-speed and sensitive direct electron detectors are becoming more widely available. When these advances are combined with in situ TEM tools, such as multimodal testing based on microelectromechanical systems, key measurements and insights on nanoscale material phenomena become possible. In particular, these advances enable metrology that allows for unprecedented correlation to quantum mechanics and the predictions of atomistic models. In this Perspective, we provide a summary of recent in situ TEM research that has leveraged these new TEM capabilities as well as an outlook of the opportunities that exist in the different areas of in situ TEM experimentation. Although these advances have improved the spatial and temporal resolution of TEM, a critical analysis of the various in situ TEM fields reveals that further progress is needed to achieve the full potential of the technology. PMID:25942405

  15. In-situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy for battery research.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, B Layla; Gu, Meng; Parent, Lucas R; Xu, Wu; Nasybulin, Eduard N; Chen, Xilin; Unocic, Raymond R; Xu, Pinghong; Welch, David A; Abellan, Patricia; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong-Min; Arslan, Ilke; Evans, James; Browning, Nigel D

    2014-04-01

    The recent development of in-situ liquid stages for (scanning) transmission electron microscopes now makes it possible for us to study the details of electrochemical processes under operando conditions. As electrochemical processes are complex, care must be taken to calibrate the system before any in-situ/operando observations. In addition, as the electron beam can cause effects that look similar to electrochemical processes at the electrolyte/electrode interface, an understanding of the role of the electron beam in modifying the operando observations must also be understood. In this paper we describe the design, assembly, and operation of an in-situ electrochemical cell, paying particular attention to the method for controlling and quantifying the experimental parameters. The use of this system is then demonstrated for the lithiation/delithiation of silicon nanowires. PMID:24755142

  16. Effects of instrument imperfections on quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Krause, Florian F; Schowalter, Marco; Grieb, Tim; Müller-Caspary, Knut; Mehrtens, Thorsten; Rosenauer, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Several instrumental imperfections of transmission electron microscopes are characterized and their effects on the results of quantitative scanning electron microscopy (STEM) are investigated and quantified using simulations. Methods to either avoid influences of these imperfections during acquisition or to include them in reference calculations are proposed. Particularly, distortions inflicted on the diffraction pattern by an image-aberration corrector can cause severe errors of more than 20% if not accounted for. A procedure for their measurement is proposed here. Furthermore, afterglow phenomena and nonlinear behavior of the detector itself can lead to incorrect normalization of measured intensities. Single electrons accidentally impinging on the detector are another source of error but can also be exploited for threshold-less calibration of STEM images to absolute dose, incident beam current determination and measurement of the detector sensitivity. PMID:26686661

  17. In-Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy for Battery Research

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdi, Beata L; Gu, Meng; Parent, Lucas; Xu, WU; Nasybulin, Eduard; Chen, Xilin; Unocic, Raymond R; Xu, Pinghong; Welch, David; Abellan, Patricia; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chongmin; Arslan, Ilke; Evans, James E; Browning, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of in-situ liquid stages for (scanning) transmission electron microscopes now makes it possible for us to study the details of electrochemical processes under operando conditions. As electrochemical processes are complex, care must be taken to calibrate the system before any in-situ/operando observations. In addition, as the electron beam can cause effects that look similar to electrochemical processes at the electrolyte/electrode interface, an understanding of the role of the electron beam in modifying the operando observations must also be understood. In this paper we describe the design, assembly, and operation of an in-situ electrochemical cell, paying particular attention to the method for controlling and quantifying the experimental parameters. The use of this system is then demonstrated for the lithiation/delithiation of silicon nanowires.

  18. In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy for Battery Research

    SciTech Connect

    Mehdi, Beata L.; Gu, Meng; Parent, Lucas R.; Xu, Wu; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Chen, Xilin; Unocic, Raymond R.; Xu, Pinghong; Welch, David A.; Abellan, Patricia; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong M.; Arslan, Ilke; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-04-01

    The recent development of in situ liquid stages for (scanning) transmission electron microscopes now makes it possible for us to study the details of electrochemical processes under operando conditions. As electrochemical processes are complex, care must be taken to calibrate the system before any in situ/operando observations. In addition, as the electron beam can cause effects that look similar to electrochemical processes at the electrolyte/electrode interface, an understanding of the role of the electron beam in modifying the operando observations must also be understood. In this paper we describe the design, assembly, and operation of an in situ electrochemical cell, paying particular attention to the method for controlling and quantifying the experimental parameters. The use of this system is then demonstrated for the lithiation/delithiation of silicon nanowires.

  19. Time Resolved Phase Transitions via Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, B W; Armstrong, M R; Blobaum, K J; Browning, N D; Burnham, A K; Campbell, G H; Gee, R; Kim, J S; King, W E; Maiti, A; Piggott, W T; Torralva, B R

    2007-02-22

    The Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) project is developing an in situ electron microscope with nanometer- and nanosecond-scale resolution for the study of rapid laser-driven processes in materials. We report on the results obtained in a year-long LDRD-supported effort to develop DTEM techniques and results for phase transitions in molecular crystals, reactive multilayer foils, and melting and resolidification of bismuth. We report the first in situ TEM observation of the HMX {beta}-{delta} phase transformation in sub-{micro}m crystals, computational results suggesting the importance of voids and free surfaces in the HMX transformation kinetics, and the first electron diffraction patterns of intermediate states in fast multilayer foil reactions. This project developed techniques which are applicable to many materials systems and will continue to be employed within the larger DTEM effort.

  20. Ultrathin atomic vapor film transmission spectroscopy: analysis of Dicke narrowing structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yanpeng; Gan, Chenli

    2005-11-01

    Transmission sub-Doppler spectroscopy with confined atomic vapor film between two dielectric walls is theoretically studied. Because of atoms flying from wall to wall, where they get de-excited, the atom-field interaction time is anisotropic so that the contribution of slow atoms is enhanced, a sub-Doppler transmission spectroscopy (Dicke narrowing effect) can be obtained when the thickness of the film is much small or comparable with the wavelength even at small angle oblique incidence. It is feasible to get a sub-Doppler structure in a new region (L < ?/4) in experiments.

  1. Nucleation of diamond by pure carbon ion bombardment--a transmission electron microscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Y.; Liao, M.Y.; Wang, Z.G.; Lifshitz, Y.; Lee, S.

