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Sample records for electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source

  1. Fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Lyneis, Claude M; Leitner, D; Todd, D S; Sabbi, G; Prestemon, S; Caspi, S; Ferracin, P

    2008-02-01

    The concepts and technical challenges related to developing a fourth generation electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source with a rf frequency greater than 40 GHz and magnetic confinement fields greater than twice B(ECR) will be explored in this article. Based on the semiempirical frequency scaling of ECR plasma density with the square of operating frequency, there should be significant gains in performance over current third generation ECR ion sources, which operate at rf frequencies between 20 and 30 GHz. While the third generation ECR ion sources use NbTi superconducting solenoid and sextupole coils, the new sources will need to use different superconducting materials, such as Nb(3)Sn, to reach the required magnetic confinement, which scales linearly with rf frequency. Additional technical challenges include increased bremsstrahlung production, which may increase faster than the plasma density, bremsstrahlung heating of the cold mass, and the availability of high power continuous wave microwave sources at these frequencies. With each generation of ECR ion sources, there are new challenges to be mastered, but the potential for higher performance and reduced cost of the associated accelerator continues to make this a promising avenue for development. PMID:18315111

  2. RF Heating in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascali, D.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2011-12-01

    ECRIS—Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources are able to feed accelerators with intense currents of highly charged ions. In ECRIS a high density—high temperature plasma is generated by means of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating inside a B-min, MHD stable trap. The state of the art about the principal heating mechanisms will be given. The paper will specially discuss the most critical and still open issues concerning the influence of the magnetic field and of the RF frequency on the plasma heating, as well as the impact of possible non-linear pumping wave—to—plasma interactions. The contribution of INFN-LNS will be specifically underlined. A short review on the future perspectives for the design of new generation ion sources will be given in conclusion.

  3. Electron cyclotron resonance microwave ion sources for thin film processing

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Plasmas created by microwave absorption at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) are increasingly used for a variety of plasma processes, including both etching and deposition. ECR sources efficiently couple energy to electrons and use magnetic confinement to maximize the probability of an electron creating an ion or free radical in pressure regimes where the mean free path for ionization is comparable to the ECR source dimensions. The general operating principles of ECR sources are discussed with special emphasis on their use for thin film etching. Data on source performance during Cl base etching of Si using an ECR system are presented. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Glow plasma trigger for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Vodopianov, A. V.; Golubev, S. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2010-02-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) are particularly useful for nuclear, atomic, and high energy physics, as unique high current generators of multicharged ion beams. Plasmas of gas discharges in an open magnetic trap heated by pulsed (100 {mu}s and longer) high power (100 kW and higher) high-frequency (greater than 37.5 GHz) microwaves of gyrotrons is promising in the field of research in the development of electron cyclotron resonance sources for high charge state ion beams. Reaching high ion charge states requires a decrease in gas pressure in the magnetic trap, but this method leads to increases in time, in which the microwave discharge develops. The gas breakdown and microwave discharge duration becomes greater than or equal to the microwave pulse duration when the pressure is decreased. This makes reaching the critical plasma density initiate an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge during pulse of microwave gyrotron radiation with gas pressure lower than a certain threshold. In order to reduce losses of microwave power, it is necessary to shorten the time of development of the ECR discharge. For fast triggering of ECR discharge under low pressure in an ECRIS, we initially propose to fill the magnetic trap with the plasmas of auxiliary pulsed discharges in crossed ExB fields. The glow plasma trigger of ECR based on a Penning or magnetron discharge has made it possible not only to fill the trap with plasma with density of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}, required for a rapid increase in plasma density and finally for ECR discharge ignition, but also to initially heat the plasma electrons to T{sub e}{approx_equal}20 eV.

  5. Glow plasma trigger for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Vodopianov, A V; Golubev, S V; Izotov, I V; Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Yushkov, G Yu

    2010-02-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) are particularly useful for nuclear, atomic, and high energy physics, as unique high current generators of multicharged ion beams. Plasmas of gas discharges in an open magnetic trap heated by pulsed (100 micros and longer) high power (100 kW and higher) high-frequency (greater than 37.5 GHz) microwaves of gyrotrons is promising in the field of research in the development of electron cyclotron resonance sources for high charge state ion beams. Reaching high ion charge states requires a decrease in gas pressure in the magnetic trap, but this method leads to increases in time, in which the microwave discharge develops. The gas breakdown and microwave discharge duration becomes greater than or equal to the microwave pulse duration when the pressure is decreased. This makes reaching the critical plasma density initiate an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge during pulse of microwave gyrotron radiation with gas pressure lower than a certain threshold. In order to reduce losses of microwave power, it is necessary to shorten the time of development of the ECR discharge. For fast triggering of ECR discharge under low pressure in an ECRIS, we initially propose to fill the magnetic trap with the plasmas of auxiliary pulsed discharges in crossed ExB fields. The glow plasma trigger of ECR based on a Penning or magnetron discharge has made it possible not only to fill the trap with plasma with density of 10(12) cm(-3), required for a rapid increase in plasma density and finally for ECR discharge ignition, but also to initially heat the plasma electrons to T(e) approximately = 20 eV. PMID:20192326

  6. Application of compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Iwata, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Hojo, S.; Kubo, T.; Kato, Y.; Biri, S.; Fekete, E.; Yoshida, Y.; Drentje, A. G.

    2008-02-15

    The compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source with a permanent magnet configuration (Kei2 source) has been developed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences for a new carbon therapy facility. The Kei2 source was designed for production of C{sup 4+} ions; its performance such as beam intensity and stability has already reached the medical requirements. Therefore, the prototype development of the source for medical use is essentially finished. Recently, we have started a few studies on other applications of the source. One is the production of fullerenes in the ECR plasma and modified fullerenes with various atoms for new materials. A second application is the production of multiply charged ions (not only carbon) for ion implantation. In this paper, some basic experiments for these applications are reported.

  7. Pulsed magnetic field-electron cyclotron resonance ion source operation

    SciTech Connect

    Muehle, C.; Ratzinger, U.; Joest, G.; Leible, K.; Schennach, S.; Wolf, B.H.

    1996-03-01

    The pulsed magnetic field (PuMa)-electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source uses a pulsed coil to improve the peak current by opening the magnetic bottle along the beam axis. After demonstration of the principle of the pulsed magnetic extraction, the ion source was tested with different gases. We received promising results from helium to krypton. The influence of the current in the pulsed coil on the analyzed ion current was measured. With increased current levels within the pulsed coil not only the pulse height of the PuMa pulse, but the pulse length can also be controlled. By using the pulsed coil the maximum of the charge state distribution can be shifted to higher charge states. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources for cyclotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C.M.

    1986-10-01

    In the last decade ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion sources have evolved from a single large, power consuming, complex prototype into a variety of compact, simple, reliable, efficient, high performance sources of high charge state ions for accelerators and atomic physics. The coupling of ECR sources to cyclotrons has resulted in significant performance gains in energy, intensity, reliability, and variety of ion species. Seven ECR sources are in regular operation with cyclotrons and numerous other projects are under development or in the planning stag. At least four laboratories have ECR sources dedicated for atomic physics research and other atomic physics programs share ECR sources with cyclotrons. An ECR source is now installed on the injector for the CERN SPS synchrotron to accelerate O/sup 8 +/ to relativistic energies. A project is underway at Argonne to couple an ECR source to a superconducting heavy-ion linac. Although tremendous progress has been made, the field of ECR sources is still a relatively young technology and there is still the potential for further advances both in source development and understanding of the plasma physics. The development of ECR sources is reviewed. The important physics mechanisms which come into play in the operation of ECR Sources are discussed, along with various models for charge state distributions (CSD). The design and performance of several ECR sources are compared. The 88-Inch Cyclotron and the LBL ECR is used as an example of cyclotron+ECR operation. The future of ECR sources is considered.

  9. Gas breakdown in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G.; Izotov, I. V.; Sidorov, A. V.; Lamy, T.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.

    2006-03-01

    The realization of the beta-beam project (http://beta-beam.web.cern.ch/beta-beam/) assumes the formation of a pulsed ion beam of helium and neon radioactive isotopes. A pulsed electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source of multicharged ions has been proposed to produce such a beam [P. Sortais et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1610 (2004)]. The rising of plasma density up to a stationary level must be fast enough to actualize this approach. This condition is mandatory to avoid particle losses in the transmission line. In the presented work, the rising time of the plasma density in an ECR ion source from a background level up to 98% of a stationary level is calculated. A zero-dimensional model of plasma formation in a mirror trap [V. Semenov et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 635 (2002)] is used, able to make calculation for a wide range of microwave frequencies. Plasma confinement regime can either be classic (Pastoukhov [Rev. Plasma Phys. 13, 203 (1987)]) or gas dynamic, depending on the plasma parameters. The calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results obtained at the SMIS'37 setup. Numerical calculations also show that particle losses can be significantly reduced by pumping effect; thanks to microwave frequency increase above 40GHz.

  10. Studies on a Q/A selector for the SECRAL electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.; Sun, L. T.; Feng, Y. C.; Fang, X.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Cao, Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-08-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators in the world because they are capable of producing high current beams of highly charged ions. However, the design of the Q/A selector system for these devices is challenging, because it must have a sufficient ion resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, this system has to be matched for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities. In this paper, research on the Q/A selector system at the SECRAL (Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) platform both in experiment and simulation is presented. Based on this study, a new Q/A selector system has been designed for SECRAL II. The features of the new design including beam simulations are also presented.

  11. Studies on a Q/A selector for the SECRAL electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Sun, L T; Feng, Y C; Fang, X; Lu, W; Zhang, W H; Cao, Y; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators in the world because they are capable of producing high current beams of highly charged ions. However, the design of the Q/A selector system for these devices is challenging, because it must have a sufficient ion resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, this system has to be matched for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities. In this paper, research on the Q/A selector system at the SECRAL (Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) platform both in experiment and simulation is presented. Based on this study, a new Q/A selector system has been designed for SECRAL II. The features of the new design including beam simulations are also presented. PMID:25173256

  12. Production of a highly charged uranium ion beam with RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Higurashi, Y.; Ohnishi, J.; Nakagawa, T.; Haba, H.; Fujimaki, M.; Komiyama, M.; Kamigaito, O.; Tamura, M.; Aihara, T.; Uchiyama, A.

    2012-02-15

    A highly charged uranium (U) ion beam is produced from the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using 18 and 28 GHz microwaves. The sputtering method is used to produce this U ion beam. The beam intensity is strongly dependent on the rod position and sputtering voltage. We observe that the emittance of U{sup 35+} for 28 GHz microwaves is almost the same as that for 18 GHz microwaves. It seems that the beam intensity of U ions produced using 28 GHz microwaves is higher than that produced using 18 GHz microwaves at the same Radio Frequency (RF) power.

  13. Note: Production of a mercury beam with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.; Pardo, R.; Scott, R.

    2013-11-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been utilized to produce mercury beams with intensities of 4.5 eμA of {sup 202}Hg{sup 29+} and 3.0 eμA of {sup 202}Hg{sup 31+} from natural abundance mercury metal. The production technique relies on the evaporation of liquid mercury into the source plasma vacuum region and utilizes elemental mercury instead of a volatile organic compound as the neutral feed material.

  14. Grating monochromator for electron cyclotron resonance ion source operation.

    PubMed

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Yamaka, Shouichi; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Kubono, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Kase, Masayuki; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Shimoura, Susumu

    2013-07-01

    Recently, we started to observe optical line spectra from an ECR plasma using a grating monochromator with a photomultiplier. The light intensity of line spectrum from the ECR plasma had a strong correlation with ion beam intensity measured by a magnetic mass analyzer. This correlation is a significant information for beam tuning because it allows the extraction of the desired ion species from the ECR plasma. Separation of ion species of the same charge to mass ratio with an electromagnetic mass analyzer is known to be an exceptionally complex process, but this research gives new insights into its simplification. In this paper, the grating monochromator method for beam tuning of a Hyper-ECR ion source as an injector for RIKEN azimuthal varying field (AVF) cyclotron is described. PMID:23902055

  15. Results of RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz.

    PubMed

    Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Nakagawa, T; Haba, H; Tamura, M; Aihara, T; Fujimaki, M; Komiyama, M; Uchiyama, A; Kamigaito, O

    2012-02-01

    We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and x-ray heat load for RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz microwaves under the various conditions. The beam intensity of Xe(20+) became maximum at B(min) ∼ 0.65 T, which was ∼65% of the magnetic field strength of electron cyclotron resonance (B(ECR)) for 28 GHz microwaves. We observed that the heat load of x-ray increased with decreasing gas pressure and field gradient at resonance zone. It seems that the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions with 28 GHz is higher than that with 18 GHz at same RF power. PMID:22380155

  16. ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) source for the HHIRF (Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility) tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Jones, C.M.; Juras, R.C.; Lane, S.N.; Meigs, M.J.; Mills, G.D.; Mosko, S.W.; Tatum, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance, ECR, ion source technology has developed rapidly since the original pioneering work of R. Geller and his group at Grenoble in the early 1970s. These ion sources are capable of producing intense beams of highly charged positive ions and are used extensively for cyclotron injection, linac injection, and atomic physics research. In this paper, the advantages of using an ECR heavy-ion source in the terminal of the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) 25-MV tandem accelerator is discussed. A possible ECR system for installation in the HHIRF tandem terminal is described.

  17. Wall-loss distribution of charge breeding ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S. C.; Oyaizu, M.; Imai, N.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.; Niki, K.; Okada, M.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Otokawa, Y.; Osa, A.; Ichikawa, S.

    2011-03-15

    The ion loss distribution in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) was investigated to understand the element dependence of the charge breeding efficiency in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) charge breeder. The radioactive {sup 111}In{sup 1+} and {sup 140}Xe{sup 1+} ions (typical nonvolatile and volatile elements, respectively) were injected into the ECR charge breeder at the Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex to breed their charge states. Their respective residual activities on the sidewall of the cylindrical plasma chamber of the source were measured after charge breeding as functions of the azimuthal angle and longitudinal position and two-dimensional distributions of ions lost during charge breeding in the ECRIS were obtained. These distributions had different azimuthal symmetries. The origins of these different azimuthal symmetries are qualitatively discussed by analyzing the differences and similarities in the observed wall-loss patterns. The implications for improving the charge breeding efficiencies of nonvolatile elements in ECR charge breeders are described. The similarities represent universal ion loss characteristics in an ECR charge breeder, which are different from the loss patterns of electrons on the ECRIS wall.

  18. Development of an 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at RCNP.

    PubMed

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has recently been developed and installed in order to extend the variety and the intensity of ions at the RCNP coupled cyclotron facility. Production of several ions such as O, N, Ar, Kr, etc., is now under development and some of them have already been used for user experiments. For example, highly charged heavy ion beams like (86)Kr(21+,23+) and intense (16)O(5+,6+) and (15)N(6+) ion beams have been provided for experiments. The metal ion from volatile compounds method for boron ions has been developed as well. PMID:18315101

  19. ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion sources and applications with heavy-ion linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed in the last few years into a reliable source of high charge-state heavy ions. The availability of heavy ions with relatively large charge-to-mass ratios (0.1--0.5) has made it possible to contemplate essentially new classes of heavy-ion linear accelerators. In this talk, I shall review the state-of-the-art in ECR source performance and describe some of the implications this performance level has for heavy-ion linear accelerator design. The present linear accelerator projects using ECR ion sources will be noted and the performance requirements of the ECR source for these projects will be reviewed. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Suppression of cyclotron instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources by two-frequency heating

    SciTech Connect

    Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.; Tarvainen, O.

    2015-08-15

    Multiple frequency heating is one of the most effective techniques to improve the performance of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources. The method increases the beam current and average charge state of the extracted ions and enhances the temporal stability of the ion beams. It is demonstrated in this paper that the stabilizing effect of two-frequency heating is connected with the suppression of electron cyclotron instability. Experimental data show that the interaction between the secondary microwave radiation and the hot electron component of ECR ion source plasmas plays a crucial role in mitigation of the instabilities.

  1. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Alton, G.D.

    1998-11-24

    Microwave injection methods are disclosed for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant ``volume`` ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources. 5 figs.

  2. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Alton, Gerald D.

    1998-01-01

    Microwave injection methods for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant "volume" ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources.

  3. X-ray-spectroscopy analysis of electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, J. P.; Martins, M. C.; Parente, F.; Costa, A. M.; Marques, J. P.; Indelicato, P.

    2010-12-15

    Analysis of x-ray spectra emitted by highly charged ions in an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (ECRIS) may be used as a tool to estimate the charge-state distribution (CSD) in the source plasma. For that purpose, knowledge of the electron energy distribution in the plasma, as well as the most important processes leading to the creation and de-excitation of ionic excited states are needed. In this work we present a method to estimate the ion CSD in an ECRIS through the analysis of the x-ray spectra emitted by the plasma. The method is applied to the analysis of a sulfur ECRIS plasma.

  4. Status of the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Toyo University

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, T.; Minezaki, H.; Ishihara, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G.; Rácz, R.; Biri, S.; Asaji, T.; Kato, Y.; Yoshida, Y.

    2014-02-15

    In the paper, the material science experiments, carried out recently using the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at Toyo University, are reported. We have investigated several methods to synthesize endohedral C{sub 60} using ion-ion and ion-molecule collision reaction in the ECRIS. Because of the simplicity of the configuration, we can install a large choice of additional equipment in the ECRIS. The Bio-Nano ECRIS is suitable not only to test the materials production but also to test technical developments to improve or understand the performance of an ECRIS.

  5. Design of a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Asaji, T. Hirabara, N.; Izumihara, T.; Nakamizu, T.; Ohba, T.; Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M.; Hitobo, T.; Kato, Y.

    2014-02-15

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion/plasma source has been designed and will be built at Oshima National College of Maritime Technology by early 2014. We have developed an ion source that allows the control of the plasma parameters over a wide range of electron temperatures for material research. A minimum-B magnetic field composed of axial mirror fields and radial cusp fields was designed using mainly Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. The axial magnetic field can be varied by three solenoid coils. The apparatus has 2.45 GHz magnetron and 2.5–6.0 GHz solid-state microwave sources.

  6. Development of DRAGON electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Institute of Modern Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, W.; Lin, S. H.; Xie, D. Z.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sha, S.; Zhang, W. H.; Cao, Y.; Guo, J. W.; Fang, X.; Guo, X. H.; Li, X. X.; Ma, H. Y.; Wu, Q.; Zhao, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Zhu, Y. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Li, J. Q.; and others

    2012-02-15

    A new room temperature electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, DRAGON, is under construction at IMP. DRAGON is designed to operate at microwaves of frequencies of 14.5-18 GHz. Its axial solenoid coils are cooled with evaporative medium to provide an axial magnetic mirror field of 2.5 T at the injection and 1.4 T at the extraction, respectively. In comparison to other conventional room temperature ECR ion sources, DRAGON has so far the largest bore plasma chamber of inner diameter of 126 mm with maximum radial fields of 1.4-1.5 T produced by a non-Halbach permanent sextupole magnet.

  7. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source DECRIS-4 for the U400 cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Leporis, M.; Bekhterev, V.; Bogomolov, S.; Efremov, A.; Gulbekian, G.; Kostyukhov, Yu.; Lebedev, A.; Loginov, V.; Yazvitsky, N.

    2006-03-15

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source DECRIS-4 has been designed and constructed at the FLNR to be used as a second injector of heavy multiply charged ions for the U-400 cyclotron. After the modification of the injection side this source can be also used as a 'charge breeder' (the ''1{sup +}{yields}n{sup +}'' method) for the second phase of the Dubna radioactive ion beams project. The main feature of the ion source design is the creation of the extended resonance zone in a comparatively compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source. For this purpose the axial magnetic field is formed with a flat minimum. In this case the superposition of the axial magnetic field and the radial field of the permanent-magnet hexapole, made from NdFeB, allows one to create a larger resonance volume. For the plasma heating a microwave frequency of 14 GHz is used. In this paper we will present the basic design features of the ion source, including the results of the magnetic-field measurements. Some preliminary results of ion source tests are also reported.

  8. Fullerene-rare gas mixed plasmas in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Asaji, T. Ohba, T.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Minezaki, H.; Ishihara, S.; Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Kato, Y.

    2014-02-15

    A synthesis technology of endohedral fullerenes such as Fe@C{sub 60} has developed with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. The production of N@C{sub 60} was reported. However, the yield was quite low, since most fullerene molecules were broken in the ECR plasma. We have adopted gas-mixing techniques in order to cool the plasma and then reduce fullerene dissociation. Mass spectra of ion beams extracted from fullerene-He, Ar or Xe mixed plasmas were observed with a Faraday cup. From the results, the He gas mixing technique is effective against fullerene destruction.

  9. Multiaperture ion beam extraction from gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance source of multicharged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorov, A.; Dorf, M.; Zorin, V.; Bokhanov, A.; Izotov, I.; Razin, S.; Skalyga, V.; Rossbach, J.; Spaedtke, P.; Balabaev, A.

    2008-02-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source with quasi-gas-dynamic regime of plasma confinement (ReGIS), constructed at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia, provides opportunities for extracting intense and high-brightness multicharged ion beams. Despite the short plasma lifetime in a magnetic trap of a ReGIS, the degree of multiple ionization may be significantly enhanced by the increase in power and frequency of the applied microwave radiation. The present work is focused on studying the intense beam quality of this source by the pepper-pot method. A single beamlet emittance measured by the pepper-pot method was found to be {approx}70 {pi} mm mrad, and the total extracted beam current obtained at 14 kV extraction voltage was {approx}25 mA. The results of the numerical simulations of ion beam extraction are found to be in good agreement with experimental data.

  10. The development of a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) with evaporative cooling technology at Institute of Modern Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, W. Sun, L. T.; Qian, C.; Feng, Y. C.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Ma, B. H.; Zhao, H. W.; Guo, J. W.; Fang, X.; Yang, Y.; Xiong, B.; Guo, S. Q.; Ruan, L.

    2015-04-15

    LECR4 (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) has been successfully constructed at IMP and has also been connected with the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) systems. These source magnet coils are cooled through evaporative cooling technology, which is the first attempt with an ECR ion source in the world. The maximum mirror field is 2.5 T (with iron plug) and the effective plasma chamber volume is 1.2 l. It was designed to be operated at 18 GHz and aimed to produce intense multiple charge state heavy ion beams for the linear injector project SSC-Linac at IMP. In February 2014, the first analyzed beam at 18 GHz was extracted. During about three months’ commissioning, some outstanding results have been achieved, such as 1.97 emA of O{sup 6+}, 1.7 emA of Ar{sup 8+}, 1.07 emA of Ar{sup 9+}, and 118 euA of Bi{sup 28+}. The source has also successfully delivered O{sup 5+} and Ar{sup 8+} ion beams for RFQ commissioning in April 2014. This paper will give a brief overview of the design of LECR4. Then, the latest results of this source at 18 GHz will be presented.

  11. The development of a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) with evaporative cooling technology at Institute of Modern Physics.

    PubMed

    Lu, W; Sun, L T; Qian, C; Guo, J W; Fang, X; Feng, Y C; Yang, Y; Ma, H Y; Zhang, X Z; Ma, B H; Xiong, B; Guo, S Q; Ruan, L; Zhao, H W

    2015-04-01

    LECR4 (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) has been successfully constructed at IMP and has also been connected with the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) systems. These source magnet coils are cooled through evaporative cooling technology, which is the first attempt with an ECR ion source in the world. The maximum mirror field is 2.5 T (with iron plug) and the effective plasma chamber volume is 1.2 l. It was designed to be operated at 18 GHz and aimed to produce intense multiple charge state heavy ion beams for the linear injector project SSC-Linac at IMP. In February 2014, the first analyzed beam at 18 GHz was extracted. During about three months' commissioning, some outstanding results have been achieved, such as 1.97 emA of O(6+), 1.7 emA of Ar(8+), 1.07 emA of Ar(9+), and 118 euA of Bi(28+). The source has also successfully delivered O(5+) and Ar(8+) ion beams for RFQ commissioning in April 2014. This paper will give a brief overview of the design of LECR4. Then, the latest results of this source at 18 GHz will be presented. PMID:25933849

  12. Time evolution of bremsstrahlung and ion production of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tarvainen, Ollie; Ropponen, Tommi; Jones, Peter; Peura, Pauli

    2008-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung radiation measurement is one of the most commonly used plasma diagnostics methods. Most of the bremsstrahlung measurements with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources have been performed in continuous operation mode yielding information only on the steady state bremsstrahlung emission. This article describes the results of bremsstrahlung and ion current measurement with the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS operated in pulsed mode. The experiments reveal information about the bremsstrahlung radiation in plasma conditions before reaching the equilibrium. The time scale of bremsstrahlung production is compared to ion production time scale for different charge states. The bremsstrahlung data is presented with 2 millisecond time intervals as a function of neutral gas pressure and microwave power. Data from hundreds of microwave pulses is combined in order to have a sufficient amount of events at each time step. The relevant plasma physics phenomena during both, the leading and the trailing edge of the RF pulse, are discussed.

  13. Investigations on the structure of the extracted ion beam from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Spaedtke, P.; Lang, R.; Maeder, J.; Rossbach, J.; Tinschert, K.; Maimone, F.

    2012-02-15

    Using improved beam diagnostic tools, the structure of an ion beam extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) becomes visible. Especially viewing targets to display the beam profile and pepper pot devices for emittance measurements turned out to be very useful. On the contrary, diagnostic tools integrating over one space coordinate like wire harps for profile measurements or slit-slit devices, respectively slit-grid devices to measure the emittance might be applicable for beam transport investigations in a quadrupole channel, but are not very meaningful for investigations regarding the given ECRIS symmetry. Here we try to reproduce the experimentally found structure on the ion beam by simulation. For the simulation, a certain model has to be used to reproduce the experimental results. The model is also described in this paper.

  14. Study of pulsed electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma near breakdown: The preglow

    SciTech Connect

    Thuillier, T.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Izotov, I. V.; Sidorov, A. V.; Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G.; Marie-Jeanne, M.

    2008-02-15

    A careful study of pulsed mode operation of the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has clearly demonstrated the reality of an unexpected transient current peak, occurring at the very beginning of the plasma breakdown. This regime was named the preglow, as an explicit reference to the afterglow occurring at the microwave pulse end. After the transient preglow peak, the plasma regime relaxes to the classical steady state one. Argon preglow experiments performed at LPSC are presented. A theoretical model of ECR gas breakdown in a magnetic trap, developed at IAP, showing satisfactory agreement with the experimental results is suggested.

  15. Progress in high-temperature oven development for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, J.; Higurashi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    We have been developing a high-temperature oven using UO2 in the 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at RIKEN since 2013. A total of eleven on-line tests were performed. The longest operation time in a single test was 411 h, and the consumption rate of UO2 was approximately 2.4 mg/h. In these tests, we experienced several problems: the ejection hole of a crucible was blocked with UO2 and a crucible was damaged because of the reduction of tungsten strength at high temperature. In order to solve these problems, improvements to the crucible shape were made by simulations using ANSYS.

  16. Experiment study of an electron cyclotron resonant ion source based on a tapered resonance cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Juan; Shi, Feng; Jin, Yizhou; Wang, Yunmin; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2013-12-01

    Electron cyclotron resonant plasma is one type of magnetised plasma generated by continuous microwave energy. It has the property of high degree of ionization and large volume at low gas pressure, which makes it useful for space propulsion and material processing. This article presents the experiment study of the plasma properties and ion beam extraction from an electron cyclotron resonant ion source based on a tapered resonance cavity. Optical emission spectroscopy based on a simple collisional radiation model was used for plasma diagnosis. Experiment results show that, at microwave power setting ranging from 7.06 to 17.40 W and mass flow rate ranging from 1 to 10 sccm, argon gas can be ionized. Ion beam of 109.1 mA from the ion source can be extracted at microwave power of 30 W, mass flow rate of 10 sccm, and accel voltage of 800 V. The diagnosed plasma temperature and density are 2.4-5.2 eV and 2 × 1016-4.8 × 1017 m-3, respectively.

