Science.gov

Sample records for electronic products volume

  1. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Alton, G.D.

    1998-11-24

    Microwave injection methods are disclosed for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant ``volume`` ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources. 5 figs.

  2. Production of large resonant plasma volumes in microwave electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Alton, Gerald D.

    1998-01-01

    Microwave injection methods for enhancing the performance of existing electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources. The methods are based on the use of high-power diverse frequency microwaves, including variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, and broadband microwaves. The methods effect large resonant "volume" ECR regions in the ion sources. The creation of these large ECR plasma volumes permits coupling of more microwave power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present ECR ion sources.

  3. A new grid-type electron filter for volume-production negative-ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafalskyi, D. V.; Dudin, S. V.

    2012-03-01

    A new system providing continuous generation of broad negative-ion beam is described and characterized. The key element of the system is the grid-type electron filter allowing the formation without magnetic field of a stationary highly electronegative plasma which can be biased negatively with respect to a relatively high-area electrode that allows to extract the negative ions. Measurements of negative-ion energy distribution functions conducted using a magnetically filtered energy analyzer show broad (250 mm) negative-ion beam formation with controllable energy starting from several eV. A conclusion is made about the possibility of practical application of the grid-type electron filter in negative ion sources for electric propulsion and etching technologies.

  4. Production of solvated electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. K.

    1969-01-01

    Current research, both theoretical and experimental, relating to the production and kinetics of interactions of solvated electrons is reviewed. Particular attention is focused on solvated electrons generated by ionizing radiation in water, alcohols, and organic systems.

  5. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  6. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  7. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  8. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  9. 40 CFR 791.48 - Production volume.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Production volume. 791.48 Section 791... (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.48 Production volume. (a) Production volume.... (b) For the purpose of determining fair reimbursement shares, production volume shall include...

  10. Report on Federal Productivity. Volume 2, Productivity Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Financial Management Improvement Program, Washington, DC.

    Volume 2 contains 15 productivity case studies which illustrate and expand on the causal factors mentioned in volume 1. The cases illustrate many different approaches to productivity measurement improvement. The case studies are: Development of an Output-Productivity Measure for the Air Force Medical Service; Measuring Effectiveness and Efficiency…

  11. EOS Data Products Handbook. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L. (Editor); Greenstone, Reynold (Editor); Closs, James (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Data Products Handbook provides brief descriptions of the data products that will be produced from a range of missions of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and associated projects. Volume 1, originally published in 1997, covers the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Terra mission (formerly named EOS AM-1), and the Data Assimilation System, while this volume, Volume 2, covers the Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor Satellite (ACRIMSAT), Aqua, Jason-1, Landsat 7, Meteor 3M/Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III). the Quick Scatterometer (QuikScat), the Quick Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (Quik-TOMS), and the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) missions. Volume 2 follows closely the format of Volume 1, providing a list of products and an introduction and overview descriptions of the instruments and data processing, all introductory to the core of the book, which presents the individual data product descriptions, organized into 11 topical chapters. The product descriptions are followed by five appendices, which provide contact information for the EOS data centers that will be archiving and distributing the data sets, contact information for the science points of contact for the data products, references, acronyms and abbreviations, and a data products index.

  12. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  13. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are

  14. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  15. Designing for Small Volume Assembly of Advanced Electronics Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galbraith, L.; Bonner, J. K.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a general methodology to Design for Producibility and Reliability (DFPAR) for very small volume production runs. In cases where the entire volume for fabrication is less than five products, traditional Statistical Process Control (SPC) is inadequate due to reliance on statistics of much larger volumes and the Central Limit Theorem. Data acquisition for process parameter estimation from such a small sample size is difficult; however, it is critical to producing high reliability product.

  16. Improving Organizational Productivity in NASA. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Recognizing that NASA has traditionally been in the forefront of technological change, the NASA Administrator challenged the Agency in 1982 to also become a leader in developing and applying advanced technology and management practices to increase productivity. One of the activities undertaken by the Agency to support this ambitious productivity goal was participation in a 2-year experimental action research project devoted to learning more about improving and assessing the performance of professional organizations. Participating with a dozen private sector organizations, NASA explored the usefulness of a productivity improvement process that addressed all aspects of organizational performance. This experience has given NASA valuable insight into the enhancement of professional productivity. More importantly, it has provided the Agency with a specific management approach that managers and supervisors can effectively use to emphasize and implement continuous improvement. This report documents the experiences of the five different NASA installations participating in the project, describes the improvement process that was applied and refined, and offers recommendations for expanded application of that process. Of particular interest is the conclusion that measuring white collar productivity may be possible, and at a minimum, the measurement process itself is beneficial to management. Volume I of the report provides a project overview, significant findings, and recommendations. Volume II presents individual case studies of the NASA pilot projects that were part of the action research effort.

  17. 4f electron delocalization and volume collapse in praseodymium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Joseph A.; Moore, Kevin T.; Lipp, Magnus J.; Mattern, Brian A.; Pacold, Joseph I.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Chow, Paul; Rod, Eric; Xiao, Yuming; Evans, William J.

    2012-04-17

    We study the pressure evolution of the 4f electrons in elemental praseodymium metal compressed through several crystallographic phases, including the large volume-collapse transition at 20 GPa. Using resonant x-ray emission, we directly and quantitatively measure the development of multiple electronic configurations with differing 4f occupation numbers, the key quantum observable related to the delocalization of the strongly correlated 4f electrons. These results provide a high-fidelity test of prior predictions by dynamical mean-field theory, and support the hypothesis of a strong connection between electronic and structural degrees of freedom at the volume-collapse transition.

  18. Voyager electronic parts radiation program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft is subject to radiation from external natural space, from radioisotope thermoelectric generators and heater units, and from the internal environment where penetrating electrons generate surface ionization effects in semiconductor devices. Methods for radiation hardening and tests for radiation sensitivity are described. Results of characterization testing and sample screening of over 200 semiconductor devices in a radiation environment are summarized.

  19. 7 CFR 1280.612 - Volume of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Volume of production. 1280.612 Section 1280.612... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.612 Volume of production. (a) For producers and seedstock producers, the term volume of production means the total number of live...

  20. 7 CFR 1280.612 - Volume of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Volume of production. 1280.612 Section 1280.612... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.612 Volume of production. (a) For producers and seedstock producers, the term volume of production means the total number of live...

  1. 7 CFR 1280.612 - Volume of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Volume of production. 1280.612 Section 1280.612... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.612 Volume of production. (a) For producers and seedstock producers, the term volume of production means the total number of live...

  2. 7 CFR 1280.612 - Volume of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Volume of production. 1280.612 Section 1280.612... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.612 Volume of production. (a) For producers and seedstock producers, the term volume of production means the total number of live...

  3. 7 CFR 1280.612 - Volume of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Volume of production. 1280.612 Section 1280.612... INFORMATION ORDER Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1280.612 Volume of production. (a) For producers and seedstock producers, the term volume of production means the total number of live...

  4. Cost of heliostats in low volume production

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, K.; Williams, T. A.; Dilbeck, R. A.; Allison, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    This study indicates that in small volumes, heliostats can be produced at an installed cost of approximately 200 $/M/sup 2/ for a 49.053 m/sup 2/ heliostat. Initial one-time costs of $10 to $15 million would be required, although part of the one-time costs are recoverable. This study provides estimated costs of heliostats that are produced in a plant operating on a continuous basis for a period of four years at a production rate of 2,500 heliostats per year. This scenario was selected somewhat arbitrarily as a scenario that could lead to heliostat market of 5,000 to 10,000 units per year.

  5. Design study report. Volume 2: Electronic unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The recording system discussed is required to record and reproduce wideband data from either of the two primary Earth Resources Technology Satellite sensors: Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera or Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS). The camera input is an analog signal with a bandwidth from dc to 3.5 MHz; this signal is accommodated through FM recording techniques which provide a recorder signal-to-noise ratio in excess of 39 db, black-to-white signal/rms noise, over the specified bandwidth. The MSS provides, as initial output, 26 narrowband channels. These channels are multiplexed prior to transmission, or recording, into a single 15 Megabit/second digital data stream. Within the recorder, the 15 Megabit/second NRZL signal is processed through the same FM electronics as the RBV signal, but the basic FM standards are modified to provide an internal, 10.5 MHz baseland response with signal-to-noise ratio of about 25 db. Following FM demodulation, however, the MSS signal is digitally re-shaped and re-clocked so that good bit stability and signal-to-noise exist at the recorder output.

  6. Prescriptive Package. Improving Patrol Productivity. Volume I. Routine Patrol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, William G.; Schack, Stephen

    Designed to assist police departments in improving the productivity of their patrol operations, this volume on routine patrol and a companion volume on specialized patrol operations are intended for use by various sizes of departments. The volume on routine patrol focuses on the major issues of patrol productivity and recommends a number of…

  7. Prescriptive Package. Improving Patrol Productivity. Volume II. Specialized Patrol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schack, Stephen; Gay, William G.

    Designed to assist police departments in improving the productivity of their patrol operations, this volume on specialized patrol and a companion volume on routine patrol operations are intended for use by various sizes of departments. The volume of specialized patrol focuses upon the appropriate use and effective operation of specialized patrol…

  8. Solvent substitution for electronic products

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovich, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), manufactures the electrical, electrochemical, mechanical, and plastic components for nuclear weapons. The KCD has made a commitment to eliminate the use of chlorohydrocarbon (CHC) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents to the greatest technical extent possible consistent with nuclear safety and stockpile reliability requirements. Current cleaning processes in the production departments use trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and various CFC-113 based solvents. Several non-halogenated solvents (Solvent A - an aqueous solvent based on N,N-dimethylacetamide, Solvent B - an aqueous mixture of ethanol amines, Solvent C - a hydrocarbon solvent based on octadecyl acetate, Solvent D - a terpene (d-limonene) hydrocarbon solvent combined with emulsifiers, Solvent E - a terpene (d-limonene) hydrocarbon solvent combined with a separation agent, d-limonene, and isopropyl alcohol) were evaluated to determine the most effective, non-chlorinated, non-fluorinated, alternate solvent cleaning system. All of these solvents were evaluated using current manual spray cleaning processes. The solvents were evaluated for their effectiveness in removing a rosin based RMA solder flux, a particular silicone mold release, and oils, greases, mold releases, resins, etc. The Meseran Surface Analyzer was used to measure organic contamination on the samples before and after cleaning. An Omega Meter Model 600 was also used to detect solder flux residues. Solvents C, D, E and d-limonene the best alternatives to trichloroethylene for removing all of the contaminants tested. For this particular electronic assembly, d-limonene was chosen as the alternate because of material compatibility and long-term reliability concerns.

  9. Space station human productivity study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary goal was to develop design and operations requirements for direct support of intra-vehicular activity (IVA) crew performance and productivity. It was recognized that much work had already been accomplished which provided sufficient data for the definition of the desired requirements. It was necessary, therefore, to assess the status of such data to extract definable requirements, and then to define the remaining study needs. The explicit objectives of the study were to: review existing data to identify potential problems of space station crew productivity and to define requirements for support of productivity insofar as they could be justified by current information; identify those areas that lack adequate data; and prepare plans for managing studies to develop the lacking data, so that results can be input to the space station program in a timely manner.

  10. Agricultural Products: Program Planning Guide: Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Richard; Robb, Sam

    The program planning guide for agricultural products was written to assist Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations (ABAO) teachers in enriching existing programs and/or to provide the basis for expansion of offerings to include additional materials for the cluster areas of meat and meat byproducts, dairy processing, fruit and vegetable…

  11. Agricultural Production: Program Planning Guide: Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, William; Wood, Eugene

    The program planning guide for agricultural production was written to assist Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations (ABAO) teachers in enriching existing programs and/or to provide the basis for expansion of offerings to include additional materials for the cluster areas of animal science, plant science, farm mechanics, and farm business…

  12. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    PubMed Central

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-01-01

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. We have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the term artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. We found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity. PMID:26104672

  13. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-06-24

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. Here, we have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the term artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. Moreover, we found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.

  14. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-06-24

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. Here, we have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the termmore » artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. Moreover, we found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.« less

  15. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-06-01

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. We have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the term artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. We found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.

  16. Solder technology in the manufacturing of electronic products

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.

    1993-08-01

    The electronics industry has relied heavily upon the use of soldering for both package construction and circuit assembly. The solder attachment of devices onto printed circuit boards and ceramic microcircuits has supported the high volume manufacturing processes responsible for low cost, high quality consumer products and military hardware. Defects incurred during the manufacturing process are minimized by the proper selection of solder alloys, substrate materials and process parameters. Prototyping efforts are then used to evaluate the manufacturability of the chosen material systems. Once manufacturing feasibility has been established, service reliability of the final product is evaluated through accelerated testing procedures.

  17. Free-electron generators of coherent radiation - /Volumes 8 & 9/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, S. F.; Moore, G. T.; Pilloff, H. S.; Sargent, M., III; Scully, M. O.; Spitzer, R.

    The two volumes are based on lectures given at the third Workshop on Free-Electron Laser Devices sponsored by the Office of Naval Research. The relationship of free electron laser (FEL) physics to accelerator physics is considered along with additional experimental results from the Stanford three micron FEL, the Stanford superconducting linear accelerator, the results of the first phase of the ACO storage ring laser experiment, optical klystron spontaneous emission and gain, and status and perspectives of the FEL experiment at Brookhaven. Attention is given to the FEL program at the Adone storage ring, a FEL for the storage ring Bessy, a UK FEL proposal, the kinetic theory of a FEL amplifier with guide magnetic field, an experiment on FEL efficiency enhancement with a variable wiggler, the resonator mode structure, three-dimensional radiation fields in FEL using Lienard-Wiechert fields, the three-dimensional nonlinear theory of the FEL amplifier, and design considerations of a Compton scattering FEL with an axial electric field. A quantum approach to realizable wigglers of FEL is also considered. For individual items see A83-31102 to A83-31142

  18. Development of a volume production type hydrogen negative ion source by using sheet plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Satoki; Iijima, Takaaki; Tonegawa, Akira; Sato, Kohnosuke; Kawamura, Kazutaka

    2014-10-01

    Stationary production of negative ions are important to play an essential role in Neutral beam injection (NBI). Cesium seeded Surface-production of negative ion sources are used for NBI. However, Cesium seeded surface- production of negative ion sources are not desirable from the point of view of operating steady state ion sources. We carried out the development of negative ion sources by volume-production in hydrogen sheet plasma. Production of hydrogen negative ions through volume processes needs both high energy electron region and low energy electron region. The sheet plasma is suitable for the production of negative ions, because the electron temperature in the central region of the plasma as high as 10-15 eV, whereas in the periphery of the plasma, a low temperature of a few eV of obtained. The hydrogen negative ions density were detected using an omegatron mass analyzer, while the electron density and temperature were measured using a Langmuir probe. Negative ions current extracted from the grid are measured by Faraday-cup.

  19. Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerald M.

    2011-03-22

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  20. High-Volume Production of Lightweight Multijunction Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youtsey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    MicroLink Devices, Inc., has transitioned its 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable of sustaining large-volume production. This Phase II project improves the ELO process by reducing cycle time and increasing the yield of large-area devices. In addition, all critical device fabrication processes have transitioned to 6-inch production tool sets designed for volume production. An emphasis on automated cassette-to-cassette and batch processes minimizes operator dependence and cell performance variability. MicroLink Devices established a pilot production line capable of at least 1,500 6-inch wafers per month at greater than 80 percent yield. The company also increased the yield and manufacturability of the 6-inch reclaim process, which is crucial to reducing the cost of the cells.

  1. The high-volume production of heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, N.; Hill, D.; Rose, C.; McCullough, D.; Rice, P.; Vu, D. P.; Hong, K.; Farley, C.

    1998-08-01

    The insertion of advanced microwave devices into high-volume applications is critically dependent upon a robust and reproducible epitaxial growth technology accompanied with a reproducible process technology. The precise control of the material and device parameters is essential to maintain a high-yield process, which leads to a low-cost product. Although AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors have been widely demonstrated in many company research laboratories and universities, the transition from a laboratory environment to high-volume production requires a thorough understanding of the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth process and its correlation with device performance. In this work, high-performance AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors grown by MOCVD with excellent control in the device parameter tolerances have been demonstrated in very high volumes.

  2. Injection molding of optics for high volume consumer products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schipper, Rien

    2012-03-01

    For high volume consumer products using optical technology, plastics injection molding is a very suitable technology. In optical component fabrication, astonishing results are be booked. However, to achieve success, excellent performance is needed in mastering different technologies such as polymer processing, evaporated coatings, tool making, ultra-precision turning of metals and optical metrology.

  3. The SEA of the Future: Prioritizing Productivity. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Betheny, Ed.; Jochim, Ashley, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    "The SEA of the Future" is an education publication series examining how state education agencies can shift from a compliance to a performance-oriented organization through strategic planning and performance management tools to meet growing demands to support education reform while improving productivity. This volume, the second in the…

  4. Report on Federal Productivity. Volume 1, Productivity Trends, FY 1967-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Financial Management Improvement Program, Washington, DC.

    Volume 1 reports on Federal productivity and productivity trends for Fiscal Years 1967-1973, and comments on the causes of productivity increases and decreases. The report, prepared to promote improved financial management in individual agencies and on a government-wide scale, includes productivity measurement data supplied by 46 agencies. The…

  5. Production of radioisotopes by direct electron activation.

    PubMed

    Weeks, K J; O'Shea, P G

    1998-04-01

    High-energy electrons bombarded on materials can induce radioactivity by either directly knocking out neutrons or by first converting a fraction of the electron kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy, with subsequent neutron emission induced by the photons produced. The purpose of this paper was to develop a calculation method for estimating neutron emission and radionuclide production by high-energy (15-25 MeV) electrons directly interacting with a nucleus. The reaction (e,n) is considered using the method of virtual photons. The cross section for electron bombardment of lead, tantalum, rhenium, and tungsten targets is calculated. The electron cross sections are roughly 100 times less than the corresponding photon cross sections. The cross section increases monotonically with incident energy. A traveling wave linear accelerator was used for a qualitative test of the magnitude and energy dependence of the calculated cross sections. Tantalum was bombarded with electrons and the resultant emission of neutrons was inferred from the induced activation of 180Ta. The energy dependence and magnitude of the calculated electron cross sections agree with experiment within experimental uncertainties. It is concluded that accurate estimates of electron activation via the direct process is possible. PMID:9571615

  6. Photosynthesis biomolecular electronics, and renewable fuels production

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-12-31

    The term {open_quotes}biomolecular electronics{close_quotes} evokes two powerful images of 20th century science and technology. First, the {open_quotes}bio{close_quotes} prefix of {open_quotes}molecular{close_quotes} explicitly acknowledges the molecular basis and understanding of living state systems. It is this understanding that forms the foundation of molecular biology, immunology, and genetic engineering. Second, {open_quotes}electronics{close_quotes} in the context of technology is understood to be that of electronic devices, starting from vacuum tubes and progressing through transistors, integrated circuits, and the semiconductor electronics industry comprising communications and consumer electronics, as examples. The conflation of these two terms into {open_quotes}biomolecular electronics{close_quotes} implies a radical concept: the construction of practical electronic devices from biomolecular components. This presentation will focus on an understanding and interpretation of the molecular architecture of the photosynthetic membrane and its potential application for the construction of optoelectronic devices and the production of renewable hydrogen via photosynthetic water splitting. Recent advances on direct electrical contact of the electron transport chain of photosynthesis with metallocatalysts as well as the discovery of new photoreactions in mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii will be discussed.

  7. Electronic tagging and integrated product intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swerdlow, Martin; Weeks, Brian

    1996-03-01

    The advent of 'intelligent,' electronic data bearing tags is set to revolutionize the way industrial and retail products are identified and tracked throughout their life cycles. The dominant system for unique identification today is the bar code, which is based on printed symbology and regulated by the International Article Numbering Association. Bar codes provide users with significant operational advantages and generate considerable added value to packaging companies, product manufacturers, distributors and retailers, across supply chains in many different sectors, from retailing, to baggage handling and industrial components, e.g., for vehicles or aircraft. Electronic tags offer the potential to: (1) record and store more complex data about the product or any modifications which occur during its life cycle; (2) access (and up-date) stored data in real time in a way which does not involve contact with the product or article; (3) overcome the limitations imposed by systems which rely on line-of-sight access to stored data. Companies are now beginning to consider how electronic data tags can be used, not only to improve the efficiency of their supply chain processes, but also to revolutionize the way they do business. This paper reviews the applications and business opportunities for electronic tags and outlines CEST's strategy for achieving an 'open' standard which will ensure that tags from different vendors can co-exist on an international basis.

  8. Mixed Media: A Roundup of Electronic Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Frank Alan

    2002-01-01

    Presents multicultural materials that are useful for elementary, secondary, and college audiences. The selections represent quality electronic and microfilm products that can help educators, librarians, and researchers better understand ethnic and racial diversity nationally and internationally. Includes CD-ROM, CD/Web-based, Web-based, and…

  9. How big is the hydrated electron? Thermodynamics of electron solvation and its partial molar volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, David

    2015-03-01

    Several models for the hydrated electron solvation structure have been proposed, which all can do a reasonable job of reproducing the room temperature optical spectrum. As Larsen, Glover and Schwartz demonstrated, tweaking the electron-water pseudopotential can completely change the structure from a cavity to a non-cavity geometry. Deciding between the competing models then requires comparison with other observables. The resonance Raman spectrum and the temperature dependence of the optical spectrum can be cited as evidence in favor of a non-cavity structure. In the present work we will re-examine the thermodynamics of hydration. In particular, we will present new experimental and simulation results for the partial molar volume, which can bear directly on the cavity vs. non-cavity controversy. DMB is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE- FC02-04ER1553.

  10. 48 CFR 23.704 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic products... 23.704 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. (a) General. As required by E.O. 13423... electronic products with Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)-registered...

  11. 21 CFR 1010.20 - Electronic products intended for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic products intended for export. 1010.20... (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS: GENERAL Exportation of Electronic Products § 1010.20 Electronic products intended for export. The performance standards...

  12. 21 CFR 1010.20 - Electronic products intended for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic products intended for export. 1010.20... (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS: GENERAL Exportation of Electronic Products § 1010.20 Electronic products intended for export. The performance standards...

  13. 21 CFR 1003.2 - Defect in an electronic product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defect in an electronic product. 1003.2 Section... electronic product. For the purpose of this part, an electronic product shall be considered to have a defect which relates to the safety of use by reason of the emission of electronic product radiation if: (a)...

  14. 21 CFR 1003.2 - Defect in an electronic product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Defect in an electronic product. 1003.2 Section... electronic product. For the purpose of this part, an electronic product shall be considered to have a defect which relates to the safety of use by reason of the emission of electronic product radiation if: (a)...

  15. Volume H/sup -/ ion production experiments at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1983-11-01

    H/sup -/ ions formed by volume processes have been extracted from a multicusp ion source. It is shown that a permanent magnet filter together with a small positive bias voltage on the plasma grid can produce a very significant reduction in electron drain as well as a sizable increase in H/sup -/ ions available for extraction. A further reduction in electron current is achieved by installing a pair of small magnets at the extraction aperture. An H/sup -/ ion current density of 38 mA/cm/sup 2/ was obtained with a discharge current of approximately 350 A. Different techniques to increase the H/sup -/ ion yield have also been investigated.

  16. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher J; Cheng, James M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Methods Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Results Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing wide variation in product configuration and component functionality. Common e-cigarette components include an aerosol generator, a flow sensor, a battery and a nicotine-containing solution storage area. e-cigarettes currently include many interchangeable parts, enabling users to modify the character of the delivered aerosol and, therefore, the product's ‘effectiveness’ as a nicotine delivery product. Materials in e-cigarettes may include metals, rubber and ceramics. Some materials may be aerosolised and have adverse health effects. Several studies have described significant performance variability across and within e-cigarette brands. Patent applications include novel product features designed to influence aerosol properties and e-cigarette efficiency at delivering nicotine. Conclusions Although e-cigarettes share a basic design, engineering variations and user modifications result in differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks. e-cigarette aerosols may include harmful and potentially harmful constituents. Battery explosions and the risks of exposure to the e-liquid (especially for children) are also concerns. Additional research will enhance the current understanding of basic e-cigarette design and operation, aerosol production and processing, and functionality. A standardised e-cigarette testing regime should be developed to allow product comparisons. PMID:24732162

  17. Electron impact induced anion production in acetylene.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Ewelina; Čadež, Iztok; Krishnakumar, E; Mason, Nigel J

    2014-02-28

    A detailed experimental investigation of electron induced anion production in acetylene, C2H2, in the energy range between 1 and 90 eV is presented. The anions are formed by two processes in this energy range: dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and dipolar dissociation (DD). DEA in C2H2 is found to lead to the formation of H(-) and C2(-)/C2H(-) through excitation of resonances in the electron energy range 1-15 eV. These anionic fragments are formed with super thermal kinetic energy and reveal no anisotropy in the angular distributions. DD in C2H2 leads to the formation of H(-), C(-)/CH(-) and C2(-)/C2H(-) with threshold energies of 15.7, 20.0 and 16.5 eV respectively. The measured anion yields have been used to calculate anion production rates for H(-), C(-)/CH(-) and C2(-)/C2H(-) in Titan's ionosphere. PMID:24343432

  18. Volume, cost and energy for the production of gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Cortes-Islas, E.M.; Ramirez-Garcia, P.F. )

    1988-06-01

    The relationship between the growth of the petrochemical industry and increasing standards of living is well known. However, a detailed analysis of the lower energy consumption that characterizes oil-based products when compared to the equivalent traditional products, used, for instance, in the automobile, textile and construction industries, has not yet been carried out. This paper models the chemical processing industries. The information obtained with this approach permits the structuring of a technical data bank in such a way that the decision maker is able to choose between new processes or the development of existing ones. The model is illustrated with the processes involved in the production of gasoline obtained from crude oil remarking volume, cost and consumption of energy.

  19. Heavy quark correlations and the effective volume for quarkonia production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunpeng; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Using the Boltzmann transport approach, we study the effect of initial spatial and momentum correlations between a heavy quark pair, such as that produced from a p +p collision, on their collision rate in a partonic medium, which is relevant for their thermalization and the production of quarkonium from regeneration. Characterizing this effect by an effective volume given by the inverse of the ratio of their collision rate to the collision rate of a thermally equilibrated and spatially uniformly distributed heavy quark pair in a unit volume, we find that the effective volume is finite and depends sensitively on the momentum of the heavy quark and the temperature of the medium. Generally, it increases linearly with time t at the very beginning, thus an enhanced collision rate, and the increase then becomes slower due to multiple scattering, and finally it increases as t3 /2. We further find that the momentum distribution of the colliding heavy quark pair approaches a thermal distribution after about 5 fm /c with an effective temperature similar to that of the medium even though their transverse momentum spectra initially have a δ -like distribution.

  20. Looking for Guidelines for the Production of Electronic Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landoni, M.; Wilson, R.; Gibb, F.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the results of two studies of electronic book production, including production on the World Wide Web, and explains EBONI (Electronic Books On-screen Interface) that focuses on the evaluation of electronic resources and compiling guidelines for publishing electronic materials on the Internet for the United Kingdom higher education…

  1. Channeling, volume reflection, and volume capture study of electrons in a bent silicon crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wistisen, T. N.; Uggerhøj, U. I.; Wienands, U.; Markiewicz, T. W.; Noble, R. J.; Benson, B. C.; Smith, T.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Holtzapple, R.; Tucker, S.

    2016-07-01

    We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111) plane in a strongly bent quasimosaic silicon crystal. These phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5, and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15 m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.053, 0.066, 0.099, 0.16, and 0.22 times the critical curvature, respectively. Based on the parameters of fitting functions we have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission, and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.