    2005-08-08

    A cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study of a film deposited by a 1 keV mass-selected carbon ion beam onto silicon held at 800 deg. C is presented. Initially, a graphitic film with its basal planes perpendicular to the substrate is evolving. The precipitation of nanodiamond crystallites in upper layers is confirmed by HRTEM, selected area electron diffraction, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The nucleation of diamond on graphitic edges as predicted by Lambrecht et al. [W. R. L. Lambrecht, C. H. Lee, B. Segall, J. C. Angus, Z. Li, and M. Sunkara, Nature, 364 607 (1993)] is experimentally confirmed. The results are discussed in terms of our recent subplantation-based diamond nucleation model.

  2. Below band-gap laser ablation of diamond for transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, T.; Foote, M. C.; Vasquez, R. P.; Fortier, E. P.; Posthill, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    A 248 nm excimer laser was used to thin naturally occurring type 1a diamond substrates at normal and glancing (22 deg) incidence. Perforation of a 250-micron-thick substrate was achieved in about 15 min at normal incidence. While the substrate thinned at glancing incidence was found to have large electron-transparent areas, that thinned at normal incidence required additional argon-ion milling to achieve electron transparency. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the back surface of the diamond failed to detect any graphite or glassy carbon, confirming that damage due to laser ablation occurs only at the incident surface. Samples prepared using this technique imaged in the transmission electron microscope were observed to have retained the nitrogen platelets characteristic of such type 1a diamonds.

  3. Transmission pump-probe spectroscopy on multilayer black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, Ryan J.; Jadidi, Mohammad M.; Murphy, Thomas E.; Mittendorff, Martin

    Black phosphorus is a two-dimensional material that has recently attracted interest due to its high mobility and direct bandgap. In this work we examine the pump-induced change in optical transmission of mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus flakes using a two-color optical pump-probe measurement. The time-resolved data reveal a fast pump-induced transparency accompanied by a slower absorption that we attribute to Pauli blocking and free-carrier absorption, respectively. Polarization studies show that these effects are also highly anisotropic - underscoring the importance of crystal orientation in the design of optical devices based on this material. Ongoing work suggests that exploring the carrier density dependence of the pump-probe signals, which can be accessed experimentally via electrostatic gating, may allow for improved understanding of the optical response and carrier dynamics in the material. Supported by NSF and ONR-MURI.

  4. A scanning transmission electron microscopy study of two dental amalgams.

    PubMed

    Williams, K R

    1983-10-01

    Two fully aged amalgam alloys were examined using a scanning transmission electron microscope both in the transmission and scanning mode. The dispersed type amalgam containing a distribution of silver-copper spheres in addition to the Ag3Sn powder showed a markedly reduced gamma 1 grain size compared to a conventional Ag3Sn type amalgam. It is suggested that the increased compressive creep strength of the dispersed type material is a direct result of the reduced gamma 1 grain size and not due to a dispersion hardening effect from the cores of the remaining Ag-Cu spheres. Similarly, the formation of complex Cu-Sn intermediate phases at the Ag-Cu sphere surfaces are unlikely to lead to a dispersion strengthening effect. It is postulated that the reduced grain size in high copper amalgams is a consequence of the enhanced nucleating effect of a copper based phase on gamma 1. PMID:6640049

  5. A transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of annealing induced γ-phase nucleation, clustering, and interfacial dynamics in reactively sputtered amorphous alumina thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A. K. Nanda Subramanian, B.; Prasanna, S.; Jayakumar, S.; Rao, G. Mohan

    2015-03-28

    Pure α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits a very high degree of thermodynamical stability among all metal oxides and forms an inert oxide scale in a range of structural alloys at high temperatures. We report that amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films sputter deposited over crystalline Si instead show a surprisingly active interface. On annealing, crystallization begins with nuclei of a phase closely resembling γ-Alumina forming almost randomly in an amorphous matrix, and with increasing frequency near the substrate/film interface. This nucleation is marked by the signature appearance of sharp (400) and (440) reflections and the formation of a diffuse diffraction halo with an outer maximal radius of ≈0.23 nm enveloping the direct beam. The microstructure then evolves by a cluster-coalescence growth mechanism suggestive of swift nucleation and sluggish diffusional kinetics, while locally the Al ions redistribute slowly from chemisorbed and tetrahedral sites to higher anion coordinated sites. Chemical state plots constructed from XPS data and simple calculations of the diffraction patterns from hypothetically distorted lattices suggest that the true origins of the diffuse diffraction halo are probably related to a complex change in the electronic structure spurred by the a-γ transformation rather than pure structural disorder. Concurrent to crystallization within the film, a substantially thick interfacial reaction zone also builds up at the film/substrate interface with the excess Al acting as a cationic source.

  6. Single-electron detection and spectroscopy via relativistic cyclotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, David M.; Bradley, Rich; De Viveiros Souza Filho, Luiz A.; Doe, Peter J.; Fernandes, Justin L.; Fertl, M.; Finn, Erin C.; Formaggio, Joseph; Furse, Daniel L.; Jones, Anthony M.; Kofron, Jared N.; LaRoque, Benjamin; Leber, Michelle; MCBride, Lisa; Miller, M. L.; Mohanmurthy, Prajwal T.; Monreal, Ben; Oblath, Noah S.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rosenberg, Leslie; Rybka, Gray; Rysewyk, Devyn M.; Sternberg, Michael G.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Thummler, Thomas; VanDevender, Brent A.; Woods, N. L.

    2015-04-01

    It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges should emit electromagnetic radiation. Cyclotron radiation, the particular form of radiation emitted by an electron orbiting in a magnetic field, was first derived in 1904. Despite the simplicity of this concept, and the enormous utility of electron spectroscopy in nuclear and particle physics, single-electron cyclotron radiation has never been observed directly. Here we demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radiofrequency spectrometer. We observe the cyclotron radiation emitted by individual electrons that are produced with mildly-relativistic energies by a gaseous radioactive source and are magnetically trapped. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta electron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay endpoint, and this work is a proof-of-concept for future neutrino mass experiments using this technique.

  7. Diamond Analyzed by Secondary Electron Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainsky, Isay L.

    1998-01-01

    Diamond is a promising semiconductor material for novel electronic applications because of its chemical stability and inertness, heat conduction properties, and so-called negative electron affinity (NEA). When a surface has NEA, electrons generated inside the bulk of the material are able to come out into the vacuum without any potential barrier (work function). Such a material would have an extremely high secondary electron emission coefficient o, very high photoelectron (quantum) yield, and would probably be an efficient field emitter. Chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films have even more advantages than diamond single crystals. Their fabrication is relatively easy and inexpensive, and they can be grown with high levels of doping--consequently, they can have relatively high conductivity. Because of these properties, diamond can be used for cold cathodes and photocathodes in high-power electronics and in high-frequency and high-temperature semiconductor devices.