  17. Experiment study of an electron cyclotron resonant ion source based on a tapered resonance cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Juan; Shi, Feng; Jin, Yizhou; Wang, Yunmin; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2013-12-15

    Electron cyclotron resonant plasma is one type of magnetised plasma generated by continuous microwave energy. It has the property of high degree of ionization and large volume at low gas pressure, which makes it useful for space propulsion and material processing. This article presents the experiment study of the plasma properties and ion beam extraction from an electron cyclotron resonant ion source based on a tapered resonance cavity. Optical emission spectroscopy based on a simple collisional radiation model was used for plasma diagnosis. Experiment results show that, at microwave power setting ranging from 7.06 to 17.40 W and mass flow rate ranging from 1 to 10 sccm, argon gas can be ionized. Ion beam of 109.1 mA from the ion source can be extracted at microwave power of 30 W, mass flow rate of 10 sccm, and accel voltage of 800 V. The diagnosed plasma temperature and density are 2.4–5.2 eV and 2 × 10{sup 16}–4.8 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −3}, respectively.

  18. Model for the description of ion beam extraction from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Spaedtke, P.

    2010-02-15

    The finite difference method trajectory code KOBRA3-INP has been developed now for 25 years to perform the simulation of ion beam extraction in three dimensions. Meanwhile, the code has been validated for different applications: high current ion beam extraction from plasma sources for ion implantation technology, neutral gas heating in fusion devices, or ion thrusters for space propulsion. One major issue of the development of this code was to improve the flexibility of the applied model for the simulation of different types of particle sources. Fixed emitter sources might be simulated with that code as well as laser ion sources, Penning ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs), or H{sup -} sources, which require the simulation of negative ions, negative electrons, and positive charges simultaneously. The model which has been developed for ECRIS has now been used to explore the conditions for the ion beam extraction from a still nonexisting ion source, a so called ARC-ECRIS [P. Suominen and F. Wenander, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A305 (2008)]. It has to be shown whether the plasma generator has similar properties like regular ECRIS. However, the emittance of the extracted beam seems to be much better compared to an ECRIS equipped with a hexapole.

  19. Development of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source for Synthesis of Endohedral Metallofullerenes

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, K.; Muramatsu, M.; Uchida, T.; Hanajiri, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Biri, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Kato, Y.

    2008-11-03

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been constructed for synthesis of endohedral metallofullerenes. The main purpose of the ion source is to produce new biological and medical materials. The design is based on ECRIS for production of multicharged ion beams with a traditional minimum-B magnetic field. An 8-10 GHz traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier and a 2.45 GHz magnetron have been applied as microwave sources. Fullerene and metal vapor are introduced with a filament heating micro-oven and an induction heating oven, respectively. In preliminary ion-extraction test, Ar{sup +} is 54 {mu}A. Many broken fullerenes such as C{sub 58} and C{sub 56} are observed in fullerene ion beams.

  20. An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform.

    PubMed

    Sun, L T; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, X X; Wang, H; Guo, X H; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, Z M; Zhao, H W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed. PMID:18315202

  1. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Yun Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

    2014-02-15

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 eμA of C{sup 5+} ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 π*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 eμA of C{sup 5+} ion beam was got when work gas was CH{sub 4} while about 262 eμA of C{sup 5+} ion beam was obtained when work gas was C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  2. Control system renewal for efficient operation in RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, A.; Ozeki, K.; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Komiyama, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    A RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (18 GHz ECRIS) is used as an external ion source at the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory (RIBF) accelerator complex to produce an intense beam of medium-mass heavy ions (e.g., Ca and Ar). In most components that comprise the RIBF, the control systems (CSs) are integrated by the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). On the other hand, a non-EPICS-based system has hardwired controllers, and it is used in the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as an independent system. In terms of efficient and effective operation, the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as well as the RIBF CS should be renewed using EPICS. Therefore, we constructed an 18 GHz ECRIS CS by using programmable logic controllers with embedded EPICS technology. In the renewed system, an operational log system was developed as a new feature, for supporting of the 18 GHz ECRIS operation.

  3. Control system renewal for efficient operation in RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, A; Ozeki, K; Higurashi, Y; Kidera, M; Komiyama, M; Nakagawa, T

    2016-02-01

    A RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (18 GHz ECRIS) is used as an external ion source at the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory (RIBF) accelerator complex to produce an intense beam of medium-mass heavy ions (e.g., Ca and Ar). In most components that comprise the RIBF, the control systems (CSs) are integrated by the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). On the other hand, a non-EPICS-based system has hardwired controllers, and it is used in the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as an independent system. In terms of efficient and effective operation, the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as well as the RIBF CS should be renewed using EPICS. Therefore, we constructed an 18 GHz ECRIS CS by using programmable logic controllers with embedded EPICS technology. In the renewed system, an operational log system was developed as a new feature, for supporting of the 18 GHz ECRIS operation. PMID:26931940

  4. First results of the 2.45 GHz Oshima electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Asaji, T; Nakamura, T; Furuse, M; Hitobo, T; Uchida, T; Muramatsu, M; Kato, Y

    2016-02-01

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been constructed at Oshima College with a 2.45 GHz magnetron microwave source and permanent magnets employed as the main components. In addition, a solid-state power amplifier with a frequency range of 2.5-6.0 GHz was installed to study two-frequency plasma heating. Three solenoid coils were set up for adjusting the axial magnetic fields. Argon plasma generation and ion beam production have been conducted during the first year of operation. Ion current densities in the ECR plasma were measured using a biased disk. For 2.45 and 4.65 GHz two-frequency plasma heating, the ion density was approximately 1.5 times higher than that of 2.45 GHz single-frequency heating. PMID:26931948

  5. First results of the 2.45 GHz Oshima electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaji, T.; Nakamura, T.; Furuse, M.; Hitobo, T.; Uchida, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Kato, Y.

    2016-02-01

    A new electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been constructed at Oshima College with a 2.45 GHz magnetron microwave source and permanent magnets employed as the main components. In addition, a solid-state power amplifier with a frequency range of 2.5-6.0 GHz was installed to study two-frequency plasma heating. Three solenoid coils were set up for adjusting the axial magnetic fields. Argon plasma generation and ion beam production have been conducted during the first year of operation. Ion current densities in the ECR plasma were measured using a biased disk. For 2.45 and 4.65 GHz two-frequency plasma heating, the ion density was approximately 1.5 times higher than that of 2.45 GHz single-frequency heating.

  6. Roadmap for the design of a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for Spiral2

    SciTech Connect

    Thuillier, T.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Peaucelle, C.

    2012-02-15

    A review of today achieved A/Q = 3 heavy ions beams is proposed. The daily operation A/Q = 3 ion beam intensities expected at Spiral2 are at the limit or above best record 3rd generation electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) intensities. The necessity to build a new fully superconducting to fulfill these requirements is outlined. A discussion on the volume of the future source is proposed and the minimum value of 12 liters is derived. An analysis of the x-ray absorption superconducting ECRIS is presented based on VENUS experimental data and geometry. This study underlines the necessity to include a complete x-ray study at the time of source conception. The specifications foreseen for the new ECRIS are presented, followed with the roadmap for the design.

  7. Potential applications of a new microwave ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) multicusp plasma ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    A new microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasma ion source using two ECR plasma production regions and multicusp plasma confinement has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This source has been operated to produce uniform and dense plasmas over large areas of 300 to 400 cm{sup 2}. The plasma source has been operated with continuous argon gas feed and pulsed microwave power. The discharge initiation phenomena and plasma properties have been investigated and studied as functions of discharge parameters. Together with the discharge characteristics observed, a hypothetical discharge mechanism for this plasma source is reported and discussed. Potential applications, including plasma and ion-beam processing for manufacturing advanced microelectronics and for space electric propulsion, are discussed. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Electron energy distribution function by using probe method in electron cyclotron resonance multicharged ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kumakura, Sho Kurisu, Yosuke; Kimura, Daiju; Yano, Keisuke; Imai, Youta; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2014-02-15

    We are constructing a tandem type electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (ECRIS). High-energy electrons in ECRIS plasma affect electron energy distribution and generate multicharged ion. In this study, we measure electron energy distribution function (EEDF) of low energy region (≦100 eV) in ECRIS plasma at extremely low pressures (10{sup −3}–10{sup −5} Pa) by using cylindrical Langmuir probe. From the result, it is found that the EEDF correlates with the electron density and the temperature from the conventional probe analysis. In addition, we confirm that the tail of EEDF spreads to high energy region as the pressure rises and that there are electrons with high energy in ECR multicharged ion source plasma. The effective temperature estimated from the experimentally obtained EEDF is larger than the electron temperature obtained from the conventional method.

  9. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Lee, Seung Wook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1-10 mm(2). The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research. PMID:26931931

  10. Nitrogen ion implantation into various materials using 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Chang Seouk; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Lee, Seung Wook; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The installation of the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) ion implantation beamline was recently completed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The apparatus contains a beam monitoring system and a sample holder for the ion implantation process. The new implantation system can function as a multipurpose tool since it can implant a variety of ions, ranging hydrogen to uranium, into different materials with precise control and with implantation areas as large as 1-10 mm2. The implantation chamber was designed to measure the beam properties with a diagnostic system as well as to perform ion implantation with an in situ system including a mass spectrometer. This advanced implantation system can be employed in novel applications, including the production of a variety of new materials such as metals, polymers, and ceramics and the irradiation testing and fabrication of structural and functional materials to be used in future nuclear fusion reactors. In this investigation, the first nitrogen ion implantation experiments were conducted using the new system. The 28 GHz ECRIS implanted low-energy, multi-charged nitrogen ions into copper, zinc, and cobalt substrates, and the ion implantation depth profiles were obtained. SRIM 2013 code was used to calculate the profiles under identical conditions, and the experimental and simulation results are presented and compared in this report. The depths and ranges of the ion distributions in the experimental and simulation results agree closely and demonstrate that the new system will enable the treatment of various substrates for advanced materials research.

  11. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source experience at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, T; Cee, R; Haberer, T; Naas, B; Peters, A; Scheloske, S; Spädtke, P; Tinschert, K

    2008-02-01

    Radiotherapy with heavy ions is an upcoming cancer treatment method with to date unparalleled precision. It associates higher control rates particularly for radiation resistant tumor species with reduced adverse effects compared to conventional photon therapy. The accelerator beam lines and structures of the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) have been designed under the leadership of GSI, Darmstadt with contributions of the IAP Frankfurt. Currently, the accelerator is under commissioning, while the injector linac has been completed. When the patient treatment begins in 2008, HIT will be the first medical heavy ion accelerator in Europe. This presentation will provide an overview about the project, with special attention given to the 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources in operation with carbon, hydrogen, helium, and oxygen, and the experience of one year of continuous operation. It also displays examples for beam emittances, measured in the low energy beam transport. In addition to the outlook of further developments at the ECR ion sources for a continuously stable operation, this paper focuses on some of the technical processings of the past year. PMID:18315121

  12. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source related development work for heavy-ion irradiation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Koivisto, H.; Suominen, P.; Tarvainen, O.; Virtanen, A.; Parkkinen, A.

    2006-03-15

    The European Space Agency (ESA) uses the facilities at the Accelerator Laboratory (Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae: JYFL) for heavy-ion irradiation tests of electronic components. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source related development work has been carried out in order to meet the requirements set by the project. During the irradiation tests several beam changes are performed during the day. Therefore, the time needed for the beam changes has to be minimized. As a consequence, a beam cocktail having nearly the same m/q ratio is used. This makes it possible a quick tuning of the cyclotron to select the required ion for the irradiation. In addition to this requirement, very high charge states for the heavy elements are needed to reach a penetration depth of 100 {mu}m in silicon. In this article we present some procedures to optimize the ion source operation. We also present results of the first three-frequency heating tests. The main frequency of 14 GHz was fed from a klystron and both secondary frequencies were launched from a traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA). Two separate frequency generators were used simultaneously to provide different signals for the TWTA. During the test an improvement of about 20% was observed for {sup 84}Kr{sup 25+} and {sup 129}Xe{sup 30+} ion beams when the third frequency was applied.

  13. Two-chamber configuration of Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source for fullerene modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Rácz, R.; Muramatsu, M.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, A.; Biri, S.; Yoshida, Y.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the modification of fullerenes with iron and chlorine using two individually controllable plasmas in the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). One of the plasmas is composed of fullerene and the other one is composed of iron and chlorine. The online ion beam analysis allows one to investigate the rate of the vapor-phase collisional modification process in the ECRIS, while the offline analyses (e.g., liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) of the materials deposited on the plasma chamber can give information on the surface-type process. Both analytical methods show the presence of modified fullerenes such as fullerene-chlorine, fullerene-iron, and fullerene-chlorine-iron.

  14. First plasma of the A-PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Thuillier, T.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Angot, J.

    2008-02-15

    A-PHOENIX is a new compact hybrid electron cyclotron resonance ion source using a large permanent magnet hexapole (1.92 T at the magnet surface) and high temperature superconducting Solenoids (3 T) to make min-vertical bar B vertical bar structure suitable for 28 GHz cw operation. The final assembly of the source was achieved at the end of June 2007. The first plasma of A-PHOENIX at 18 GHz was done on the 16th of August, 2007. The technological specificities of A-PHOENIX are presented. The large hexapole built is presented and experimental magnetic measurements show that it is nominal with respect to simulation. A fake plasma chamber prototype including thin iron inserts showed that the predicted radial magnetic confinement can be fulfilled up to 2.15 T at the plasma chamber wall. Scheduled planning of experiments until the end of 2008 is presented.

  15. Progress in high-temperature oven development for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, J; Higurashi, Y; Nakagawa, T

    2016-02-01

    We have been developing a high-temperature oven using UO2 in the 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at RIKEN since 2013. A total of eleven on-line tests were performed. The longest operation time in a single test was 411 h, and the consumption rate of UO2 was approximately 2.4 mg/h. In these tests, we experienced several problems: the ejection hole of a crucible was blocked with UO2 and a crucible was damaged because of the reduction of tungsten strength at high temperature. In order to solve these problems, improvements to the crucible shape were made by simulations using ANSYS. PMID:26931927

  16. Prospects for advanced electron cyclotron resonance and electron beam ion source charge breeding methods for EURISOL

    SciTech Connect

    Delahaye, P.; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L.; Traykov, E.; Varenne, F.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Ban, G.; Celona, L.; Lunney, D.; Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P.; Jakubowski, A.; Steckiewicz, O.; Kalvas, T.; and others

    2012-02-15

    As the most ambitious concept of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facility, EURISOL aims at producing unprecedented intensities of post-accelerated radioactive isotopes. Charge breeding, which transforms the charge state of radioactive beams from 1+ to an n+ charge state prior to post-acceleration, is a key technology which has to overcome the following challenges: high charge states for high energies, efficiency, rapidity and purity. On the roadmap to EURISOL, a dedicated R and D is being undertaken to push forward the frontiers of the present state-of-the-art techniques which use either electron cyclotron resonance or electron beam ion sources. We describe here the guidelines of this R and D.

  17. Wall-loss distribution of charge breeding ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S. C.; Oyaizu, M.; Imai, N.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.; Niki, K.; Okada, M.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Otokawa, Y.; Osa, A.; Ichikawa, S.

    2012-02-15

    We investigated the ion-loss distribution on the sidewall of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma chamber using the 18-GHz ECR charge breeder at the Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC). Similarities and differences between the ion-loss distributions (longitudinal and azimuthal) of different ion species (i.e., radioactive {sup 111}In{sup 1+} and {sup 140}Xe{sup 1+} ions that are typical volatile and nonvolatile elements) was qualitatively discussed to understand the element dependence of the charge breeding efficiency. Especially, the similarities represent universal ion loss characteristics in an ECR charge breeder, which are different from the loss patterns of electrons on the ECRIS wall.

  18. Improved charge breeding efficiency of light ions with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.; Kutsaev, Sergey; Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L.

    2012-11-15

    The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade is a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The facility utilizes a {sup 252}Cf fission source coupled with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to provide radioactive beam species for the ATLAS experimental program. The californium fission fragment distribution provides nuclei in the mid-mass range which are difficult to extract from production targets using the isotope separation on line technique and are not well populated by low-energy fission of uranium. To date the charge breeding program has focused on optimizing these mid-mass beams, achieving high charge breeding efficiencies of both gaseous and solid species including 14.7% for the radioactive species {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+}. In an effort to better understand the charge breeding mechanism, we have recently focused on the low-mass species sodium and potassium which up to present have been difficult to charge breed efficiently. Unprecedented charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for {sup 23}Na{sup 7+} and 17.9% for {sup 39}K{sup 10+} were obtained injecting stable Na{sup +} and K{sup +} beams from a surface ionization source.

  19. Improved charge breeding efficiency of light ions with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Vondrasek, R; Delahaye, P; Kutsaev, Sergey; Maunoury, L

    2012-11-01

    The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade is a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The facility utilizes a (252)Cf fission source coupled with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to provide radioactive beam species for the ATLAS experimental program. The californium fission fragment distribution provides nuclei in the mid-mass range which are difficult to extract from production targets using the isotope separation on line technique and are not well populated by low-energy fission of uranium. To date the charge breeding program has focused on optimizing these mid-mass beams, achieving high charge breeding efficiencies of both gaseous and solid species including 14.7% for the radioactive species (143)Ba(27+). In an effort to better understand the charge breeding mechanism, we have recently focused on the low-mass species sodium and potassium which up to present have been difficult to charge breed efficiently. Unprecedented charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for (23)Na(7+) and 17.9% for (39)K(10+) were obtained injecting stable Na(+) and K(+) beams from a surface ionization source. PMID:23206054

  20. Langmuir probe diagnostics of plasma in high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, P.; Kewlani, H.; Mishra, L.; Mittal, K. C.; Patil, D. S.

    2013-07-15

    A high current Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) proton ion source has been developed for low energy high intensity proton accelerator at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Langmuir probe diagnostics of the plasma generated in this proton ion source is performed using Langmuir probe. The diagnostics of plasma in the ion source is important as it determines beam parameters of the ion source, i.e., beam current, emittance, and available species. The plasma parameter measurement in the ion source is performed in continuously working and pulsed mode using hydrogen as plasma generation gas. The measurement is performed in the ECR zone for operating pressure and microwave power range of 10{sup −4}–10{sup −3} mbar and 400–1000 W. An automated Langmuir probe diagnostics unit with data acquisition system is developed to measure these parameters. The diagnostics studies indicate that the plasma density and plasma electron temperature measured are in the range 5.6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} to 3.8 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} and 4–14 eV, respectively. Using this plasma, ion beam current of tens of mA is extracted. The variations of plasma parameters with microwave power, gas pressure, and radial location of the probe have been studied.

  1. New development of advanced superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Guo, X. H.; Zhao, H. Y.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Ma, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Xie, D. Z.; Lu, W.; Cao, Y.; Shang, Y.

    2010-02-15

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advance design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an 18-28 GHz fully superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source dedicated for highly charged heavy ion beam production. SECRAL, with an innovative superconducting magnet structure of solenoid-inside-sextupole and at lower frequency and lower rf power operation, may open a new way for developing compact and reliable high performance superconducting ECR ion source. One of the recent highlights achieved at SECRAL is that some new record beam currents for very high charge states were produced by 18 GHz or 18+14.5 GHz double frequency heating, such as 1 e {mu}A of {sup 129}Xe{sup 43+}, 22 e {mu}A of {sup 209}Bi{sup 41+}, and 1.5 e {mu}A of {sup 209}Bi{sup 50+}. To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, a 24 GHz/7 kW gyrotron microwave generator was installed and SECRAL was tested at 24 GHz. Some promising and exciting results at 24 GHz with new record highly charged ion beam intensities were produced, such as 455 e {mu}A of {sup 129}Xe{sup 27+} and 152 e {mu}A of {sup 129}Xe{sup 30+}, although the commissioning time was limited within 3-4 weeks and rf power only 3-4 kW. Bremsstrahlung measurements at 24 GHz show that x-ray is much stronger with higher rf frequency, higher rf power. and higher minimum mirror magnetic field (minimum B). Preliminary emittance measurements indicate that SECRAL emittance at 24 GHz is slightly higher that at 18 GHz. SECRAL has been put into routine operation at 18 GHz for heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) accelerator complex since May 2007. The total operation beam time from SECRAL for HIRFL accelerator has been more than 2000 h, and {sup 129}Xe{sup 27+}, {sup 78}Kr{sup 19+}, {sup 209}Bi{sup 31+}, and {sup 58}Ni{sup 19+} beams were delivered. All of these new developments, the latest results, and long-term operation for the accelerator have again demonstrated that SECRAL is one of the best in the performance of

  2. New development of advanced superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL (invited).

    PubMed

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Lu, W; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Zhao, H Y; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Ma, H Y; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Li, X X; Xie, D Z

    2010-02-01

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advance design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an 18-28 GHz fully superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source dedicated for highly charged heavy ion beam production. SECRAL, with an innovative superconducting magnet structure of solenoid-inside-sextupole and at lower frequency and lower rf power operation, may open a new way for developing compact and reliable high performance superconducting ECR ion source. One of the recent highlights achieved at SECRAL is that some new record beam currents for very high charge states were produced by 18 GHz or 18+14.5 GHz double frequency heating, such as 1 e microA of (129)Xe(43+), 22 e microA of (209)Bi(41+), and 1.5 e microA of (209)Bi(50+). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, a 24 GHz/7 kW gyrotron microwave generator was installed and SECRAL was tested at 24 GHz. Some promising and exciting results at 24 GHz with new record highly charged ion beam intensities were produced, such as 455 e microA of (129)Xe(27+) and 152 e microA of (129)Xe(30+), although the commissioning time was limited within 3-4 weeks and rf power only 3-4 kW. Bremsstrahlung measurements at 24 GHz show that x-ray is much stronger with higher rf frequency, higher rf power. and higher minimum mirror magnetic field (minimum B). Preliminary emittance measurements indicate that SECRAL emittance at 24 GHz is slightly higher that at 18 GHz. SECRAL has been put into routine operation at 18 GHz for heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) accelerator complex since May 2007. The total operation beam time from SECRAL for HIRFL accelerator has been more than 2000 h, and (129)Xe(27+), (78)Kr(19+), (209)Bi(31+), and (58)Ni(19+) beams were delivered. All of these new developments, the latest results, and long-term operation for the accelerator have again demonstrated that SECRAL is one of the best in the performance of ECR ion source for highly charged heavy ion beam production

  3. First results of 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for KBSI accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin Yong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Shin, Chang Seouk; Hong, Jonggi; Bahng, Jungbae; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed to produce a high current heavy ion for the linear accelerator at KBSI (Korea Basic Science Institute). The objective of this study is to generate fast neutrons with a proton target via a p(Li,n)Be reaction. The design and fabrication of the essential components of the ECR ion source, which include a superconducting magnet with a liquid helium re-condensed cryostat and a 10 kW high-power microwave, were completed. The waveguide components were connected with a plasma chamber including a gas supply system. The plasma chamber was inserted into the warm bore of the superconducting magnet. A high voltage system was also installed for the ion beam extraction. After the installation of the ECR ion source, we reported the results for ECR plasma ignition at ECRIS 2014 in Russia. Following plasma ignition, we successfully extracted multi-charged ions and obtained the first results in terms of ion beam spectra from various species. This was verified by a beam diagnostic system for a low energy beam transport system. In this article, we present the first results and report on the current status of the KBSI accelerator project.

  4. First results of 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for KBSI accelerator.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Yong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Shin, Chang Seouk; Hong, Jonggi; Bahng, Jungbae; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed to produce a high current heavy ion for the linear accelerator at KBSI (Korea Basic Science Institute). The objective of this study is to generate fast neutrons with a proton target via a p(Li,n)Be reaction. The design and fabrication of the essential components of the ECR ion source, which include a superconducting magnet with a liquid helium re-condensed cryostat and a 10 kW high-power microwave, were completed. The waveguide components were connected with a plasma chamber including a gas supply system. The plasma chamber was inserted into the warm bore of the superconducting magnet. A high voltage system was also installed for the ion beam extraction. After the installation of the ECR ion source, we reported the results for ECR plasma ignition at ECRIS 2014 in Russia. Following plasma ignition, we successfully extracted multi-charged ions and obtained the first results in terms of ion beam spectra from various species. This was verified by a beam diagnostic system for a low energy beam transport system. In this article, we present the first results and report on the current status of the KBSI accelerator project. PMID:26931935

  5. The electron cyclotron resonance ion source with arc-shaped coils concept (invited).

    PubMed

    Koivisto, H; Suominen, P; Tarvainen, O; Spädtke, P

    2012-02-01

    The main limitation to further improve the performance of ECR ion sources is set by the magnet technology related to the multipole magnet field used for the closed minimum-B structure. The JYFL ion source group has sought different approaches to improve the strength of the minimum-B structure required for the production of highly charged ion beams. It was found out that such a configuration can be realized with arc shaped coils. The first prototype, electron cyclotron resonance ion source with arc-shaped coils (ARC-ECRIS), was constructed and tested at JYFL in 2006. It was confirmed that such an ion source can be used for the production of highly charged ion beams. Regardless of several cost-driven compromises such as extraction mirror ratio of 1.05-1.2, microwave frequency of 6.4 GHz, and beam line with limited capacity, Ar(4+) beam intensity of up to 2 μA was measured. Subsequent design study has shown that the ARC-ECRIS operating at the microwave frequency above 40 GHz could be constructed. This specific design would be based on NbTi-wires and it fulfills the experimental magnetic field scaling laws. In this article, the ARC-ECRIS concept and its potential applications will be described. PMID:22380159

  6. A simulation of X-ray shielding for a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin Yong; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Choi, Seyong; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2014-02-15

    It is generally assumed that large amounts of x-rays are emitted from the ion source of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) instrument. The total amount of x-rays should be strictly limited to avoid the extra heat load to the cryostat of the superconducting ECR ion source, since they are partly absorbed by the cold mass into the cryostat. A simulation of x-ray shielding was carried out to determine the effective thickness of the x-ray shield needed via the use of Geant4. X-ray spectra of the 10 GHz Nanogan ECR ion source were measured as a function of the thickness variation in the x-ray shield. The experimental results were compared with Geant4 results to verify the effectiveness of the x-ray shield. Based on the validity in the case of the 10 GHz ECR ion source, the x-ray shielding results are presented by assuming the spectral temperature of the 28 GHz ECR ion source.

  7. First results from the new RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited).

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, T; Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Aihara, T; Tamura, M; Uchiyama, A; Okuno, H; Kusaka, K; Kidera, M; Ikezawa, E; Fujimaki, M; Sato, Y; Watanabe, Y; Komiyama, M; Kase, M; Goto, A; Kamigaito, O; Yano, Y

    2010-02-01

    The next generation heavy ion accelerator facility, such as the RIKEN radio isotope (RI) beam factory, requires an intense beam of high charged heavy ions. In the past decade, performance of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources has been dramatically improved with increasing the magnetic field and rf frequency to enhance the density and confinement time of plasma. Furthermore, the effects of the key parameters (magnetic field configuration, gas pressure, etc.) on the ECR plasma have been revealed. Such basic studies give us how to optimize the ion source structure. Based on these studies and modern superconducting (SC) technology, we successfully constructed the new 28 GHz SC-ECRIS, which has a flexible magnetic field configuration to enlarge the ECR zone and to optimize the field gradient at ECR point. Using it, we investigated the effect of ECR zone size, magnetic field configuration, and biased disk on the beam intensity of the highly charged heavy ions with 18 GHz microwaves. In this article, we present the structure of the ion source and first experimental results with 18 GHz microwave in detail. PMID:20192341

  8. An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Weichsel, T. Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Silze, A.

    2014-05-15

    An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3}, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10{sup 18} atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al{sup +} ion beam.