  2. 21 CFR 1010.20 - Electronic products intended for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electronic products intended for export. 1010.20 Section 1010.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS: GENERAL Exportation of Electronic Products § 1010.20...

  3. Nonequilibrium electron rings for synchrotron radiation production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Hywel; Williams, Peter H.; Stevenson, Scott

    2013-04-01

    Electron storage rings used for the production of synchrotron radiation (SR) have an output photon brightness that is limited by the equilibrium beam emittance. By using interleaved injection and ejection of bunches from a source with repetition rate greater than 1 kHz, we show that it is practicable to overcome this limit in rings of energy ˜1GeV. Sufficiently short kicker pulse lengths enable effective currents of many milliamperes, which can deliver a significant flux of diffraction-limited soft x-ray photons. Thus, either existing SR facilities may be adapted for nonequilibrium operation, or the technique applied to construct SR rings smaller than their storage ring equivalent.

  4. Free Volume Related Fluorescence Properties of Electron Irradiated Chalcone Doped PMMA Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindrachary, Ismayil V.; Bhajantri, R. F.; Harisha, A.; Praveena, S. D.

    2011-07-15

    Effect of electron irradiation on free volume related fluorescence properties of chalcone doped Poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) composite films have been studied using Positron Annihilation and Fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. In this polymer composite, enhancement of fluorescence at lower doses and reduction at higher doses has been observed under electron irradiation. From Positron annihilation studies suggests that at lower doses of irradiation induced crosslinking which affect the free volume properties and inturn hinders the chalcone molecular rotation. At higher doses chain scission process affect matrix relaxation. Under the restricted condition the chromophore molecules likely to emit enhanced fluorescence and its mobility is directly related to the free volume around it.

  5. Space station human productivity study. Volume 5: Management plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The 67 Management Plans represent recommended study approaches for resolving 108 of the 305 Issues which were identified. Each study Management Plan is prepared in three formats: Management Plan Overview (lists the subsumed Issues, study background, and related overview information); Study Plan (details the study approach by tasks, lists special needs, and describes expected study products); Schedule-Task Flow (provides a time-lined schedule for the study tasks and resource requirements). The Management Relationships Matrix, included in this volume, shows the data input-output relationships among all recommended studies. A listing is also included which cross-references the unresolved requirements to Issues to management plans. A glossary of all abbreviations utilized is provided.

  6. Efficient Large Volume Lentiviral Vector Production Using Flow Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Witting, Scott R.; Li, Lin-Hong; Jasti, Aparna; Allen, Cornell; Cornetta, Kenneth; Brady, James; Shivakumar, Rama

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Lentiviral vectors are beginning to emerge as a viable choice for human gene therapy. Here, we describe a method that combines the convenience of a suspension cell line with a scalable, nonchemically based, and GMP-compliant transfection technique known as flow electroporation (EP). Flow EP parameters for serum-free adapted HEK293FT cells were optimized to limit toxicity and maximize titers. Using a third generation, HIV-based, lentiviral vector system pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis glycoprotein envelope, both small- and large-volume transfections produced titers over 1×108 infectious units/mL. Therefore, an excellent option for implementing large-scale, clinical lentiviral productions is flow EP of suspension cell lines. PMID:21933028

  7. Volume production of polarization controlled single-mode VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabherr, Martin; King, Roger; Jäger, Roland; Wiedenmann, Dieter; Gerlach, Philipp; Duckeck, Denise; Wimmer, Christian

    2008-02-01

    Over the past 3 years laser based tracking systems for optical PC mice have outnumbered the traditional VCSEL market datacom by far. Whereas VCSEL for datacom in the 850 nm regime emit in multipe transverse modes, all laser based tracking systems demand for single-mode operation which require advanced manufacturing technology. Next generation tracking systems even require single-polarization characteristics in order to avoid unwanted movement of the pointer due to polarization flips. High volume manufacturing and optimized production methods are crucial for achieving the addressed technical and commercial targets of this consumer market. The resulting ideal laser source which emits single-mode and single-polarization at low cost is also a promising platform for further applications like tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) or miniature atomic clocks when adapted to the according wavelengths.

  8. Redesigned Electron-Beam Furnace Boosts Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    1995-01-01

    Redesigned electron-beam furnace features carousel of greater capacity so more experiments conducted per loading, and time spent on reloading and vacuum pump-down reduced. Common mounting plate for electron source and carousel simplifies installation and reduces vibration.

  9. 48 CFR 1323.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic products environmental assessment tool. 1323.705 Section 1323.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Products and Services 1323.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. The procedures...

  10. 48 CFR 1323.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electronic products environmental assessment tool. 1323.705 Section 1323.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Products and Services 1323.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. The procedures...

  11. 48 CFR 1323.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electronic products environmental assessment tool. 1323.705 Section 1323.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Products and Services 1323.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. The procedures...

  12. 48 CFR 1323.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electronic products environmental assessment tool. 1323.705 Section 1323.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Products and Services 1323.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. The procedures...

  13. 48 CFR 1323.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic products environmental assessment tool. 1323.705 Section 1323.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Products and Services 1323.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. The procedures...

  14. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  15. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  16. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  17. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  18. 21 CFR 25.34 - Devices and electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Devices and electronic products. 25.34 Section 25... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.34 Devices and electronic products. The classes... substitutes. (c) Issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard for a class II medical device or an...

  19. 21 CFR 1010.20 - Electronic products intended for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electronic products intended for export. 1010.20 Section 1010.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS: GENERAL Exportation...

  20. 21 CFR 1003.2 - Defect in an electronic product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Defect in an electronic product. 1003.2 Section 1003.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH NOTIFICATION OF DEFECTS OR FAILURE TO COMPLY General Provisions § 1003.2 Defect in an electronic product. For the purpose...

  1. 21 CFR 1010.20 - Electronic products intended for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electronic products intended for export. 1010.20 Section 1010.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS: GENERAL Exportation...

  2. 48 CFR 23.704 - Electronic product environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... environmental assessment tool. 23.704 Section 23.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... 23.704 Electronic product environmental assessment tool. (a)(1) General. As required by E.O.s 13423 and 13514, agencies shall acquire Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool...

  3. Rapid determination of internal volumes of membrane vesicles with electron spin resonance-stopped flow technique.

    PubMed

    Anzai, K; Higashi, K; Kirino, Y

    1988-01-13

    We have developed an electron spin resonance (ESR)-stopped flow technique and employed it for the simple and rapid determination of internal volumes of biomembrane vesicles and liposomes. A vesicle suspension containing a neutral and membrane-permeable spin label, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPONE), was mixed in the stopped-flow apparatus with an isotonic solution of relatively impermeable line broadening agents, potassium tris(oxalato)chromate(III) or potassium ferricyanide, and an ESR spectrum was recorded. From the relative intensity of the sharp triplet signal due to TEMPONE in the aqueous space within vesicles, the determination of the internal aqueous volume was straightforward. Using this technique, it is possible to measure intravesicular volumes in 0.1 s. The internal volume of sonicated phospholipid vesicles was approximately 0.3 microliter/mg lipid. The light fraction of sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle was estimated to have an internal volume of 2.2-2.6 microliter/mg protein in its resting state. Activation of Ca2+ pumps in the membrane upon addition of ATP and Ca2+ ions decreased the internal volume by about 10%. This finding supports the hypothesis that the Ca2+ pump is electrogenic and that the efflux of potassium ions compensates for the influx of positive charges. The present technique is widely applicable to the simple and rapid determination of the internal volumes of membrane vesicles. PMID:2825810

  4. 75 FR 8575 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Third Group of Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 799 RIN 2070-AD16 Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Third Group of... manufacturers, importers, and processors of certain high production volume (HPV) chemicals to conduct testing to... reproductive toxicity. The chemical substances are HPV chemicals, i.e., chemical substances with a...

  5. Excitation of surface and volume plasmons in a metal nanosphere by fast electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gildenburg, V. B.; Kostin, V. A.; Pavlichenko, I. A.

    2016-03-01

    Collective multipole oscillations (surface and volume plasmons) excited in a metal nanosphere by moving electron and corresponding inelastic scattering spectra are studied based on the hydrodynamic approach. Along with the bulk (dielectric) losses traditionally taken into account, the surface and radiative ones are also considered as the physical mechanisms responsible for the plasmon damping. The second and third mechanisms are found to be essential for the surface plasmons (at small or large cluster radii, respectively) and depend very differently on the multipole mode order. The differential equations are obtained which describe the temporal evolution of every particular mode as that one of a linear oscillator excited by the given external force, and the electron energy loss spectra are calculated. The changes in spectrum shape with the impact parameter and with the electron passage time are analyzed; the first of them is found to be in good enough agreement with the data of scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments. It is shown that, in the general case, a pronounced contribution to the formation of the loss spectrum is given by the both surface and volume plasmons with low and high multipole indices. In particular, at long electron passage time, the integral (averaged over the impact parameter) loss spectrum which is calculated for the free-electron cluster model contains two main peaks: a broad peak from merging of many high-order multipole resonances of the surface plasmons and a narrower peak of nearly the same height from merged volume plasmons excited by the electrons that travel through the central region of the cluster. Comparatively complex dependences of the calculated excitation coefficients and damping constants of various plasmons on the order of the excited multipole result in wide diversity of possible types of the loss spectrum even for the same cluster material and should be taken into account in interpretation of corresponding

  6. Electron-positron pair production by ultrarelativistic electrons in a soft photon field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastichiadis, A.; Marscher, A. P.; Brecher, K.

    1986-01-01

    The fully differential cross section for photon-electron pair production is integrated numerically over phase space. Results are obtained for the astrophysically interesting case in which the interaction between an ultrarelativistic electron and a soft photon results in electron-positron pair production. The positron spectrum is a function of the energies of both the photon and the electron, as well as the angle of interaction. It is found that the energy at which the positron distribution peaks is inversely proportional to the photon energy and independent of the electron energy. The positron spectrum is integrated once more over initial electron energies for a power-law energy distribution of primary electrons. The same procedure is repeated for the recoil particle; it is shown that the peak of the recoil energy distribution depends linearly on the energy of the primary electron. Finally, semianalytical expressions are obtained for the energy losses of the primary electrons.

  7. Measurement of human sperm intracellular water volume by electron spin resonance.

    PubMed

    Kleinhans, F W; Travis, V S; Du, J; Villines, P M; Colvin, K E; Critser, J K

    1992-01-01

    An electron spin resonance technique using the spin label tempone and the broadening agent potassium chromium oxalate was used to measure the water volume of human sperm. The toxicity of tempone (5 mmol/L) and potassium chromium oxalate (50 mmol/L) to sperm was measured over a time span of 120 minutes using computer-assisted semen analysis. Tempone had no effect on any computer-assisted semen analysis parameters, including motility. Potassium chromium oxalate reduced sperm motility by an average of 24% during the first 30 minutes of exposure. After selection by swim-up and correction for the presence of dead cells and cytoplasmic droplets, a water volume of 20.0 +/- 2.9 microns3 was obtained. This yields a total volume of 33.9 microns3 if a water compartment of 59% by volume is assumed. These results are consistent with other shape-independent techniques for measuring volume, but larger than the generally accepted optical and electronic particle counter sizes. PMID:1338068

  8. High volume production of single-mode VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenmann, Dieter; Grabherr, Martin; Jäger, Roland; King, Roger

    2006-02-01

    Up to now applications for singlemode VCSELs were in low volume and high prized applications like tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, [1,2]) or optical interferometers. Typical volumes for these applications are in the range of thousands of pcs per year, with pricing levels of several 100 USD/pcs. New applications for singlemode VCSELs in consumer markets require manufacturing in very high volumes and at very low cost. Examples are laser-based optical mouse sensors, optical encoders, and rubidium atomic clocks for GPS systems [3,4]. U-L-M photonics presents manufacturing aspects, device performance and reliability data for these devices. The first part of the paper is dealing with high volume manufacturing of 850 nm singlemode VCSEL chips with very high efficiency and low operation current. Special processing technologies have been developed to achieve yields on 3 inch wafers of more than 90%. Wafer qualification procedures are discussed as well. The second part of the paper covers high volume packaging in TO and SMT type packages where very high packaging yields must be achieved. In the last part of the paper reliability issues are discussed, focused on the very high susceptibility of these devices to electrostatic discharge.

  9. Volume Production of Negative Ions in the Reflex Type Ion Source.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimbo, Kouichi

    3 eV, which is. calculated from the anomalous diffusion mechanism proposed by. the author. Our experiment results are consistent with the. production mechanism of negative ions through the electron. volume production process proposed by Allan and Wong (1978),. and Wadehra's calculated results (1979). *This work was supported by the Director, Office of Energy. Research, Office of Fusion Energy, Development and Technology. Division, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  10. Large-volume en-bloc staining for electron microscopy-based connectomics

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yunfeng; Laserstein, Philip; Helmstaedter, Moritz

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale connectomics requires dense staining of neuronal tissue blocks for electron microscopy (EM). Here we report a large-volume dense en-bloc EM staining protocol that overcomes the staining gradients, which so far substantially limited the reconstructable volumes in three-dimensional (3D) EM. Our protocol provides densely reconstructable tissue blocks from mouse neocortex sized at least 1 mm in diameter. By relaxing the constraints on precise topographic sample targeting, it makes the correlated functional and structural analysis of neuronal circuits realistic. PMID:26235643

  11. 48 CFR 23.704 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Personal computer products is a category of EPEAT-registered electronic products. (1) The IEEE 1680... detail at http://www.epeat.net. (2) A list of EPEAT-registered products that meet the IEEE 1680 standard can be found at http://www.epeat.net. (3) The IEEE 1680 standard sets forth required and...

  12. 48 CFR 23.704 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Personal computer products is a category of EPEAT-registered electronic products. (1) The IEEE 1680... detail at http://www.epeat.net. (2) A list of EPEAT-registered products that meet the IEEE 1680 standard can be found at http://www.epeat.net. (3) The IEEE 1680 standard sets forth required and...

  13. Texas Education Product Study, Volume 1. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    This first volume of a study of former Texas high school students who left as graduates or dropouts during the school years 1963-64 and 1968-69 presents a profile of the respondents and summarizes their opinions of their high school experiences. A sample of the State's 89 school districts was contacted by mail or interview, with 5,063 respondents…

  14. Free energy, entropy and volume of activation for electron transfer reactions in a polar solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Manjari, Swati R.; Kim, Hyung J.

    2006-07-07

    A continuum theory with account of cavity size fluctuations is employed to study free energy, volume and entropy of activation for nonadiabatic electron transfer (ET) reactions in polar solvents. By using a two-sphere cavity description, model calculations are performed for charge separation and recombination processes in acetonitrile under ambient conditions. It is found that the cavity size at the transition state varies with the free energy of reaction as well as with the thermodynamic conditions. In contrast to the Marcus theory predictions, the volume and entropy of activation show a monotonic behavior with the free energy of reaction and a strong correlation with each other. For example, for a given ET process, the volume and entropy of activation have the same sign. Their values for the charge separation and recombination processes are opposite in sign. These findings are in good qualitative agreement with measurements.

  15. Electron positron pair production at RHIC and LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Cem Gueclue, M.

    2008-11-11

    The STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider present data on electron-positron pair production accompanied by nuclear breakup at small impact parameters where the simultaneous excitation of the two ions, mainly the giant dipole resonance GDR, can occur. We calculate the electron-positron pair production cross section relevant for the STAR experimental setup, and compare our results with the other calculations. We have also predictions for the LHC energies.

  16. Production of slow-positron beams with an electron linac

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, R.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Stanek, M.

    1982-03-26

    Intense, pulsed beams of low-energy positrons have been produced by a high-energy beam from an electron linac. The production efficiency for low-energy positrons has been determined for electrons with 60 to 120 MeV energy, low-energy positron beams from a linac can be of much higher intensity than those beams currently derived from radioactive sources.

  17. [Working conditions in the production of electron-tube glass].

    PubMed

    Dubeĭkovskaia, L S; Masliaeva, T N

    1989-01-01

    The data on evaluation of working conditions in electron-tube glass production are presented. Major unfavourable factors, such as components of glass dust and their mixture, have been described. Approaches to standardization of electron-tube glass dust are set forth. PMID:2529191

  18. Total Sample Conditioning and Preparation of Nanoliter Volumes for Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Stefan A; Albiez, Stefan; Opara, Nadia; Chami, Mohamed; Schmidli, Claudio; Bieri, Andrej; Padeste, Celestino; Stahlberg, Henning; Braun, Thomas

    2016-05-24

    Electron microscopy (EM) entered a new era with the emergence of direct electron detectors and new nanocrystal electron diffraction methods. However, sample preparation techniques have not progressed and still suffer from extensive blotting steps leading to a massive loss of sample. Here, we present a simple but versatile method for the almost lossless sample conditioning and preparation of nanoliter volumes of biological samples for EM, keeping the sample under close to physiological condition. A microcapillary is used to aspirate 3-5 nL of sample. The microcapillary tip is immersed into a reservoir of negative stain or trehalose, where the sample becomes conditioned by diffusive exchange of salt and heavy metal ions or sugar molecules, respectively, before it is deposited as a small spot onto an EM grid. We demonstrate the use of the method to prepare protein particles for imaging by transmission EM and nanocrystals for analysis by electron diffraction. Furthermore, the minute sample volume required for this method enables alternative strategies for biological experiments, such as the analysis of the content of a single cell by visual proteomics, fully exploiting the single molecule detection limit of EM. PMID:27074622

  19. Monte Carlo Method with Heuristic Adjustment for Irregularly Shaped Food Product Volume Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Siswantoro, Joko; Idrus, Bahari

    2014-01-01

    Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based on 3D reconstruction have a low accuracy. Another method for measuring volume of objects uses Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo method performs volume measurements using random points. Monte Carlo method only requires information regarding whether random points fall inside or outside an object and does not require a 3D reconstruction. This paper proposes volume measurement using a computer vision system for irregularly shaped food products without 3D reconstruction based on Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment. Five images of food product were captured using five cameras and processed to produce binary images. Monte Carlo integration with heuristic adjustment was performed to measure the volume based on the information extracted from binary images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided high accuracy and precision compared to the water displacement method. In addition, the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the space carving method. PMID:24892069

  20. 1996 international conference on power electronics, drives and energy systems for industrial growth: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, S.S.; Roy, S.; Divan, D.; Doradla, S.R.; Murthy, B.V.

    1995-12-31

    This book contains Volume 1 of the proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems for Industrial Growth held January, 1996, in New Delhi. The topics of the papers include resonant and soft switching converters, induction motor drives, solar power generation, control aspects of power generation, PWM and DC/DC converters, field oriented control of AC machines, wind power generation, analysis of electrical machines, topology and control of power electronic converters, switched reluctance and permanent magnet motor drives, active filters and VAR compensation schemes, analysis and design of induction generators/motors, simulation of power electronics converters and drive, brushless and special electrical machines, UPS and battery energy storage systems.

  1. Channeling, Volume Reection and Gamma Emission Using 14GeV Electrons in Bent Silicon Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Brandon

    2015-08-14

    High energy electrons can be deflected with very tight bending radius using a bent silicon crystal. This produces gamma radiation. As these crystals can be thin, a series of bent silicon crystals with alternating direction has the potential to produce coherent gamma radiation with reasonable energy of the driving electron beam. Such an electron crystal undulator offers the prospect for higher energy radiation at lower cost than current methods. Permanent magnetic undulators like LCLS at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory are expensive and very large (about 100 m in case of the LCLS undulator). Silicon crystals are inexpensive and compact when compared to the large magnetic undulators. Additionally, such a high energy coherent light source could be used for probing through materials currently impenetrable by x-rays. In this work we present the experimental data and analysis of experiment T523 conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We collected the spectrum of gamma ray emission from 14 GeV electrons on a bent silicon crystal counting single photons. We also investigated the dynamics of electron motion in the crystal i.e. processes of channeling and volume reflection at 14 GeV, extending and building off previous work. Our single photon spectrum for the amorphous crystal orientation is consistent with bremsstrahlung radiation and the volume reflection crystal orientation shows a trend consistent with synchrotron radiation at a critical energy of 740 MeV. We observe that in these two cases the data are consistent, but we make no further claims because of statistical limitations. We also extended the known energy range of electron crystal dechanneling length and channeling efficiency to 14 GeV.

  2. Plasma response to electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.

    2013-12-15

    An electron energy filter (EEF) is embedded in the Large Volume Plasma Device plasma for carrying out studies on excitation of plasma turbulence by a gradient in electron temperature (ETG) described in the paper of Mattoo et al. [S. K. Mattoo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255007 (2012)]. In this paper, we report results on the response of the plasma to the EEF. It is shown that inhomogeneity in the magnetic field of the EEF switches on several physical phenomena resulting in plasma regions with different characteristics, including a plasma region free from energetic electrons, suitable for the study of ETG turbulence. Specifically, we report that localized structures of plasma density, potential, electron temperature, and plasma turbulence are excited in the EEF plasma. It is shown that structures of electron temperature and potential are created due to energy dependence of the electron transport in the filter region. On the other hand, although structure of plasma density has origin in the particle transport but two distinct steps of the density structure emerge from dominance of collisionality in the source-EEF region and of the Bohm diffusion in the EEF-target region. It is argued and experimental evidence is provided for existence of drift like flute Rayleigh-Taylor in the EEF plasma.

  3. Plasma response to electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    An electron energy filter (EEF) is embedded in the Large Volume Plasma Device plasma for carrying out studies on excitation of plasma turbulence by a gradient in electron temperature (ETG) described in the paper of Mattoo et al. [S. K. Mattoo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255007 (2012)]. In this paper, we report results on the response of the plasma to the EEF. It is shown that inhomogeneity in the magnetic field of the EEF switches on several physical phenomena resulting in plasma regions with different characteristics, including a plasma region free from energetic electrons, suitable for the study of ETG turbulence. Specifically, we report that localized structures of plasma density, potential, electron temperature, and plasma turbulence are excited in the EEF plasma. It is shown that structures of electron temperature and potential are created due to energy dependence of the electron transport in the filter region. On the other hand, although structure of plasma density has origin in the particle transport but two distinct steps of the density structure emerge from dominance of collisionality in the source-EEF region and of the Bohm diffusion in the EEF-target region. It is argued and experimental evidence is provided for existence of drift like flute Rayleigh-Taylor in the EEF plasma.

  4. Large-Scale Production of Carbon Nanotubes Using the Jefferson Lab Free Electron Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, Brian C.

    2003-01-01

    We report on our interdisciplinary program to use the Free Electron Laser (FEL) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (J-Lab) for high-volume pulsed laser vaporization synthesis of carbon nanotubes. Based in part on the funding of from this project, a novel nanotube production system was designed, tested, and patented. Using this new system nanotube production rates over 100 times faster than conventional laser systems were achieved. Analysis of the material produced shows that it is of as high a quality as the standard laser-based materials.

  5. Electron-positron pair production by an electron in a magnetic field near the process threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, O. P. Kholodov, R. I. Fomin, P. I.

    2010-06-15

    The electron-positron pair production by an electron in a strong magnetic field near the process threshold is considered. The process is shown to be more probable if the spin of the initial electron is oriented along the field. In this case, the probability of the process is 10{sup 13} s{sup -1} when the magnetic field strength is H = 4 x 10{sup 12} G.

  6. Conductive resins improve charging and resolution of acquired images in electron microscopic volume imaging.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy Bang; Thai, Truc Quynh; Saitoh, Sei; Wu, Bao; Saitoh, Yurika; Shimo, Satoshi; Fujitani, Hiroshi; Otobe, Hirohide; Ohno, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in serial block-face imaging using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have enabled the rapid and efficient acquisition of 3-dimensional (3D) ultrastructural information from a large volume of biological specimens including brain tissues. However, volume imaging under SEM is often hampered by sample charging, and typically requires specific sample preparation to reduce charging and increase image contrast. In the present study, we introduced carbon-based conductive resins for 3D analyses of subcellular ultrastructures, using serial block-face SEM (SBF-SEM) to image samples. Conductive resins were produced by adding the carbon black filler, Ketjen black, to resins commonly used for electron microscopic observations of biological specimens. Carbon black mostly localized around tissues and did not penetrate cells, whereas the conductive resins significantly reduced the charging of samples during SBF-SEM imaging. When serial images were acquired, embedding into the conductive resins improved the resolution of images by facilitating the successful cutting of samples in SBF-SEM. These results suggest that improving the conductivities of resins with a carbon black filler is a simple and useful option for reducing charging and enhancing the resolution of images obtained for volume imaging with SEM. PMID:27020327

  7. Conductive resins improve charging and resolution of acquired images in electron microscopic volume imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huy Bang; Thai, Truc Quynh; Saitoh, Sei; Wu, Bao; Saitoh, Yurika; Shimo, Satoshi; Fujitani, Hiroshi; Otobe, Hirohide; Ohno, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in serial block-face imaging using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have enabled the rapid and efficient acquisition of 3-dimensional (3D) ultrastructural information from a large volume of biological specimens including brain tissues. However, volume imaging under SEM is often hampered by sample charging, and typically requires specific sample preparation to reduce charging and increase image contrast. In the present study, we introduced carbon-based conductive resins for 3D analyses of subcellular ultrastructures, using serial block-face SEM (SBF-SEM) to image samples. Conductive resins were produced by adding the carbon black filler, Ketjen black, to resins commonly used for electron microscopic observations of biological specimens. Carbon black mostly localized around tissues and did not penetrate cells, whereas the conductive resins significantly reduced the charging of samples during SBF-SEM imaging. When serial images were acquired, embedding into the conductive resins improved the resolution of images by facilitating the successful cutting of samples in SBF-SEM. These results suggest that improving the conductivities of resins with a carbon black filler is a simple and useful option for reducing charging and enhancing the resolution of images obtained for volume imaging with SEM. PMID:27020327

  8. Modeling single arm electron scattering and nucleon production from nuclei by GeV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Lightbody J.W. Jr.; O'Connell, J.S.

    1988-05-01

    Nuclear reaction data for the doubly differential cross sections of inelastic electron scattering and of electronucleon and electropion production are parametrized by analytic models of the major reaction mechanisms. Predictive FORTRAN codes for the yields of reaction products have been developed for all nuclei interacting with electrons and bremsstrahlung beams in the energy range 0.5--5 GeV. Comparison with a variety of electromagnetic reaction data is shown.

  9. Effects of solution volume on hydrogen production by pulsed spark discharge in ethanol solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Y. B.; Sun, B.; Zhu, X. M.; Yan, Z. Y.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y. J.

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen production from ethanol solution (ethanol/water) by pulsed spark discharge was optimized by varying the volume of ethanol solution (liquid volume). Hydrogen yield was initially increased and then decreased with the increase in solution volume, which achieved 1.5 l/min with a solution volume of 500 ml. The characteristics of pulsed spark discharge were studied in this work; the results showed that the intensity of peak current, the rate of current rise, and energy efficiency of hydrogen production can be changed by varying the volume of ethanol solution. Meanwhile, the mechanism analysis of hydrogen production was accomplished by monitoring the process of hydrogen production and the state of free radicals. The analysis showed that decreasing the retention time of gas production and properly increasing the volume of ethanol solution can enhance the hydrogen yield. Through this research, a high-yield and large-scale method of hydrogen production can be achieved, which is more suitable for industrial application.