  8. Nanocrystal size distribution analysis from transmission electron microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Sebille, Martijn; van der Maaten, Laurens J. P.; Xie, Ling; Jarolimek, Karol; Santbergen, Rudi; van Swaaij, René A. C. M. M.; Leifer, Klaus; Zeman, Miro

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method, with minimal bias caused by user input, to quickly detect and measure the nanocrystal size distribution from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images using a combination of Laplacian of Gaussian filters and non-maximum suppression. We demonstrate the proposed method on bright-field TEM images of an a-SiC:H sample containing embedded silicon nanocrystals with varying magnifications and we compare the accuracy and speed with size distributions obtained by manual measurements, a thresholding method and PEBBLES. Finally, we analytically consider the error induced by slicing nanocrystals during TEM sample preparation on the measured nanocrystal size distribution and formulate an equation to correct this effect.We propose a method, with minimal bias caused by user input, to quickly detect and measure the nanocrystal size distribution from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images using a combination of Laplacian of Gaussian filters and non-maximum suppression. We demonstrate the proposed method on bright-field TEM images of an a-SiC:H sample containing embedded silicon nanocrystals with varying magnifications and we compare the accuracy and speed with size distributions obtained by manual measurements, a thresholding method and PEBBLES. Finally, we analytically consider the error induced by slicing nanocrystals during TEM sample preparation on the measured nanocrystal size distribution and formulate an equation to correct this effect. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06292f

  9. Structural Fingerprinting of Nanocrystals in the Transmission Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouvimov, Sergei; Plachinda, Pavel; Moeck, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Three novel strategies for the structurally identification of nanocrystals in a transmission electron microscope are presented. Either a single high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image [1] or a single precession electron diffractogram (PED) [2] may be employed. PEDs from fine-grained crystal powders may also be utilized. Automation of the former two strategies is in progress and shall lead to statistically significant results on ensembles of nanocrystals. Open-access databases such as the Crystallography Open Database which provides more than 81,500 crystal structure data sets [3] or its mainly inorganic and educational subsets [4] may be utilized. [1] http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals 2007/j/of/dissertation.htm [2] P. Moeck and S. Rouvimov, in: {Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences}, Vol. 191, 2009, 270-313 [3] http://cod.ibt.lt, http://www.crystallography.net, http://cod.ensicaen.fr, http://nanocrystallography.org, http://nanocrystallography.net, http://journals.iucr.org/j/issues/2009/04/00/kk5039/kk5039.pdf [4] http://nanocrystallography.research.pdx.edu/CIF-searchable

  10. How Ubiquitous is Total Electron Transmission through Nanostructures (Quantum Dragons)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Mark

    2015-03-01

    In transport through nanostructures connected to two semi-infinite leads, the transmission probability calT (E) as a function of the energy E of the incoming electron plays a central role in the Landauer calculation of the electrical conductance G. A quantum dragon nanostructure is one which when connected to appropriate leads has total electron transmission for all energies, calT (E) =1. In two-lead measurements of single-channel quantum dragons, the quantum of conductance, G0 = 2e2 / h , should be observed. A quantum dragon may have strong scattering. In the disorder was along the axis of electron propagation, the z axis. We show that quantum dragon nanostructures can be found for strong disorder perpendicular to the z axis. In select types of nanostructures, we find the ratio of the dimension of the parameter space where quantum dragons exist to that of the complete parameter space. The results use the single-band tight-binding model, and are for the case with only one open channel and homogeneous leads. One type of nanostructure with calT (E) =1 has completely disordered slices perpendicular to the z axis, but identical slices along the z direction. Supported in part by NSF Grant DMR-1206233.

  11. Three-Dimensional Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of Biological Specimens

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Niels; Sougrat, Rachid; Northan, Brian M.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the cytoskeleton and a clathrin-coated pit in mammalian cells has been achieved from a focal-series of images recorded in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The specimen was a metallic replica of the biological structure comprising Pt nanoparticles 2–3 nm in diameter, with a high stability under electron beam radiation. The 3D dataset was processed by an automated deconvolution procedure. The lateral resolution was 1.1 nm, set by pixel size. Particles differing by only 10 nm in vertical position were identified as separate objects with greater than 20% dip in contrast between them. We refer to this value as the axial resolution of the deconvolution or reconstruction, the ability to recognize two objects, which were unresolved in the original dataset. The resolution of the reconstruction is comparable to that achieved by tilt-series transmission electron microscopy. However, the focal-series method does not require mechanical tilting and is therefore much faster. 3D STEM images were also recorded of the Golgi ribbon in conventional thin sections containing 3T3 cells with a comparable axial resolution in the deconvolved dataset. PMID:20082729

  12. Regional spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using pulsed terahertz transmission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Tyler; El-Shenawee, Magda; Campbell, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    This work seeks to obtain the properties of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tumor tissues using transmission imaging and spectroscopy. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast tumors are first sectioned into slices of 20 μm and 30 μm and placed between two tsurupica slides. The slides are then scanned in a pulsed terahertz system using transmission imaging. The tissue regions in adjacent pathology section are compared to the transmission imaging scan in order to define a region of points over which to average the electrical properties results from the scan.

  13. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1355 - Electronic Data Transmission Format

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electronic Data Transmission Format C Appendix C.... 1355, App. C Appendix C to Part 1355—Electronic Data Transmission Format All AFCARS data to be sent... be four semi-annual electronic data transmissions from the title IV-E agency to the...

  14. Probing the anisotropic behaviors of black phosphorus by transmission electron microscopy, angular-dependent Raman spectra, and electronic transport measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wanglin; Ma, Xiaomeng; Fei, Zhen; Zhou, Jianguang; Zhang, Zhiyong; Jin, Chuanhong; Zhang, Ze

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we correlated the angular dependence of the Raman response of black phosphorus to its crystallographic orientation by using transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the intensity of the Ag 2 mode reached a maximum when the polarization direction of the incident light was parallel to the zigzag crystallographic orientation. Notably, it was further confirmed that the zigzag crystallographic direction exhibited superior conductance and carrier mobility. Because of the lattice extension along the armchair direction, an intensification of the anisotropic Raman response was observed. This work provides direct evidence of the correlation between anisotropic properties and crystallographic direction and represents a turning point in the discussion of the angular-dependent electronic properties of black phosphorus.