  9. An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Weichsel, T; Hartung, U; Kopte, T; Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Silze, A

    2014-05-01

    An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10(10) cm(-3) to 1 × 10(11) cm(-3), when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10(18) atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al(+) ion beam. PMID:24880358

  10. Recondensation performance of liquid helium cryostat for a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Park, Jin Yong; Ok, Jung-Woo; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2014-02-01

    Cryostat performance is essential for the stable operation of a superconducting magnet. A closed-cycle liquid helium cryostat was adopted for use for a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source by recondensing liquid helium vapor. The goal was to maintain the liquid helium filled reservoir at a constant level without transferring any liquid helium during the normal operation of the ECR ion source. To accomplish this, Gifford-McMahon (GM) refrigerators, which have two cold heads, were installed on the top of the cryostat. The cooling power of the GM cryocooler is 1.5 W at the second stage and 50 W at the first stage. Each stage was connected to the liquid helium reservoir, a radiation shield including high-Tc current lead, and related items. Before commissioning the ECR ion source, a preliminary evaluation of the recondensation performance was carried out with the magnet in partial operation. The design of the cryostat, its fabrication, and the experimental results are reported.

  11. Microgan electron cyclotron resonance ion source in a Van de Graaff accelerator terminala)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubert, G.; Bieth, C.; Bougy, W.; Brionne, N.; Donzel, X.; Sineau, A.; Vallerand, C.; Villari, A. C. C.; Chaves, C.; Gamboni, T.; Geerts, W.; Giorginis, G.; Lövestam, G.; Mondelaers, W.

    2012-02-01

    The Van de Graaff accelerator at IRMM works since many years providing proton, deuteron, and helium beams for nuclear data measurements. The original ion source was of RF type with quartz bottle. This kind of source, as well known, needs regular maintenance for which the accelerator tank must be completely opened. The heavy usage at high currents of the IRMM accelerator necessitated an opening about once every month. In 2010, the full permanent magnet Microgan electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source from PANTECHNIK was installed into a new terminal platform together with a solid state amplifier of 50 W, a dedicated dosing system for 4 gases (with respective gas bottles H2, D2, He, and Ar), and a set of dedicated power supplies and electronic devices for the remote tuning of the source. The new system shows a very stable behaviour of the produced beam allowing running the Van de Graaf without maintenance for several months. This contribution will describe the full installed system in details (working at high pressure in the terminal, spark effects, and optic of the extraction), as well as beam results in dc or pulsed mode.

  12. Microgan electron cyclotron resonance ion source in a Van de Graaff accelerator terminal.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, G; Bieth, C; Bougy, W; Brionne, N; Donzel, X; Sineau, A; Vallerand, C; Villari, A C C; Chaves, C; Gamboni, T; Geerts, W; Giorginis, G; Lövestam, G; Mondelaers, W

    2012-02-01

    The Van de Graaff accelerator at IRMM works since many years providing proton, deuteron, and helium beams for nuclear data measurements. The original ion source was of RF type with quartz bottle. This kind of source, as well known, needs regular maintenance for which the accelerator tank must be completely opened. The heavy usage at high currents of the IRMM accelerator necessitated an opening about once every month. In 2010, the full permanent magnet Microgan electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source from PANTECHNIK was installed into a new terminal platform together with a solid state amplifier of 50 W, a dedicated dosing system for 4 gases (with respective gas bottles H(2), D(2), He, and Ar), and a set of dedicated power supplies and electronic devices for the remote tuning of the source. The new system shows a very stable behaviour of the produced beam allowing running the Van de Graaf without maintenance for several months. This contribution will describe the full installed system in details (working at high pressure in the terminal, spark effects, and optic of the extraction), as well as beam results in dc or pulsed mode. PMID:22380187

  13. Electron cyclotron resonance heating by magnetic filter field in a negative hydrogen ion source.

    PubMed

    Kim, June Young; Cho, Won-Hwi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y S

    2016-02-01

    The influence of magnetic filter field on plasma properties in the heating region has been investigated in a planar-type inductively coupled radio-frequency (RF) H(-) ion source. Besides filtering high energy electrons near the extraction region, the magnetic filter field is clearly observed to increase the electron temperature in the heating region at low pressure discharge. With increasing the operating pressure, enhancement of electron temperature in the heating region is reduced. The possibility of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating in the heating region due to stray magnetic field generated by a filter magnet located at the extraction region is examined. It is found that ECR heating by RF wave field in the discharge region, where the strength of an axial magnetic field is approximately ∼4.8 G, can effectively heat low energy electrons. Depletion of low energy electrons in the electron energy distribution function measured at the heating region supports the occurrence of ECR heating. The present study suggests that addition of axial magnetic field as small as several G by an external electromagnet or permanent magnets can greatly increase the generation of highly ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in the heating region, thus improving the performance of H(-) ion generation in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion sources. PMID:26931999

  14. Electron cyclotron resonance heating by magnetic filter field in a negative hydrogen ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, June Young; Cho, Won-Hwi; Dang, Jeong-Jeung; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-02-01

    The influence of magnetic filter field on plasma properties in the heating region has been investigated in a planar-type inductively coupled radio-frequency (RF) H- ion source. Besides filtering high energy electrons near the extraction region, the magnetic filter field is clearly observed to increase the electron temperature in the heating region at low pressure discharge. With increasing the operating pressure, enhancement of electron temperature in the heating region is reduced. The possibility of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating in the heating region due to stray magnetic field generated by a filter magnet located at the extraction region is examined. It is found that ECR heating by RF wave field in the discharge region, where the strength of an axial magnetic field is approximately ˜4.8 G, can effectively heat low energy electrons. Depletion of low energy electrons in the electron energy distribution function measured at the heating region supports the occurrence of ECR heating. The present study suggests that addition of axial magnetic field as small as several G by an external electromagnet or permanent magnets can greatly increase the generation of highly ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in the heating region, thus improving the performance of H- ion generation in volume-produced negative hydrogen ion sources.

  15. Recent development of RIKEN 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higurashi, Y.; Ohnishi, J.; Ozeki, K.; Kidera, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-01

    Over the past two years, we have tried to improve the performance of the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using several methods. For the production of U vapor, we chose the sputtering method because it is possible to install a large amount of material inside the plasma chamber and thus achieve long-term operation without a break, although it is assumed that the beam intensity is weaker than in the oven technique. We also used an aluminum chamber instead of a stainless steel one. Using these methods, we successfully produced ˜180 eμA of U35+ and ˜230 eμA of U33+ at the injected radio frequency (RF) power of ˜4 kW (28 GHz). Very recently, to further increase the beam intensity of U35+, we have started to develop a high temperature oven and have successfully produced a highly charged U ion beam. In this contribution, we report on the beam intensity of highly charged U ions as a function of various parameters (RF power and sputtering voltage) and discuss the effects of these parameters on the beam stability in detail.

  16. Bias voltage and corrosion effects in rf ovens in electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Cavenago, M.; Galata, A.; Kulevoy, T.; Petrenko, S.

    2006-03-15

    Induction-heated miniaturized ovens were successfully coupled to electron cyclotron resonance ion sources for the production of copper and silver ion beams. Experiments with tin and praseodymium ion beams are here presented; some preliminary tests for titanium are also described. In the latter case (and in general over a 1800 K temperature) a molybdenum rf coil is used. The results with tin show currents comparable to silver (after obvious correction for isotopic abundance), with some operational difficulty due to frequent pouring of liquid sample out of crucible. The effects of a bias voltage V{sub b} applied to the Sn sample are reported. Cold sputter probes are compared. The results with praseodymium show lower currents than tin and large sensitivity to mixing gas used: nitrogen emerged as the best compromise against oxygen (possibly because this oxidizes the sample) and against inert noble gases. Optimal bias voltage for Pr (V{sub b} from -50 to -300 V) is much smaller than for silver (V{sub b} congruent with -1 kV)

  17. A proposal for a novel H ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance heating and surface ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Tarvainen, Ollie A; Kurennoy, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    A design for a novel H{sup -} ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating and surface ionization is presented. The plasma chamber of the source is an rf-cavity designed for TE{sub 111} eigenmode at 2.45 GHz. The desired mode is excited with a loop antenna. The ionization process takes place on a cesiated surface of a biased converter electrode. The H{sup -} ion beam is further 'self-extracted' through the plasma region. The magnetic field of the source is optimized for plasma generation by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and beam extraction. The design features of the source are discussed in detail and the attainable H{sup -} ion current, beam emittance and duty factor of the novel source are estimated.

  18. Beam extraction and high stability operation of high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, P. Mishra, L.; Kewlani, H.; Mittal, K. C.; Patil, D. S.

    2014-03-15

    A high current electron cyclotron resonance proton ion source is designed and developed for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. The plasma discharge in the ion source is stabilized by minimizing the reflected microwave power using four stub auto tuner and magnetic field. The optimization of extraction geometry is performed using PBGUNS code by varying the aperture, shape, accelerating gap, and the potential on the electrodes. While operating the source, it was found that the two layered microwave window (6 mm quartz plate and 2 mm boron nitride plate) was damaged (a fine hole was drilled) by the back-streaming electrons after continuous operation of the source for 3 h at beam current of 20–40 mA. The microwave window was then shifted from the line of sight of the back-streaming electrons and located after the water-cooled H-plane bend. In this configuration the stable operation of the high current ion source for several hours is achieved. The ion beam is extracted from the source by biasing plasma electrode, puller electrode, and ground electrode to +10 to +50 kV, −2 to −4 kV, and 0 kV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 30–40 mA is recorded on Faraday cup at 40 keV of beam energy at 600–1000 W of microwave power, 800–1000 G axial magnetic field and (1.2–3.9) × 10{sup −3} mbar of neutral hydrogen gas pressure in the plasma chamber. The dependence of beam current on extraction voltage, microwave power, and gas pressure is investigated in the range of operation of the ion source.

  19. Limitations of electron cyclotron resonance ion source performances set by kinetic plasma instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Tarvainen, O. Laulainen, J.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D.; Skalyga, V.

    2015-02-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plasmas are prone to kinetic instabilities due to anisotropy of the electron energy distribution function stemming from the resonant nature of the electron heating process. Electron cyclotron plasma instabilities are related to non-linear interaction between plasma waves and energetic electrons resulting to strong microwave emission and a burst of energetic electrons escaping the plasma, and explain the periodic oscillations of the extracted beam currents observed in several laboratories. It is demonstrated with a minimum-B 14 GHz ECRIS operating on helium, oxygen, and argon plasmas that kinetic instabilities restrict the parameter space available for the optimization of high charge state ion currents. The most critical parameter in terms of plasma stability is the strength of the solenoid magnetic field. It is demonstrated that due to the instabilities the optimum B{sub min}-field in single frequency heating mode is often ≤0.8B{sub ECR}, which is the value suggested by the semiempirical scaling laws guiding the design of modern ECRISs. It is argued that the effect can be attributed not only to the absolute magnitude of the magnetic field but also to the variation of the average magnetic field gradient on the resonance surface.

  20. Results with the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source VENUS (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyneis, C. M.; Leitner, D.; Abbott, S. R.; Dwinell, R. D.; Leitner, M.; Silver, C. S.; Taylor, C.

    2004-05-01

    During the last year, the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz and preparations for 28 GHz operation, which is set to begin early in 2004, are now underway. The goal of the VENUS ECR ion source project as the RIA research and development injector is the production of 240 eμA of U30+, a high current medium charge state beam. On the other hand, as an injector ion source for the 88-Inch Cyclotron the design objective is the production of 5 eμA of U48+, a low current, very high charge state beam. During the commissioning phase with 18 GHz, tests with various gases and recently metals have been performed with up to 2000 W rf power and the performance is very promising. For example, 1100 eμA of O6+, 180 eμA of Ar12+, 150 eμA of Xe20+, and 100 eμA of Bi24+ were produced in the early commissioning phase, ranking VENUS among the currently highest performance 18 GHz ECR ion sources. The emittance of the beams produced at 18 GHz was measured with a two axis emittance scanner. In FY04 a 10 kW, 28 GHz gyrotron system will be added, which will enable VENUS to reach full performance. The performance of the VENUS ion source, low energy beam transport and its closed loop cryogenic system are described in the article. Recently, a high temperature axial oven has been installed in the source and the first results on metal beams such as bismuth are given. The design of the 28 GHz, 10 kW gyrotron system will also be described.

  1. High yield neutron generator based on a high-current gasdynamic electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Sidorov, A.; Razin, S.; Strelkov, A.; Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T.

    2015-09-01

    In present paper, an approach for high yield compact D-D neutron generator based on a high current gasdynamic electron cyclotron resonance ion source is suggested. Results on dense pulsed deuteron beam production with current up to 500 mA and current density up to 750 mA/cm2 are demonstrated. Neutron yield from D2O and TiD2 targets was measured in case of its bombardment by pulsed 300 mA D+ beam with 45 keV energy. Neutron yield density at target surface of 109 s-1 cm-2 was detected with a system of two 3He proportional counters. Estimations based on obtained experimental results show that neutron yield from a high quality TiD2 target bombarded by D+ beam demonstrated in present work accelerated to 100 keV could reach 6 × 1010 s-1 cm-2. It is discussed that compact neutron generator with such characteristics could be perspective for a number of applications like boron neutron capture therapy, security systems based on neutron scanning, and neutronography.

  2. High yield neutron generator based on a high-current gasdynamic electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Skalyga, V.; Sidorov, A.; Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S.; Strelkov, A.; Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T.

    2015-09-07

    In present paper, an approach for high yield compact D-D neutron generator based on a high current gasdynamic electron cyclotron resonance ion source is suggested. Results on dense pulsed deuteron beam production with current up to 500 mA and current density up to 750 mA/cm{sup 2} are demonstrated. Neutron yield from D{sub 2}O and TiD{sub 2} targets was measured in case of its bombardment by pulsed 300 mA D{sup +} beam with 45 keV energy. Neutron yield density at target surface of 10{sup 9} s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} was detected with a system of two {sup 3}He proportional counters. Estimations based on obtained experimental results show that neutron yield from a high quality TiD{sub 2} target bombarded by D{sup +} beam demonstrated in present work accelerated to 100 keV could reach 6 × 10{sup 10} s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. It is discussed that compact neutron generator with such characteristics could be perspective for a number of applications like boron neutron capture therapy, security systems based on neutron scanning, and neutronography.

  3. New tandem type ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance for universal source of synthesized ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yushi Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Nishiokada, Takuya; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2014-02-15

    A new tandem type source has been constructed on the basis of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for producing synthesized ion beams. We investigate feasibility and hope to realize the device which has wide range operation window in a single device to produce many kinds of ion beams based on ECR ion source (ECRIS). It is considered that ECR plasmas are necessary to be available to individual operations with different plasma parameters. Both of analysis of ion beams and investigation of plasma parameters are conducted on produced plasmas. We describe construction of the new tandem type ion source based on ECRIS with wide operation window for aiming at producing synthesized ion beams as this new source can be a universal source.

  4. A study on vacuum aspects of electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Taki, G. S.; Mallick, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2008-05-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is special type hot plasma machine where the high temperature electrons co-exist with multiply charge state ions and neutrals. A few years ago 6.4 GHz. ECR ion source (VEC-ECR) was developed indigenously at VECC. This multiply charged ion source is being used continuously to inject heavy ion beams into the cyclotron. Vacuum plays the major role in ECR ion source. The water cooled plasma chamber is made from an oxygen free high conductivity copper billet to meet the suitable surface condition for vacuum purpose. The entire volume of the ion source is pumped by two 900 1/s special type oil diffusion pumps to achieve 5×10-8 Torr. Usually main plasma chamber is pumped by the plasma itself. Moreover a few 1/s additional pumping speed is provided through extraction hole and pumping slot on the extraction electrode. A study has been carried out to understand the role of vacuum on the multiply charged heavy ion production process. Considering the ion production and loss criteria, it is seen that for getting Ar18+ better vacuum is essential for lower frequency operation. So, an ECR ion source can give better charge state current output operating at higher frequency and stronger confining magnetic field under a specific vacuum condition. The low pressure condition is essential to minimize charge exchange loss due to recombination of multiply charged ions with the neutral atoms. A fixed ratio of neutral to electron density must be maintained for optimizing a particular charge state in the steady state condition. As the electron density is proportional to square of the injected microwave frequency (nevpropf2) a particular operating pressure is essential for a specific charge state. From the study, it has been obtained that the production of Ar18+ ions needs a pressure ~ 9.6×10-8 Torr for 6.4 GHz. ECR ion source. It is also obtained that an ECR ion source, works at a particular vacuum level, can give better charge state

  5. Current density distributions and sputter marks in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Panitzsch, Lauri; Peleikis, Thies; Boettcher, Stephan; Stalder, Michael; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2013-01-15

    Most electron cyclotron resonance ion sources use hexapolar magnetic fields for the radial confinement of the plasma. The geometry of this magnetic structure is then-induced by charged particles-mapped onto the inner side of the plasma electrode via sputtering and deposition. The resulting structures usually show two different patterns: a sharp triangular one in the central region which in some cases is even sputtered deep into the material (referred to as thin groove or sharp structure), and a blurred but still triangular-like one in the surroundings (referred to as broad halo). Therefore, both patterns seem to have different sources. To investigate their origins we replaced the standard plasma electrode by a custom-built plasma electrode acting as a planar, multi-segment current-detector. For different biased disc voltages, detector positions, and source biases (referred to the detector) we measured the electrical current density distributions in the plane of the plasma electrode. The results show a strong and sharply confined electron population with triangular shape surrounded by less intense and spatially less confined ions. Observed sputter- and deposition marks are related to the analysis of the results. Our measurements suggest that the two different patterns (thin and broad) indeed originate from different particle populations. The thin structures seem to be caused by the hot electron population while the broad marks seem to stem from the medium to highly charged ions. In this paper we present our measurements together with theoretical considerations and substantiate the conclusions drawn above. The validity of these results is also discussed.

  6. Nb3Sn superconducting magnets for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, P.; Caspi, S.; Felice, H.; Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C. M.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Todd, D. S.

    2009-05-04

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are an essential component of heavy-ion accelerators. Over the past few decades advances in magnet technology and an improved understanding of the ECR ion source plasma physics have led to remarkable performance improvements of ECR ion sources. Currently third generation high field superconducting ECR ion sources operating at frequencies around 28 GHz are the state of the art ion injectors and several devices are either under commissioning or under design around the world. At the same time, the demand for increased intensities of highly charged heavy ions continues to grow, which makes the development of even higher performance ECR ion sources a necessity. To extend ECR ion sources to frequencies well above 28 GHz, new magnet technology will be needed in order to operate at higher field and force levels. The superconducting magnet program at LBNL has been developing high field superconducting magnets for particle accelerators based on Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting technology for several years. At the moment, Nb{sub 3}Sn is the only practical conductor capable of operating at the 15 T field level in the relevant configurations. Recent design studies have been focused on the possibility of using Nb{sub 3}Sn in the next generation of ECR ion sources. In the past, LBNL has worked on the VENUS ECR, a 28 GHz source with solenoids and a sextupole made with NbTi operating at fields of 6-7 T. VENUS has now been operating since 2004. We present in this paper the design of a Nb{sub 3}Sn ECR ion source optimized to operate at an rf frequency of 56 GHz with conductor peak fields of 13-15 T. Because of the brittleness and strain sensitivity of Nb{sub 3}Sn- , particular care is required in the design of the magnet support structure, which must be capable of providing support to the coils without overstressing the conductor. In this paper, we present the main features of the support structure, featuring an external aluminum shell

  7. Nb3Sn superconducting magnets for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Ferracin, P; Caspi, S; Felice, H; Leitner, D; Lyneis, C M; Prestemon, S; Sabbi, G L; Todd, D S

    2010-02-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are an essential component of heavy-ion accelerators. Over the past few decades advances in magnet technology and an improved understanding of the ECR ion source plasma physics have led to remarkable performance improvements of ECR ion sources. Currently third generation high field superconducting ECR ion sources operating at frequencies around 28 GHz are the state of the art ion injectors and several devices are either under commissioning or under design around the world. At the same time, the demand for increased intensities of highly charged heavy ions continues to grow, which makes the development of even higher performance ECR ion sources a necessity. To extend ECR ion sources to frequencies well above 28 GHz, new magnet technology will be needed in order to operate at higher field and force levels. The superconducting magnet program at LBNL has been developing high field superconducting magnets for particle accelerators based on Nb(3)Sn superconducting technology for several years. At the moment, Nb(3)Sn is the only practical conductor capable of operating at the 15 T field level in the relevant configurations. Recent design studies have been focused on the possibility of using Nb(3)Sn in the next generation of ECR ion sources. In the past, LBNL has worked on the VENUS ECR, a 28 GHz source with solenoids and a sextupole made with NbTi operating at fields of 6-7 T. VENUS has now been operating since 2004. We present in this paper the design of a Nb(3)Sn ECR ion source optimized to operate at an rf frequency of 56 GHz with conductor peak fields of 13-15 T. Because of the brittleness and strain sensitivity of Nb(3)Sn, particular care is required in the design of the magnet support structure, which must be capable of providing support to the coils without overstressing the conductor. In this paper, we present the main features of the support structure, featuring an external aluminum shell pretensioned with water

  8. New method for comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents using an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kishi, Shintaro; Makita, Mika; Nagamatsu, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko; Toda, Masayoshi

    2011-03-01

    We developed a detection technology for vapor forms of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) with an element analysis system using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. After the vapor sample was introduced directly into the ion source, the molecular material was decomposed into elements using electron cyclotron resonance plasma and ionized. The following CWAs and stimulants were examined: diisopropyl fluorophosphonate (DFP), 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (2CEES), cyanogen chloride (CNCl), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The type of chemical warfare agents, specifically, whether it was a nerve agent, blister agent, blood agent, or choking agent, could be determined by measuring the quantities of the monatomic ions or CN + using mass spectrometry. It was possible to detect gaseous CWAs that could not be detected by a conventional mass spectrometer. The distribution of electron temperature in the plasma could be closely controlled by adjusting the input power of the microwaves used to generate the electron cyclotron resonance plasma, and the target compounds could be detected as molecular ions or fragment ions, enabling identification of the target agents.

  9. New method for comprehensive detection of chemical warfare agents using an electron-cyclotron-resonance ion-source mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Kazuya; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kishi, Shintaro; Makita, Mika; Nagamatsu, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Tatsuhiko; Toda, Masayoshi

    2011-03-01

    We developed a detection technology for vapor forms of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) with an element analysis system using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. After the vapor sample was introduced directly into the ion source, the molecular material was decomposed into elements using electron cyclotron resonance plasma and ionized. The following CWAs and stimulants were examined: diisopropyl fluorophosphonate (DFP), 2-chloroethylethylsulfide (2CEES), cyanogen chloride (CNCl), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The type of chemical warfare agents, specifically, whether it was a nerve agent, blister agent, blood agent, or choking agent, could be determined by measuring the quantities of the monatomic ions or CN(+) using mass spectrometry. It was possible to detect gaseous CWAs that could not be detected by a conventional mass spectrometer. The distribution of electron temperature in the plasma could be closely controlled by adjusting the input power of the microwaves used to generate the electron cyclotron resonance plasma, and the target compounds could be detected as molecular ions or fragment ions, enabling identification of the target agents. PMID:21242103

  10. Ultracompact/ultralow power electron cyclotron resonance ion source for multipurpose applicationsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sortais, P.; Lamy, T.; Médard, J.; Angot, J.; Latrasse, L.; Thuillier, T.

    2010-02-01

    In order to drastically reduce the power consumption of a microwave ion source, we have studied some specific discharge cavity geometries in order to reduce the operating point below 1 W of microwave power (at 2.45 GHz). We show that it is possible to drive an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with a transmitter technology similar to those used for cellular phones. By the reduction in the size and of the required microwave power, we have developed a new type of ultralow cost ion sources. This microwave discharge system (called COMIC, for COmpact MIcrowave and Coaxial) can be used as a source of light, plasma or ions. We will show geometries of conductive cavities where it is possible, in a 20 mm diameter chamber, to reduce the ignition of the plasma below 100 mW and define typical operating points around 5 W. Inside a simple vacuum chamber it is easy to place the source and its extraction system anywhere and fully under vacuum. In that case, current densities from 0.1 to 10 mA/cm2 (Ar, extraction 4 mm, 1 mAe, 20 kV) have been observed. Preliminary measurements and calculations show the possibility, with a two electrodes system, to extract beams within a low emittance. The first application for these ion sources is the ion injection for charge breeding, surface analyzing system and surface treatment. For this purpose, a very small extraction hole is used (typically 3/10 mm for a 3 μA extracted current with 2 W of HF power). Mass spectrum and emittance measurements will be presented. In these conditions, values down to 1 π mm mrad at 15 kV (1σ) are observed, thus very close to the ones currently observed for a surface ionization source. A major interest of this approach is the possibility to connect together several COMIC devices. We will introduce some new on-going developments such as sources for high voltage implantation platforms, fully quartz radioactive ion source at ISOLDE or large plasma generators for plasma immersion, broad or ribbon beams

  11. Ultracompact/ultralow power electron cyclotron resonance ion source for multipurpose applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sortais, P.; Lamy, T.; Medard, J.; Angot, J.; Latrasse, L.; Thuillier, T.

    2010-02-15

    In order to drastically reduce the power consumption of a microwave ion source, we have studied some specific discharge cavity geometries in order to reduce the operating point below 1 W of microwave power (at 2.45 GHz). We show that it is possible to drive an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with a transmitter technology similar to those used for cellular phones. By the reduction in the size and of the required microwave power, we have developed a new type of ultralow cost ion sources. This microwave discharge system (called COMIC, for COmpact MIcrowave and Coaxial) can be used as a source of light, plasma or ions. We will show geometries of conductive cavities where it is possible, in a 20 mm diameter chamber, to reduce the ignition of the plasma below 100 mW and define typical operating points around 5 W. Inside a simple vacuum chamber it is easy to place the source and its extraction system anywhere and fully under vacuum. In that case, current densities from 0.1 to 10 mA/cm{sup 2} (Ar, extraction 4 mm, 1 mAe, 20 kV) have been observed. Preliminary measurements and calculations show the possibility, with a two electrodes system, to extract beams within a low emittance. The first application for these ion sources is the ion injection for charge breeding, surface analyzing system and surface treatment. For this purpose, a very small extraction hole is used (typically 3/10 mm for a 3 {mu}A extracted current with 2 W of HF power). Mass spectrum and emittance measurements will be presented. In these conditions, values down to 1 {pi} mm mrad at 15 kV (1{sigma}) are observed, thus very close to the ones currently observed for a surface ionization source. A major interest of this approach is the possibility to connect together several COMIC devices. We will introduce some new on-going developments such as sources for high voltage implantation platforms, fully quartz radioactive ion source at ISOLDE or large plasma generators for plasma immersion, broad or ribbon

  12. Status report of the 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source VENUS (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C.M.; Loew, T.; Todd, D.S.; Virostek, S.; Tarvainen, O.

    2006-03-15

    The superconducting versatile electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for nuclear science (VENUS) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source designed to produce high-current, high-charge-state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as the prototype ion source for the rare isotope accelerator (RIA) front end, where the goal is to produce intense beams of medium-charge-state ions. Example beams for the RIA accelerator are 15 p {mu}A of Kr{sup 17+}(260 e {mu}A), 12 p {mu}A of Xe{sup 20+} (240 e {mu}A of Xe{sup 20+}), and 8 p {mu}A of U{sup 28+}(230 e {mu}A). To achieve these high currents, VENUS has been optimized for operation at 28 GHz, reaching maximal confinement fields of 4 and 3 T axially and over 2.2 T on the plasma chamber wall radially. After a commissioning phase at 18 GHz, the source started the 28 GHz operation in the summer of 2004. During that ongoing 28 GHz commissioning process, record ion-beam intensities have been extracted. For instance, measured extracted currents for the low to medium charge states were 270 e {mu}A of Xe{sup 27+} and 245 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 29+}, while for the higher charge states 15 e {mu}A of Xe{sup 34+}, 15 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 41+}, and 0.5 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 50+} could be produced. Results from the ongoing 28 GHz commissioning as well as results using double-frequency heating with 18 and 28 GHz for oxygen and xenon are presented. The effect of the minimum B field on the ion source performance has been systematically measured for 18 and 28 GHz. In both cases the performance peaked at a minimum B field of about 80% of the resonance field. In addition, a strong dependence of the x-ray flux and energy on the minimum B field value was found.

  13. Status report of the 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source VENUS (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C. M.; Loew, T.; Todd, D. S.; Virostek, S.; Tarvainen, O.

