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Sample records for electronic design automation

  1. Electronic Design Automation: Integrating the Design and Manufacturing Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachnak, Rafic; Salkowski, Charles

    1997-01-01

    As the complexity of electronic systems grows, the traditional design practice, a sequential process, is replaced by concurrent design methodologies. A major advantage of concurrent design is that the feedback from software and manufacturing engineers can be easily incorporated into the design. The implementation of concurrent engineering methodologies is greatly facilitated by employing the latest Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools. These tools offer integrated simulation of the electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing functions and support virtual prototyping, rapid prototyping, and hardware-software co-design. This report presents recommendations for enhancing the electronic design and manufacturing capabilities and procedures at JSC based on a concurrent design methodology that employs EDA tools.

  2. Electronic Design Automation (EDA) Roadmap Taskforce Report, Design of Microprocessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    The goal of this project was to support the establishment of tool interoperability standards for the semiconductor industry. Accomplishments include the publication of the 'EDA Industry Standards Roadmap - 1996' and the 'EDA Roadmap Taskforce Report - Design of Microprocessors.'

  3. A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Automated Electronic Circuit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Jason D.; Colombano, Silvano P.; Haith, Gary L.; Stassinopoulos, Dimitris

    2000-01-01

    Parallelized versions of genetic algorithms (GAs) are popular primarily for three reasons: the GA is an inherently parallel algorithm, typical GA applications are very compute intensive, and powerful computing platforms, especially Beowulf-style computing clusters, are becoming more affordable and easier to implement. In addition, the low communication bandwidth required allows the use of inexpensive networking hardware such as standard office ethernet. In this paper we describe a parallel GA and its use in automated high-level circuit design. Genetic algorithms are a type of trial-and-error search technique that are guided by principles of Darwinian evolution. Just as the genetic material of two living organisms can intermix to produce offspring that are better adapted to their environment, GAs expose genetic material, frequently strings of 1s and Os, to the forces of artificial evolution: selection, mutation, recombination, etc. GAs start with a pool of randomly-generated candidate solutions which are then tested and scored with respect to their utility. Solutions are then bred by probabilistically selecting high quality parents and recombining their genetic representations to produce offspring solutions. Offspring are typically subjected to a small amount of random mutation. After a pool of offspring is produced, this process iterates until a satisfactory solution is found or an iteration limit is reached. Genetic algorithms have been applied to a wide variety of problems in many fields, including chemistry, biology, and many engineering disciplines. There are many styles of parallelism used in implementing parallel GAs. One such method is called the master-slave or processor farm approach. In this technique, slave nodes are used solely to compute fitness evaluations (the most time consuming part). The master processor collects fitness scores from the nodes and performs the genetic operators (selection, reproduction, variation, etc.). Because of dependency

  4. A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Automated Electronic Circuit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason D.; Colombano, Silvano P.; Haith, Gary L.; Stassinopoulos, Dimitris; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We describe a parallel genetic algorithm (GA) that automatically generates circuit designs using evolutionary search. A circuit-construction programming language is introduced and we show how evolution can generate practical analog circuit designs. Our system allows circuit size (number of devices), circuit topology, and device values to be evolved. We present experimental results as applied to analog filter and amplifier design tasks.

  5. Design automation for integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, S. B.; de Geus, A. J.; Rohrer, R. A.

    1983-04-01

    Consideration is given to the development status of the use of computers in automated integrated circuit design methods, which promise the minimization of both design time and design error incidence. Integrated circuit design encompasses two major tasks: error specification, in which the goal is a logic diagram that accurately represents the desired electronic function, and physical specification, in which the goal is an exact description of the physical locations of all circuit elements and their interconnections on the chip. Design automation not only saves money by reducing design and fabrication time, but also helps the community of systems and logic designers to work more innovatively. Attention is given to established design automation methodologies, programmable logic arrays, and design shortcuts.

  6. Design automation for integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condrat, Christopher

    Recent breakthroughs in silicon photonics technology are enabling the integration of optical devices into silicon-based semiconductor processes. Photonics technology enables high-speed, high-bandwidth, and high-fidelity communications on the chip-scale---an important development in an increasingly communications-oriented semiconductor world. Significant developments in silicon photonic manufacturing and integration are also enabling investigations into applications beyond that of traditional telecom: sensing, filtering, signal processing, quantum technology---and even optical computing. In effect, we are now seeing a convergence of communications and computation, where the traditional roles of optics and microelectronics are becoming blurred. As the applications for opto-electronic integrated circuits (OEICs) are developed, and manufacturing capabilities expand, design support is necessary to fully exploit the potential of this optics technology. Such design support for moving beyond custom-design to automated synthesis and optimization is not well developed. Scalability requires abstractions, which in turn enables and requires the use of optimization algorithms and design methodology flows. Design automation represents an opportunity to take OEIC design to a larger scale, facilitating design-space exploration, and laying the foundation for current and future optical applications---thus fully realizing the potential of this technology. This dissertation proposes design automation for integrated optic system design. Using a building-block model for optical devices, we provide an EDA-inspired design flow and methodologies for optical design automation. Underlying these flows and methodologies are new supporting techniques in behavioral and physical synthesis, as well as device-resynthesis techniques for thermal-aware system integration. We also provide modeling for optical devices and determine optimization and constraint parameters that guide the automation

  7. Genetic circuit design automation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Der, Bryan S; Shin, Jonghyeon; Vaidyanathan, Prashant; Paralanov, Vanya; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Ross, David; Densmore, Douglas; Voigt, Christopher A

    2016-04-01

    Computation can be performed in living cells by DNA-encoded circuits that process sensory information and control biological functions. Their construction is time-intensive, requiring manual part assembly and balancing of regulator expression. We describe a design environment, Cello, in which a user writes Verilog code that is automatically transformed into a DNA sequence. Algorithms build a circuit diagram, assign and connect gates, and simulate performance. Reliable circuit design requires the insulation of gates from genetic context, so that they function identically when used in different circuits. We used Cello to design 60 circuits forEscherichia coli(880,000 base pairs of DNA), for which each DNA sequence was built as predicted by the software with no additional tuning. Of these, 45 circuits performed correctly in every output state (up to 10 regulators and 55 parts), and across all circuits 92% of the output states functioned as predicted. Design automation simplifies the incorporation of genetic circuits into biotechnology projects that require decision-making, control, sensing, or spatial organization. PMID:27034378

  8. Automated design of aerospace structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Mccomb, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in structural analysis of aerospace vehicles is characterized, automated design technology is discussed, and an indication is given of the future direction of research in analysis and automated design. Representative computer programs for analysis typical of those in routine use in vehicle design activities are described, and results are shown for some selected analysis problems. Recent and planned advances in analysis capability are indicated. Techniques used to automate the more routine aspects of structural design are discussed, and some recently developed automated design computer programs are described. Finally, discussion is presented of early accomplishments in interdisciplinary automated design systems, and some indication of the future thrust of research in this field is given.

  9. Automated Hardware Design via Evolutionary Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohn, Jason D.; Colombano, Silvano P.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the application of evolutionary search to the process of automated engineering design. Evolutionary search techniques involve the simulation of Darwinian mechanisms by computer algorithms. In recent years, such techniques have attracted much attention because they are able to tackle a wide variety of difficult problems and frequently produce acceptable solutions. The results obtained are usually functional, often surprising, and typically "messy" because the algorithms are told to concentrate on the overriding objective and not elegance or simplicity. advantages. First, faster design cycles translate into time and, hence, cost savings. Second, automated design techniques can be made to scale well and hence better deal with increasing amounts of design complexity. Third, design quality can increase because design properties can be specified a priori. For example, size and weight specifications of a device, smaller and lighter than the best known design, might be optimized by the automated design technique. The domain of electronic circuit design is an advantageous platform in which to study automated design techniques because it is a rich design space that is well understood, permitting human-created designs to be compared to machine- generated designs. developed for circuit design was to automatically produce high-level integrated electronic circuit designs whose properties permit physical implementation in silicon. This process entailed designing an effective evolutionary algorithm and solving a difficult multiobjective optimization problem. FY 99 saw many accomplishments in this effort.

  10. Airborne electronics for automated flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, G. B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The increasing importance of airborne electronics for use in automated flight systems is briefly reviewed with attention to both basic aircraft control functions and flight management systems for operational use. The requirements for high levels of systems reliability are recognized. Design techniques are discussed and the areas of control systems, computing and communications are considered in terms of key technical problems and trends for their solution.

  11. Intelligent design system for design automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, Cirrus; Deif, Ismail; Katragadda, Prasanna; Knutson, Stanley

    2000-10-01

    In order to succeed in today's global, competitive market, companies need continuous improvements in their product development processes. These improvements should result in expending fewer resources on the design process while achieving better quality. Automating the design process reduces resources needed and allows designers to spend more time on creative aspects that improve the quality of design. For the last three decades, engineers and designers have been searching for better ways to automate the product development process. For certain classes of design problems, which cover a large portion of real world design situations, the process can be automated using knowledge-based systems. These are design problems in which the knowledge sources are known in advance. Using techniques from Knowledge-Based Engineering, knowledge is codified and inserted into a knowledge-based system. The system activates the design knowledge, automatically generating designs that satisfy the design constraints. To increase the return on investment of building automated design systems, Knowledge management methodologies and techniques are required for capturing, formalizing, storing, and searching design knowledge.

  12. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.

    1994-03-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents in electronic component cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. In addition, the use of robotic and automated systems can reduce the manual handling of parts that necessitates additional cleaning. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  13. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-07-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  14. Automated Core Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Yoko; Aiyoshi, Eitaro

    2005-07-15

    Multistate searching methods are a subfield of distributed artificial intelligence that aims to provide both principles for construction of complex systems involving multiple states and mechanisms for coordination of independent agents' actions. This paper proposes a multistate searching algorithm with reinforcement learning for the automatic core design of a boiling water reactor. The characteristics of this algorithm are that the coupling structure and the coupling operation suitable for the assigned problem are assumed and an optimal solution is obtained by mutual interference in multistate transitions using multiagents. Calculations in an actual plant confirmed that the proposed algorithm increased the convergence ability of the optimization process.

  15. Computer automated design and computer automated manufacture.

    PubMed

    Brncick, M

    2000-08-01

    The introduction of computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing into the field of prosthetics and orthotics did not arrive without concern. Many prosthetists feared that the computer would provide other allied health practitioners who had little or no experience in prosthetics the ability to fit and manage amputees. Technicians in the field felt their jobs may be jeopardized by automated fabrication techniques. This has not turned out to be the case. Prosthetists who use CAD-CAM techniques are finding they have more time for patient care and clinical assessment. CAD-CAM is another tool for them to provide better care for the patients/clients they serve. One of the factors that deterred the acceptance of CAD-CAM techniques in its early stages was that of cost. It took a significant investment in software and hardware for the prosthetists to begin to use the new systems. This new technique was not reimbursed by insurance coverage. Practitioners did not have enough information about this new technique to make a sound decision on their investment of time and money. Ironically, it is the need to hold health care costs down that may prove to be the catalyst for the increased use of CAD-CAM in the field. Providing orthoses and prostheses to patients who require them is a very labor intensive process. Practitioners are looking for better, faster, and more economical ways in which to provide their services under the pressure of managed care. CAD-CAM may be the answer. The author foresees shape sensing departments in hospitals where patients would be sent to be digitized, similar to someone going for radiograph or ultrasound. Afterwards, an orthosis or prosthesis could be provided from a central fabrication facility at a remote site, most likely on the same day. Not long ago, highly skilled practitioners with extensive technical ability would custom make almost every orthosis. One now practices in an atmosphere where off-the-shelf orthoses are the standard. This

  16. Automated Design of Quantum Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Colin P.; Gray, Alexander G.

    2000-01-01

    In order to design a quantum circuit that performs a desired quantum computation, it is necessary to find a decomposition of the unitary matrix that represents that computation in terms of a sequence of quantum gate operations. To date, such designs have either been found by hand or by exhaustive enumeration of all possible circuit topologies. In this paper we propose an automated approach to quantum circuit design using search heuristics based on principles abstracted from evolutionary genetics, i.e. using a genetic programming algorithm adapted specially for this problem. We demonstrate the method on the task of discovering quantum circuit designs for quantum teleportation. We show that to find a given known circuit design (one which was hand-crafted by a human), the method considers roughly an order of magnitude fewer designs than naive enumeration. In addition, the method finds novel circuit designs superior to those previously known.

  17. Automated design of flexible linkers.

    PubMed

    Manion, Charles; Arlitt, Ryan; Campbell, Matthew I; Tumer, Irem; Stone, Rob; Greaney, P Alex

    2016-03-14

    This paper presents a method for the systematic and automated design of flexible organic linkers for construction of metal organic-frameworks (MOFs) in which flexibility, compliance, or other mechanically exotic properties originate at the linker level rather than from the framework kinematics. Our method couples a graph grammar method for systematically generating linker like molecules with molecular dynamics modeling of linkers' mechanical response. Using this approach we have generated a candidate pool of >59,000 hypothetical linkers. We screen linker candidates according to their mechanical behaviors under large deformation, and extract fragments common to the most performant candidate materials. To demonstrate the general approach to MOF design we apply our system to designing linkers for pressure switching MOFs-MOFs that undergo reversible structural collapse after a stress threshold is exceeded. PMID:26687337

  18. Automated Engineering Design (AED); An approach to automated documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, C. W.

    1970-01-01

    The automated engineering design (AED) is reviewed, consisting of a high level systems programming language, a series of modular precoded subroutines, and a set of powerful software machine tools that effectively automate the production and design of new languages. AED is used primarily for development of problem and user-oriented languages. Software production phases are diagramed, and factors which inhibit effective documentation are evaluated.

  19. Automation of Design Engineering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torrey, Glenn; Sawasky, Gerald; Courey, Karim

    2004-01-01

    A method, and a computer program that helps to implement the method, have been developed to automate and systematize the retention and retrieval of all the written records generated during the process of designing a complex engineering system. It cannot be emphasized strongly enough that all the written records as used here is meant to be taken literally: it signifies not only final drawings and final engineering calculations but also such ancillary documents as minutes of meetings, memoranda, requests for design changes, approval and review documents, and reports of tests. One important purpose served by the method is to make the records readily available to all involved users via their computer workstations from one computer archive while eliminating the need for voluminous paper files stored in different places. Another important purpose served by the method is to facilitate the work of engineers who are charged with sustaining the system and were not involved in the original design decisions. The method helps the sustaining engineers to retrieve information that enables them to retrace the reasoning that led to the original design decisions, thereby helping them to understand the system better and to make informed engineering choices pertaining to maintenance and/or modifications of the system. The software used to implement the method is written in Microsoft Access. All of the documents pertaining to the design of a given system are stored in one relational database in such a manner that they can be related to each other via a single tracking number.

  20. Computer automation for feedback system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical techniques and explanations of various steps used by an automated computer program to design feedback systems are summarized. Special attention was given to refining the automatic evaluation suboptimal loop transmission and the translation of time to frequency domain specifications.

  1. Automated CPX support system preliminary design phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordeaux, T. A.; Carson, E. T.; Hepburn, C. D.; Shinnick, F. M.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the Distributed Command and Control System (DCCS) is discussed. The development of an automated C2 system stimulated the development of an automated command post exercise (CPX) support system to provide a more realistic stimulus to DCCS than could be achieved with the existing manual system. An automated CPX system to support corps-level exercise was designed. The effort comprised four tasks: (1) collecting and documenting user requirements; (2) developing a preliminary system design; (3) defining a program plan; and (4) evaluating the suitability of the TRASANA FOURCE computer model.

  2. Automated Simulation For Analysis And Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, E.; Shenk, Tim; Robinson, Peter; Upadhye, R.

    1992-01-01

    Design Assistant Workstation (DAWN) software being developed to facilitate simulation of qualitative and quantitative aspects of behavior of life-support system in spacecraft, chemical-processing plant, heating and cooling system of large building, or any of variety of systems including interacting process streams and processes. Used to analyze alternative design scenarios or specific designs of such systems. Expert system will automate part of design analysis: reason independently by simulating design scenarios and return to designer with overall evaluations and recommendations.

  3. Automated CAD design for sculptured airfoil surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S. D.; Yeagley, S. R.

    1990-11-01

    The design of tightly tolerated sculptured surfaces such as those for airfoils requires a significant design effort in order to machine the tools to create these surfaces. Because of the quantity of numerical data required to describe the airfoil surfaces, a CAD approach is required. Although this approach will result in productivity gains, much larger gains can be achieved by automating the design process. This paper discusses an application which resulted in an eightfold improvement in productivity by automating the design process on the CAD system.

  4. Design considerations for automated packaging operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenholtz, J.; Jones, J.; Kincy, M.

    1993-12-31

    The paper is based on work performed at Sandia National Laboratories to automate DOE packaging operations. It is a general summary of work from several projects which may be applicable to other packaging operations. Examples are provided of robotic operations which have been demonstrated as well as operations that are currently being developed. General design considerations for packages and for automated handling systems are described.

  5. An Automated Approach to Instructional Design Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, J. Michael; And Others

    This paper describes the Guided Approach to Instructional Design Advising (GAIDA), an automated instructional design tool that incorporates techniques of artificial intelligence. GAIDA was developed by the U.S. Air Force Armstrong Laboratory to facilitate the planning and production of interactive courseware and computer-based training materials.…

  6. Automated database design technology and tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Stewart N. T.

    1988-01-01

    The Automated Database Design Technology and Tools research project results are summarized in this final report. Comments on the state of the art in various aspects of database design are provided, and recommendations made for further research for SNAP and NAVMASSO future database applications.

  7. Automating Relational Database Design for Microcomputer Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Hao-Che

    1991-01-01

    Discusses issues involved in automating the relational database design process for microcomputer users and presents a prototype of a microcomputer-based system (RA, Relation Assistant) that is based on expert systems technology and helps avoid database maintenance problems. Relational database design is explained and the importance of easy input…

  8. Automated solar collector installation design

    DOEpatents

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-08-26

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives.

  9. Automated ILA design for synchronous sequential circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, M. N.; Liu, K. Z.; Maki, G. K.; Whitaker, S. R.

    1991-01-01

    An iterative logic array (ILA) architecture for synchronous sequential circuits is presented. This technique utilizes linear algebra to produce the design equations. The ILA realization of synchronous sequential logic can be fully automated with a computer program. A programmable design procedure is proposed to fullfill the design task and layout generation. A software algorithm in the C language has been developed and tested to generate 1 micron CMOS layouts using the Hewlett-Packard FUNGEN module generator shell.

  10. Automated Design of Quantum Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, C.; Gray, G.

    1998-01-01

    In order to design a quantum circuit that performs a desired quantum computation, it is necessary to find a decomposition of the unitary matrix that represents that computation in terms of a sequence of quantum gate operations.

  11. Improved automated electronic balance calibration program

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.P.; Frickey, E.M.

    1995-11-01

    An improved automated electronic balance calibration and record system has been developed using a spread sheet to consolidate information required to calibrate electronic balances and satisfy requirements for traceability, validation and documentation. Several improvements have been made over an Epson HX-20{trademark} notebook computer-based balance calibration system, which was developed at the Savannah River Site in 1986 and used continuously since to annually calibrate electronic balances. These improvements included: built in tables of balance models performance test limits and calibration standards` apparent masses & uncertainties; calculated ratios of balance to test weight uncertainties; bar-code data input; enhanced graphs and tables; and permanent electronic records. The software and hardware were thoroughly tested by calibrating 30 balances in another department. Hardware for importing data from balances through an RS-232 interface and bar code reader into a portable computer`s spread sheet was evaluated and found to add little value to the calibration process. Computerized data collection minimizes record handling and reduces paper work costs by >50%. Databases are established for each organization`s electronic balances that contain records for each balance that are identified by model, property identification number and location. In addition, each record contains calibration and expiration dates, performance testing information, etc. Details of equipment, statistical testing, spread sheet features and examples of the program are described.

  12. Design of Inhouse Automated Library Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Edwin M.

    1984-01-01

    Examines six steps inherent to development of in-house automated library system: (1) problem definition, (2) requirement specifications, (3) analysis of alternatives and solutions, (4, 5) design and implementation of hardware and software, and (6) evaluation. Practical method for comparing and weighting options is illustrated and explained. A…

  13. Banning design automation software implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehlthau, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The research is reported for developing a system of computer programs to aid engineering in the design, fabrication, and testing of large scale integrated circuits, hybrid circuits, and printed circuit boards. The automatic layout programs, analysis programs, and interface programs are discussed.

  14. Automated mixed traffic vehicle design AMTV 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. R.; Marks, R. A.; Cassell, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The design of an improved and enclosed Automated Mixed Traffic Transit (AMTT) vehicle is described. AMTT is an innovative concept for low-speed tram-type transit in which suitable vehicles are equipped with sensors and controls to permit them to operate in an automated mode on existing road or walkway surfaces. The vehicle chassis and body design are presented in terms of sketches and photographs. The functional design of the sensing and control system is presented, and modifications which could be made to the baseline design for improved performance, in particular to incorporate a 20-mph capability, are also discussed. The vehicle system is described at the block-diagram-level of detail. Specifications and parameter values are given where available.

  15. j5 DNA assembly design automation.

    PubMed

    Hillson, Nathan J

    2014-01-01

    Modern standardized methodologies, described in detail in the previous chapters of this book, have enabled the software-automated design of optimized DNA construction protocols. This chapter describes how to design (combinatorial) scar-less DNA assembly protocols using the web-based software j5. j5 assists biomedical and biotechnological researchers construct DNA by automating the design of optimized protocols for flanking homology sequence as well as type IIS endonuclease-mediated DNA assembly methodologies. Unlike any other software tool available today, j5 designs scar-less combinatorial DNA assembly protocols, performs a cost-benefit analysis to identify which portions of an assembly process would be less expensive to outsource to a DNA synthesis service provider, and designs hierarchical DNA assembly strategies to mitigate anticipated poor assembly junction sequence performance. Software integrated with j5 add significant value to the j5 design process through graphical user-interface enhancement and downstream liquid-handling robotic laboratory automation. PMID:24395369

  16. Automating software design system DESTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovitsky, Vladimir A.; Pearce, Patricia D.

    1992-01-01

    'DESTA' is the acronym for the Dialogue Evolutionary Synthesizer of Turnkey Algorithms by means of a natural language (Russian or English) functional specification of algorithms or software being developed. DESTA represents the computer-aided and/or automatic artificial intelligence 'forgiving' system which provides users with software tools support for algorithm and/or structured program development. The DESTA system is intended to provide support for the higher levels and earlier stages of engineering design of software in contrast to conventional Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems which provide low level tools for use at a stage when the major planning and structuring decisions have already been taken. DESTA is a knowledge-intensive system. The main features of the knowledge are procedures, functions, modules, operating system commands, batch files, their natural language specifications, and their interlinks. The specific domain for the DESTA system is a high level programming language like Turbo Pascal 6.0. The DESTA system is operational and runs on an IBM PC computer.

  17. Design automation techniques for custom LSI arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, A.

    1975-01-01

    The standard cell design automation technique is described as an approach for generating random logic PMOS, CMOS or CMOS/SOS custom large scale integration arrays with low initial nonrecurring costs and quick turnaround time or design cycle. The system is composed of predesigned circuit functions or cells and computer programs capable of automatic placement and interconnection of the cells in accordance with an input data net list. The program generates a set of instructions to drive an automatic precision artwork generator. A series of support design automation and simulation programs are described, including programs for verifying correctness of the logic on the arrays, performing dc and dynamic analysis of MOS devices, and generating test sequences.

  18. j5 DNA assembly design automation software.

    PubMed

    Hillson, Nathan J; Rosengarten, Rafael D; Keasling, Jay D

    2012-01-20

    Recent advances in Synthetic Biology have yielded standardized and automatable DNA assembly protocols that enable a broad range of biotechnological research and development. Unfortunately, the experimental design required for modern scar-less multipart DNA assembly methods is frequently laborious, time-consuming, and error-prone. Here, we report the development and deployment of a web-based software tool, j5, which automates the design of scar-less multipart DNA assembly protocols including SLIC, Gibson, CPEC, and Golden Gate. The key innovations of the j5 design process include cost optimization, leveraging DNA synthesis when cost-effective to do so, the enforcement of design specification rules, hierarchical assembly strategies to mitigate likely assembly errors, and the instruction of manual or automated construction of scar-less combinatorial DNA libraries. Using a GFP expression testbed, we demonstrate that j5 designs can be executed with the SLIC, Gibson, or CPEC assembly methods, used to build combinatorial libraries with the Golden Gate assembly method, and applied to the preparation of linear gene deletion cassettes for E. coli. The DNA assembly design algorithms reported here are generally applicable to broad classes of DNA construction methodologies and could be implemented to supplement other DNA assembly design tools. Taken together, these innovations save researchers time and effort, reduce the frequency of user design errors and off-target assembly products, decrease research costs, and enable scar-less multipart and combinatorial DNA construction at scales unfeasible without computer-aided design. PMID:23651006

  19. Handbook: Design of automated redundancy verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, F. A.; Hasslinger, T. W.; Moreno, F. J.