  15. Ion cyclotron transmission spectroscopy in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.J.

    1993-09-01

    The propagation of waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies has been investigated experimentally in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. A small, broadband, radiofrequency (rf) magnetic probe located outside the plasma limiter, at a major radius near that of the plasma center, was excited with a low power, frequency swept source (1--200 MHz). Waves propagating to a distant location were detected with a second, identical probe. The rf transmission spectrum revealed a region of attenuation over a band of frequencies for which the minority fundamental resonance was located between the outer plasma edge and the major radius of the probe location. Distinct, non-overlapping attenuation bands were observed from hydrogen and helium-3 minority species; a distinct tritium band should be observed in future DT experiments. Rapid spectrum acquisition during a helium-3 gas puff experiment showed that the wave attenuation involved the plasma core and was not a surface effect. A model in which the received power varied exponentially with the minority density, averaged over the resonance region, fit the time evolution of the probe signal relatively well. Estimation of a 1-d tunneling parameter from the experimental observations is discussed. Minority concentrations of less than 0.5 % can be resolved with this measurement.

  16. Modification of GaN Schottky barrier interfaces probed by ballistic-electron-emission microscopy and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, L. D.; Smith, R. P.; McDermott, B. T.; Gertner, E. R.; Pittman, R.; Pierson, R. L.; Sullivan, G. J.

    2000-03-01

    Ballistic-electron-emission microscopy (BEEM) and spectroscopy have been used to investigate the properties of Au/GaN interfaces. The effects of in situ and ex situ annealing on the starting GaN surface were examined, with the aim of increasing the surprisingly low value of interface electron transmission observed in previous BEEM measurements. BEEM imaging and spectroscopy have demonstrated that much higher, more uniform transmission across the Au/GaN interface can be achieved. However, while methods were identified that increase transmission by more than an order of magnitude, BEEM spectroscopy indicates that annealing can substantially alter the Schottky barrier height. These barrier height changes at moderate temperatures are attributed to vacancy diffusion.

  17. Transmission electron microscope evidence of telocytes in canine dura mater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Lu, Shanshan; Zhang, Hongqi

    2016-01-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are a novel type of interstitial cells present in a wide variety of organs and tissues (www.telocytes.com). Telocytes are identified morphologically by a small cell body and specific long prolongations (telopodes) alternating thin segments (podomers) with dilations (podoms). The presence of TCs in rat meninges has been identified in previous research. We here present further evidence that TCs existed in canine dura mater, closed to capillary and surrounded by a great deal of collagen fibres under transmission electron microscope. PMID:26781033

  18. Transmission electron microscopy of undermined passive films on stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, H.S.; Zhu, Y.; Sabatini, R.L.; Ryan, M.P.

    1999-06-01

    A study has been made of the passive film remaining over pits on stainless steel using a high resolution transmission electron microscope. Type 305 stainless steel was passivated in a borate buffer solution and pitted in ferric chloride. Passive films formed at 0.2 V relative to a saturated calomel electrode were found to be amorphous. Films formed at higher potentials showed only broad diffraction rings. The passive film was found to cover a remnant lacy structure formed over pits passivated at 0.8 V. The metallic strands of the lace were roughly hemitubular in shape with the curved surface facing the center of the pit.

  19. Simultaneous orientation and thickness mapping in transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tyutyunnikov, Dmitry; Özdöl, V. Burak; Koch, Christoph T.

    2014-12-04

    In this paper we introduce an approach for simultaneous thickness and orientation mapping of crystalline samples by means of transmission electron microscopy. We show that local thickness and orientation values can be extracted from experimental dark-field (DF) image data acquired at different specimen tilts. The method has been implemented to automatically acquire the necessary data and then map thickness and crystal orientation for a given region of interest. We have applied this technique to a specimen prepared from a commercial semiconductor device, containing multiple 22 nm technology transistor structures. The performance and limitations of our method are discussed and compared to those of other techniques available.

  20. Electron-energy-loss spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy as complementary probes for complex f-electron metals: cerium and plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, K. T.; Wall, M. A.; Schwartz, A. J.; Chung, B. W.; Morton, S. A.; Tobin, J. G.; Lazar, S.; Tichelaar, F. D.; Zandbergen, H. W.; Söderlind, P.; van der Laan, G.

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the power of electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a transmission electron microscope by investigating the electron structure of two f-electron metals: Ce and Pu. It is shown that EELS in a transmission electron microscope may be used to circumvent the difficulty of producing single-phase or single-crystal samples owing to its high spatial resolution, and that diffraction patterns and images can be acquired, providing unambiguous phase determination when acquiring spectra. EELS results are supported by synchrotron-radiation-based X-ray absorption, multielectron atomic spectral simulations, and local density approximation calculations based on density-functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation. For Ce, it is shown that changes in {111} stacking sequences can drive substantial modifications in the electronic structure of close-packed phases of Ce that have similar atomic volumes, contrary to previous assumptions in literature. For Pu, it is shown that Russell-Saunders (L-S) coupling fails for the 5f states and that either a j-j or an intermediate scheme must be used for the actinides because of the considerable spin-orbit interaction in the 5f states. We present a model showing how the 5f states behave along the light actinide series.

  1. Atomic scale characterization of materials using scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, Jeffery Andrew

    Coupling the development of emerging experimental techniques in STEM and EELS with a fundamental understanding of atomic electronic structure afforded by DFT represents the unique approach and intention of this thesis. Scanning transmission electron microscopes equipped with high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) detectors and Gatan image filters (GIF) provide images and spectra, where the image brightness is interpreted as a function of atomic mass and thickness, and elemental specific spectra provide a means for the exploration of electronic and chemical structure of materials at the angstrom size scale. Over the past 20 years, the application of EELS in STEM has enabled more accurate elemental identification and exploration of electronic and chemical structure on angstrom-length scales, and arguably has provided an unprecedented wealth of materials characterization compared to other available techniques. Many materials issues related to specific novel properties that cannot be analyzed using the traditional techniques of the past, however, still remain unanswered. These concepts require a married approach of experiment and theory to fully explain. The intent of this dissertation is the development of improved analysis techniques that derive quantitative atomic scale information in connection with unraveling the origins of materials properties linked to the electronic structure and chemistry of materials.