  10. Review of progress in the theory of volume production

    SciTech Connect

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1986-10-24

    With the demonstration of large current densities extracted from hydrogen-discharge-type negative ion sources there has been a new emphasis directed toward the further development of these volume-type sources. Along with this emphasis has been a rapid increase in our understanding of the underlying atomic processes that occur in hydrogen-negative-ion discharges, together with a rapid evolution of the geometric configuration of these ion sources. An account of the development of the atomic processes in negative hydrogen discharges has been given in a recent review. Here we shall emphasize these atomic developments as they bear on the tandem high-density ion-source configuration. 32 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Atomic wall recombination and volume negative ion production

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, Damiano; Gorse, Claudine; Capitelli, Mario

    2006-03-15

    The development of a numerical code for the modeling of negative ion sources requires the knowledge of a lot of processes occurring both in the gas phase and at the surface. The present work concerns the effect of surface processes (in particular atomic wall recombination) on the kinetics of production/destruction of negative ions. Especially in the pressure regimes useful to produce negative hydrogen ions for thermonuclear applications, wall processes can strongly affect the negative ion production acting on the vibrational distribution of molecular hydrogen.

  12. LANDSAT-D data format control book. Volume 6: (Products)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kabat, F.

    1981-01-01

    Four basic product types are generated from the raw thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) payload data by the NASA GSFC LANDSAT 4 data management system: (1) unprocessed data (raw sensor data); (2) partially processed data, which consists of radiometrically corrected sensor data with geometric correction information appended; (3) fully processed data, which consists of radiometrically and geometrically corrected sensor data; and (4) inventory data which consists of summary information about product types 2 and 3. High density digital recorder formatting and the radiometric correction process are described. Geometric correction information is included.

  13. Performance of large electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Kaw, P. K.; Singh, R.

    2014-03-15

    This paper describes an in-house designed large Electron Energy Filter (EEF) utilized in the Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) [S. K. Mattoo, V. P. Anita, L. M. Awasthi, and G. Ravi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3864 (2001)] to secure objectives of (a) removing the presence of remnant primary ionizing energetic electrons and the non-thermal electrons, (b) introducing a radial gradient in plasma electron temperature without greatly affecting the radial profile of plasma density, and (c) providing a control on the scale length of gradient in electron temperature. A set of 19 independent coils of EEF make a variable aspect ratio, rectangular solenoid producing a magnetic field (B{sub x}) of 100 G along its axis and transverse to the ambient axial field (B{sub z} ∼ 6.2 G) of LVPD, when all its coils are used. Outside the EEF, magnetic field reduces rapidly to 1 G at a distance of 20 cm from the center of the solenoid on either side of target and source plasma. The EEF divides LVPD plasma into three distinct regions of source, EEF and target plasma. We report that the target plasma (n{sub e} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} and T{sub e} ∼ 2 eV) has no detectable energetic electrons and the radial gradients in its electron temperature can be established with scale length between 50 and 600 cm by controlling EEF magnetic field. Our observations reveal that the role of the EEF magnetic field is manifested by the energy dependence of transverse electron transport and enhanced transport caused by the plasma turbulence in the EEF plasma.

  14. Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes

    DOEpatents

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.

    1998-12-08

    A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder. 1 fig.

  15. Phosphate bonded structural products from high volume wastes

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.

    1998-01-01

    A method to produce structural products from benign waste is provided comprising mixing pretreated oxide with phosphoric acid to produce an acid solution, mixing the acid solution with waste particles to produce a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a structural material comprising waste particles enveloped by an inorganic binder.

  16. Space station human productivity study. Volume 4: Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The 305 Issues contained represent topics recommended for study in order to develop requirements in support of space station crew performance/productivity. The overall subject matter, space station elements affecting crew productivity, was organized into a coded subelement listing, which is included for the reader's reference. Each issue is numbered according to the 5-digit topical coding scheme. The requirements column on each Issue page shows a cross-reference to the unresolved requirement statement(s). Because topical overlaps were frequently encountered, many initial Issues were consolidated. Apparent gaps, therefore, may be accounted for by an Issue described within a related subelement. A glossary of abbreviations used throughout the study documentation is also included.

  17. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, Randy Allen

    2006-04-01

    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  18. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 4: Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implementation plan which is presented was developed to provide the means for the successful implementation of the automated production control system. There are three factors which the implementation plan encompasses: detailed planning; phased implementation; and user involvement. The plan is detailed to the task level in terms of necessary activities as the system is developed, refined, installed, and tested. These tasks are scheduled, on a preliminary basis, over a two-and-one-half-year time frame.

  19. Future opportunities in production of disposable optics and electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Raimo

    2001-05-01

    The several production methods of paper processing chain can be used, by analogy, to generate novel ideas for production of optics and electronics. Paper processing is a very fast reel-to-reel process: In the beginning of the paper web production the process is running at the speed of over thousand meters per minute and the web width can be 10 meters, and still at the later stages the speed is several hundreds of meters per minute with the web width of a couple of meters. There are several potential reel-to-reel production methods like embossing, printing, laminating and different kinds of vacuum coating, for example evaporation and sputtering. End products are complex multi-layer composite structures. The benefits from this analogy for optics and electronics would be ideas for ultra fast production, paper-like disposable and recyclable products and the integration of optics and electronics into ordinary things like books, wallpapers, tissue papers and packages. Two experiments are presented to demonstrate the possibilities. In the first experiment optical patterns are embossed directly on paper. In the second one conductive polymers are printed on paper and plastic webs. In future, a wide network of cooperation will be needed to realize all the opportunities.

  20. Cost and price estimate of Brayton and Stirling engines in selected production volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortgang, H. R.; Mayers, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    The methods used to determine the production costs and required selling price of Brayton and Stirling engines modified for use in solar power conversion units are presented. Each engine part, component and assembly was examined and evaluated to determine the costs of its material and the method of manufacture based on specific annual production volumes. Cost estimates are presented for both the Stirling and Brayton engines in annual production volumes of 1,000, 25,000, 100,000 and 400,000. At annual production volumes above 50,000 units, the costs of both engines are similar, although the Stirling engine costs are somewhat lower. It is concluded that modifications to both the Brayton and Stirling engine designs could reduce the estimated costs.

  1. Tidal volume measurements in infants: Opto-electronic plethysmography versus pneumotachograph.

    PubMed

    Reinaux, Cyda Maria Albuquerque; Aliverti, Andrea; da Silva, Lívia Gabriely Melo; da Silva, Rafael Justino; Gonçalves, Juliane Neves; Noronha, Jessica Brito; Filho, José Eulálio Cabral; de Andrade, Armèle Dornelas; de Amorim Britto, Murilo Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Tidal breathing measurements by Opto-Electronic Plethysmography (OEP) has been reported for infants limited to protocols with two chest wall compartments. Standard protocol for the analysis of adults, with three compartments of chest wall, has been unavailable for analysis of infants. We aimed to study the agreement of simultaneous measurements of tidal volume by OEP (VT,OEP ) and a heated pneumotachograph (PNT) (VT,PNT ) performed during sleeping in 20 infants (gestational age 35.1 ± 4.6 weeks) at 3-4 months postconceptual age with a three compartment protocol. From PNT and OEP measurements, tidal volume corrected (VT,PNT ) for ambient conditions were calculated with a total number of 200 breaths. The two methods were in good agreement with tidal volume mean difference of 0.02 ml and limit of agreement -4.11 to 4.08 ml (95%CI), no relationship was found between differences and means of OEP and PNT measurements. Pulmonary rib cage, abdominal rib cage and abdomen contributed by 12.4 ± 9.7%, 5.2 ± 5.1%, and 82.4 ± 11.4% to VT,OEP , respectively. The OEP experimental protocol based on 52 markers and a three-compartment model of the chest wall could be used in spontaneously sleeping infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:850-857. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991671

  2. Model-based automated extraction of microtubules from electron tomography volume.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming; Ji, Qiang; McEwen, Bruce F

    2006-07-01

    We propose a model-based automated approach to extracting microtubules from noisy electron tomography volume. Our approach consists of volume enhancement, microtubule localization, and boundary segmentation to exploit the unique geometric and photometric properties of microtubules. The enhancement starts with an anisotropic invariant wavelet transform to enhance the microtubules globally, followed by a three-dimensional (3-D) tube-enhancing filter based on Weingarten matrix to further accentuate the tubular structures locally. The enhancement ends with a modified coherence-enhancing diffusion to complete the interruptions along the microtubules. The microtubules are then localized with a centerline extraction algorithm adapted for tubular objects. To perform segmentation, we novelly modify and extend active shape model method. We first use 3-D local surface enhancement to characterize the microtubule boundary and improve shape searching by relating the boundary strength with the weight matrix of the searching error. We then integrate the active shape model with Kalman filtering to utilize the longitudinal smoothness along the microtubules. The segmentation improved in this way is robust against missing boundaries and outliers that are often present in the tomography volume. Experimental results demonstrate that our automated method produces results close to those by manual process and uses only a fraction of the time of the latter. PMID:16871731

  3. Automated extraction of fine features of kinetochore microtubules and plus-ends from electron tomography volume.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming; Ji, Qiang; McEwen, Bruce F

    2006-07-01

    Kinetochore microtubules (KMTs) and the associated plus-ends have been areas of intense investigation in both cell biology and molecular medicine. Though electron tomography opens up new possibilities in understanding their function by imaging their high-resolution structures, the interpretation of the acquired data remains an obstacle because of the complex and cluttered cellular environment. As a result, practical segmentation of the electron tomography data has been dominated by manual operation, which is time consuming and subjective. In this paper, we propose a model-based automated approach to extracting KMTs and the associated plus-ends with a coarse-to-fine scale scheme consisting of volume preprocessing, microtubule segmentation and plus-end tracing. In volume preprocessing, we first apply an anisotropic invariant wavelet transform and a tube-enhancing filter to enhance the microtubules at coarse level for localization. This is followed with a surface-enhancing filter to accentuate the fine microtubule boundary features. The microtubule body is then segmented using a modified active shape model method. Starting from the segmented microtubule body, the plus-ends are extracted with a probabilistic tracing method improved with rectangular window based feature detection and the integration of multiple cues. Experimental results demonstrate that our automated method produces results comparable to manual segmentation but using only a fraction of the manual segmentation time. PMID:16830922

  4. 21 CFR 1003.2 - Defect in an electronic product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Defect in an electronic product. 1003.2 Section 1003.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH NOTIFICATION OF DEFECTS OR FAILURE TO COMPLY General Provisions § 1003.2 Defect in...

  5. 21 CFR 1003.2 - Defect in an electronic product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Defect in an electronic product. 1003.2 Section 1003.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH NOTIFICATION OF DEFECTS OR FAILURE TO COMPLY General Provisions § 1003.2 Defect in...

  6. Consumer Electronic Product Servicing. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a consumer electronic product servicing program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of…

  7. Report on the Assessment of Electronic Government Information Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    The goals of this assessment of electronic government information products were to: identify medium and format standards that are the most appropriate for permanent public access; assess the cost-effectiveness and usefulness of various alternative medium/format standards; and identify public and private medium/format standards that could be used…

  8. 48 CFR 23.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic products environmental assessment tool. 23.705 Section 23.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND...

  9. C-shaped electron beams: design, experimental production and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousley, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Babiker, M.; Yuan, J.

    2015-08-01

    The development of metamaterials operating at visible light wavelengths requires metamaterials to be produced with nanoscale structure over large areas. Improvements in the efficiency of electron beam lithography (EBL) could play an important role in accelerating this development. In this paper we show the production of a shaped probe for use in EBL. A phase structured electron wave containing vortices can be focused to produce a C-shaped cross section. Local spatial frequency analysis shows that both the gap and overall size of the C-shape can be easily controlled. We present the generation of such a C-shaped electron beam using a holographic binary amplitude diffraction mask. Thin AlF3 film is exposed to the C-shaped diffraction order and demonstrates the facile production of both a metallic C-shaped structure as well as the etching of a C-shaped hole.

  10. 40 CFR 80.1455 - What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the small volume provisions... ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1455 What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? (a) Standard volume threshold. Renewable fuel production...

  11. 40 CFR 80.1455 - What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the small volume provisions... ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1455 What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? (a) Standard volume threshold. Renewable fuel production...

  12. 40 CFR 80.1455 - What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the small volume provisions... ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1455 What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? (a) Standard volume threshold. Renewable fuel production...

  13. 40 CFR 80.1455 - What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the small volume provisions... ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1455 What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? (a) Standard volume threshold. Renewable fuel production...

  14. 40 CFR 80.1455 - What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the small volume provisions... ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1455 What are the small volume provisions for renewable fuel production facilities and importers? (a) Standard volume threshold. Renewable fuel production...

  15. Earth observing system. Output data products and input requirements, version 2.0. Volume 1: Instrument data product characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yun-Chi; Chang, Hyo Duck; Krupp, Brian; Kumar, Ravindra; Swaroop, Anand

    1992-01-01

    Information on Earth Observing System (EOS) output data products and input data requirements that has been compiled by the Science Processing Support Office (SPSO) at GSFC is presented. Since Version 1.0 of the SPSO Report was released in August 1991, there have been significant changes in the EOS program. In anticipation of a likely budget cut for the EOS Project, NASA HQ restructured the EOS program. An initial program consisting of two large platforms was replaced by plans for multiple, smaller platforms, and some EOS instruments were either deselected or descoped. Updated payload information reflecting the restructured EOS program superseding the August 1991 version of the SPSO report is included. This report has been expanded to cover information on non-EOS data products, and consists of three volumes (Volumes 1, 2, and 3). Volume 1 provides information on instrument outputs and input requirements. Volume 2 is devoted to Interdisciplinary Science (IDS) outputs and input requirements, including the 'best' and 'alternative' match analysis. Volume 3 provides information about retrieval algorithms, non-EOS input requirements of instrument teams and IDS investigators, and availability of non-EOS data products at seven primary Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's).

  16. Electric fields, electron production, and electron motion at the stripper foil in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M.

    1995-05-01

    The beam instability at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) most likely involves coupled oscillations between electrons and protons. For this instability to occur, there must be a strong source of electrons. Investigation of the various sources of electrons in the PSR had begun. Copious electron production is expected in the injection section because this section contains the stripper foil. This foil is mounted near the center of the beam pipe, and both circulating and injected protons pass through it, thus allowing ample opportunity for electron production. This paper discusses various mechanisms for electron production, beam-induced electric fields, and electron motion in the vicinity of the foil.

  17. Probing local order in glasses from limited-volume electron and x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, A. C. Y.; Tabor, R. F.; Bourgeois, L.; de Jonge, M. D.; Mudie, S. T.; Petersen, T. C.

    2016-05-01

    It has long been recognised that spatial fluctuations in local order in disordered assemblies of particles can be probed using limited-volume diffraction measurements. These measurements have unique advantages over broad-beam diffraction experiments that isotropically average over many structural configurations and result in one-dimensional intensity curves, requiring modelling to interpret. Despite the advantages of limiting illumination to a low number of particle configurations, obtaining quantitative measurements of local order from such experiments remains a challenge. The effects on the diffraction pattern of changing the beam energy, lateral size, aberrations and coherence and the specimen thickness have only recently been clarified. We review theoretical and experimental efforts in this direction in the fields of both electron and x-ray diffraction and identify promising areas of future development.

  18. Umicore offers new solutions for high volume production of infrared optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dervaux, S.; Guimond, Y.; Franks, J.; Bellec, Y.; Bourget, A.

    2005-10-01

    During many years high volume commercial applications of infrared optics have been slowed down by several cost factors. The development of focal plan arrays and uncooled detectors has allowed to greatly reduce the cost of infrared detectors. In the meantime, Umicore IR Glass has developed an industrial process to manufacture low cost chalcogenide glasses with well controlled properties. These glasses called GASIR 1 and GASIR 2 are transparent in the NEAR and FAR infrared atmospheric windows and are mouldable into high quality finished spherical, aspherical and diffractive lenses. The moulding process allows high volume production of cost effective infrared optics. After the development of several optics in GASIR for medium volume series, Umicore is opening the first high volume factory entirely dedicated to GASIR optics for driving vision enhancement (DVE). This new facility will have a capacity of several tens of thousands of optics per year.

  19. Gas productivity related to cleat volumes derived from focused resistivity tools in coalbed methane (CBM) fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.H.; Peeters, M.; Cloud, T.A.; Van Kirk, C.W.

    2006-06-15

    Cleats are critical for coal-bed methane (CBM) production, but operators usually lack a viable method to determine productivity except for costly well tests. Wireline logs, run over the CBM deposits of the Drunkards Wash Unit located in the Uinta Basin of Utah, were used to develop a new method to relate productivity to the cleat volume. The latter is derived from a focused resistivity log and the wellbore-fluid resistivity. Induction tools are unsuitable for this method, because they are dominated by borehole effects in high resistivity coals and low resistivity mud. Moreover, they read too deep to be significantly affected by the substitution of formation fluid by borehole fluid in the cleats on which the method is based. The method was demonstrated by relating cleat volume to CBM gas productivity in 24 wells, an exercise that clearly separated good from poor producers.

  20. Metastable Oxygen Production by Electron-Impact of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, J. D.; Malone, C. P.; Johnson, P. V.; Kanik, I.

    2014-12-01

    Electron-impact excitation processes involving atomic and molecular oxygen are important in atmospheric interactions. The production of long-lived metastable O(1S) and O(1D) through electron impact of oxygen-containing molecules plays a significant role in the dynamics of planetary atmospheres (Earth, Mars, Europa, Io, Enceladus) and cometary bodies (Hale-Bopp). The electron-impact excitation channels to O(1S) and O(1D) are important for determining energy partitioning and dynamics. To reliably model natural phenomena and interpret observational data, the accurate determination of underlying collision processes (cross sections, dissociation dynamics) through fundamental experimental studies is essential. The detection of metastable species in laboratory experiments requires a novel approach. Typical radiative de-excitation detection techniques cannot be performed due to the long-lived nature of excited species, and conventional particle detectors are insensitive to the low internal energies O(1S) and O(1D). We have recently constructed an apparatus to detect and characterize metastable oxygen production by electron impact using the "rare gas conversion technique." Recent results will be presented, including absolute excitation functions for target gases O2, CO, CO2, and N2O. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Financial support through NASA's OPR, PATM, and MFRP programs, as well as the NASA Postdoctoral Program (NPP) are gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Ion/Anion Pair Production from Electron Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartor, J.; Keiling, M.; Fogle, M.; Gay, T. J.; Landers, A. L.

    2013-05-01

    One of the least studied dissociation pathways of a neutral molecule is the decay to an ion/anion pair, yet these reactions can provide new insight into fundamental molecular dynamics. We initiate these reactions with the pulsed field from a fast electron, where in principle all ion/anion pair-production modes are accessible and not limited by photo-absorption selection rules. We accomplish this by intersecting a bunched electron beam with a jet of gas over a wide range of energies, and use a fast-switched electric field to guide the ion products towards two position sensitive detectors. Using the positions and flight times of the ions, we completely determine the final state momenta. This not only allows for the discrimination of this channel from dominant contaminant reactions (particularly the electron producing ionization channels), but also yields the kinetic energy release and product angular distribution. Preliminary results for the reaction e- +O2 ==>e- +O+ +O- will be presented along with additional measurements currently underway, including the fundamental case of hydrogen. Supported by the Auburn University Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program and the US Department of Energy: Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences.

  2. 76 FR 1067 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ...EPA is promulgating a final rule under section 4(a)(1)(B) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to require manufacturers, importers, and processors of certain high production volume (HPV) chemical substances to conduct testing to obtain screening level data for health and environmental effects and chemical...

  3. 75 FR 51734 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemical Substances; Third Group of Chemical Substances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... issue of February 25, 2010 (75 FR 8575). Any use of the term ``manufacture'' in this document will... departure. II. Background In the Federal Register issue of February 25, 2010 (75 FR 8575) (FRL-8805-8), EPA... certain high production volume (HPV) chemical substances to conduct testing to obtain screening level...

  4. The SEA of the Future: Building the Productivity Infrastructure. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Betheny, Ed.; Jochim, Ashley, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    "The SEA of the Future" is an education publication series examining how state education agencies can shift from a compliance to a performance-oriented organization through strategic planning and performance management tools to meet growing demands to support education reform while improving productivity. This volume, the third in the…

  5. The SEA of the Future: Uncovering the Productivity Promise of Rural Education. Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Betheny, Ed.; Jochim, Ashley, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    "The SEA of the Future" is an education publication series examining how state education agencies can shift from a compliance to a performance-oriented organization through strategic planning and performance management tools to meet growing demands to support education reform while improving productivity. This is the fourth volume in the…

  6. Quantitative analysis of cytoskeletal reorganization during epithelial tissue sealing by large-volume electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Eltsov, Mikhail; Dubé, Nadia; Yu, Zhou; Pasakarnis, Laurynas; Haselmann-Weiss, Uta; Brunner, Damian; Frangakis, Achilleas S

    2015-05-01

    The closure of epidermal openings is an essential biological process that causes major developmental problems such as spina bifida in humans if it goes awry. At present, the mechanism of closure remains elusive. Therefore, we reconstructed a model closure event, dorsal closure in fly embryos, by large-volume correlative electron tomography. We present a comprehensive, quantitative analysis of the cytoskeletal reorganization, enabling separated epidermal cells to seal the epithelium. After establishing contact through actin-driven exploratory filopodia, cells use a single lamella to generate 'roof tile'-like overlaps. These shorten to produce the force, 'zipping' the tissue closed. The shortening overlaps lack detectable actin filament ensembles but are crowded with microtubules. Cortical accumulation of shrinking microtubule ends suggests a force generation mechanism in which cortical motors pull on microtubule ends as for mitotic spindle positioning. In addition, microtubules orient filopodia and lamellae before zipping. Our 4D electron microscopy picture describes an entire developmental process and provides fundamental insight into epidermal closure. PMID:25893916

  7. 19 CFR 12.91 - Electronic products offered for importation under the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic products offered for importation under... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Electronic Products § 12.91 Electronic... Human Services. Electronic products offered for importation into the customs territory of the...

  8. Fragmentation production of charmed hadrons in electron-positron annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Novoselov, A. A.

    2010-10-15

    Processes involving the production of D* mesons and {Lambda}{sub c} baryons in electron-positron annihilation at the energies of 10.58 and 91.18 GeV are considered. At the energy of 10.58 GeV, the production of pairs of B mesons that is followed by their decay to charmed particles is analyzed along with direct charm production. The violation of scaling in the respective fragmentation functions is taken into account in the next-to-leading-logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD. The required nonperturbative fragmentation functions are extracted numerically from experimental data obtained at B factories and are approximated by simple analytic expressions. It is shown that the difference in the nonperturbative fragmentation functions for transitions to mesons and baryons can readily be explained on the basis of the quark-counting rules.

  9. [National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research] quarterly technical report, July 1--September 30, 1991. Volume 2, Energy production research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The report is submitted in two volumes, Volume I representing the work accomplished under Fuels Research and Volume II the work for Energy Production Research during the period July 1--Sept. 30, 1991. Topics covered include: chemical flooding, gas displacement, thermal recovery, geoscience technology, resource assessment technology, microbial technology, environmental technology.

  10. Energy and precious fuels requirements of fuel alcohol production. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weinblatt, H.; Lawrence, M.F.; Jenkins, D.

    1982-12-01

    In this study, energy requirements for producing alcohol fuels are estimated and are compared to the energy content of the alcohol produced. The comparisons are developed for three alcohol production alternatives: ethanol from grain, methanol from cellulose, and methanol from coal. In the analysis, alcohol fuel and all nonrenewable fuels are valued on the basis of their higher heating value (in Btu), while byproducts and grain and cellulose feedstocks are valued on the basis of the effect their production would have on the consumption of nonrenewable fuels. The effects of changes in agricultural production were analyzed on the basis of their effects on overall agricultural energy consumption (not on average energy consumption associated with present production). All three alcohol production alternatives were found to be effective means of increasing supplies of liquid fuels. The cellulose-to-methanol alternative, however, produces more energy than it consumes. (The favorable energy balance for this feedstock results largely from the use of cellulose as a boiler fuel as well as a feedstock.) The grain-to-ethanol alternative yields a slightly negative energy balance, while the coal-to-methanol alternative (which uses a nonrenewable fuel as both feedstock and boiler fuel) results in a substantially negative energy balance. The report is presented in four volumes. Volume I (NASA CR-168090) contains the main body of the report, and the other three volumes contain appendices.

  11. Monoenergetic Electronic Beam Production Using Dual Collinear Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, A. G. R.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Dangor, A. E.; Kamperidis, C.; Krushelnick, K.; Najmudin, Z.; Murphy, C. D.; Foster, P.; Lancaster, K. L.; Norreys, P. A.; Gallacher, J. G.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Viskup, R.

    2008-06-27

    The production of monoenergetic electron beams by two copropagating ultrashort laser pulses is investigated both by experiment and using particle-in-cell simulations. By proper timing between guiding and driver pulses, a high-amplitude plasma wave is generated and sustained for longer than is possible with either of the laser pulses individually, due to plasma waveguiding of the driver by the guiding pulse. The growth of the plasma wave is inferred by the measurement of monoenergetic electron beams with low divergence that are not measured by using either of the pulses individually. This scheme can be easily implemented and may allow more control of the interaction than is available to the single pulse scheme.

  12. Kinematic distributions for electron pair production by muons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsker, R.

    1972-01-01

    Cross sections and kinematic distributions for the trident production process plus or negative muon plus charge yields plus or minus muon plus electron plus positron plus charge (with charge = dipion moment and Fe) are given for beam energies of 100 to 300 GeV at fixed (electron positron) masses from 5 to 15 GeV. This process is interesting as a test of quantum electrodynamics at high energies, and in particular as a test of the form of the photon propagator at large timelike (four-momentum) squared. For this purpose, it is desirable to impose kinematic cuts that favor those Bethe-Heitler graphs which contain a timelike photon propagator. It is found that there are substantial differences between the kinematic distributions for the full Bethe-Heitler matrix element and the distributions for the two timelike-photon graphs alone; these differences can be exploited in the selection of appropriate kinematic cuts.

  13. Topology optimization of structures under multiple loading cases with a new compliance-volume product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Gao, Liang; Li, Peigen

    2014-06-01

    This article proposes a new topology optimization method for the design of structures under multiple loading cases. The design is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem by minimizing a new compliance-volume product, which optimizes the overall stiffness and volume simultaneously to avoid the empirical decision on design constraints and obtain an even lower structural volume. A normalized exponential weighted criterion (NEWC) method is included in the multi-objective optimization problem for the capture of the entire Pareto frontier. A weight evaluation method, in terms of the fuzzy multiple-attribute group decision-making (FMAGDM) theory, is incorporated in the problem to evaluate the weights of the objectives and guarantee the optimal design in an acceptable level. The solid isotropic material with penalty (SIMP) method is used to represent the dependence of elemental densities on material properties. Three typical numerical examples are employed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Cost and price estimate of Brayton and Stirling engines in selected production volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Fortgang, H.R.; Mayers, H.F.

    1980-05-31

    This report details the methods used to determine the production costs and required selling price of Brayton and Stirling engines modified for use in solar power conversion units. The Brayton engine, designed by Garrett AiResearch Manufacturing Company, was upgraded to a 20 kW design. The Stirling 30 kW engine was designed by United Stirling of Sweden for non-solar applications. Each engine part, component and assembly was examined and evaluated to determine the costs of its material and the method of manufacture based on specific annual production volumes. Cost estimates are presented for both the Stirling and Brayton engines in annual production volumes of 1000, 25,000, 100,000, and 400,000. At annual production volumes above 50,000 units, the costs of both engines are similar, although the Stirling engine costs are somewhat lower. It was concluded that modifications to both the Brayton and Stirling engine designs could reduce the estimated costs.

  15. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 3: Product data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is analyzed and the study results are presented. The chronology of the study process is discussed. The separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process is investigated. The production requirements of twelve candidate products including antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and interferon are evaluated.

  16. Capabilities for managing high-volume production of electric engineering equipment at the Electrochemical Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Podlednev, V.M.

    1996-04-01

    The Electromechanical Production Plant is essentially a research center with experimental facilities and power full testing base. Major products of the plant today include heat pipes and devices of their basis of different functions and power from high temperature ranges to cryogenics. This report describes work on porous titanium and carbon-graphite current collectors, electrocatalyst synthesis, and electrocatalyst applications.