    1971-01-01

    The use of the handbook is discussed and the design progress is reviewed. A description of the problem is presented, and examples are given to illustrate the necessity for redundancy verification, along with the types of situations to which it is typically applied. Reusable space vehicles, such as the space shuttle, are recognized as being significant in the development of the automated redundancy verification problem.

  20. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins’ functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000–160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging.

  1. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins’ functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000–160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging. PMID:27403922

  2. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins' functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000-160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging. PMID:27403922

  3. Design of the hybrid automated reliability predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geist, R.; Trivedi, K.; Dugan, J. B.; Smotherman, M.

    1983-01-01

    The design of the Hybrid Automated Reliability Predictor (HARP), now under development at Duke University, is presented. The HARP approach to reliability prediction is characterized by a decomposition of the overall model into fault-occurrence and fault-handling sub-models. The fault-occurrence model is a non-homogeneous Markov chain which is solved analytically, while the fault-handling model is a Petri Net which is simulated. HARP provides automated analysis of sensitivity to uncertainties in the input parameters and in the initial state specifications. It then produces a predicted reliability band as a function of mission time, as well as estimates of the improvement (narrowing of the band) to be gained by a specified amount of reduction in uncertainty.

  4. Automated Antenna Design with Evolutionary Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, Derek; Hornby, Greg; Lohn, Jason; Globus, Al; Krishunkumor, K.

    2006-01-01

    Current methods of designing and optimizing antennas by hand are time and labor intensive, and limit complexity. Evolutionary design techniques can overcome these limitations by searching the design space and automatically finding effective solutions. In recent years, evolutionary algorithms have shown great promise in finding practical solutions in large, poorly understood design spaces. In particular, spacecraft antenna design has proven tractable to evolutionary design techniques. Researchers have been investigating evolutionary antenna design and optimization since the early 1990s, and the field has grown in recent years as computer speed has increased and electromagnetic simulators have improved. Two requirements-compliant antennas, one for ST5 and another for TDRS-C, have been automatically designed by evolutionary algorithms. The ST5 antenna is slated to fly this year, and a TDRS-C phased array element has been fabricated and tested. Such automated evolutionary design is enabled by medium-to-high quality simulators and fast modern computers to evaluate computer-generated designs. Evolutionary algorithms automate cut-and-try engineering, substituting automated search though millions of potential designs for intelligent search by engineers through a much smaller number of designs. For evolutionary design, the engineer chooses the evolutionary technique, parameters and the basic form of the antenna, e.g., single wire for ST5 and crossed-element Yagi for TDRS-C. Evolutionary algorithms then search for optimal configurations in the space defined by the engineer. NASA's Space Technology 5 (ST5) mission will launch three small spacecraft to test innovative concepts and technologies. Advanced evolutionary algorithms were used to automatically design antennas for ST5. The combination of wide beamwidth for a circularly-polarized wave and wide impedance bandwidth made for a challenging antenna design problem. From past experience in designing wire antennas, we chose to

  5. Automating Risk Analysis of Software Design Models

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Guifré; Heymann, Elisa; César, Eduardo; Miller, Barton P.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of the internet and networked systems has exposed software to an increased amount of security threats. One of the responses from software developers to these threats is the introduction of security activities in the software development lifecycle. This paper describes an approach to reduce the need for costly human expertise to perform risk analysis in software, which is common in secure development methodologies, by automating threat modeling. Reducing the dependency on security experts aims at reducing the cost of secure development by allowing non-security-aware developers to apply secure development with little to no additional cost, making secure development more accessible. To automate threat modeling two data structures are introduced, identification trees and mitigation trees, to identify threats in software designs and advise mitigation techniques, while taking into account specification requirements and cost concerns. These are the components of our model for automated threat modeling, AutSEC. We validated AutSEC by implementing it in a tool based on data flow diagrams, from the Microsoft security development methodology, and applying it to VOMS, a grid middleware component, to evaluate our model's performance. PMID:25136688

  6. Automating risk analysis of software design models.

    PubMed

    Frydman, Maxime; Ruiz, Guifré; Heymann, Elisa; César, Eduardo; Miller, Barton P

    2014-01-01

    The growth of the internet and networked systems has exposed software to an increased amount of security threats. One of the responses from software developers to these threats is the introduction of security activities in the software development lifecycle. This paper describes an approach to reduce the need for costly human expertise to perform risk analysis in software, which is common in secure development methodologies, by automating threat modeling. Reducing the dependency on security experts aims at reducing the cost of secure development by allowing non-security-aware developers to apply secure development with little to no additional cost, making secure development more accessible. To automate threat modeling two data structures are introduced, identification trees and mitigation trees, to identify threats in software designs and advise mitigation techniques, while taking into account specification requirements and cost concerns. These are the components of our model for automated threat modeling, AutSEC. We validated AutSEC by implementing it in a tool based on data flow diagrams, from the Microsoft security development methodology, and applying it to VOMS, a grid middleware component, to evaluate our model's performance. PMID:25136688

  7. Designing Electronic Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip; Manji, Karim

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the design of interactive environments focuses on three types of electronic book metaphors that use optical discs and can facilitate computer-based learning: (1) static picture books, (2) moving picture books, and (3) multimedia books. Guidelines for designing electronic books are presented, and future directions are discussed. (17…

  8. Automated Procedure for Roll Pass Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambiase, F.; Langella, A.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work has been to develop an automatic roll pass design method, capable of minimizing the number of roll passes. The adoption of artificial intelligence technologies, particularly expert systems, and a hybrid model for the surface profile evaluation of rolled bars, has allowed us to model the search for the minimal sequence with a tree path search. This approach permitted a geometrical optimization of roll passes while allowing automation of the roll pass design process. Moreover, the heuristic nature of the inferential engine contributes a great deal toward reducing search time, thus allowing such a system to be employed for industrial purposes. Finally, this new approach was compared with other recently developed automatic systems to validate and measure possible improvements among them.

  9. Automating analog design: Taming the shrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, A.

    1990-01-01

    The pace of progress in the design of integrated circuits continues to amaze observers inside and outside of the industry. Three decades ago, a 50 transistor chip was a technological wonder. Fifteen year later, a 5000 transistor device would 'wow' the crowds. Today, 50,000 transistor chips will earn a 'not too bad' assessment, but it takes 500,000 to really leave an impression. In 1975 a typical ASIC device had 1000 transistors, took one year to first samples (and two years to production) and sold for about 5 cents per transistor. Today's 50,000 transistor gate array takes about 4 months from spec to silicon, works the first time, and sells for about 0.02 cents per transistor. Fifteen years ago, the single most laborious and error prone step in IC design was the physical layout. Today, most IC's never see the hand of a layout designer: and automatic place and route tool converts the engineer's computer captured schematic to a complete physical design using a gate array or a library of standard cells also created by software rather than by designers. CAD has also been a generous benefactor to the digital design process. The architect of today's digital systems creates the design using an RTL or other high level simulator. Then the designer pushes a button to invoke the logic synthesizer-optimizer tool. A fault analyzer checks the result for testability and suggests where scan based cells will improve test coverage. One obstinate holdout amidst this parade of progress is the automation of analog design and its reduction to semi-custom techniques. This paper investigates the application of CAD techniques to analog design.

  10. Team-Centered Perspective for Adaptive Automation Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2003-01-01

    Automation represents a very active area of human factors research. The journal, Human Factors, published a special issue on automation in 1985. Since then, hundreds of scientific studies have been published examining the nature of automation and its interaction with human performance. However, despite a dramatic increase in research investigating human factors issues in aviation automation, there remain areas that need further exploration. This NASA Technical Memorandum describes a new area of automation design and research, called adaptive automation. It discusses the concepts and outlines the human factors issues associated with the new method of adaptive function allocation. The primary focus is on human-centered design, and specifically on ensuring that adaptive automation is from a team-centered perspective. The document shows that adaptive automation has many human factors issues common to traditional automation design. Much like the introduction of other new technologies and paradigm shifts, adaptive automation presents an opportunity to remediate current problems but poses new ones for human-automation interaction in aerospace operations. The review here is intended to communicate the philosophical perspective and direction of adaptive automation research conducted under the Aerospace Operations Systems (AOS), Physiological and Psychological Stressors and Factors (PPSF) project.

  11. Automated Design Space Exploration with Aspen

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Spafford, Kyle L.; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Architects and applications scientists often use performance models to explore a multidimensional design space of architectural characteristics, algorithm designs, and application parameters. With traditional performance modeling tools, these explorations forced users to first develop a performance model and then repeatedly evaluate and analyze the model manually. These manual investigations proved laborious and error prone. More importantly, the complexity of this traditional process often forced users to simplify their investigations. To address this challenge of design space exploration, we extend our Aspen (Abstract Scalable Performance Engineering Notation) language with three new language constructs: user-defined resources, parameter ranges, and a collection ofmore » costs in the abstract machine model. Then, we use these constructs to enable automated design space exploration via a nonlinear optimization solver. We show how four interesting classes of design space exploration scenarios can be derived from Aspen models and formulated as pure nonlinear programs. The analysis tools are demonstrated using examples based on Aspen models for a three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform, the CoMD molecular dynamics proxy application, and the DARPA Streaming Sensor Challenge Problem. Our results show that this approach can compose and solve arbitrary performance modeling questions quickly and rigorously when compared to the traditional manual approach.« less

  12. Analyzing Automated Instructional Systems: Metaphors from Related Design Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.; Wilson, Brent G.

    Noting that automation has had an impact on virtually every manufacturing and information operation in the world, including instructional design (ID), this paper suggests three basic metaphors for automating instructional design activities: (1) computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems; (2) expert system advisor systems; and (3)…

  13. Automated design tools for biophotonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacca, Giacomo; Lehtimäki, Hannu; Karras, Tapio; Murphy, Sean

    2014-03-01

    Traditional design methods for flow cytometers and other complex biophotonic systems are increasingly recognized as a major bottleneck in instrumentation development. The many manual steps involved in the analysis and translation of the design, from optical layout to a detailed mechanical model and ultimately to a fully functional instrument, are laborintensive and prone to wasteful trial-and-error iterations. We have developed two complementary, linked technologies that address this problem: one design tool (LiveIdeas™) provides an intuitive environment for interactive, real-time simulations of system-level performance; the other tool (BeamWise™) automates the generation of mechanical 3D CAD models based on those simulations. The strength of our approach lies in a parametric modeling strategy that breaks boundaries between engineering subsystems (e.g., optics and fluidics) to predict critical behavior of the instrument as a whole. The results: 70 percent reduction in early-stage project effort, significantly enhancing the probability of success by virtue of a more efficient exploration of the design space.

  14. Flight control system design factors for applying automated testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitz, Joel R.; Vernon, Todd H.

    1990-01-01

    Automated validation of flight-critical embedded systems is being done at ARC Dryden Flight Research Facility. The automated testing techniques are being used to perform closed-loop validation of man-rated flight control systems. The principal design features and operational experiences of the X-29 forward-swept-wing aircraft and F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) automated test systems are discussed. Operationally applying automated testing techniques has accentuated flight control system features that either help or hinder the application of these techniques. The paper also discusses flight control system features which foster the use of automated testing techniques.

  15. Large scale oil lease automation and electronic custody transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Price, C.R.; Elmer, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Typically, oil field production operations have only been automated at fields with long term production profiles and enhanced recovery. The automation generally consists of monitoring and control at the wellhead and centralized facilities. However, Union Pacific Resources Co. (UPRC) has successfully implemented a large scale automation program for rapid-decline primary recovery Austin Chalk wells where purchasers buy and transport oil from each individual wellsite. This project has resulted in two significant benefits. First, operators are using the system to re-engineer their work processes. Second, an inter-company team created a new electronic custody transfer method. This paper will describe: the progression of the company`s automation objectives in the area; the field operator`s interaction with the system, and the related benefits; the research and development of the new electronic custody transfer method.

  16. Rapid iterative reanalysis for automated design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, K. G.

    1973-01-01

    A method for iterative reanalysis in automated structural design is presented for a finite-element analysis using the direct stiffness approach. A basic feature of the method is that the generalized stiffness and inertia matrices are expressed as functions of structural design parameters, and these generalized matrices are expanded in Taylor series about the initial design. Only the linear terms are retained in the expansions. The method is approximate because it uses static condensation, modal reduction, and the linear Taylor series expansions. The exact linear representation of the expansions of the generalized matrices is also described and a basis for the present method is established. Results of applications of the present method to the recalculation of the natural frequencies of two simple platelike structural models are presented and compared with results obtained by using a commonly applied analysis procedure used as a reference. In general, the results are in good agreement. A comparison of the computer times required for the use of the present method and the reference method indicated that the present method required substantially less time for reanalysis. Although the results presented are for relatively small-order problems, the present method will become more efficient relative to the reference method as the problem size increases. An extension of the present method to static reanalysis is described, ana a basis for unifying the static and dynamic reanalysis procedures is presented.

  17. Designing the Electronic Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Laural L.

    In an increasingly technological environment, traditional teaching presentation methods such as the podium, overhead, and transparencies are no longer sufficient. This document serves as a guide to designing and planning an electronic classroom for "bidirectional" communication between teacher and student. Topics include: (1) determining whether…

  18. DASLL. Printed Circuit Board Design Automation

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, W.G.Jr.; Willett, G.W.

    1983-06-03

    DASLL (Design Automation System at Lawrence Livermore) is a set of computer programs for printed circuit board (PCB) layout. The DASLL system can process a number of PCB trimlines, including: DEC 1, 2, 4, and 6 high configurations, CLI, Augat, Varian, and several rectangular geometries; others can be added. Over 800 components and generic package types are available in DASLLDB, the system reference library. Two-layer boards with non-gridded (structured) power and ground busses are supported, and PCB densities of approximately 1.2 square inches per equivalent IC (or less dense) are best accommodated by DASLL. The system has been used to make etch artwork and drill tapes (starting with a schematic drawing) for a six IC CLI board in less than two working days. Initial processing will produce reports and computer printer-plots which can be used to verify the input. Final output can include silkscreen photo-artwork, PCB etch photo-artwork, punched paper tapes for the SLO-SYN and Pratt-Whitney N/C drill machines, and computer listings of signal strings, parts lists, etc.

  19. Design automation for integrated nonlinear logic circuits (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Thomas; Pelc, Jason; Santori, Charles; Bose, Ranojoy; Kielpinski, Dave; Beausoleil, Raymond G.

    2016-05-01

    A key enabler of the IT revolution of the late 20th century was the development of electronic design automation (EDA) tools allowing engineers to manage the complexity of electronic circuits with transistor counts now reaching into the billions. Recently, we have been developing large-scale nonlinear photonic integrated logic circuits for next generation all-optical information processing. At this time a sufficiently powerful EDA-style software tool chain to design this type of complex circuits does not yet exist. Here we describe a hierarchical approach to automating the design and validation of photonic integrated circuits, which can scale to several orders of magnitude higher complexity than the state of the art. Most photonic integrated circuits developed today consist of a small number of components, and only limited hierarchy. For example, a simple photonic transceiver may contain on the order of 10 building-block components, consisting of grating couplers for photonic I/O, modulators, and signal splitters/combiners. Because this is relatively easy to lay out by hand (or simple script) existing photonic design tools have relatively little automation in comparison to electronics tools. But demonstrating all-optical logic will require significantly more complex photonic circuits containing up to 1,000 components, hence becoming infeasible to design manually. Our design framework is based off Python-based software from Luceda Photonics which provides an environment to describe components, simulate their behavior, and export design files (GDS) to foundries for fabrication. At a fundamental level, a photonic component is described as a parametric cell (PCell) similarly to electronics design. PCells are described by geometric characteristics of their layout. A critical part of the design framework is the implementation of PCells as Python objects. PCell objects can then use inheritance to simplify design, and hierarchical designs can be made by creating composite

  20. Design of automated system for management of arrival traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Nedell, William

    1989-01-01

    The design of an automated air traffic control system based on a hierarchy of advisory tools for controllers is described. Compatibility of the tools with the human controller, a key objective of the design, is achieved by a judicious selection of tasks to be automated and careful attention to the design of the controller system interface. The design comprises three interconnected subsystems referred to as the Traffic Management Advisor, the Descent Advisor, and the Final Approach Spacing Tool. Each of these subsystems provides a collection of tools for specific controller positions and tasks. The design of two of these tools, the Descent Advisor, which provides automation tools for managing descent traffic, and the Traffic Management Advisor, which generates optimum landing schedules is focused on. The algorithms, automation modes, and graphical interfaces incorporated in the design are described.

  1. EXADS - EXPERT SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED DESIGN SYNTHESIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The expert system called EXADS was developed to aid users of the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general purpose optimization program. Because of the general purpose nature of ADS, it is difficult for a nonexpert to select the best choice of strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search options from the one hundred or so combinations that are available. EXADS aids engineers in determining the best combination based on their knowledge of the problem and the expert knowledge previously stored by experts who developed ADS. EXADS is a customized application of the AESOP artificial intelligence program (the general version of AESOP is available separately from COSMIC. The ADS program is also available from COSMIC.) The expert system consists of two main components. The knowledge base contains about 200 rules and is divided into three categories: constrained, unconstrained, and constrained treated as unconstrained. The EXADS inference engine is rule-based and makes decisions about a particular situation using hypotheses (potential solutions), rules, and answers to questions drawn from the rule base. EXADS is backward-chaining, that is, it works from hypothesis to facts. The rule base was compiled from sources such as literature searches, ADS documentation, and engineer surveys. EXADS will accept answers such as yes, no, maybe, likely, and don't know, or a certainty factor ranging from 0 to 10. When any hypothesis reaches a confidence level of 90% or more, it is deemed as the best choice and displayed to the user. If no hypothesis is confirmed, the user can examine explanations of why the hypotheses failed to reach the 90% level. The IBM PC version of EXADS is written in IQ-LISP for execution under DOS 2.0 or higher with a central memory requirement of approximately 512K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1986.

  2. Automated electronic system for measuring thermophysical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creel, T. R., Jr.; Jones, R. A.; Corwin, R. R.; Kramer, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Phase-charge coatings are used to measure surface temperature accurately under transient heating conditions. Coating melts when surface reaches calibrated phase-charge temperature. Temperature is monitored by infrared thermometer, and corresponding elapsed time is recorded by electronic data-handling system.

  3. An Intelligent Automation Platform for Rapid Bioprocess Design

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tianyi

    2014-01-01

    Bioprocess development is very labor intensive, requiring many experiments to characterize each unit operation in the process sequence to achieve product safety and process efficiency. Recent advances in microscale biochemical engineering have led to automated experimentation. A process design workflow is implemented sequentially in which (1) a liquid-handling system performs high-throughput wet lab experiments, (2) standalone analysis devices detect the data, and (3) specific software is used for data analysis and experiment design given the user’s inputs. We report an intelligent automation platform that integrates these three activities to enhance the efficiency of such a workflow. A multiagent intelligent architecture has been developed incorporating agent communication to perform the tasks automatically. The key contribution of this work is the automation of data analysis and experiment design and also the ability to generate scripts to run the experiments automatically, allowing the elimination of human involvement. A first-generation prototype has been established and demonstrated through lysozyme precipitation process design. All procedures in the case study have been fully automated through an intelligent automation platform. The realization of automated data analysis and experiment design, and automated script programming for experimental procedures has the potential to increase lab productivity. PMID:24088579

  4. Designing Domain-Specific HUMS Architectures: An Automated Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, Ravi; Agarwal, Neha; Kumar, Pramod; Sundaram, Parthiban

    2004-01-01

    The HUMS automation system automates the design of HUMS architectures. The automated design process involves selection of solutions from a large space of designs as well as pure synthesis of designs. Hence the whole objective is to efficiently search for or synthesize designs or parts of designs in the database and to integrate them to form the entire system design. The automation system adopts two approaches in order to produce the designs: (a) Bottom-up approach and (b) Top down approach. Both the approaches are endowed with a Suite of quantitative and quantitative techniques that enable a) the selection of matching component instances, b) the determination of design parameters, c) the evaluation of candidate designs at component-level and at system-level, d) the performance of cost-benefit analyses, e) the performance of trade-off analyses, etc. In short, the automation system attempts to capitalize on the knowledge developed from years of experience in engineering, system design and operation of the HUMS systems in order to economically produce the most optimal and domain-specific designs.

  5. TARDIS: An Automation Framework for JPL Mission Design and Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roundhill, Ian M.; Kelly, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Mission Design and Navigation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has implemented an automation framework tool to assist in orbit determination and maneuver design analysis. This paper describes the lessons learned from previous automation tools and how they have been implemented in this tool. In addition this tool has revealed challenges in software implementation, testing, and user education. This paper describes some of these challenges and invites others to share their experiences.

  6. The Electronic Nose Training Automation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schattke, Nathan

    2002-01-01

    The electronic nose is a method of using several sensors in conjunction to identify an unknown gas. Statistical analysis has shown that a large number of training exposures need to be performed in order to get a model that can be depended on. The number of training exposures needed is on the order of 1000. Data acquisition from the noses are generally automatic and built in. The gas generation equipment consists of a Miller-Nelson (MN) flow/temperature/humidity controller and a Kin-Tek (KT) trace gas generator. This equipment has been controlled in the past by an old data acquisition and control system. The new system will use new control boards and an easy graphical user interface. The programming for this is in the LabVIEW G programming language. A language easy for the user to make modifications to. This paper details some of the issues in selecting the components and programming the connections. It is not a primer on LabVIEW programming, a separate CD is being delivered with website files to teach that.

  7. Delivery validation of an automated modulated electron radiotherapy plan

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, T. Papaconstadopoulos, P.; Alexander, A.; Serban, M.; Devic, S.; Seuntjens, J.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) represents an active area of interest that offers the potential to improve healthy tissue sparing in treatment of certain cancer cases. Challenges remain however in accurate beamlet dose calculation, plan optimization, collimation method, and delivery accuracy. In this work, the authors investigate the accuracy and efficiency of an end-to-end MERT plan and automated delivery method. Methods: Treatment planning was initiated on a previously treated whole breast irradiation case including an electron boost. All dose calculations were performed using Monte Carlo methods and beam weights were determined using a research-based treatment planning system capable of inverse optimization. The plan was delivered to radiochromic film placed in a water equivalent phantom for verification, using an automated motorized tertiary collimator. Results: The automated delivery, which covered four electron energies, 196 subfields, and 6183 total MU was completed in 25.8 min, including 6.2 min of beam-on time. The remainder of the delivery time was spent on collimator leaf motion and the automated interfacing with the accelerator in service mode. Comparison of the planned and delivered film dose gave 3%/3mm gamma pass rates of 62.1%, 99.8%, 97.8%, 98.3%, and 98.7% for the 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV, and combined energy deliveries, respectively. Delivery was also performed with a MapCHECK device and resulted in 3%/3  mm gamma pass rates of 88.8%, 86.1%, 89.4%, and 94.8% for the 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV energies, respectively. Conclusions: Results of the authors’ study showed that an accurate delivery utilizing an add-on tertiary electron collimator is possible using Monte Carlo calculated plans and inverse optimization, which brings MERT closer to becoming a viable option for physicians in treating superficial malignancies.

  8. Software design for automated assembly of truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herstrom, Catherine L.; Grantham, Carolyn; Allen, Cheryl L.; Doggett, William R.; Will, Ralph W.

    1992-01-01

    Concern over the limited intravehicular activity time has increased the interest in performing in-space assembly and construction operations with automated robotic systems. A technique being considered at LaRC is a supervised-autonomy approach, which can be monitored by an Earth-based supervisor that intervenes only when the automated system encounters a problem. A test-bed to support evaluation of the hardware and software requirements for supervised-autonomy assembly methods was developed. This report describes the design of the software system necessary to support the assembly process. The software is hierarchical and supports both automated assembly operations and supervisor error-recovery procedures, including the capability to pause and reverse any operation. The software design serves as a model for the development of software for more sophisticated automated systems and as a test-bed for evaluation of new concepts and hardware components.

  9. A Toolset for Supporting Iterative Human Automation: Interaction in Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The addition of automation has greatly extended humans' capability to accomplish tasks, including those that are difficult, complex and safety critical. The majority of Human - Automation Interacton (HAl) results in more efficient and safe operations, ho,,:,ever ertain unpected atomatlon behaviors or "automation surprises" can be frustrating and, In certain safety critical operations (e.g. transporttion, manufacturing control, medicine), may result in injuries or. the loss of life.. (Mellor, 1994; Leveson, 1995; FAA, 1995; BASI, 1998; Sheridan, 2002). This papr describes he development of a design tool that enables on the rapid development and evaluation. of automaton prototypes. The ultimate goal of the work is to provide a design platform upon which automation surprise vulnerability analyses can be integrated.

  10. Design of electronic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Taya, M.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the requirements of selected electronic composites with application to electronic packaging, then focuses on the modeling for the microstructure-macrobehavior relation of electronic composites. The modeling depends on the microstructure, percolative and non-percolative.