    2006-03-01

    The superconducting versatile electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for nuclear science (VENUS) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source designed to produce high-current, high-charge-state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as the prototype ion source for the rare isotope accelerator (RIA) front end, where the goal is to produce intense beams of medium-charge-state ions. Example beams for the RIA accelerator are 15 p μA of Kr17+(260 e μA), 12 p μA of Xe20+ (240 e μA of Xe20+), and 8 p μA of U28+(230 e μA). To achieve these high currents, VENUS has been optimized for operation at 28 GHz, reaching maximal confinement fields of 4 and 3 T axially and over 2.2 T on the plasma chamber wall radially. After a commissioning phase at 18 GHz, the source started the 28 GHz operation in the summer of 2004. During that ongoing 28 GHz commissioning process, record ion-beam intensities have been extracted. For instance, measured extracted currents for the low to medium charge states were 270 e μA of Xe27+ and 245 e μA of Bi29+, while for the higher charge states 15 e μA of Xe34+, 15 e μA of Bi41+, and 0.5 e μA of Bi50+ could be produced. Results from the ongoing 28 GHz commissioning as well as results using double-frequency heating with 18 and 28 GHz for oxygen and xenon are presented. The effect of the minimum B field on the ion source performance has been systematically measured for 18 and 28 GHz. In both cases the performance peaked at a minimum B field of about 80% of the resonance field. In addition, a strong dependence of the x-ray flux and energy on the minimum B field value was found.

  14. Design study of a 17.3 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source at Louvain-la-Neuve

    SciTech Connect

    Standaert, L. Davin, F.; Loiselet, M.

    2014-02-15

    The Cyclotron Resources Center of the Louvain-la-Neuve University is developing a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source to increase the energy of the accelerated beam by injection of higher charge state ions into the cyclotron. The design of the source is based on a 17.3 GHz frequency and classical coils to produce the axial field. The field reaches 2 T at the injection side and 1.2 T at extraction. The total power consumption for the coils is limited to 80 kW. The design features of the source are presented.

  15. Emittance study of a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the Rare Isotope Science Project superconducting linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Park, Bum-Sik; Hong, In-Seok; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jin, Hyunchang; Choi, Sukjin; Kim, Yonghwan

    2016-02-01

    A 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is being developed for use as an injector for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project. Beam extraction from the ECR ion source has been simulated using the KOBRA3-INP software. The simulation software can calculate charged particle trajectories in three dimensional complex magnetic field structures, which in this case are formed by the arrangement of five superconducting magnets. In this study, the beam emittance is simulated to understand the effects of plasma potential, mass-to-charge ratio, and spatial distribution. The results of these simulations and their comparison to experimental results are presented in this paper. PMID:26931953

  16. Emittance study of a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the Rare Isotope Science Project superconducting linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bum-Sik; Hong, In-Seok; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jin, Hyunchang; Choi, Sukjin; Kim, Yonghwan

    2016-02-01

    A 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is being developed for use as an injector for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project. Beam extraction from the ECR ion source has been simulated using the KOBRA3-INP software. The simulation software can calculate charged particle trajectories in three dimensional complex magnetic field structures, which in this case are formed by the arrangement of five superconducting magnets. In this study, the beam emittance is simulated to understand the effects of plasma potential, mass-to-charge ratio, and spatial distribution. The results of these simulations and their comparison to experimental results are presented in this paper.

  17. Formation of multi-charged ion beams by focusing effect of mid-electrode on electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Youta Kimura, Daiju; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Kumakura, Sho; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2014-02-15

    We are constructing a tandem type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) and a beam line for extracting ion beams. The ion beam is extracted from the second stage by an accel-decel extraction system with a single-hole and the ion beam current on each electrode is measured. The total ion beam current is measured by a faraday cup downstream the extraction electrodes. We measure these currents as a function of the mid-electrode potential. We also change the gap length between electrodes and perform similar measurement. The behaviors of these currents obtained experimentally against the mid-electrode potential show qualitatively good agreement with a simple theoretical consideration including sheath potential effects. The effect of mid-electrode potential is very useful for decreasing the beam loss for enhancing ion beam current extracted from ECRIS.

  18. First operation and effect of a new tandem-type ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yushi; Kimura, Daiju; Yano, Keisuke; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-01

    A new tandem type source has been constructed on the basis of electron cyclotron resonance plasma for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic field in the first stage consists of all permanent magnets, i.e., cylindrically comb shaped one, and that of the second stage consists of a pair of mirror coil, a supplemental coil and the octupole magnets. Both stage plasmas can be individually operated, and produced ions in which is energy controlled by large bore extractor also can be transported from the first to the second stage. We investigate the basic operation and effects of the tandem type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Analysis of ion beams and investigation of plasma parameters are conducted on produced plasmas in dual plasmas operation as well as each single operation. We describe construction and initial experimental results of the new tandem type ion source based on ECRIS with wide operation window for aiming at producing synthesized ion beams as this new source can be a universal source in future.

  19. First operation and effect of a new tandem-type ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Kimura, Daiju; Yano, Keisuke; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu

    2016-02-01

    A new tandem type source has been constructed on the basis of electron cyclotron resonance plasma for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic field in the first stage consists of all permanent magnets, i.e., cylindrically comb shaped one, and that of the second stage consists of a pair of mirror coil, a supplemental coil and the octupole magnets. Both stage plasmas can be individually operated, and produced ions in which is energy controlled by large bore extractor also can be transported from the first to the second stage. We investigate the basic operation and effects of the tandem type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Analysis of ion beams and investigation of plasma parameters are conducted on produced plasmas in dual plasmas operation as well as each single operation. We describe construction and initial experimental results of the new tandem type ion source based on ECRIS with wide operation window for aiming at producing synthesized ion beams as this new source can be a universal source in future. PMID:26931929

  20. Dynamic regimes of cyclotron instability in the afterglow mode of minimum-B electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfeld, D.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Tarvainen, O.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.

    2016-04-01

    The paper is concerned with the dynamic regimes of cyclotron instabilities in non-equilibrium plasma of a minimum-B electron cyclotron resonance ion source operated in pulsed mode. The instability appears in decaying ion source plasma shortly (1-10 ms) after switching off the microwave radiation of the klystron, and manifests itself in the form of powerful pulses of electromagnetic emission associated with precipitation of high-energy electrons along the magnetic field lines. Recently it was shown that this plasma instability causes perturbations of the extracted ion current, which limits the performance of the ion source and generates strong bursts of bremsstrahlung emission. In this article we present time-resolved diagnostics of electromagnetic emission bursts related to cyclotron instability in the decaying plasma. The temporal resolution is sufficient to study the fine structure of the dynamic spectra of the electromagnetic emission at different operating regimes of the ion source. It was found that at different values of magnetic field and heating power the dynamic spectra demonstrate common features: Decreasing frequency from burst to burst and an always falling tone during a single burst of instability. The analysis has shown that the instability is driven by the resonant interaction of hot electrons, distributed between the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) zone and the trap center, with slow extraordinary wave propagation quasi-parallel with respect to the external magnetic field.

  1. Status of a compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source for National Institute of Radiological Sciences-930 cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojo, S.; Katagiri, K.; Nakao, M.; Sugiura, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Noda, A.; Okada, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Komiyama, A.; Honma, T.; Noda, K.

    2014-02-01

    The Kei-source is a compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source using only permanent magnets and a frequency of 10 GHz. It was developed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for producing C4+ ions oriented for high-energy carbon therapy. It has also been used as an ion source for the NIRS-930 cyclotron. Its microwave band region for the traveling-wave-tube amplifier and maximum output power are 8-10 GHz and 350 W, respectively. Since 2006, it has provided various ion beams such as proton, deuteron, carbon, oxygen, and neon with sufficient intensity (200 μA for proton and deuteron, 50 μA for C4+, for example) and good stability for radioisotope production, tests of radiation damage, and basic research experiments. Its horizontal and vertical emittances were measured using a screen monitor and waist-scan. The present paper reports the current status of the Kei-source.

  2. Status of a compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source for National Institute of Radiological Sciences-930 cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Hojo, S; Katagiri, K; Nakao, M; Sugiura, A; Muramatsu, M; Noda, A; Okada, T; Takahashi, Y; Komiyama, A; Honma, T; Noda, K

    2014-02-01

    The Kei-source is a compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source using only permanent magnets and a frequency of 10 GHz. It was developed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for producing C(4+) ions oriented for high-energy carbon therapy. It has also been used as an ion source for the NIRS-930 cyclotron. Its microwave band region for the traveling-wave-tube amplifier and maximum output power are 8-10 GHz and 350 W, respectively. Since 2006, it has provided various ion beams such as proton, deuteron, carbon, oxygen, and neon with sufficient intensity (200 μA for proton and deuteron, 50 μA for C(4+), for example) and good stability for radioisotope production, tests of radiation damage, and basic research experiments. Its horizontal and vertical emittances were measured using a screen monitor and waist-scan. The present paper reports the current status of the Kei-source. PMID:24593538

  3. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, V; Küchler, D

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work. PMID:26932095

  4. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toivanen, V.; Küchler, D.

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  5. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma characterization by X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Mascali, David; Castro, Giuseppe; Biri, Sándor; Rácz, Richárd; Pálinkás, József; Caliri, Claudia; Celona, Luigi; Neri, Lorenzo; Romano, Francesco Paolo; Torrisi, Giuseppe; Gammino, Santo

    2016-02-01

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma X-ray emission has been recently carried out at the ECRISs-Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources laboratory of Atomki based on a collaboration between the Debrecen and Catania ECR teams. In a first series, the X-ray spectroscopy was performed through silicon drift detectors and high purity germanium detectors, characterizing the volumetric plasma emission. The on-purpose developed collimation system was suitable for direct plasma density evaluation, performed "on-line" during beam extraction and charge state distribution characterization. A campaign for correlating the plasma density and temperature with the output charge states and the beam intensity for different pumping wave frequencies, different magnetic field profiles, and single-gas/gas-mixing configurations was carried out. The results reveal a surprisingly very good agreement between warm-electron density fluctuations, output beam currents, and the calculated electromagnetic modal density of the plasma chamber. A charge-coupled device camera coupled to a small pin-hole allowing X-ray imaging was installed and numerous X-ray photos were taken in order to study the peculiarities of the ECRIS plasma structure. PMID:26931918

  6. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma characterization by X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascali, David; Castro, Giuseppe; Biri, Sándor; Rácz, Richárd; Pálinkás, József; Caliri, Claudia; Celona, Luigi; Neri, Lorenzo; Romano, Francesco Paolo; Torrisi, Giuseppe; Gammino, Santo

    2016-02-01

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma X-ray emission has been recently carried out at the ECRISs—Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources laboratory of Atomki based on a collaboration between the Debrecen and Catania ECR teams. In a first series, the X-ray spectroscopy was performed through silicon drift detectors and high purity germanium detectors, characterizing the volumetric plasma emission. The on-purpose developed collimation system was suitable for direct plasma density evaluation, performed "on-line" during beam extraction and charge state distribution characterization. A campaign for correlating the plasma density and temperature with the output charge states and the beam intensity for different pumping wave frequencies, different magnetic field profiles, and single-gas/gas-mixing configurations was carried out. The results reveal a surprisingly very good agreement between warm-electron density fluctuations, output beam currents, and the calculated electromagnetic modal density of the plasma chamber. A charge-coupled device camera coupled to a small pin-hole allowing X-ray imaging was installed and numerous X-ray photos were taken in order to study the peculiarities of the ECRIS plasma structure.

  7. Implementation of an operator intervention system for remote control of the RIKEN 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, A.; Furukawa, K.; Higurashi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-01

    The control system for the RIKEN 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (28 GHz SC-ECRIS) consists of a distributed control system based on the experimental physics and industrial control system. To maintain the beam quality for the long beam-service time at the radioactive isotope beam factory, beam tuning to prevent subtle changes in the 28 GHz SC-ECRIS conditions is required. Once this is achieved, it should then be possible to check conditions and operate the ion source at any time. We have designed a web-based operational interface to remotely control the ion source, but for access and control from several locations, suitable access security, policies, and methods are required. We thus implemented an operator intervention system that makes it possible to safely access the network externally with the permission of on-site accelerator operators in the control room.

  8. Diagnostics of a charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion source helium plasma with the injection of 23Na1+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Galatà, A.; Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Thuillier, T.; Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L.; Mascali, D.; Neri, L.

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the utilization of an injected 23Na1+ ion beam as a diagnostics of the helium plasma of a charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion source. The obtained data allows estimating the upper limit for the ion-ion collision mean-free path of the incident sodium ions, the lower limit of ion-ion collision frequencies for all charge states of the sodium ions and the lower limit of the helium plasma density. The ion-ion collision frequencies of high charge state ions are shown to be at least on the order of 1-10 MHz and the plasma density is estimated to be on the order of 1011 cm-3 or higher. The experimental results are compared to simulations of the 23Na1+ capture into the helium plasma. The results indicate that the lower breeding efficiency of light ions in comparison to heavier elements is probably due to different capture efficiencies in which the in-flight ionization of the incident 1 + ions plays a vital role.

  9. On the role of electron energy distribution function in double frequency heating of electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Schachter, L. Dobrescu, S.; Stiebing, K. E.

    2014-02-15

    Double frequency heating (DFH) is a tool to improve the output of highly charged ions particularly from modern electron cyclotron resonance ion source installations with very high RF-frequencies. In order to gain information on the DFH-mechanism and on the role of the lower injected frequency we have carried out a series of dedicated experiments where we have put emphasis on the creation of a discrete resonance surface also for this lower frequency. Our well-established method of inserting an emissive MD (metal-dielectric) liner into the plasma chamber of the source is used in these experiments as a tool of investigation. In this way, the electron temperature and density for both ECR zones is increased in a controlled manner, allowing conclusions on the role of the change of the electron-energy-distribution function with and without DFH.

  10. Development of a compact electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source for high-energy carbon-ion therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sato, S.; Sato, Y.; Ogawa, Hirotsugu; Yamada, S.; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Y.; Drentje, A. G.

    2005-11-01

    Ion sources for medical facilities should have characteristics of easy maintenance, low electric power consumption, good stability, and long operation time without problems (one year or longer). For this, a 10GHz compact electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source with all-permanent magnets (Kei2 source) was developed. The maximum mirror magnetic fields on the beam axis are 0.59T at the extraction side and 0.87T at the gas-injection side, while the minimum B strength is 0.25T. These parameters have been optimized for the production of C4+ based on the experience at the 10GHz NIRS-ECR ion source and a previous prototype compact source (Kei source). The Kei2 source has a diameter of 320mm and a length of 295mm. The beam intensity of C4+ was obtained to be 530μA under an extraction voltage of 40kV. The beam stability was better than 6% at C4+ of 280μA during 90h with no adjustment of the operation parameters. The details of the design and beam tests of the source are described in this paper.

  11. Time evolution of endpoint energy of Bremsstrahlung spectra and ion production from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tarvainen, Ollie; Ropponen, Tommi; Jones, Peter; Kalvas, Taneli

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) are used to produce high charge state heavy ion beams for the use of nuclear and materials science, for instance. The most powerful ECR ion sources today are superconducting. One of the problems with superconducting ECR ion sources is the use of high radio frequency (RF) power which results in bremsstrahlung radiation adding an extra heat load to the cryostat. In order to understand the electron heating process and timescales in the ECR plasma, time evolution measurement of ECR bremsstrahlung was carried out. In the measurements JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS was operated in a pulsed mode and bremsstrahlung data from several hundred RF pulses was recorded. Time evolution of ion production was also studied and compared to one of the electron heating theories. To analyze the measurement data at C++ program was developed. Endpoint energies of the bremsstrahlung spectra as a function of axial magnetic field strength, pressure and RF power are presented and ion production timescales obtained from the measurements are compared to bremsstrahlung emission timescales and one of the stochastic heating theories.

  12. Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.; Levand, A.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.

    2012-02-15

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi {sup 252}Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci {sup 252}Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10{sup 6} ions/s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for {sup 23}Na{sup 8+}, 15.6% for {sup 84}Kr{sup 17+}, and 13.7% for {sup 85}Rb{sup 19+} with typical breeding times of 10 ms/charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for {sup 143}Cs{sup 27+} and 14.7% for {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+}. The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of {sup 143}Ba{sup 27+} accelerated to 6.1 MeV/u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities.

  13. Charge breeding results and future prospects with electron cyclotron resonance ion source and electron beam ion source (invited).

    PubMed

    Vondrasek, R; Levand, A; Pardo, R; Savard, G; Scott, R

    2012-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility will provide low-energy and reaccelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams for the nuclear physics program. A 70 mCi (252)Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The final CARIBU configuration will utilize a 1 Ci (252)Cf source to produce radioactive beams with intensities up to 10(6) ions∕s for use in the ATLAS facility. The ECR charge breeder has been tested with stable beam injection and has achieved charge breeding efficiencies of 3.6% for (23)Na(8+), 15.6% for (84)Kr(17+), and 13.7% for (85)Rb(19+) with typical breeding times of 10 ms∕charge state. For the first radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for (143)Cs(27+) and 14.7% for (143)Ba(27+). The project has been commissioned with a radioactive beam of (143)Ba(27+) accelerated to 6.1 MeV∕u. In order to take advantage of its lower residual contamination, an EBIS charge breeder will replace the ECR charge breeder in the next two years. The advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques are compared taking into account the requirements of the next generation radioactive beam facilities. PMID:22380254

  14. Development of Compact Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source with Permanent Magnets for High-Energy Carbon-Ion Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Iwata, Y.; Hojo, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sato, S.; Ogawa, Hirotsugu; Yamada, S.; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Y.; Ueda, T.; Miyazaki, H.; Drentje, A. G.

    2008-11-01

    Heavy-ion cancer treatment is being carried out at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) with 140 to 400 MeV/n carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) since 1994. At NIRS, more than 4,000 patients have been treated, and the clinical efficiency of carbon ion radiotherapy has been demonstrated for many diseases. A more compact accelerator facility for cancer therapy is now being constricted at the Gunma University. In order to reduce the size of the injector (consists of ion source, low-energy beam transport and post-accelerator Linac include these power supply and cooling system), an ion source requires production of highly charged carbon ions, lower electric power for easy installation of the source on a high-voltage platform, long lifetime and easy operation. A compact Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) with all permanent magnets is one of the best types for this purpose. An ECRIS has advantage for production of highly charged ions. A permanent magnet is suitable for reduce the electric power and cooling system. For this, a 10 GHz compact ECRIS with all permanent magnets (Kei2-source) was developed. The maximum mirror magnetic fields on the beam axis are 0.59 T at the extraction side and 0.87 T at the gas-injection side, while the minimum B strength is 0.25 T. These parameters have been optimized for the production of C4+ based on experience at the 10 GHz NIRS-ECR ion source. The Kei2-source has a diameter of 320 mm and a length of 295 mm. The beam intensity of C4+ was obtained to be 618 eμA under an extraction voltage of 30 kV. Outline of the heavy ion therapy and development of the compact ion source for new facility are described in this paper.

  15. Development of Compact Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source with Permanent Magnets for High-Energy Carbon-Ion Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Iwata, Y.; Hojo, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sato, S.; Ogawa, Hirotsugu; Yamada, S.; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Y.; Ueda, T.; Miyazaki, H.; Drentje, A. G.

    2008-11-03

    Heavy-ion cancer treatment is being carried out at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) with 140 to 400 MeV/n carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) since 1994. At NIRS, more than 4,000 patients have been treated, and the clinical efficiency of carbon ion radiotherapy has been demonstrated for many diseases. A more compact accelerator facility for cancer therapy is now being constricted at the Gunma University. In order to reduce the size of the injector (consists of ion source, low-energy beam transport and post-accelerator Linac include these power supply and cooling system), an ion source requires production of highly charged carbon ions, lower electric power for easy installation of the source on a high-voltage platform, long lifetime and easy operation. A compact Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) with all permanent magnets is one of the best types for this purpose. An ECRIS has advantage for production of highly charged ions. A permanent magnet is suitable for reduce the electric power and cooling system. For this, a 10 GHz compact ECRIS with all permanent magnets (Kei2-source) was developed. The maximum mirror magnetic fields on the beam axis are 0.59 T at the extraction side and 0.87 T at the gas-injection side, while the minimum B strength is 0.25 T. These parameters have been optimized for the production of C{sup 4+} based on experience at the 10 GHz NIRS-ECR ion source. The Kei2-source has a diameter of 320 mm and a length of 295 mm. The beam intensity of C{sup 4+} was obtained to be 618 e{mu}A under an extraction voltage of 30 kV. Outline of the heavy ion therapy and development of the compact ion source for new facility are described in this paper.

  16. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Guo, X. H.; Cao, Y.; Lu, W.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, P.; Song, M. T.; Zhao, H. Y.; Jin, T.; Shang, Y.; Zhan, W. L.; Wei, B. W.; Xie, D. Z.

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6T at injection, 2.2T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5kW by two 18GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810eμA of O7+, 505eμA of Xe20+, 306eμA of Xe27+, and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  17. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007. PMID:18315105

  18. Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Shin, Chang Seouk; Won, Mi-Sook; Kim, Byoung Chul; Ahn, Jung Keun

    2014-02-15

    A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein.

  19. Molecular and negative ion production by a standard electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B.

    2012-02-15

    Molecular and negative ion beams, usually produced in special ion sources, play an increasingly important role in fundamental and applied atomic physics. The ATOMKI-ECRIS is a standard ECR ion source, designed to provide highly charged ion (HCI) plasmas and beams. In the present work, H{sup -}, O{sup -}, OH{sup -}, O{sub 2}{sup -}, C{sup -}, C{sub 60}{sup -} negative ions and H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +} positive molecular ions were generated in this HCI-ECRIS. Without any major modification in the source and without any commonly applied tricks (such as usage of cesium or magnetic filter), negative ion beams of several {mu}A and positive molecular ion beams in the mA range were successfully obtained.

  20. A new 14 GHz Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) for the heavy ion accelerator facility ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlapp, M.; Pardo, R.C.; Vondrasek, R.C.; Billquist, P.J.; Szczech, J.

    1997-11-01

    A 14 GHz Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) has been designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory. The source is a modification of the AECR at Berkeley and incorporates the latest results from ECR developments to produce intense beams of highly charged ions, including an improved magnetic confinement of the plasma electrons with an axial mirror ratio of 3.5. The aluminum plasma chamber and extraction electrode as well as a biased disk on axis at the microwave injection side donates additional electrons to the plasma, making use of the large secondary electron yield from aluminum oxide. The source is capable of ECR plasma heating using two different frequencies simultaneously to increase the electron energy gain for the production of high charge states. The main design goal is to produce several e{mu}A of at least {sup 238}U{sup 35+} in order to accelerate the beam to coulomb-barrier energies without further stripping. First charge state distributions for gaseous elements have been measured and 210 e{mu}A {sup 16}O{sup 7+} has been achieved. A normalized 90% emittance from 0.1 to 0.2 {pi} mm{sm_bullet}mrad for krypton and oxygen beam has been found.

  1. Induction heating pure vapor source of high temperature melting point materials on electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kutsumi, Osamu; Kato, Yushi; Matsui, Yuuki; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Uchida, Takashi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    2010-02-15

    Multicharged ions that are needed are produced from solid pure material with high melting point in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating (IH) with multilayer induction coil, which is made from bare molybdenum or tungsten wire without water cooling and surrounding the pure vaporized material. We optimize the shapes of induction coil and vaporized materials and operation of rf power supply. We conduct experiment to investigate the reproducibility and stability in the operation and heating efficiency. IH evaporator produces pure material vapor because materials directly heated by eddy currents have no contact with insulated materials, which are usually impurity gas sources. The power and the frequency of the induction currents range from 100 to 900 W and from 48 to 23 kHz, respectively. The working pressure is about 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} Pa. We measure the temperature of the vaporized materials with different shapes, and compare them with the result of modeling. We estimate the efficiency of the IH vapor source. We are aiming at the evaporator's higher melting point material than that of iron.

  2. Plasma spectroscopy of metal ions for hyper-electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Yamaka, Shoichi; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Kubono, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Kase, Masayuki; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Shimoura, Susumu

    2014-02-01

    In this research, the optical line spectra of metal ions from ECR plasma were observed using a grating monochromator with a photomultiplier. The light intensity of line spectrum from the ECR plasma had a strong correlation with ion beam intensity measured by a magnetic mass analyzer. This correlation is a significant information for the beam tuning process, because it allows to conduct the extraction of the desired metal ion species from the ECR plasma. Separation of ion species of the same charge to mass ratio with an electromagnetic mass analyzer is known to be an exceptionally complex process, but this research provides a new approach for its simplification. In this paper the grating monochromator method for metal ion beam tuning such as (40)Ca(12+), (56)Fe(15+), and (85)Rb(20+) of hyper-ECR ion source as an injector for RIKEN Azimuthal Varying Field cyclotron is described. PMID:24593484

  3. Development of a pepper-pot device to determine the emittance of an ion beam generated by electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, M; Benitez, J Y; Leitner, D; Lyneis, C M; Todd, D S; Bantel, M

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes the recent development and commissioning of a pepper-pot emittance meter at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). It is based on a potassium bromide (KBr) scintillator screen in combination with a charged coupled device camera. Pepper-pot scanners record the full four-dimensional transverse phase space emittances which are particularly interesting for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. The strengths and limitations of evaluating emittances using optical pepper-pot scanners are described and systematic errors induced by the optical data acquisition system will be presented. Light yield tests of KBr exposed to different ion species and first emittance measurement data using ion beams extracted from the 6.4 GHz LBNL electron cyclotron resonance ion source are presented and discussed. PMID:20192450

  4. Development of a pepper-pot device to determine the emittance of an ion beam generated by electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmeier, M.; Benitez, J. Y.; Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C. M.; Todd, D. S.; Bantel, M.

    2010-02-15

    This paper describes the recent development and commissioning of a pepper-pot emittance meter at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). It is based on a potassium bromide (KBr) scintillator screen in combination with a charged coupled device camera. Pepper-pot scanners record the full four-dimensional transverse phase space emittances which are particularly interesting for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. The strengths and limitations of evaluating emittances using optical pepper-pot scanners are described and systematic errors induced by the optical data acquisition system will be presented. Light yield tests of KBr exposed to different ion species and first emittance measurement data using ion beams extracted from the 6.4 GHz LBNL electron cyclotron resonance ion source are presented and discussed.

  5. Upgrade of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, V; Bellodi, G; Dimov, V; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Maintrot, M

    2016-02-01

    Linac3 is the first accelerator in the heavy ion injector chain of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), providing multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The ion beams are produced with GTS-LHC, a 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, operated in afterglow mode. Improvement of the GTS-LHC beam formation and beam transport along Linac3 is part of the upgrade program of the injector chain in preparation for the future high luminosity LHC. A mismatch between the ion beam properties in the ion source extraction region and the acceptance of the following Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section has been identified as one of the factors limiting the Linac3 performance. The installation of a new focusing element, an einzel lens, into the GTS-LHC extraction region is foreseen as a part of the Linac3 upgrade, as well as a redesign of the first section of the LEBT. Details of the upgrade and results of a beam dynamics study of the extraction region and LEBT modifications will be presented. PMID:26932084

  6. Upgrade of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toivanen, V.; Bellodi, G.; Dimov, V.; Küchler, D.; Lombardi, A. M.; Maintrot, M.

    2016-02-01

    Linac3 is the first accelerator in the heavy ion injector chain of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), providing multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The ion beams are produced with GTS-LHC, a 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, operated in afterglow mode. Improvement of the GTS-LHC beam formation and beam transport along Linac3 is part of the upgrade program of the injector chain in preparation for the future high luminosity LHC. A mismatch between the ion beam properties in the ion source extraction region and the acceptance of the following Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section has been identified as one of the factors limiting the Linac3 performance. The installation of a new focusing element, an einzel lens, into the GTS-LHC extraction region is foreseen as a part of the Linac3 upgrade, as well as a redesign of the first section of the LEBT. Details of the upgrade and results of a beam dynamics study of the extraction region and LEBT modifications will be presented.