  17. EIA directory of electronic products. Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) makes available for public use a series of machine-readable data files and computer models. The data files and models are made available to the public on magnetic tapes. In addition, selected data files/models are available on diskette for IBM-compatible personal computers. EIA, as the independent statistical and analytical branch of the Department of Energy, provides assistance to the general public through the National Energy Information Center (NEIC). Inquirers may telephone NEIC`s information specialists at (202) 586-8800 with any data questions relating to the content of EIA Directory of Electronic Products.

  18. EIA Directory of Electronic Products, Second quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    EIA makes available for public use a series of machine-readable data files and computer models, on magnetic tapes; selected data files/models are also available on PC diskettes. The data files include: petroleum, natural gas, electricity, coal, integrated statistics, and consumption. Models include: petroleum, natural gas, electricity, coal, nuclear, and multifuel. On-line files and compact discs include: electronic publishing system, federal bulletin board, economic bulletin board, national trade data bank, national economic/social/environmental data bank, and FedWorld Gateway. For each product listed in this directory, an abstract describes the data published. Contact persons are provided, as are indexes.

  19. 78 FR 27860 - Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for One High Production Volume Chemical Substance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Final Rule. Federal Register (71 FR 13708, March 16, 2006) (FRL... Requirements Certain High Production Volume Chemical Substances; Direct Final Rule. Federal Register (77 FR... Substance; Final Rule. Federal Register (77 FR 28281, May 14, 2012) (FRL-9350- 2). Document ID number...

  20. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume I. Technical discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). The first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 referenvces and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2. 18 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  2. High volume production trial of mirror segments for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oota, Tetsuji; Negishi, Mahito; Shinonaga, Hirohiko; Gomi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Yutaka; Akutsu, Kotaro; Otsuka, Itaru; Mochizuki, Shun; Iye, Masanori; Yamashita, Takuya

    2014-07-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope is a next-generation optical/infrared telescope to be constructed on Mauna Kea, Hawaii toward the end of this decade, as an international project. Its 30 m primary mirror consists of 492 off-axis aspheric segmented mirrors. High volume production of hundreds of segments has started in 2013 based on the contract between National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and Canon Inc.. This paper describes the achievements of the high volume production trials. The Stressed Mirror Figuring technique which is established by Keck Telescope engineers is arranged and adopted. To measure the segment surface figure, a novel stitching algorithm is evaluated by experiment. The integration procedure is checked with prototype segment.

  3. 76 FR 65385 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Third Group of Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ...EPA is promulgating this final rule under section 4(a)(1)(B) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to require manufacturers, importers, and processors to conduct testing to obtain screening level data for health and environmental effects and chemical fate for 15 high production volume (HPV) chemical substances listed in this final rule. This test data is needed in order to help EPA to......

  4. Using electronic data interchange to report product quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Donald F.; Frank, Donald T.

    1993-03-01

    The Product Quality Deficiency Report (PQDR) is a Department of Defense form that identifies deficiencies in the manufacture, repair, or procurement of materiel. It may be used by DoD employees or contractors to identify defects at any point in the item's life. DoD generates nearly 75,000 such deficiency reports each year. In most cases, when a defect is identified, Standard Form (SF) 368 is completed and sent to the activity managing the contract under which the materiel was procured. That activity, usually in conjunction with the contractor, investigates the complaint, attempts to determine a cause and a corrective action, and must make some disposition of the defective materiel. The process is labor- and paper-intensive and time-consuming. Technology can reduce the costs of the process and at the same time improve timeliness by electronically exchanging discrepancy data between activities. Electronic data interchange (EDI) is one technology for electronically passing PQDR data. It is widely used in industry and increasingly within DoD. DMRD 941 defines DoD's commitment to use EDI and cites the PQDR and other discrepancy reports as early candidates for EDI. In this report, we describe how EDI can be linked to changes in PQDR processing practices to provide further improvements.

  5. 77 FR 20416 - Used Electronic Products: An Examination of U.S. Exports; Proposed Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... COMMISSION Used Electronic Products: An Examination of U.S. Exports; Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Used Electronic Products Questionnaire AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... via email at laura.bloodgood@usitc.gov ). Additional Information: Copies of the questionnaire...

  6. Product specification documentation standard and Data Item Descriptions (DID). Volume of the information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    This is the third of five volumes on Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards which present a well organized, easily used standard for providing technical information needed for developing information systems, components, and related processes. This volume states the Software Management and Assurance Program documentation standard for a product specification document and for data item descriptions. The framework can be applied to any NASA information system, software, hardware, operational procedures components, and related processes.

  7. Technical support for the Ohio Coal Technology Program. Volume 1, Baseline of knowledge concerning by-product characteristics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L.

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LRl and comprises two volumes. Volume I presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume II consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  8. High Productivity DRIE solutions for 3D-SiP and MEMS Volume Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puech, M.; Thevenoud, JM; Launay, N.; Arnal, N.; Godinat, P.; Andrieu, B.; Gruffat, JM

    2006-04-01

    Emerging 3D-SiP technologies and high volume MEMS applications require high productivity mass production DRIE systems. The Alcatel DRIE product range has recently been optimised to reach the highest process and hardware production performances. A study based on sub-micron high aspect ratio structures encountered in the most stringent 3D-SiP has been carried out. The optimization of the Bosch process parameters has resulted in ultra high silicon etch rates, with unrivalled uniformity and repeatability leading to excellent process. In parallel, most recent hardware and proprietary design optimization including vacuum pumping lines, process chamber, wafer chucks, pressure control system, gas delivery are discussed. These improvements have been monitored in a mass production environment for a mobile phone application. Field data analysis shows a significant reduction of cost of ownership thanks to increased throughput and much lower running costs. These benefits are now available for all 3D-SiP and high volume MEMS applications. The typical etched patterns include tapered trenches for CMOS imagers, through silicon via holes for die stacking, well controlled profile angle for 3D high precision inertial sensors, and large exposed area features for inkjet printer heads and Silicon microphones.

  9. High-productivity DRIE solutions for 3D-SiP and MEMS volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puech, M.; Thevenoud, J. M.; Launay, N.; Arnal, N.; Godinat, P.; Andrieu, B.; Gruffat, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Emerging 3D-SiP technologies and high volume MEMS applications require high productivity mass production DRIE systems. The Alcatel DRIE product range has recently been optimized to reach the highest process and hardware production performances. A study based on sub-micron high aspect ratio structures encountered in the most stringent 3D-SiP has been carried out. The optimization of the Bosch process parameters have shown ultra high silicon etch rate, with unrivaled uniformity and repeatability leading to excellent process yields. In parallel, most recent hardware and proprietary design optimization including vacuum pumping lines, process chamber, wafer chucks, pressure control system, gas delivery are discussed. A key factor for achieving the highest performances was the recognized expertise of Alcatel vacuum and plasma science technologies. These improvements have been monitored in a mass production environment for a mobile phone application. Field data analysis shows a significant reduction of cost of ownership thanks to increased throughput and much lower running costs. These benefits are now available for all 3D-SiP and high volume MEMS applications. The typical etched patterns include tapered trenches for CMOS imagers, through silicon via holes for die stacking, well controlled profile angle for 3D high precision inertial sensors, and large exposed area features for inkjet printer head and Silicon microphones.

  10. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  11. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  12. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  13. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Technical Electronic Products Radiation Safety Standards Committee § 14.120 Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). The Technical Electronic Product...

  14. 78 FR 11700 - Notice of Availability: Beta Test of Electronic Product Fulfillment for Addressing and Delivery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...) licensees to test a beta web service that allows the electronic download of these products through the USPS Electronic Product Fulfillment (EPF) Web site. DATES: Interested licensees should submit requests for... licensees to test a beta web service that allows the electronic download of these products through the...

  15. 77 FR 21584 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of... States after importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same... electronics and display devices and products containing same that infringe one or more of claims 2, 3, 5,...

  16. 76 FR 72439 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Receipt of... received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products... electronics and display devices and products containing same. The complaint names Research In Motion Ltd....

  17. Digital electronics for 256 anode Hamamatsu H9500 PSPMT arrays in full-volume Compton imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. T.; Grudberg, P. M.; Warburton, W. K.

    2014-07-01

    Ziock et al.'s [1] recent Monte Carlo study of a proposed ``full-volume'' Compton Imaging Camera concluded that simultaneously locating a Compton scatter event's multiple interaction points within a single large scintillator crystal might be possible at 1 mm spatial resolution using a coded aperture mask sandwiched between two light guides and coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier (PSPMT) to record the output light pattern. The method promises high efficiency at a relatively low cost. They are currently developing a lower resolution prototype using a large cubic scintillator (25.4 cm/side) whose masked face will be tiled with 25 Hamamatsu H9500 PSPMTs (6,400 outputs). XIA has contracted to develop and produce the readout electronics, which present several significant design challenges, including capturing all 6,400 anode outputs individually, with single photon sensitivity, in a compact format that will fit behind the tiled PSPMTs. 10,000 event/sec operation is desired, as is a cost of less than about 50/channel. In our approach, each PSPMT front end integrates the 256 anode signals and 8-1 multiplexes them to 32 differential outputs that are digitized in a PXI card using 4 octal 50 MHz ADCs. The multiplexers run at 8 MHz, sampling each anode at 1 MHz, which becomes the image frame rate. The ADC signals are demultiplexed and digitally filtered to extract the number of photons in each pixel in the full 2-D image. The design has been completed and built and is undergoing evaluation tests at the single PSPMT level.

  18. Electron Production and Collective Field Generation in Intense Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A W; Vay, J; Cohen, R; Friedman, A; Lee, E; Verboncoeur, J; Covo, M K

    2006-02-09

    Electron cloud effects (ECEs) are increasingly recognized as important, but incompletely understood, dynamical phenomena, which can severely limit the performance of present electron colliders, the next generation of high-intensity rings, such as PEP-II upgrade, LHC, and the SNS, the SIS 100/200, or future high-intensity heavy ion accelerators such as envisioned in Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIF). Deleterious effects include ion-electron instabilities, emittance growth, particle loss, increase in vacuum pressure, added heat load at the vacuum chamber walls, and interference with certain beam diagnostics. Extrapolation of present experience to significantly higher beam intensities is uncertain given the present level of understanding. With coordinated LDRD projects at LLNL and LBNL, we undertook a comprehensive R&D program including experiments, theory and simulations to better understand the phenomena, establish the essential parameters, and develop mitigating mechanisms. This LDRD project laid the essential groundwork for such a program. We developed insights into the essential processes, modeled the relevant physics, and implemented these models in computational production tools that can be used for self-consistent study of the effect on ion beams. We validated the models and tools through comparison with experimental data, including data from new diagnostics that we developed as part of this work and validated on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL. We applied these models to High-Energy Physics (HEP) and other advanced accelerators. This project was highly successful, as evidenced by the two paragraphs above, and six paragraphs following that are taken from our 2003 proposal with minor editing that mostly consisted of changing the tense. Further benchmarks of outstanding performance are: we had 13 publications with 8 of them in refereed journals, our work was recognized by the accelerator and plasma physics communities by 8 invited papers and we have 5

  19. Plasma electron temperature and the entropy effect on hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakartnarodom, Parinya

    that atomic hydrogen is produced in the plasma, and the results from flue-gas analyzer show that H 2 is a product from the reaction in the plasma. From the experimental results, the yield of H2 is increased with the increasing of the electron temperature in gas/gas plasma reactions having positive entropy. For solid/gas plasma reactions which DeltaSo is either positive or negative, there is no correlation between H2 yield and electron temperature. However, H2 yield from all plasma reactions is lower than the prediction from the van't Hoff equation. Based on an analysis of the Saha equation, the effective temperature of the chemical species in the plasma may be lower than the electron temperature, thus rationalizing our observation of reduced H2 yield. An alternative hypothesis is that the quenching rates of the products from the plasma are not fast enough to avoid recombination of the reaction products at low temperature, where the enthalpy term dominates.

  20. Novel production techniques of radioisotopes using electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Daniel Robert

    Non-traditional radioisotope production techniques using a compact, high power linear electron accelerator have been demonstrated and characterized for the production of 18F, 47Sc, 147 Pm, and 99mTc from a variety of target candidates. These isotopes are used extensively in the medical field as diagnostic and therapy radioisotopes, as well as the space industry as RTG's. Primary focus was placed on 99mTc as it constitutes approximately 80% of all diagnostic procedures in the medical community that use radioactive tracers. It was also the prime focus due to recent events at the Chalk River nuclear reactor, which caused global shortages of this isotope a few years ago. A Varian K15 LINAC was first used to show proof of principle in Las Vegas. Various samples were then taken to the Idaho Accelerator Center where they were activated using an electron LINAC capable of electron energies from 4 to 25 MeV at a beam power of approximately 1 kW. Production rates, cross sections, and viability studies were then performed and conducted to assess the effectiveness of the candidate target and the maximum production rate for each radioisotope. Production rates for 18F from lithium fluoride salts were shown to be ideal at 21MeV, namely 1.7 Ci per kg of LiF salt, per kW of beam current, per 10 hour irradiation time. As the typical hospital consumption of 18F is around 500 mCi per day, it is clear that a large amount of 18F can be made from a small (300 gram) sample of LiF salt. However, since there is no current separation process for 18F from 19F, the viability of this technique is limited until a separations technique is developed. Furthermore, the calculated cross section for this reaction is in good agreement with literature, which supports the techniques for the isotopes mentioned below. Production rates for 47Sc from vanadium oxide targets were shown to be a maximum at 25 MeV with a production rate of 2 mCi per day, assuming a 2 kW beam and a 10 kg target. While this

  1. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3, part 1: Study products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part one of the study products section of the five volume series.

  2. Mechanical design evolution of the VIRUS instrument for volume production and deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vattiat, Brian L.; Hill, Gary J.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Bauer, Svend; Kelz, Andreas; Rafal, M. D.; Savage, Richard; Good, John; Booth, John A.; Smith, M. P.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.

    2010-07-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) is an integral field spectrograph to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The VIRUS instrument is fed by more than 33,000 optical fibers and consists of 150 spectrographs in 75 individual, identical units. This paper discusses the evolution in mechanical design of the VIRUS unit spectrographs to maximize the cost benefit from volume production. Design features which enable volume manufacture and assembly are discussed. Strategies for reducing part count while enabling precision alignment are detailed. Design considerations for deployment, operation, and maintenance en mass at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope are also made. In addition, several enabling technologies are described including the use of cast aluminum in vacuum housings, use of cast Invar, and processing cast parts for precision tolerances.

  3. Liquid rocket booster integration study. Volume 3: Study products. Part 2: Sections 8-19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The impacts of introducing liquid rocket booster engines (LRB) into the Space Transportation System (STS)/Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch environment are identified and evaluated. Proposed ground systems configurations are presented along with a launch site requirements summary. Prelaunch processing scenarios are described and the required facility modifications and new facility requirements are analyzed. Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. Processing approaches to integrate LRB with existing STS launch operations are evaluated. The key features and significance of launch site transition to a new STS configuration in parallel with ongoing launch activities are enumerated. This volume is part two of the study products section of the five volume series.

  4. Web-based volume slicer for 3D electron-microscopy data from EMDB.

    PubMed

    Salavert-Torres, José; Iudin, Andrii; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Patwardhan, Ardan

    2016-05-01

    We describe the functionality and design of the Volume slicer - a web-based slice viewer for EMDB entries. This tool uniquely provides the facility to view slices from 3D EM reconstructions along the three orthogonal axes and to rapidly switch between them and navigate through the volume. We have employed multiple rounds of user-experience testing with members of the EM community to ensure that the interface is easy and intuitive to use and the information provided is relevant. The impetus to develop the Volume slicer has been calls from the EM community to provide web-based interactive visualisation of 2D slice data. This would be useful for quick initial checks of the quality of a reconstruction. Again in response to calls from the community, we plan to further develop the Volume slicer into a fully-fledged Volume browser that provides integrated visualisation of EMDB and PDB entries from the molecular to the cellular scale. PMID:26876163

  5. Reflective electron-beam lithography: progress toward high-throughput production capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, Regina; Gubiotti, Thomas; Sun, Jeff; Kidwingira, Francoise; Yang, Jason; Ummethala, Upendra; Hale, Layton C.; Hench, John J.; Kojima, Shinichi; Mieher, Walter D.; Bevis, Chris F.; Lin, Shy-Jay; Wang, Wen-Chuan

    2012-03-01

    Maskless electron beam lithography can potentially extend semiconductor manufacturing to the 16 nm technology node and beyond. KLA-Tencor is developing Reflective Electron Beam Lithography (REBL) targeting high-volume 16 nm half pitch (HP) production. This paper reviews progress in the development of the REBL system towards its goal of 100 wph throughput for High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) at the 2X and 1X nm nodes. We will demonstrate the ability to print TSMC test patterns with the integrated system in photoresist on silicon wafers at 45 nm resolution. Additionally, we present simulation and experimental results that demonstrate that the system meets performance targets for a typical foundry product mix. Previously, KLA-Tencor reported on the development of a REBL tool for maskless lithography at and below the 16 nm HP technology node1. Since that time, the REBL team and its partners (TSMC, IMEC) have made good progress towards developing the REBL system and Digital Pattern Generator (DPG) for direct write lithography. Traditionally, e-beam direct write lithography has been too slow for most lithography applications. E-beam direct write lithography has been used for mask writing rather than wafer processing since the maximum blur requirements limit column beam current - which drives e-beam throughput. To print small features and a fine pitch with an e-beam tool requires a sacrifice in processing time unless one significantly increases the total number of beams on a single writing tool. Because of the continued uncertainty with regards to the optical lithography roadmap beyond the 16 nm HP technology node, the semiconductor equipment industry is in the process of designing and testing e-beam lithography tools with the potential for HVM.

  6. Combination of transmission electron and atomic force microscopy techniques to determine volume equivalent diameter of submicrometer particles.

    PubMed

    Tumolva, Laarnie; Park, Ji-Yeon; Park, Kihong

    2012-04-01

    Morphological properties of atmospheric particles are directly related to their residence time and transport behaviors, and their deposition patterns in human respiratory systems. The projected properties of particles measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were combined with the particle height measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine volume equivalent diameter of submicrometer particles. For nonvolatile (refractory) laboratory-generated spherical polystyrene latex and cubic NaCl particles, the measured volume equivalent diameters agreed well with the true values (within 4%). However, for nonrefractory (NH(4))(2)SO(4) particles, the measured volume equivalent diameter was much smaller than the true value due to evaporation of volatile species at low vacuum pressure and high electron-beam intensity conditions in TEM, and deformation of particles in AFM. We observed that the volume equivalent diameter of 100 nm mobility-classified atmospheric particles was 35 ± 5 nm, suggesting that these particles contain nonrefractory species, whereas that of 20 nm mobility-classified atmospheric particles was found to be 19 ± 6 nm, suggesting that these particles were refractory and spherical. PMID:21919129

  7. Immersion defectivity study with volume production immersion lithography tool for 45 nm node and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Katsushi; Nagaoka, Shiro; Yoshida, Masato; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Shiraishi, Kenichi; Owa, Soichi

    2008-03-01

    Volume production of 45nm node devices utilizing Nikon's S610C immersion lithography tool has started. Important to the success in achieving high-yields in volume production with immersion lithography has been defectivity reduction. In this study we evaluate several methods of defectivity reduction. The tools used in our defectivity analysis included a dedicated immersion cluster tools consisting of a Nikon S610C, a volume production immersion exposure tool with NA of 1.3, and a resist coater-developer LITHIUS i+ from TEL. In our initial procedure we evaluated defectivity behavior by comparing on a topcoat-less resist process to a conventional topcoat process. Because of its simplicity the topcoatless resist shows lower defect levels than the topcoat process. In a second study we evaluated the defect reduction by introducing the TEL bevel rinse and pre-immersion bevel cleaning techniques. This technique was shown to successfully reduce the defect levels by reducing the particles at the wafer bevel region. For the third defect reduction method, two types of tool cleaning processes are shown. Finally, we discuss the overall defectivity behavior at the 45nm node. To facilitate an understanding of the root cause of the defects, defect source analysis (DSA) was applied to separate the defects into three classes according to the source of defects. DSA analysis revealed that more than 99% of defects relate to material and process, and less than 1% of the defects relate to the exposure tool. Material and process optimization by collaborative work between exposure tool vendors, track vendors and material vendors is a key for success of 45nm node device manufacturing.

  8. A Vector Approach to Euclidean Geometry: Inner Product Spaces, Euclidean Geometry and Trigonometry, Volume 2. Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Herbert E.; Szabo, Steven

    This is the teacher's edition of a text for the second year of a two-year high school geometry course. The course bases plane and solid geometry and trigonometry on the fact that the translations of a Euclidean space constitute a vector space which has an inner product. Congruence is a geometric topic reserved for Volume 2. Volume 2 opens with an…

  9. Rapid specimen preparation to improve the throughput of electron microscopic volume imaging for three-dimensional analyses of subcellular ultrastructures with serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Thai, Truc Quynh; Nguyen, Huy Bang; Saitoh, Sei; Wu, Bao; Saitoh, Yurika; Shimo, Satoshi; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Ichii, Osamu; Kon, Yasuhiro; Takaki, Takashi; Joh, Kensuke; Ohno, Nobuhiko

    2016-09-01

    Serial block-face imaging using scanning electron microscopy enables rapid observations of three-dimensional ultrastructures in a large volume of biological specimens. However, such imaging usually requires days for sample preparation to reduce charging and increase image contrast. In this study, we report a rapid procedure to acquire serial electron microscopic images within 1 day for three-dimensional analyses of subcellular ultrastructures. This procedure is based on serial block-face with two major modifications, including a new sample treatment device and direct polymerization on the rivets, to reduce the time and workload needed. The modified procedure without uranyl acetate can produce tens of embedded samples observable under serial block-face scanning electron microscopy within 1 day. The serial images obtained are similar to the block-face images acquired by common procedures, and are applicable to three-dimensional reconstructions at a subcellular resolution. Using this approach, regional immune deposits and the double contour or heterogeneous thinning of basement membranes were observed in the glomerular capillary loops of an autoimmune nephropathy model. These modifications provide options to improve the throughput of three-dimensional electron microscopic examinations, and will ultimately be beneficial for the wider application of volume imaging in life science and clinical medicine. PMID:26867664

  10. Development of a Gimballed, dual frequency, space-based, microwave antenna for volume production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckie, Martin; Laidig, Dave

    1996-01-01

    A dual-frequency, two-axis Gimballed, Microwave Antenna (GMA) has been developed by COM DEV and Motorola for commercial satellites. The need for volume production of over three hundred antennas at a rate of four per week, a compressed development schedule, and the commercial nature of the effort necessitated a paradigm shift to an 'overall' cost-driven design approach. The translation of these demands into antenna requirements, a description of the resulting GMA design, and examples of development issues are detailed herein.

  11. A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitre, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

  12. The Future of Small Telescopes In The New Millennium. Volume I - Perceptions, Productivities, and Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswalt, T. D.

    2003-06-01

    An invaluable reference for any student, scientist or administrator, using small telescopes for research. An essential collection of data and opinions for those charged with setting scientific and funding priorities. This three-volume set, The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium details the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and how their future productivity can be maximized. Over 70 experts from all corners of the international astronomical community have created a definitive reference on the present and future of "big science with small telescopes." Despite highly publicized closures of telescopes smaller than 4-m in aperture at national facilities and their omission from national science priority studies, the oft-lamented demise of the small telescope has been greatly exaggerated. In fact, the future of these workhorses of astronomy will be brighter than ever if creative steps are taken now. This three-volume set defines the essential roles that small telescopes should play in 21st century science and the ways in which a productive future for them can be realized. A wide cross-section of the astronomical community has contributed to a definitive assessment of the present and a vision for the future. Volume 1: Perceptions, Productivities, and Policies Beginning with a summary of recent national scientific priority-setting efforts, Volume 1 examines the public's and the astronomical community's own perceptions of and misconceptions about small telescope productivity. These shape the future scientific research that will be done with telescopes smaller than 4-m in aperture, and the number of astronomers that will have access to them. The Future of Small Telescopes in the New Millennium is a fundamental resource for those looking to undertake new projects with small telescopes, for those that are responsible for their operation, and for those called upon to help set scientific priorities for the coming decade. It

  13. MONTE GENEROSO ROCKFALL FIELD TEST (SWITZERLAND): Comparison between real rockfall volumes measurements and production calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matasci, B.; Pedrazzini, A.; Humair, F.; Pedrozzi, G.; Carrea, D.; Loye, A.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Monte Generoso rockfall testing area is a mountainside located in the canton of Ticino (southern Switzerland) above an important highway that links Italy to Northern Europe. The slope is steep and consists of two high fractured limestone cliffs situated one above the other and divided by a sparse forest. The highway is potentially affected by rockfall hazard leading to the installation of several protective dams. The upper series of dams, collecting the blocks issued from the higher cliff, were emptied in May 2011. This gave the unique opportunity to assess the volumes of blocks produced in a known period of time in the different sections of the upper cliff. The cliff is formed by six catchments zones and the dams are therefore divided in six groups leading to the calculation of six volumes respectively. Based on geological and structural field data, a susceptibility assessment of the six portions of the cliff was performed and the results were compared to the six volume measured before emptying the dams. The aim is to spatially determine the main parameters influencing the rock fall production in the different portions of the cliff and to validate these results according to the material accumulated behind the protective dams. Structural analyses based on high resolution DEM and field investigation was performed to define the orientation and the geometrical characteristics of the discontinuity sets. The bedding plus five joint sets are present in the cliff and display a very small spacing. Multiples wedge structures affect the stability of the cliff and a surface parallel discontinuity set promotes the formation of flake instabilities. Based on a 1m cell-size DEM, the Matterocking method was applied in order to calculate the number of potential failure mechanisms (wedge and planar sliding) for each cell of the DEM. This allowed us to establish a first susceptibility rating for the six portions of the cliff. This rating was then refined by taking into account

  14. 21 CFR 1004.2 - Plans for the repair of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plans for the repair of electronic products. 1004.2 Section 1004.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS § 1004.2 Plans for the repair of electronic...

  15. 77 FR 14422 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt... Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain consumer electronics...

  16. Robust SMO methodology for exposure tool and mask variations in high volume production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Takaki; Kai, Yasunobu; Masukawa, Kazuyuki; Nojima, Shigeki; Kotani, Toshiya

    2013-04-01

    A robust source mask optimization (RSMO) methodology has been developed for the first time to decrease variations of critical dimension (CD) and overlay displacement on wafer caused by extremely complex exposure tools and mask patterns. The RSMO methodology takes into account exposure tool variations of source shape, aberrations and mask as well as dose and focus to get source shapes and mask patterns robust to the exposure tool variations. A comparison between the conventional SMO and the new RSMO found that the RSMO improved the edge placement error (EPE) and displacement sensitivity to coma and astigmatism aberrations by 14% and 40%, respectively. Interestingly, even a greatly-simplified source from the RSMO provides totally smaller EPE than uselessly complex source shape from the conventional SMO. Thus, the RSMO methodology is much more effective for semiconductor products with high volume production.

  17. Algorithm of lithography advanced process control system for high-mix low-volume products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Eiichi

    2007-03-01

    We have proposed a new algorithm of Lithography Advanced Process Control System for high-mix low-volume production. This algorithm works well for 1 st lot of a new device input into the production line, or 1st lot of an existing device to be exposed with a newly introduced exposure tool. The algorithm consists of 1) searching the most suitable trend of other similar devices referring to an attribute table and a look-up table for priority of searching order, and 2) correction of differences between the two devices for deciding optimum exposure conditions. The attribute table categorizes same layers across different devices and similar layers within a device. Look-up table describes the order of searching keys. To attain cost-effective process control system, information useful to compensate referred trend is compiled into the database.