  11. How the new optoelectronic design automation industry is taking advantage of preexisting EDA standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesmith, Kevin A.; Carver, Susan

    2014-05-01

    With the advancements in design processes down to the sub 7nm levels, the Electronic Design Automation industry appears to be coming to an end of advancements, as the size of the silicon atom becomes the limiting factor. Or is it? The commercial viability of mass-producing silicon photonics is bringing about the Optoelectronic Design Automation (OEDA) industry. With the science of photonics in its infancy, adding these circuits to ever-increasing complex electronic designs, will allow for new generations of advancements. Learning from the past 50 years of the EDA industry's mistakes and missed opportunities, the photonics industry is starting with electronic standards and extending them to become photonically aware. Adapting the use of pre-existing standards into this relatively new industry will allow for easier integration into the present infrastructure and faster time to market.

  12. Semi-Automated Diagnosis, Repair, and Rework of Spacecraft Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Oeftering, Richard C.; Easton, John W.; Anderson, Eric E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program for Exploration of the Moon and Mars places human crews in extreme isolation in resource scarce environments. Near Earth, the discontinuation of Space Shuttle flights after 2010 will alter the up- and down-mass capacity for the International Space Station (ISS). NASA is considering new options for logistics support strategies for future missions. Aerospace systems are often composed of replaceable modular blocks that minimize the need for complex service operations in the field. Such a strategy however, implies a robust and responsive logistics infrastructure with relatively low transportation costs. The modular Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) used for ISS requires relatively large blocks of replacement hardware even though the actual failed component may really be three orders of magnitude smaller. The ability to perform in-situ repair of electronics circuits at the component level can dramatically reduce the scale of spares and related logistics cost. This ability also reduces mission risk, increases crew independence and improves the overall supportability of the program. The Component-Level Electronics Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task under the NASA Supportability program was established to demonstrate the practicality of repair by first investigating widely used soldering materials and processes (M&P) performed by modest manual means. The work will result in program guidelines for performing manual repairs along with design guidance for circuit reparability. The next phase of CLEAR recognizes that manual repair has its limitations and some highly integrated devices are extremely difficult to handle and demand semi-automated equipment. Further, electronics repairs require a broad range of diagnostic capability to isolate the faulty components. Finally repairs must pass functional tests to determine that the repairs are successful and the circuit can be returned to service. To prevent equipment demands from exceeding spacecraft volume

  13. Design of Center-TRACON Automation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Davis, Thomas J.; Green, Steven

    1993-01-01

    A system for the automated management and control of terminal area traffic, referred to as the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS), is being developed at NASA Ames Research Center. In a cooperative program, NASA and FAA have efforts underway to install and evaluate the system at the Denver area and Dallas/Ft. Worth area air traffic control facilities. This paper will review CTAS architecture, and automation functions as well as the integration of CTAS into the existing operational system. CTAS consists of three types of integrated tools that provide computer-generated advisories for both en-route and terminal area controllers to guide them in managing and controlling arrival traffic efficiently. One tool, the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA), generates runway assignments, landing sequences and landing times for all arriving aircraft, including those originating from nearby feeder airports. TMA also assists in runway configuration control and flow management. Another tool, the Descent Advisor (DA), generates clearances for the en-route controllers handling arrival flows to metering gates. The DA's clearances ensure fuel-efficient and conflict free descents to the metering gates at specified crossing times. In the terminal area, the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST) provides heading and speed advisories that help controllers produce an accurately spaced flow of aircraft on the final approach course. Data bases consisting of several hundred aircraft performance models, airline preferred operational procedures, and a three dimensional wind model support the operation of CTAS. The first component of CTAS, the Traffic Management Advisor, is being evaluated at the Denver TRACON and the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center. The second component, the Final Approach Spacing Tool, will be evaluated in several stages at the Dallas/Fort Worth Airport beginning in October 1993. An initial stage of the Descent Advisor tool is being prepared for testing at the Denver Center

  14. Automating the design process - Progress, problems, prospects, potential.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenfels, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The design process for large aerospace vehicles is discussed, with particular emphasis on structural design. Problems with current procedures are identified. Then, the contributions possible from automating the design process (defined as the best combination of men and computers) are considered. Progress toward automated design in the aerospace and other communities is reviewed, including NASA studies of the potential development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD). The need for and suggested directions of future research on the design process, both technical and social, are discussed. Although much progress has been made to exploit the computer in design, it is concluded that technology is available to begin using the computer to speed communications and management as well as calculations in the design process and thus build man-computer teams that can design better, faster and cheaper.

  15. Design of the Automated Rendezvous and Capture Docking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruzen, Craig A.; Lomas, James J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Automated Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) system that was designed and is being tested at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The AR&C system incorporates some of the latest innovations in Global Positioning System (GPS), laser sensor technologies and automated mission sequencing algorithms as well as the capability for ground and crew monitoring and commanding. This paper summarizes the variety of mission scenarios supported by the AR&C system. It also describes the major components of the AR&C system including the Guidance, Navigation and Control system, GPS receivers, relative navigation filter and the Video Guidance Sensor. A discussion of the safety and reliability issues confronted during the design follows. By designing a safe and robust automated system, space mission operations cost can be reduced by decreasing the number of ground personnel required for the extensive mission design, preflight planning and training typically required for rendezvous and docking missions.

  16. Design automation for complex CMOS/SOS LSI hybrid substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramondetta, P. W.; Smiley, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A design automated approach used to develop thick-film hybrid packages is described. The hybrid packages produced combine thick-film and silicon on sapphire (SOS) laser surface interaction technologies to bring the on-chip performance level of SOS to the subsystem level. Packing densities are improved by a factor of eight over ceramic dual in-line packing; interchip wiring capacitance is low. Due to significant time savings, the design automated approach presented can be expected to yield a 3:1 reduction in cost over the use of manual methods for the initial design of a hybrid.

  17. Automated AI-based designer of electrical distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumic, Zarko

    1992-03-01

    Designing the electrical supply system for new residential developments (plat design) is an everyday task for electric utility engineers. Presently this task is carried out manually resulting in an overdesigned, costly, and nonstandardized solution. As an ill-structured and open-ended problem, plat design is difficult to automate with conventional approaches such as operational research or CAD. Additional complexity in automating plat design is imposed by the need to process spatial data such as circuits' maps, records, and construction plans. The intelligent decision support system for automated electrical plate design (IDSS for AEPD) is an engineering tool aimed at automating plate design. IDSS for AEPD combines the functionality of geographic information systems (GIS) a geographically referenced database, with the sophistication of artificial intelligence (AI) to deal with the complexity inherent in design problems. Blackboard problem solving architecture, concentrated around INGRES relational database and NEXPERT object expert system shell have been chosen to accommodate the diverse knowledge sources and data models. The GIS's principal task it to create, structure, and formalize the real world representation required by the rule based reasoning portion of the AEPD. IDSS's capability to support and enhance the engineer's design, rather than only automate the design process through a prescribed computation, makes it a preferred choice among the possible techniques for AEPD. This paper presents the results of knowledge acquisition and the knowledge engineering process with AEPD tool conceptual design issues. To verify the proposed concept, the comparison of results obtained by the AEPD tool with the design obtained by an experienced human designer is given.

  18. Advanced characterization of twins using automated electron backscatter diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S. I.; Bingert, J. F.; Mason, T. A.; Larson, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes results obtained using an automated, crystallographically-based technique for twin identification. The technique is based on the automated collection of spatially specific orientation measurements by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The key features of the analysis are identification of potential twin boundaries by their misorientation character, identification of the distinct boundary planes among the symmetrically equivalent candidates, and validation of these boundaries through comparison with the boundary and twin plane traces in the sample cross section. Results on the application of this technique to deformation twins in zirconium are analyzed for the effect of twin type and amount and sense of uniaxial deformation. The accumulation of strain tends to increase the misorientation deviation at least to the degree of the trace deviation compared with recrystallization twins in nickel. In addition to the results on characterizing the twin character, results on extending the twin analysis to automated identification of parent and daughter material for structures exhibiting twin deformation are reported as well.

  19. Automated determination of electron density from electric field measurements on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelavskaya, Irina; Kurth, William; Spasojevic, Maria; Shprits, Yuri

    2016-07-01

    We present the Neural-network-based Upper-hybrid Resonance Determination (NURD) algorithm for automatic inference of the electron number density from plasma wave measurements made onboard NASA's Van Allen Probes mission. A feedforward neural network is developed to determine the upper hybrid resonance frequency, f_{uhr}, from electric field measurements, which is then used to calculate the electron number density. In previous missions, the plasma resonance bands were manually identified, and there have been few attempts to do robust, routine automated detections. We describe the design and implementation of the algorithm and perform an initial analysis of the resulting electron number density distribution obtained by applying NURD to 2.5 years of data collected with the EMFISIS instrumentation suite of the Van Allen Probes mission. Densities obtained by NURD are compared to those obtained by another recently developed automated technique and also to an existing empirical plasmasphere and trough density model.

  20. Automation of the electron-beam welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleva, E.; Dzharov, V.; Kardjiev, M.; Mladenov, G.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the automatic control is considered of the vacuum and cooling systems of the located in the IE-BAS equipment for electron-beam welding, evaporation and surface modification. A project was elaborated for the control and management based on the development of an engineering support system using existing and additional technical means of automation. Optimization of the indicators, which are critical for the duration of reaching the working regime and stopping the operation of the installation, can be made using experimentally obtained transient characteristics. The automation of the available equipment aimed at improving its efficiency and the repeatability of the obtained results, as well as at stabilizing the process parameters, should be integrated in an Engineering Support System which, besides the operator supervision, consists of several subsystems for equipment control, data acquisition, information analysis, system management and decision-making support.

  1. Automated Theorem Proving in High-Quality Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The amount and complexity of software developed during the last few years has increased tremendously. In particular, programs are being used more and more in embedded systems (from car-brakes to plant-control). Many of these applications are safety-relevant, i.e. a malfunction of hardware or software can cause severe damage or loss. Tremendous risks are typically present in the area of aviation, (nuclear) power plants or (chemical) plant control. Here, even small problems can lead to thousands of casualties and huge financial losses. Large financial risks also exist when computer systems are used in the area of telecommunication (telephone, electronic commerce) or space exploration. Computer applications in this area are not only subject to safety considerations, but also security issues are important. All these systems must be designed and developed to guarantee high quality with respect to safety and security. Even in an industrial setting which is (or at least should be) aware of the high requirements in Software Engineering, many incidents occur. For example, the Warshaw Airbus crash, was caused by an incomplete requirements specification. Uncontrolled reuse of an Ariane 4 software module was the reason for the Ariane 5 disaster. Some recent incidents in the telecommunication area, like illegal "cloning" of smart-cards of D2GSM handies, or the extraction of (secret) passwords from German T-online users show that also in this area serious flaws can happen. Due to the inherent complexity of computer systems, most authors claim that only a rigorous application of formal methods in all stages of the software life cycle can ensure high quality of the software and lead to real safe and secure systems. In this paper, we will have a look, in how far automated theorem proving can contribute to a more widespread application of formal methods and their tools, and what automated theorem provers (ATPs) must provide in order to be useful.

  2. Automated IDEF3 and IDEF4 systems design specification document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friel, Patricia Griffith; Blinn, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    The current design is presented for the automated IDEF3 and IDEF4 tools. The philosophy is described behind the tool designs as well as the conceptual view of the interacting components of the two tools. Finally, a detailed description is presented of the existing designs for the tools using IDEF3 process descriptions and IDEF4 diagrams. In the preparation of these designs, the IDEF3 and IDEF4 methodologies were very effective in defining the structure and operation of the tools. The experience in designing systems in this fashion was very valuable and resulted in future systems being designed in this way. However, the number of IDEF3 and IDEF4 diagrams that were produced using a Macintosh for this document attest to the need for an automated tool to simplify this design process.

  3. Automating the design of scientific computing software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kant, Elaine

    1992-01-01

    SINAPSE is a domain-specific software design system that generates code from specifications of equations and algorithm methods. This paper describes the system's design techniques (planning in a space of knowledge-based refinement and optimization rules), user interaction style (user has option to control decision making), and representation of knowledge (rules and objects). It also summarizes how the system knowledge has evolved over time and suggests some issues in building software design systems to facilitate reuse.

  4. Conceptual design of an aircraft automated coating removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.E.; Draper, J.V.; Pin, F.G.; Primm, A.H.; Shekhar, S.

    1996-05-01

    Paint stripping of the U.S. Air Force`s large transport aircrafts is currently a labor-intensive, manual process. Significant reductions in costs, personnel and turnaround time can be accomplished by the judicious use of automation in some process tasks. This paper presents the conceptual design of a coating removal systems for the tail surfaces of the C-5 plane. Emphasis is placed on the technology selection to optimize human-automation synergy with respect to overall costs, throughput, quality, safety, and reliability. Trade- offs between field-proven vs. research-requiring technologies, and between expected gain vs. cost and complexity, have led to a conceptual design which is semi-autonomous (relying on the human for task specification and disturbance handling) yet incorporates sensor- based automation (for sweep path generation and tracking, surface following, stripping quality control and tape/breach handling).

  5. Automating expert role to determine design concept in Kansei Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokman, Anitawati Mohd; Haron, Mohammad Bakri Che; Abidin, Siti Zaleha Zainal; Khalid, Noor Elaiza Abd

    2016-02-01

    Affect has become imperative in product quality. In affective design field, Kansei Engineering (KE) has been recognized as a technology that enables discovery of consumer's emotion and formulation of guide to design products that win consumers in the competitive market. Albeit powerful technology, there is no rule of thumb in its analysis and interpretation process. KE expertise is required to determine sets of related Kansei and the significant concept of emotion. Many research endeavors become handicapped with the limited number of available and accessible KE experts. This work is performed to simulate the role of experts with the use of Natphoric algorithm thus providing sound solution to the complexity and flexibility in KE. The algorithm is designed to learn the process by implementing training datasets taken from previous KE research works. A framework for automated KE is then designed to realize the development of automated KE system. A comparative analysis is performed to determine feasibility of the developed prototype to automate the process. The result shows that the significant Kansei is determined by manual KE implementation and the automated process is highly similar. KE research advocates will benefit this system to automatically determine significant design concepts.

  6. Generative Representations for Computer-Automated Design Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing computational power of Computers, software design systems are progressing from being tools for architects and designers to express their ideas to tools capable of creating designs under human guidance. One of the main limitations for these computer-automated design programs is the representation with which they encode designs. If the representation cannot encode a certain design, then the design program cannot produce it. Similarly, a poor representation makes some types of designs extremely unlikely to be created. Here we define generative representations as those representations which can create and reuse organizational units within a design and argue that reuse is necessary for design systems to scale to more complex and interesting designs. To support our argument we describe GENRE, an evolutionary design program that uses both a generative and a non-generative representation, and compare the results of evolving designs with both types of representations.

  7. A Case Study in CAD Design Automation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Andrew G.; Hartman, Nathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) software and other product life-cycle management (PLM) tools have become ubiquitous in industry during the past 20 years. Over this time they have continuously evolved, becoming programs with enormous capabilities, but the companies that use them have not evolved their design practices at the same rate. Due to the…

  8. Stressing Design in Electronics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthbert, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    Advocates a strong emphasis on the teaching of the design of electronic circuits in undergraduate courses. An instructional paradigm involving the design and construction of a single-transistor amplifier is provided. (CP)

  9. Automated Design of the Europa Orbiter Tour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Andrew F.; Strange, Nathan J.; Longuski, James M.; Bonfiglio, Eugene P.; Taylor, Irene (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we investigate tours of the Jovian satellites Europa Ganymede, and Callisto for the Europa Orbiter Mission. The principal goal of the tour design is to lower arrival V_ for the final Europa encounter while meeting all of the design constraints. Key constraints arise from considering the total time of the tour and the radiation dosage of a tour. These tours may employ 14 or more encounters with the Jovian satellites. hence there is an enormous number of possible sequences of these satellites to investigate. We develop a graphical method that greatly aids the design process.

  10. Automated Design of the Europa Orbiter Tour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Andrew F.; Strange, Nathan J.; Longusaki, James M.; Bonfiglio, Eugene P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we investigate tours of the Jovian satellites Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto for the Europa Orbiter Mission. The principal goal of the tour design is to lower arrival V(sub infinity) for the final Europa encounter while meeting all of the design constraints. Key constraints arise from considering the total time of the tour and the radiation dosage of a tour. These tours may employ 14 or more encounters with the Jovian satellites, hence there is an enormous number of possible sequences of these satellites to investigate. We develop a graphical method that greatly aids the design process.

  11. Automated radiation hard ASIC design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mike; Bartholet, Bill; Baze, Mark

    1993-01-01

    A commercial based, foundry independent, compiler design tool (ChipCrafter) with custom radiation hardened library cells is described. A unique analysis approach allows low hardness risk for Application Specific IC's (ASIC's). Accomplishments, radiation test results, and applications are described.

  12. Generative Representations for Computer-Automated Evolutionary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing computational power of computers, software design systems are progressing from being tools for architects and designers to express their ideas to tools capable of creating designs under human guidance. One of the main limitations for these computer-automated design systems is the representation with which they encode designs. If the representation cannot encode a certain design, then the design system cannot produce it. To be able to produce new types of designs, and not just optimize pre-defined parameterizations, evolutionary design systems must use generative representations. Generative representations are assembly procedures, or algorithms, for constructing a design thereby allowing for truly novel design solutions to be encoded. In addition, by enabling modularity, regularity and hierarchy, the level of sophistication that can be evolved is increased. We demonstrate the advantages of generative representations on two different design domains: the evolution of spacecraft antennas and the evolution of 3D objects.

  13. CMOS-array design-automation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, A.; Lombardt, T.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty four page report discusses design of 4,096-bit complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) read-only memory (ROM). CMOSROM is either mask or laser programable. Report is divided into six sections; section one describes background of ROM chips; section two presents design goals for chip; section three discusses chip implementation and chip statistics; conclusions and recommendations are given in sections four thru six.

  14. DESIGN OF SMALL AUTOMATION WORK CELL SYSTEM DEMONSTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C. TURNER; J. PEHL; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    The introduction of automation systems into many of the facilities dealing with the production, use and disposition of nuclear materials has been an ongoing objective. Many previous attempts have been made, using a variety of monolithic and, in some cases, modular technologies. Many of these attempts were less than successful, owing to the difficulty of the problem, the lack of maturity of the technology, and over optimism about the capabilities of a particular system. Consequently, it is not surprising that suggestions that automation can reduce worker Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) levels are often met with skepticism and caution. The development of effective demonstrations of these technologies is of vital importance if automation is to become an acceptable option for nuclear material processing environments. The University of Texas Robotics Research Group (UTRRG) has been pursuing the development of technologies to support modular small automation systems (each of less than 5 degrees-of-freedom) and the design of those systems for more than two decades. Properly designed and implemented, these technologies have a potential to reduce the worker ORE associated with work in nuclear materials processing facilities. Successful development of systems for these applications requires the development of technologies that meet the requirements of the applications. These application requirements form a general set of rules that applicable technologies and approaches need to adhere to, but in and of themselves are generally insufficient for the design of a specific automation system. For the design of an appropriate system, the associated task specifications and relationships need to be defined. These task specifications also provide a means by which appropriate technology demonstrations can be defined. Based on the requirements and specifications of the operations of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) pilot line at Los Alamos National

  15. AI and workflow automation: The prototype electronic purchase request system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, Michael M.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

    1994-01-01

    Automating 'paper' workflow processes with electronic forms and email can dramatically improve the efficiency of those processes. However, applications that involve complex forms that are used for a variety of purposes or that require numerous and varied approvals often require additional software tools to ensure that (1) the electronic form is correctly and completely filled out, and (2) the form is routed to the proper individuals and organizations for approval. The prototype electronic purchase request (PEPR) system, which has been in pilot use at NASA Ames Research Center since December 1993, seamlessly links a commercial electronics forms package and a CLIPS-based knowledge system that first ensures that electronic forms are correct and complete, and then generates an 'electronic routing slip' that is used to route the form to the people who must sign it. The PEPR validation module is context-sensitive, and can apply different validation rules at each step in the approval process. The PEPR system is form-independent, and has been applied to several different types of forms. The system employs a version of CLIPS that has been extended to support AppleScript, a recently-released scripting language for the Macintosh. This 'scriptability' provides both a transparent, flexible interface between the two programs and a means by which a single copy of the knowledge base can be utilized by numerous remote users.

  16. Automated database design from natural language input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Fernando; Segami, Carlos; Delaune, Carl

    1995-01-01

    Users and programmers of small systems typically do not have the skills needed to design a database schema from an English description of a problem. This paper describes a system that automatically designs databases for such small applications from English descriptions provided by end-users. Although the system has been motivated by the space applications at Kennedy Space Center, and portions of it have been designed with that idea in mind, it can be applied to different situations. The system consists of two major components: a natural language understander and a problem-solver. The paper describes briefly the knowledge representation structures constructed by the natural language understander, and, then, explains the problem-solver in detail.

  17. Theoretical considerations in designing operator interfaces for automated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Susan D.

    1987-01-01

    The domains most amenable to techniques based on artificial intelligence (AI) are those that are systematic or for which a systematic domain can be generated. In aerospace systems, many operational tasks are systematic owing to the highly procedural nature of the applications. However, aerospace applications can also be nonprocedural, particularly in the event of a failure or an unexpected event. Several techniques are discussed for designing automated systems for real-time, dynamic environments, particularly when a 'breakdown' occurs. A breakdown is defined as operation of an automated system outside its predetermined, conceptual domain.

  18. Library Automation Design for Visually Impaired People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurtay, Nilufer; Bicil, Yucel; Celebi, Sait; Cit, Guluzar; Dural, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Speech synthesis is a technology used in many different areas in computer science. This technology can bring a solution to reading activity of visually impaired people due to its text to speech conversion. Based on this problem, in this study, a system is designed needed for a visually impaired person to make use of all the library facilities in…

  19. Towards automation of user interface design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gastner, Rainer; Kraetzschmar, Gerhard K.; Lutz, Ernst

    1992-01-01

    This paper suggests an approach to automatic software design in the domain of graphical user interfaces. There are still some drawbacks in existing user interface management systems (UIMS's) which basically offer only quantitative layout specifications via direct manipulation. Our approach suggests a convenient way to get a default graphical user interface which may be customized and redesigned easily in further prototyping cycles.

  20. Automated Design of Complex Dynamic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hermans, Michiel; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Bienstman, Peter; Dambre, Joni

    2014-01-01

    Several fields of study are concerned with uniting the concept of computation with that of the design of physical systems. For example, a recent trend in robotics is to design robots in such a way that they require a minimal control effort. Another example is found in the domain of photonics, where recent efforts try to benefit directly from the complex nonlinear dynamics to achieve more efficient signal processing. The underlying goal of these and similar research efforts is to internalize a large part of the necessary computations within the physical system itself by exploiting its inherent non-linear dynamics. This, however, often requires the optimization of large numbers of system parameters, related to both the system's structure as well as its material properties. In addition, many of these parameters are subject to fabrication variability or to variations through time. In this paper we apply a machine learning algorithm to optimize physical dynamic systems. We show that such algorithms, which are normally applied on abstract computational entities, can be extended to the field of differential equations and used to optimize an associated set of parameters which determine their behavior. We show that machine learning training methodologies are highly useful in designing robust systems, and we provide a set of both simple and complex examples using models of physical dynamical systems. Interestingly, the derived optimization method is intimately related to direct collocation a method known in the field of optimal control. Our work suggests that the application domains of both machine learning and optimal control have a largely unexplored overlapping area which envelopes a novel design methodology of smart and highly complex physical systems. PMID:24497969

  1. An automated approach to the design of decision tree classifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argentiero, P.; Chin, R.; Beaudet, P.

    1982-01-01

    An automated technique is presented for designing effective decision tree classifiers predicated only on a priori class statistics. The procedure relies on linear feature extractions and Bayes table look-up decision rules. Associated error matrices are computed and utilized to provide an optimal design of the decision tree at each so-called 'node'. A by-product of this procedure is a simple algorithm for computing the global probability of correct classification assuming the statistical independence of the decision rules. Attention is given to a more precise definition of decision tree classification, the mathematical details on the technique for automated decision tree design, and an example of a simple application of the procedure using class statistics acquired from an actual Landsat scene.

  2. Design of automation tools for management of descent traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Nedell, William

    1988-01-01

    The design of an automated air traffic control system based on a hierarchy of advisory tools for controllers is described. Compatibility of the tools with the human controller, a key objective of the design, is achieved by a judicious selection of tasks to be automated and careful attention to the design of the controller system interface. The design comprises three interconnected subsystems referred to as the Traffic Management Advisor, the Descent Advisor, and the Final Approach Spacing Tool. Each of these subsystems provides a collection of tools for specific controller positions and tasks. This paper focuses primarily on the Descent Advisor which provides automation tools for managing descent traffic. The algorithms, automation modes, and graphical interfaces incorporated in the design are described. Information generated by the Descent Advisor tools is integrated into a plan view traffic display consisting of a high-resolution color monitor. Estimated arrival times of aircraft are presented graphically on a time line, which is also used interactively in combination with a mouse input device to select and schedule arrival times. Other graphical markers indicate the location of the fuel-optimum top-of-descent point and the predicted separation distances of aircraft at a designated time-control point. Computer generated advisories provide speed and descent clearances which the controller can issue to aircraft to help them arrive at the feeder gate at the scheduled times or with specified separation distances. Two types of horizontal guidance modes, selectable by the controller, provide markers for managing the horizontal flightpaths of aircraft under various conditions. The entire system consisting of descent advisor algorithm, a library of aircraft performance models, national airspace system data bases, and interactive display software has been implemented on a workstation made by Sun Microsystems, Inc. It is planned to use this configuration in operational

  3. An automated methodology development. [software design for combat simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawley, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The design methodology employed in testing the applicability of Ada in large-scale combat simulations is described. Ada was considered as a substitute for FORTRAN to lower life cycle costs and ease the program development efforts. An object-oriented approach was taken, which featured definitions of military targets, the capability of manipulating their condition in real-time, and one-to-one correlation between the object states and real world states. The simulation design process was automated by the problem statement language (PSL)/problem statement analyzer (PSA). The PSL/PSA system accessed the problem data base directly to enhance the code efficiency by, e.g., eliminating non-used subroutines, and provided for automated report generation, besides allowing for functional and interface descriptions. The ways in which the methodology satisfied the responsiveness, reliability, transportability, modifiability, timeliness and efficiency goals are discussed.