  7. Measurement of the high energy component of the x-ray spectra in the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, D.; Benitez, J. Y.; Lyneis, C. M.; Todd, D. S.; Ropponen, T.; Ropponen, J.; Koivisto, H.; Gammino, S.

    2008-03-15

    High performance electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, such as VENUS (Versatile ECR for NUclear Science), produce large amounts of x-rays. By studying their energy spectra, conclusions can be drawn about the electron heating process and the electron confinement. In addition, the bremsstrahlung from the plasma chamber is partly absorbed by the cold mass of the superconducting magnet, adding an extra heat load to the cryostat. Germanium or NaI detectors are generally used for x-ray measurements. Due to the high x-ray flux from the source, the experimental setup to measure bremsstrahlung spectra from ECR ion sources is somewhat different from that for the traditional nuclear physics measurements these detectors are generally used for. In particular, the collimation and background shielding can be problematic. In this paper, we will discuss the experimental setup for such a measurement, the energy calibration and background reduction, the shielding of the detector, and collimation of the x-ray flux. We will present x-ray energy spectra and cryostat heating rates depending on various ion source parameters, such as confinement fields, minimum B-field, rf power, and heating frequency.

  8. Spatially resolved charge-state and current-density distributions at the extraction of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Panitzsch, Lauri; Peleikis, Thies; Stalder, Michael; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2011-09-15

    In this paper we present our measurements of charge-state and current-density distributions performed in very close vicinity (15 mm) of the extraction of our hexapole geometry electron cyclotron resonance ion source. We achieved a relatively high spatial resolution reducing the aperture of our 3D-movable extraction (puller) electrode to a diameter of only 0.5 mm. Thus, we are able to limit the source of the extracted ion beam to a very small region of the plasma electrode's hole (O = 4 mm) and therefore to a very small region of the neutral plasma sheath. The information about the charge-state distribution and the current density in the plane of the plasma electrode at each particular position is conserved in the ion beam. We determined the total current density distribution at a fixed coaxial distance of only 15 mm to the plasma electrode by remotely moving the small-aperture puller electrode which contained a dedicated Faraday cup (FC) across the aperture of the plasma electrode. In a second measurement we removed the FC and recorded m/q-spectra for the different positions using a sector magnet. From our results we can deduce that different ion charge-states can be grouped into bloated triangles of different sizes and same orientation at the extraction with the current density peaking at centre. This confirms observations from other groups based on simulations and emittance measurements. We present our measurements in detail and discuss possible systematic errors.

  9. Progress of a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source using evaporative cooling technology at Institute of Modern Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, W.; Xiong, B.; Guo, S. Q.; Cao, R.; Ruan, L.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sun, L. T.; Feng, Y. C.; Ma, B. H.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-02-15

    A new room temperature ECR ion source, Lanzhou Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source No. 4 (LECR4, previously named DRAGON), is under intense construction at Institute of Modern Physics. LECR4 is designed to operate with 18 GHz microwave frequency. The maximum axial magnetic fields are 2.3 T at injection and 1.3 T at extraction, and the radial field at the plasma chamber wall of 76 mm inner diameter is 1.0–1.2 T. One of the unique features for LECR4 is that its axial solenoids are winded with solid square copper wires which are immersed in a kind of special evaporative cooling medium for cooling purpose. Till now, a prototype of the cooling system has been successfully constructed and tested, which has demonstrated that the cooling efficiency of the designed system could meet the requirements of LECR4 under the routine operation conditions. All the main components of the ion source have been completed. Assembly and commissioning is ongoing. The latest developments and test results will be presented in this paper.

  10. Progress of a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source using evaporative cooling technology at Institute of Modern Physics.

    PubMed

    Lu, W; Xiong, B; Zhang, X Z; Sun, L T; Feng, Y C; Ma, B H; Guo, S Q; Cao, R; Ruan, L; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    A new room temperature ECR ion source, Lanzhou Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source No. 4 (LECR4, previously named DRAGON), is under intense construction at Institute of Modern Physics. LECR4 is designed to operate with 18 GHz microwave frequency. The maximum axial magnetic fields are 2.3 T at injection and 1.3 T at extraction, and the radial field at the plasma chamber wall of 76 mm inner diameter is 1.0-1.2 T. One of the unique features for LECR4 is that its axial solenoids are winded with solid square copper wires which are immersed in a kind of special evaporative cooling medium for cooling purpose. Till now, a prototype of the cooling system has been successfully constructed and tested, which has demonstrated that the cooling efficiency of the designed system could meet the requirements of LECR4 under the routine operation conditions. All the main components of the ion source have been completed. Assembly and commissioning is ongoing. The latest developments and test results will be presented in this paper. PMID:24593505

  11. A double-layer based model of ion confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Mascali, D. Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, G.; Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria ; Sorbello, G.; Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania

    2014-02-15

    The paper proposes a new model of ion confinement in ECRIS, which can be easily generalized to any magnetic configuration characterized by closed magnetic surfaces. Traditionally, ion confinement in B-min configurations is ascribed to a negative potential dip due to superhot electrons, adiabatically confined by the magneto-static field. However, kinetic simulations including RF heating affected by cavity modes structures indicate that high energy electrons populate just a thin slab overlapping the ECR layer, while their density drops down of more than one order of magnitude outside. Ions, instead, diffuse across the electron layer due to their high collisionality. This is the proper physical condition to establish a double-layer (DL) configuration which self-consistently originates a potential barrier; this “barrier” confines the ions inside the plasma core surrounded by the ECR surface. The paper will describe a simplified ion confinement model based on plasma density non-homogeneity and DL formation.

  12. High intensity beams from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources: A study of efficient extraction and transport system (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Andò, L.; Passarello, S.; Zhang, X. Zh.; Spädtke, P.; Winkler, M.

    2004-05-01

    A study of the design of extraction and transport system for high intensity beams that will be produced by the next generation electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) was carried out in the frame of a European collaboration devoted to the definition of the main parameters of third generation ECRIS. High intensity production tests carried out in the previous years at INFN-LNS have shown evidence for the need to review the main concepts of the beam analysis and transport when high currents of low energy highly charged ions are extracted from the source. The transport of such low energy beams becomes critical as soon as the total current exceeds a few mA. The study reported here is based on the calculated parameters for the GyroSERSE source and the computer simulations have been carried out to obtain low emittance beams. The design of the extraction system was carried out by means of the KOBRA (three dimensional) code. The study of the beam line has been carried out with the codes GIOS, GICO, and TRANSPORT by taking into account both the phase space growth due to space charge and to the aberrations inside the magnets. The description of some different beam line options will be also given.

  13. Microwave emission related to cyclotron instabilities in a minimum-B electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotov, I.; Tarvainen, O.; Mansfeld, D.; Skalyga, V.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.

    2015-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) have been essential in the research and applications of nuclear physics over the past 40 years. They are extensively used in a wide range of large-scale accelerator facilities for the production of highly charged heavy ion beams of stable and radioactive elements. ECRISs are susceptible to kinetic instabilities due to resonance heating mechanism leading to anisotropic electron velocity distribution function. Instabilities of cyclotron type are a proven cause of frequently observed periodic bursts of ‘hot’ electrons and bremsstrahlung, accompanied with emission of microwave radiation and followed by considerable drop of multiply charged ions current. Detailed studies of the microwave radiation associated with the instabilities have been performed with a minimum-B 14 GHz ECRIS operating on helium, oxygen and argon plasmas. It is demonstrated that during the development of cyclotron instability ‘hot’ electrons emit microwaves in sub-microsecond scale bursts at temporally descending frequencies in the 8-15 GHz range with two dominant frequencies of 11.09 and 12.59 GHz regardless of ECRIS settings i.e. magnetic field strength, neutral gas pressure or species and microwave power. The experimental data suggest that the most probable excited plasma wave is a slow extraordinary Z-mode propagating quasi-longitudinally with respect to the external magnetic field.

  14. Optimization of gas utilization efficiency for short-pulsed electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Izotov, I V; Skalyga, V A; Zorin, V G

    2012-02-01

    Numerical analysis of (6)He atoms utilizing efficiency in the ion source with powerful gyrotron heating is performed in present work using zero-dimensional balanced model of ECR discharge in a magnetic trap. Two ways of creation of ion source with high gas utilization efficiency (up to 60%-90%) are suggested. PMID:22380189

  15. Optimization of gas utilization efficiency for short-pulsed electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Izotov, I. V.; Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G.

    2012-02-15

    Numerical analysis of {sup 6}He atoms utilizing efficiency in the ion source with powerful gyrotron heating is performed in present work using zero-dimensional balanced model of ECR discharge in a magnetic trap. Two ways of creation of ion source with high gas utilization efficiency (up to 60%-90%) are suggested.

  16. Design and investigations of the superconducting magnet system for the multipurpose superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Maeder, J.; Rossbach, J.; Spaedtke, P.; Komorowski, P.; Meyer-Reumers, M.; Krischel, D.; Fischer, B.; Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.

    2012-02-15

    The production of intense beams of heavy ions with electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) is an important request at many accelerators. According to the ECR condition and considering semi-empirical scaling laws, it is essential to increase the microwave frequency together with the magnetic flux density of the ECRIS magnet system. A useful frequency of 28 GHz, therefore, requires magnetic flux densities above 2.2 T implying the use of superconducting magnets. A cooperation of European institutions initiated a project to build a multipurpose superconducting ECRIS (MS-ECRIS) in order to achieve an increase of the performances in the order of a factor of ten. After a first design of the superconducting magnet system for the MS-ECRIS, the respective cold testing of the built magnet system reveals a lack of mechanical performance due to the strong interaction of the magnetic field of the three solenoids with the sextupole field and the magnetization of the magnetic iron collar. Comprehensive structural analysis, magnetic field calculations, and calculations of the force pattern confirm thereafter these strong interactions, especially of the iron collar with the solenoidal fields. The investigations on the structural analysis as well as suggestions for a possible mechanical design solution are given.

  17. Progress of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at Institute of Modern Physics (IMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L. Feng, Y. C.; Zhang, W. H.; Zhang, X. Z.; Cao, Y.; Wu, W.; Yang, T. J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, H. W.; Ma, L. Z.; Xia, J. W.; Lu, W.; Zhao, Y. Y.; Xie, D.

    2014-02-15

    Superconducting ECR ion sources can produce intense highly charged ion beams for the application in heavy ion accelerators. Superconducting Electron Resonance ion source with Advanced Design (SECRAL) is one of the few fully superconducting ECR ion sources that has been successfully built and put into routine operation for years. With enormous efforts and R and D work, promising results have been achieved with the ion source. Heated by the microwave power from a 7 kW/24 GHz gyrotron microwave generator, very intense highly charged gaseous ion beams have been produced, such as 455 eμA Xe{sup 27+}, 236 eμA Xe{sup 30+}, and 64 eμA Xe{sup 35+}. Since heavy metallic ion beams are being more and more attractive and important for many accelerator projects globally, intensive studies have been made to produce highly charged heavy metal ion beams, such as those from bismuth and uranium. Recently, 420 eμA Bi{sup 30+} and 202 eμA U{sup 33+} have been produced with SECRAL source. This paper will present the latest results with SECRAL, and the operation status will be discussed as well. An introduction of recently started SECRAL II project will also be given in the presentation.

  18. Progress of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at Institute of Modern Physics (IMP).

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Lu, W; Feng, Y C; Zhang, W H; Zhang, X Z; Cao, Y; Zhao, Y Y; Wu, W; Yang, T J; Zhao, B; Zhao, H W; Ma, L Z; Xia, J W; Xie, D

    2014-02-01

    Superconducting ECR ion sources can produce intense highly charged ion beams for the application in heavy ion accelerators. Superconducting Electron Resonance ion source with Advanced Design (SECRAL) is one of the few fully superconducting ECR ion sources that has been successfully built and put into routine operation for years. With enormous efforts and R&D work, promising results have been achieved with the ion source. Heated by the microwave power from a 7 kW/24 GHz gyrotron microwave generator, very intense highly charged gaseous ion beams have been produced, such as 455 eμA Xe(27+), 236 eμA Xe(30+), and 64 eμA Xe(35+). Since heavy metallic ion beams are being more and more attractive and important for many accelerator projects globally, intensive studies have been made to produce highly charged heavy metal ion beams, such as those from bismuth and uranium. Recently, 420 eμA Bi(30+) and 202 eμA U(33+) have been produced with SECRAL source. This paper will present the latest results with SECRAL, and the operation status will be discussed as well. An introduction of recently started SECRAL II project will also be given in the presentation. PMID:24593521

  19. A mode converter to generate a Gaussian-like mode for injection into the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lyneis, C. Benitez, J.; Hodgkinson, A.; Strohmeier, M.; Todd, D.; Plaum, B.; Thuillier, T.

    2014-02-15

    A number of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources use gyrotrons at either 24 or 28 GHz for ECR heating. In these systems, the microwave power is launched into the plasma using the TE{sub 01} circular waveguide mode. This is fundamentally different and may be less efficient than the typical rectangular, linearly polarized TE{sub 10} mode used for launching waves at lower frequencies. To improve the 28 GHz microwave coupling in VENUS, a TE{sub 01}-HE{sub 11} mode conversion system has been built to test launching HE{sub 11} microwave power into the plasma chamber. The HE{sub 11} mode is a quasi-Gaussian, linearly polarized mode, which should couple strongly to the plasma electrons. The mode conversion is done in two steps. First, a 0.66 m long “snake” converts the TE{sub 01} mode to the TE{sub 11} mode. Second, a corrugated circular waveguide excites the HE{sub 11} mode, which is launched directly into the plasma chamber. The design concept draws on the development of similar devices used in tokamaks and stellerators. The first tests of the new coupling system are described below.

  20. A mode converter to generate a Gaussian-like mode for injection into the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyneis, C.; Benitez, J.; Hodgkinson, A.; Plaum, B.; Strohmeier, M.; Thuillier, T.; Todd, D.

    2014-02-01

    A number of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources use gyrotrons at either 24 or 28 GHz for ECR heating. In these systems, the microwave power is launched into the plasma using the TE01 circular waveguide mode. This is fundamentally different and may be less efficient than the typical rectangular, linearly polarized TE10 mode used for launching waves at lower frequencies. To improve the 28 GHz microwave coupling in VENUS, a TE01-HE11 mode conversion system has been built to test launching HE11 microwave power into the plasma chamber. The HE11 mode is a quasi-Gaussian, linearly polarized mode, which should couple strongly to the plasma electrons. The mode conversion is done in two steps. First, a 0.66 m long "snake" converts the TE01 mode to the TE11 mode. Second, a corrugated circular waveguide excites the HE11 mode, which is launched directly into the plasma chamber. The design concept draws on the development of similar devices used in tokamaks and stellerators. The first tests of the new coupling system are described below.

  1. A room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the DC-110 cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Efremov, A. Bogomolov, S.; Lebedev, A.; Loginov, V.; Yazvitsky, N.

    2014-02-15

    The project of the DC-110 cyclotron facility to provide applied research in the nanotechnologies (track pore membranes, surface modification of materials, etc.) has been designed by the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna). The facility includes the isochronous cyclotron DC-110 for accelerating the intensive Ar, Kr, Xe ion beams with 2.5 MeV/nucleon fixed energy. The cyclotron is equipped with system of axial injection and ECR ion source DECRIS-5, operating at the frequency of 18 GHz. This article reviews the design and construction of DECRIS-5 ion source along with some initial commissioning results.

  2. The preliminary tests of the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source DECRIS-SC2

    SciTech Connect

    Efremov, A.; Bekhterev, V.; Bogomolov, S.; Loginov, V.; Lebedev, A.; Yazvitsky, N.; Yakovlev, B.; Drobin, V.

    2012-02-15

    A new compact version of the ''liquid He-free'' superconducting ECR ion source, to be used as an injector of highly charged heavy ions for the MC-400 cyclotron, is designed and built at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in collaboration with the Laboratory of High Energy Physics of JINR. The axial magnetic field of the source is created by the superconducting magnet and the NdFeB hexapole is used for the radial plasma confinement. The microwave frequency of 14 GHz is used for ECR plasma heating. During the first tests, the source shows a good enough performance for the production of medium charge state ions. In this paper, we will present the design parameters and the preliminary results with gaseous ions.

  3. The preliminary tests of the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source DECRIS-SC2.

    PubMed

    Efremov, A; Bekhterev, V; Bogomolov, S; Drobin, V; Loginov, V; Lebedev, A; Yazvitsky, N; Yakovlev, B

    2012-02-01

    A new compact version of the "liquid He-free" superconducting ECR ion source, to be used as an injector of highly charged heavy ions for the MC-400 cyclotron, is designed and built at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in collaboration with the Laboratory of High Energy Physics of JINR. The axial magnetic field of the source is created by the superconducting magnet and the NdFeB hexapole is used for the radial plasma confinement. The microwave frequency of 14 GHz is used for ECR plasma heating. During the first tests, the source shows a good enough performance for the production of medium charge state ions. In this paper, we will present the design parameters and the preliminary results with gaseous ions. PMID:22380181

  4. Beam experiments with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS.

    PubMed

    Thomae, R; Conradie, J; Fourie, D; Mira, J; Nemulodi, F; Kuechler, D; Toivanen, V

    2016-02-01

    At iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (iThemba LABS) an electron cyclotron ion source was installed and commissioned. This source is a copy of the Grenoble Test Source (GTS) for the production of highly charged ions. The source is similar to the GTS-LHC at CERN and named GTS2. A collaboration between the Accelerators and Beam Physics Group of CERN and the Accelerator and Engineering Department of iThemba LABS was proposed in which the development of high intensity argon and xenon beams is envisaged. In this paper, we present beam experiments with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS, in which the results of continuous wave and afterglow operation of xenon ion beams with oxygen as supporting gases are presented. PMID:26931949

  5. Beam experiments with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomae, R.; Conradie, J.; Fourie, D.; Mira, J.; Nemulodi, F.; Kuechler, D.; Toivanen, V.

    2016-02-01

    At iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (iThemba LABS) an electron cyclotron ion source was installed and commissioned. This source is a copy of the Grenoble Test Source (GTS) for the production of highly charged ions. The source is similar to the GTS-LHC at CERN and named GTS2. A collaboration between the Accelerators and Beam Physics Group of CERN and the Accelerator and Engineering Department of iThemba LABS was proposed in which the development of high intensity argon and xenon beams is envisaged. In this paper, we present beam experiments with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS, in which the results of continuous wave and afterglow operation of xenon ion beams with oxygen as supporting gases are presented.

  6. Multicharged ion source based on Penning-type discharge with electron cyclotron resonance heating by millimeter waves.

    PubMed

    Vodopyanov, A V; Izotov, I V; Mansfeld, D A; Yushkov, G Yu

    2012-02-01

    We suggest a Penning-type discharge as a trigger discharge for fast development of pulsed electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The Penning-type discharge glows at a low pressure as needed. Gyrotron radiation (75 GHz, 200 kW, 1 ms) was used for plasma heating. Fully striped helium ions were demonstrated, average charge of ions in the plasma was ≈ 2. Experiment and calculations show that high charge states of heavier gases require lower initial pressure and longer development time. Only moderate charge states are achievable in this pulsed scheme. PMID:22380172

  7. Multicharged ion source based on Penning-type discharge with electron cyclotron resonance heating by millimeter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Vodopyanov, A. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Mansfeld, D. A.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2012-02-15

    We suggest a Penning-type discharge as a trigger discharge for fast development of pulsed electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The Penning-type discharge glows at a low pressure as needed. Gyrotron radiation (75 GHz, 200 kW, 1 ms) was used for plasma heating. Fully striped helium ions were demonstrated, average charge of ions in the plasma was {approx_equal} 2. Experiment and calculations show that high charge states of heavier gases require lower initial pressure and longer development time. Only moderate charge states are achievable in this pulsed scheme.

  8. Development of portable mass spectrometer with electron cyclotron resonance ion source for detection of chemical warfare agents in air.

    PubMed

    Urabe, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Michiko; Sato, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    A portable mass spectrometer with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (miniECRIS-MS) was developed. It was used for in situ monitoring of trace amounts of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in atmospheric air. Instrumental construction and parameters were optimized to realize a fast response, high sensitivity, and a small body size. Three types of CWAs, i.e., phosgene, mustard gas, and hydrogen cyanide were examined to check if the mass spectrometer was able to detect characteristic elements and atomic groups. From the results, it was found that CWAs were effectively ionized in the miniECRIS-MS, and their specific signals could be discerned over the background signals of air. In phosgene, the signals of the 35Cl+ and 37Cl+ ions were clearly observed with high dose-response relationships in the parts-per-billion level, which could lead to the quantitative on-site analysis of CWAs. A parts-per-million level of mustard gas, which was far lower than its lethal dosage (LCt50), was successfully detected with a high signal-stability of the plasma ion source. It was also found that the chemical forms of CWAs ionized in the plasma, i.e., monoatomic ions, fragment ions, and molecular ions, could be detected, thereby enabling the effective identification of the target CWAs. Despite the disadvantages associated with miniaturization, the overall performance (sensitivity and response time) of the miniECRIS-MS in detecting CWAs exceeded those of sector-type ECRIS-MS, showing its potential for on-site detection in the future. PMID:24211802

  9. Enhanced production of electron cyclotron resonance plasma by exciting selective microwave mode on a large-bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Daiju Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Imai, Youta; Kumakura, Sho; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2014-02-15

    We are constructing a tandem type ECRIS. The first stage is large-bore with cylindrically comb-shaped magnet. We optimize the ion beam current and ion saturation current by a mobile plate tuner. They change by the position of the plate tuner for 2.45 GHz, 11–13 GHz, and multi-frequencies. The peak positions of them are close to the position where the microwave mode forms standing wave between the plate tuner and the extractor. The absorbed powers are estimated for each mode. We show a new guiding principle, which the number of efficient microwave mode should be selected to fit to that of multipole of the comb-shaped magnets. We obtained the excitation of the selective modes using new mobile plate tuner to enhance ECR efficiency.

  10. Atomic physics at the Argonne PII ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, R.W.; Berry, H.G.; Billquist, P.J.; Pardo, R.C.; Zabransky, B.J.; Bakke, E.; Groeneveld, K.O.; Hass, M.; Raphaelian, M.L.A.

    1987-01-01

    An atomic physics beam line has been set up at the Argonne PII ECR Ion Source. The source is on a 350-kV high-voltage platform which is a unique feature of particular interest in work on atomic collisions. We describe our planned experimental program which includes: measurement of state-selective electron-capture cross sections, studies of doubly-excited states, precision spectroscopy of few-electron ions, tests of quantum electrodynamics, and studies of polarization transfer using optically pumped polarized alkali targets. The first experiments will be measurements of cross sections for electron capture into specific nl subshells in ion-atom collisions. Our method is to observe the characteristic radiation emitted after capture using a VUV spectrometer. Initial data from these experiments are presented. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Operation status of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Gunma University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souda, H.; Yamada, S.; Kanai, T.; Takeshita, E.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Kanazawa, M.; Izumiya, H.; Kano, Y.

    2014-02-01

    An ECR ion source of Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, so-called KeiGM [M. Muramatsu, A. Kitagawa, Y. Sakamoto, S. Sato, Y. Sato, H. Ogawa, S. Yamada, H. Ogawa, Y. Yoshida, and A. G. Drentje, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113304 (2005)], has been operated for cancer therapy and physical/biological experiment since 2010. KeiGM produces typically 230 μA of 10 keV/u C4+ ions from CH4 gases. The vacuum pressure is kept between 1.2 × 10-4 and 1.7 × 10-4 Pa so as to suppress the pulse-to-pulse current fluctuation within ±10%. The extraction electrode is cleaned every 6-8 months in order to remove deposited carbon, which increases the leak current and discharge. In order to investigate the possibility of long-term operation without such maintenances, oxygen aging for the cleaning of the extraction electrode has been tested in the test bench. The same-designed ion sources at National Institute of Radiological Sciences and SAGA Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Tosu (SAGA-HIMAT) are also operated with stable C4+ current, which are suitable for the continuous operation for cancer therapy.

  12. Operation status of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Gunma University

    SciTech Connect

    Souda, H. Yamada, S.; Kanai, T.; Takeshita, E.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Kanazawa, M.; Izumiya, H.; Kano, Y.

    2014-02-15

    An ECR ion source of Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, so-called KeiGM [M. Muramatsu, A. Kitagawa, Y. Sakamoto, S. Sato, Y. Sato, H. Ogawa, S. Yamada, H. Ogawa, Y. Yoshida, and A. G. Drentje, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 113304 (2005)], has been operated for cancer therapy and physical/biological experiment since 2010. KeiGM produces typically 230 μA of 10 keV/u C{sup 4+} ions from CH{sub 4} gases. The vacuum pressure is kept between 1.2 × 10{sup −4} and 1.7 × 10{sup −4} Pa so as to suppress the pulse-to-pulse current fluctuation within ±10%. The extraction electrode is cleaned every 6–8 months in order to remove deposited carbon, which increases the leak current and discharge. In order to investigate the possibility of long-term operation without such maintenances, oxygen aging for the cleaning of the extraction electrode has been tested in the test bench. The same-designed ion sources at National Institute of Radiological Sciences and SAGA Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Tosu (SAGA-HIMAT) are also operated with stable C{sup 4+} current, which are suitable for the continuous operation for cancer therapy.

  13. Production of beams from solid materials at Center for Nuclear Study electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshiro, Y.; Yamaka, S.; Watanabe, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kotaka, Y.; Nishimura, M.; Kase, M.; Muto, H.; Yamaguchi, H.; Shimoura, S.

    2014-02-01

    Two methods for the feed of vapor from solid materials in the Center for Nuclear Study ECR ion source are described. A rod placed near the wall of the plasma chamber, operating up to a melting point of 2600 °C, has been used for CaO, SiO2, and FeO. An oven with a number of openings, operating up to 800 °C, has been used for P2O5, Li, and S. Typical ion beam intensities of 7Li2+, 6Li3+, 40Ca12+, and 56Fe15+ are achieved 280, 75, 28, and 7 eμA, respectively. High intensity heavy ion beams are stably supplied into the azimuthally varying field cyclotron.

  14. Optimization of a charge-state analyzer for electron cyclotron resonance ion source beams

    SciTech Connect

    Saminathan, S.; Beijers, J. P. M.; Kremers, H. R.; Mironov, V.; Mulder, J.; Brandenburg, S.

    2012-07-15

    A detailed experimental and simulation study of the extraction of a 24 keV He{sup +} beam from an ECR ion source and the subsequent beam transport through an analyzing magnet is presented. We find that such a slow ion beam is very sensitive to space-charge forces, but also that the neutralization of the beam's space charge by secondary electrons is virtually complete for beam currents up to at least 0.5 mA. The beam emittance directly behind the extraction system is 65 {pi} mm mrad and is determined by the fact that the ion beam is extracted in the strong magnetic fringe field of the ion source. The relatively large emittance of the beam and its non-paraxiality lead, in combination with a relatively small magnet gap, to significant beam losses and a five-fold increase of the effective beam emittance during its transport through the analyzing magnet. The calculated beam profile and phase-space distributions in the image plane of the analyzing magnet agree well with measurements. The kinematic and magnet aberrations have been studied using the calculated second-order transfer map of the analyzing magnet, with which we can reproduce the phase-space distributions of the ion beam behind the analyzing magnet. Using the transfer map and trajectory calculations we have worked out an aberration compensation scheme based on the addition of compensating hexapole components to the main dipole field by modifying the shape of the poles. The simulations predict that by compensating the kinematic and geometric aberrations in this way and enlarging the pole gap the overall beam transport efficiency can be increased from 16% to 45%.