  18. Cerium-based, intermetallic-strengthened aluminum casting alloy: High-volume co-product development

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, D.; McCall, S. K.; McGuire, M. A.; Ott, R. T.; Geer, Tom; Rios, Orlando; Turchi, P. A. E.

    2016-05-23

    Here, several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanicalmore » properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.« less

  19. Estimating the impact of high-production-volume chemicals on remote ecosystems by toxic pressure calculation.

    PubMed

    Harbers, Jasper V; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Posthuma, Leo; Van de Meent, Dik

    2006-03-01

    Although many chemicals are in use, the environmental impacts of only a few have been established, usually on per-chemical basis. Uncertainty remains about the overall impact of chemicals. This paper estimates combined toxic pressure on coastal North Sea ecosystems from 343 high-production-volume chemicals used within the catchment of rivers Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt. Multimedia fate modeling and species sensitivity distribution-based effects estimation are applied. Calculations start from production volumes and emission rates and use physicochemical substance properties and aquatic ecotoxicity data. Parameter uncertainty is addressed by Monte Carlo simulations. Results suggest that the procedure is technically feasible. Combined toxic pressure of all 343 chemicals in coastal North Seawater is 0.025 (2.5% of the species are exposed to concentration levels above EC50 values), with a wide confidence interval of nearly 0-1. This uncertainty appears to be largely due to uncertainties in interspecies variances of aquatic toxicities and, to a lesser extent, to uncertainties in emissions and degradation rates. Due to these uncertainties, the results support gross ranking of chemicals in categories: negligible and possibly relevant contributions only. With 95% confidence, 283 of the 343 chemicals (83%) contribute negligibly (less than 0.1%) to overall toxic pressure, and only 60 (17%) need further consideration. PMID:16568772

  20. Cerium-Based, Intermetallic-Strengthened Aluminum Casting Alloy: High-Volume Co-product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, D.; McCall, S. K.; McGuire, M. A.; Ott, R. T.; Geer, Tom; Rios, Orlando; Turchi, P. A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanical properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.

  1. Cerium-Based, Intermetallic-Strengthened Aluminum Casting Alloy: High-Volume Co-product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Zachary C.; Weiss, D.; McCall, S. K.; McGuire, M. A.; Ott, R. T.; Geer, Tom; Rios, Orlando; Turchi, P. A. E.

    2016-05-01

    Several rare earth elements are considered by-products to rare earth mining efforts. By using one of these by-product elements in a high-volume application such as aluminum casting alloys, the supply of more valuable rare earths can be globally stabilized. Stabilizing the global rare earth market will decrease the long-term criticality of other rare earth elements. The low demand for Ce, the most abundant rare earth, contributes to the instability of rare earth extraction. In this article, we discuss a series of intermetallic-strengthened Al alloys that exhibit the potential for new high-volume use of Ce. The castability, structure, and mechanical properties of binary, ternary, and quaternary Al-Ce based alloys are discussed. We have determined Al-Ce based alloys to be highly castable across a broad range of compositions. Nanoscale intermetallics dominate the microstructure and are the theorized source of the high ductility. In addition, room-temperature physical properties appear to be competitive with existing aluminum alloys with extended high-temperature stability of the nanostructured intermetallic.

  2. Electron beam treatment parameters for control of stored product insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleghorn, D. A.; Nablo, S. V.; Ferro, D. N.; Hagstrum, D. W.

    2002-03-01

    The fluidized bed process (EBFB) has been evaluated for the disinfestation of cereal grains. The various life stages from egg to adult have been studied on the 225 kV pilot as a function of surface dose. Three of the most common pests were selected: the rice weevil ( S. oryzae), the lesser grain borer ( R. dominica) and the red flour beetle ( T. castaneum). The major challenge to this process lies in those "protected" life-stages active deeply within the endosperm of the grain kernel. The rice weevil is such an internal feeder in which the larvae develop through several molts during several weeks before pupation and adult emergence. Product velocities up to 2000 m/min have been used for infested hard winter wheat at dose levels up to 1000 Gy. Detailed depth of penetration studies at three life stages of S. oryzae larvae were conducted at 225-700 kV and demonstrated effective mortality at 400 kV×200 Gy. Mortality data are also presented for the radiation labile eggs of these insects as well as the (sterile) adults, which typically lived for several weeks before death. These results are compared with earlier 60Co gamma-ray studies on these same insects. Based upon these studies, the effectiveness of the fluidized bed process employing self-shielded electron beam equipment for insect control in wheat/rice at sub-kilogray dose levels has been demonstrated.

  3. Web-based volume slicer for 3D electron-microscopy data from EMDB

    PubMed Central

    Salavert-Torres, José; Iudin, Andrii; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Kleywegt, Gerard J.; Patwardhan, Ardan

    2016-01-01

    We describe the functionality and design of the Volume slicer – a web-based slice viewer for EMDB entries. This tool uniquely provides the facility to view slices from 3D EM reconstructions along the three orthogonal axes and to rapidly switch between them and navigate through the volume. We have employed multiple rounds of user-experience testing with members of the EM community to ensure that the interface is easy and intuitive to use and the information provided is relevant. The impetus to develop the Volume slicer has been calls from the EM community to provide web-based interactive visualisation of 2D slice data. This would be useful for quick initial checks of the quality of a reconstruction. Again in response to calls from the community, we plan to further develop the Volume slicer into a fully-fledged Volume browser that provides integrated visualisation of EMDB and PDB entries from the molecular to the cellular scale. PMID:26876163

  4. Voyager electronic parts radiation program. Volume 2: Test requirements and procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Documents are presented outlining the conditions and requirements of the test program. The Appendixes are as follows: appendix A -- Electron Simulation Radiation Test Specification for Voyager Electronic Parts and Devices, appendix B -- Electronic Piece-Part Testing Program for Voyager, appendix C -- Test Procedure for Radiation Screening of Voyager Piece Parts, appendix D -- Boeing In Situ Test Fixture, and appendix E -- Irradiate - Anneal (IRAN) Screening Documents.

  5. 30 CFR 210.104 - Must I submit these production reports electronically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT FORMS AND REPORTS Production Reports-Oil and Gas § 210.104 Must I submit these production reports electronically? (a) You must submit Forms MMS-4054 and MMS-4058 electronically unless you... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must I submit these production...

  6. Channeling, volume reflection and gamma emission using 14GeV electrons in bent silicon crystals - Oral presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Brandon

    2015-08-23

    High energy electrons can be deflected with very tight bending radius using a bent silicon crystal. This produces gamma radiation. As these crystals can be thin, a series of bent silicon crystals with alternating direction has the potential to produce coherent gamma radiation with reasonable energy of the driving electron beam. Such an electron crystal undulator offers the prospect for higher energy radiation at lower cost than current methods. Permanent magnetic undulators like LCLS at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory are expensive and very large (about 100 m in case of the LCLS undulator). Silicon crystals are inexpensive and compact when compared to the large magnetic undulators. Additionally, such a high energy coherent light source could be used for probing through materials currently impenetrable by x-rays. In this work we present the experimental data and analysis of experiment T523 conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. We collected the spectrum of gamma ray emission from 14 GeV electrons on a bent silicon crystal counting single photons. We also investigated the dynamics of electron motion in the crystal i.e. processes of channeling and volume reflection at 14 GeV, extending and building off previous work. Our single photon spectrum for the amorphous crystal orientation is consistent with bremsstrahlung radiation and the volume reflection crystal orientation shows a trend consistent with synchrotron radiation at a critical energy of 740 MeV. We observe that in these two cases the data are consistent, but we make no further claims because of statistical limitations. We also extended the known energy range of electron crystal dechanneling length and channeling efficiency to 14 GeV.

  7. Hydrogen negative ion production in a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance compact ion source with a cone-shaped magnetic filter.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, T; Kasuya, T; Kenmotsu, T; Maeno, S; Nishiura, M; Shimozuma, T; Yamaoka, H; Wada, M

    2014-02-01

    The plasma electrode structure of a 14 GHz ECR ion source was modified to enlarge the plasma volume of low electron temperature region. The result shows that the extracted beam current reached about 0.6 mA/cm(2) with about 40 W microwave power. To investigate the correlation between the volume of the low electron temperature region and the H(-) current, a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer had been installed to observe light emission in the VUV wavelength range from the plasma. From the results of the negative ion beam current and that from VUV spectrometry, production rate of vibrationally excited hydrogen molecule seems to be enhanced by increasing the volume of low electron temperature region. PMID:24593572

  8. Hydrogen negative ion production in a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance compact ion source with a cone-shaped magnetic filter

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, T.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.; Kenmotsu, T.; Maeno, S.; Nishiura, M.; Shimozuma, T.; Yamaoka, H.

    2014-02-15

    The plasma electrode structure of a 14 GHz ECR ion source was modified to enlarge the plasma volume of low electron temperature region. The result shows that the extracted beam current reached about 0.6 mA/cm{sup 2} with about 40 W microwave power. To investigate the correlation between the volume of the low electron temperature region and the H{sup −} current, a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrometer had been installed to observe light emission in the VUV wavelength range from the plasma. From the results of the negative ion beam current and that from VUV spectrometry, production rate of vibrationally excited hydrogen molecule seems to be enhanced by increasing the volume of low electron temperature region.

  9. CD uniformity optimization at volume ramp up stage for new product introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Ma, Won-Kwang; Kim, Young-Sik; Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kwon, Won-Taik; Park, Sung-Ki; Nikolsky, Peter; Otter, Marian; Marun, Maryana Escalante; Anunciado, Roy; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Storms, Greet; van West, Ewould

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we describe the joint development and optimization of the critical dimension uniformity (CDU) at an advanced 300 mm ArFi semiconductor facility of SK Hynix in the high volume device. As the ITRS CDU specification shrinks, semiconductor companies still need to maintain high wafer yield and high performance (hence market value) even during the introduction phase of a new product. This cannot be achieved without continuous improvement of the on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for yield improvement. ASML Imaging Optimizer is one of the most efficient tools to reach this goal. This paper presents experimental results of post-etch CDU improvement by ASML imaging optimizer for immature photolithography and etch processes on critical features of 20nm node. We will show that CDU improvement potential and measured CDU strongly depend on CD fingerprint stability through wafers, lots and time. However, significant CDU optimization can still be achieved, even for variable CD fingerprints. In this paper we will review point-to-point correlation of CD fingerprints as one of the main indicators for CDU improvement potential. We will demonstrate the value of this indicator by comparing CD correlation between wafers used for Imaging Optimizer dose recipe development, predicted and measured CDU for wafers and lots exposed with various delays ranging from a few days to a month. This approach to CDU optimization helps to achieve higher yield earlier in the new product introduction cycle, enables faster technology ramps and thereby improves product time to market.

  10. Robert Sylwester on Electronic Media and Brain Development. Windows to the Mind, Volume 2. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    This videotape explores the influence of electronic media on children's cognitive development. Posing the "cyberworld" as both a window to the greater world and a mirror to the students' world, the first part of the video examines electronic media and the brain's response systems. This part notes the brain's two response systems--the cortex, or…

  11. Learner-Centered Instruction (LCI): Volume 1-A. Systems Approach to Electronics Maintenance Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Horace H.

    The report describes the proposed development and evaluation of a learner-centered (LCI) systems approach to electronics maintenance training. An electronics course, appropriate for airmen of various aptitudes, will be prepared to develop proficiency in the specific duties required of a Weapon Control Systems Mechanic/Technician in the F-111A…

  12. Spontaneous and induced radiation by electrons/positrons in natural and photonic crystals. Volume free electron lasers (VFELs): From microwave and optical to X-ray range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshevsky, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous and induced radiation produced by relativistic particles passing through natural and photonic crystals has enhanced capabilities for achieving the radiation sources operating in different wavelength ranges. Use of a non-one-dimensional distributed feedback, arising through Bragg diffraction in spatially periodic systems (natural and artificial (electromagnetic, photonic) crystals), establishes the foundation for the development of volume free electron lasers/masers (VFELs/VFEMs) as well as high-energy charged particle accelerators. The analysis of basic principles of VFEL theory demonstrates the promising potential of VFELs as the basis for the development of high-power microwave and optical sources.

  13. Microwave electron cyclotron electron resonance (ECR) ion source with a large, uniformly distributed, axially symmetric, ECR plasma volume

    DOEpatents

    Alton, Gerald D.

    1996-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source includes a primary mirror coil disposed coaxially around a vacuum vessel in which a plasma is induced and introducing a solenoidal ECR-producing field throughout the length of the vacuum vessel. Radial plasma confinement is provided by a multi-cusp, multi-polar permanent magnet array disposed azimuthally around the vessel and within the primary mirror coil. Axial confinement is provided either by multi-cusp permanent magnets at the opposite axial ends of the vessel, or by secondary mirror coils disposed on opposite sides of the primary coil.

  14. Electron Vortex Production and Control Using Aberration Induced Diffraction Catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, T. C.; Weyland, M.; Paganin, D. M.; Simula, T. P.; Eastwood, S. A.; Morgan, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    An aberration corrected electron microscope is used to create electron diffraction catastrophes, containing arrays of intensity zeros threading vortex cores. Vortices are ascribed to these arrays using catastrophe theory, scalar diffraction integrals, and experimentally retrieved phase maps. From measured wave function phases, obtained using focal-series phase retrieval, the orbital angular momentum density is mapped for highly astigmatic electron probes. We observe vortex rings and topological reconnections of nodal lines by tracking the vortex cores using the retrieved phases.

  15. Fundamentals handbook of electrical and computer engineering. Volume 1 Circuits fields and electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, S. S. L.

    State of the art technology in circuits, fields, and electronics is discussed. The principles and applications of these technologies to industry, digital processing, microwave semiconductors, and computer-aided design are explained. Important concepts and methodologies in mathematics and physics are reviewed, and basic engineering sciences and associated design methods are dealt with, including: circuit theory and the design of magnetic circuits and active filter synthesis; digital signal processing, including FIR and IIR digital filter design; transmission lines, electromagnetic wave propagation and surface acoustic wave devices. Also considered are: electronics technologies, including power electronics, microwave semiconductors, GaAs devices, and magnetic bubble memories; digital circuits and logic design.

  16. Entropy Production and the Pressure–Volume Curve of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Cláudio L. N.; Araújo, Ascânio D.; Bates, Jason H. T.; Andrade, José S.; Suki, Béla

    2016-01-01

    We investigate analytically the production of entropy during a breathing cycle in healthy and diseased lungs. First, we calculate entropy production in healthy lungs by applying the laws of thermodynamics to the well-known transpulmonary pressure–volume (P–V) curves of the lung under the assumption that lung tissue behaves as an entropic spring similar to rubber. The bulk modulus, B, of the lung is also derived from these calculations. Second, we extend this approach to elastic recoil disorders of the lung such as occur in pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. These diseases are characterized by particular alterations in the P–V relationship. For example, in fibrotic lungs B increases monotonically with disease progression, while in emphysema the opposite occurs. These diseases can thus be mimicked simply by making appropriate adjustments to the parameters of the P–V curve. Using Clausius's formalism, we show that entropy production, ΔS, is related to the hysteresis area, ΔA, enclosed by the P–V curve during a breathing cycle, namely, ΔS=ΔA∕T, where T is the body temperature. Although ΔA is highly dependent on the disease, such formula applies to healthy as well as diseased lungs, regardless of the disease stage. Finally, we use an ansatz to predict analytically the entropy produced by the fibrotic and emphysematous lungs. PMID:26973540

  17. Entropy Production and the Pressure-Volume Curve of the Lung.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cláudio L N; Araújo, Ascânio D; Bates, Jason H T; Andrade, José S; Suki, Béla

    2016-01-01

    We investigate analytically the production of entropy during a breathing cycle in healthy and diseased lungs. First, we calculate entropy production in healthy lungs by applying the laws of thermodynamics to the well-known transpulmonary pressure-volume (P-V) curves of the lung under the assumption that lung tissue behaves as an entropic spring similar to rubber. The bulk modulus, B, of the lung is also derived from these calculations. Second, we extend this approach to elastic recoil disorders of the lung such as occur in pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. These diseases are characterized by particular alterations in the P-V relationship. For example, in fibrotic lungs B increases monotonically with disease progression, while in emphysema the opposite occurs. These diseases can thus be mimicked simply by making appropriate adjustments to the parameters of the P-V curve. Using Clausius's formalism, we show that entropy production, ΔS, is related to the hysteresis area, ΔA, enclosed by the P-V curve during a breathing cycle, namely, ΔS=ΔA∕T, where T is the body temperature. Although ΔA is highly dependent on the disease, such formula applies to healthy as well as diseased lungs, regardless of the disease stage. Finally, we use an ansatz to predict analytically the entropy produced by the fibrotic and emphysematous lungs. PMID:26973540

  18. Production of runaway electrons by negative streamer discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanrion, O.; Neubert, T.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we estimate the probability that cold electrons can be accelerated by an ambient electric field into the runaway regime, and discuss the implications for negative streamer formation. The study is motivated by the discovery of ms duration bursts of γ-rays from the atmosphere above thunderstorms, the so-called Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes. The radiation is thought to be bremsstrahlung from energetic (MeV) electrons accelerated in a thunderstorm discharge. The observation goes against conventional wisdom that discharges in air are carried by electrons with energies below a few tens of eV. Instead the relativistic runaway electron discharge has been proposed which requires a lower threshold electric field; however, seed electrons must be born with energies in the runaway regime. In this work we study the fundamental problem of electron acceleration in a conventional discharge and the conditions on the electric field for the acceleration of electrons into the runaway regime. We use particle codes to describe the process of stochastic acceleration and introduce a novel technique that improves the statistics of the relatively few electrons that reach high energies. The calculation of probabilities for electrons to reach energies in the runaway regime shows that even with modest fields, electrons can be energized in negative streamer tips into the runaway regime, creating a beamed distribution in front of the streamer that affects its propagation. The results reported here suggest that theories of negative streamers and spark propagation should be reexamined with an improved characterization of the kinetic effects of electrons.

  19. Hot electron production and heating by hot electrons in fast ignitor research

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M.H.; Estabrook, K.; Hammel, B.

    1997-12-01

    In an experimental study of the physics of fast ignition the characteristics of the hot electron source at laser intensities up to 10(to the 20th power) Wcm{sup -2} and the heating produced at depth by hot electrons have been measured. Efficient generation of hot electrons but less than the anticipated heating have been observed.

  20. Cost Analysis of an Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System in Selected Annual Production Volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Pioneer Engineering and Manufacturing Company estimated the cost of manufacturing and Air Brayton Receiver for a Solar Thermal Electric Power System as designed by the AiResearch Division of the Garrett Corporation. Production costs were estimated at annual volumes of 100; 1,000; 5,000; 10,000; 50,000; 100,000 and 1,000,000 units. These costs included direct labor, direct material and manufacturing burden. A make or buy analysis was made of each part of each volume. At high volumes special fabrication concepts were used to reduce operation cycle times. All costs were estimated at an assumed 100% plant capacity. Economic feasibility determined the level of production at which special concepts were to be introduced. Estimated costs were based on the economics of the last half of 1980. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for ach volume. Infrastructure and personnel requirements were also estimated.

  1. Earth observing system. Output data products and input requirements, version 2.0. Volume 2: Analysis of IDS input requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yun-Chi; Chang, Hyo Duck; Krupp, Brian; Kumar, Ravindra; Swaroop, Anand

    1992-01-01

    On 18 Jan. 1991, NASA confirmed 29 Inter-Disciplinary Science (IDS) teams, each involving a group of investigators, to conduct interdisciplinary research using data products from Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments. These studies are multi-disciplinary and require output data products from multiple EOS instruments, including both FI and PI instruments. The purpose of this volume is to provide information on output products expected from IDS investigators, required input data, and retrieval algorithms. Also included in this volume is the revised analysis of the 'best' and 'alternative' match data products for IDS input requirements. The original analysis presented in the August 1991 release of the SPSO Report was revised to incorporate the restructuring of the EOS platform. As a result of the reduced EOS payload, some of EOS instruments were deselected and their data products would not be available for IDS research. Information on these data products is also presented.

  2. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  3. Investigation of the boundary layer during the transition from volume to surface dominated H- production at the BATMAN test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, C.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.

    2016-02-01

    BATMAN (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative ions) is a test facility equipped with a 1/8 scale H- source for the ITER heating neutral beam injection. Several diagnostics in the boundary layer close to the plasma grid (first grid of the accelerator system) followed the transition from volume to surface dominated H- production starting with a Cs-free, cleaned source and subsequent evaporation of caesium, while the source has been operated at ITER relevant pressure of 0.3 Pa: Langmuir probes are used to determine the plasma potential, optical emission spectroscopy is used to follow the caesiation process, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy allows for the measurement of the H- density. The influence on the plasma during the transition from an electron-ion plasma towards an ion-ion plasma, in which negative hydrogen ions become the dominant negatively charged particle species, is seen in a strong increase of the H- density combined with a reduction of the plasma potential. A clear correlation of the extracted current densities (jH-, je) exists with the Cs emission.

  4. Investigation of the boundary layer during the transition from volume to surface dominated H⁻ production at the BATMAN test facility.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, C; Schiesko, L; Fantz, U

    2016-02-01

    BATMAN (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative ions) is a test facility equipped with a 18 scale H(-) source for the ITER heating neutral beam injection. Several diagnostics in the boundary layer close to the plasma grid (first grid of the accelerator system) followed the transition from volume to surface dominated H(-) production starting with a Cs-free, cleaned source and subsequent evaporation of caesium, while the source has been operated at ITER relevant pressure of 0.3 Pa: Langmuir probes are used to determine the plasma potential, optical emission spectroscopy is used to follow the caesiation process, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy allows for the measurement of the H(-) density. The influence on the plasma during the transition from an electron-ion plasma towards an ion-ion plasma, in which negative hydrogen ions become the dominant negatively charged particle species, is seen in a strong increase of the H(-) density combined with a reduction of the plasma potential. A clear correlation of the extracted current densities (j(H(-)), j(e)) exists with the Cs emission. PMID:26932038

  5. 21 CFR 1004.3 - Plans for the replacement of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plans for the replacement of electronic products. 1004.3 Section 1004.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS §...

  6. 21 CFR 1004.1 - Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS §...

  7. 21 CFR 1004.2 - Plans for the repair of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plans for the repair of electronic products. 1004.2 Section 1004.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS §...

  8. 21 CFR 1004.3 - Plans for the replacement of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plans for the replacement of electronic products. 1004.3 Section 1004.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS § 1004.3 Plans for the replacement of...

  9. 21 CFR 1004.2 - Plans for the repair of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plans for the repair of electronic products. 1004.2 Section 1004.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS §...

  10. 21 CFR 1004.4 - Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products. 1004.4 Section 1004.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS §...

  11. 21 CFR 1004.4 - Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products. 1004.4 Section 1004.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS § 1004.4 Plans for refunding the cost...

  12. 21 CFR 1004.3 - Plans for the replacement of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plans for the replacement of electronic products. 1004.3 Section 1004.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS §...

  13. 21 CFR 1004.4 - Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products. 1004.4 Section 1004.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS §...

  14. 21 CFR 1004.2 - Plans for the repair of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plans for the repair of electronic products. 1004.2 Section 1004.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS §...

  15. 21 CFR 1004.4 - Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products. 1004.4 Section 1004.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS §...

  16. 21 CFR 1004.4 - Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Plans for refunding the cost of electronic products. 1004.4 Section 1004.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS §...

  17. 21 CFR 1004.3 - Plans for the replacement of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plans for the replacement of electronic products. 1004.3 Section 1004.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS §...

  18. 21 CFR 1004.2 - Plans for the repair of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Plans for the repair of electronic products. 1004.2 Section 1004.2 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS §...

  19. 21 CFR 1004.3 - Plans for the replacement of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plans for the replacement of electronic products. 1004.3 Section 1004.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR REPLACEMENT OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS §...

  20. 77 FR 31876 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Properties Holdings, Inc. of New Rochelle, New York (``GPH''). 77 FR 21584 (April 10, 2012). The complaint... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not To... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing the same by reason...

  1. Impact of electron-beam irradiation on free-volume related microstructural properties of PVA:NaBr polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismayil; Vasachar, Ravindrachary; Bhajantri, Rajashekhar F.; Dhola, Praveena S.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Sodium Bromide doped Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA:NaBr, 80:20) polymer composite films were prepared using a solution casting method. These films were subjected to 8 MeV electron beam radiation at a dose of up to 300 kGy in air at room temperature. The free volume related microstructural and electrical properties of these irradiated films were studied using various characterization methods, such as positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and AC & DC conductivity measurement techniques. The variations in the positron lifetime data indicate that the free-volume related properties of the doped polymer are affected by irradiation. From the results, it is found that at lower doses, a cross-linking network provides hopping sites for Na+ ions, and at higher doses, the chain-scission process facilitates ionic transport through segmental motion. Thus, the free volume around the polymer chain leads to mobility of the ions as well as the polymer segments and hence contributes to the enhancement of conductivity.

  2. An Electronic Version of the Second Volume of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars with Improved Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samus', N. N.; Goranskii, V. P.; Durlevich, O. V.; Zharova, A. V.; Kazarovets, E. V.; Kireeva, N. N.; Pastukhova, E. N.; Williams, D. B.; Hazen, M. L.

    2003-07-01

    We present a new electronic version of the second volume of the fourth edition of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS), which contains data on 13 480 variable stars in the constellations Cygnus-Orion (the order of constellations in the Catalogue follows the Latin alphabet). The new version takes into account the Name Lists of Variable Stars from no. 67 to 76 for the same constellations. The main distinctive feature of the new version is that it contains improved equatorial J2000.0 coordinates for 13 446 stars (including those for 5052 stars with an allowance made for proper motions), based on the identifications with positional catalogs using finding charts, as well as on our new measurements. We searched for a number of stars on original plates from the collections of several observatories and using digital sky survey images. The new version also includes a file of remarks to the second and third GCVS volumes. Apart from a complete update of the positional information, we took into account several corrections that were found to be necessary after the publication of the second GCVS volume (1985). We present a list of references to new Internet resources.

  3. Materials Science and Technology, Volume 4, Electronic Structure and Properties of Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Wolfgang

    1996-12-01

    This volume spans the field of semiconductor physics, with particular emphasis on concepts relevant to semiconductor technology. From the Contents: Lannoo: Band Theory Applied to Semiconductors. Ulbrich: Optical Properties and Charge Transport. Watkins: Intrinsic Point Defects in Semiconductors. Feichtinger: Deep Centers in Semiconductors. Gösele/Tan: Equilibria, Nonequilibria, Diffusion, and Precipitation. Alexander/Teichler: Dislocations. Thibault/Rouvière/Bourret: Grain Boundaries in Semiconductors. Ourmazd/Hull/Tung: Interfaces. Chang: The Hall Effect in Quantum Wires. Street/Winer: Material Properties of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon. Schröter/Seibt/Gilles: High-Temperature Properties of 3d Transition Elements in Silicon.

  4. Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G. P.; Filippi, F.; Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Ferrario, M.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10-100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10-100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC_LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.

  5. Variable volume fed-batch fermentation for nisin production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis W28.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhaoliang; Wang, Lin; Jing, Yingjun; Li, Xueliang; Zhao, Yanli

    2009-03-01

    A feeding technology that was suitable for improving the nisin production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis W28 was established. The effects of initial sucrose concentration (ISC) in the fermentation broth, feeding time, and feeding rate on the fermentation were studied. It was observed that a fed-batch culture (ISC = 10 g l(-1)) with 100 ml sucrose solution (190 g l(-1)) being evenly fed (9-10 ml h(-1)) into the fermenter after 3-h fermentation gave the best performance in terms of biomass and nisin yield. Under these conditions, the total biomass and the total nisin yield were approximately 23% and 51% higher than those in batch fermentation, respectively. When the sucrose concentration was controlled at 5-10 g l(-1) in variable volume intermittent fed-batch fermentation (VVIF) with ISC = 10 g l(-1), the total biomass and the total nisin yield were 29% and 60% above those in batch fermentation, respectively. The VVIF proved to be effective to eliminate the substrate inhibition by maintaining sucrose at appropriate levels. It is also easy to be scaled up, since various parameters involved in industrial production were taken into account. PMID:18712289

  6. Implementation of tank volume measurement equipment at the Mayak Production Association

    SciTech Connect

    Darenskikh, O.; Suda, S.C.; Valente, J.U.; Zuhoski, P.B.; Salwen, C.A.