  4. Automated design of multiple encounter gravity-assist trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longuski, James M.; Williams, Steve N.

    1990-01-01

    Given a range of initial launch dates and a set of target planets, a new approach to planetary mission design is developed, using an automated method for finding all conic solutions. Each point on the diagrams reproduced represents a single ballistic trajectory and is computed by modeling the trajectory as a conic section and solving the corresponding Lambert problem for each set of launch and arrival dates. An example which prescribes a launch period of 1975-2050 and target planets Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto is described whereby, all possible grand tour missions of this class are found, including the Voyager II trajectory. It is determined that this automated design tool may be applied to a variety of multiple encounter gravity-assist trajectories that are being considered for future missions.

  5. Implementing and Improving Automated Electronic Tumor Molecular Profiling.

    PubMed

    Rioth, Matthew J; Staggs, David B; Hackett, Lauren; Haberman, Erich; Tod, Mike; Levy, Mia; Warner, Jeremy

    2016-03-01

    Oncology practice increasingly requires the use of molecular profiling of tumors to inform the use of targeted therapeutics. However, many oncologists use third-party laboratories to perform tumor genomic testing, and these laboratories may not have electronic interfaces with the provider's electronic medical record (EMR) system. The resultant reporting mechanisms, such as plain-paper faxing, can reduce report fidelity, slow down reporting procedures for a physician's practice, and make reports less accessible. Vanderbilt University Medical Center and its genomic laboratory testing partner have collaborated to create an automated electronic reporting system that incorporates genetic testing results directly into the clinical EMR. This system was iteratively tested, and causes of failure were discovered and addressed. Most errors were attributable to data entry or typographical errors that made reports unable to be linked to the correct patient in the EMR. By providing direct feedback to providers, we were able to significantly decrease the rate of transmission errors (from 6.29% to 3.84%; P < .001). The results and lessons of 1 year of using the system and transmitting 832 tumor genomic testing reports are reported. PMID:26813927

  6. Universal electronics for miniature and automated chemical assays.

    PubMed

    Urban, Pawel L

    2015-02-21

    This minireview discusses universal electronic modules (generic programmable units) and their use by analytical chemists to construct inexpensive, miniature or automated devices. Recently, open-source platforms have gained considerable popularity among tech-savvy chemists because their implementation often does not require expert knowledge and investment of funds. Thus, chemistry students and researchers can easily start implementing them after a few hours of reading tutorials and trial-and-error. Single-board microcontrollers and micro-computers such as Arduino, Teensy, Raspberry Pi or BeagleBone enable collecting experimental data with high precision as well as efficient control of electric potentials and actuation of mechanical systems. They are readily programmed using high-level languages, such as C, C++, JavaScript or Python. They can also be coupled with mobile consumer electronics, including smartphones as well as teleinformatic networks. More demanding analytical tasks require fast signal processing. Field-programmable gate arrays enable efficient and inexpensive prototyping of high-performance analytical platforms, thus becoming increasingly popular among analytical chemists. This minireview discusses the advantages and drawbacks of universal electronic modules, considering their application in prototyping and manufacture of intelligent analytical instrumentation. PMID:25535820

  7. Automating Vector Autoregression on Electronic Patient Diary Data.

    PubMed

    Emerencia, Ando Celino; van der Krieke, Lian; Bos, Elisabeth H; de Jonge, Peter; Petkov, Nicolai; Aiello, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Finding the best vector autoregression model for any dataset, medical or otherwise, is a process that, to this day, is frequently performed manually in an iterative manner requiring a statistical expertize and time. Very few software solutions for automating this process exist, and they still require statistical expertize to operate. We propose a new application called Autovar, for the automation of finding vector autoregression models for time series data. The approach closely resembles the way in which experts work manually. Our proposal offers improvements over the manual approach by leveraging computing power, e.g., by considering multiple alternatives instead of choosing just one. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of Autovar, we compare its performance against experts working manually, and we compare its features to those of the most used commercial solution available today. The main contribution of Autovar is to show that vector autoregression on a large scale is feasible. We show that an exhaustive approach for model selection can be relatively safe to use. This study forms an important step toward making adaptive, personalized treatment available and affordable for all branches of healthcare. PMID:25680221

  8. Flight control system design factors for applying automated testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitz, Joel R.; Vernon, Todd H.

    1990-01-01

    The principal design features and operational experiences of the X-29 forward-swept-wing aircraft and F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) automated test systems are discussed. It is noted that operational experiences in developing and using these automated testing techniques have highlighted the need for incorporating target system features to improve testability. Improved target system testability can be accomplished with the addition of nonreal-time and real-time features. Online access to target system implementation details, unobtrusive real-time access to internal user-selectable variables, and proper software instrumentation are all desirable features of the target system. Also, test system and target system design issues must be addressed during the early stages of the target system development. Processing speeds of up to 20 million instructions/s and the development of high-bandwidth reflective memory systems have improved the ability to integrate the target system and test system for the application of automated testing techniques. It is concluded that new methods of designing testability into the target systems are required.

  9. Automated Electron Microscopy for Evaluating Two-dimensional Crystallization of Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Minghui; Vink, Martin; Kim, Changki; Derr, KD; Koss, John; D'Amico, Kevin; Cheng, Anchi; Pulokas, James; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban; Stokes, David

    2010-01-01

    Membrane proteins fulfill many important roles in the cell and represent the target for a large number of therapeutic drugs. Although structure determination of membrane proteins has become a major priority, it has proven to be technically challenging. Electron microscopy of two-dimensional (2D) crystals has the advantage of visualizing membrane proteins in their natural lipidic environment, but has been underutilized in recent structural genomics efforts. To improve the general applicability of electron crystallography, high-throughput methods are needed for screening large numbers of conditions for 2D crystallization, thereby increasing the chances of obtaining well ordered crystals and thus achieving atomic resolution. Previous reports describe devices for growing 2D crystals on a 96-well format. The current report describes a system for automated imaging of these screens with an electron microscope. Samples are inserted with a two-part robot: a SCARA robot for loading samples into the microscope holder, and a Cartesian robot for placing the holder into the electron microscope. A standard JEOL 1230 electron microscope was used, though a new tip was designed for the holder and a toggle switch controlling the airlock was rewired to allow robot control. A computer program for controlling the robots was integrated with the Leginon program, which provides a module for automated imaging of individual samples. The resulting images are uploaded into the Sesame laboratory information management system database where they are associated with other data relevant to the crystallization screen. PMID:20197095

  10. Crew aiding and automation: A system concept for terminal area operations, and guidelines for automation design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, John P.

    1994-01-01

    This research and development program comprised two efforts: the development of guidelines for the design of automated systems, with particular emphasis on automation design that takes advantage of contextual information, and the concept-level design of a crew aiding system, the Terminal Area Navigation Decision Aiding Mediator (TANDAM). This concept outlines a system capable of organizing navigation and communication information and assisting the crew in executing the operations required in descent and approach. In service of this endeavor, problem definition activities were conducted that identified terminal area navigation and operational familiarization exercises addressing the terminal area navigation problem. Both airborne and ground-based (ATC) elements of aircraft control were extensively researched. The TANDAM system concept was then specified, and the crew interface and associated systems described. Additionally, three descent and approach scenarios were devised in order to illustrate the principal functions of the TANDAM system concept in relation to the crew, the aircraft, and ATC. A plan for the evaluation of the TANDAM system was established. The guidelines were developed based on reviews of relevant literature, and on experience gained in the design effort.

  11. Designing Electronic Collaborative Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Paul; Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Kreijns, Karel; Beers, Pieter Jelle

    2004-01-01

    Electronic collaborative learning environments for learning and working are in vogue. Designers design them according to their own constructivist interpretations of what collaborative learning is and what it should achieve. Educators employ them with different educational approaches and in diverse situations to achieve different ends. Students use…

  12. Designing a Hypertext Electronic Encyclopedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glushko, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Identifies five design requirements for electronic encyclopedias, based on the content and structure of printed encyclopedias and the uses that people make of them. Three existing hypertext programs (Owl International's Guide, HyperCard, and HyperTIES) are compared in terms of their ability to satisfy these design requirements. (CLB)

  13. A new design concept for an automated peanut processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ertas, A.; Tanju, B.T.; Fair, W.T.; Butts, C.

    1996-12-31

    Peanut quality is a major concern in all phases of the peanut industry from production to manufacturing. Postharvest processing of peanuts can have profound effects on the quality and safety of peanut food products. Curing is a key step in postharvest processing. Curing peanuts improperly can significantly reduce quality, and result in significant losses to both farmers and processors. The conventional drying system designed in the 1960`s is still being used in the processing of the peanuts today. The objectives of this paper is to design and develop a new automated peanut drying system for dry climates capable of handling approximately 20 million lbm of peanuts per harvest season.

  14. Automating Assessment of Lifestyle Counseling in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Hazlehurst, Brian L.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Donahoo, William T.; Sherwood, Nancy E; Kurtz, Stephen E; Xu, Stan; Steiner, John F

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous population-based surveys indicate that overweight and obese patients can benefit from lifestyle counseling during routine clinical care. Purpose To determine if natural language processing (NLP) could be applied to information in the electronic health record (EHR) to automatically assess delivery of counseling related to weight management in clinical health care encounters. Methods The MediClass system with NLP capabilities was used to identify weight management counseling in EHR encounter records. Knowledge for the NLP application was derived from the 5As framework for behavior counseling: Ask (evaluate weight and related disease), Advise at-risk patients to lose weight, Assess patients’ readiness to change behavior, Assist through discussion of weight loss methods and programs and Arrange follow-up efforts including referral. Using samples of EHR data in 1/1/2007-3/31/2011 period from two health systems, the accuracy of the MediClass processor for identifying these counseling elements was evaluated in post-partum visits of 600 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to manual chart review as gold standard. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Mean sensitivity and specificity for each of the 5As compared to the gold standard was at or above 85%, with the exception of sensitivity for Assist which was measured at 40% and 60% respectively for each of the two health systems. The automated method identified many valid cases of Assist not identified in the gold standard. Conclusions The MediClass processor has performance capability sufficiently similar to human abstractors to permit automated assessment of counseling for weight loss in post-partum encounter records. PMID:24745635

  15. An automated quality assessor for Ada object-oriented designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailin, Sidney C.

    1988-01-01

    A tool for evaluating object-oriented designs (OODs) for Ada software is described. The tool assumes a design expressed as a hierarchy of object diagrams. A design of this type identifies the objects of a system, an interface to each object, and the usage relationships between objects. When such a design is implemented in Ada, objects become packages, interfaces become package specifications, and usage relationships become Ada `with' clauses and package references. An automated quality assessor has been developed that is based on flagging undesirable design constructs. For convenience, distinctions are made among three levels of severity: questionable, undesirable, and hazardous. A questionable construct is one that may well be appropriate. An undesirable construct is one that should be changed because it is potentially harmful to the reliability, maintainability, or reusability of the software. A hazardous construct is one that is undesirable and that introduces a high level of risk.

  16. Interchange of electronic design through VHDL and EIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Richard M.

    1987-01-01

    The need for both robust and unambiguous electronic designs is a direct requirement of the astonishing growth in design and manufacturing capability during recent years. In order to manage the plethora of designs, and have the design data both interchangeable and interoperable, the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) program is developing two major standards for the electronic design community. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is designed to be the lingua franca for transmission of design data between designers and their environments. The Engineering Information System (EIS) is designed to ease the integration of data betweeen diverse design automation systems. This paper describes the rationale for the necessity for these two standards and how they provide a synergistic expressive capability across the macrocosm of design environments.

  17. The CADSS design automation system. [computerized design language for small digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franke, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    This research was designed to implement and extend a previously defined design automation system for the design of small digital structures. A description is included of the higher level language developed to describe systems as a sequence of register transfer operations. The system simulator which is used to determine if the original description is correct is also discussed. The design automation system produces tables describing the state transistions of the system and the operation of all registers. In addition all Boolean equations specifying system operation are minimized and converted to NAND gate structures. Suggestions for further extensions to the system are also given.

  18. Automated Processing of ISIS Topside Ionograms into Electron Density Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinisch, bodo W.; Huang, Xueqin; Bilitza, Dieter; Hills, H. Kent

    2004-01-01

    Modeling of the topside ionosphere has for the most part relied on just a few years of data from topside sounder satellites. The widely used Bent et al. (1972) model, for example, is based on only 50,000 Alouette 1 profiles. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) (Bilitza, 1990, 2001) uses an analytical description of the graphs and tables provided by Bent et al. (1972). The Alouette 1, 2 and ISIS 1, 2 topside sounder satellites of the sixties and seventies were ahead of their times in terms of the sheer volume of data obtained and in terms of the computer and software requirements for data analysis. As a result, only a small percentage of the collected topside ionograms was converted into electron density profiles. Recently, a NASA-funded data restoration project has undertaken and is continuing the process of digitizing the Alouette/ISIS ionograms from the analog 7-track tapes. Our project involves the automated processing of these digital ionograms into electron density profiles. The project accomplished a set of important goals that will have a major impact on understanding and modeling of the topside ionosphere: (1) The TOPside Ionogram Scaling and True height inversion (TOPIST) software was developed for the automated scaling and inversion of topside ionograms. (2) The TOPIST software was applied to the over 300,000 ISIS-2 topside ionograms that had been digitized in the fkamework of a separate AISRP project (PI: R.F. Benson). (3) The new TOPIST-produced database of global electron density profiles for the topside ionosphere were made publicly available through NASA s National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) ftp archive at . (4) Earlier Alouette 1,2 and ISIS 1, 2 data sets of electron density profiles from manual scaling of selected sets of ionograms were converted fiom a highly-compressed binary format into a user-friendly ASCII format and made publicly available through nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov. The new database for the topside

  19. An hierarchical system architecture for automated design, fabrication, and repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The architecture of an automated system which has the following properties is described: (1) if it is presented with a final product specification (within its capabilities) it will do the detailed design (all the way down to the raw materials if need be) and then produce that product; (2) if a faulty final product is presented to the system, it will repair it. Interesting extensions of this architecture would be the ability to add fabricator nodes when required and the ability to add entire ranks when required. This sort of system would be a useful component of a self-replicating system (used in space exploration).

  20. An automated approach to magnetic divertor configuration design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blommaert, M.; Dekeyser, W.; Baelmans, M.; Gauger, N. R.; Reiter, D.

    2015-01-01

    Automated methods based on optimization can greatly assist computational engineering design in many areas. In this paper an optimization approach to the magnetic design of a nuclear fusion reactor divertor is proposed and applied to a tokamak edge magnetic configuration in a first feasibility study. The approach is based on reduced models for magnetic field and plasma edge, which are integrated with a grid generator into one sensitivity code. The design objective chosen here for demonstrative purposes is to spread the divertor target heat load as much as possible over the entire target area. Constraints on the separatrix position are introduced to eliminate physically irrelevant magnetic field configurations during the optimization cycle. A gradient projection method is used to ensure stable cost function evaluations during optimization. The concept is applied to a configuration with typical Joint European Torus (JET) parameters and it automatically provides plausible configurations with reduced heat load.

  1. Semi-automated Neuron Boundary Detection and Nonbranching Process Segmentation in Electron Microscopy Images

    PubMed Central

    Jurrus, Elizabeth; Watanabe, Shigeki; Giuly, Richard J.; Paiva, Antonio R. C.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Jorgensen, Erik M.; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscientists are developing new imaging techniques and generating large volumes of data in an effort to understand the complex structure of the nervous system. The complexity and size of this data makes human interpretation a labor-intensive task. To aid in the analysis, new segmentation techniques for identifying neurons in these feature rich datasets are required. This paper presents a method for neuron boundary detection and nonbranching process segmentation in electron microscopy images and visualizing them in three dimensions. It combines both automated segmentation techniques with a graphical user interface for correction of mistakes in the automated process. The automated process first uses machine learning and image processing techniques to identify neuron membranes that deliniate the cells in each two-dimensional section. To segment nonbranching processes, the cell regions in each two-dimensional section are connected in 3D using correlation of regions between sections. The combination of this method with a graphical user interface specially designed for this purpose, enables users to quickly segment cellular processes in large volumes. PMID:22644867

  2. Semi-Automated Neuron Boundary Detection and Nonbranching Process Segmentation in Electron Microscopy Images

    SciTech Connect

    Jurrus, Elizabeth R.; Watanabe, Shigeki; Giuly, Richard J.; Paiva, Antonio R.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Jorgensen, Erik M.; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscientists are developing new imaging techniques and generating large volumes of data in an effort to understand the complex structure of the nervous system. The complexity and size of this data makes human interpretation a labor-intensive task. To aid in the analysis, new segmentation techniques for identifying neurons in these feature rich datasets are required. This paper presents a method for neuron boundary detection and nonbranching process segmentation in electron microscopy images and visualizing them in three dimensions. It combines both automated segmentation techniques with a graphical user interface for correction of mistakes in the automated process. The automated process first uses machine learning and image processing techniques to identify neuron membranes that deliniate the cells in each two-dimensional section. To segment nonbranching processes, the cell regions in each two-dimensional section are connected in 3D using correlation of regions between sections. The combination of this method with a graphical user interface specially designed for this purpose, enables users to quickly segment cellular processes in large volumes.

  3. 21 CFR 111.30 - What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What requirements apply to automated, mechanical..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING... Utensils § 111.30 What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment? For...

  4. 21 CFR 111.30 - What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What requirements apply to automated, mechanical..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING... Utensils § 111.30 What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment? For...

  5. 21 CFR 111.30 - What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What requirements apply to automated, mechanical..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING... Utensils § 111.30 What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment? For...

  6. 21 CFR 111.30 - What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What requirements apply to automated, mechanical..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING... Utensils § 111.30 What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment? For...

  7. 21 CFR 111.30 - What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to automated, mechanical..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING... Utensils § 111.30 What requirements apply to automated, mechanical, or electronic equipment? For...

  8. Design, Development, and Commissioning of a Substation Automation Laboratory to Enhance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. S.; Kothari, D. P.; Prakash, A.

    2011-01-01

    Automation of power systems is gaining momentum across the world, and there is a need to expose graduate and undergraduate students to the latest developments in hardware, software, and related protocols for power automation. This paper presents the design, development, and commissioning of an automation lab to facilitate the understanding of…

  9. Modular implementation of a digital hardware design automation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masud, M.

    An automation system based on AHPL (A Hardware Programming Language) was developed. The project may be divided into three distinct phases: (1) Upgrading of AHPL to make it more universally applicable; (2) Implementation of a compiler for the language; and (3) illustration of how the compiler may be used to support several phases of design activities. Several new features were added to AHPL. These include: application-dependent parameters, mutliple clocks, asynchronous results, functional registers and primitive functions. The new language, called Universal AHPL, has been defined rigorously. The compiler design is modular. The parsing is done by an automatic parser generated from the SLR(1)BNF grammar of the language. The compiler produces two data bases from the AHPL description of a circuit. The first one is a tabular representation of the circuit, and the second one is a detailed interconnection linked list. The two data bases provide a means to interface the compiler to application-dependent CAD systems.

  10. FRACSAT: Automated design synthesis for future space architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, R.; Uckun, S.; Do, Minh; Shah, J.

    This paper describes the algorithmic basis and development of FRACSAT (FRACtionated Spacecraft Architecture Toolkit), a new approach to conceptual design, cost-benefit analysis, and detailed trade studies for space systems. It provides an automated capability for exploration of candidate spacecraft architectures, leading users to near-optimal solutions with respect to user-defined requirements, risks, and program uncertainties. FRACSAT utilizes a sophisticated planning algorithm (PlanVisioner) to perform a quasi-exhaustive search for candidate architectures, constructing candidates from an extensible model-based representation of space system components and functions. These candidates are then evaluated with emphasis on the business case, computing the expected design utility and system costs as well as risk, presenting the user with a greatly reduced selection of candidates. The user may further refine the search according to cost or benefit uncertainty, adaptability, or other performance metrics as needed.

  11. Automating the packing heuristic design process with genetic programming.

    PubMed

    Burke, Edmund K; Hyde, Matthew R; Kendall, Graham; Woodward, John

    2012-01-01

    The literature shows that one-, two-, and three-dimensional bin packing and knapsack packing are difficult problems in operational research. Many techniques, including exact, heuristic, and metaheuristic approaches, have been investigated to solve these problems and it is often not clear which method to use when presented with a new instance. This paper presents an approach which is motivated by the goal of building computer systems which can design heuristic methods. The overall aim is to explore the possibilities for automating the heuristic design process. We present a genetic programming system to automatically generate a good quality heuristic for each instance. It is not necessary to change the methodology depending on the problem type (one-, two-, or three-dimensional knapsack and bin packing problems), and it therefore has a level of generality unmatched by other systems in the literature. We carry out an extensive suite of experiments and compare with the best human designed heuristics in the literature. Note that our heuristic design methodology uses the same parameters for all the experiments. The contribution of this paper is to present a more general packing methodology than those currently available, and to show that, by using this methodology, it is possible for a computer system to design heuristics which are competitive with the human designed heuristics from the literature. This represents the first packing algorithm in the literature able to claim human competitive results in such a wide variety of packing domains. PMID:21609273

  12. The design of an automated electrolytic enrichment apparatus for tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.L.

    1994-12-01

    The Radiation Analytical Sciences Section at Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory performs analysis of low-level tritium concentrations in various natural water samples from the Tri-Valley Area, DOE Nevada Test Site, Site 300 in Tracy, CA, and other various places around the world. Low levels of tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, which is pre-concentrated in the RAS laboratory using an electrolytic enrichment apparatus. Later these enriched waters are analyzed by liquid scintillation counting to determine the activity of tritium. The enrichment procedure and the subsequent purification process by vacuum distillation are currently undertaken manually, hence being highly labor-intensive. The whole process typically takes about 2 to 3 weeks to complete a batch of 30 samples, with a dedicated personnel operating the process. The goal is to automate the entire process, specifically having the operation PC-LabVIEW{trademark} controlled with real-time monitoring capability. My involvement was in the design and fabrication of a prototypical automated electrolytic enrichment cell. Work will be done on optimizing the electrolytic process by assessing the different parameters of the enrichment procedure. Hardware and software development have also been an integral component of this project.

  13. Automated optimum design of wing structures. Deterministic and probabilistic approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The automated optimum design of airplane wing structures subjected to multiple behavior constraints is described. The structural mass of the wing is considered the objective function. The maximum stress, wing tip deflection, root angle of attack, and flutter velocity during the pull up maneuver (static load), the natural frequencies of the wing structure, and the stresses induced in the wing structure due to landing and gust loads are suitably constrained. Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches are used for finding the stresses induced in the airplane wing structure due to landing and gust loads. A wing design is represented by a uniform beam with a cross section in the form of a hollow symmetric double wedge. The airfoil thickness and chord length are the design variables, and a graphical procedure is used to find the optimum solutions. A supersonic wing design is represented by finite elements. The thicknesses of the skin and the web and the cross sectional areas of the flanges are the design variables, and nonlinear programming techniques are used to find the optimum solution.

  14. Automated Design of Restraint Layer of an Inflatable Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spexarth, Gary

    2007-01-01

    A Mathcad computer program largely automates the design and analysis of the restraint layer (the primary load-bearing layer) of an inflatable vessel that consists of one or more sections having cylindrical, toroidal, and/or spherical shape(s). A restraint layer typically comprises webbing in the form of multiple straps. The design task includes choosing indexing locations along the straps, computing the load at every location in each strap, computing the resulting stretch at each location, and computing the amount of undersizing required of each strap so that, once the vessel is inflated and the straps thus stretched, the vessel can be expected to assume the desired shape. Prior to the development of this program, the design task was performed by use of a difficult-to-use spreadsheet program that required manual addition of rows and columns depending on the numbers of strap rows and columns of a given design. In contrast, this program is completely parametric and includes logic that automatically adds or deletes rows and columns as needed. With minimal input from the user, this program automatically computes indexing locations, strap lengths, undersizing requirements, and all design data required to produce detailed drawings and assembly procedures. It also generates textual comments that help the user understand the calculations.