  2. Observations of Nanobubble Dynamics with Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Meera Kanakamma; Arora, Manish; Mirsaidov, Utkur; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Recent developments in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allow the imaging of liquids with high spatial resolution. Here we report on novel studies of water trapped between two monolayers of graphene sheets. The geometry prevents evaporation of the liquid into the low pressure environment of the TEM while providing excellent electron-optical properties for investigations. The graphene sheets are supported by a conventional TEM grid. We report on the nucleation of bubbles, the coalescence between neighbouring bubbles, rupture of thin liquid filaments, and their slow shrinkage. At a dose rate of 100-155 e-Å-2s-1 these events are observed conveniently at video frame rate. The correlation with the local electron beam dose rate suggests that the radiolysis induced by the electron beam is the main driving force for most events. In general, we observed bubbles with lateral sizes between 20 nm and 100 nm and estimated heights between 6 nm and 30 nm. Likely, the bubbles connect both graphene sheets. In the absence of the electron beam the nanobubbles do not dissolve completely but surprisingly remain stable for even up to one hour. This resembles the stability of surface attached nanobubbles.

  3. Simulation of transmission electron microscope images of biological specimens.

    PubMed

    Rullgård, H; Ofverstedt, L-G; Masich, S; Daneholt, B; Oktem, O

    2011-09-01

    We present a new approach to simulate electron cryo-microscope images of biological specimens. The framework for simulation consists of two parts; the first is a phantom generator that generates a model of a specimen suitable for simulation, the second is a transmission electron microscope simulator. The phantom generator calculates the scattering potential of an atomic structure in aqueous buffer and allows the user to define the distribution of molecules in the simulated image. The simulator includes a well defined electron-specimen interaction model based on the scalar Schrödinger equation, the contrast transfer function for optics, and a noise model that includes shot noise as well as detector noise including detector blurring. To enable optimal performance, the simulation framework also includes a calibration protocol for setting simulation parameters. To test the accuracy of the new framework for simulation, we compare simulated images to experimental images recorded of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) in vitreous ice. The simulated and experimental images show good agreement with respect to contrast variations depending on dose and defocus. Furthermore, random fluctuations present in experimental and simulated images exhibit similar statistical properties. The simulator has been designed to provide a platform for development of new instrumentation and image processing procedures in single particle electron microscopy, two-dimensional crystallography and electron tomography with well documented protocols and an open source code into which new improvements and extensions are easily incorporated. PMID:21631500

  4. Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy and optical characterization of a-C-H and BN films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, J. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Warner, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The amorphous dielectrics a-C:H and BN were deposited on III-V semiconductors. Optical band gaps as high as 3 eV were measured for a-C:H generated by C4H10 plasmas; a comparison was made with bad gaps obtained from films prepared by CH4 glow discharges. The ion beam deposited BN films exhibited amorphous behavior with band gaps on the order of 5 eV. Film compositions were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The optical properties were characterized by ellipsometry, UV/VIS absorption, and IR reflection and transmission. Etching rates of a-C:H subjected to O2 dicharges were determined.

  5. Materials Characterization in the Aberration-Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Varela del Arco, Maria; Lupini, Andrew R; van Benthem, Klaus; Borisevich, Albina Y; Chisholm, Matthew F; Shibata, Naoya; Abe, E.; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2005-01-01

    In the nanoscience era, the properties of many exciting new materials and devices will depend on the details of their composition down to the level of single atoms. Thus the characterization of the structure and electronic properties of matter at the atomic scale is becoming ever more vital for economic and technological as well as for scientific reasons. The combination of atomic-resolution Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) represents a powerful method to link the atomic and electronic structure to macroscopic properties, allowing materials, nanoscale systems, and interfaces to be probed in unprecedented detail. Z-contrast STEM uses electrons that have been scattered to large angles for imaging. The relative intensity of each atomic column is roughly proportional to Z{sup 2}, where Z is the atomic number. Recent developments in correcting the aberrations of the lenses in the electron microscope have pushed the achievable spatial resolution and the sensitivity for imaging and spectroscopy in the STEM into the sub-Angstrom (sub-{angstrom}) regime, providing a new level of insight into the structure/property relations of complex materials. Images acquired with an aberration-corrected instrument show greatly improved contrast. The signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high to allow sensitivity even to single atoms in both imaging and spectroscopy. This is a key achievement because the detection and measurement of the response of individual atoms has become a challenging issue to provide new insight into many fields, such as catalysis, ceramic materials, complex oxide interfaces, or grain boundaries. In this article, the state-of-the-art for the characterization of all of these different types of materials by means of aberration-corrected STEM and EELS are reviewed.

  6. TATP and TNT detection by mid-infrared transmission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Johannes; Hildenbrand, Jürgen; Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Lambrecht, Armin

    2009-05-01

    Sensitive and fast detection of explosives remains a challenge in many threat scenarios. Fraunhofer IPM works on two different detection methods using mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy in combination with quantum cascade lasers (QCL). 1. stand-off detection for a spatial distance of several meters and 2. contactless extractive sampling for short distance applications. The extractive method is based on a hollow fiber that works as gas cell and optical waveguide for the QCL light. The samples are membranes contaminated with the explosives and real background. The low vapor pressure of TNT requires a thermal desorbtion to introduce gaseous TNT and TATP into the heated fiber. The advantage of the hollow fiber setup is the resulting small sample volume. This enables a fast gas exchange rate and fast detection in the second range. The presented measurement setup achieves a detection limit of around 58 ng TNT and 26 ng TATP for 1 m hollow fiber. TATP - an explosive with a very high vapor pressure in comparison to TNT or other explosives - shows potential for an adequate concentration in gas phase under normal ambient conditions and thus the possibility of an explosive detection using open path absorption of TATP at 8 μm wavelength. In order to lower the cross sensitivities or interferents with substances with an absorption in the wavelength range of the TATP absorption the probe volume is checked synchronously by a second QCL emitting beside the target absorption wavelength. In laboratory measurements a detection limit of 5 ppm*m TATP are achieved.

  7. Coherent Chromatic Effect in the Transmission Electron Microscope.

    PubMed

    Erni, Rolf

    2016-03-18

    Under the assumption of local atomic scattering, elastic electron scattering at finite scattering angles implies a small but finite energy loss. This energy loss, which under conventional imaging conditions in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is of the order of 0.1 meV and thus negligible, increases by more than 2 orders of magnitude if light elements are investigated at sub-Ångström resolution. For a microscope of finite chromatic aberration, the energy loss leads to an element-specific chromatic effect which increases with the instrument resolution and with decreasing mass of the scattering atom. Despite that this effect is small, it can degrade the achievable image contrast. However, the effect can be considered in the optimization of the phase-contrast imaging conditions and even be beneficial to enhance the relative image contrast of light atoms in the presence of heavy atoms. PMID:27035311

  8. Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmen, Tim; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre G; Lupini, Andrew R; Kubel, Christian; Slusallek, Phillip; De Jonge, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller missing wedge artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

  9. Automatic transmission electronic gearshift control having altitude corrected shift criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Baltusis, P.A.; Greene, T.L.; Palansky, B.J.