    1997-12-31

    One goal of the United States Russia Cooperative program to improve nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) in Russian facilities is to computerize material accounting techniques for bulk materials. Such materials include liquid solutions at radiochemical plants: dissolver, intermediate product, and waste. Material accounting techniques for tank volume measurements (TVM) are needed to determine the nuclear material content of these solutions (chemical and isotopic analysis are also required). The content is required to close the material balance in a radiochemical plant. Computerization of these techniques can provide unattended measurements of material flows, improved precision and accuracy, reduced operator effort, and lower radiation exposure of operators--with equipment that is predominantly remote from high radiation areas. This paper describes the technical activities that contributed to the successful integration of the TVM system, developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), into the Mayak Production Association radiochemical plant conducted under the US/Russian cooperative MPC and A Program. US assistance with installation and adjustment of the instrumentation was completed in May 1997. After that, Mayak experts on measurement and metrology continued mastering and testing the equipment.

  7. Concentrating-collector mass-production feasibility. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-02

    The Performance Prototype Trough (PPT) Concentrating Collector consists of four 80-foot modules in a 320-foot row. The collector was analyzed, including cost estimates and manufacturing processes to produce collectors in volumes from 100 to 100,000 modules per year. The four different reflector concepts considered were the sandwich reflector structure, sheet metal reflector structure, molded reflector structure, and glass laminate structure. The sheet metal and glass laminate structures are emphasized with their related structure concepts. A preliminary manufacturing plan is offered that includes: documentation of the manufacturing process with production flow diagrams; labor and material costs at various production levels; machinery and equipment requirements including preliminary design specifications; and capital investment costs for a new plant. Of five reflector designs considered, the two judged best and considered at length are thin annealed glass and steel laminate on steel frame panel and thermally sagged glass. Also discussed are market considerations, costing and selling price estimates, design cost analysis and make/buy analysis. (LEW)

  8. The Survey of College Marketing Programs. Volume III: Electronic Advertising and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primary Research Group, Inc., New York, NY.

    This report presents 203 tables detailing findings concerning the use of electronic advertising within marketing programs at 68 colleges and universities. Highlights of this report include: colleges in the sample enroll a mean of 5,450 students; 5.6 percent of the colleges produce a CD-ROM version of the viewbook; 39.7 percent enable applicants to…

  9. Innovative point focus solar concentrator: Volume 5, Electronic controls and electrical interface; Phase 1 topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1986-03-07

    This report discusses the following electronic equipment for the solar collector: LEC-1700 electrical control system; LEC-1700 controller; hand-held remote control unit; communications interface controller; RS-232C to CIC interface card; audio interface card; communications interface controller backplane; wiring harness; and ac power controller.

  10. Instructional Strategies Using Low-Cost Simulation for Electronic Maintenance. Volume II: Appendices. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Elmo E.

    As a companion to a research report describing the evaluation of a simulation-style instructional package for training in electronic equipment maintenance, this appendix includes: (1) a copy of the instructor's lesson plan; (2) a handout on power supply procedure; (3) samples of troubleshooting simulations; (4) instructor recording forms; (5)…

  11. Thematic mapper flight model preshipment review data package. Volume 4: Appendix. Part E: Electronics module data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Tests to verify the as-designed performance of all circuits within the thematic mapper electronics module unit are described. Specifically, the tests involved the evaluation of the scan line corrector driver, shutter drivers function, cal lamp controller function, post amplifier function, command decoder verification unit, and the temperature and actuator controllers function.

  12. Applications of on-product diffraction-based focus metrology in logic high volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, Ben F.; Mokaberi, Babak; Bolton, David; Li, Chen; Palande, Ashwin; Park, Kevin; Noot, Marc; Kea, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The integration of on-product diffraction-based focus (DBF) capability into the majority of immersion lithography layers in leading edge logic manufacturing has enabled new applications targeted towards improving cycle time and yield. A CD-based detection method is the process of record (POR) for excursion detection. The drawback of this method is increased cycle time and limited sampling due to CD-SEM metrology capacity constraints. The DBFbased method allows the addition of focus metrology samples to the existing overlay measurements on the integrated metrology (IM) system. The result enables the addition of measured focus to the SPC system, allowing a faster excursion detection method. For focus targeting, the current method involves using a dedicated focus-exposure matrix (FEM) on all scanners, resulting in lengthy analysis times and uncertainty in the best focus. The DBF method allows the measurement to occur on the IM system, on a regular production wafer, and at the same time as the exposure. This results in a cycle time gain as well as a less subjective determination of best focus. A third application aims to use the novel onproduct focus metrology data in order to apply per-exposure focus corrections to the scanner. These corrections are particularly effective at the edge of the wafer, where systematic layer-dependent effects can be removed using DBFbased scanner feedback. This paper will discuss the development of a methodology to accomplish each of these applications in a high-volume production environment. The new focus metrology method, sampling schemes, feedback mechanisms and analysis methods lead to improved focus control, as well as earlier detection of failures.

  13. On the production of N(+) by energetic electrons. [in auroral zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, P. G.; Torr, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Calculations of the ratio of N(+) to total N2 ion production for auroral electrons which give a value of 0.16 compared to the value of 0.22 that has been assumed in a recent publication is presented. The corresponding ratio for photoelectron production is 0.05, which makes photoelectron production of N(+) negligible compared to photodissociative production. The ratio of 3914-A to total ion production is found to be 0.07 for auroral electrons and a similar 0.06 for photoelectrons. The 3371-A ratio to total N2 ion production is 0.09. This calculation also reveals that the secondary electrons in auroras, with energies less than 100 eV, produce only about one third of the total number of ions produced. Only one quarter of the N(+) ions are created by secondary electrons.

  14. Production and delivery of a fluid mixture to an annular volume of a wellbore

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Bland, Ronald Gene; Foley, Ron Lee; Bloys, James B.; Gonzalez, Manuel E.; Daniel, John M.; Robinson, Ian M.; Carpenter, Robert B.

    2012-01-24

    The methods described herein generally relate to preparing and delivering a fluid mixture to a confined volume, specifically an annular volume located between two concentrically oriented casing strings within a hydrocarbon fluid producing well. The fluid mixtures disclosed herein are useful in controlling pressure in localized volumes. The fluid mixtures comprise at least one polymerizable monomer and at least one inhibitor. The processes and methods disclosed herein allow the fluid mixture to be stored, shipped and/or injected into localized volumes, for example, an annular volume defined by concentric well casing strings.

  15. Modeling electron dynamics coupled to continuum states in finite volumes with absorbing boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Giovannini, Umberto; Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Rubio, Angel

    2015-03-01

    Absorbing boundaries are frequently employed in real-time propagation of the Schrödinger equation to remove spurious reflections and efficiently emulate outgoing boundary conditions. These conditions are a fundamental ingredient for the calculation of observables involving infinitely extended continuum states in finite volumes. In the literature, several boundary absorbers have been proposed. They mostly fall into three main families: mask function absorbers, complex absorbing potentials, and exterior complex-scaled potentials. To date none of the proposed absorbers is perfect, and all present a certain degree of reflections. Characterization of such reflections is thus a critical task with strong implications for time-dependent simulations of atoms and molecules. We introduce a method to evaluate the reflection properties of a given absorber and present a comparison of selected samples for each family of absorbers. Further, we discuss the connections between members of each family and show how the same reflection curves can be obtained with very different absorption schemes.

  16. Proceedings: 11th International Symposium on use and management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, S.S.; Blackstock, T.H.; Hunger, J.; Marshall, A.

    1995-01-01

    Topics discussed at the llth symposium on Coal Combuston By-Products (CCB) use and management included fundamental CCB use research, product marketing, applied research, CCB management and the environment, and commercial uses. There is a continuing, international research interest in CCB use because of the prospects of avoiding disposal costs and generating revenue from CCB sales. Volume One contains the following sections on: Agriculture; beneficiation of ash; clean coal by-products; concrete; and fillers and manufactured products. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Operation of a DC large aperture volume-production H sup minus source

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, J.W.; Ackerman, G.D.; Anderson, O.A.; Chan, C.F.; Cooper, W.S.; deVries, G.J.; Leung, K.N.; Lietzke, A.F.; Steele, W.F.

    1989-04-01

    In testing a multicusp volume-production H{sup {minus}} ion source (20 cm diameter, 23 cm long), we optimized the gas pressure, the plasma electrode bias potential and the magnetic filter. At the optimum pressure of 9 mT, the H{sup {minus}} beam output increased linearly with discharge power. The maximum H{sup {minus}} beam, measured with a current transformer downstream of the accelerator, was 100 mA while using a 6.67 cm{sup 2} aperture. Presently we are limited by overheating of the cathodes by the plasma ions. Under similar discharge conditions the maximum H{sup {minus}} current density was found to vary as a{sup {minus}0.7} where a is the aperture radius. Results from emittance measurements showed that the effective H{sup {minus}} ion temperature increased with a for a {gt} 0.8 cm. Thus the brightness of the beam decreased with increasing aperture radius. Operating the source with cesium would increase the H{sup {minus}} output however our accelerator must be improved to avoid breakdowns caused by the cesium contamination. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Animal Use and Lessons Learned in the U.S. High Production Volume Chemicals Challenge Program

    PubMed Central

    Manuppello, Joseph R.; Willett, Catherine E.; Sandler, Jessica T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Launched by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1998, the High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program was developed to address the perceived gap in basic hazard information for the 2,800 chemicals produced or imported into the United States in quantities of ≥ 1 million pounds per year. Health and environmental effects data obtained from either existing information or through new vertebrate animal testing were voluntarily submitted by chemical companies (sponsors) to the U.S. EPA. Despite the potential for extensive animal testing, animal welfare guidelines were not provided until after the start of the program. Objectives: We evaluated compliance with the animal welfare principles that arose from an agreement reached between the U.S. EPA and animal protection organizations and tracked the HPV program’s use of animals for testing. Discussion: Under a worst-case scenario, the HPV program had the potential to consume 3.5 million animals in new testing. After application of animal-saving measures, approximately 127,000 were actually used. Categorization of chemicals based on similar structure–activity and application of read-across, along with use of existing test data, were the most effective means of reducing animal testing. However, animal-saving measures were inconsistently used by both sponsors and the U.S. EPA. Conclusions: Lessons learned from the HPV program can be applied to future programs to minimize animal testing and promote more human-relevant chemical risk assessment. PMID:23033452

  19. Production of a large diameter hot-electron plasma by electron cyclotron resonance heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Y.; Sakamoto, K.

    1982-05-01

    A large diameter hot-electron plasma is produced by electron cyclotron resonance heating, using a slotted Lisitano coil as a launcher. It is found from detailed measurements of the plasma parameters that n/sub e/< or approx. =3 x 10/sup 11/ cm/sup -3/ and T/sub e/< or approx. =40 eV, with a diameter roughly-equal14 cm. High-energy tails with temperatures of more than 100 eV are observed.

  20. Production of a large diameter hot-electron plasma by electron cyclotron resonance heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Y.; Sakamoto, K.

    1982-05-01

    A large diameter hot-electron plasma is produced by electron cyclotron resonance heating, using a slotted Lisitano coil as a launcher. It is found from detailed measurements of the plasma parameters that ne≲3×1011 cm-3 and Te≲40 eV, with a diameter ≊14 cm. High-energy tails with temperatures of more than 100 eV are observed.

  1. 30 CFR 1210.104 - Must I submit these production reports electronically?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Must I submit these production reports electronically? 1210.104 Section 1210.104 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE FORMS AND REPORTS Production Reports-Oil and Gas § 1210.104 Must I submit these production...

  2. Effects of production and loss of electrons on HF Doppler radar measurements of vertical plasma drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaya, A. S.; Nayar, S. R. P.; Rao, P. B.

    1993-04-01

    The measurements of vertical plasma drifts at magnetic equator using HF Doppler radar include contributions due to production and loss of electrons and also due to the equatorial electric field. From the computation of the electron density profiles, the temporal variation of electron density changes has been studied and the contribution of production and loss of electrons to the vertical plasma drift measurements using HF Doppler radar during daytime has been evaluated. The evaluation of vertical drifts has been made for different conditions of the ionosphere and for different zenith angles.

  3. Production of a sub-10 fs electron beam with 107 electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jang-Hui

    2011-05-01

    We study the possibility to produce a 1.6 pC electron beam (107 electrons) with a bunch length of less than 10 fs and a beam energy of a few MeV. Such a short, relativistic beam will be useful for an electron diffraction experiment with a 10 fs time resolution. An electron beam with 107 electrons will allow a single-shot experiment with a laser pulse pump and an electron beam probe. In this design, an S-band photocathode gun is used for generating and accelerating a beam and a buncher consisting of two S-band four-cell cavities is used for temporally compressing the beam. Focusing solenoids control the beam transverse divergence and size at the sample. Numerical optimization is carried out to achieve a beam with a 4 fs full-width-at-half-maximum length, a 26 microradian root-mean-square divergence, and a 2 nm transverse coherence length at a 3.24 MeV beam energy. When state-of-the-art rf stability is considered, beam arrival time jitter at the sample is calculated to be about 10 fs.

  4. Melt production in large-scale impact events: Calculations of impact-melt volumes and crater scaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Grieve, Richard A. F.

    1992-01-01

    Along with an apparent convergence in estimates of impact-melt volumes produced during planetary impact events, intensive efforts at deriving scaling relationships for crater dimensions have also yielded results. It is now possible to examine a variety of phenomena associated with impact-melt production during large cratering events and apply them to planetary problems. This contribution describes a method of combining calculations of impact-melt production with crater scaling to investigate the relationship between the two.

  5. Positron Production Using a Laser-Wakefield Electron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. Jackson; Albert, Felicie; Chen, Hui; Park, Jaebum; Pollock, Bradley

    2014-10-01

    Positron generation using wakefield-accelerated electrons driven into a second mm-scale target was investigated using the Callisto Laser at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This technique is in contrast to previous experiments that use direct laser-target interactions to create positron-electron pairs, and has the potential to make laser-produced positron sources widely available to smaller scale laboratories. Monte Carlo simulations show a near-collimated (<10 mrad) wakefield electron beam produces a positron beam with a significantly larger divergence angle (>100 mrad) due to multiple small angle coulomb scattering, resulting in an emitted pair density of 1013 particles/cm3. At the Callisto Laser, we did not observe a signal consistent with positrons using two different charged particle spectrometers. This could be due to a high noise environment and a large detection threshold. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the LLNL LDRD program under tracking code 13-LW-076 and 12-ERD-062.

  6. 40 CFR 799.5085 - Chemical testing requirements for first group of high production volume chemicals (HPV1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical testing requirements for first group of high production volume chemicals (HPV1). 799.5085 Section 799.5085 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND...

  7. 40 CFR 799.5087 - Chemical testing requirements for second group of high production volume chemicals (HPV2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical testing requirements for second group of high production volume chemicals (HPV2). 799.5087 Section 799.5087 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND...

  8. 40 CFR 799.5089 - Chemical testing requirements for third group of high production volume chemicals (HPV3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical testing requirements for third group of high production volume chemicals (HPV3). 799.5089 Section 799.5089 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND...

  9. 77 FR 28340 - Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for One High Production Volume Chemical Substance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... High Production Volume Chemicals; Final Rule. Federal Register (71 FR 13708, March 16, 2006) (FRL-7335... significant regulatory action under Executive Order 12866, entitled ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' (58 FR... Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks'' (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997), and Executive Order 13211,...

  10. Commercial and Cost Effective Production of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Woody, Craig

    2009-03-31

    The nuclear and high energy physics research community is constantly searching for new and improved tracking and radiation detectors. The introduction of micropattern detectors has opened new opportunities for improving the rate capabilities, as well as the spatial and time resolution of particle detectors in these applications. GEM detectors in particular have received enormous interest for use in detectors planned for a number of new and upgraded experiments at many different research facilities. These include both the STAR and PHENIX experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, experiments at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and at the future electron-positron Linear Collider. At the present time, CERN is not able to supply foils in sufficient quantities to accommodate the needs of these experiments. Compounding this problem, there is a strong interest in GEM foils for numerous other applications, such as in astrophysics, medical imaging and detectors for homeland security. It would therefore be of significant benefit to the research community to develop a commercial source of GEM foils for all of these applications. Tech-Etch is in a unique position to develop this technology for commercial use. Tech-Etch has not only experience in numerous related high precision etched Kapton® products, but it also has strong ties with several research institutions (namely Brookhaven, Yale and MIT) that can help develop and evaluate the performance of the GEM foils produced at Tech-Etch. Additionally, since Tech-Etch is a small company, it also has the capability to produce a large variety of part configurations, as well as the flexibility to shift production methods, equipment, and chemistry to optimize the GEM foil manufacturing process without being constrained by existing work running on high volume continuous coil equipment.

  11. Commercial and cost effective production of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Crary, David

    2010-05-05

    The nuclear and high energy physics research community is constantly searching for new and improved tracking and radiation detectors. The introduction of micropattern detectors has opened new opportunities for improving the rate capabilities, as well as the spatial and time resolution of particle detectors in these applications. GEM detectors in particular have received enormous interest for use in detectors planned for a number of new and upgraded experiments at many different research facilities. These include both the STAR and PHENIX experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, experiments at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and at the future electron-positron Linear Collider. At the present time, CERN is not able to supply foils in sufficient quantities to accommodate the needs of these experiments. Compounding this problem, there is a strong interest in GEM foils for numerous other applications, such as in astrophysics, medical imaging and detectors for homeland security. It would therefore be of significant benefit to the research community to develop a commercial source of GEM foils for all of these applications. Tech-Etch is in a unique position to develop this technology for commercial use. Tech-Etch has not only experience in numerous related high precision etched Kapton® products, but it also has strong ties with several research institutions (namely Brookhaven, Yale and MIT) that can help develop and evaluate the performance of the GEM foils produced at Tech-Etch. Additionally, since Tech-Etch is a small company, it also has the capability to produce a large variety of part configurations, as well as the flexibility to shift production methods, equipment, and chemistry to optimize the GEM foil manufacturing process without being constrained by existing work running on high volume continuous coil equipment.

  12. Production of relativistic electron bunch with tunable current distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Sun, Y.-E.; Rihaoui, M.; /Northern Illinois U. /NICADD, DeKalb

    2008-11-01

    We propose a novel method for tailoring the current distribution of relativistic electron bunches. The technique relies on a recently proposed transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange. The bunch is transversely shaped and the phase space exchange mechanism converts this transverse profile into a current profile. The technique provides a tool for generating arbitrary current profiles in a tunable fashion.We demonstrate, via computer simulations, the method and its application to tailor specific current profiles such as, e.g., linearly ramped profiles and train of femtosecond micro-bunches that have application in plasma and dielectric wakefield accelerators.

  13. Production of Relativistic Electron Bunch with Tunable Current Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Sun, Y.-E; Rihaoui, M.

    2009-01-22

    We proposed a novel method for tailoring the current distribution of relativistic electron bunches. The technique relies on a recently proposed transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange. The bunch is transversely shaped and the phase space exchange mechanism converts this transverse profile into a current profile. The technique provides a tool for generating arbitrary current profiles in a tunable fashion. We demonstrate, via computer simulations, the method and its application to tailor specific current profiles such as, e.g., linearly ramped profiles and train of femtosecond micro-bunches that have application in plasma and dielectric wakefield accelerators.

  14. EIA directory of electronic products, Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    EIA makes available for public use a series of machine-readable data files and computer models on magnetic tapes. Selected data files/models are also available on diskette for IBM-compatible personal computers. For each product listed in this directory, a detailed abstract is provided which describes the data published. Ordering information is given in the preface. Indexes are included.

  15. Laser plasma acceleration of electrons: Towards the production of monoenergetic beams

    SciTech Connect

    Krushelnick, K.; Najmudin, Z.; Mangles, S.P.D.; Thomas, A.G.R.; Wei, M.S.; Walton, B.; Gopal, A.; Clark, E.L.; Dangor, A.E.; Fritzler, S.; Murphy, C.D.; Norreys, P.A.; Mori, W.B.; Gallacher, J.; Jaroszynski, D.; Viskup, R.

    2005-05-15

    The interaction of high intensity laser pulses with underdense plasma is investigated experimentally using a range of laser parameters and energetic electron production mechanisms are compared. It is clear that the physics of these interactions changes significantly depending not only on the interaction intensity but also on the laser pulse length. For high intensity laser interactions in the picosecond pulse duration regime the production of energetic electrons is highly correlated with the production of plasma waves. However as intensities are increased the peak electron acceleration increases beyond that which can be produced from single stage plasma wave acceleration and direct laser acceleration mechanisms must be invoked. If, alternatively, the pulse length is reduced such that it approaches the plasma period of a relativistic electron plasma wave, high power interactions can be shown to enable the generation of quasimonoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons.

  16. An Effect of Levels of Learning Ability and Types of Feedback in Electronic Portfolio on Learning Achievement of Students in Electronic Media Production for Education Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koraneekij, Prakob

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study an effect of levels of learning ability and types of feedback in an electronic portfolio on learning achievement of students in electronic media production for education subject. The samples were 113 students registered in Electronic Media Production for Education Subject divided into 6 groups : 3 control…

  17. MERCURY REDUCTION IN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrical and electronics industries have significantly reduced the amount of mercury from various products and processes. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectronic properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some...

  18. MERCURY REDUCTION IN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrical and electronics industries have significantly reduced the amount of mercury from various products and processes. owever, the unique electromechanical and photoelectronic properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some ...

  19. Printing versus coating - What will be the future production technology for printed electronics?

    SciTech Connect

    Glawe, Andrea; Eggerath, Daniel; Schäfer, Frank

    2015-02-17

    The market of Large Area Organic Printed Electronics is developing rapidly to increase efficiency and quality as well as to lower costs further. Applications for OPV, OLED, RFID and compact Printed Electronic systems are increasing. In order to make the final products more affordable, but at the same time highly accurate, Roll to Roll (R2R) production on flexible transparent polymer substrates is the way forward. There are numerous printing and coating technologies suitable depending on the design, the product application and the chemical process technology. Mainly the product design (size, pattern, repeatability) defines the application technology.

  20. Printing versus coating - What will be the future production technology for printed electronics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glawe, Andrea; Eggerath, Daniel; Schäfer, Frank

    2015-02-01

    The market of Large Area Organic Printed Electronics is developing rapidly to increase efficiency and quality as well as to lower costs further. Applications for OPV, OLED, RFID and compact Printed Electronic systems are increasing. In order to make the final products more affordable, but at the same time highly accurate, Roll to Roll (R2R) production on flexible transparent polymer substrates is the way forward. There are numerous printing and coating technologies suitable depending on the design, the product application and the chemical process technology. Mainly the product design (size, pattern, repeatability) defines the application technology.

  1. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    PubMed Central

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications. PMID:26883390

  2. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  3. EIA directory of electronic products fourth quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-23

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) makes available for public use a series of machine-readable data files and computer models. The data files and models are made available to the public on magnetic tapes. In addition, selected data files/models are available on diskette for IBM-compatible personal computers. For each product listed in this directory, a detailed abstract is provided which describes the data published.

  4. 77 FR 5275 - Used Electronic Products: An Examination of U.S. Exports; Institution of Investigation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... primary data collected through a survey of enterprises engaged in exporting used electronic products from... or electronic means only to the extent permitted by section 201.8 of the rules (see Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures,...

  5. Photoneutron production in electron beam stop for dual-axis radiographic hydrotest facility (DARHT)

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Brown, T.H.; Little, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    A beam stop design for an electron linear accelerator was analyzed from the perspective of photoneutron production and subsequent dose. Sophisticated nuclear data modeling codes were used to generate the photoneutron production cross sections and spectra that were then used in MCNP transport calculations. The resulting neutron dose exceeded limits for workers present in the experimental area while the accelerators are producing electron beam pulses. Therefore, the beam stop was redesigned to limit doses to acceptable values, consistent with the ALARA philosophy.

  6. 78 FR 22899 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication Functionality and Products... the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices having placeshifting... Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, 19 CFR 210.10 (2012). Scope of Investigation: Having...

  7. The Screening Effect in Electromagnetic Production of Electron Positron Pairs in Relativistic Nucleus-Atom Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jianshi; Derrickson, J. H.; Parnell, T. A.; Strayer, M. R.

    1999-01-01

    We study the screening effects of the atomic electrons in the electromagnetic production of electron-positron pairs in relativistic nucleus-atom collisions for fixed target experiments. Our results are contrasted with those obtained in bare collisions, with particular attention given to its dependence on the beam energy and the target atom.

  8. 21 CFR 14.120 - Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Establishment of the Technical Electronic Product Radiation Safety Standards Committee (TEPRSSC). 14.120 Section 14.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING BEFORE A PUBLIC ADVISORY COMMITTEE Technical Electronic...

  9. EIA directory of electronic products, first quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) makes available for public use a series of machine-readable data files and computer models. The data files and models are made available to the public on magnetic tapes. In addition, selected data files/models are available on diskette for IBM-compatible personal computers. EIA, as the independent statistical and analytical branch of the Department of Energy, provides assistance to the general public through the National Energy Information Center (NEIC). For each product listed in this directory, a detailed abstract is provided which describes the data published. Specific technical questions may be referred to the appropriate contact person.

  10. Novel transparent electrodes allow sustainable production of electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Constant, Kristen

    2010-12-27

    A novel technique for fabricating inexpensive, transparent electrodes from common metals has been developed by engineers and scientists at Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory. They exhibit very high transparency and are very good electrical conductors. This is a combination of properties that is difficult to achieve with common materials. The most frequently used transparent electrode in today's high-technology devices (such as LCD screens) is indium tin oxide (ITO). While ITO performs well in these applications, the supply of indium is very limited. In addition, it is rapidly decreasing as consumer demand for flat-panel electronics is skyrocketing. According to a 2004 US Geological Survey report, as little as 14 years exploitation of known indium reserves remains. In addition to increasing prices, the dwindling supply of indium suggests its use is not sustainable for future generations of electronics enthusiasts. Solar cells represent another application where transparent electrodes are used. To make solar-energy collection economically feasible, all parts of solar photovoltaics must be made more efficient and cost-effective. Our novel transparent electrodes have the potential to do both. In addition, there is much interest in developing more efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly lighting. Incandescent light bulbs are very inefficient, because most of their energy consumption is wasted as heat. Fluorescent lighting is much more efficient but still uses mercury, an environmental toxin. An attractive alternative is offered by LEDs, which have very high efficiencies and long lifetimes, and do not contain mercury. If made bright enough, LED use for general lighting could provide a viable alternative. We have fabricated electrodes from more commonly available materials, using a technique that is cost effective and environmentally friendly. Most of today's electronic devices are made in specialized facilities equipped with low

  11. STATE-OF-THE-ART: MILITARY EXPLOSIVES AND PROPELLANTS PRODUCTION INDUSTRY. VOLUME III. WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study has surveyed the military explosives and propellant manufacturing industry, covering both 'GOGO' and 'GOCO' facilities. Sources of wastewater, volumes, and pollutant constituents have been reported where such data existed. Treatment technology currently in use at the v...