  15. Optimization of a charge-state analyzer for electron cyclotron resonance ion source beams.

    PubMed

    Saminathan, S; Beijers, J P M; Kremers, H R; Mironov, V; Mulder, J; Brandenburg, S

    2012-07-01

    A detailed experimental and simulation study of the extraction of a 24 keV He(+) beam from an ECR ion source and the subsequent beam transport through an analyzing magnet is presented. We find that such a slow ion beam is very sensitive to space-charge forces, but also that the neutralization of the beam's space charge by secondary electrons is virtually complete for beam currents up to at least 0.5 mA. The beam emittance directly behind the extraction system is 65 π mm mrad and is determined by the fact that the ion beam is extracted in the strong magnetic fringe field of the ion source. The relatively large emittance of the beam and its non-paraxiality lead, in combination with a relatively small magnet gap, to significant beam losses and a five-fold increase of the effective beam emittance during its transport through the analyzing magnet. The calculated beam profile and phase-space distributions in the image plane of the analyzing magnet agree well with measurements. The kinematic and magnet aberrations have been studied using the calculated second-order transfer map of the analyzing magnet, with which we can reproduce the phase-space distributions of the ion beam behind the analyzing magnet. Using the transfer map and trajectory calculations we have worked out an aberration compensation scheme based on the addition of compensating hexapole components to the main dipole field by modifying the shape of the poles. The simulations predict that by compensating the kinematic and geometric aberrations in this way and enlarging the pole gap the overall beam transport efficiency can be increased from 16% to 45%. PMID:22852683

  16. Spatially resolved measurements of electron cyclotron resonance ion source beam profile characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Panitzsch, Lauri; Stalder, Michael; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2011-03-15

    Simulations predict that the concentric rings and the triangular structures in the profiles of strongly focused ion beams that are found in different experiments should be dominated by ion species with the same or at least similar m/q-ratio. To verify these theoretical predictions we have tuned our ECR ion source to deliver a beam consisting of multiple ion species whose particular m/q-depending focusing ranges from weakly focused to overfocused. We then recorded spatially resolved charge-state distributions of the beam profile at characteristic positions in the plane perpendicular to the beam line. The results validate theoretical predictions and are summarized in this paper. To achieve the required beam profile characteristics we moved the extraction along the beam line to achieve stronger focusing than by only changing the extraction voltage. To fit the regions of interest of the beam profile into the transmission area of the sector magnet, we steered the beam by moving the extraction in the plane perpendicular to the beam axis. The results of both investigations, beam focusing and beam steering by using a 3D-movable extraction, are also reported in this paper. A brief overview of the new beam monitor extensively used during these measurements, the Faraday cup array, is also given.

  17. Tornado-type closed magnetic trap for an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramova, K. B.; Smirnov, A. N.; Voronin, A. V.; Zorin, V. G.

    2000-02-01

    We propose to use a Tornado-type closed magnetic trap for creation of a source of multicharged ions with plasma heating by microwave radiation. Plasma loss in closed traps is determined by diffusion across the magnetic field, which increases substantially plasma confinement time as compared to the classical mirror trap. The Tornado trap also possesses merits such as: an opportunity to produce high magnetic fields up to 3 T, which makes possible heating and confinement of plasma with a high density of electrons; an opportunity to use supplementary coils for ion extraction; plasma stability to magnetohydrodynamic perturbations because the magnetic field structure corresponds to the "min B" configuration; and relatively low costs. All estimates and calculations were carried out for the existing Tornado-322 pulse installation (maximal magnetic field 2.8 T) with plasma heating at 53 GHz frequency. The numerical simulation has shown that, by the end of the magnetic field pulse, ion distribution over charge states may reach a maximum at Ar+16 for the plasma density of 1013cm-3. The current density of ions Ar+16 can be varied from 10 mA/cm2 to approximately 1 A/cm2.

  18. Transverse distribution of beam current oscillations of a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, O; Toivanen, V; Komppula, J; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H

    2014-02-01

    The temporal stability of oxygen ion beams has been studied with the 14 GHz A-ECR at JYFL (University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics). A sector Faraday cup was employed to measure the distribution of the beam current oscillations across the beam profile. The spatial and temporal characteristics of two different oscillation "modes" often observed with the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS are discussed. It was observed that the low frequency oscillations below 200 Hz are distributed almost uniformly. In the high frequency oscillation "mode," with frequencies >300 Hz at the core of the beam, carrying most of the current, oscillates with smaller amplitude than the peripheral parts of the beam. The results help to explain differences observed between the two oscillation modes in terms of the transport efficiency through the JYFL K-130 cyclotron. The dependence of the oscillation pattern on ion source parameters is a strong indication that the mechanisms driving the fluctuations are plasma effects. PMID:24593488

  19. Development of a new superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source for operations up to 18 GHz at LBNL.

    PubMed

    Xie, D Z; Benitez, J Y; Caspi, S; Hodgkinson, A; Lyneis, C M; Phair, L W; Prestemon, S O; Strohmeier, M M; Thuillier, T P; Todd, D S

    2014-02-01

    A new superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) is under development at LBNL to harness the winding techniques of a closed-loop sextupole coil for the next generation ECRIS and to enhance the capability of the 88-in. cyclotron facility. The proposed ECRIS will use a superconducting closed-loop sextupole coil to produce the radial field and a substantial portion of the axial field. The field strengths of the injection, central and extraction regions are adjusted by a three solenoids outside the closed-loop sextupole coil. In addition to maintaining the typical ECRIS magnetic field configuration, this new source will also be able to produce a dustpan-like minimum-B field to explore possible ECRIS performance enhancement. The dustpan-like minimum-B field configuration has about the same strengths for the maximum axial field at the injection region and the maximum radial pole fields at the plasma chamber walls but it can be substantially lower at the extraction region. The dustpan-like minimum-B will have a field maximum Bmax ≥ 2.6 T for operations up to 18 GHz with a ratio of Bmax/Bres ≥ 4 and higher ratios for lower frequencies. The field maxima of this new source can reach over 3 T both at the injection and the plasma chamber walls which could also support operation at 28 GHz. The source will be built of cryogen-free with the magnets directly cooled by cryo-coolers to simplify the cryostat structure. The source design features will be presented and discussed. PMID:24593501

  20. Development of a high-temperature oven for the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, J. Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Ozeki, K.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-15

    We have been developing the 28 GHz ECR ion source in order to accelerate high-intensity uranium beams at the RIKEN RI-beam Factory. Although we have generated U{sup 35+} beams by the sputtering method thus far, we began developing a high-temperature oven with the aim of increasing and stabilizing the beams. Because the oven method uses UO{sub 2}, a crucible must be heated to a temperature higher than 2000 °C to supply an appropriate amount of UO{sub 2} vapor to the ECR plasma. Our high-temperature oven uses a tungsten crucible joule-heated with DC current of approximately 450 A. Its inside dimensions are ϕ11 mm × 13.5 mm. Since the crucible is placed in a magnetic field of approximately 3 T, it is subject to a magnetic force of approximately 40 N. Therefore, we used ANSYS to carefully design the crucible, which was manufactured by machining a tungsten rod. We could raise the oven up to 1900 °C in the first off-line test. Subsequently, UO{sub 2} was loaded into the crucible, and the oven was installed in the 28 GHz ECR ion source and was tested. As a result, a U{sup 35+} beam current of 150 μA was extracted successfully at a RF power of approximately 3 kW.

  1. Enhancing the performances of traditional electron cyclotron resonance ion sources with multiple-discrete-frequency microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.; Meyer, F.W.; Liu, Y.; Beene, J.R.; Tucker, D.

    1998-06-01

    The performances of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, in terms of high-charge-state yields and intensities within a particular charge state, can be enhanced by increasing the physical sizes of the ECR zones in relation to the sizes of their plasma volumes. The creation of a large ECR plasma {open_quotes}volume{close_quotes} permits coupling of more power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge-state distributions and higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present forms of the ECR source. The ECR plasma {open_quotes}volumes{close_quotes} of traditional B-minimum ECR sources can be increased by injecting broadband microwave radiation (multiple-discrete-frequency, variable frequency, or broad-band-width frequency microwave radiation) derived from standard klystron, gyrotron, or traveling-wave-tube (TWT) technologies (frequency domain). To demonstrate that the frequency domain technique can be used to enhance the performance of a traditional B-minimum ECR ion source, comparative studies were made to assess the relative performances of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Caprice ECR ion source, in terms of multiply charged ion-beam generation capabilities, when excited with high-power, single-frequency, or multiple-discrete-frequency microwave radiation, derived from standard klystron and/or TWT technologies. These studies demonstrate that the charge-state populations for Arthinsp{sup q+} and Xe{sup q+} move toward higher values when excited with two and three discrete-frequency, microwave power compared to those observed when single-frequency microwave power is used. For example, the most probable charge state for Xe is increased by one charge-state unit while the beam intensities for charge states higher than the most probable are increased by factors of {approximately}3 compared to those observed for single

  2. Ionization efficiency studies with charge breeder and conventional electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Koivisto, H. Tarvainen, O.; Toivanen, V.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Lamy, T.; Angot, J.; Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L.; Patti, G.; Standylo, L.; Steczkiewicz, O.; Choinski, J.

    2014-02-15

    Radioactive Ion Beams play an increasingly important role in several European research facility programs such as SPES, SPIRAL1 Upgrade, and SPIRAL2, but even more for those such as EURISOL. Although remarkable advances of ECRIS charge breeders (CBs) have been achieved, further studies are needed to gain insight on the physics of the charge breeding process. The fundamental plasma processes of charge breeders are studied in the frame of the European collaboration project, EMILIE, for optimizing the charge breeding. Important information on the charge breeding can be obtained by conducting similar experiments using the gas mixing and 2-frequency heating techniques with a conventional JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS and the LPSC-PHOENIX charge breeder. The first experiments were carried out with noble gases and they revealed, for example, that the effects of the gas mixing and 2-frequency heating on the production of high charge states appear to be additive for the conventional ECRIS. The results also indicate that at least in the case of noble gases the differences between the conventional ECRIS and the charge breeder cause only minor impact on the production efficiency of ion beams.

  3. First operation of the charge-breeder electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source at the Texas A and M Cyclotron Institute

    SciTech Connect

    May, D. P.; Tabacaru, G.; Abegglen, F. P.; Cornelius, W. D.

    2010-02-15

    The 14.5 GHz electron-cyclotron-resonance ion source (ECRIS) designed and fabricated specifically for charge breeding has been installed at the Texas A and M University Cyclotron Institute for use in the institute's ongoing radioactive-ion-beam upgrade. The initial testing of the source has just begun with magnetic analysis of the ECRIS beam. The source has only been conditioning for a brief time at low microwave power, and it is continuing to improve. After the source has been conditioned and characterized, charge-breeding trials with stable beams from a singly ionizing source will begin.

  4. Compact injector with alternating phase focusing-interdigital H-mode linac and superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Matsui, Shinjiro; Tomizawa, Hiromitsu; Yoshida, Toru; Isokawa, Katsushi; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Yamada, Satoru; Okamura, Masahiro

    2000-02-01

    We have researched a compact medical accelerator with low investment and running cost for the popularization of heavy ion cancer therapy. As the first step, the compact injector system has been investigated for a Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The proposed new injector system consists of a 6 MeV/u interdigital H-mode (IH) linac of 3.1 m long and a 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) (SC-ECR) ion source. The IH linac with high power efficiency is appropriate to a medical and industrial injector system. Its beam trajectory was simulated and a prototype has been constructed. The SC-ECR ion source has been designed to realize lightweight and low power consumption and the mirror field distribution was estimated.

  5. Production of multicharged ions and behavior of microwave modes in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source directly excited in a circular cavity resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yushi; Furuki, Hideyuki; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2006-03-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) have been widely used for production of high-intensity multicharged ion beams. Making good use of microwave modes is proposed for enhancing the efficiency of ECR for production of multicharged ions (TAIKO II). We can assign the peak position of the electric field of the standing waves to the ECR zone in the directly excited cavity resonator, i.e., the vacuum chamber with the fixed and the mobile plates for selecting and tuning the modes. Periodicity of the extracted multicharged ion currents and plasma parameters is observed as the position of the mobile plate moves. We measure the intensity of the electric field in the ECR plasma by using the insulated semidipole probe and the standing waves are observed. The correlation between the production of multicharged ions and the microwave modes is clarified by measuring the electric field and plasma parameters in the circular cavity resonator.

  6. Note: Effect of hot liner in producing {sup 40,48}Ca beam from RIKEN 18-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, K. Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2015-01-15

    In order to produce a high-intensity and stable {sup 48}Ca beam from the RIKEN 18-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, we have begun testing the production of a calcium beam using a micro-oven. To minimize the consumption rate of the material ({sup 48}Ca), we introduced the “hot liner” method and investigated the effect of the liner on the material consumption rate. The micro-oven was first used to produce the {sup 48}Ca beam for experiments in the RIKEN radioisotope beam factory, and a stable beam could be supplied for a long time with low consumption rate.

  7. Note: Effect of hot liner in producing 40,48Ca beam from RIKEN 18-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, K.; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2015-01-01

    In order to produce a high-intensity and stable 48Ca beam from the RIKEN 18-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, we have begun testing the production of a calcium beam using a micro-oven. To minimize the consumption rate of the material (48Ca), we introduced the "hot liner" method and investigated the effect of the liner on the material consumption rate. The micro-oven was first used to produce the 48Ca beam for experiments in the RIKEN radioisotope beam factory, and a stable beam could be supplied for a long time with low consumption rate.

  8. Preliminary results of the ion extraction simulations applied to the MONO1000 and SUPERSHyPIE electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    PubMed

    Pierret, C; Maunoury, L; Biri, S; Pacquet, J Y; Tuske, O; Delferriere, O

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this article is to present simulations on the extraction from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The aim of this work is to find out an extraction system, which allows one to reduce the emittances and to increase the current of the extracted ion beam at the focal point of the analyzing dipole. But first, we should locate the correct software which is able to reproduce the specific physics of an ion beam. To perform the simulations, the following softwares have been tested: SIMION 3D, AXCEL, CPO 3D, and especially, for the magnetic field calculation, MATHEMATICA coupled with the RADIA module. Emittance calculations have been done with two types of ECRIS: one with a hexapole and one without a hexapole, and the difference will be discussed. PMID:18315194

  9. Note: {sup 6}Li III light intensity observation for {sup 6}Li{sup 3+} ion beam operation at Hyper-Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Yamaka, Shoichi; Yamaguchi, Hidetoshi; Shimoura, Susumu; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Kotaka, Yasuteru; Nishimura, Makoto; Kase, Masayuki; Kubono, Shigeru; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2014-12-15

    The light intensity of {sup 6}Li III line spectrum at λ = 516.7 nm was observed during {sup 6}Li{sup 3+} beam tuning at the Hyper-Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source. Separation of ion species of the same charge to mass ratio with an electromagnetic mass analyzer is known to be an exceptionally complex process. However, {sup 6}Li III line intensity observation conducted in this study gives new insights into its simplification of this process. The light intensity of {sup 6}Li III line spectrum from the ECR plasma was found to have a strong correlation with the extracted {sup 6}Li{sup 3+} beam intensity from the RIKEN Azimuthal Varying Field cyclotron.

  10. Dependence of ion beam current on position of mobile plate tuner in multi-frequencies microwaves electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Kurisu, Yosuke; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    We are constructing a tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The first stage of this can supply 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz microwaves to plasma chamber individually and simultaneously. We optimize the beam current I(FC) by the mobile plate tuner. The I(FC) is affected by the position of the mobile plate tuner in the chamber as like a circular cavity resonator. We aim to clarify the relation between the I(FC) and the ion saturation current in the ECRIS against the position of the mobile plate tuner. We obtained the result that the variation of the plasma density contributes largely to the variation of the I(FC) when we change the position of the mobile plate tuner. PMID:22380157

  11. Dependence of ion beam current on position of mobile plate tuner in multi-frequencies microwaves electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Kurisu, Yosuke; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-02-15

    We are constructing a tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The first stage of this can supply 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz microwaves to plasma chamber individually and simultaneously. We optimize the beam current I{sub FC} by the mobile plate tuner. The I{sub FC} is affected by the position of the mobile plate tuner in the chamber as like a circular cavity resonator. We aim to clarify the relation between the I{sub FC} and the ion saturation current in the ECRIS against the position of the mobile plate tuner. We obtained the result that the variation of the plasma density contributes largely to the variation of the I{sub FC} when we change the position of the mobile plate tuner.

  12. 3D-full wave and kinetics numerical modelling of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources plasma: steps towards self-consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascali, David; Torrisi, Giuseppe; Neri, Lorenzo; Sorbello, Gino; Castro, Giuseppe; Celona, Luigi; Gammino, Santo

    2015-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion Sources are the most performing machines for the production of intense beams of multi-charged ions in fundamental science, applied physics and industry. Investigation of plasma dynamics in ECRIS still remains a challenge. A better comprehension of electron heating, ionization and diffusion processes, ion confinement and ion beam formation is mandatory in order to increase ECRIS performances both in terms of output beams currents, charge states, beam quality (emittance minimization, beam halos suppression, etc.). Numerical solution of Vlasov equation via kinetic codes coupled to FEM solvers is ongoing at INFN-LNS, based on a PIC strategy. Preliminary results of the modeling will be shown about wave-plasma interaction and electron-ion confinement: the obtained results are very helpful to better understand the influence of the different parameters (especially RF frequency and power) on the ion beam formation mechanism.

  13. Operation of Lanzhou all permanent electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 2 on 320 kV platform with highly charged ions.

    PubMed

    Lu, W; Li, J Y; Kang, L; Liu, H P; Li, H; Li, J D; Sun, L T; Ma, X W

    2014-02-01

    The 320 kV platform for multi-discipline research with highly charged ions is a heavy ion beam acceleration instrument developed by Institute of Modern Physics, which is dedicated to basic scientific researches such as plasma, atom, material physics, and astrophysics, etc. The platform has delivered ion beams of 400 species for 36,000 h. The average operation time is around 5000 h/year. With the beams provided by the platform, lots of outstanding progresses were made in various research fields. The ion source of the platform is an all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source, LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source No. 2). The maximum axial magnetic fields are 1.28 T at injection and 1.07 T at extraction, and the radial magnetic field is up to 1.21 T at the inner wall of the plasma chamber. The ion source is capable to produce low, medium, and high charge state gaseous and metallic ion beams, such as H(+), (40)Ar(8+), (129)Xe(30+), (209)Bi(33+), etc. This paper will present the latest result of LAPECR2 and the routine operation status for the high voltage platform. PMID:24593526

  14. Results with the electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder for the {sup 252}Cf fission source project (Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade) at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.; Kondrashev, S.; Pardo, R.; Scott, R.; Zinkann, G. P.

    2010-02-15

    The construction of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is nearing completion. The facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Ci {sup 252}Cf source; thermalized and collected into a low-energy particle beam by a helium gas catcher. In order to reaccelerate these beams, an existing ATLAS electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source was redesigned to function as an ECR charge breeder. Thus far, the charge breeder has been tested with stable beams of rubidium and cesium achieving charge breeding efficiencies of 9.7% into {sup 85}Rb{sup 17+} and 2.9% into {sup 133}Cs{sup 20+}.

  15. Production of multicharged radioactive ion beams: New results for the 1+-->n+ method with the MINIMAFIOS and SARA-CAPRICE electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, T.; Bruandet, J.-F.; Chauvin, N.; Curdy, J.-C.; Fruneau, M.; Geller, R.; Gimond, G.; Sole, P.; Vieux-Rochas, J.-L.; Gaubert, G.; Maunoury, L.; Sortais, P.; Villari, A. C. C.

    1998-02-01

    The backward and forward injection of a 1+ ion beam in a MINIMAFIOS type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) have given good results for the 1+→n+ method. Due to the technological simplicity of the forward injection, additional experiments have been performed with this configuration. Different primary sources (1+) have been used for the injection (2.45 GHz ECRIS, hollow cathode source, simplified 10 GHz NANOGAN type ECRIS), an increase of the performances has already been obtained (Zn, Kr, Ar), and a measurement of the absolute efficiency with the NANOGAN type-MINIMAFIOS association is performed. Due to the high performance of the 10 GHz CAPRICE source used as a highly charged ion injector in the first cyclotron of SARA (Système Accélérateur Rhône-Alpes), it has been tested as a different n+ source for the 1+→n+ method. In this purpose, a low energy spread-low emittance thermoionization Rb ion source has been used as 1+ injector. A standard operation of the SARA-CAPRICE source has been kept with respect to the microwave coupling. The spectra of the Rbn+ ions extracted are compared when using N2 and O2 as support gases. The highest efficiency is obtained for the Rb13+.

  16. Production of multicharged radioactive ion beams: New results for the 1+-->n+ method with the MINIMAFIOS and SARA-CAPRICE electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, T.; Bruandet, J.-F.; Chauvin, N.; Curdy, J.-C.; Fruneau, M.; Geller, R.; Gimond, G.; Sole, P.; Vieux-Rochas, J.-L.; Gaubert, G.; Maunoury, L.; Sortais, P.; Villari, A. C. C.

    1998-03-01

    The backward and forward injection of a 1+ ion beam in a MINIMAFIOS type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) have given good results for the 1+→n+ method. Due to the technological simplicity of the forward injection, additional experiments have been performed with this configuration. Different primary sources (1+) have been used for the injection (2.45 GHz ECRIS, hollow cathode source, simplified 10 GHz NANOGAN type ECRIS), an increase of the performances has already been obtained (Zn, Kr, Ar), and a measurement of the absolute efficiency with the NANOGAN type-MINIMAFIOS association is performed. Due to the high performance of the 10 GHz CAPRICE source used as a highly charged ion injector in the first cyclotron of SARA (Système Accélérateur Rhône-Alpes), it has been tested as a different n+ source for the 1+→n+ method. In this purpose, a low energy spread-low emittance thermoionization Rb ion source has been used as 1+ injector. A standard operation of the SARA-CAPRICE source has been kept with respect to the microwave coupling. The spectra of the Rbn+ ions extracted are compared when using N2 and O2 as support gases. The highest efficiency is obtained for the Rb13+.

  17. The L3A facility at the Vinča Institute: Surface modification of materials, by heavy ion beams from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrosavljević, A.; Milosavljević, M.; Bibić, N.; Efremov, A.

    2000-02-01

    This article describes the L3A experimental facility for surface modification of materials at the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, in Belgrade. This facility was completed and put into operation in May 1998. It is connected to the mVINIS ion source, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source capable of producing a wide range of multiply charged ions from gaseous and solid substances. The heavy ion beams obtained from mVINIS are separated by charge to mass ratio (q/m) and transported to the target chamber for sample irradiation and modification. The target chamber is equipped with a multipurpose target holder, an electron-beam evaporation source for thin layer deposition, a residual gas analyzer, and other auxiliary equipment. There is also an additional low energy argon ion source for target preparation/sputtering and for ion beam assisted deposition. In this article we describe the layout and performances of the L3A facility, the experience gained during 1 yr of operation, and the requirements imposed by the current and future experimental programs. Currently, there are 24 experimental programs competing for the ion beam time at the L3A facility.

  18. A liquid-helium-free superconducting coil system forming a flat minimum-magnetic-field distribution of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Ken-ichi Nara, Takayuki; Saitoh, Yuichi; Yokota, Watalu

    2014-02-15

    A flat distribution of the minimum magnetic field (flat-B{sub min}) of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) is expected to perform better in highly charged ion production than classical B{sub min}. To form a flat-B{sub min} structure with a liquid helium-free superconducting device, a coil system of seven coils with four current leads has been designed. The lead number was reduced by connecting the plural coils in series to maintain the flat-B{sub min} structure even when the coil currents are changed for adjustment. This coil system can be operated with a helium-free cryostat, since the estimation of heat from the leads to the coils is nearly equivalent to the existing superconducting ECRIS of a similar type.

  19. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma source by using Ku-band traveling-wave tube amplifier for broad ion-beam processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaji, Toyohisa; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Kato, Yushi; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki; Saito, Junji

    2006-03-01

    A new electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source has been developed for broad ion-beam processing. A Ku-band traveling-wave tube amplifier (11-13GHz) is adopted to generate high-density plasma under low-pressure conditions. An eight-pole magnetic field is selected to improve good uniformity and plasma confinement. The ECR zone for 11GHz microwaves, i.e., 0.393T, is formed within 6.5mm of the inner wall of a chamber. The ECR plasma is generated by low microwave power (˜200W). The radial profile of plasma density and electron temperature is measured with a Langmuir probe. The plasma density is approximately 3×1017m-3 at the microwave power of 200W. The uniformity of the density is within ±12.6% over 140mm in diameter.

  20. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Yorita, T. Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Ueda, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Morinobu, S.; Tamii, A.; Kamakura, K.

    2014-02-15

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  1. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    PubMed

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Yasuda, Y; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A; Kamakura, K

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP. PMID:24593475

  2. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al+ ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichsel, T.; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Philipp, A.

    2015-09-01

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology—a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al+ ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm2 is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 109 cm-3 to 6 × 1010 cm-3 and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  3. Profiles of ion beams and plasma parameters on a multi-frequencies microwaves large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Yushi; Sakamoto, Naoki; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-02-15

    In order to contribute to various applications of plasma and beams based on an electron cyclotron resonance, a new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed with enhanced efficiency for broad and dense ion beam. The magnetic field configuration consists of a pair of comb-shaped magnet surrounding plasma chamber cylindrically. Resonance zones corresponding for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are positioned at spatially different positions. We launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves operated individually, try to control profiles of the plasma parameters and the extracted ion beams, and to measure them in detail.

  4. Potential applications of an electron cyclotron resonance multicusp plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.C.; Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.; Haselton, H.H.; Roberto, J.B.; Stirling, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasmatron has been developed by feeding a multicusp bucket arc chamber with a compact ECR plasma source. This novel source produced large (about 25-cm-diam), uniform (to within {plus minus}10%), dense (>10{sup 11}-cm{sup -3}) plasmas of argon, helium, hydrogen, and oxygen. It has been operated to produce an oxygen plasma for etching 12.7-cm (5-in.) positive photoresist-coated silicon wafers with uniformity within {plus minus}8%. Results and potential applications of this new ECR plasma source for plasma processing of thin films are discussed. 21 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Measurement of the high energy component of the x-ray spectra in the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source (abstract only)

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, D.; Benitez, J. Y.; Lyneis, C. M.; Todd, D. S.; Ropponen, T.; Ropponen, J.; Koivisto, H.; Gammino, S.

    2008-02-15

    High performance electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, such as VENUS (versatile ECR for nuclear science), produce large amounts of x rays. By studying their energy spectra, conclusions can be drawn about the electron heating process and the electron confinement. In addition, the bremsstrahlung from the plasma chamber is partly absorbed by the cold mass of the superconducting magnet adding an extra heat load to the cryostat. Germanium or NaI detectors are generally used for x-ray measurements. Due to the high x-ray flux from the source, the experimental setup to measure bremsstrahlung spectra from ECR ion sources is somewhat different than for the traditional nuclear physics measurements these detectors are generally used for. In particular, the collimation and background shielding can be problematic. In this paper we will discuss the experimental setup for such a measurement, the energy calibration and background reduction, the shielding of the detector, and collimation of the x-ray flux. We will present x-ray energy spectra and cryostat heating rates in dependence of various ion source parameters such as confinement fields, minimum B-field, rf power, and heating frequency.

  6. The development of the high intensity electron cyclotron resonance ion source at China Institute of Atomic Energy.

    PubMed

    Tang, B; Ma, R; Ma, Y; Chen, L; Huang, Q; Liang, H; Cui, B; Jiang, W

    2014-02-01

    High-current microwave ion source has been under development over 15 years for accelerator driven sub-critical system research at China Institute of Atomic Energy, and the beam intensity higher than 140 mA proton beam is produced by this ion source with long lifetime and high reliability. The emittance of high intensity continue-wave and pulse beam is measured on a test-bench in the laboratory. Based on the good performance of this proton ion source, a new 120 mA deuterium ion source is proposed for a high intensity neutron generator. The ion source details and status will be presented. PMID:24593490

  7. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al{sup +} ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Weichsel, T. Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Philipp, A.

    2015-09-15

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology—a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al{sup +} ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm{sup 2} is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  8. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al⁺ ion beam.

    PubMed

    Weichsel, T; Hartung, U; Kopte, T; Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Philipp, A

    2015-09-01

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology-a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al(+) ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm(2) is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10(9) cm(-3) to 6 × 10(10) cm(-3) and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge. PMID:26429434

  9. Use of multiple-discrete-frequency microwave radiation to enhance the performances of traditional B-minimum electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Alton, G.D.; Meyer, F.W.; Liu, Y.; Beene, J.R.; Tucker, D.