    1990-07-24

    This patent describes a method for controlling gearshifts in an automatic transmission of a motor vehicle having an engine, electronic computer, electronic memory accessible to the computer. It comprises: generating an engine speed signal; storing in memory engine speeds corresponding to a wide open throttle condition at which gearshifts are scheduled to occur at a reference barometric pressure; calculating a engine speed barometric pressure correction to account for a difference between reference barometric pressure and current ambient barometric pressure; generating, in response to the engine speed barometric pressure correction, an altitude corrected engine speed signal representing engine speed corresponding to a wide open throttle condition at which gearshifts are to occur at current ambient barometric pressure; comparing the current engine speed signal to the barometric pressure corrected engine speed signal; and producing a gearshift when the comparison indicates current engine speed exceeds the barometric pressure corrected engine speed.

  10. Properties of a transmission grating behind a grazing incidence telescope for cosmic x-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Beuermann, K P; Lenzen, R; Bräuninger, H

    1977-05-01

    Third-order aberrations are discussed of a transmission grating positioned behind a Wolter type I telescope, using Fermat's principle. We describe the conditions required to obtain a coma-free grating. The performance of a grating spectrometer for cosmic x-ray spectroscopy is discussed in some detail. PMID:20168712

  11. Few-layer graphene as a support film for transmission electron microscopy imaging of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    McBride, James R; Lupini, Andrew R; Schreuder, Michael A; Smith, Nathanael J; Pennycook, Stephen J; Rosenthal, Sandra J

    2009-12-01

    One consistent limitation for high-resolution imaging of small nanoparticles is the high background signal from the amorphous carbon support film. With interest growing for smaller and smaller nanostructures, state of the art electron microscopes are becoming necessary for rudimentary tasks, such as nanoparticle sizing. As a monolayer of carbon, free-standing graphene represents the ultimate support film for nanoparticle imaging. In this work, conventional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used to assess the benefits and feasibility of few-layer graphene support films. Suspensions of few-layer graphene to produce the support films were prepared by simple sonication of exfoliated graphite. The greatest benefit was observed for conventional HRTEM, where lattice resolved imaging of sub 2 nm CdSe nanocrystals was achieved. The few-layer graphene films were also used as a support film for C(s)-corrected STEM and electron energy loss spectroscopy of CuInSe(2) nanocrystals. PMID:20356171

  12. Combining ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectrometry, and photoelectron spectroscopy in a high-transmission instrument.

    PubMed

    Vonderach, Matthias; Ehrler, Oli T; Weis, Patrick; Kappes, Manfred M

    2011-02-01

    We have developed a novel instrument that combines ion mobility spectrometry, mass spectro-metry, and photoelectron spectroscopy. The instrument couples an electrospray ion source, a high-transmission ion mobility cell based on ion funnels, a quadrupole mass filter, and a time-of-flight (magnetic bottle) photoelectron spectrometer operated with a pulsed detachment laser. We show that the instrument can resolve highly structured anion arrival time distributions and at the same time provide corresponding photoelectron spectra-using the DNA oligonucleotide ion [dC(6) - 5H](5-) as a test case. For this multianion we find at least four different, noninterconverting isomers (conformers) simultaneously present in the gas phase at room temperature. For each of these we record well-resolved and remarkably different photoelectron spectra at each of three different detachment laser wavelengths. Two-dimensional ion mobility/electron binding energy plots can be acquired with an automated data collection procedure. We expect that this kind of instrument will significantly improve the capabilities for structure determination of (bio)molecular anions in the gas phase. PMID:21214198

  13. Detection of Nitric Oxide by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been used in a number of ways to study nitric oxide chemistry and biology. As an intrinsically stable and relatively unreactive diatomic free radical, the challenges for detecting this species by EPR are somewhat different than those for transient radical species. This review gives a basic introduction to EPR spectroscopy and discusses its uses to assess and quantify nitric oxide formation in biological systems. PMID:20304044

  14. Electron Spectroscopy of Single Quantum Objects To Directly Correlate the Local Structure to Their Electronic Transport and Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Senga, Ryosuke; Pichler, Thomas; Suenaga, Kazu

    2016-06-01

    Physical property of a single quantum object is governed by its precise atomic arrangement. The direct correlation of localized physical properties with the atomic structures has been therefore strongly desired but still limited in the theoretical studies. Here, we have successfully examined the localized electronic properties of individual carbon nanotubes by means of high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy combined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Well-separated sharp peaks at the carbon K(1s) absorption edge and in the valence-loss spectra are obtained from a single freestanding carbon nanotube with the local chiral index and unambiguously identified as the transitions between the van Hove singularities. The spectra features clearly vary upon the different areas even in the individual carbon nanotube. Variations in interband transitions, plasmonic behaviors, and unoccupied electronic structures are clearly attributed to the local irregular atomic arrangement such as topological defect and/or elastic bond stretching. PMID:27171894

  15. Center Line Slope Analysis in Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Center line slope (CLS) analysis in 2D infrared spectroscopy has been extensively used to extract frequency–frequency correlation functions of vibrational transitions. We apply this concept to 2D electronic spectroscopy, where CLS is a measure of electronic gap fluctuations. The two domains, infrared and electronic, possess differences: In the infrared, the frequency fluctuations are classical, often slow and Gaussian. In contrast, electronic spectra are subject to fast spectral diffusion and affected by underdamped vibrational wavepackets in addition to Stokes shift. All these effects result in non-Gaussian peak profiles. Here, we extend CLS-analysis beyond Gaussian line shapes and test the developed methodology on a solvated molecule, zinc phthalocyanine. We find that CLS facilitates the interpretation of 2D electronic spectra by reducing their complexity to one dimension. In this way, CLS provides a highly sensitive measure of model parameters describing electronic–vibrational and electronic–solvent interaction. PMID:26463085

  16. Accurate Nanoscale Crystallography in Real-Space Using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dycus, J Houston; Harris, Joshua S; Sang, Xiahan; Fancher, Chris M; Findlay, Scott D; Oni, Adedapo A; Chan, Tsung-Ta E; Koch, Carl C; Jones, Jacob L; Allen, Leslie J; Irving, Douglas L; LeBeau, James M