  15. Relocatable, Automated Cost-Benefit Analysis for Marine Sensor Network Design

    PubMed Central

    D’Este, Claire; de Souza, Paulo; Sharman, Chris; Allen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    When designing sensor networks, we need to ensure they produce representative and relevant data, but this must be offset by the financial cost of placing sensors. We describe a novel automated method for generating and combining cost and benefit values to decide on the best sensor locations using information about the specific constraints available in most coastal locations. Costs in maintenance, negotiation, equipment, exposure and communication are estimated using hydrodynamic models and Electronic Navigation Charts. Benefits in maximum coverage and reducing overall error are also determined using model output. This method demonstrates equivalent accuracy at predicting the whole system to expert-chosen locations, whilst significantly reducing the estimated costs. PMID:22736982

  16. [Design of an Incremental and Open Laboratory Automation System].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanfen; Chen, Yueping; Wang, Zhihong

    2015-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed great development of TLA (Total Laboratory Automation) technology, however, its application hit the bottleneck of high cost and openess to other parties' instruments. Specifically speaking, the initial purchase of the medical devices requires large sum of money and the new system can hardly be compatible with existing equipment. This thesis proposes a new thought for system implementation that through incremental upgrade, the initial capital investment can be reduced and through open architecture and interfaces, the seamless connection of different devices can be achieved. This thesis elaborates on the standards that open architecture design should follow in aspect of mechanics, electro-communication and information interaction and the key technology points in system implementation. PMID:26665947

  17. Embedded design based virtual instrument program for positron beam automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayapandian, J.; Gururaj, K.; Abhaya, S.; Parimala, J.; Amarendra, G.

    2008-10-01

    Automation of positron beam experiment with a single chip embedded design using a programmable system on chip (PSoC) which provides easy interfacing of the high-voltage DC power supply is reported. Virtual Instrument (VI) control program written in Visual Basic 6.0 ensures the following functions (i) adjusting of sample high voltage by interacting with the programmed PSoC hardware, (ii) control of personal computer (PC) based multi channel analyzer (MCA) card for energy spectroscopy, (iii) analysis of the obtained spectrum to extract the relevant line shape parameters, (iv) plotting of relevant parameters and (v) saving the file in the appropriate format. The present study highlights the hardware features of the PSoC hardware module as well as the control of MCA and other units through programming in Visual Basic.

  18. An Innovative Method of Teaching Electronic System Design with PSoC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Zhaohui; Hua, Chengying

    2012-01-01

    Programmable system-on-chip (PSoC), which provides a microprocessor and programmable analog and digital peripheral functions in a single chip, is very convenient for mixed-signal electronic system design. This paper presents the experience of teaching contemporary mixed-signal electronic system design with PSoC in the Department of Automation,…

  19. Automated design of multiphase space missions using hybrid optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilan, Christian Miguel

    A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving the associated continuous optimal control problem. This strategy, however, will most likely yield a sub-optimal solution, as the problem is sophisticated for several reasons. For example, the number of events in the optimal mission structure is not known a priori and the system equations of motion change depending on what event is current. In this work a framework for the automated design of multiphase space missions is presented using hybrid optimal control (HOC). The method developed uses two nested loops: an outer-loop that handles the discrete dynamics and finds the optimal mission structure in terms of the categorical variables, and an inner-loop that performs the optimization of the corresponding continuous-time dynamical system and obtains the required control history. Genetic algorithms (GA) and direct transcription with nonlinear programming (NLP) are introduced as methods of solution for the outer-loop and inner-loop problems, respectively. Automation of the inner-loop, continuous optimal control problem solver, required two new technologies. The first is a method for the automated construction of the NLP problems resulting from the use of a direct solver for systems with different structures, including different numbers of categorical events. The method assembles modules, consisting of parameters and constraints appropriate to each event, sequentially according to the given mission structure. The other new technology is for a robust initial guess generator required by the inner-loop NLP problem solver. Two new methods were developed for cases including low-thrust trajectories. The first method, based on GA

  20. Electronic Alerts with Automated Consultations Promote Appropriate Antimicrobial Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Chung-Jong; Song, Minkyo; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Park, Wan Beom; Bang, Ji Hwan; Hwang, Hee; Kim, Eu Suk; Park, Sang-Won; Kim, Nam Joong; Oh, Myoung-don; Kim, Hong Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background To promote appropriate antimicrobial use in bloodstream infections (BSIs), we initiated an intervention program consisting of electronic alerts and automated infectious diseases consultations in which the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test (ID/AST) results were reported. Methods We compared the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescriptions and clinical outcomes in BSIs before and after initiation of the program. Appropriateness was assessed in terms of effective therapy, optimal therapy, de-escalation therapy, and intravenous to oral switch therapy. Results There were 648 BSI episodes in the pre-program period and 678 in the program period. The proportion of effective, optimal, and de-escalation therapies assessed 24 hours after the reporting of the ID/AST results increased from 87.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 85.5–90.5), 64.4% (95% CI 60.8–68.1), and 10.0% (95% CI 7.5–12.6) in the pre-program period, respectively, to 94.4% (95% CI 92.7–96.1), 81.4% (95% CI 78.4–84.3), and 18.6% (95% CI 15.3–21.9) in the program period, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analyses and log-rank tests revealed that the time to effective (p<0.001), optimal (p<0.001), and de-escalation (p = 0.017) therapies were significantly different in the two periods. Segmented linear regression analysis showed the increase in the proportion of effective (p = 0.015), optimal (p<0.001), and de-escalation (p = 0.010) therapies at 24 hours after reporting, immediately after program initiation. No significant baseline trends or changes in trends were identified. There were no significant differences in time to intravenous to oral switch therapy, length of stay, and 30-day mortality rate. Conclusion This novel form of stewardship program based on intervention by infectious disease specialists and information technology improved antimicrobial prescriptions in BSIs. PMID:27532125

  1. Software Would Largely Automate Design of Kalman Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Jason C. H.; Negast, William J.

    2005-01-01

    Embedded Navigation Filter Automatic Designer (ENFAD) is a computer program being developed to automate the most difficult tasks in designing embedded software to implement a Kalman filter in a navigation system. The most difficult tasks are selection of error states of the filter and tuning of filter parameters, which are timeconsuming trial-and-error tasks that require expertise and rarely yield optimum results. An optimum selection of error states and filter parameters depends on navigation-sensor and vehicle characteristics, and on filter processing time. ENFAD would include a simulation module that would incorporate all possible error states with respect to a given set of vehicle and sensor characteristics. The first of two iterative optimization loops would vary the selection of error states until the best filter performance was achieved in Monte Carlo simulations. For a fixed selection of error states, the second loop would vary the filter parameter values until an optimal performance value was obtained. Design constraints would be satisfied in the optimization loops. Users would supply vehicle and sensor test data that would be used to refine digital models in ENFAD. Filter processing time and filter accuracy would be computed by ENFAD.

  2. An automated approach to the design of decision tree classifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argentiero, P.; Chin, P.; Beaudet, P.

    1980-01-01

    The classification of large dimensional data sets arising from the merging of remote sensing data with more traditional forms of ancillary data is considered. Decision tree classification, a popular approach to the problem, is characterized by the property that samples are subjected to a sequence of decision rules before they are assigned to a unique class. An automated technique for effective decision tree design which relies only on apriori statistics is presented. This procedure utilizes a set of two dimensional canonical transforms and Bayes table look-up decision rules. An optimal design at each node is derived based on the associated decision table. A procedure for computing the global probability of correct classfication is also provided. An example is given in which class statistics obtained from an actual LANDSAT scene are used as input to the program. The resulting decision tree design has an associated probability of correct classification of .76 compared to the theoretically optimum .79 probability of correct classification associated with a full dimensional Bayes classifier. Recommendations for future research are included.

  3. The Automated Bicron Tester: Automated electronic instrument diagnostic, testing, and alignment system with records generation

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, G.S.; Maddox, S.R.; Turner, G.W.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1995-11-01

    The Bicron Surveyor MX is a portable radiation monitoring instrument used by the Office of Radiation Protection at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This instrument must be calibrated in order to assure reliable operation. A manual calibration procedure was developed, but it was time consuming and repetitive. Therefore, an automated tester station that would allow the technicians to calibrate the instruments faster and more reliably was developed. With the automated tester station, calibration records and accountability could be generated and maintained automatically. This allows the technicians to concentrate on repairing defective units. The Automated Bicron Tester consists of an operator interface, an analog board, and a digital controller board. The panel is the user interface that allows the technician to communicate with the tester. The analog board has an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) that converts the signals from the instrument into digital data that the tester can manipulate. The digital controller board contains the circuitry to perform the test and to communicate the results to the host personal computer (PC). The tester station is connected to the unit under test through a special test harness that attaches to a header on the Bicron. The tester sends pulse trains to the Bicron and measures the resulting meter output. This is done to determine if the unit is functioning properly. The testers are connected to the host PC through an RS-485 serial line. The host PC polls all the tester stations that are connected to it and collects data from those that have completed a calibration. It logs these data and stores the record in a format ready for export to the Maintenance, Accountability, Jobs, and Inventory Control (MAJIC) database. It also prints a report. The programs for the Automated Bicron Tester and the host are written in the C language.

  4. Toward new design-rule-check of silicon photonics for automated layout physical verifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohamed; El Shamy, Raghi S.; Madkour, Kareem; Hammouda, Sherif; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2015-02-01

    A simple analytical model is developed to estimate the power loss and time delay in photonic integrated circuits fabricated using SOI standard wafers. This model is simple and can be utilized in physical verification of the circuit layout to verify its feasibility for fabrication using certain foundry specifications. This model allows for providing new design rules for the layout physical verification process in any electronic design automation (EDA) tool. The model is accurate and compared with finite element based full wave electromagnetic EM solver. The model is closed form and circumvents the need to utilize any EM solver for verification process. As such it dramatically reduces the time of verification process and allows fast design rule check.

  5. Reliability-Based Electronics Shielding Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; O'Neill, P. J.; Zang, T. A.; Pandolf, J. E.; Tripathi, R. K.; Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, P.; Reddell, B.; Pankop, C.

    2007-01-01

    Shielding design on large human-rated systems allows minimization of radiation impact on electronic systems. Shielding design tools require adequate methods for evaluation of design layouts, guiding qualification testing, and adequate follow-up on final design evaluation.

  6. The automated design of materials far from equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miskin, Marc Z.

    Automated design is emerging as a powerful concept in materials science. By combining computer algorithms, simulations, and experimental data, new techniques are being developed that start with high level functional requirements and identify the ideal materials that achieve them. This represents a radically different picture of how materials become functional in which technological demand drives material discovery, rather than the other way around. At the frontiers of this field, materials systems previously considered too complicated can start to be controlled and understood. Particularly promising are materials far from equilibrium. Material robustness, high strength, self-healing and memory are properties displayed by several materials systems that are intrinsically out of equilibrium. These and other properties could be revolutionary, provided they can first be controlled. This thesis conceptualizes and implements a framework for designing materials that are far from equilibrium. We show how, even in the absence of a complete physical theory, design from the top down is possible and lends itself to producing physical insight. As a prototype system, we work with granular materials: collections of athermal, macroscopic identical objects, since these materials function both as an essential component of industrial processes as well as a model system for many non-equilibrium states of matter. We show that by placing granular materials in the context of design, benefits emerge simultaneously for fundamental and applied interests. As first steps, we use our framework to design granular aggregates with extreme properties like high stiffness, and softness. We demonstrate control over nonlinear effects by producing exotic aggregates that stiffen under compression. Expanding on our framework, we conceptualize new ways of thinking about material design when automatic discovery is possible. We show how to build rules that link particle shapes to arbitrary granular packing

  7. Automated database design for large-scale scientific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadomanolakis, Stratos

    The need for large-scale scientific data management is today more pressing than ever, as modern sciences need to store and process terabyte-scale data volumes. Traditional systems, relying on filesystems and custom data access and processing code do not scale for multi-terabyte datasets. Therefore, supporting today's data-driven sciences requires the development of new data management capabilities. This Ph.D dissertation develops techniques that allow modern Database Management Systems (DBMS) to efficiently handle large scientific datasets. Several recent successful DBMS deployments target applications like astronomy, that manage collections of objects or observations (e.g. galaxies, spectra) and can easily store their data in a commercial relational DBMS. Query performance for such systems critically depends on the database physical design, the organization of database structures such as indexes and tables. This dissertation develops algorithms and tools for automating the physical design process. Our tools allow databases to tune themselves, providing efficient query execution in the presence of large data volumes and complex query workloads. For more complex applications dealing with multidimensional and time-varying data, standard relational DBMS are inadequate. Efficiently supporting such applications requires the development of novel indexing and query processing techniques. This dissertation develops an indexing technique for unstructured tetrahedral meshes, a multidimensional data organization used in finite element analysis applications. Our technique outperforms existing multidimensional indexing techniques and has the advantage that can easily be integrated with standard DBMS, providing existing systems with the ability to handle spatial data with minor modifications.

  8. Electronic design with integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, D. J.

    The book is concerned with the application of integrated circuits and presents the material actually needed by the system designer to do an effective job. The operational amplifier (op amp) is discussed, taking into account the electronic amplifier, the basic op amp, the practical op amp, analog applications, and digital applications. Digital components are considered along with combinational logic, digital subsystems, the microprocessor, special circuits, communications, and integrated circuit building blocks. Attention is given to logic gates, logic families, multivibrators, the digital computer, digital methods, communicating with a computer, computer organization, register and timing circuits for data transfer, arithmetic circuits, memories, the microprocessor chip, the control unit, communicating with the microprocessor, examples of microprocessor architecture, programming a microprocessor, the voltage-controlled oscillator, the phase-locked loop, analog-to-digital conversion, amplitude modulation, frequency modulation, pulse and digital transmission, the semiconductor diode, the bipolar transistor, and the field-effect transistor.

  9. Automated Design of Noise-Minimal, Safe Rotorcraft Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert A.; Venable, K. Brent; Lindsay, James

    2012-01-01

    NASA and the international community are investing in the development of a commercial transportation infrastructure that includes the increased use of rotorcraft, specifically helicopters and aircraft such as a 40-passenger civil tilt rotors. Rotorcraft have a number of advantages over fixed wing aircraft, primarily in not requiring direct access to the primary fixed wing runways. As such they can operate at an airport without directly interfering with major air carrier and commuter aircraft operations. However, there is significant concern over the impact of noise on the communities surrounding the transportation facilities. In this paper we propose to address the rotorcraft noise problem by exploiting powerful search techniques coming from artificial intelligence, coupled with simulation and field tests, to design trajectories that are expected to improve on the amount of ground noise generated. This paper investigates the use of simulation based on predictive physical models to facilitate the search for low-noise trajectories using a class of automated search algorithms called local search. A novel feature of this approach is the ability to incorporate constraints into the problem formulation that addresses passenger safety and comfort.

  10. Electronic aids to conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouchard, Eugene E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented in viewgraph form are techniques to improve the conceptual design of complex systems. The paper discusses theory of design, flexible software tools for computer aided design, and methods for enhancing communication among design teams.

  11. DESIGN HANDBOOK FOR AUTOMATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a systems engineering handbook for the automation of activated sludge wastewater treatment processes. Process control theory and application are discussed to acquaint the reader with terminology and fundamentals. Successful unit process control strategies currently...

  12. Xyce parallel electronic simulator design.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Mei, Ting; Schiek, Richard Louis; Keiter, Eric Richard; Russo, Thomas V.

    2010-09-01

    This document is the Xyce Circuit Simulator developer guide. Xyce has been designed from the 'ground up' to be a SPICE-compatible, distributed memory parallel circuit simulator. While it is in many respects a research code, Xyce is intended to be a production simulator. As such, having software quality engineering (SQE) procedures in place to insure a high level of code quality and robustness are essential. Version control, issue tracking customer support, C++ style guildlines and the Xyce release process are all described. The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been under development at Sandia since 1999. Historically, Xyce has mostly been funded by ASC, the original focus of Xyce development has primarily been related to circuits for nuclear weapons. However, this has not been the only focus and it is expected that the project will diversify. Like many ASC projects, Xyce is a group development effort, which involves a number of researchers, engineers, scientists, mathmaticians and computer scientists. In addition to diversity of background, it is to be expected on long term projects for there to be a certain amount of staff turnover, as people move on to different projects. As a result, it is very important that the project maintain high software quality standards. The point of this document is to formally document a number of the software quality practices followed by the Xyce team in one place. Also, it is hoped that this document will be a good source of information for new developers.

  13. Automated design synthesis of robotic/human workcells for improved manufacturing system design in hazardous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Joshua M.

    2012-06-12

    Manufacturing tasks that are deemed too hazardous for workers require the use of automation, robotics, and/or other remote handling tools. The associated hazards may be radiological or nonradiological, and based on the characteristics of the environment and processing, a design may necessitate robotic labor, human labor, or both. There are also other factors such as cost, ergonomics, maintenance, and efficiency that also effect task allocation and other design choices. Handling the tradeoffs of these factors can be complex, and lack of experience can be an issue when trying to determine if and what feasible automation/robotics options exist. To address this problem, we utilize common engineering design approaches adapted more for manufacturing system design in hazardous environments. We limit our scope to the conceptual and embodiment design stages, specifically a computational algorithm for concept generation and early design evaluation. In regard to concept generation, we first develop the functional model or function structure for the process, using the common 'verb-noun' format for describing function. A common language or functional basis for manufacturing was developed and utilized to formalize function descriptions and guide rules for function decomposition. Potential components for embodiment are also grouped in terms of this functional language and are stored in a database. The properties of each component are given as quantitative and qualitative criteria. Operators are also rated for task-relevant criteria which are used to address task compatibility. Through the gathering of process requirements/constraints, construction of the component database, and development of the manufacturing basis and rule set, design knowledge is stored and available for computer use. Thus, once the higher level process functions are defined, the computer can automate the synthesis of new design concepts through alternating steps of embodiment and function structure updates

  14. INTEGRATING THE STORED GRAIN ADVISOR PRO EXPERT SYSTEM WITH AN AUTOMATED ELECTRONIC ELECTRONIC GRAIN PROBE TRAPPING SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automation of grain sampling should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management. A new commercial electronic grain probe trap (OPI Insector™) has recently been marketed. To make accurate insect management decisions, managers need to know both the insect species and numbe...

  15. INTEGRATING THE STORED GRAIN ADVISOR PRO EXPERT SYSTEM WITH AN AUTOMATED ELECTRONIC GRAIN PROBE TRAPPING SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automation of grain sampling should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management. A new commercial electronic grain probe trap (OPI Insector) has recently been marketed. To make accurate insect management decisions, managers need to know both the insect species and number...

  16. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  17. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  18. Design and Implementation of an Open, Interoperable AutomatedDemand Response Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Ghatikar, Girish

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes the concept for and lessons from the development and field-testing of an open, interoperable communications infrastructure to support automating demand response (DR). Automating DR allows greater levels of participation and improved reliability and repeatability of the demand response and customer facilities. Automated DR systems have been deployed for critical peak pricing and demand bidding and are being designed for real time pricing. The system is designed to generate, manage, and track DR signals between utilities and Independent System Operators (ISOs) to aggregators and end-use customers and their control systems.

  19. Investigation of expert system design approaches for electronic design environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppens, Susan A.

    1987-12-01

    Various schemes were investigated that are available for the design effort of electronic systems. The information is to be incorporated into a knowledge base to determine approaches for a particular design. Various design methodologies are to be investigated for their appropriateness and application in the aforesaid design environment. The second phase is to focus on the knowledge base gathered in the design effort for electronic design. This knowledge base is to be incorporated into a rule based expert system which can be utilized by the design engineer in the design/development of functional specifications.

  20. Model-Based Design of Air Traffic Controller-Automation Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romahn, Stephan; Callantine, Todd J.; Palmer, Everett A.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A model of controller and automation activities was used to design the controller-automation interactions necessary to implement a new terminal area air traffic management concept. The model was then used to design a controller interface that provides the requisite information and functionality. Using data from a preliminary study, the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) was used to help validate the model as a computational tool for describing controller performance.

  1. Spacecraft electronics design for radiation tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, R.D.

    1988-11-01

    Spacecraft electronics design for radiation tolerance is a complex subject, involving a detailed understanding of environment, component hardening, and design susceptibility. This paper describes current design practices and discusses future trends in spacecraft electronics which are likely to alter traditional approaches. A summary of radiation effects and radiation tolerance requirements typically levied on spacecraft designs is provided. Methods of dealing with radiation are then described, followed with testability issues.

  2. Preparing Electronic Clinical Data for Quality Improvement and Comparative Effectiveness Research: The SCOAP CERTAIN Automation and Validation Project

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Emily Beth; Capurro, Daniel; van Eaton, Erik; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Devlin, Allison; Yanez, N. David; Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha; Flum, David R.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background: The field of clinical research informatics includes creation of clinical data repositories (CDRs) used to conduct quality improvement (QI) activities and comparative effectiveness research (CER). Ideally, CDR data are accurately and directly abstracted from disparate electronic health records (EHRs), across diverse health-systems. Objective: Investigators from Washington State’s Surgical Care Outcomes and Assessment Program (SCOAP) Comparative Effectiveness Research Translation Network (CERTAIN) are creating such a CDR. This manuscript describes the automation and validation methods used to create this digital infrastructure. Methods: SCOAP is a QI benchmarking initiative. Data are manually abstracted from EHRs and entered into a data management system. CERTAIN investigators are now deploying Caradigm’s Amalga™ tool to facilitate automated abstraction of data from multiple, disparate EHRs. Concordance is calculated to compare data automatically to manually abstracted. Performance measures are calculated between Amalga and each parent EHR. Validation takes place in repeated loops, with improvements made over time. When automated abstraction reaches the current benchmark for abstraction accuracy - 95% - itwill ‘go-live’ at each site. Progress to Date: A technical analysis was completed at 14 sites. Five sites are contributing; the remaining sites prioritized meeting Meaningful Use criteria. Participating sites are contributing 15–18 unique data feeds, totaling 13 surgical registry use cases. Common feeds are registration, laboratory, transcription/dictation, radiology, and medications. Approximately 50% of 1,320 designated data elements are being automatically abstracted—25% from structured data; 25% from text mining. Conclusion: In semi-automating data abstraction and conducting a rigorous validation, CERTAIN investigators will semi-automate data collection to conduct QI and CER, while advancing the Learning Healthcare System. PMID:25848565

  3. Collaborative Electronic Notebooks as Electronic Records: Design Issues for the Secure Electronic Laboratory Notebook (ELN)

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, James D.

    2003-01-24

    Current electronic notebooks (EN) can be grouped roughly into two general classes - personal/group productivity tools and enterprise records/knowledge management systems. Personal/group productivity-oriented ENs extend the notebook metaphor in terms of supporting multimedia annotations, automating workflow and data processing, supporting simultaneous use by distributed researchers, providing displays on personal digital assistants

  4. Robotic design for an automated uranium solution enrichment system

    SciTech Connect

    Horley, E.C.; Beugelsdijk, T.; Biddle, R.S.; Bronisz, L.E.; Hansen, W.J.; Li, T.K.; Sampson, T.E.; Walton, G.

    1990-01-01

    A method to automate solution enrichment analysis by gamma-ray spectroscopy is being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both passive and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses will be remotely performed to determine the amounts of {sup 235}U and total uranium in sample containers. A commercial laboratory robot will be used to process up to 40 batch and 8 priority samples in an unattended mode. Samples will be read by a bar-code reader to determine measurement requirements, then assayed by either or both of the gamma-ray and XRF instruments. The robot will be responsible for moving the sample containers and operating all shield doors and shutters. In addition to reducing hardware complexity, this feature will also allow manual operation of the instruments if the robot fails. This automated system will reduce personnel radiation exposure and increase the reliability and repeatability of the measurements.

  5. Development of automated power system management techniques. [spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Moser, R. L.; Skelly, L. A.; Weiner, H.

    1978-01-01

    The basic approach in the automated power system management (APSM) implementation is to use one central microprocessor for the overall power system supervision and several local microprocessors dedicated to one or more major subassemblies to perform simple monitoring and control functions. Communication between the central and each local processor is through a dedicated two-wire network employing serial data transfer. The block diagrams of the processors, the data bus characteristics, and the software functions and organization are presented.

  6. Designing of smart home automation system based on Raspberry Pi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Ravi Prakash; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Wattanawisuth, Nattapol; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn

    2016-03-01

    Locally networked or remotely controlled home automation system becomes a popular paradigm because of the numerous advantages and is suitable for academic research. This paper proposes a method for an implementation of Raspberry Pi based home automation system presented with an android phone access interface. The power consumption profile across the connected load is measured accurately through programming. Users can access the graph of total power consumption with respect to time worldwide using their Dropbox account. An android application has been developed to channelize the monitoring and controlling operation of home appliances remotely. This application facilitates controlling of operating pins of Raspberry Pi by pressing the corresponding key for turning "on" and "off" of any desired appliance. Systems can range from the simple room lighting control to smart microcontroller based hybrid systems incorporating several other additional features. Smart home automation systems are being adopted to achieve flexibility, scalability, security in the sense of data protection through the cloud-based data storage protocol, reliability, energy efficiency, etc.