  12. STATE-OF-THE-ART: MILITARY EXPLOSIVES AND PROPELLANTS PRODUCTION INDUSTRY. VOLUME II. WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study has surveyed the military explosives and propellant manufacturing industry, covering both 'GOGO' and 'GOGO' facilities. Sources of wastewater, volumes, and pollutant constituents have been reported where such data existed. Treatment technology currently in use at the v...

  13. [Effect of C/N ratio on nitrous oxide production during denitrification with different electron acceptors].

    PubMed

    Shang, Hui-Lai; Peng, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Jing-Rong; Wang, Shu-Ying

    2009-07-15

    The experiment investigated the nitrous oxide production under different C/N ratios during denitrification, taking nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptor respectively. Ethanol was selected as carbon source. The C/N ratios were 0, 1.2, 2.4, 3.5, 5.0 and 20 when nitrate was taken as electron acceptor and C/N ratios 0, 1.8, 2.4, 3.0, 4.3, 5.2, 6.6, 20.6 when electron acceptor was nitrite. The results indicated that: the optimum C/N ratio was 3.0 taking nitrite as electron acceptor and the N2O production was 0.044 mg x L(-1); the optimum C/N ratio was 5.0 taking nitrate as electron acceptor and the N2O production was 0.135 mg x L(-1) which was 3 times higher than that of nitrite as electron acceptor. Though the electron acceptor changed, the trend of N2O production was similar: when carbon source was badly insufficient, the production of N2O and denitrification rate were both quite small; the N2O production increased with the increasing of the quantity of carbon source; when the carbon source was excessive, the N2O production sharply raised. Consequently, compared to complete nitrification and denitrification, short-cut nitrification and denitrification could save 40% carbon source. Moreover, controlling C/N = 3 could reduce the production of N2O in short-cut nitrification. PMID:19775000

  14. 30 CFR 1202.551 - How do I determine the volume of production for which I must pay royalty if my lease is not in an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I determine the volume of production for which I must pay royalty if my lease is not in an approved Federal unit or communitization agreement... How do I determine the volume of production for which I must pay royalty if my lease is not in...

  15. 30 CFR 1202.551 - How do I determine the volume of production for which I must pay royalty if my lease is not in an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I determine the volume of production for which I must pay royalty if my lease is not in an approved Federal unit or communitization agreement... determine the volume of production for which I must pay royalty if my lease is not in an approved...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Consumer Products and Certain High-Volume...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Consumer Products and Certain High-Volume Commercial Equipment A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 429 Energy...—Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Consumer Products and Certain High-Volume...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Consumer Products and Certain High-Volume...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Consumer Products and Certain High-Volume Commercial Equipment A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 429 Energy...—Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Consumer Products and Certain High-Volume...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Consumer Products and Certain High-Volume...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Consumer Products and Certain High-Volume Commercial Equipment A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 429 Energy...—Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Consumer Products and Certain High-Volume...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Equipment and Certain Low-Volume Covered Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Equipment and Certain Low-Volume Covered Products B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 429 Energy DEPARTMENT OF...—Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Equipment and Certain Low-Volume Covered Products...

  20. 30 CFR 1202.551 - How do I determine the volume of production for which I must pay royalty if my lease is not in an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I determine the volume of production for which I must pay royalty if my lease is not in an approved Federal unit or communitization agreement... determine the volume of production for which I must pay royalty if my lease is not in an approved...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Equipment and Certain Low-Volume Covered Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Equipment and Certain Low-Volume Covered Products B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 429 Energy DEPARTMENT OF...—Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Equipment and Certain Low-Volume Covered Products...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Equipment and Certain Low-Volume Covered Products

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Equipment and Certain Low-Volume Covered Products B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 429 Energy DEPARTMENT OF...—Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Equipment and Certain Low-Volume Covered Products...

  3. Influence of complex impact of the picosecond electron beam and volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air on the electronic properties of MCT epitaxial films surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, Denis V.; Novikov, Vadim A.; Bezrodnyy, Dmitriy A.; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shulepov, Michail A.; Dvoretskii, Sergei A.

    2015-12-01

    In the present report we studied the distribution of surface potential of the HgCdTe epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy after the impact of picosecond electron beam and volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air. The surface potential distribution was studied by the Kelvin Force Probe Microscopy. The experimental data obtained for the variation of the contact potential difference (ΔCPD) between the V-defect and the main matrix of the epitaxial film. The investigation of the origin epitaxial films show that variation of the spatial distribution of surface potential in the V-defect region can be related to the variation of the material composition. The experimental data obtained for the irradiated samples show that the mean value of ΔCPD for the original surface differs from the one for the irradiated surface for 55 eV. At the same time the mean value of ΔCPD changes its sign indicating that the original surface of the epitaxial HgCdTe film predominantly contains the grains with increased cadmium content while after the irradiation the grains possess an increased content of mercury. Therefore, during the irradiation process a decrease of the mercury content in the near-surface region of the semiconductor takes place resulting in the alteration of the electrophysical properties in the films near-surface region.

  4. Control and reduction of immersion defectivity for yield enhancement at high volume production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Katsushi; Seki, Rei; Sekito, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Masato; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Owa, Soichi

    2009-03-01

    Volume device manufacturing using immersion lithography is widely accepted as the solution for patterning IC features below 40 nm half pitch. In order to ensure high yield and steady productivity tight control of defectivity is essential. A major source of defects and tool contamination is the particles introduced by incoming wafers. Particles can be categorized in two groups: particles attached to wafer surface or residues on the wafer edge. Surface or edge peeling of topcoats can also be a source of particle. Adhesion force between topcoat or topcoat-less (TC-less) resist and wafer is one of the most important parameter for particle reduction. Peeling test results proved that TC-less resist has better adhesion performance than topcoat. One of the most commonly used adhesion promoting material is hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). Application condition of this material is an important factor in preventing wafer edge and surface topcoat peeling. Studies have shown lower temperature and longer application of HMDS shows better adhesion result. Maintaining a clean wafer surface is also a very important factor for particle reduction. Pre-rinse, which can rinse off particles before exposure, was evaluated and the efficiency was confirmed. Edge particles are more effectively reduced by pre-rinse, because weakly attached topcoat and wafer edge residues were effectively removed by pre-rinse. For further particle reduction, edge residue reduction and cut line roughness improvement were evaluated and their effectiveness was confirmed. Lower cut position achieved improved particle counts on both topcoat and TC-less resist; more frequent contact between water and cut-line can weaken the adhesion and consequently peel off topcoat or TC-less resist. Finally the relationship between defectivity and hydrophobicity is analyzed, high Receding Contact Angle (RCA) showed better defectivity result. Topcoat and TC-less process is compared for each defectivity reduction methodology and for

  5. Earth observing system. Output data products and input requirements, version 2.0. Volume 3: Algorithm summary tables and non-EOS data products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yun-Chi; Chang, Hyo Duck; Krupp, Brian; Kumar, Ravindar; Swaroop, Anand

    1992-01-01

    Volume 3 assists Earth Observing System (EOS) investigators in locating required non-EOS data products by identifying their non-EOS input requirements and providing the information on data sets available at various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's), including those from Pathfinder Activities and Earth Probes. Volume 3 is intended to complement, not to duplicate, the the EOSDIS Science Data Plan (SDP) by providing detailed data set information which was not presented in the SDP. Section 9 of this volume discusses the algorithm summary tables containing information on retrieval algorithms, expected outputs and required input data. Section 10 describes the non-EOS input requirements of instrument teams and IDS investigators. Also described are the current and future data holdings of the original seven DAACS and data products planned from the future missions and projects including Earth Probes and Pathfinder Activities. Section 11 describes source of information used in compiling data set information presented in this volume. A list of data set attributes used to describe various data sets is presented in section 12 along with their descriptions. Finally, Section 13 presents the SPSO's future plan to improve this report .

  6. Assessing the risks of trace gases that can modify the stratosphere. Volume 6. Technical support documentation production projections

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.S.

    1987-12-01

    This document is one of a series that examines the human health, environmental, and atmospheric risks associated with a decrease in stratospheric ozone. This volume includes reports on: Probabilistic projections of chlorofluorocarbon consumption; Scenarios of chlorofluorocarbon use: 1985-2075; Product uses and market trends for potential ozone depleting substance 1985-2000; and An analytic method for constructing scenarios from a subjective joint possibility distribution.

  7. A study of Channeling, Volume Reflection and Volume Capture of 3.35 - 14.0 GeV Electrons in a bent Silicon Crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Wistisen, T. N.; Uggerhoj, U. I.; Wienands, U.; Markiewicz, T. W.; Noble, R. J.; Benson, B. L.; Smith, T.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Holtzapple, R.; Tucker, S.

    2015-12-03

    We present the experimental data and analysis of experiments conducted at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory investigating the processes of channeling, volume-reflection and volume-capture along the (111) plane in a strongly bent quasi-mosaic silicon crystal. Additionally, these phenomena were investigated at 5 energies: 3.35, 4.2, 6.3, 10.5 and 14.0 GeV with a crystal with bending radius of 0.15m, corresponding to curvatures of 0.070, 0.088, 0.13, 0.22 and 0.29 times the critical curvature respectively. We have extracted important parameters describing the channeling process such as the dechanneling length, the angle of volume reflection, the surface transmission and the widths of the distribution of channeled particles parallel and orthogonal to the plane.

  8. Phytoplankton Productivity in an Arctic Fjord (West Greenland): Estimating Electron Requirements for Carbon Fixation and Oxygen Production

    PubMed Central

    Hancke, Kasper; Dalsgaard, Tage; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Markager, Stiig; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification of pelagic primary production is essential for quantifying the marine carbon turnover and the energy supply to the food web. Knowing the electron requirement (Κ) for carbon (C) fixation (ΚC) and oxygen (O2) production (ΚO2), variable fluorescence has the potential to quantify primary production in microalgae, and hereby increasing spatial and temporal resolution of measurements compared to traditional methods. Here we quantify ΚC and ΚO2 through measures of Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry, C fixation and O2 production in an Arctic fjord (Godthåbsfjorden, W Greenland). Through short- (2h) and long-term (24h) experiments, rates of electron transfer (ETRPSII), C fixation and/or O2 production were quantified and compared. Absolute rates of ETR were derived by accounting for Photosystem II light absorption and spectral light composition. Two-hour incubations revealed a linear relationship between ETRPSII and gross 14C fixation (R2 = 0.81) during light-limited photosynthesis, giving a ΚC of 7.6 ± 0.6 (mean ± S.E.) mol é (mol C)−1. Diel net rates also demonstrated a linear relationship between ETRPSII and C fixation giving a ΚC of 11.2 ± 1.3 mol é (mol C)−1 (R2 = 0.86). For net O2 production the electron requirement was lower than for net C fixation giving 6.5 ± 0.9 mol é (mol O2)−1 (R2 = 0.94). This, however, still is an electron requirement 1.6 times higher than the theoretical minimum for O2 production [i.e. 4 mol é (mol O2)−1]. The discrepancy is explained by respiratory activity and non-photochemical electron requirements and the variability is discussed. In conclusion, the bio-optical method and derived electron requirement support conversion of ETR to units of C or O2, paving the road for improved spatial and temporal resolution of primary production estimates. PMID:26218096

  9. Automated transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM) for large volume analysis at nanoscale resolution.

    PubMed

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M; Lindsey, Laurence F; Harris, Kristen M

    2013-01-01

    Transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM) on a field emission SEM platform was developed for efficient and cost-effective imaging of circuit-scale volumes from brain at nanoscale resolution. Image area was maximized while optimizing the resolution and dynamic range necessary for discriminating key subcellular structures, such as small axonal, dendritic and glial processes, synapses, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, microtubules, polyribosomes, and endosomes which are critical for neuronal function. Individual image fields from the tSEM system were up to 4,295 µm(2) (65.54 µm per side) at 2 nm pixel size, contrasting with image fields from a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM) system, which were only 66.59 µm(2) (8.160 µm per side) at the same pixel size. The tSEM produced outstanding images and had reduced distortion and drift relative to TEM. Automated stage and scan control in tSEM easily provided unattended serial section imaging and montaging. Lens and scan properties on both TEM and SEM platforms revealed no significant nonlinear distortions within a central field of ∼100 µm(2) and produced near-perfect image registration across serial sections using the computational elastic alignment tool in Fiji/TrakEM2 software, and reliable geometric measurements from RECONSTRUCT™ or Fiji/TrakEM2 software. Axial resolution limits the analysis of small structures contained within a section (∼45 nm). Since this new tSEM is non-destructive, objects within a section can be explored at finer axial resolution in TEM tomography with current methods. Future development of tSEM tomography promises thinner axial resolution producing nearly isotropic voxels and should provide within-section analyses of structures without changing platforms. Brain was the test system given our interest in synaptic connectivity and plasticity; however, the new tSEM system is readily applicable to other biological systems. PMID:23555711

  10. Research and development study for optimization of beryllium production operations. Task II report. Volume 1. Recommendations for subscale demonstration models

    SciTech Connect

    Zuehlke, J.R.

    1983-04-01

    The eleven evaluation reports in this Task II, Volume 1 report, are the results of a comprehensive literature search and study of new concepts or alternatives for beryllium metal production, currently available in industry today. Modifications to the current beryllium metal production process were also studied. Three processes were selected for in-depth evaluation and comparison to the current process with proposed improvements: sodium reduction of beryllium chloride to produce metallic beryllium; modified Hall process for beryllium flake; and electrowinning of beryllium chloride to produce metallic beryllium.

  11. Vacuum-thermal-evaporation: the route for roll-to-roll production of large-area organic electronic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. M.

    2015-05-01

    Surprisingly little consideration is apparently being given to vacuum-evaporation as the route for the roll-to-roll (R2R) production of large-area organic electronic circuits. While considerable progress has been made by combining silicon lithographic approaches with solution processing, it is not obvious that these will be compatible with a low-cost, high-speed R2R process. Most efforts at achieving this ambition are directed at conventional solution printing approaches such as inkjet and gravure. This is surprising considering that vacuum-evaporation of organic semiconductors (OSCs) is already used commercially in the production of organic light emitting diode displays. Beginning from a discussion of the materials and geometrical parameters determining transistor performance and drawing on results from numerous publications, this review makes a case for vacuum-evaporation as an enabler of R2R organic circuit production. The potential of the vacuum route is benchmarked against solution approaches and found to be highly competitive. For example, evaporated small molecules tend to have higher mobility than printed OSCs. High resolution metal patterning on plastic films is already a low-cost commercial process for high-volume packaging applications. Similarly, solvent-free flash-evaporation and polymerization of thin films on plastic substrates is also a high-volume commercial process and has been shown capable of producing robust gate dielectrics. Reports of basic logic circuit elements produced in a vacuum R2R environment are reviewed and shown to be superior to all-solution printing approaches. Finally, the main issues that need to be resolved in order to fully develop the vacuum route to R2R circuit production are highlighted.

  12. Study of the value of information and the effect on value of intermediary organizations, timeliness of services and products, and comprehensiveness of the EDB. Volume 1, Volume 2, and Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.W.; Griffiths, J.M.; Sweet, E.A.; Wiederkehr, R.R.V.; Roderer, N.K.

    1984-09-01

    A previous study demonstrated that energy information has substantial value when considered from the standpoints of amount of use, purposes of use, and value measured by what users are willing to pay for the information and the savings in labor, equipment, etc., derived from use of the information. Furthermore, energy information services and products derived from the Energy Data Base clearly contribute greatly to the value of energy information by making it more accessible and, therefore, more usable. The purpose of this study was to determine what contribution intermediary information transfer organizations such as libraries and information analysis centers make to the value of information. Also, other factors such as timeliness of primary publishing and distribution and comprehensiveness of the Energy Data Base were considered to be important as well. The results are presented in 3 sections (volumes). Volume 1 gives an analysis of the value of the services provided by libraries. The library study estimated the value of library services (in terms of willingness to pay and savings). It also provided the relationships of the use of library services and factors such as performance attributes (i.e., quality and timeliness of services), distance to the library, awareness of services and economics of library use. Volume 2 gives results of a study of two software Information Analysis Centers and the value of software that is attributable to the centers. Volume 3 provides an analysis of the value of the timeliness and comprehensiveness of the Energy Data Base. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each section for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  13. Seed electron production from O{sup -} ions under high-power microwave excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Edmiston, G. F.; Neuber, A. A.; Krompholz, H. G.; Krile, J. T.

    2008-03-15

    Surface and volume breakdown formation during pulsed high-power microwave (HPM) excitation can severely limit the power densities which can be transmitted into an atmospheric medium. Recent studies in this area have focused on developing models which accurately predict flashover formation at either dielectric/air interfaces or in the gas volume directly adjacent to these interfaces. These models are typically validated through comparison with experimentally gathered data. With respect to HPM surface flashover, experiments in the S-band at 5 MW power levels have reported on the contributing factors to flashover development including the effects of gas type, pressure, and relative humidity. A Monte Carlo-type electron motion simulation code, MC, has been developed to calculate the increasing electron density during flashover formation in this case. Results from the MC code have exhibited a quantitative agreement with experimental data over a wide range of atmospheric conditions. A critical parameter to flashover development is the stochastic process involving the appearance of initiatory or ''seed'' electrons, as seen by the reduction in flashover delay time by approximately 10-20% in the presence of external ultraviolet illumination. While the current version of the MC code seeds the flashover location with electron densities on the order of background ion densities produced by cosmic radiation, it fails to incorporate the field-assisted collisional detachment processes which are often assumed to be the primary origin of these electrons on the time scales of interest. Investigation of these processes and development of more accurate seeding in the MC code is a key step toward predicting HPM flashover over a wide range of parameters, particularly in the presence of highly electronegative gases such as SF{sub 6} or O{sub 2}, in which there is an absence of free electrons with zero applied field.

  14. (47)Ca production for (47)Ca/(47)Sc generator system using electron linacs.

    PubMed

    Rane, Shraddha; Harris, Jason T; Starovoitova, Valeriia N

    2015-03-01

    In this work we have studied the feasibility of photonuclear production of (47)Ca from (48)Ca for (47)Ca/(47)Sc generators. Photon flux distribution for electron beams of different energies incident on a tungsten converter was calculated using the MCNPX radiation transport code. The (47)Ca production rate dependence on electron beam energy was found and (47)Ca/(47)Sc yields were estimated for a 40MeV electron beam. It was shown that irradiating enriched targets with a 40MeV, 1mA beam will result in tens of MBq g(-1) (few mCi g(-1)) activity of (47)Sc. The results of the simulations were benchmarked by irradiating 22.5g of CaCl2 powder with a 39MeV electron beam incident on a tungsten converter. Measured (47)Ca/(47)Sc activities were found to be in very good agreement with the predictions. PMID:25600103

  15. Production decline analysis for a multi-fractured horizontal well considering elliptical reservoir stimulated volumes in shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mingqiang; Duan, Yonggang; Fang, Quantang; Zhang, Tiantian

    2016-06-01

    Multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs) are an effective technique for developing shale gas reservoirs. After fracturing, stimulated reservoir volumes (SRVs) invariably exist around the wellbore. In this paper, a composite elliptical SRV model for each hydraulic fracturing stage is established, based on micro-seismic events. Both the SRV and the outer regions are assumed as single-porosity media with different formation physical parameters. Based on unstructured perpendicular bisection (PEBI) grids, a mathematical model considering Darcy flow, diffusion and adsorption/desorption in shale gas reservoirs is presented. The numerical solution is obtained by combining the control volume finite element method with the fully implicit method. The model is verified by a simplified model solution. The MFHW Blasingame production decline curves, which consider elliptical SRVs in shale gas reservoirs, are plotted by computer programming. The flow regions can be divided into five flow regimes: early formation linear flow, radial flow in the SRV region, transient flow, pseudo radial flow and boundary dominated flow. Finally, the effect of six related parameters, including the SRV area size, outer region permeability, SRV region permeability, Langmuir pressure, Langmuir volume and diffusion coefficient, are analyzed on type curves. The model presented in this paper can expand our understanding of MFHW production decline behaviors in shale gas reservoirs and can be applied to estimate reservoir properties, the SRV area, and reserves in these types of reservoirs by type curve matching.

  16. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 2: Technical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A technical analysis on the feasibility of commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is presented. The method of obtaining pharmaceutical company involvement, laboratory results of the separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process, the selection and study of candidate products, and their production requirements is described. The candidate products are antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon. Production mass balances for antihemophelic factor, beta cells, and erythropoietin were compared for space versus ground operation. A conceptual description of a multiproduct processing system for space operation is discussed. Production requirements for epidermal growth factor of alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon are presented.

  17. Pair production and electron capture in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. J.; Mullan, J. V.; McCann, J. F.; Crothers, D. S.

    2001-06-01

    Results are presented for simulations of electron-positron pair production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions leading to electron capture and positron ejection. We apply a two-center relativistic continuum distorted-wave model to represent the electron or positron dynamics during the collision process. The results are compared with experimental cross-section data for La57+ and Au79+ impact on gold, silver, and copper targets. The theory is in good agreement with experiment for La57+ impact, verifying the result that the process increases in importance with both collision energy and target atomic number, and improves upon previous simulations of this process.

  18. Studies of slow-positron production using low-energy primary electron beams.

    SciTech Connect

    Lessner, E.

    1999-04-20

    Slow-positron beams produced from negative-work-function solid-state moderators have found numerous applications in condensed matter physics. There are potential advantages in using low-energy primary electron beams for positron production, including reduced radiation damage to single-crystal moderators and reduced activation of nearby components. We present numerical calculations of positron yields and other beam parameters for various target-moderator configurations using the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) [1] and Advanced Photon Source (APS) [2] electron linacs [3] as examples of sources for the primary electron beams. The status of experiments at these facilities is reviewed.

  19. Resonance mechanism of the production of electron-positron pairs in a strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Rumyantsev, D. A.

    2013-12-15

    The Compton-like process γe{sup ±} → e{sup ±}e{sup +}e{sup −} involving the production of an electron-positron pair in the interaction of an ultrarelativistic electron with a soft x-ray photon in the vicinity of the polar cap of a magnetar is considered. It is shown that the amplitude for this reaction has a resonance character. A simple analytic expression is obtained for the electron-absorption coefficient. Possible astrophysical implications of the resonance process γe{sup ±} → e{sup ±}e{sup +}e{sup −} are discussed.

  20. Electron dynamics and γ and e-e+ production by colliding laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirka, M.; Klimo, O.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Gelfer, E.; Bulanov, S. S.; Weber, S.; Korn, G.

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of an electron bunch irradiated by two focused colliding super-intense laser pulses and the resulting γ and e-e+ production are studied. Due to attractors of electron dynamics in a standing wave created by colliding pulses the photon emission and pair production, in general, are more efficient with linearly polarized pulses than with circularly polarized ones. The dependence of the key parameters on the laser intensity and wavelength allows us to identify the conditions for the cascade development and γ e-e+ plasma creation.

  1. Electron dynamics and γ and e^{-}e^{+} production by colliding laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Jirka, M; Klimo, O; Bulanov, S V; Esirkepov, T Zh; Gelfer, E; Bulanov, S S; Weber, S; Korn, G

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of an electron bunch irradiated by two focused colliding super-intense laser pulses and the resulting γ and e^{-}e^{+} production are studied. Due to attractors of electron dynamics in a standing wave created by colliding pulses the photon emission and pair production, in general, are more efficient with linearly polarized pulses than with circularly polarized ones. The dependence of the key parameters on the laser intensity and wavelength allows us to identify the conditions for the cascade development and γe^{-}e^{+} plasma creation. PMID:26986432

  2. Extracellular electron transfer from cathode to microbes: application for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Choi, Okkyoung; Sang, Byoung-In

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer in microorganisms has been applied for bioelectrochemical synthesis utilizing microbes to catalyze anodic and/or cathodic biochemical reactions. Anodic reactions (electron transfer from microbe to anode) are used for current production and cathodic reactions (electron transfer from cathode to microbe) have recently been applied for current consumption for valuable biochemical production. The extensively studied exoelectrogenic bacteria Shewanella and Geobacter showed that both directions for electron transfer would be possible. It was proposed that gram-positive bacteria, in the absence of cytochrome C, would accept electrons using a cascade of membrane-bound complexes such as membrane-bound Fe-S proteins, oxidoreductase, and periplasmic enzymes. Modification of the cathode with the addition of positive charged species such as chitosan or with an increase of the interfacial area using a porous three-dimensional scaffold electrode led to increased current consumption. The extracellular electron transfer from the cathode to the microbe could catalyze various bioelectrochemical reductions. Electrofermentation used electrons from the cathode as reducing power to produce more reduced compounds such as alcohols than acids, shifting the metabolic pathway. Electrofuel could be generated through artificial photosynthesis using electrical energy instead of solar energy in the process of carbon fixation. PMID:26788124

  3. Environmental, scanning electron and optical microscope image analysis software for determining volume and occupied area of solid-state fermentation fungal cultures.

    PubMed

    Osma, Johann F; Toca-Herrera, José L; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a software for the estimation of the occupied area and volume of fungal cultures. This software was developed using a Matlab platform and allows analysis of high-definition images from optical, electronic or atomic force microscopes. In a first step, a single hypha grown on potato dextrose agar was monitored using optical microscopy to estimate the change in occupied area and volume. Weight measurements were carried out to compare them with the estimated volume, revealing a slight difference of less than 1.5%. Similarly, samples from two different solid-state fermentation cultures were analyzed using images from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an environmental SEM (ESEM). Occupied area and volume were calculated for both samples, and the results obtained were correlated with the dry weight of the cultures. The difference between the estimated volume ratio and the dry weight ratio of the two cultures showed a difference of 10%. Therefore, this software is a promising non-invasive technique to determine fungal biomass in solid-state cultures. PMID:21154435

  4. Dissociative Ionization and Product Distributions of Benzene and Pyridine by Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Huo, Winifred M.; Fletcher, Graham D.

    2003-01-01

    We report a theoretical study of the dissociative ionization (DI) and product distributions of benzene (C6H6) and pyridine (C5H5N) from their low-lying ionization channels. Our approach makes use of the fact that electronic motion is much faster than nuclear motion allowing DI to be treated as a two-step process. The first step is the electron-impact ionization resulting in an ion with the same nuclear geometry as the neutral molecule. In the second step, the nuclei relax from the initial geometry and undergo unimolecular dissociation. For the ionization process we use the improved binary-encounter dipole (iBED) model [W.M. Huo, Phys. Rev. A64,042719-I (2001)]. For the unimolecular dissociation, we use multiconfigurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) methods to determine the steepest descent pathways to the possible product channels. More accurate methods are then used to obtain better energetics of the paths which are used to determine unimolecular dissociation probabilities and product distributions. Our analysis of the dissociation products and the thresholds of their productions for benzene are compared with the recent dissociative photoionization meausurements of benzene by Feng et al. [R. Feng, G. Cooper, C.E. Brion, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 123,211 (2002)] and the dissociative photoionization measurements of pyridine by Tixier et al. [S. Tixier, G. Cooper, R. Feng, C.E. Brion, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 123,185 (2002)] using dipole (e,e+ion) coincidence spectroscopy.

  5. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of the commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is examined. The method of obtaining pharmaceutical company involvement, laboratory results of the separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process, the selection and study of candidate products, and their production requirements is presented. Antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon were studied. Production mass balances for antihemophilic factor, beta cells, and erythropoietin were compared for space verus ground operation.

  6. The GLAS Standard Data Products Specification--Level 2, Version 9. Volume 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the primary instrument for the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry mission. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. From 2003 to 2009, the ICESat mission provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance as well as cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. It also provided topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.This document defines the Level-2 GLAS standard data products. This document addresses the data flow, interfaces, record and data formats associated with the GLAS Level 2 standard data products. The term standard data products refers to those EOS instrument data that are routinely generated for public distribution. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSDIC) distribute these products. Each data product has a unique Product Identification code assigned by the Senior Project Scientist. The Level 2 Standard Data Products specifically include those derived geophysical data values (i.e., ice sheet elevation, cloud height, vegetation height, etc.). Additionally, the appropriate correction elements used to transform the Level 1A and Level 1B Data Products into Level 2 Data Products are included. The data are packaged with time tags, precision orbit location coordinates, and data quality and usage flags.