    2015-08-01

    Here, we report reproducible and accurate measurement of crystallographic parameters using scanning transmission electron microscopy. This is made possible by removing drift and residual scan distortion. We demonstrate real-space lattice parameter measurements with <0.1% error for complex-layered chalcogenides Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and a Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 nanostructured alloy. Pairing the technique with atomic resolution spectroscopy, we connect local structure with chemistry and bonding. Combining these results with density functional theory, we show that the incorporation of Se into Bi2Te3 causes charge redistribution that anomalously increases the van der Waals gap between building blocks of the layered structure. The results show that atomic resolution imaging with electrons can accurately and robustly quantify crystallography at the nanoscale. PMID:26169835

  17. X-ray and Electron Spectroscopy of Water.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Thomas; Harada, Yoshihisa; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Besley, Nicholas A; Winter, Bernd; Rehr, John J; Pettersson, Lars G M; Nilsson, Anders

    2016-07-13

    Here we present an overview of recent developments of X-ray and electron spectroscopy to probe water at different temperatures. Photon-induced ionization followed by detection of electrons from either the O 1s level or the valence band is the basis of photoelectron spectroscopy. Excitation between the O 1s and the unoccupied states or occupied states is utilized in X-ray absorption and X-ray emission spectroscopies. These techniques probe the electronic structure of the liquid phase and show sensitivity to the local hydrogen-bonding structure. Both experimental aspects related to the measurements and theoretical simulations to assist in the interpretation are discussed in detail. Different model systems are presented such as the different bulk phases of ice and various adsorbed monolayer structures on metal surfaces. PMID:27244473

  18. Revealing the electronic structure of the iron pnictides with electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrobo, J. C.; Zhou, W.; Chisholm, M. F.; Prange, M. P.; Sefat, A. S.; McGuire, M. A.; Sales, B. C.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pantelides, S. T.

    2011-03-01

    We report electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) studies of the parent compounds (LnFeAsO, Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd) using scanning transmission electron microscopy. We find that all the studied LnFeAsO present a Fe L-edge fine structure closer to that of metallic iron than iron oxides. We observe a direct correlation between the Fe valence state (obtained from EELS) and TC , i.e. the smaller the calculated Fe valence state, the larger is the TC for that compound. We also find an anomalous crystallographic orientation-dependence of the Ln M45 edge fine structure. In particular, we find difference in the apparent crystal field splitting of Ce and Gd f- bands when the spectra are collected parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis. This research was partially supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-0938330 (JCI, WZ), by ORNL's Shared Research Equipment (SHaRE) User Facility, which is sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy (JCI) and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, U.S. Department of Energy (MC, ASS, MAM, BCS & SJP), DOE grant DE- F002-09ER46554 (MP, STP), and by the McMinn Endowment (STP) at Vanderbilt University.

  19. Electron energy loss spectroscopy of disilane

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, M.A.; Spence, D.; Boesten, L.; Tanaka, H.

    1988-04-01

    Electron energy loss spectra of disilane have been recorded over an excitation energy range of 20 eV employing electrons of 20 and 200 eV incident energy for scattering angles of 0/sup 0/--90/sup 0/. Every transition detected except one appears at an energy consistent with the first observed members of Rydberg series converging to one of four possible ion states. The first two observed transitions belong to (2a/sub 1//sub g/)/sup 2/..-->../sup 1//sup ,//sup 3/(2a/sub 1//sub g/,4s) dipole forbidden channels appearing at excitation energies of )similarreverse arrowto)6.3 and 7.05 eV for the triplet and singlet, respectively. Evidence is presented for the identification of additional forbidden transitions as well as possible low-lying valence transition

  20. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis: Sample analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, W. B.

    1989-01-01

    Exposure conditions in atomic oxygen (ESCA) was performed on an SSL-100/206 Small Spot Spectrometer. All data were taken with the use of a low voltage electron flood gun and a charge neutralization screen to minimize charging effects on the data. The X-ray spot size and electron flood gun voltage used are recorded on the individual spectra as are the instrumental resolutions. Two types of spectra were obtained for each specimen: (1) general surveys, and (2) high resolution spectra. The two types of data reduction performed are: (1) semiquantitative compositional analysis, and (2) peak fitting. The materials analyzed are: (1) kapton 4, 5, and 6, (2) HDPE 19, 20, and 21, and (3) PVDF 4, 5, and 6.

  1. Radiation belt electron precipitation by man-made VLF transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, Rory J.; Rodger, Craig J.; Clilverd, Mark A.; Sauvaud, Jean-André; Thomson, Neil R.; Stewart, S. L.; McCormick, Robert J.; Parrot, Michel; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques

    2008-10-01

    Enhancements of drift-loss cone fluxes in the inner radiation belt have been observed to coincide with the geographic location of the powerful VLF transmitter NWC. In this paper we expand upon the earlier study to examine the occurrence frequency of drift-loss cone enhancements observed above transmitters and the intensity of the flux enhancements and to demonstrate the linkage to transmitter operation. Our study has confirmed the strong dependence that these enhancements have upon nighttime ionospheric conditions. No enhancements were observed during daytime periods, consistent with the increased ionospheric absorption. We have also confirmed the persistent occurrence of the wisp features east of the NWC transmitter. The enhancements are initially observed within a few degrees west of NWC and are present in 95% of the nighttime orbital data east of the transmitter for time periods when the transmitter is broadcasting. No enhancements are observed when NWC is not broadcasting. This provides conclusive evidence of the linkage between these drift-loss cone electron flux enhancements and transmissions from NWC. When contrasted with periods when NWC is nonoperational, there are typically ˜430 times more 100-260 keV resonant electrons present in the drift-loss cone across L = 1.67-1.9 owing to NWC transmissions. There are almost no wisp-like enhancements produced by the transmitter NPM, despite its low-latitude location and relatively high output power. The lack of any wisp enhancement for L < 1.6 suggests that nonducted propagation is an inefficient mechanism for scattering electrons, which explains the lower cutoff in L of the NWC-generated wisps and the lack of NPM-generated wisps.

  2. A single electron tunneling force spectroscopy study of dielectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, Dustin W.