    1998-02-01

    The performances of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, in terms of high-charge-state yields and intensities within a particular charge-state, can be enhanced by increasing the physical sizes of the ECR zones in relation to the sizes of their plasma volumes. The ECR plasma {open_quotes}volumes{close_quotes} of traditional B-minimum ECR sources can be increased by injecting broadband microwave radiation (multiple-discrete frequency, variable frequency, or broad-bandwidth frequency microwave radiation) derived from standard klystron, gyrotron, or traveling-wave-tube (TWT) technologies (frequency domain). In this work, comparisons were made of the charge-state distributions of Ar{sup q+} and Xe{sup q+} extracted from the ORNL Caprice ECR ion source, when excited with single frequency and multiple-discrete-frequency microwave radiation, derived from standard klystron and/or TWT technologies. The charge-state populations for Ar{sup q+} and Xe{sup q+} move toward higher values when excited with modest power from two and three discrete frequency, microwave radiation compared to those generated with power from single-frequency radiation. For three-frequency plasma excitation, the most probable charge state for Xe is increased by one charge-state unit while the beam intensities for charge-states higher than the most probable are increased by factors of {approximately}3 over those for the single frequency plasma case. The results of these measurements along with details on the modifications to the injection system required to couple the microwave radiation into the plasma volume of the Caprice source will be presented in this article. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. First commissioning results with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS.

    PubMed

    Thomae, R; Conradie, J; Delsink, H; Du Plessis, H; Fourie, D; Hitz, D; Klopp, M; Kohler, I; Kuechler, D; Lussi, C; McAlister, R; Ntshangase, S; Sakildien, M

    2012-02-01

    iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science (iThemba LABS) is a multi-disciplinary accelerator facility. One of its main activities is the operation of a separated-sector cyclotron with a K-value of 200, which provides beams of various ion species. These beams are used for fundamental nuclear physics research in the intermediate energy region, radioisotope production, and medical physics applications. Due to the requirements of nuclear physics for new ion species and higher energies, the decision was made to install a copy of the so-called Grenoble test source (GTS) at iThemba LABS. In this paper, we will report on the experimental setup and the first results obtained with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS. PMID:22380170

  11. First commissioning results with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABSa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomae, R.; Conradie, J.; Delsink, H.; Du Plessis, H.; Fourie, D.; Hitz, D.; Klopp, M.; Kohler, I.; Kuechler, D.; Lussi, C.; McAlister, R.; Ntshangase, S.; Sakildien, M.

    2012-02-01

    iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science (iThemba LABS) is a multi-disciplinary accelerator facility. One of its main activities is the operation of a separated-sector cyclotron with a K-value of 200, which provides beams of various ion species. These beams are used for fundamental nuclear physics research in the intermediate energy region, radioisotope production, and medical physics applications. Due to the requirements of nuclear physics for new ion species and higher energies, the decision was made to install a copy of the so-called Grenoble test source (GTS) at iThemba LABS. In this paper, we will report on the experimental setup and the first results obtained with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS.

  12. First commissioning results with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS

    SciTech Connect

    Thomae, R.; Conradie, J.; Delsink, H.; Du Plessis, H.; Fourie, D.; Klopp, M.; Kohler, I.; Lussi, C.; McAlister, R.; Ntshangase, S.; Sakildien, M.; Hitz, D.

    2012-02-15

    iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science (iThemba LABS) is a multi-disciplinary accelerator facility. One of its main activities is the operation of a separated-sector cyclotron with a K-value of 200, which provides beams of various ion species. These beams are used for fundamental nuclear physics research in the intermediate energy region, radioisotope production, and medical physics applications. Due to the requirements of nuclear physics for new ion species and higher energies, the decision was made to install a copy of the so-called Grenoble test source (GTS) at iThemba LABS. In this paper, we will report on the experimental setup and the first results obtained with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS.

  13. 11-13 GHz electron cyclotron resonance plasma source using cylindrically comb-shaped magnetic-field configuration for broad ion-beam processing

    SciTech Connect

    Asaji, Toyohisa; Kato, Yushi; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki; Saito, Junji

    2006-11-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source for broad ion-beam processing has been upgraded by a cylindrically comb-shaped magnetic-field configuration and 11-13 GHz frequency microwaves. A pair of comb-shaped magnets surrounds a large-bore discharge chamber. The magnetic field well confines plasmas with suppressing diffusion toward the axial direction of the cylindrical chamber. The magnetic field is constructed with a multipole and two quasiring permanent magnets. The plasma density clearly increases as compared with that in a simple multipole magnetic-field configuration. The frequency of microwaves output from the traveling-wave tube amplifier can be easily changed with an input signal source. The plasma density for 13 GHz is higher than that for 11 GHz. The maximum plasma density has reached approximately 10{sup 18} m{sup -3} at a microwave power of only 350 W and a pressure of 1.0 Pa. The enhancement of plasma generation by second-harmonic resonance and microwave modes has been investigated. The plasma density and the electron temperature are raised around the second-harmonic resonance zone. And then, the ion saturation current is periodically increased with varying the position of the plate tuner. The distance between the peaks is nearly equal to half of the free-space wavelength of microwave. The efficiency of ECR has been improved by using the comb-shaped magnetic field and raising microwave frequency, and then the high-density plasma source has been accomplished at low microwave power.

  14. Photoelectron emission from metal surfaces induced by radiation emitted by a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laulainen, Janne; Kalvas, Taneli; Koivisto, Hannu; Komppula, Jani; Kronholm, Risto; Tarvainen, Olli

    2016-02-01

    Photoelectron emission measurements have been performed using a room-temperature 14 GHz ECR ion source. It is shown that the photoelectron emission from Al, Cu, and stainless steel (SAE 304) surfaces, which are common plasma chamber materials, is predominantly caused by radiation emitted from plasma with energies between 8 eV and 1 keV. Characteristic X-ray emission and bremsstrahlung from plasma have a negligible contribution to the photoelectron emission. It is estimated from the measured data that the maximum conceivable photoelectron flux from plasma chamber walls is on the order of 10% of the estimated total electron losses from the plasma.

  15. Surface morphology changes to tungsten under exposure to He ions from an electron cyclotron resonance plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, David; Maan, Anurag; Duran, Jonah; Buchenauer, Dean; Whaley, Josh

    2015-11-01

    Exposure of tungsten to low energy (<100 eV) helium plasmas at temperatures between 900-1900 K in both laboratory experiments and tokamaks has been shown to cause severe nanoscale modification of the near surface resulting the growth of tungsten tendrils. We used a relatively low flux (2.5x1019 ions m-2 s-1) compact ECR plasma source at Sandia-California to investigate the early stages of helium induced tungsten damage. Exposures of polished tungsten discs were performed and characterized using SEM, AFM, and FIB cross section imaging. Bubbles have been seen on the exposed tungsten surface and in sub-surface cross sections growing to up to 150 nm in diameter. Comparisons were made between exposures of warm rolled Plansee tungsten discs and ALMT ITER grade tungsten samples. A similar He plasma exposure stage has now been developed at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville with an improved compact ECR plasma source. Status of the new UTK exposure stage will be discussed as well as planned experiments and new material characterization techniques (EBSD, GIXRD). Work supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 and the PSI Science Center.

  16. The impact of plasma-wall interaction on the gas mixing efficiency in electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Schachter, L.; Dobrescu, S.; Stiebing, K. E.

    2012-02-15

    It is generally accepted that different effects are necessary to explain the gas mixing method of increasing the output of highly charged ions from an ECRIS. The two most important effects are the mass effect and the dilution effect. Their relative weights have not been determined experimentally yet, but it is generally assumed that the mass effect is dominant in standard ECRIS installations with stainless steel plasma chambers. In order to gain more insight into the physics of the gas mixing effect and in particular on the relevance of the dilution process, we have carried out a study where we have investigated the role of the plasma-wall interaction on the gas mixing effect. In this contribution, we shall discuss Charge state distributions spectra, measured at the Frankfurt ECRIS using different working gases, pure argon, a mixture of argon and oxygen, and argon mixed with neon.

  17. Development of a miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma ion thruster for exospheric micro-propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Indranuj; Toyoda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki

    2015-12-15

    A miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source [(discharge diameter)/(microwave cutoff diameter) < 0.3] has been developed at Kyushu University to be used as an ion thruster in micro-propulsion applications in the exosphere. The discharge source uses both radial and axial magnetostatic field confinement to facilitate electron cyclotron resonance and increase the electron dwell time in the volume, thereby enhancing plasma production efficiency. Performance of the ion thruster is studied at 3 microwave frequencies (1.2 GHz, 1.6 GHz, and 2.45 GHz), for low input powers (<15 W) and small xenon mass flow rates (<40 μg/s), by experimentally measuring the extracted ion beam current through a potential difference of ≅1200 V. The discharge geometry is found to operate most efficiently at an input microwave frequency of 1.6 GHz. At this frequency, for an input power of 8 W, and propellant (xenon) mass flow rate of 21 μg/s, 13.7 mA of ion beam current is obtained, equivalent to an calculated thrust of 0.74 mN.

  18. Development of a miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma ion thruster for exospheric micro-propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Indranuj; Toyoda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    A miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source [(discharge diameter)/(microwave cutoff diameter) < 0.3] has been developed at Kyushu University to be used as an ion thruster in micro-propulsion applications in the exosphere. The discharge source uses both radial and axial magnetostatic field confinement to facilitate electron cyclotron resonance and increase the electron dwell time in the volume, thereby enhancing plasma production efficiency. Performance of the ion thruster is studied at 3 microwave frequencies (1.2 GHz, 1.6 GHz, and 2.45 GHz), for low input powers (<15 W) and small xenon mass flow rates (<40 μg/s), by experimentally measuring the extracted ion beam current through a potential difference of ≅1200 V. The discharge geometry is found to operate most efficiently at an input microwave frequency of 1.6 GHz. At this frequency, for an input power of 8 W, and propellant (xenon) mass flow rate of 21 μg/s, 13.7 mA of ion beam current is obtained, equivalent to an calculated thrust of 0.74 mN.

  19. Development of a miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma ion thruster for exospheric micro-propulsion.

    PubMed

    Dey, Indranuj; Toyoda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    A miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source [(discharge diameter)/(microwave cutoff diameter) < 0.3] has been developed at Kyushu University to be used as an ion thruster in micro-propulsion applications in the exosphere. The discharge source uses both radial and axial magnetostatic field confinement to facilitate electron cyclotron resonance and increase the electron dwell time in the volume, thereby enhancing plasma production efficiency. Performance of the ion thruster is studied at 3 microwave frequencies (1.2 GHz, 1.6 GHz, and 2.45 GHz), for low input powers (<15 W) and small xenon mass flow rates (<40 μg/s), by experimentally measuring the extracted ion beam current through a potential difference of ≅1200 V. The discharge geometry is found to operate most efficiently at an input microwave frequency of 1.6 GHz. At this frequency, for an input power of 8 W, and propellant (xenon) mass flow rate of 21 μg/s, 13.7 mA of ion beam current is obtained, equivalent to an calculated thrust of 0.74 mN. PMID:26724025

  20. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, G. Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.; Becker, R.; Baskaran, R.

    2014-02-15

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged {sup 238}U{sup 40+} (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  1. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, G; Becker, R; Hamm, R W; Baskaran, R; Kanjilal, D; Roy, A

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged (238)U(40+) (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam. PMID:24593474

  2. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, G.; Becker, R.; Hamm, R. W.; Baskaran, R.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged 238U40+ (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  3. Influence of microwave driver coupling design on plasma density at Testbench for Ion sources Plasma Studies, a 2.45 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Megía-Macías, A.; Vizcaíno-de-Julián, A.; Cortázar, O. D.

    2014-03-15

    A comparative study of two microwave driver systems (preliminary and optimized) for a 2.45 GHz hydrogen Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma generator has been conducted. The influence on plasma behavior and parameters of stationary electric field distribution in vacuum, i.e., just before breakdown, along all the microwave excitation system is analyzed. 3D simulations of resonant stationary electric field distributions, 2D simulations of external magnetic field mapping, experimental measurements of incoming and reflected power, and electron temperature and density along the plasma chamber axis have been carried out. By using these tools, an optimized set of plasma chamber and microwave coupler has been designed paying special attention to the optimization of stationary electric field value in the center of the plasma chamber. This system shows a strong stability on plasma behavior allowing a wider range of operational parameters and even sustaining low density plasma formation without external magnetic field. In addition, the optimized system shows the capability to produce values of plasma density four times higher than the preliminary as a consequence of a deeper penetration of the magnetic resonance surface in relative high electric field zone by keeping plasma stability. The increment of the amount of resonance surface embedded in the plasma under high electric field is suggested as a key factor.

  4. Influence of microwave driver coupling design on plasma density at Testbench for Ion sources Plasma Studies, a 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance plasma reactor.

    PubMed

    Megía-Macías, A; Cortázar, O D; Vizcaíno-de-Julián, A

    2014-03-01

    A comparative study of two microwave driver systems (preliminary and optimized) for a 2.45 GHz hydrogen Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma generator has been conducted. The influence on plasma behavior and parameters of stationary electric field distribution in vacuum, i.e., just before breakdown, along all the microwave excitation system is analyzed. 3D simulations of resonant stationary electric field distributions, 2D simulations of external magnetic field mapping, experimental measurements of incoming and reflected power, and electron temperature and density along the plasma chamber axis have been carried out. By using these tools, an optimized set of plasma chamber and microwave coupler has been designed paying special attention to the optimization of stationary electric field value in the center of the plasma chamber. This system shows a strong stability on plasma behavior allowing a wider range of operational parameters and even sustaining low density plasma formation without external magnetic field. In addition, the optimized system shows the capability to produce values of plasma density four times higher than the preliminary as a consequence of a deeper penetration of the magnetic resonance surface in relative high electric field zone by keeping plasma stability. The increment of the amount of resonance surface embedded in the plasma under high electric field is suggested as a key factor. PMID:24689578

  5. Hydrogen negative ion production in a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance compact ion source with a cone-shaped magnetic filter.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, T; Kasuya, T; Kenmotsu, T; Maeno, S; Nishiura, M; Shimozuma, T; Yamaoka, H; Wada, M

    2014-02-01

    The plasma electrode structure of a 14 GHz ECR ion source was modified to enlarge the plasma volume of low electron temperature region. The result shows that the extracted beam current reached about 0.6 mA/cm(2) with about 40 W microwave power. To investigate the correlation between the volume of the low electron temperature region and the H(-) current, a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer had been installed to observe light emission in the VUV wavelength range from the plasma. From the results of the negative ion beam current and that from VUV spectrometry, production rate of vibrationally excited hydrogen molecule seems to be enhanced by increasing the volume of low electron temperature region. PMID:24593572

  6. Hydrogen negative ion production in a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance compact ion source with a cone-shaped magnetic filter

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, T.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.; Kenmotsu, T.; Maeno, S.; Nishiura, M.; Shimozuma, T.; Yamaoka, H.

    2014-02-15

    The plasma electrode structure of a 14 GHz ECR ion source was modified to enlarge the plasma volume of low electron temperature region. The result shows that the extracted beam current reached about 0.6 mA/cm{sup 2} with about 40 W microwave power. To investigate the correlation between the volume of the low electron temperature region and the H{sup −} current, a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer had been installed to observe light emission in the VUV wavelength range from the plasma. From the results of the negative ion beam current and that from VUV spectrometry, production rate of vibrationally excited hydrogen molecule seems to be enhanced by increasing the volume of low electron temperature region.

  7. A fluid description for the discharge equilibrium of a divergent electron cyclotron resonance plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, G.; Mauel, M.E. ); Holber, W.M.; Caughman, J.B.O. )

    1992-12-01

    A fluid description of the presheath of a magnetized plasma is used to model a divergent electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source. The fluid equations are moments of the time-independent Boltzman equation when cross-field particle motion occurs only through a static {bold E}{times}{bold B} drift. Closure is obtained by neglecting third-order moments. The electrons are assumed to have constant temperature along the magnetic field, to obey a Maxwell--Boltzmann potential-density relationship, and to be warmer than the ions. Interactions between plasma and neutral gas are included by specifying the profile of the gas density along the magnetic field and collision cross sections. A form of the equations is derived that can be used to study ions with anisotropic temperatures. The model is used to estimate the axial profiles of the density, ion flow, and ion temperature of an ECR plasma source. The calculated global relationships between (1) the electron temperature and the equilibrium neutral gas density, and (2) the absorbed microwave power and the equilibrium plasma density are comparable with experimental measurements. Furthermore, the calculated ion temperature is comparable to recently reported measurements (Appl. Phys. Lett. {bold 57}, 661 (1990) and Appl. Phys. Lett. {bold 58}, 458 (1991)).

  8. Contamination by sputtering in mirror field electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbatkin, S.M.; Berry, L.A. )

    1992-09-01

    Langmuir probe measurements, visual observation, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry have been used to investigate source chamber sputtering for electron cyclotron resonance plasma systems operated with Ar, N{sub 2}, and Cl{sub 2}. Potentials in the source {gt}20 eV combined with high plasma densities ({approx gt}10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}3}) led to source chamber sputtering and coating of the microwave entrance window. The microwave entrance window coating caused significant absorption of incident microwave power and decreased source efficiency by as much as 50% within 5 min. Operation of the source with an anodized aluminum liner was effective in reducing microwave entrance window coating but resulted in some heavy metal contamination due to sputtering of impurities in the liner itself. Also, checks with secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated some Al contamination from sputtering of the anodized aluminum liner material. Finally, a technique for {ital in} {ital situ} cleaning of the microwave entrance window was developed and is described in detail.

  9. Characteristics of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Source for the Production of Active Nitrogen Species in III-V Nitride Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A simple analysis is provided to determine the characteristics of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source for the generation of active nitrogen species in the molecular beam epitaxy of III-V nitrides. The effects of reactor geometry, pressure, power, and flow rate on the dissociation efficiency and ion flux are presented. Pulsing the input power is proposed to reduce the ion flux.

  10. Nanometer fabrication in mercury cadmium telluride by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma reactive ion etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddy, C. R.; Hoffman, C. A.; Meyer, J. R.; Dobisz, E. A.

    1993-08-01

    It has been recently reported (J.R. Meyer, F.J. Bartoli, C.A. Hoffman, and L.R. Ram-Mohan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1963 [1990]) that novel electronic and optical effects are anticipated in nanometer scale features of narrow band gap semiconductors such as mercury cadmium telluride (MCT). These efforts could lead to the creation of non-linear optical switches, high efficiency infrared lasers, and unique nanoelectronic devices. This work reports on the first realization of MCT nanostructures through the application of e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma source. It is shown that the low energy ions produced by an ECR system can etch MCT with good selectivity over an e-beam resist mask and with high resolution. Using these fabrication methods, 40 70 nm features with aspect ratios of 3 5∶1 and sidewall angles greater than 88° have been demonstrated. Qualitative investigations of some of the etch mechanisms of this technique are made, and results suggest a desorption limited process.

  11. A study on prevention of an electric discharge at an extraction electrode of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source for cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kishii, Y. Kawasaki, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Uchida, T.

    2014-02-15

    A compact ECR ion source has utilized for carbon radiotherapy. In order to increase beam intensity with higher electric field at the extraction electrode and be better ion supply stability for long periods, electric geometry and surface conditions of an extraction electrode have been studied. Focusing attention on black deposited substances on the extraction electrode, which were observed around the extraction electrode after long-term use, the relation between black deposited substances and the electrical insulation property is investigated. The black deposited substances were inspected for the thickness of deposit, surface roughness, structural arrangement examined using Raman spectroscopy, and characteristics of electric discharge in a test bench, which was set up to simulate the ECR ion source.

  12. Electron-beam-assisted dry etching for GaAs using electron cyclotron resonance plasma electron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Heiji; Matsui, Shinji

    1992-12-01

    Electron-beam (EB)-assisted dry etching of GaAs using Ar electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma as an electron shower source is developed to achieve a low energy and high current density electron beam (EB). The rate of EB-assisted dry etching is more than ten times larger than for Cl2 gas etching.It is confirmed, through photoluminescence measurement, that this etching method causes less damage than ion beam techniques and is very effective for damaged layer removal. Using this technique, a 0.4 μm linewidth low-damage fine structure of GaAs was fabricated.

  13. Two-frequency heating technique at the 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences.

    PubMed

    Biri, S; Kitagawa, A; Muramatsu, M; Drentje, A G; Rácz, R; Yano, K; Kato, Y; Sasaki, N; Takasugi, W

    2014-02-01

    The two-frequency heating technique was studied to increase the beam intensities of highly charged ions provided by the high-voltage extraction configuration (HEC) ion source at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The observed dependences on microwave power and frequency suggested that this technique improved plasma stability but it required precise frequency tuning and more microwave power than was available before 2013. Recently, a new, high-power (1200 W) wide band-width (17.1-18.5 GHz) travelling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA) was installed. After some single tests with klystron and TWT amplifiers the simultaneous injection of the two microwaves has been successfully realized. The dependence of highly charged ions (HCI) currents on the superposed microwave power was studied by changing only the output power of one of the two amplifiers, alternatively. While operating the klystron on its fixed 18.0 GHz, the frequency of the TWTA was swept within its full limits (17.1-18.5 GHz), and the effect of this frequency on the HCI-production rate was examined under several operation conditions. As an overall result, new beam records of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon beams were obtained at the NIRS-HEC ion source by this high-power two-frequency operation mode. PMID:24593510

  14. Two-frequency heating technique at the 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biri, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Drentje, A. G.; Rácz, R.; Yano, K.; Kato, Y.; Sasaki, N.; Takasugi, W.

    2014-02-01

    The two-frequency heating technique was studied to increase the beam intensities of highly charged ions provided by the high-voltage extraction configuration (HEC) ion source at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The observed dependences on microwave power and frequency suggested that this technique improved plasma stability but it required precise frequency tuning and more microwave power than was available before 2013. Recently, a new, high-power (1200 W) wide band-width (17.1-18.5 GHz) travelling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA) was installed. After some single tests with klystron and TWT amplifiers the simultaneous injection of the two microwaves has been successfully realized. The dependence of highly charged ions (HCI) currents on the superposed microwave power was studied by changing only the output power of one of the two amplifiers, alternatively. While operating the klystron on its fixed 18.0 GHz, the frequency of the TWTA was swept within its full limits (17.1-18.5 GHz), and the effect of this frequency on the HCI-production rate was examined under several operation conditions. As an overall result, new beam records of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon beams were obtained at the NIRS-HEC ion source by this high-power two-frequency operation mode.

  15. Two-frequency heating technique at the 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Biri, S.; Rácz, R.; Sasaki, N.; Takasugi, W.

    2014-02-15

    The two-frequency heating technique was studied to increase the beam intensities of highly charged ions provided by the high-voltage extraction configuration (HEC) ion source at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The observed dependences on microwave power and frequency suggested that this technique improved plasma stability but it required precise frequency tuning and more microwave power than was available before 2013. Recently, a new, high-power (1200 W) wide band-width (17.1–18.5 GHz) travelling-wave-tube amplifier (TWTA) was installed. After some single tests with klystron and TWT amplifiers the simultaneous injection of the two microwaves has been successfully realized. The dependence of highly charged ions (HCI) currents on the superposed microwave power was studied by changing only the output power of one of the two amplifiers, alternatively. While operating the klystron on its fixed 18.0 GHz, the frequency of the TWTA was swept within its full limits (17.1–18.5 GHz), and the effect of this frequency on the HCI-production rate was examined under several operation conditions. As an overall result, new beam records of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon beams were obtained at the NIRS-HEC ion source by this high-power two-frequency operation mode.

  16. Modification of anisotropic plasma diffusion via auxiliary electrons emitted by a carbon nanotubes-based electron gun in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    PubMed

    Malferrari, L; Odorici, F; Veronese, G P; Rizzoli, R; Mascali, D; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Castro, G; Miracoli, R; Serafino, T

    2012-02-01

    The diffusion mechanism in magnetized plasmas is a largely debated issue. A short circuit model was proposed by Simon, assuming fluxes of lost particles along the axial (electrons) and radial (ions) directions which can be compensated, to preserve the quasi-neutrality, by currents flowing throughout the conducting plasma chamber walls. We hereby propose a new method to modify Simon's currents via electrons injected by a carbon nanotubes-based electron gun. We found this improves the source performances, increasing the output current for several charge states. The method is especially sensitive to the pumping frequency. Output currents for given charge states, at different auxiliary electron currents, will be reported in the paper and the influence of the frequency tuning on the compensation mechanism will be discussed. PMID:22380190

  17. Design and fabrication of a superconducting magnet for an 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion/photon source NFRI-ECRIPS

    SciTech Connect

    You, H.-J.; Jang, S.-W.; Jung, Y.-H.; Lho, T.-H.; Lee, S.-J.

    2012-02-15

    A superconducting magnet was designed and fabricated for an 18 GHz ECR ion/photon source, which will be installed at National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) in South Korea. The magnetic system consists of a set of four superconducting coils for axial mirror field and 36 pieces of permanent magnets for hexapolar field. The superconducting coils with a cryocooler (1.5 W - 4.2 K) allow one to reach peak mirror fields of 2.2 T in the injection and those of 1.5 T in the extraction regions on the source axis, and the resultant hexapolar field gives 1.35 T on the plasma chamber wall. The unbalanced magnetic force between the coils and surrounding yoke has been minimized to 16 ton by a coil arrangement and their electrical connection, and then was successfully suspended by 12 strong thermal insulating supports made of large numbers of carbon fibers. In order to block radiative thermal losses, multilayer thermal insulations are covered on the coil windings as well as 40-K aluminum thermal shield. Also new schemes of quench detection and safety system (coil divisions, quench detection coils, and heaters) were employed. For impregnation of the windings a special epoxy has been selected and treated to have a higher breaking strength and a higher thermal conductivity, which enables the superconductors to be uniformly and rapidly cooled down or heated during a quench.

  18. Space-charge compensation measurements in electron cyclotron resonance ion source low energy beam transport lines with a retarding field analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Winklehner, D.; Leitner, D. Cole, D.; Machicoane, G.; Tobos, L.

    2014-02-15

    In this paper we describe the first systematic measurement of beam neutralization (space charge compensation) in the ECR low energy transport line with a retarding field analyzer, which can be used to measure the potential of the beam. Expected trends for the space charge compensation levels such as increase with residual gas pressure, beam current, and beam density could be observed. However, the overall levels of neutralization are consistently low (<60%). The results and the processes involved for neutralizing ion beams are discussed for conditions typical for ECR injector beam lines. The results are compared to a simple theoretical beam plasma model as well as simulations.

  19. Impurity Ions in a Plasma Produced by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonesu, Akira; Komori, Akio; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    1988-08-01

    The mechanism of the generation of impurity ions is experimentally evidenced in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma produced with a copper Lisitano coil. It is shown that neutral copper particles are sputtered from the Lisitano coil by argon ions and are ionized by the collisions with electrons. The argon ions are accelerated by the ion sheath formed on the Lisitano coil surface, so that the plasma space potential plays an important role in producing the impurities. The impurity flux calculated by using plasma parameters and the sputtering yield of copper is found to be consistent with the observed value. The production of a pure ECR plasma is also attempted with an aluminum Lisitano coil which has a smaller sputtering yield than that of the copper Lisitano coil.

  20. A multi-sample changer coupled to an electron cyclotron resonance source for accelerator mass spectrometry experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondrasek, R.; Palchan, T.; Pardo, R.; Peters, C.; Power, M.; Scott, R.

    2014-02-01

    A new multi-sample changer has been constructed allowing rapid changes between samples. The sample changer has 20 positions and is capable of moving between samples in 1 min. The sample changer is part of a project using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility to measure neutron capture rates on a wide range of actinides in a reactor environment. This project will require the measurement of a large number of samples previously irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory. The AMS technique at ATLAS is based on production of highly charged positive ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source followed by acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The sample material is introduced into the plasma via laser ablation chosen to limit the dependency of material feed rates upon the source material composition as well as minimize cross-talk between samples.