  7. Electronics Shielding and Reliability Design Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; ONeill, P. M.; Zang, Thomas A., Jr.; Pandolf, John E.; Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, P.; Reddell, B.; Pankop, C.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that electronics placement in large-scale human-rated systems provides opportunity to optimize electronics shielding through materials choice and geometric arrangement. For example, several hundred single event upsets (SEUs) occur within the Shuttle avionic computers during a typical mission. An order of magnitude larger SEU rate would occur without careful placement in the Shuttle design. These results used basic physics models (linear energy transfer (LET), track structure, Auger recombination) combined with limited SEU cross section measurements allowing accurate evaluation of target fragment contributions to Shuttle avionics memory upsets. Electronics shielding design on human-rated systems provides opportunity to minimize radiation impact on critical and non-critical electronic systems. Implementation of shielding design tools requires adequate methods for evaluation of design layouts, guiding qualification testing, and an adequate follow-up on final design evaluation including results from a systems/device testing program tailored to meet design requirements.

  8. Automated detection of a prostate Ni-Ti stent in electronic portal images

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Henning; Nielsen, Jane; Lund, Bente; Larsen, Erik Hoejkjaer

    2006-12-15

    Planning target volumes (PTV) in fractionated radiotherapy still have to be outlined with wide margins to the clinical target volume due to uncertainties arising from daily shift of the prostate position. A recently proposed new method of visualization of the prostate is based on insertion of a thermo-expandable Ni-Ti stent. The current study proposes a new detection algorithm for automated detection of the Ni-Ti stent in electronic portal images. The algorithm is based on the Ni-Ti stent having a cylindrical shape with a fixed diameter, which was used as the basis for an automated detection algorithm. The automated method uses enhancement of lines combined with a grayscale morphology operation that looks for enhanced pixels separated with a distance similar to the diameter of the stent. The images in this study are all from prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy in a previous study. Images of a stent inserted in a humanoid phantom demonstrated a localization accuracy of 0.4-0.7 mm which equals the pixel size in the image. The automated detection of the stent was compared to manual detection in 71 pairs of orthogonal images taken in nine patients. The algorithm was successful in 67 of 71 pairs of images. The method is fast, has a high success rate, good accuracy, and has a potential for unsupervised localization of the prostate before radiotherapy, which would enable automated repositioning before treatment and allow for the use of very tight PTV margins.

  9. Some Challenges in the Design of Human-Automation Interaction for Safety-Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael S.; Roth, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Increasing amounts of automation are being introduced to safety-critical domains. While the introduction of automation has led to an overall increase in reliability and improved safety, it has also introduced a class of failure modes, and new challenges in risk assessment for the new systems, particularly in the assessment of rare events resulting from complex inter-related factors. Designing successful human-automation systems is challenging, and the challenges go beyond good interface development (e.g., Roth, Malin, & Schreckenghost 1997; Christoffersen & Woods, 2002). Human-automation design is particularly challenging when the underlying automation technology generates behavior that is difficult for the user to anticipate or understand. These challenges have been recognized in several safety-critical domains, and have resulted in increased efforts to develop training, procedures, regulations and guidance material (CAST, 2008, IAEA, 2001, FAA, 2013, ICAO, 2012). This paper points to the continuing need for new methods to describe and characterize the operational environment within which new automation concepts are being presented. We will describe challenges to the successful development and evaluation of human-automation systems in safety-critical domains, and describe some approaches that could be used to address these challenges. We will draw from experience with the aviation, spaceflight and nuclear power domains.

  10. Laser Opto-Electronic Correlator for Robotic Vision Automated Pattern Recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville

    1995-01-01

    A compact laser opto-electronic correlator for pattern recognition has been designed, fabricated, and tested. Specifically it is a translation sensitivity adjustable compact optical correlator (TSACOC) utilizing convergent laser beams for the holographic filter. Its properties and performance, including the location of the correlation peak and the effects of lateral and longitudinal displacements for both filters and input images, are systematically analyzed based on the nonparaxial approximation for the reference beam. The theoretical analyses have been verified in experiments. In applying the TSACOC to important practical problems including fingerprint identification, we have found that the tolerance of the system to the input lateral displacement can be conveniently increased by changing a geometric factor of the system. The system can be compactly packaged using the miniature laser diode sources and can be used in space by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and ground commercial applications which include robotic vision, and industrial inspection of automated quality control operations. The personnel of Standard International will work closely with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to transfer the technology to the commercial market. Prototype systems will be fabricated to test the market and perfect the product. Large production will follow after successful results are achieved.

  11. Automated Stitching of Microtubule Centerlines across Serial Electron Tomograms

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Britta; Tranfield, Erin M.; Höög, Johanna L.; Baum, Daniel; Antony, Claude; Hyman, Tony; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Prohaska, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Tracing microtubule centerlines in serial section electron tomography requires microtubules to be stitched across sections, that is lines from different sections need to be aligned, endpoints need to be matched at section boundaries to establish a correspondence between neighboring sections, and corresponding lines need to be connected across multiple sections. We present computational methods for these tasks: 1) An initial alignment is computed using a distance compatibility graph. 2) A fine alignment is then computed with a probabilistic variant of the iterative closest points algorithm, which we extended to handle the orientation of lines by introducing a periodic random variable to the probabilistic formulation. 3) Endpoint correspondence is established by formulating a matching problem in terms of a Markov random field and computing the best matching with belief propagation. Belief propagation is not generally guaranteed to converge to a minimum. We show how convergence can be achieved, nonetheless, with minimal manual input. In addition to stitching microtubule centerlines, the correspondence is also applied to transform and merge the electron tomograms. We applied the proposed methods to samples from the mitotic spindle in C. elegans, the meiotic spindle in X. laevis, and sub-pellicular microtubule arrays in T. brucei. The methods were able to stitch microtubules across section boundaries in good agreement with experts' opinions for the spindle samples. Results, however, were not satisfactory for the microtubule arrays. For certain experiments, such as an analysis of the spindle, the proposed methods can replace manual expert tracing and thus enable the analysis of microtubules over long distances with reasonable manual effort. PMID:25438148

  12. The design of an automated verification of redundant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, F. A.; Hasslinger, T. W.; Moreno, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Handbook describes design processes, presents design considerations and techniques, gives tutorial material on implementation and methodology, shows design aids, illustrates use of design aids and application samples, and identifies general practices to be adhered to or avoided.

  13. An automated tool for the design and assessment of space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalcambre, Lois M. L.; Landry, Steve P.

    1990-01-01

    Space systems can be characterized as both large and complex but they often rely on reusable subcomponents. One problem in the design of such systems is the representation and validation of the system, particularly at the higher levels of management. An automated tool is described for the representation, refinement, and validation of such complex systems based on a formal design theory, the Theory of Plausible Design. In particular, the steps necessary to automate the tool and make it a competent, usable assistant, are described.

  14. Automated Monte Carlo biasing for photon-generated electrons near surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, Brian Claude; Crawford, Martin James; Kensek, Ronald Patrick

    2009-09-01

    This report describes efforts to automate the biasing of coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo particle transport calculations. The approach was based on weight-windows biasing. Weight-window settings were determined using adjoint-flux Monte Carlo calculations. A variety of algorithms were investigated for adaptivity of the Monte Carlo tallies. Tree data structures were used to investigate spatial partitioning. Functional-expansion tallies were used to investigate higher-order spatial representations.

  15. Designing Microcomputer Networks (and) LANS: A New Technology to Improve Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Evan L.; Farr, Rick C.

    1984-01-01

    Two articles address the design of microcomputer networks and the use of local area computer networks (LAN) to improve library automation. Topics discussed include network design criteria, media for local networks, transmission mode, typical communication protocols, user interface, basic local network architectures, and examples of microcomputer…

  16. Reliability-Based Design of a Safety-Critical Automation System: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Carol W.; Dunn, W.; Doty, L.; Frank, M. V.; Hulet, M.; Alvarez, Teresa (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In 1986, NASA funded a project to modernize the NASA Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels, including the replacement of obsolescent controls with a modern, automated distributed control system (DCS). The project effort on this system included an independent safety analysis (ISA) of the automation system. The purpose of the ISA was to evaluate the completeness of the hazard analyses which had already been performed on the Modernization Project. The ISA approach followed a tailoring of the risk assessment approach widely used on existing nuclear power plants. The tailoring of the nuclear industry oriented risk assessment approach to the automation system and its role in reliability-based design of the automation system is the subject of this paper.

  17. Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

  18. Automation and Accountability in Decision Support System Interface Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Mary L.

    2006-01-01

    When the human element is introduced into decision support system design, entirely new layers of social and ethical issues emerge but are not always recognized as such. This paper discusses those ethical and social impact issues specific to decision support systems and highlights areas that interface designers should consider during design with an…

  19. Tevatron Electron Lenses: Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; Bishofberger, Kip; Kamerdzhiev, Vsevolod; Kozub, Sergei; Kufer, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Gennady; Martinez, Alexander; Olson, Marvin; Pfeffer, Howard; Saewert, Greg; Scarpine, Vic; /Fermilab /SLAC /Fermilab /Serpukhov, IHEP /Novosibirsk, IYF /Serpukhov, IHEP /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    The beam-beam effects have been the dominating sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider [1]. Electron lenses were originally proposed for compensation of electromagnetic long-range and head-on beam-beam interactions of proton and antiproton beams [2]. Results of successful employment of two electron lenses built and installed in the Tevatron are reported in [3,4,5]. In this paper we present design features of the Tevatron electron lenses (TELs), discuss the generation of electron beams, describe different modes of operation and outline the technical parameters of various subsystems.

  20. D-Zero muon readout electronics design

    SciTech Connect

    Baldin, B.; Hansen, S.; Los, S.; Matveev, M.; Vaniev, V.

    1996-11-01

    The readout electronics designed for the D{null} Muon Upgrade are described. These electronics serve three detector subsystems and one trigger system. The front-ends and readout hardware are synchronized by means of timing signals broadcast from the D{null} Trigger Framework. The front-end electronics have continuously running digitizers and two levels of buffering resulting in nearly deadtimeless operation. The raw data is corrected and formatted by 16- bit fixed point DSP processors. These processors also perform control of the data buffering. The data transfer from the front-end electronics located on the detector platform is performed by serial links running at 160 Mbit/s. The design and test results of the subsystem readout electronics and system interface are discussed.

  1. Data base systems in electronic design engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D.

    1980-01-01

    The concepts of an integrated design data base system (DBMS) as it might apply to an electronic design company are discussed. Data elements of documentation, project specifications, project tracking, firmware, software, electronic and mechanical design can be integrated and managed through a single DBMS. Combining the attributes of a DBMS data handler with specialized systems and functional data can provide users with maximum flexibility, reduced redundancy, and increased overall systems performance. Although some system overhead is lost due to redundancy in transitory data, it is believed the combination of the two data types is advisable rather than trying to do all data handling through a single DBMS.

  2. Model-based automated segmentation of kinetochore microtubule from electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming; Ji, Qiang; McEwen, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    The segmentation of kinetochore microtubules from electron tomography is challenging due to the poor quality of the acquired data and the cluttered cellular surroundings. We propose to automate the microtubule segmentation by extending the active shape model (ASM) in two aspects. First, we develop a higher order boundary model obtained by 3-D local surface estimation that characterizes the microtubule boundary better than the gray level appearance model in the 2-D microtubule cross section. We then incorporate this model into the weight matrix of the fitting error measurement to increase the influence of salient features. Second, we integrate the ASM with Kalman filtering to utilize the shape information along the longitudinal direction of the microtubules. The ASM modified in this way is robust against missing data and outliers frequently present in the kinetochore tomography volume. Experimental results demonstrate that our automated method outperforms manual process but using only a fraction of the time of the latter. PMID:17272020

  3. Automated integration of continuous glucose monitor data in the electronic health record using consumer technology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajiv B; Goren, Nira D; Stark, David E; Wall, Dennis P; Longhurst, Christopher A

    2016-05-01

    The diabetes healthcare provider plays a key role in interpreting blood glucose trends, but few institutions have successfully integrated patient home glucose data in the electronic health record (EHR). Published implementations to date have required custom interfaces, which limit wide-scale replication. We piloted automated integration of continuous glucose monitor data in the EHR using widely available consumer technology for 10 pediatric patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. Establishment of a passive data communication bridge via a patient's/parent's smartphone enabled automated integration and analytics of patient device data within the EHR between scheduled clinic visits. It is feasible to utilize available consumer technology to assess and triage home diabetes device data within the EHR, and to engage patients/parents and improve healthcare provider workflow. PMID:27018263

  4. Automating software design and configuration for a small spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    The Open Prototype for Educational NanoSats (OPEN) is a framework for the development of low-cost spacecraft. It will allow users to build a 1-U (10 cm x 10 cm x 11 cm, 1.33 kg) CubeSat-class spacecraft with a parts budget of approximately $5,000. Work is underway to develop software to assist users in configuring the spacecraft and validating its compliance with integration and launch standards. Each prospective configuration requires a unique software configuration, combining pre-built modules for controlling base components, custom control software for custom developed and payload components and overall mission management and control software (which, itself will be a combination of standard components and mission specific control logic). This paper presents a system for automating standard component configuration and creating templates to facilitate the creation and integration of components that must be (or which the developer desires to be) custom-developed for the particular mission or spacecraft.

  5. Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, M. J.; Upadhyay, J.; Deshpande, P. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P.

    2010-08-01

    A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

  6. Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, M. J.; Upadhyay, J.; Deshpande, P. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P.

    2010-08-15

    A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

  7. Using IDE in Instructional Design: Encouraging Reflective Instruction Design Through Automated Design Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Daniel M.; Kelley, Loretta

    The Instructional Design Environment (IDE), a computer assisted instruction tool for instructional design, has been incorporated into the curriculum and instructional development in mathematics instruction in the Stanford Teacher Education Program (STEP). (STEP is a 12-month program leading to an M.A. in education which emphasizes content focus…

  8. Automated design of a uniform distribution using faceted reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassarly, William J.; David, Stuart R.; Jenkins, David G.; Riser, Andrew; Davenport, Thomas L.

    2000-07-01

    Faceted reflectors are a ubiquitous means for providing uniform illumination in many commercial lighting products, examples being newer flashlights, department-store display lighting, and the faceted reflectors found in overhead projectors. However, the design of faceted reflectors using software has often been more limited by the tools available to design them than by the imagination of the designers. One of the keys to enabling a broader range of design options has been to allow more complex surfaces using constructive solid geometry (CSG). CSG uses Boolean operations on basic geometric primitives to define shapes to create individual facets. In this paper, we describe an improved faceted reflector design algorithm and use it to create a wide range of CSG-based reflectors. The performance of various reflectors is compared using a Monte Carlo ray-trace method.

  9. One window on the world of design automation

    SciTech Connect

    Stamm, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion of these factors is used as an introduction to a description of the daisy logician workstation. Rapidly increasing VLSI design complexity is most often cited as the primary reason for the emergence of the engineering workstation. Many other factors play an even more crucial role, however, in the development of this new technology. These include the advent of custom devices, the standardisation of logic design methodology and advances in memory density, display technology and disc technology.

  10. Automated design of the surface positions of protein helices.

    PubMed Central

    Dahiyat, B. I.; Gordon, D. B.; Mayo, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    Using a protein design algorithm that quantitatively considers side-chain interactions, the design of surface residues of alpha helices was examined. Three scoring functions were tested: a hydrogen-bond potential, a hydrogen-bond potential in conjunction with a penalty for uncompensated burial of polar hydrogens, and a hydrogen-bond potential in combination with helix propensity. The solvent exposed residues of a homodimeric coiled coil based on GCN4-p1 were designed by using the Dead-End Elimination Theorem to find the optimal amino acid sequence for each scoring function. The corresponding peptides were synthesized and characterized by circular dichroism spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. The designed peptides were dimeric and nearly 100% helical at 1 degree C, with melting temperatures from 69-72 degrees C, over 12 degrees C higher than GCN4-p1, whereas a random hydrophilic sequence at the surface positions produced a peptide that melted at 15 degrees C. Analysis of the designed sequences suggests that helix propensity is the key factor in sequence design for surface helical positions. PMID:9194194

  11. Automated Tetrahedral Mesh Generation for CFD Analysis of Aircraft in Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu; Campbell, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces an automation process of generating a tetrahedral mesh for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of aircraft configurations in early conceptual design. The method was developed for CFD-based sonic boom analysis of supersonic configurations, but can be applied to aerodynamic analysis of aircraft configurations in any flight regime.

  12. Design, development, test, and evaluation of an automated analytical electrophoresis apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, P. A.; Bier, M.

    1977-01-01

    An Automated Analytical Electrophoresis Apparatus (AAEA) was designed, developed, assembled, and preliminarily tested. The AAEA was demonstrated to be a feasible apparatus for automatically acquiring, displaying, and storing (and eventually analyzing) electrophoresis mobility data from living blood cells. The apparatus and the operation of its major assemblies are described in detail.

  13. Automation and Schema Acquisition in Learning Elementary Computer Programming: Implications for the Design of Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Paas, Fred G. W. C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of computer programing at the secondary level focuses on automation and schema acquisition as two processes important in learning cognitive skills such as programing. Their effects on learning outcomes and transfer of training are examined, the importance of worked examples is highlighted, and instructional design principles are…

  14. Design and development of a semi-automated module for the preparation of metallic PET radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trejo-Ballado, F.; Lopez-Rodriguez, V.; Gaspar-Carcamo, R. E.; Hurtado-Chong, G.; Avila-Rodriguez, Miguel A.

    2012-12-01

    The method for the production of metallic radionuclides has been widely reported, and most of them share a common ion chromatography purification technique. The aim of this work is to design and develop a semi-automated remotely controlled module for the purification of metallic PET radionuclides via cation exchange chromatography.

  15. Graphic design principles for automated document segmentation and understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Riveros, J. Fernando; Santos Villalobos, Hector J.

    2006-01-01

    When designers develop a document layout their objective is to convey a specific message and provoke a specific response from the audience. Design principles provide the foundation for identifying document components and relations among them to extract implicit knowledge from the layout. Variable Data Printing enables the production of personalized printing jobs for which traditional proofing of all the job instances could result unfeasible. This paper explains a rule-based system that uses design principles to segment and understand document context. The system uses the design principles of repetition, proximity, alignment, similarity, and contrast as the foundation for the strategy in document segmentation and understanding which holds a strong relation with the recognition of artifacts produced by the infringement of the constraints articulated in the document layout. There are two main modules in the tool: the geometric analysis module; and the design rule engine. The geometric analysis module extracts explicit knowledge from the data provided in the document. The design rule module uses the information provided by the geometric analysis to establish logical units inside the document. We used a subset of XSL-FO, sufficient for designing documents with an adequate amount complexity. The system identifies components such as headers, paragraphs, lists, images and determines the relations between them, such as header-paragraph, header-list, etc. The system provides accurate information about the geometric properties of the components, detects the elements of the documents and identifies corresponding components between a proofed instance and the rest of the instances in a Variable Data Printing Job.

  16. Designs for a quantum electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Kruit, P; Hobbs, R G; Kim, C-S; Yang, Y; Manfrinato, V R; Hammer, J; Thomas, S; Weber, P; Klopfer, B; Kohstall, C; Juffmann, T; Kasevich, M A; Hommelhoff, P; Berggren, K K

    2016-05-01

    One of the astounding consequences of quantum mechanics is that it allows the detection of a target using an incident probe, with only a low probability of interaction of the probe and the target. This 'quantum weirdness' could be applied in the field of electron microscopy to generate images of beam-sensitive specimens with substantially reduced damage to the specimen. A reduction of beam-induced damage to specimens is especially of great importance if it can enable imaging of biological specimens with atomic resolution. Following a recent suggestion that interaction-free measurements are possible with electrons, we now analyze the difficulties of actually building an atomic resolution interaction-free electron microscope, or "quantum electron microscope". A quantum electron microscope would require a number of unique components not found in conventional transmission electron microscopes. These components include a coherent electron beam-splitter or two-state-coupler, and a resonator structure to allow each electron to interrogate the specimen multiple times, thus supporting high success probabilities for interaction-free detection of the specimen. Different system designs are presented here, which are based on four different choices of two-state-couplers: a thin crystal, a grating mirror, a standing light wave and an electro-dynamical pseudopotential. Challenges for the detailed electron optical design are identified as future directions for development. While it is concluded that it should be possible to build an atomic resolution quantum electron microscope, we have also identified a number of hurdles to the development of such a microscope and further theoretical investigations that will be required to enable a complete interpretation of the images produced by such a microscope. PMID:26998703

  17. Automation for pattern library creation and in-design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Rock; Zou, Elain; Hong, Sid; Wang, Jinyan; Zhang, Yifan; Sweis, Jason; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Ding, Hua; Huang, Jason

    2015-03-01

    Semiconductor manufacturing technologies are becoming increasingly complex with every passing node. Newer technology nodes are pushing the limits of optical lithography and requiring multiple exposures with exotic material stacks for each critical layer. All of this added complexity usually amounts to further restrictions in what can be designed. Furthermore, the designs must be checked against all these restrictions in verification and sign-off stages. Design rules are intended to capture all the manufacturing limitations such that yield can be maximized for any given design adhering to all the rules. Most manufacturing steps employ some sort of model based simulation which characterizes the behavior of each step. The lithography models play a very big part of the overall yield and design restrictions in patterning. However, lithography models are not practical to run during design creation due to their slow and prohibitive run times. Furthermore, the models are not usually given to foundry customers because of the confidential and sensitive nature of every foundry's processes. The design layout locations where a model flags unacceptable simulated results can be used to define pattern rules which can be shared with customers. With advanced technology nodes we see a large growth of pattern based rules. This is due to the fact that pattern matching is very fast and the rules themselves can be very complex to describe in a standard DRC language. Therefore, the patterns are left as either pattern layout clips or abstracted into pattern-like syntax which a pattern matcher can use directly. The patterns themselves can be multi-layered with "fuzzy" designations such that groups of similar patterns can be found using one description. The pattern matcher is often integrated with a DRC tool such that verification and signoff can be done in one step. The patterns can be layout constructs that are "forbidden", "waived", or simply low-yielding in nature. The patterns can also

  18. Automated simulation as part of a design workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Elizabeth; Shenk, T.; Robinson, P.; Upadhye, R.

    1990-01-01

    A development project for a design workstation for advanced life-support systems (called the DAWN Project, for Design Assistant Workstation), incorporating qualitative simulation, required the implementation of a useful qualitative simulation capability and the integration of qualitative and quantitative simulation such that simulation capabilities are maximized without duplication. The reason is that to produce design solutions to a system goal, the behavior of the system in both a steady and perturbed state must be represented. The Qualitative Simulation Tool (QST), on an expert-system-like model building and simulation interface toll called ScratchPad (SP), and on the integration of QST and SP with more conventional, commercially available simulation packages now being applied in the evaluation of life-support system processes and components are discussed.

  19. Scar-less multi-part DNA assembly design automation

    DOEpatents

    Hillson, Nathan J.

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides a method of a method of designing an implementation of a DNA assembly. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) receiving a list of DNA sequence fragments to be assembled together and an order in which to assemble the DNA sequence fragments, (2) designing DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) for each of the DNA sequence fragments, and (3) creating a plan for adding flanking homology sequences to each of the DNA oligos. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) receiving a list of DNA sequence fragments to be assembled together and an order in which to assemble the DNA sequence fragments, (2) designing DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) for each of the DNA sequence fragments, and (3) creating a plan for adding optimized overhang sequences to each of the DNA oligos.

  20. Design preferences and cognitive styles: experimentation by automated website synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This article aims to demonstrate computational synthesis of Web-based experiments in undertaking experimentation on relationships among the participants' design preference, rationale, and cognitive test performance. The exemplified experiments were computationally synthesised, including the websites as materials, experiment protocols as methods, and cognitive tests as protocol modules. This work also exemplifies the use of a website synthesiser as an essential instrument enabling the participants to explore different possible designs, which were generated on the fly, before selection of preferred designs. Methods The participants were given interactive tree and table generators so that they could explore some different ways of presenting causality information in tables and trees as the visualisation formats. The participants gave their preference ratings for the available designs, as well as their rationale (criteria) for their design decisions. The participants were also asked to take four cognitive tests, which focus on the aspects of visualisation and analogy-making. The relationships among preference ratings, rationale, and the results of cognitive tests were analysed by conservative non-parametric statistics including Wilcoxon test, Krustal-Wallis test, and Kendall correlation. Results In the test, 41 of the total 64 participants preferred graphical (tree-form) to tabular presentation. Despite the popular preference for graphical presentation, the given tabular presentation was generally rated to be easier than graphical presentation to interpret, especially by those who were scored lower in the visualization and analogy-making tests. Conclusions This piece of evidence helps generate a hypothesis that design preferences are related to specific cognitive abilities. Without the use of computational synthesis, the experiment setup and scientific results would be impractical to obtain. PMID:22748000

  1. Automated Design and Optimization of Pebble-bed Reactor Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Hans D. Gougar; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; William K. Terry

    2010-07-01

    We present a conceptual design approach for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors using recirculating pebble-bed cores. The design approach employs PEBBED, a reactor physics code specifically designed to solve for and analyze the asymptotic burnup state of pebble-bed reactors, in conjunction with a genetic algorithm to obtain a core that maximizes a fitness value that is a function of user-specified parameters. The uniqueness of the asymptotic core state and the small number of independent parameters that define it suggest that core geometry and fuel cycle can be efficiently optimized toward a specified objective. PEBBED exploits a novel representation of the distribution of pebbles that enables efficient coupling of the burnup and neutron diffusion solvers. With this method, even complex pebble recirculation schemes can be expressed in terms of a few parameters that are amenable to modern optimization techniques. With PEBBED, the user chooses the type and range of core physics parameters that represent the design space. A set of traits, each with acceptable and preferred values expressed by a simple fitness function, is used to evaluate the candidate reactor cores. The stochastic search algorithm automatically drives the generation of core parameters toward the optimal core as defined by the user. The optimized design can then be modeled and analyzed in greater detail using higher resolution and more computationally demanding tools to confirm the desired characteristics. For this study, the design of pebble-bed high temperature reactor concepts subjected to demanding physical constraints demonstrated the efficacy of the PEBBED algorithm.