    Single electron tunneling force microscopy has been developed over the last decade as a tool to manipulate the occupation and probe the properties of trap states in completely non conducting materials. The technique has been advanced through the efforts of several generations of graduate students in the Clayton Williams research group. Previous graduate students have demonstrated that the single electron tunneling force microscopy technique can repeatably facilitate single electron tunneling between a metallic tip and an electron trap state in a completely non conducting, dielectric material. Also the single electron tunneling force spectroscopy technique has been shown to make these measurements with atomic scale resolution. As solid state device technology rushes toward higher power and increasingly smaller devices single electron tunneling force microscopy is uniquely positioned to identify the properties of trap states in dielectric materials with atomic scale resolution. The main thrust of this work has been concerned with demonstrating a repeatable spectroscopic method which can be used to reliably measure the energy of electron and hole traps due to defect states in dielectric materials. The single electron tunneling force spectroscopy technique was used to make spectroscopic measurements at several places on the surface of silicon dioxide, silicon nitride and hafnium oxide films. The spectra measured were compared to known trap states in both the theoretical and experimental literature. The data show that the density of trap states is not spatially homogeneous, but varies from measurement to measurement. Most of the defect states identified by the single electron tunneling force spectroscopy technique correspond nicely with trap state energies found in either the experimental or theoretical literature. However, several states, not found in the literature, have also been identified by the scanning electron tunneling force spectroscopy technique. Additionally

  3. Transmission electron microscopy characterisation of 0-D nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Stuart Matthew

    When materials are scaled down to the nanometre level, a change in physical behaviour is frequently observed. In so-called 0-D nanomaterials (nanoparticles), these unique nanoscale properties are most abundant and are usually linked to either a change in (electronic) structure of the material or to the dominating influence of the particle surface at the nanometre scale. In this doctoral work the nanoscale properties of several nanoparticle systems have been studied using advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Every material that was studied required for its solution a unique approach and a host of transmission electron microscopy techniques. The title of this doctoral work can be freely translated as "retrieving quantitatively the maximal and most accurate chemical, structural and morphological information from nanoparticles by advanced transmission electron microscopy, to uncover and explain their unique properties". Chapter 1 gives a brief general introduction to the world of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in general and more specifically to 0-D nanomaterials (nanoparticles). The unique properties and potential applications of these materials are described. The production of 0-D nanomaterials is not covered in this chapter, as this is an extremely broad field to cover in only a few pages. Instead, the production method for each of the materials is left to the detailed chapters that follow. In Chapter 2 the main transmission electron microscopy techniques used to characterise the materials in the further chapters are described together with the microscopes used to perform these techniques and their parameters of operation. Again, the sample-specific setups are listed in the detailed chapters that follow. Chapter 3 covers all work carried out on luminescent detonation nanodiamond powder for drug delivery and bio-medical imaging applications. Specific attention is paid to the morphology, surface chemistry and nitrogen incorporation of detonation

  4. Electronic and Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Toluene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Adrian M.; Green, Alistair M.; Tame-Reyes, Victor; Wright, Timothy G.

    2012-06-01

    Electronic and photoelectron spectra of toluene are presented and discussed. The utilization of a recently reported scheme for assigning the normal vibrations of substituted benzenes allows these spectra to be compared to those of other molecules with unprecedented clarity. Changes in vibrational activity within a series of substituted benzene molecules will be discussed, specifically the increased rate of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution observed in molecules where the substituent is a methyl group. A. M. Gardner and T. G. Wright, J. Chem. Phys., 135, 114305 (2011)

  5. Sub-Angstrom Low Voltage Performance of a Monochromated, Aberration-Corrected Transmission Electron Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David C.; Russo, Christopher J.; Benner, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Lowering the electron energy in the transmission electron microscope allows for a significant improvement in contrast of light elements, and reduces knock-on damage for most materials. If low-voltage electron microscopes are defined as those with accelerating voltages below 100 kV, the introduction of aberration correctors and monochromators to the electron microscope column enables Ångstrom-level resolution, which was previously reserved for higher voltage instruments. Decreasing electron energy has three important advantages: 1) knock-on damage is lower, which is critically important for sensitive materials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes; 2) cross sections for electron-energy-loss spectroscopy increase, improving signal-to-noise for chemical analysis; 3) elastic scattering cross sections increase, improving contrast in high-resolution, zero-loss images. The results presented indicate that decreasing the acceleration voltage from 200 kV to 80 kV in a monochromated, aberration-corrected microscope enhances the contrast while retaining sub-angstrom resolution. These improvements in low-voltage performance are expected to produce many new results and enable a wealth of new experiments in materials science. PMID:20598206

  6. Transmission electron microscopy in molecular structural biology: A historical survey.

    PubMed

    Harris, J Robin

    2015-09-01

    In this personal, historic account of macromolecular transmission electron microscopy (TEM), published data from the 1940s through to recent times is surveyed, within the context of the remarkable progress that has been achieved during this time period. The evolution of present day molecular structural biology is described in relation to the associated biological disciplines. The contribution of numerous electron microscope pioneers to the development of the subject is discussed. The principal techniques for TEM specimen preparation, thin sectioning, metal shadowing, negative staining and plunge-freezing (vitrification) of thin aqueous samples are described, with a selection of published images to emphasise the virtues of each method. The development of digital image analysis and 3D reconstruction is described in detail as applied to electron crystallography and reconstructions from helical structures, 2D membrane crystals as well as single particle 3D reconstruction of icosahedral viruses and macromolecules. The on-going development of new software, algorithms and approaches is highlighted before specific examples of the historical progress of the structural biology of proteins and viruses are presented. PMID:25475529

  7. 46 CFR 531.8 - Amendment, correction, cancellation, and electronic transmission errors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transmission errors. 531.8 Section 531.8 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN..., cancellation, and electronic transmission errors. (a) Amendment. (1) NSAs may be amended by mutual agreement of.... (c) Electronic transmission errors. (1) An authorized person who experiences a purely...

  8. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1355 - Electronic Data Transmission Format

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electronic Data Transmission Format C Appendix C.... 1355, App. C Appendix C to Part 1355—Electronic Data Transmission Format All AFCARS data to be sent... to negotiate a method of transmission best suited to the title IV-E agency's environment. There...

  9. 45 CFR Appendix C to Part 1355 - Electronic Data Transmission Format

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electronic Data Transmission Format C Appendix C.... 1355, App. C Appendix C to Part 1355—Electronic Data Transmission Format All AFCARS data to be sent... to negotiate a method of transmission best suited to the title IV-E agency's environment. There...

  10. 46 CFR 530.10 - Amendment, correction, cancellation, and electronic transmission errors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transmission errors. 530.10 Section 530.10 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN..., cancellation, and electronic transmission errors. (a) Terms. When used in this section, the following terms... in appendix A to this part. (d) Electronic transmission errors. An authorized person who...