  1. Use of electron cyclotron resonance x-ray source for nondestructive testing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, R.; Selvakumaran, T. S.

    2006-03-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) technique is being used for generating x rays in the low-energy region (<150keV). Recently, the source is used for the calibration of thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) badges. In order to qualify the ECR x-ray source for imaging application, the source should give uniform flux over the area under study. Lead collimation arrangement is made to get uniform flux. The flux profile is measured using a teletector at different distance from the port and uniform field region of 10×10cm2 has been marked at 20cm from the x-ray exit port. A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) circuit pack is used for examining the source performance. The required dose for nondestructive testing examination has been estimated using a hospital x-ray machine and it is found to be 0.05mSv. Our source experimental parameters are tuned and the DAC circuit pack was exposed for nearly 7min to get the required dose value. The ECR x-ray source operating parameters are argon pressure: 10-5Torr, microwave power: 350W, and coil current: 0A. The effective energy of the x-ray spectrum is nearly 40keV. The x-ray images obtained from ECR x-ray source and hospital medical radiography machine are compared. It is found that the image obtained from ECR x-ray source is suitable for NDT application.

  2. Use of electron cyclotron resonance x-ray source for nondestructive testing application

    SciTech Connect

    Baskaran, R.; Selvakumaran, T.S.

    2006-03-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) technique is being used for generating x rays in the low-energy region (<150 keV). Recently, the source is used for the calibration of thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) badges. In order to qualify the ECR x-ray source for imaging application, the source should give uniform flux over the area under study. Lead collimation arrangement is made to get uniform flux. The flux profile is measured using a teletector at different distance from the port and uniform field region of 10x10 cm{sup 2} has been marked at 20 cm from the x-ray exit port. A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) circuit pack is used for examining the source performance. The required dose for nondestructive testing examination has been estimated using a hospital x-ray machine and it is found to be 0.05 mSv. Our source experimental parameters are tuned and the DAC circuit pack was exposed for nearly 7 min to get the required dose value. The ECR x-ray source operating parameters are argon pressure: 10{sup -5} Torr, microwave power: 350 W, and coil current: 0 A. The effective energy of the x-ray spectrum is nearly 40 keV. The x-ray images obtained from ECR x-ray source and hospital medical radiography machine are compared. It is found that the image obtained from ECR x-ray source is suitable for NDT application.

  3. He2+ source based on Penning-type discharge with electron cyclotron resonant heating by millimeter waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodopyanov, A. V.; Golubev, S. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Mansfeld, D. A.; Yushkov, G. Yu

    2011-06-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are particularly useful for nuclear, atomic and high energy physics, as unique high current generators of multicharged ion beams. Plasmas of gas discharges in open magnetic traps heated by pulsed high power high-frequency microwaves of gyrotrons are promising in the field of research in the development of ECR sources for high charge state ion beams. It is necessary to decrease pressure and increase plasma density to reach higher average charge of ions in the plasma. The ECR discharge could be ignited at very low gas pressure, but it takes longer time for the discharge start-up. Hence, it is impossible to realize the ECR discharge with limited microwave heating pulse duration at gas pressure below a certain threshold value. We suggest a Penning-type discharge as a trigger discharge for fast development of pulsed-ECR plasma. The Penning-type discharge glows at a low pressure as needed. Gyrotron radiation (75 GHz, 200 kW, 1 ms) was used for plasma heating. Fully striped helium ions were demonstrated, average charge of ions in the plasma was ≈2. Temporal evolution of charge state distribution as a function of helium pressure and microwave power was investigated.

  4. Operational experience with the Argonne National Laboratory Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade facility and electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondrasek, R.; Clark, J.; Levand, A.; Palchan, T.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.

    2014-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility provides low-energy and accelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams to address key nuclear physics and astrophysics questions. A 350 mCi 252Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The ECR charge breeder has achieved stable beam charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for 23Na7+, 17.9% for 39K10+, 15.6% for 84Kr17+, and 12.4% for 133Cs27+. For the radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for 143Cs27+ and 14.7% for 143Ba27+. The typical breeding times are 10 ms/charge state, but the source can be tuned such that this value increases to 100 ms/charge state with the best breeding efficiency corresponding to the longest breeding times—the variation of efficiencies with breeding time will be discussed. Efforts have been made to characterize and reduce the background contaminants present in the ion beam through judicious choice of q/m combinations. Methods of background reduction are being investigated based upon plasma chamber cleaning and vacuum practices.

  5. Generation of high charge state metal ion beams by electron cyclotron resonance heating of vacuum arc plasma in cusp trap

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Savkin, K. P.; Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Vodopyanov, A. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Mansfeld, D. A.

    2012-02-15

    A method for generating high charge state heavy metal ion beams based on high power microwave heating of vacuum arc plasma confined in a magnetic trap under electron cyclotron resonance conditions has been developed. A feature of the work described here is the use of a cusp magnetic field with inherent ''minimum-B'' structure as the confinement geometry, as opposed to a simple mirror device as we have reported on previously. The cusp configuration has been successfully used for microwave heating of gas discharge plasma and extraction from the plasma of highly charged, high current, gaseous ion beams. Now we use the trap for heavy metal ion beam generation. Two different approaches were used for injecting the vacuum arc metal plasma into the trap - axial injection from a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and radial injection from sources mounted radially at the midplane of the trap. Here, we describe preliminary results of heating vacuum arc plasma in a cusp magnetic trap by pulsed (400 {mu}s) high power (up to 100 kW) microwave radiation at 37.5 GHz for the generation of highly charged heavy metal ion beams.

  6. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    SciTech Connect

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Biri, S.

    2010-02-15

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  7. Production of highly charged heavy ions by 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    PubMed

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2010-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been installed as a subject of the azimuthally varying field cyclotron upgrade project (K. Hatanaka et al., in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications, Tokyo, Japan, 18-22 October 2004, pp. 115-117), in order to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions. The production development of several ions has been performed since 2006 and some of them have already been used for user experiments [T. Yorita et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008)]. Further optimizations for each component such as the material of plasma electrode, material, and shape of bias probe and mirror field have been continued and more intense ion beams have been obtained for O, N, and Ar. For the purpose of obtaining highly charged Xe with several microamperes, the optimization of position and shape of plasma electrode and bias disk has also been done and highly charged Xe(32+) beam has been obtained successfully. PMID:20192353

  8. Development and studies on a compact electron cyclotron resonance plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, A.; Tarey, R. D.; Arora, N.; Narayanan, R.

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) produced plasmas are efficient, high-density plasma sources and have many industrial applications. The concept of a portable compact ECR plasma source (CEPS) would thus become important from an application point of view. This paper gives details of such a CEPS that is both portable and easily mountable on a chamber of any size. It uses a fully integrated microwave line operating at 2.45 GHz, up to 800 W, cw. The required magnetic field is produced by a set of suitably designed NdFeB ring magnets; the device has an overall length of  ≈60 cm and weighs  ≈14 kg including the permanent magnets. The CEPS was attached to a small experimental chamber to judge its efficacy for plasma production. In the pressure range of 0.5-10 mTorr and microwave power of  ≈400-500 W the experiments indicate that the CEPS is capable of producing high-density plasma (≈9  ×  1011-1012 cm-3) with bulk electron temperature in the range  ≈2-3 eV. In addition, a warm electron population with density and temperature in the range ≈7  ×  108-109 cm-3 and  ≈45-80 eV, respectively has been detected. This warm population plays an important role at high pressures in maintaining the high-density plasma, when plasma flow from the CEPS into the test chamber is strongly affected.

  9. Preliminary results of the ion extraction simulations applied to the MONO1000 and SUPERSHyPIE electron cyclotron resonance ion sourcesa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierret, C.; Maunoury, L.; Biri, S.; Pacquet, J. Y.; Tuske, O.; Delferriere, O.

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this article is to present simulations on the extraction from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The aim of this work is to find out an extraction system, which allows one to reduce the emittances and to increase the current of the extracted ion beam at the focal point of the analyzing dipole. But first, we should locate the correct software which is able to reproduce the specific physics of an ion beam. To perform the simulations, the following softwares have been tested: SIMION 3D, AXCEL, CPO 3D, and especially, for the magnetic field calculation, MATHEMATICA coupled with the RADIA module. Emittance calculations have been done with two types of ECRIS: one with a hexapole and one without a hexapole, and the difference will be discussed.

  10. Optimization of electron-cyclotron-resonance charge-breeder ions : Final CRADA Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.; Physics; Far-Tech, Inc.

    2009-10-09

    Measurements of 1+ beam properties and associated performance of ECR Charge Breeder source determined by total efficiency measurement and charge state distributions from the ECR Charge Breeder. These results were communicated to Far-Tech personnel who used them to benchmark the newly developed programs that model ion capture and charge breeding in the ECR Charge Breeder Source. Providing the basic data described above and in the discussion below to Far-Tech allowed them to improve and refine their calculational tools for ECR ion sources. These new tools will be offered for sale to industry and will also provide important guidance to other research labs developing Charge Breeding ion sources for radioactive beam physics research.

  11. Electron cyclotron resonant multicusp magnetic field microwave plasma source for electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Dahimene, M.; Mahoney, L.; Asmussen, J.

    1987-05-01

    The development of electrodeless microwave ion and plasma sources has been a recent, very active research project at Michigan State University. The results are efficient, compact microwave discharge configurations that operate at low pressures (0.5 mtorr to 100 mtorr) and efficiently produce low energy ions and free radicals and broad ion beams for oxidation, deposition, and etching experiments. The microwave discharge technology developed for these applications may be useful for application in electric propulsion. This paper reviews this microwave applicator technology and indicates how it may be extended to higher power levels and applied to electric propulsion systems. 12 references.

  12. Estimation of the electron density and radiative energy losses in a calcium plasma source based on an electron cyclotron resonance discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Potanin, E. P. Ustinov, A. L.

    2013-06-15

    The parameters of a calcium plasma source based on an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge were calculated. The analysis was performed as applied to an ion cyclotron resonance system designed for separation of calcium isotopes. The plasma electrons in the source were heated by gyrotron microwave radiation in the zone of the inhomogeneous magnetic field. It was assumed that, in such a combined trap, the energy of the extraordinary microwave propagating from the high-field side was initially transferred to a small group of resonance electrons. As a result, two electron components with different transverse temperatures-the hot resonance component and the cold nonresonance component-were created in the plasma. The longitudinal temperatures of both components were assumed to be equal. The entire discharge space was divided into a narrow ECR zone, where resonance electrons acquired transverse energy, and the region of the discharge itself, where the gas was ionized. The transverse energy of resonance electrons was calculated by solving the equations for electron motion in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Using the law of energy conservation and the balance condition for the number of hot electrons entering the discharge zone and cooled due to ionization and elastic collisions, the density of hot electrons was estimated and the dependence of the longitudinal temperature T{sub e Parallel-To} of the main (cold) electron component on the energy fraction {beta} lost for radiation was obtained.

  13. Beam injection improvement for electron cyclotron resonance charge breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Lamy, T.; Angot, J.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.

    2012-02-15

    The injection of a 1+ beam into an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) charge breeder is classically performed through a grounded tube placed on its axis at the injection side. This tube presents various disadvantages for the operation of an ECR charge breeder. First experiments without a grounded tube show a better use of the microwave power and a better charge breeding efficiency. The optical acceptance of the charge breeder without decelerating tube allows the injection of high intensity 1+ ion beams at high energy, allowing metals sputtering inside the ion source. The use of this method for refractory metallic ion beams production is evaluated.

  14. Microwave field distribution and electron cyclotron resonance heating process

    SciTech Connect

    Consoli, F.; Celona, L.; Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Maimone, F.; Barbarino, S.; Catalano, R. S.; Mascali, D.

    2008-02-15

    In an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, ions are produced from a plasma generated and sustained by microwaves with a proper frequency. Some experiments showed that the plasma formation, the consequent amount of particles extracted from the source, and the related beam shape strongly depend on the frequency of the electromagnetic wave feeding the cavity. In order to have a better understanding of these phenomena, in this work we deal with the description of the motion of a charged particle inside the plasma chamber model of the SERSE ion source operating at INFN-LNS in Catania, the analysis being applicable to any similar apparatus. The electromagnetic fields inside the vacuum filled chamber were determined theoretically and, together with proper simulations, their fundamental role on the particle motion, on their confinement, and on the energy transfer they are subjected to during their motion within the cavity is shown.

  15. Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Reactive Ion Etching of III-V Semiconductors by Cyclic Injection of CH4/H2/Ar and O2 with Constant Ar Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haneji, Nobuo; Segami, Goh; Ide, Tomoyoshi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Arakawa, Taro; Tada, Kunio; Shimogaki, Yukihiro; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2003-06-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance-reactive ion etching (ECR-RIE) is very useful for fabricating semiconductor photonic devices and integrated circuits (PICs). The mixture gas of CH4/H2 is used for etching III-V semiconductors, but the carbon polymer film deposited on the surface during the etching process presents some problems. Thus, the polymer film must be ashed off using an O2 plasma. We introduced the cyclic injection of CH4/H2/Ar and O2 to ECR-RIE, and demonstrated that it was very useful for etching of InP. However, compound semiconductors containing Al (e.g., AlGaAs and InAlAs) react with oxygen and an alumina layer is formed, which cannot be etched by CH4/H2 etching. Therefore, we used a new cyclic etching process with constant Ar flow in the chamber to remove this alumina layer by Ar ion etching, and obtained good results for etching rate and surface morphology for the compound semiconductors containing Al. We also proposed a suitable combination of three cyclic etching procedures (continuous etching, cyclic etching without constant Ar flow and cyclic etching with constant Ar flow) for etching the multilayer heterostructure of III-V semiconductors including InP and/or compound semiconductors containing Al.

  16. Waveguide slot-excited long racetrack electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for roll-to-roll (scanning) processing

    SciTech Connect

    You, H.-J.

    2013-07-15

    We present a SLot-excited ANtenna (SLAN) long racetrack ECR plasma source that is utilized for roll-to-roll plasma processing such as thin film encapsulation of large-area OLED (organic light emitting diode) panel or modification of fabric surfaces. This source is designed to be long, and to operate under high density uniform plasma with sub-milli-torr pressures. The above features are accomplished by a slot-excited long racetrack resonator with a toroidal geometry of magnetic field ECR configuration, and reinforced microwave electric distributions along the central region of plasma chamber. Also, a new feature has been added to the source. This is to employ a tail plunger, which allows the microwave electric field and the uniformity of the plasma profile to be easily adjustable. We have successfully generated Ar plasmas operating with the microwave power of 0.5–3 kW in the pressure range of 0.2–10 mTorr. The plasma is uniform (<10%) in the direction of the straight track and has a Gaussian profile in the roll-to-roll (scanning) direction. In addition, it is shown that the tail plunger could adjust the plasma profile in order to obtain plasma uniformity. Furthermore, based on the results, we suggest a newly designed up-scaled racetrack-SLAN source.

  17. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating on TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Westerhof, E.; Hoekzema, J.A.; Hogeweij, G.M.D.

    2005-02-15

    TEXTOR is equipped with two gyrotrons at 110 and 140 GHz, respectively. Both share a single power supply and a confocal quasi-optical transmission line. They cannot be operated simultaneously. The 110-GHz gyrotron with limited power and pulse length (300 kW; 200 ms) has been used in a first series of experiments on electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and for collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostics of energetic ions. In the future the 110-GHz gyrotron will be operated exclusively for CTS diagnostics, while for ECRH and ECCD, the newly installed 140-GHz, high-power (800-kW), long-pulse (>3-s) gyrotron is now available. The highlights of first ECRH experiments with the 110-GHz gyrotron are reported. These include observations of internal transport barriers with ECRH on various target plasmas: in the current plateau phase of both ohmic and radiation improved mode (RI-mode) discharges. In addition, sawtooth control by localized ECRH is demonstrated. First results on CTS include the observation of the slowing down of energetic ions and of the redistribution of energetic ions in sawtooth crashes.

  18. Performance of the Argonne National Laboratory electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.; Kolomiets, A.; Levand, A.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.

    2011-05-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder for the Californium rare ion breeder upgrade (CARIBU), a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), has been constructed and commissioned. Charge breeding efficiencies up to 15.6% have been realized for stable beams with a typical breeding time of 10 ms/charge state. The CARIBU system has been undergoing commissioning tests utilizing a 100 mCi {sup 252}Cf fission source. A charge breeding efficiency of 14.8 {+-} 5% has been achieved for the first radioactive beam of {sup 143}Cs{sup 27+}.

  19. Deposition of diamondlike films by electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, F. S.; Shing, Y. H.

    1990-01-01

    Hard a-C:H films have been deposited through electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma decomposition of CH4 diluted with H2 gas. It has been found that hard diamondlike films could only be produced under a RF-induced negative self-bias of the substrate stage. Raman spectra indicate the deposition of two distinct film types: one film type exhibiting well-defined bands at 1360 and 1580/cm and another displaying a broad Raman peak centered at approximately 1500/cm. Variation of the mirror magnetic-field profile of the ECR system was examined, demonstrating the manipulation of film morphology through the extraction of different ion energies.

  20. Low radio frequency biased electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samukawa, Seiji; Toyosato, Tomohiko; Wani, Etsuo

    1991-03-01

    A radio frequency (rf) biased electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma etching technology has been developed to realize an efficient ion acceleration in high density and uniform ECR plasma for accurate Al-Si-Cu alloy film etching. In this technology, the substrate is located at the ECR position (875 G position) and the etching is carried out with a 400 kHz rf bias power. This Al-Si-Cu etching technology achieves a high etching rate (more than 5000 A/min), excellent etching uniformity (within ±5%), highly anisotropic etching, and Cu residue-free etching in only Cl2 gas plasma. These etching characteristics are accomplished by the combination of the dense and uniform ECR plasma generation at the ECR position with the efficient accelerated ion flux at the ECR position by using 400 kHz rf bias.

  1. Electromagnetic particle simulation of electron cyclotron resonance microwave discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Wook Hee; Choi, Nak Heon; Choi, Duk In; Oh, Yong Ho

    1993-05-01

    We present a numerical model to study the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave discharge using a one-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision method [C. K. Birdsall, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 19, 65 (1991)]. In our model, the electromagnetic wave is polarized circularly and propagates along an external static magnetic field and elastic, excitational, and ionizing electron-neutral collisions and elastic and charge exchange ion-neutral collisions are included. The discharge for helium gas is simulated and the simulation results explain well the physical properties of the ECR discharge which include the energy absorption of electrons through ECR coupling, the propagation of microwave, the transports of the charged particles, and the effect of divergent external magnetic field.

  2. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1993-10-26

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source having an electron gun for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber of the ion source is described. The ion source has a injection enclosure and a plasma chamber tank. The plasma chamber is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets. The electron gun injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber such that ionization within the plasma chamber occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun. The electron gun has a cathode for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply. A concentric inner conductor and outer conductor carry heating current to a carbon chuck and carbon pusher which hold the cathode in place and also heat the cathode. In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, the electron gun replaces the conventional first stage used in prior electron cyclotron resonance ion generators. 5 figures.

  3. Microwave-Excited Microplasma Thrusters Using Surface Wave and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Daisuke; Kawanabe, Tetsuo; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2012-10-01

    Downsizing spacecrafts has recently been focused on to decrease mission costs and to increase launch rates, and missions with small satellites would bring a great advantage of reducing their risks. Such a concept supports a new approach to developing precise, reliable, and low-cost micropropulsion systems. We have studied two types of microwave-excited microplasma thrusters, using surface wave-excited and electron cyclotron resonance-excited discharges. Microwaves of S-band (4 GHz) and X-band (11 GHz) were employed to excite the plasma in these experiments, with the feed or propellant gases of Ar and He. A microplasma thruster of electrothermal type consisted of a surface wave-excited microplasma source, and a converging-diverging micronozzle to obtain the thrust. For 11-GHz microwaves at a power of 6 W, a thrust of 1.1 mN and a specific impulse of 90 s were obtained at an Ar gas flow rate of 40 sccm, where the plasma electron density was 1.2x10^20 m-3, and the gas temperature was 1.5x10^3 K; under the same conditions for 4-GHz microwaves, the thrust, specific impulse, electron density, and gas temperature were 0.93 mN, 80 s, 7.0x10^19 m-3, and 8.0x10^2 K, respectively. A microplasma thruster of electromagnetic type had a microplasma source excited by electron cyclotron resonance with external magnetic fields, to obtain the thrust through accelerating ions by ambipolar electric fields. Optical emission spectrum was dominated by Ar^+ ion lines in the microplasma thruster of electromagnetic type, owing to higher electron temperatures at lower feed-gas pressures.

  4. Design and fabrication of a superconducting magnet for an 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion∕photon source NFRI-ECRIPS.

    PubMed

    You, H-J; Jang, S-W; Jung, Y-H; Lho, T-H; Lee, S-J

    2012-02-01

    A superconducting magnet was designed and fabricated for an 18 GHz ECR ion∕photon source, which will be installed at National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) in South Korea. The magnetic system consists of a set of four superconducting coils for axial mirror field and 36 pieces of permanent magnets for hexapolar field. The superconducting coils with a cryocooler (1.5 W @ 4.2 K) allow one to reach peak mirror fields of 2.2 T in the injection and those of 1.5 T in the extraction regions on the source axis, and the resultant hexapolar field gives 1.35 T on the plasma chamber wall. The unbalanced magnetic force between the coils and surrounding yoke has been minimized to 16 ton by a coil arrangement and their electrical connection, and then was successfully suspended by 12 strong thermal insulating supports made of large numbers of carbon fibers. In order to block radiative thermal losses, multilayer thermal insulations are covered on the coil windings as well as 40-K aluminum thermal shield. Also new schemes of quench detection and safety system (coil divisions, quench detection coils, and heaters) were employed. For impregnation of the windings a special epoxy has been selected and treated to have a higher breaking strength and a higher thermal conductivity, which enables the superconductors to be uniformly and rapidly cooled down or heated during a quench. PMID:22380173

  5. Electron cyclotron resonance 140 mA D(+) beam extraction optimization for IFMIF EVEDA accelerator.

    PubMed

    Delferrière, O; De Menezes, D; Gobin, R; Harrault, F; Tuske, O

    2008-02-01

    Based on the experience of the SILHI electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for the IPHI accelerator, which produces routinely 100-120 mA H(+) beam, the CEA-Saclay is in charge of the design and realization of the 140 mA cw deuteron source for the IFMIF project (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility). IFMIF is an accelerator-based neutron irradiation facility consisting of two accelerators of 125 mA D(+) beam at 40 MeV that hit in parallel a lithium target. IFMIF utilizes the deuteron-lithium (d-Li) neutron, producing a reaction to simulate the 14 MeV neutron environment in deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactors. In the framework of the IFMIF EVEDA phase (Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities), we are studying a cw ECR ion source with a new extraction system to allow high current extraction while keeping a low divergence as well as a small emittance. Starting from SILHI five-electrode system with H(+) ions, the extracted beam characteristics as well as electric field conditions are compared with the cases of four- and three-electrode extraction systems. Experimental results made on the SILHI source with H(+) ions are briefly discussed. Extensive experimental results on the new source test bench BETSI are expected as soon as the design and fabrication of a dedicated extraction system with a new set of electrodes will be finished. PMID:18315214

  6. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching of native TiO{sub 2} on TiN

    SciTech Connect

    Day, M.E.; Delfino, M.

    1996-01-01

    Thin-film polycrystalline Tin with an approximate 2 nm thick native TiO{sub 2} overlayer is bombarded with 50 to 200 eV Ar ions in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma. In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and static secondary ion mass spectrometry suggest complete removal of oxygen from the planar surface, independent of ion energy, with TiO{sub 2} remaining on the columnar grain boundaries. The TiN etching rate increases from 6 to 14 nm/min as the ion energy is raised from 100 to 200 eV. The TiN stoichiometry does not change with ion bombardment.

  7. Electron cyclotron resonance heating in the microwave tokamak experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.; Fenstermacher, M.E.

    1992-09-01

    This paper presents the results from a series of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) experiments on the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX). On-axis heating at B{sub T} = 5T (f{sub ce} = 140 GHz) has been performed at electron densities up to cutoff. We have used both a long-pulse gryotron ({approximately}200 kW, {approximately}0.1s) and a pulsed Free Electron Laser (FEL) as microwave sources. Gyrotron experiments with power densities corresponding to 4 MW m{sup {minus}3}. A far infrared (FIR) polarimeter measured peaking of plasma current profiles in some discharges during the ECRH pulse. During high-power single-pulse FEL experiments, single-pass microwave !transmission measurements show nonlinear effects; i.e., higher transmission than predicted by linear theory. A corrugated-wall duct was used in the tokamak port to increase the gradient of the parallel refractive index n{sub parallel} of the incident wave, and increased absorption was observed. Evidence of electron tail heating during FEL pulses was observed on soft x-ray and ECE diagnostics. These results are in agreement with predictions of nonlinear theory; extrapolation of this theory to reactor-like conditions indicates efficient absorption and heating. A Laser Assisted Particle Probe Spectroscopy (LAPPS) diagnostic provided estimates of the vacuum electric field of the FEL which were consistent with the measured power. Multiple pulse operation of the ETA-II accelerator for the FEL has also been demonstrated, indicating the feasibility of high-average power FEL operation.

  8. In situ investigation of silicon surface cleaning and damage by argon electron cyclotron resonance plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y. Z.; Buaud, P. P.; Wang, Y.; Spanos, L.; Irene, E. A.

    1994-03-01

    An argon electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma process has been optimized to successfully remove oxide films from a silicon surface at elevated temperatures leaving smooth Si surfaces devoid of an amorphized silicon damage layer. Etch rates of over 10 nm/min have been achieved at ion energies below 100 eV. The low ion energy (-50 V dc bias) and high ion fluxes (1×1016 ions/cm2 s) represent a significant improvement from conventional Ar ion sputter cleaning processes. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and ex situ atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the surface condition during and after cleaning to establish a 700 °C argon plasma cleaning process for silicon. Real-time single wavelength ellipsometry was used to study the cleaning kinetics, determine the optimal end point, and elucidate a controversy about the level of damage in the argon ECR plasma cleaning process.

  9. Emittance of short-pulsed high-current ion beams formed from the plasma of the electron cyclotron resonance discharge sustained by high-power millimeter-wave gyrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razin, S.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Sidorov, A.; Skalyga, V.

    2014-02-01

    We present experimental results on measuring the emittance of short-pulsed (≤100 μs) high-current (80-100 mA) ion beams of heavy gases (Nitrogen, Argon) formed from a dense plasma of an ECR source of multiply charged ions (MCI) with quasi-gas-dynamic mode of plasma confinement in a magnetic trap of simple mirror configuration. The discharge was created by a high-power (90 kW) pulsed radiation of a 37.5-GHz gyrotron. The normalized emittance of generated ion beams of 100 mA current was (1.2-1.3) π mm mrad (70% of ions in the beams). Comparing these results with those obtained using a cusp magnetic trap, it was concluded that the structure of the trap magnetic field lines does not exert a decisive influence on the emittance of ion beams in the gas-dynamic ECR source of MCI.

  10. Emittance of short-pulsed high-current ion beams formed from the plasma of the electron cyclotron resonance discharge sustained by high-power millimeter-wave gyrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Razin, S. Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Sidorov, A.; Skalyga, V.

    2014-02-15

    We present experimental results on measuring the emittance of short-pulsed (≤100 μs) high-current (80–100 mA) ion beams of heavy gases (Nitrogen, Argon) formed from a dense plasma of an ECR source of multiply charged ions (MCI) with quasi-gas-dynamic mode of plasma confinement in a magnetic trap of simple mirror configuration. The discharge was created by a high-power (90 kW) pulsed radiation of a 37.5-GHz gyrotron. The normalized emittance of generated ion beams of 100 mA current was (1.2–1.3) π mm mrad (70% of ions in the beams). Comparing these results with those obtained using a cusp magnetic trap, it was concluded that the structure of the trap magnetic field lines does not exert a decisive influence on the emittance of ion beams in the gas-dynamic ECR source of MCI.