  2. Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Jonathan; Gasparis, Epameinondas; Eden, Ammon H.; Kazman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Specification and [visual] modelling languages are expected to combine strong abstraction mechanisms with rigour, scalability, and parsimony. LePUS3 is a visual, object-oriented design description language axiomatized in a decidable subset of the first-order predicate logic. We demonstrate how LePUS3 is used to formally specify a structural design pattern and prove ( verify ) whether any JavaTM 1.4 program satisfies that specification. We also show how LePUS3 specifications (charts) are composed and how they are verified fully automatically in the Two-Tier Programming Toolkit.

  3. Parameter Studies, time-dependent simulations and design with automated Cartesian methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, NASA has made a substantial investment in developing adaptive Cartesian grid methods for aerodynamic simulation. Cartesian-based methods played a key role in both the Space Shuttle Accident Investigation and in NASA's return to flight activities. The talk will provide an overview of recent technological developments focusing on the generation of large-scale aerodynamic databases, automated CAD-based design, and time-dependent simulations with of bodies in relative motion. Automation, scalability and robustness underly all of these applications and research in each of these topics will be presented.

  4. CMOS array design automation techniques. [metal oxide semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramondetta, P.; Feller, A.; Noto, R.; Lombardi, T.

    1975-01-01

    A low cost, quick turnaround technique for generating custom metal oxide semiconductor arrays using the standard cell approach was developed, implemented, tested and validated. Basic cell design topology and guidelines are defined based on an extensive analysis that includes circuit, layout, process, array topology and required performance considerations particularly high circuit speed.

  5. An Electronics Course Emphasizing Circuit Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeson, Haven E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a one-quarter introductory electronics course in which the students use a variety of inexpensive integrated circuits to design and construct a large number of useful circuits. Presents the subject matter of the course in three parts: linear circuits, digital circuits, and more complex circuits. (GS)

  6. Enhancing Creative Thinking through Designing Electronic Slides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokaram, Al-Ali Khaled; Al-Shabatat, Ahmad Mohammad; Fong, Fook Soon; Abdallah, Andaleeb Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    During the shifting of teaching and learning methods using computer technologies, much emphasis was paid on the knowledge content more than the thinking skills. Thus, this study investigated the effects of a computer application, namely, designing electronic slides on the development of creative thinking skills of a sample of undergraduate…

  7. A Multi-Agent Design for Power Distribution Systems Automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, M. Jawad

    A new Multi Agent System (MAS) design for fault location, isolation and restoration in power distribution systems is presented. In proposed approach, when there is a fault in the Power Distribution System (PDS), MAS quickly isolates the fault and restores the service to fault-free zones. Hierarchical coordination strategy is introduced to manage the agents which integrate the advantages of both centralized and decentralized coordination strategies. In this framework, Zone Agent (ZA) locate and isolate the fault based on the locally available information and assist the Feeder Agent (FA) for reconfiguration and restoration. FA can solve the restoration problem using the existing algorithms for the 0-1 Knapsack problem. A novel Q-learning mechanism is also introduced to support the FAs in decision making for restoration. Also a distributed MAS-Based Load Shedding (LS) technique has been used to supply as many of higher priority customers as possible, in case there is more demand than generation. The design is illustrated by the use of simulation case studies for fault location, isolation and restoration on West Virginia Super Circuit (WVSC) and hardware implementation for fault location and isolation in a laboratory platform. The results from the case studies indicate the performance of proposed MAS designs.

  8. Automated design of image operators that detect interest points.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Leonardo; Olague, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    This work describes how evolutionary computation can be used to synthesize low-level image operators that detect interesting points on digital images. Interest point detection is an essential part of many modern computer vision systems that solve tasks such as object recognition, stereo correspondence, and image indexing, to name but a few. The design of the specialized operators is posed as an optimization/search problem that is solved with genetic programming (GP), a strategy still mostly unexplored by the computer vision community. The proposed approach automatically synthesizes operators that are competitive with state-of-the-art designs, taking into account an operator's geometric stability and the global separability of detected points during fitness evaluation. The GP search space is defined using simple primitive operations that are commonly found in point detectors proposed by the vision community. The experiments described in this paper extend previous results (Trujillo and Olague, 2006a,b) by presenting 15 new operators that were synthesized through the GP-based search. Some of the synthesized operators can be regarded as improved manmade designs because they employ well-known image processing techniques and achieve highly competitive performance. On the other hand, since the GP search also generates what can be considered as unconventional operators for point detection, these results provide a new perspective to feature extraction research. PMID:19053496

  9. Design principles and algorithms for automated air traffic management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents design principles and algorithm for building a real time scheduler. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high altitude airspace far from the airport and low altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time.

  10. An automated method of quantifying ferrite microstructures using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sachin L; Breen, Andrew J; Trimby, Patrick; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Ringer, Simon P; Cairney, Julie M

    2014-02-01

    The identification and quantification of the different ferrite microconstituents in steels has long been a major challenge for metallurgists. Manual point counting from images obtained by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is commonly used for this purpose. While classification systems exist, the complexity of steel microstructures means that identifying and quantifying these phases is still a great challenge. Moreover, point counting is extremely tedious, time consuming, and subject to operator bias. This paper presents a new automated identification and quantification technique for the characterisation of complex ferrite microstructures by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). This technique takes advantage of the fact that different classes of ferrite exhibit preferential grain boundary misorientations, aspect ratios and mean misorientation, all of which can be detected using current EBSD software. These characteristics are set as criteria for identification and linked to grain size to determine the area fractions. The results of this method were evaluated by comparing the new automated technique with point counting results. The technique could easily be applied to a range of other steel microstructures. PMID:24291695

  11. Automated extraction of fine features of kinetochore microtubules and plus-ends from electron tomography volume.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming; Ji, Qiang; McEwen, Bruce F

    2006-07-01

    Kinetochore microtubules (KMTs) and the associated plus-ends have been areas of intense investigation in both cell biology and molecular medicine. Though electron tomography opens up new possibilities in understanding their function by imaging their high-resolution structures, the interpretation of the acquired data remains an obstacle because of the complex and cluttered cellular environment. As a result, practical segmentation of the electron tomography data has been dominated by manual operation, which is time consuming and subjective. In this paper, we propose a model-based automated approach to extracting KMTs and the associated plus-ends with a coarse-to-fine scale scheme consisting of volume preprocessing, microtubule segmentation and plus-end tracing. In volume preprocessing, we first apply an anisotropic invariant wavelet transform and a tube-enhancing filter to enhance the microtubules at coarse level for localization. This is followed with a surface-enhancing filter to accentuate the fine microtubule boundary features. The microtubule body is then segmented using a modified active shape model method. Starting from the segmented microtubule body, the plus-ends are extracted with a probabilistic tracing method improved with rectangular window based feature detection and the integration of multiple cues. Experimental results demonstrate that our automated method produces results comparable to manual segmentation but using only a fraction of the manual segmentation time. PMID:16830922

  12. A diagnostic electronic reporting framework proposal using preassigned automated coded phrases.

    PubMed

    Karpouzou, Lamprini; Mylonakis, John; Evripiotis, Michalis; Mainta, Evgenia; Vasileiou, Panayiotis

    2013-03-01

    Radiologists daily diagnose a large number of Chest X-rays and it is crucial that these reports are appropriately recorded, meaningfully indexed, carefully stored, easily retrieved, shared and printed. The absence of organized reports' storage does not permit their direct and easy retrieval, while after almost a year the report is perished and not even readable (handwritten or typed). The scope of this paper is to evaluate and propose the use of preassigned automated-coded phrases for the chest X-ray electronic reporting in a Radiology Department. The research included 9,252 typed reports, using the proposed method and 949 hand written reports (later typed or not), which were used to compare between the time being spent in reporting with either method. The results proved that even if the method could not be applied fully, there was a 90% reduction of the time being spent by the radiologists and secretarial staff in a Radiology Department, thereby facilitating the typing and management of the electronic archives. In addition, it was found that the reprinting due to addendums/discrepancies, when the proposed method was used, was reduced fourfold, when compared to the previously used methods. In conclusion, the consistent application of preassigned automated-coded reporting can be time saving, cost effective and environmentally friendly saving paper and ink. PMID:23445706

  13. The Chandra automated processing system: challenges, design enhancements, and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, David; Grier, John; Masters, Sreelatha

    2006-06-01

    Chandra standard data processing involves hundreds of different types of data products and pipelines. Pipelines are initiated by different types of events or notifications and may depend upon many other pipelines for input data. The Chandra automated processing system (AP) was designed to handle the various notifications and orchestrate the pipeline processing. Certain data sets may require "special" handling that deviates slightly from the standard processing thread. Also, bulk reprocessing of data often involves new processing requirements. Most recently, a new type of processing to produce source catalogs has introduced requirements not anticipated by the original AP design. Managing these complex dependencies and evolving processing requirements in an efficient, flexible, and automated fashion presents many challenges. This paper describes the most significant of these challenges, the AP design changes required to address these issues and the lessons learned along the way.

  14. DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY VALIDATION OF A RAPID AUTOMATED BIODOSIMETRY TOOL FOR HIGH THROUGPUT RADIOLOGICAL TRIAGE

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Youhua; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hongliang; Garty, Guy; Xu, Yanping; Lyulko, Oleksandra V.; Turner, Helen C.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Simaan, Nabil; Yao, Y. Lawrence; Brenner, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents design, hardware, software, and parameter optimization for a novel robotic automation system. RABiT is a Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool for high throughput radiological triage. The design considerations guiding the hardware and software architecture are presented with focus on methods of communication, ease of implementation, and need for real-time control versus soft time control cycles. The design and parameter determination for a non-contact PVC capillary laser cutting system is presented. A novel approach for lymphocyte concentration estimation based on computer vision is reported. Experimental evaluations of the system components validate the success of our prototype system in achieving a throughput of 6,000 samples in a period of 18 hours. PMID:21258614

  15. DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY VALIDATION OF A RAPID AUTOMATED BIODOSIMETRY TOOL FOR HIGH THROUGPUT RADIOLOGICAL TRIAGE.

    PubMed

    Chen, Youhua; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hongliang; Garty, Guy; Xu, Yanping; Lyulko, Oleksandra V; Turner, Helen C; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Simaan, Nabil; Yao, Y Lawrence; Brenner, D J

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents design, hardware, software, and parameter optimization for a novel robotic automation system. RABiT is a Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool for high throughput radiological triage. The design considerations guiding the hardware and software architecture are presented with focus on methods of communication, ease of implementation, and need for real-time control versus soft time control cycles. The design and parameter determination for a non-contact PVC capillary laser cutting system is presented. A novel approach for lymphocyte concentration estimation based on computer vision is reported. Experimental evaluations of the system components validate the success of our prototype system in achieving a throughput of 6,000 samples in a period of 18 hours. PMID:21258614

  16. SLC polarized beam source electron optics design

    SciTech Connect

    Eppley, K.R.; Lavine, T.L.; Early, R.A.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Miller, R.H.; Schultz, D.C.; Spencer, C.M.; Yeremian, A.D.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the design of the beam-line from the polarized electron gun to the linac injector in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The polarized electron source is a GaAs photocathode, requiring 10{sup {minus}11}-Torr-range pressure for adequate quantum efficiency and longevity. The photocathode is illuminated by 3-nsec-long laser pulses. The quality of the optics for the 160-kV beam is crucial since electron-stimulated gas desorption from beam loss in excess of 0.1% of the 20-nC pulses may poison the photocathode. Our design for the transport line consists of a differential pumping region isolated by a pair of valves. Focusing is provided by a pair of Helmholtz coils and by several iron-encased solenoidal lenses. Our optics design is based on beam transport simulations using 2{1/2}-D particle-in-cell codes to model the gun and to solve the fully-relativistic time-dependent equations of motion in three dimensions for electrons in the presence of azimuthally symmetric electromagnetic fields. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Engineering Design and Automation in the Applied Engineering Technologies (AET) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    Wantuck, P. J.; Hollen, R. M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of some design and automation-related projects ongoing within the Applied Engineering Technologies (AET) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory. AET uses a diverse set of technical capabilities to develop and apply processes and technologies to applications for a variety of customers both internal and external to the Laboratory. The Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) represents a new paradigm for the processing of nuclear material from retired weapon systems in an environment that seeks to minimize the radiation dose to workers. To achieve this goal, ARIES relies upon automation-based features to handle and process the nuclear material. Our Chemical Process Development Team specializes in fuzzy logic and intelligent control systems. Neural network technology has been utilized in some advanced control systems developed by team members. Genetic algorithms and neural networks have often been applied for data analysis. Enterprise modeling, or discrete event simulation, as well as chemical process simulation has been employed for chemical process plant design. Fuel cell research and development has historically been an active effort within the AET organization. Under the principal sponsorship of the Department of Energy, the Fuel Cell Team is now focusing on technologies required to produce fuel cell compatible feed gas from reformation of a variety of conventional fuels (e.g., gasoline, natural gas), principally for automotive applications. This effort involves chemical reactor design and analysis, process modeling, catalyst analysis, as well as full scale system characterization and testing. The group's Automation and Robotics team has at its foundation many years of experience delivering automated and robotic systems for nuclear, analytical chemistry, and bioengineering applications. As an integrator of commercial systems and a developer of unique custom-made systems, the team currently supports the automation

  18. Design of a small automated telescope for Indian universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandaram, Mandayam N.; Kagali, B. A.

    We have constructed a computer controlled telescope using a 0.36-m f/11 Celestron optical tube assembly for teaching and research applications. We have constructed a heavy duty fork-type equatorial mount fitted with precision machined 24 inch drive disks for both axes. These are friction driven by stepper motors through one inch rollers. We have used an open loop control system triggerable by an ST-4 CCD camera to acquire and track any target object. Our telescope can home in on any target within a range of two arc-minutes. We have employed a commercial stepper motor controller card for which we have written a user friendly pc based telescope control software in C. Photometry using a solid state photometer, and imaging by an ST-6 CCD camera are possible. We consider that this project is suitable for those wishing to construct some parts of a telescope and understand the principles of operation. A simpler model of this telescope could use DC motors instead of stepper motors. We shall be happy to send our design diagrams and details to those interested. This project was funded by the DST, and was assisted by IUCAA, Pune.

  19. Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) Electron Preprocessor (EPP) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennell, J. F.; Osborn, J. V.; Christensen, John L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Aerospace Corporation developed the Electron PreProcessor (EPP) to support the Imaging Electron Spectrometer (IES) that is part of the RAPID experiment on the ESA/NASA CLUSTER mission. The purpose of the EPP is to collect raw data from the IES and perform processing and data compression on it before transferring it to the RAPID microprocessor system for formatting and transmission to the CLUSTER satellite data system. The report provides a short history of the RAPID and CLUSTER programs and describes the EPP design. Four EPP units were fabricated, tested, and delivered for the original CLUSTER program. These were destroyed during a launch failure. Four more EPP units were delivered for the CLUSTER II program. These were successfully launched and are operating nominally on orbit.

  20. Technologies and Designs for Electronic Nanocomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, Michael S.; Love, J. Christopher; Opiteck, Gregory J.; Goldhaber, David J.; Ellenbogen, James C.

    1995-01-01

    Diverse space-related applications have been proposed for microscopic and sub-microscopic structures, mechanisms, and 'organisms'. To govern their functions, many of these tiny systems will require even smaller, nanometer-scale programmable computers, i.e. 'nanocomputers' on-board. This paper provides an overview of the results of a nearly two-year study of the technologies and designs that presently are in development for electronic nanocomputers. Strengths and weaknesses of the various technologies and designs are discussed, as well as promising directions for remedying some of the present research issues in this area. The presentation is a synopsis of a longer MITRE review article on the same subject.

  1. Program Calculates Power Demands Of Electronic Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    1995-01-01

    CURRENT computer program calculates power requirements of electronic designs. For given design, CURRENT reads in applicable parts-list file and file containing current required for each part. Program also calculates power required for circuit at supply potentials of 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5 volts. Written by use of AWK utility for Sun4-series computers running SunOS 4.x and IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. Sun version of program (NPO-19590). PC version of program (NPO-19111).

  2. End-to-end automated microfluidic platform for synthetic biology: from design to functional analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Linshiz, Gregory; Jensen, Erik; Stawski, Nina; Bi, Changhao; Elsbree, Nick; Jiao, Hong; Kim, Jungkyu; Mathies, Richard; Keasling, Jay D.; Hillson, Nathan J.

    2016-02-02

    Synthetic biology aims to engineer biological systems for desired behaviors. The construction of these systems can be complex, often requiring genetic reprogramming, extensive de novo DNA synthesis, and functional screening. Here, we present a programmable, multipurpose microfluidic platform and associated software and apply the platform to major steps of the synthetic biology research cycle: design, construction, testing, and analysis. We show the platform’s capabilities for multiple automated DNA assembly methods, including a new method for Isothermal Hierarchical DNA Construction, and for Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformation. The platform enables the automated control of cellular growth, gene expression induction, andmore » proteogenic and metabolic output analysis. Finally, taken together, we demonstrate the microfluidic platform’s potential to provide end-to-end solutions for synthetic biology research, from design to functional analysis.« less

  3. On Abstractions and Simplifications in the Design of Human-Automation Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, Michael; Degani, Asaf; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report addresses the design of human-automation interaction from a formal perspective that focuses on the information content of the interface, rather than the design of the graphical user interface. It also addresses the issue of the information provided to the user (e.g., user-manuals, training material, and all other resources). In this report, we propose a formal procedure for generating interfaces and user-manuals. The procedure is guided by two criteria: First, the interface must be correct, that is, with the given interface the user will be able to perform the specified tasks correctly. Second, the interface should be succinct. The report discusses the underlying concepts and the formal methods for this approach. Two examples are used to illustrate the procedure. The algorithm for constructing interfaces can be automated, and a preliminary software system for its implementation has been developed.

  4. On Abstractions and Simplifications in the Design of Human-Automation Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, Michael; Degani, Asaf; Shafto, Michael; Meyer, George; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report addresses the design of human-automation interaction from a formal perspective that focuses on the information content of the interface, rather than the design of the graphical user interface. It also addresses the, issue of the information provided to the user (e.g., user-manuals, training material, and all other resources). In this report, we propose a formal procedure for generating interfaces and user-manuals. The procedure is guided by two criteria: First, the interface must be correct, i.e., that with the given interface the user will be able to perform the specified tasks correctly. Second, the interface should be as succinct as possible. The report discusses the underlying concepts and the formal methods for this approach. Several examples are used to illustrate the procedure. The algorithm for constructing interfaces can be automated, and a preliminary software system for its implementation has been developed.

  5. Automated Design of Propellant-Optimal, End-to-End, Low-Thrust Trajectories for Trojan Asteroid Tours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Jeffrey; Howell, Kathleen; Wilson, Roby

    2013-01-01

    The Sun-Jupiter Trojan asteroids are celestial bodies of great scientific interest as well as potential resources offering water and other mineral resources for longterm human exploration of the solar system. Previous investigations under this project have addressed the automated design of tours within the asteroid swarm. This investigation expands the current automation scheme by incorporating options for a complete trajectory design approach to the Trojan asteroids. Computational aspects of the design procedure are automated such that end-to-end trajectories are generated with a minimum of human interaction after key elements and constraints associated with a proposed mission concept are specified.

  6. Model-based automated extraction of microtubules from electron tomography volume.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming; Ji, Qiang; McEwen, Bruce F

    2006-07-01

    We propose a model-based automated approach to extracting microtubules from noisy electron tomography volume. Our approach consists of volume enhancement, microtubule localization, and boundary segmentation to exploit the unique geometric and photometric properties of microtubules. The enhancement starts with an anisotropic invariant wavelet transform to enhance the microtubules globally, followed by a three-dimensional (3-D) tube-enhancing filter based on Weingarten matrix to further accentuate the tubular structures locally. The enhancement ends with a modified coherence-enhancing diffusion to complete the interruptions along the microtubules. The microtubules are then localized with a centerline extraction algorithm adapted for tubular objects. To perform segmentation, we novelly modify and extend active shape model method. We first use 3-D local surface enhancement to characterize the microtubule boundary and improve shape searching by relating the boundary strength with the weight matrix of the searching error. We then integrate the active shape model with Kalman filtering to utilize the longitudinal smoothness along the microtubules. The segmentation improved in this way is robust against missing boundaries and outliers that are often present in the tomography volume. Experimental results demonstrate that our automated method produces results close to those by manual process and uses only a fraction of the time of the latter. PMID:16871731

  7. Revisiting the Fully Automated Double-ring Infiltrometer using Open-source Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, J.; Werkema, D., Jr.; Lane, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    The double-ring infiltrometer (DRI) is commonly used for measuring soil hydraulic conductivity. However, constant-head DRI tests typically involve the use of Mariotte tubes, which can be problematic to set-up, and time-consuming to maintain and monitor during infiltration tests. Maheshwari (1996, Australian Journal of Soil Research, v. 34, p. 709-714) developed a method for eliminating Mariotte tubes for constant-head tests using a computer-controlled combination of water-level indicators and solenoids to maintain a near-constant head in the DRI. A pressure transducer mounted on a depth-to-volume calibrated tank measures the water delivery rates during the test and data are saved on a hard drive or floppy disk. Here we use an inexpensive combination of pressure transducers, microcontroller, and open-source electronics that eliminate the need for Mariotte tubes. The system automates DRI water delivery and data recording for both constant- and falling-head infiltration tests. The user has the option of choosing water supplied to the DRI through a pressurized water system, pump, or gravity fed. An LCD screen enables user interface and observation of data for quality analysis in the field. The digital data are stored on a micro-SD card in standard column format for future retrieval and easy importing into conventional processing and plotting software. We show the results of infiltrometer tests using the automated system and a conventional Mariotte tube system conducted over test beds of uniform soils.

  8. An automation of design and modelling tasks in NX Siemens environment with original software - generator module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbiciak, M.; Grabowik, C.; Janik, W.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design constructional process is almost exclusively aided with CAD/CAE/CAM systems. It is evaluated that nearly 80% of design activities have a routine nature. These design routine tasks are highly susceptible to automation. Design automation is usually made with API tools which allow building original software responsible for adding different engineering activities. In this paper the original software worked out in order to automate engineering tasks at the stage of a product geometrical shape design is presented. The elaborated software works exclusively in NX Siemens CAD/CAM/CAE environment and was prepared in Microsoft Visual Studio with application of the .NET technology and NX SNAP library. The software functionality allows designing and modelling of spur and helicoidal involute gears. Moreover, it is possible to estimate relative manufacturing costs. With the Generator module it is possible to design and model both standard and non-standard gear wheels. The main advantage of the model generated in such a way is its better representation of an involute curve in comparison to those which are drawn in specialized standard CAD systems tools. It comes from fact that usually in CAD systems an involute curve is drawn by 3 points that respond to points located on the addendum circle, the reference diameter of a gear and the base circle respectively. In the Generator module the involute curve is drawn by 11 involute points which are located on and upper the base and the addendum circles therefore 3D gear wheels models are highly accurate. Application of the Generator module makes the modelling process very rapid so that the gear wheel modelling time is reduced to several seconds. During the conducted research the analysis of differences between standard 3 points and 11 points involutes was made. The results and conclusions drawn upon analysis are shown in details.

  9. An automated approach to calculating the daily dose of tacrolimus in electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua; Doan, Son; Birdwell, Kelly A; Cowan, James D; Vincz, Andrew J; Haas, David W; Basford, Melissa A; Denny, Joshua C

    2010-01-01

    Clinical research often requires extracting detailed drug information, such as medication names and dosages, from Electronic Health Records (EHR). Since medication information is often recorded as both structured and unstructured formats in the EHR, extracting all the relevant drug mentions and determining the daily dose of a medication for a selected patient at a given date can be a challenging and time-consuming task. In this paper, we present an automated approach using natural language processing to calculate daily doses of medications mentioned in clinical text, using tacrolimus as a test case. We evaluated this method using data sets from four different types of unstructured clinical data. Our results showed that the system achieved precisions of 0.90-1.00 and recalls of 0.81-1.00. PMID:21347153

  10. Tevatron electron lenses: Design and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; Bishofberger, Kip; Kamerdzhiev, Vsevolod; Kozub, Sergei; Kufer, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Gennady; Martinez, Alexander; Olson, Marvin; Pfeffer, Howard; Saewert, Greg; Scarpine, Vic; Seryi, Andrey; Solyak, Nikolai; Sytnik, Veniamin; Tiunov, Mikhail; Tkachenko, Leonid; Wildman, David; Wolff, Daniel; Zhang, Xiao-Long

    2008-10-01

    The beam-beam effects have been the dominating sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider [V. Shiltsev , Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8, 101001 (2005)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.8.101001]. Electron lenses were originally proposed for compensation of electromagnetic long-range and head-on beam-beam interactions of proton and antiproton beams [V. Shiltsev , Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 2, 071001 (1999).PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.2.071001]. Results of successful employment of two electron lenses built and installed in the Tevatron are reported by Shiltsev et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 244801 (2007)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.99.244801; New J. Phys. 10, 043042 (2008)NJOPFM1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/10/4/043042] and by Zhang et al. [X.-L. Zhang , Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 051002 (2008)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.11.051002]. In this paper we present design features of the Tevatron electron lenses (TELs), discuss the generation of electron beams, describe different modes of operation, and outline the technical parameters of various subsystems.

  11. Integrating automated structured analysis and design with Ada programming support environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Alan; Simmons, Andy

    1986-01-01

    Ada Programming Support Environments (APSE) include many powerful tools that address the implementation of Ada code. These tools do not address the entire software development process. Structured analysis is a methodology that addresses the creation of complete and accurate system specifications. Structured design takes a specification and derives a plan to decompose the system subcomponents, and provides heuristics to optimize the software design to minimize errors and maintenance. It can also produce the creation of useable modules. Studies have shown that most software errors result from poor system specifications, and that these errors also become more expensive to fix as the development process continues. Structured analysis and design help to uncover error in the early stages of development. The APSE tools help to insure that the code produced is correct, and aid in finding obscure coding errors. However, they do not have the capability to detect errors in specifications or to detect poor designs. An automated system for structured analysis and design TEAMWORK, which can be integrated with an APSE to support software systems development from specification through implementation is described. These tools completement each other to help developers improve quality and productivity, as well as to reduce development and maintenance costs. Complete system documentation and reusable code also resultss from the use of these tools. Integrating an APSE with automated tools for structured analysis and design provide capabilities and advantages beyond those realized with any of these systems used by themselves.

  12. A structural study of cyanotrichite from Dachang by conventional and automated electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventruti, Gennaro; Mugnaioli, Enrico; Capitani, Giancarlo; Scordari, Fernando; Pinto, Daniela; Lausi, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    The crystal structure of cyanotrichite, having general formula Cu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12·2H2O, from the Dachang deposit (China) was studied by means of conventional transmission electron microscopy, automated electron diffraction tomography (ADT) and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). ADT revealed the presence of two different cyanotrichite-like phases. The same phases were also recognized in the XRPD pattern, allowing the perfect indexing of all peaks leading, after refinement to the following cell parameters: (1) a = 12.417(2) Å, b = 2.907(1) Å, c = 10.157(1) Å and β = 98.12(1); (2) a = 12.660(2) Å, b = 2.897(1) Å, c = 10.162(1) Å and β = 92.42(1)°. Only for the former phase, labeled cyanotrichite-98, a partial structure, corresponding to the [Cu4Al2(OH){12/2+}] cluster, was obtained ab initio by direct methods in space group C2/ m on the basis of electron diffraction data. Geometric and charge-balance considerations allowed to reach the whole structure model for the cyanotrichite-98 phase. The sulfate group and water molecule result to be statistically disordered over two possible positions, but keeping the average structure consistent with the C-centering symmetry, in agreement with ADT results.

  13. Three-dimensional rotation electron diffraction: software RED for automated data collection and data processing.

    PubMed

    Wan, Wei; Sun, Junliang; Su, Jie; Hovmöller, Sven; Zou, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    Implementation of a computer program package for automated collection and processing of rotation electron diffraction (RED) data is described. The software package contains two computer programs: RED data collection and RED data processing. The RED data collection program controls the transmission electron microscope and the camera. Electron beam tilts at a fine step (0.05-0.20°) are combined with goniometer tilts at a coarse step (2.0-3.0°) around a common tilt axis, which allows a fine relative tilt to be achieved between the electron beam and the crystal in a large tilt range. An electron diffraction (ED) frame is collected at each combination of beam tilt and goniometer tilt. The RED data processing program processes three-dimensional ED data generated by the RED data collection program or by other approaches. It includes shift correction of the ED frames, peak hunting for diffraction spots in individual ED frames and identification of these diffraction spots as reflections in three dimensions. Unit-cell parameters are determined from the positions of reflections in three-dimensional reciprocal space. All reflections are indexed, and finally a list with hkl indices and intensities is output. The data processing program also includes a visualizer to view and analyse three-dimensional reciprocal lattices reconstructed from the ED frames. Details of the implementation are described. Data collection and data processing with the software RED are demonstrated using a calcined zeolite sample, silicalite-1. The structure of the calcined silicalite-1, with 72 unique atoms, could be solved from the RED data by routine direct methods. PMID:24282334

  14. Adaptive and Adaptable Automation Design: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kaber, David B.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a review of literature on approaches to adaptive and adaptable task/function allocation and adaptive interface technologies for effective human management of complex systems that are likely to be issues for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, and a focus of research under the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project. Contemporary literature retrieved from an online database search is summarized and integrated. The major topics include the effects of delegation-type, adaptable automation on human performance, workload and situation awareness, the effectiveness of various automation invocation philosophies and strategies to function allocation in adaptive systems, and the role of user modeling in adaptive interface design and the performance implications of adaptive interface technology.

  15. Electronic engine 'mockup' shortens design time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, J. C.; Jatzek, H. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    CAD systems approaches being used by one engine manufacturing company to display the engine and all accessories are described. The electronic mock-ups of engines under development permits examining the entire engine and its support equipment without resorting to a manufactured model. The Geomod program module allows definitions of sections of tubing in appropriate places and subsequent generations of a solid model, or cabling sections in a wire frame representation. Interferences are automatically identified, even when the system is accessed by several designers simultaneously. Storage of the data provides for representational printouts and plots for subcontractors.

  16. Using Tomoauto: A Protocol for High-throughput Automated Cryo-electron Tomography.

    PubMed

    Morado, Dustin R; Hu, Bo; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (Cryo-ET) is a powerful three-dimensional (3-D) imaging technique for visualizing macromolecular complexes in their native context at a molecular level. The technique involves initially preserving the sample in its native state by rapidly freezing the specimen in vitreous ice, then collecting a series of micrographs from different angles at high magnification, and finally computationally reconstructing a 3-D density map. The frozen-hydrated specimen is extremely sensitive to the electron beam and so micrographs are collected at very low electron doses to limit the radiation damage. As a result, the raw cryo-tomogram has a very low signal to noise ratio characterized by an intrinsically noisy image. To better visualize subjects of interest, conventional imaging analysis and sub-tomogram averaging in which sub-tomograms of the subject are extracted from the initial tomogram and aligned and averaged are utilized to improve both contrast and resolution. Large datasets of tilt-series are essential to understanding and resolving the complexes at different states, conditions, or mutations as well as obtaining a large enough collection of sub-tomograms for averaging and classification. Collecting and processing this data can be a major obstacle preventing further analysis. Here we describe a high-throughput cryo-ET protocol based on a computer-controlled 300kV cryo-electron microscope, a direct detection device (DDD) camera and a highly effective, semi-automated image-processing pipeline software wrapper library tomoauto developed in-house. This protocol has been effectively utilized to visualize the intact type III secretion system (T3SS) in Shigella flexneri minicells. It can be applicable to any project suitable for cryo-ET. PMID:26863591

  17. Provider acceptance of an automated electronic alert for acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Janice; Bia, Joshua R.; Ubaid-Ullah, Muhamad; Testani, Jeffrey M.; Wilson, Francis Perry

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical decision support systems, including electronic alerts, ideally provide immediate and relevant patient-specific information to improve clinical decision-making. Despite the growing capabilities of such alerts in conjunction with an expanding electronic medical record, there is a paucity of information regarding their perceived usefulness. We surveyed healthcare providers' opinions concerning the practicality and efficacy of a specific text-based automated electronic alert for acute kidney injury (AKI) in a single hospital during a randomized trial of AKI alerts. Methods Providers who had received at least one electronic AKI alert in the previous 6 months, as part of a separate randomized controlled trial (clinicaltrials.gov #01862419), were asked to complete a survey concerning their opinions about this specific AKI alert system. Individual approval of the alert system was defined by a provider's desire to continue receiving the alert after termination of the trial. Results A total of 98 individuals completed the survey, including 62 physicians, 27 pharmacists and 7 non-physician providers. Sixty-nine percent of responders approved the alert, with no significant difference among the various professions (P = 0.28). Alert approval was strongly correlated with the belief that the alerts improved patient care (P < 0.0001), and negatively correlated with the belief that alerts did not provide novel information (P = 0.0001). With each additional 30 days of trial duration, odds of approval decreased by 20% (3–35%) (P = 0.02). Conclusions The alert system was generally well received, although approval waned with time. Approval was correlated with the belief that this type of alert improved patient care. These findings suggest that perceived efficacy is critical to the success of future alert trials. PMID:27478598

  18. Electronic prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopcroft, J.

    1987-01-01

    The potential benefits of automation in space are significant. The science base needed to support this automation not only will help control costs and reduce lead-time in the earth-based design and construction of space stations, but also will advance the nation's capability for computer design, simulation, testing, and debugging of sophisticated objects electronically. Progress in automation will require the ability to electronically represent, reason about, and manipulate objects. Discussed here is the development of representations, languages, editors, and model-driven simulation systems to support electronic prototyping. In particular, it identifies areas where basic research is needed before further progress can be made.

  19. Evidence Report, Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis; Billman, Dorrit; Feary, Mike; Green, Collin

    2011-01-01

    The success of future exploration missions depends, even more than today, on effective integration of humans and technology (automation and robotics). This will not emerge by chance, but by design. Both crew and ground personnel will need to do more demanding tasks in more difficult conditions, amplifying the costs of poor design and the benefits of good design. This report has looked at the importance of good design and the risks from poor design from several perspectives: 1) If the relevant functions needed for a mission are not identified, then designs of technology and its use by humans are unlikely to be effective: critical functions will be missing and irrelevant functions will mislead or drain attention. 2) If functions are not distributed effectively among the (multiple) participating humans and automation/robotic systems, later design choices can do little to repair this: additional unnecessary coordination work may be introduced, workload may be redistributed to create problems, limited human attentional resources may be wasted, and the capabilities of both humans and technology underused. 3) If the design does not promote accurate understanding of the capabilities of the technology, the operators will not use the technology effectively: the system may be switched off in conditions where it would be effective, or used for tasks or in contexts where its effectiveness may be very limited. 4) If an ineffective interaction design is implemented and put into use, a wide range of problems can ensue. Many involve lack of transparency into the system: operators may be unable or find it very difficult to determine a) the current state and changes of state of the automation or robot, b) the current state and changes in state of the system being controlled or acted on, and c) what actions by human or by system had what effects. 5) If the human interfaces for operation and control of robotic agents are not designed to accommodate the unique points of view and

  20. Tevatron Electron Lenses: Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir; Bishofberger, Kip; Kamerdzhiev, Vsevolod; Kozub, Sergei; Kufer, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Gennady; Martinez, Alexander; Olson, Marvin; Pfeffer, Howard; Saewert, Greg; Scarpine, Vic; Seryi, Andrei; Solyak, Nikolai; Sytnik, Veniamin; Tiunov, Mikhail; Tkachenko, Leonid; Wildman, David; Wolff, Daniel; Zhang, Xiao-Long; /Fermilab

    2011-09-12

    Fermilab's Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy accelerator in which tightly focused beams of 980 GeV protons and antiprotons collide at two dedicated interaction points (IPs). Both beams share the same beam pipe and magnet aperture and, in order to avoid multiple detrimental head-on collisions, the beams are placed on separated orbits everywhere except the main IPs by using high-voltage (HV) electrostatic separators. The electromagnetic beam-beam interaction at the main IPs together with the long-range interactions between separated beams adversely affect the collider performance, reducing the luminosity integral per store (period of continuous collisions) by 10-30%. Tuning the collider operation for optimal performance becomes more and more cumbersome as the beam intensities and luminosity increase. The long-range effects which (besides being nonlinear) vary from bunch to bunch are particularly hard to mitigate. A comprehensive review of the beam-beam effects in the Tevatron Collider Run II can be found in Ref. [1]. The beam-beam effects have been the dominating sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations in the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider [1]. Electron lenses were originally proposed for compensation of electromagnetic long-range and head-on beam-beam interactions of proton and antiproton beams [2]. Results of successful employment of two electron lenses built and installed in the Tevatron are reported in [3,4,5]. In this paper we present design features of the Tevatron electron lenses (TELs), discuss the generation of electron beams, describe different modes of operation and outline the technical parameters of various subsystems.

  1. Automated Detection of Synapses in Serial Section Transmission Electron Microscopy Image Stacks

    PubMed Central

    Kreshuk, Anna; Koethe, Ullrich; Pax, Elizabeth; Bock, Davi D.; Hamprecht, Fred A.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method for fully automated detection of chemical synapses in serial electron microscopy images with highly anisotropic axial and lateral resolution, such as images taken on transmission electron microscopes. Our pipeline starts from classification of the pixels based on 3D pixel features, which is followed by segmentation with an Ising model MRF and another classification step, based on object-level features. Classifiers are learned on sparse user labels; a fully annotated data subvolume is not required for training. The algorithm was validated on a set of 238 synapses in 20 serial 7197×7351 pixel images (4.5×4.5×45 nm resolution) of mouse visual cortex, manually labeled by three independent human annotators and additionally re-verified by an expert neuroscientist. The error rate of the algorithm (12% false negative, 7% false positive detections) is better than state-of-the-art, even though, unlike the state-of-the-art method, our algorithm does not require a prior segmentation of the image volume into cells. The software is based on the ilastik learning and segmentation toolkit and the vigra image processing library and is freely available on our website, along with the test data and gold standard annotations (http://www.ilastik.org/synapse-detection/sstem). PMID:24516550

  2. Automated Detection and Segmentation of Synaptic Contacts in Nearly Isotropic Serial Electron Microscopy Images

    PubMed Central

    Kreshuk, Anna; Straehle, Christoph N.; Sommer, Christoph; Koethe, Ullrich; Cantoni, Marco; Knott, Graham; Hamprecht, Fred A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a protocol for fully automated detection and segmentation of asymmetric, presumed excitatory, synapses in serial electron microscopy images of the adult mammalian cerebral cortex, taken with the focused ion beam, scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM). The procedure is based on interactive machine learning and only requires a few labeled synapses for training. The statistical learning is performed on geometrical features of 3D neighborhoods of each voxel and can fully exploit the high z-resolution of the data. On a quantitative validation dataset of 111 synapses in 409 images of 1948×1342 pixels with manual annotations by three independent experts the error rate of the algorithm was found to be comparable to that of the experts (0.92 recall at 0.89 precision). Our software offers a convenient interface for labeling the training data and the possibility to visualize and proofread the results in 3D. The source code, the test dataset and the ground truth annotation are freely available on the website http://www.ilastik.org/synapse-detection. PMID:22031814

  3. Crystallographic Tool Box (CrysTBox): automated tools for transmission electron microscopists and crystallographers

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Miloslav; Jäger, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Three tools for an automated analysis of electron diffraction pattern and crystallographic visualization are presented. Firstly, diffractGUI determines the zone axis from selected area diffraction, convergent beam diffraction or nanodiffraction patterns and allows for indexing of individual reflections. Secondly, ringGUI identifies crystallographic planes corresponding to the depicted rings in the ring diffraction pattern and can select the sample material from a list of candidates. Both diffractGUI and ringGUI employ methods of computer vision for a fast, robust and accurate analysis. Thirdly, cellViewer is an intuitive visualization tool which is also helpful for crystallographic calculations or educational purposes. diffractGUI and cellViewer can be used together during a transmission electron microscopy session to determine the sample holder tilts required to reach a desired zone axis. All the tools offer a graphical user interface. The toolbox is distributed as a standalone application, so it can be installed on the microscope computer and launched directly from DigitalMicrograph (Gatan Inc.). PMID:26664349

  4. Fast Model Adaptation for Automated Section Classification in Electronic Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jian; Delaney, Brian; Florian, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Medical information extraction is the automatic extraction of structured information from electronic medical records, where such information can be used for improving healthcare processes and medical decision making. In this paper, we study one important medical information extraction task called section classification. The objective of section classification is to automatically identify sections in a medical document and classify them into one of the pre-defined section types. Training section classification models typically requires large amounts of human labeled training data to achieve high accuracy. Annotating institution-specific data, however, can be both expensive and time-consuming; which poses a big hurdle for adapting a section classification model to new medical institutions. In this paper, we apply two advanced machine learning techniques, active learning and distant supervision, to reduce annotation cost and achieve fast model adaptation for automated section classification in electronic medical records. Our experiment results show that active learning reduces the annotation cost and time by more than 50%, and distant supervision can achieve good model accuracy using weakly labeled training data only. PMID:26262005

  5. Effects of an Advanced Reactor’s Design, Use of Automation, and Mission on Human Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Johanna H. Oxstrand

    2014-06-01

    The roles, functions, and tasks of the human operator in existing light water nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on sound nuclear and human factors engineering (HFE) principles, are well defined by the plant’s conduct of operations, and have been validated by years of operating experience. However, advanced NPPs whose engineering designs differ from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) will impose changes on the roles, functions, and tasks of the human operators. The plans to increase the use of automation, reduce staffing levels, and add to the mission of these advanced NPPs will also affect the operator’s roles, functions, and tasks. We assert that these factors, which do not appear to have received a lot of attention by the design engineers of advanced NPPs relative to the attention given to conceptual design of these reactors, can have significant risk implications for the operators and overall plant safety if not mitigated appropriately. This paper presents a high-level analysis of a specific advanced NPP and how its engineered design, its plan to use greater levels of automation, and its expanded mission have risk significant implications on operator performance and overall plant safety.

  6. Automated Generation of Finite-Element Meshes for Aircraft Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Robinson, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for automated generation of fully connected finite-element meshes for all internal structural components and skins of a given wing-body geometry model, controlled by a few conceptual-level structural layout parameters. Internal structural components include spars, ribs, frames, and bulkheads. Structural layout parameters include spar/rib locations in wing chordwise/spanwise direction and frame/bulkhead locations in longitudinal direction. A simple shell thickness optimization problem with two load conditions is used to verify versatility and robustness of the automated meshing process. The automation process is implemented in ModelCenter starting from an OpenVSP geometry and ending with a NASTRAN 200 solution. One subsonic configuration and one supersonic configuration are used for numerical verification. Two different structural layouts are constructed for each configuration and five finite-element meshes of different sizes are generated for each layout. The paper includes various comparisons of solutions of 20 thickness optimization problems, as well as discussions on how the optimal solutions are affected by the stress constraint bound and the initial guess of design variables.

  7. Electronic bolus design impacts on administration.

    PubMed

    Hentz, F; Umstätter, C; Gilaverte, S; Prado, O R; Silva, C J A; Monteiro, A L G

    2014-06-01

    Electronic identification of animals has become increasingly important worldwide to improve and ensure traceability. In warm and hot climates, such as Brazil, boluses can have advantages over ear tags as the internal devices reduce the risks of ear tag losses, tissue damage, and lesions on the ear. Electronic boluses, however, are often perceived as having negative characteristics, including reported difficulties of administration in small ruminants. This paper describes the factors associated with bolus design that affect the swallowing of a bolus in sheep. Other factors that might influence bolus swallowing time have also been considered. In addition, the effect of bolus design on its performance was evaluated. A total of 56 Suffolk ewes were used to assess the ease of administration and retention of 3 types of electronic ruminal boluses (mini, 11.5 × 58.0 mm and 21.7 g; small, 14.8 × 48.5 mm and 29.5 g; standard, 19.3 × 69.8 mm and 74.4 g) during a whole productive year, including pregnancy and lamb suckling. Ewe age (5.6 ± 2.3 yr) and weight (85.07 ± 8.2 kg BW) were recorded, as well as time for bolus swallowing. The deglutition of the bolus and any resulting blockages in the esophagus were monitored by visual observations. Retention and readability of the boluses were regularly monitored for d 1, wk 1, mo 1, and every mo until 1 yr. Time for bolus swallowing differed substantially with bolus type and was greater (P < 0.05) for the standard bolus (32.8 ± 6.9 s) when compared to small and mini boluses, which did not differ (8.5 ± 2.0 vs. 9.2 ± 2.7 s; P > 0.05). The bolus o.d. and length were positively correlated with swallowing time (P < 0.01). The ewe weight was negatively correlated with swallowing time (P < 0.05). At 6 mo all electronic boluses showed 100% retention rate, and at 12 mo, bolus retention was 100%, 94.5%, and 100% for mini, small, and standard boluses, respectively (P > 0.05). At 12 mo, all boluses showed 100% readability, except for

  8. ECO fill: automated fill modification to support late-stage design changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Greg; Wilson, Jeff; Yu, J. J.; Chiu, Anderson; Chuang, Yao-Jen; Yang, Ricky

    2014-03-01

    One of the most critical factors in achieving a positive return for a design is ensuring the design not only meets performance specifications, but also produces sufficient yield to meet the market demand. The goal of design for manufacturability (DFM) technology is to enable designers to address manufacturing requirements during the design process. While new cell-based, DP-aware, and net-aware fill technologies have emerged to provide the designer with automated fill engines that support these new fill requirements, design changes that arrive late in the tapeout process (as engineering change orders, or ECOs) can have a disproportionate effect on tapeout schedules, due to the complexity of replacing fill. If not handled effectively, the impacts on file size, run time, and timing closure can significantly extend the tapeout process. In this paper, the authors examine changes to design flow methodology, supported by new fill technology, that enable efficient, fast, and accurate adjustments to metal fill late in the design process. We present an ECO fill methodology coupled with the support of advanced fill tools that can quickly locate the portion of the design affected by the change, remove and replace only the fill in that area, while maintaining the fill hierarchy. This new fill approach effectively reduces run time, contains fill file size, minimizes timing impact, and minimizes mask costs due to ECO-driven fill changes, all of which are critical factors to ensuring time-to-market schedules are maintained.

  9. A clinical trial comparing physician prompting with an unprompted automated electronic checklist to reduce empirical antibiotic utilization

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Curtis H.; DiBardino, David; Rho, Jason; Sung, Nina; Collander, Brett; Wunderink, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether face-to-face prompting of critical care physicians reduces empirical antibiotic utilization compared to an unprompted electronic checklist embedded within the electronic health record (EHR). Design Random allocation design. Setting Medical intensive care unit (MICU) with high-intensity intensivist coverage at a tertiary care urban medical center. Patients Two hundred ninety-six critically ill patients treated with at least one day of empirical antibiotics. Interventions For one MICU team, face-to-face prompting of critical care physicians if they did not address empirical antibiotic utilization during a patient’s daily rounds. On a separate MICU team, attendings and fellows were trained once to complete an EHR-embedded checklist daily for each patient, including a question asking whether listed empirical antibiotics could be discontinued. Measurements and main results Prompting led to a more than 4-fold increase in discontinuing or narrowing of empirical antibiotics compared to use of the electronic checklist. Prompted group patients had a lower proportion of patient-days on which empirical antibiotics were administered compared to electronic checklist group patients (63.1% vs. 70.0%, P=0.002). Mean proportion of antibiotic-days on which empirical antibiotics were used was also lower in the prompted group, although not statistically significant (0.78 [0.27] vs. 0.83 [0.27], P=0.093). Each additional day of empirical antibiotics predicted higher risk-adjusted mortality (odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 1.05–1.23). Risk-adjusted ICU length of stay and hospital mortality were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions Face-to-face prompting was superior to an unprompted EHR-based checklist at reducing empirical antibiotic utilization. Sustained culture change may have contributed to the electronic checklist having similar empirical antibiotic utilization to a prompted group in the same MICU two years prior. Future studies

  10. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher J; Cheng, James M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Methods Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Results Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing wide variation in product configuration and component functionality. Common e-cigarette components include an aerosol generator, a flow sensor, a battery and a nicotine-containing solution storage area. e-cigarettes currently include many interchangeable parts, enabling users to modify the character of the delivered aerosol and, therefore, the product's ‘effectiveness’ as a nicotine delivery product. Materials in e-cigarettes may include metals, rubber and ceramics. Some materials may be aerosolised and have adverse health effects. Several studies have described significant performance variability across and within e-cigarette brands. Patent applications include novel product features designed to influence aerosol properties and e-cigarette efficiency at delivering nicotine. Conclusions Although e-cigarettes share a basic design, engineering variations and user modifications result in differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks. e-cigarette aerosols may include harmful and potentially harmful constituents. Battery explosions and the risks of exposure to the e-liquid (especially for children) are also concerns. Additional research will enhance the current understanding of basic e-cigarette design and operation, aerosol production and processing, and functionality. A standardised e-cigarette testing regime should be developed to allow product comparisons. PMID:24732162