  7. Guide for preparing annual reports on radiation-safety testing of electronic products (general)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    For manufacturers of electronic products other than those for which a specific guide has been issued, the guide replaces the Guide for the Filing of Annual Reports (21 CFR Subchapter J, Section 1002.11), HHS Publication FDA 82-8127. The electronic product (general) annual reporting guide is applicable to the following products: products intended to produce x radiation (accelerators, analytical devices, therapy x-ray machines); microwave diathermy machines; cold-cathode discharge tubes; and vacuum switches and tubes operating at or above 15,000 volts. To carry out its responsibilities under Public Law 90-602, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) has issued a series of regulations contained in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Part 1002 of 21 CFR deals with records and reports. Section 1002.61 categorizes electronic products into Groups A through C. Section 1002.30 requires manufacturers of products in Groups B and C to establish and maintain certain records, while Section 1002.11 requires such manufacturers to submit an Annual Report summarizing the contents of the required records. Section 1002.7 requires that reports conform to reporting guides issued by CDRH unless an acceptable justification for an alternate format is provided.

  8. Introduction to Poultry Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 31, Number 3 [and] Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Katherine

    This packet contains both teacher and student materials for a unit on poultry production in vocational agriculture courses and covers the following lessons: (1) overview of the poultry industry; (2) selection and evaluation; (3) production; (4) reproduction; (5) health issues; and (6) processing and marketing. The lessons include the following…

  9. Proceedings: 11th International Symposium on use and management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, S.S.; Blackstock, T.H.; Hunger, J.; Marshall, A.

    1995-01-01

    Topics discussed at the llth symposium on CCB use and management included fundamental CCB use research, product marketing, applied research, CCB management and the environment, and commercial uses. There is a continuing, international research interest in CCB use because of the prospects of avoiding disposal costs and generating revenue from CCB sales. Volume two contains the following sections on: Flowable fill; handling systems and equipment; international and regional perspectives; manufactured aggregate; mine reclamation; physical and chemical properties; structural fill and stabilized base; and waste management. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. 78 FR 34393 - Electronic Submission of Tobacco Product Applications and Other Information; Public Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... for Tobacco Products (CTP), is announcing a 1-day workshop to obtain public input on topics related to... development and implementation of an electronic submission standard for CTP. FDA is also opening a public... limitations. Onsite registration on the day of the workshop will be based on space availability. CTP plans...

  11. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat... for certain meat, poultry, and egg products through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). ACE is... INFORMATION: I. Background The Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the...

  12. 21 CFR 1004.1 - Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR...

  13. 21 CFR 1004.1 - Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR...

  14. 21 CFR 1004.1 - Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR...

  15. 21 CFR 1004.1 - Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturer's obligation to repair, replace, or refund cost of electronic products. 1004.1 Section 1004.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH REPURCHASE, REPAIRS, OR...

  16. PowerCore{trademark}, NiMH production prototype for portable electronics. Quarterly report R02

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, P.C.

    1998-01-30

    The objective of this project is to build a production prototype of Power Core structural battery for applications as a hard case for portable electronic devices. The reports summarizes the work completed since the last report. It briefly describes the problems that were experienced. It also gives details of progress versus statement of work task definitions.

  17. 78 FR 18234 - Service of Process on Manufacturers; Manufacturers Importing Electronic Products Into the United...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Administration (FDA) is amending a final rule that appeared in the Federal Register of April 9, 2007 (72 FR 17397... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...; Manufacturers Importing Electronic Products Into the United States; Agent Designation; Change of Address...

  18. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... bank's needs for banking purposes include: (1) Data processing services; (2) Production and... line communications services; and (7) Electronic imaging and storage. (d) A national bank may sell to..., including the following: (1) Due to the characteristics of the desired equipment or facilities available...

  19. On the effect of time-dependent inhomogeneous magnetic fields in electron-positron pair production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlfürst, Christian; Alkofer, Reinhard

    2016-05-01

    Electron-positron pair production in space- and time-dependent electromagnetic fields is investigated. Especially, the influence of a time-dependent, inhomogeneous magnetic field on the particle momenta and the total particle yield is analyzed for the first time. The role of the Lorentz invariant E2 -B2, including its sign and local values, in the pair creation process is emphasized.

  20. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-6 - Noncertified and certified electronic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Noncertified and certified electronic products. 101-42.1102-6 Section 101-42.1102-6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 42-UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL...

  1. Managing the Licensing of Electronic Products. SPEC Kit 248 and SPEC Flyer 248.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soete, George J., Comp.; Davis, Trisha, Comp.

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit and Flyer reports results of a survey that examined how ARL (Association of Research Libraries) member libraries have organized the licensing of electronic products and how they approach the associated problems. Forty-four of the 122 ARL member libraries responded to the survey. Results are…

  2. The reaction product of hydrogen and electro-refined plutonium observed by in situ electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brierley, M.; Knowles, J. P.; Preuss, M.

    2016-02-01

    Electro-refined plutonium was reacted with hydrogen within the preparation chamber of a Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope and in situ images were obtained. The plutonium hydride reaction product was observed to have precipitated at the oxide metal interface as angular particulates (ca 2 μm in length) and was also present within micro cracks intersecting the surface.

  3. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... distribution of non-financial software; (3) Providing periodic back-up call answering services; (4) Providing... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  4. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... distribution of non-financial software; (3) Providing periodic back-up call answering services; (4) Providing... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  5. Bound-free electron-positron pair production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Senguel, M. Y.; Gueclue, M. C.; Fritzsche, S.

    2009-10-15

    The bound-free electron-positron pair production is considered for relativistic heavy ion collisions. In particular, cross sections are calculated for the pair production with the simultaneous capture of the electron into the 1s ground state of one of the ions and for energies that are relevant for the relativistic heavy ion collider and the large hadron colliders. In the framework of perturbation theory, we applied Monte Carlo integration techniques to compute the lowest-order Feynman diagrams amplitudes by using Darwin wave functions for the bound states of the electrons and Sommerfeld-Maue wave functions for the continuum states of the positrons. Calculations were performed especially for the collision of Au+Au at 100 GeV/nucleon and Pb+Pb at 3400 GeV/nucleon.

  6. Dissociation of CH4 by electron impact: Production of metastable hydrogen and carbon fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, T. G.; Carnahan, B. L.; Zipf, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    Metastable fragments produced by electron impact excitation of CH4 have been investigated for incident electron energies from threshold to 300 eV. Only metastable hydrogen and carbon atoms were observed. Onset energies for the production of metastable hydrogen atoms were observed at electron impact energies of 22.0 + or - .5 eV, 25.5 + or - .6 eV, 36.7 + or - .6 eV and 66 + or - 3 eV, and at 26.6 + or - .6 eV for the production of metastable carbon atoms. Most of the fragments appear to have been formed in high-lying Rydberg states. The total metastable hydrogen cross section reaches a maximum value of approximately 1 X 10 to the minus 18th power sq cm at 100 eV. At the same energy, the metastable carbon cross section is 2 x 10 to the minus 19th power sq cm.

  7. Electron transfer pathways of formate-driven H2 production in Desulfovibrio.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mónica; Mourato, Cláudia; Morais-Silva, Fabio O; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Voordouw, Gerrit; Wall, Judy D; Pereira, Inês A C

    2016-09-01

    The potential of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) as biocatalysts for H2 production from formate was recently demonstrated, but the electron transfer pathways involved were not described. In the present work, we analyzed the H2 production capacity of five Desulfovibrio strains: Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfovibrio alaskensis, Desulfovibrio fructosivorans, and Desulfovibrio gigas. D. vulgaris showed the highest H2 productivity (865 mL Lmedium (-1)), and D. gigas the lowest one (374 mL Lmedium (-1) of H2). The electron transfer pathways involved in formate-driven H2 production by these two organisms were further investigated through the study of deletion mutants of hydrogenases (Hases) and formate dehydrogenases (Fdhs). In D. vulgaris, the periplasmic FdhAB is the key enzyme for formate oxidation and two pathways are apparently involved in the production of H2 from formate: a direct one only involving periplasmic enzymes and a second one that involves transmembrane electron transfer and may allow energy conservation. In the presence of selenium, the Hys [NiFeSe] Hase is the main periplasmic enzyme responsible for H2 production, and the cytoplasmic Coo Hase is apparently involved in the ability of D. vulgaris to grow by converting formate to H2, in sparging conditions. Contrary to D. vulgaris, H2 production in D. gigas occurs exclusively by the direct periplasmic route and does not involve the single cytoplasmic Hase, Ech. This is the first report of the metabolic pathways involved in formate metabolism in the absence of sulfate in SRB, revealing that the electron transfer pathways are species-specific. PMID:27270746

  8. Design and production of 3D printed bolus for electron radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Su, Shiqin; Moran, Kathryn; Robar, James L

    2014-01-01

    This is a proof-of-concept study demonstrating the capacity for modulated electron radiation therapy (MERT) dose distributions using 3D printed bolus. Previous reports have involved bolus design using an electron pencil beam model and fabrication using a milling machine. In this study, an in-house algorithm is presented that optimizes the dose distribution with regard to dose coverage, conformity, and homogeneity within the planning target volume (PTV). The algorithm takes advantage of a commercial electron Monte Carlo dose calculation and uses the calculated result as input. Distances along ray lines from the distal side of 90% isodose line to distal surface of the PTV are used to estimate the bolus thickness. Inhomogeneities within the calculation volume are accounted for using the coefficient of equivalent thickness method. Several regional modulation operators are applied to improve the dose coverage and uniformity. The process is iterated (usually twice) until an acceptable MERT plan is realized, and the final bolus is printed using solid polylactic acid. The method is evaluated with regular geometric phantoms, anthropomorphic phantoms, and a clinical rhabdomyosarcoma pediatric case. In all cases the dose conformity are improved compared to that with uniform bolus. For geometric phantoms with air or bone inhomogeneities, the dose homogeneity is markedly improved. The actual printed boluses conform well to the surface of complex anthropomorphic phantoms. The correspondence of the dose distribution between the calculated synthetic bolus and the actual manufactured bolus is shown. For the rhabdomyosarcoma patient, the MERT plan yields a reduction of mean dose by 38.2% in left kidney relative to uniform bolus. MERT using 3D printed bolus appears to be a practical, low-cost approach to generating optimized bolus for electron therapy. The method is effective in improving conformity of the prescription isodose surface and in sparing immediately adjacent normal

  9. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  10. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 3: Package evaluation, modification and hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The software package evaluation was designed to analyze commercially available, field-proven, production control or manufacturing resource planning management technology and software package. The analysis was conducted by comparing SRB production control software requirements and conceptual system design to software package capabilities. The methodology of evaluation and the findings at each stage of evaluation are described. Topics covered include: vendor listing; request for information (RFI) document; RFI response rate and quality; RFI evaluation process; and capabilities versus requirements.

  11. Micro-Machining In High Volume Production Example: Ball Pen Writing Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaechter, Friedrich

    1987-01-01

    The writing performance of ball pens can be further improved. New or refined testing and measuring techniques have clearly shown that substantial benefits can be derived from mechanical perfection. This involves developing single-purpose machines for ultraprecision forming of cutting tools, for high speed production machinery capable of producing ball pen writing points with a minimum of uncertainties. It also involves testing equipment for the materials. However, the aim is to reduce manufacturing costs and simplify production.

  12. Volume production of negative ions in the reflex-type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, K.

    1982-06-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion source. The extracted negative hydrogen currents of 9.7 mA (100 mA/cm/sup 2/) for H/sup -/ and of 4.1 mA(42 mA/cm/sup 2/) for D/sup -/ are obtained continuously. The impurity is less than 1%. An isotope effect of negative ion production is observed.

  13. The GLAS Standard Data Products Specification-Data Dictionary, Version 1.0. Volume 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the primary instrument for the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry mission. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. From 2003 to 2009, the ICESat mission provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance as well as cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. It also provided topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.This document contains the data dictionary for the GLAS standard data products. It details the parameters present on GLAS standard data products. Each parameter is defined with a short name, a long name, units on product, type of variable, a long description and products that contain it. The term standard data products refers to those EOS instrument data that are routinely generated for public distribution. These products are distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSDIC).

  14. The effect of flavin electron shuttles in microbial fuel cells current production.

    PubMed

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B; Head, Ian M; Curtis, Thomas P; Scott, Keith; Lloyd, Jonathan R; von Canstein, Harald

    2010-02-01

    The effect of electron shuttles on electron transfer to microbial fuel cell (MFC) anodes was studied in systems where direct contact with the anode was precluded. MFCs were inoculated with Shewanella cells, and flavins used as the electron shuttling compound. In MFCs with no added electron shuttles, flavin concentrations monitored in the MFCs' bulk liquid increased continuously with FMN as the predominant flavin. The maximum concentrations were 0.6 microM for flavin mononucleotide and 0.2 microM for riboflavin. In MFCs with added flavins, micro-molar concentrations were shown to increase current and power output. The peak current was at least four times higher in MFCs with high concentrations of flavins (4.5-5.5 microM) than in MFCs with low concentrations (0.2-0.6 microM). Although high power outputs (around 150 mW/m(2)) were achieved in MFCs with high concentrations of flavins, a Clostridium-like bacterium along with other reactor limitations affected overall coulombic efficiencies (CE) obtained, achieving a maximum CE of 13%. Electron shuttle compounds (flavins) permitted bacteria to utilise a remote electron acceptor (anode) that was not accessible to the cells allowing current production until the electron donor (lactate) was consumed. PMID:19697021

  15. Production of a monoenergetic electron bunch in a self-injected laser-wakefield accelerator.

    PubMed

    Chang, C-L; Hsieh, C-T; Ho, Y-C; Chen, Y-S; Lin, J-Y; Wang, J; Chen, S-Y

    2007-03-01

    Production of a monoenergetic electron bunch in a self-injected laser-wakefield accelerator is investigated with a tomographic method which resolves the electron injection and acceleration processes. It is found that all the electrons in the monoenergetic electron bunch are injected at the same location in the plasma column and then accelerated with an acceleration gradient exceeding 2 GeV/cm. The injection position shifts with the position of pump-pulse focus, and no significant deceleration is observed for the monoenergetic electron bunch after it reaches the maximum energy. The results are consistent with the model of transverse wave breaking and beam loading for the injection of monoenergetic electrons. The tomographic method adds a crucial dimension to the whole array of existing diagnostics for laser beams, plasma waves, and electron beams. With this method the details of the underlying physical processes in laser-plasma interactions can be resolved and compared directly to particle-in-cell simulations. PMID:17500801

  16. Drinking water and health: Disinfectants and disinfectant by-products. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the toxicity of the by-products of disinfectants have focused on the trihalomethanes (THMs), which are formed during chlorination and for which considerable data on carcinogenicity have been developed. The level of total THMs in finished drinking water, currently regulated at 100 micrograms/L, should be reduced. Noting that chloroform is the principal THM produced by chlorination, the subcommittee found this level to be unsupportable on the basis of the risk values for chloroform developed in this review. Other, non-volatile by-products of chlorination may be important in contributing mutagenic properties to drinking water, especially when the natural water being treated contains high levels of organic matter. Short-term animal skin tests, although not conclusive, provide indications that organic concentrates from chlorinated water are tumorigenic under some experimental conditions. Unfortunately, many by-products of chlorination and other disinfection practices have not been identified. Consequently, the risks of ingesting cannot be quantified at present, but are potentially high enough to warrant continued efforts to analyze them. The use of alternative methods of drinking water disinfection is increasing, largely due to health and regulatory concerns about trihalomethanes. Thus, the nature and toxicity of the by-products of some other widely used water treatments (chloramination, ozonation, and chlorine dioxide) are also evaluated in the report to the extent allowed by available data. The subcommittee calculated quantitative risk assessment for disinfectants or their by-products when there was sufficient data.

  17. Adjustable mounting device for high-volume production of beam-shaping systems for high-power diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Sebastian; Bernhardt, Henning; Rübenach, Olaf; Haverkamp, Tobias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Brecher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In many applications for high-power diode lasers, the production of beam-shaping and homogenizing optical systems experience rising volumes and dynamical market demands. The automation of assembly processes on flexible and reconfigurable machines can contribute to a more responsive and scalable production. The paper presents a flexible mounting device designed for the challenging assembly of side-tab based optical systems. It provides design elements for precisely referencing and fixating two optical elements in a well-defined geometric relation. Side tabs are presented to the machine allowing the application of glue and a rotating mechanism allows the attachment to the optical elements. The device can be adjusted to fit different form factors and it can be used in high-volume assembly machines. The paper shows the utilization of the device for a collimation module consisting of a fast-axis and a slow-axis collimation lens. Results regarding the repeatability and process capability of bonding side tab assemblies as well as estimates from 3D simulation for overall performance indicators achieved such as cycle time and throughput will be discussed.

  18. Propagation of gamma rays and production of free electrons in air

    SciTech Connect

    Dimant, Y. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Romero-Talamas, C. A.; Granatstein, V. L.; Sprangle, P.; Penano, J.

    2012-10-15

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of production of free electrons in air by gamma-rays leaking from radioactive materials. A model based on the Klein-Nishina scattering theory is used to calculate scattering cross sections and approximate the electron production rate. The model includes the effects of primary gamma-quanta radiated by the source as well as that scattered in air. Comparison of the model with the mcnpx kinetic code (http://mcnpx.lanl.gov/) in a sample problem shows excellent agreement. The motivation for this research comes from the recently proposed concept of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials [V. L. Granatstein and G. S. Nusinovich, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063304 (2010)]. The concept is based on the breakdown in air at the focal point of a high-power beam of electromagnetic waves produced by a THz gyrotron with a 10-20 {mu}s pulse. The presence of a radioactive material can greatly exceed the production rate of free electrons over the natural background rate. Additional electrons act as seeds to initiate the breakdown and create sufficiently dense plasma at the focal region. The dense plasma can then be remotely detected as an unambiguous effect of the concealed radioactive material.

  19. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume I. Introduction and background. [Storage losses of 28 products and by-products

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The proposed plant site consists of 1594 acres along the Ohio River in Breckinridge County, Kentucky. An option to purchase the site has been secured on behalf of the Breckinridge Project by the Commonwealth of Kentucky Department of Energy. Figure 1 is an area map locating the site with respect to area cities and towns. The nearest communities to the site are the hamlet of Stephensport, Kentucky, about 3-1/2 miles northeast and Cloverport, Kentucky, which is 6 miles to the southwest. The nearest major cities are Owensboro, Kentucky, 45 road miles to the west and Louisville, Kentucky, 65 miles to the northeast. The Breckinridge facility will convert about 23,000 TPD of run-of-mine (ROM) coal into a nominal 50,000 BPD of hydrocarbon liquids including a significant quantity of transportation fuels. Major products refined for marketing include pipeline gas, propane, butane, 105 RONC gasoline reformate, middle distillate and heavy distillate. By-products include sulfur, anhydrous ammonia, and commercial-grade phenol. Care is being taken to minimize the impact of the facility operations on the environment. Water and wastewater treatment systems have been designed to achieve zero discharge. Waste solids will be disposed of in a carefully designed and well-monitored landfill operation. Also, special design features have been included to minimize air emissions.

  20. LLNL medical and industrial laser isotope separation: large volume, low cost production through advanced laser technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Comaskey, B.; Scheibner, K. F.; Shaw, M.; Wilder, J.

    1998-09-02

    The goal of this LDRD project was to demonstrate the technical and economical feasibility of applying laser isotope separation technology to the commercial enrichment (>lkg/y) of stable isotopes. A successful demonstration would well position the laboratory to make a credible case for the creation of an ongoing medical and industrial isotope production and development program at LLNL. Such a program would establish LLNL as a center for advanced medical isotope production, successfully leveraging previous LLNL Research and Development hardware, facilities, and knowledge.

  1. A normative price for a manufactured product: The SAMICS methodology. Volume 2: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    The Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards provide standard formats, data, assumptions, and procedures for determining the price a hypothetical solar array manufacturer would have to be able to obtain in the market to realize a specified after-tax rate of return on equity for a specified level of production. The methodology and its theoretical background are presented. The model is sufficiently general to be used in any production-line manufacturing environment. Implementation of this methodology by the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Simultation computer program is discussed.

  2. Survey of hydrogen production and utilization methods. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, D. P.; Pangborn, J. B.; Gillis, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The use of hydrogen as a synthetic fuel is considered. Processes for the production of hydrogen are described along with the present and future industrial uses of hydrogen as a fuel and as a chemical feedstock. Novel and unconventional hydrogen-production techniques are evaluated, with emphasis placed on thermochemical and electrolytic processes. Potential uses for hydrogen as a fuel in industrial and residential applications are identified and reviewed in the context of anticipated U.S. energy supplies and demands. A detailed plan for the period from 1975 to 1980 prepared for research on and development of hydrogen as an energy carrier is included.

  3. Charged Higgs-boson production in association with an electron and a neutrino at electron-positron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Brein, Oliver; Figy, Terrance

    2008-03-01

    We present results of a calculation of the cross section for the production of a charged Higgs boson in association with an electron and a neutrino at electron-positron colliders (e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}H{sup +}e{sup -}{nu}{sub e}, H{sup -}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}). We study predictions for the cross section in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) and the two Higgs doublet model (THDM), highlighting possible differences. The process is effectively loop-induced in both models. Hence, the cross section is expected to be strongly model-dependent. Most notably, due to the presence of superpartners, the MSSM amplitude contains Feynman graphs of pentagon-type, which are not present in the THDM. This is the first complete one-loop calculation of the cross section for this process in the THDM and the MSSM. For both models, so far, only approximate results with limited ranges of validity were available. Our main aim here is to clarify several open questions in the existing literature on this process. Specifically, we will discuss the validity of the heavy fermion loop approximation in both models, and of the fermion/sfermion loop approximation in the MSSM.

  4. WOOD PRODUCTS IN THE WASTE STREAM: CHARACTERIZATION AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. (NOTE: Waste wood is wood that is separated from a solid-waste stream, processed into a uniform-sized product, and reused for o...

  5. WOOD PRODUCTS IN THE WASTE STREAM: CHARACTERIZATION AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. (NOTE: Waste wood is wood that is separated from a solid-waste stream, processed into a uniform-sized product, and reused for o...

  6. Fruit and Vegetable Production Unit for Plant Science Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. Volume 16, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bob R.; Mullinix, Mark K.

    This curriculum guide, part of a plant science core curriculum, consists of materials for use in teaching a unit on fruit and vegetable production. Provided in the first part of the guide are a list of objectives, a bibliography, and a competency profile. The remainder of the guide consists of 11 lessons dealing with the following topics: planning…

  7. QUARKONIUM PRODUCTION IN RELATIVISTIC NUCLEAR COLLISIONS. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 12

    SciTech Connect

    KHARZEEV,D.

    1999-04-20

    The RIKEN-BNL Workshop on Quarkonium Production in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions was held September 28--October 2, 1998, at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Workshop brought together about 50 invited participants from around the world and a number of Brookhaven physicists from both particle and nuclear physics communities.

  8. Poultry Production for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. Volume 19, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timko, Joseph J.; Stewart, Bob R.

    This unit is designed to aid teachers in lesson planning in the secondary agricultural education curriculum in Missouri. Intended to be taught to ninth-grade students of vocational agriculture, the unit contains six lessons for developing competencies needed in poultry production. The lessons are as follows: (1) the importance of the poultry…

  9. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 2: technology characterization and production scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A technology characterization of processes that may be used in the oil shale industry is presented. The six processes investigated are TOSCO II, Paraho Direct, Union B, Superior, Occidental MIS, and Lurgi-Ruhrgas. A scanario of shale oil production to the 300,000 BPD level by 1990 is developed. (ACR)

  10. Greenhouse Crop Production; A Teacher's Manual. Teacher Education Series, Volume 10 Number 3t.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1969

    Developed by the Department of Agricultural Education of the Pennsylvania State University and field-tested by 54 teachers, this guide is for teacher use in planning a unit in greenhouse crop production. The unit is intended for upper high school and post-high school students interested in careers in this field. Teacher suggestions, references,…

  11. Greenhouse Crop Production; A Student Handbook, Teacher Education Series, Volume 10 Number 3s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1969

    This study guide, developed by the Department of Agricultural Education of The Pennsylvania State University and field-tested by 54 teachers, is for student use in a unit on greenhouse crop production. Learning objectives, key questions, vocabulary terms, subject matter, and references are included for each of these problem areas: (1) Occupational…

  12. Production development of organic nonflammable spacecraft potting, encapsulating and conformal coating compounds. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieberman, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    Appendices are presented which include: statement of work; material vendor contacts; formulation/processing data sheet; upward propagation test; flammability test conditions/results sheet; odor test; vacuum stability requirements; flammability test facility; determination of offgassing products and carbon monoxide test; and pneumatic and mechanical impact test guidelines.

  13. Redox behaviour of nifuroxazide: generation of the one-electron reduction product.

    PubMed

    Squella, J A; Letelier, M E; Lindermeyer, L; Nuñez-Vergara, L J

    1996-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of nifuroxazide have been investigated in aqueous and aqueous-DMF mixed solvents. In aqueous media, a single, irreversible four-electron reduction occurs to give the hydroxylamine derivative. In mixed media, a reversible one-electron reduction to form a nitro radical anion takes place. Cyclic voltammetric studies show that the anion radical product is stable, although the nitro radical anion intermediate shows a tendency to undergo further chemical reactions. A comparison with the voltammetric behaviour of other nitrofurans such as nifurtimox, nitrofurazone and furazolidone is made. The electrochemically-obtained parameters are correlated with the in vivo studies of oxygen consumption on Trypanosoma cruzi cell suspensions. PMID:8620571

  14. Insights into proton-coupled electron transfer mechanisms of electrocatalytic H2 oxidation and production

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Samantha; Fernandez, Laura E.; Soudackov, Alexander V.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The design of molecular electrocatalysts for H2 oxidation and production is important for the development of alternative renewable energy sources that are abundant, inexpensive, and environmentally benign. Recently, nickel-based molecular electrocatalysts with pendant amines that act as proton relays for the nickel center were shown to effectively catalyze H2 oxidation and production. We developed a quantum mechanical approach for studying proton-coupled electron transfer processes in these types of molecular electrocatalysts. This theoretical approach is applied to a nickel-based catalyst in which phosphorous atoms are directly bonded to the nickel center, and nitrogen atoms of the ligand rings act as proton relays. The catalytic step of interest involves electron transfer between the nickel complex and the electrode as well as intramolecular proton transfer between the nickel and nitrogen atoms. This process can occur sequentially, with either the electron or proton transferring first, or concertedly, with the electron and proton transferring simultaneously without a stable intermediate. The electrochemical rate constants are calculated as functions of overpotential for the concerted electron-proton transfer reaction and the two electron transfer reactions in the sequential mechanisms. Our calculations illustrate that the concerted electron-proton transfer standard rate constant will increase as the equilibrium distance between the nickel and nitrogen atoms decreases and as the pendant amines become more flexible to facilitate the contraction of this distance with a lower energy penalty. This approach identifies the favored mechanisms under various experimental conditions and provides insight into the impact of substituents on the nitrogen and phosphorous atoms. PMID:22529352

  15. Auto-thermal reforming using mixed ion-electronic conducting ceramic membranes for a small-scale H₂ production plant.

    PubMed

    Spallina, Vincenzo; Melchiori, Tommaso; Gallucci, Fausto; van Sint Annaland, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The integration of mixed ionic electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes for air separation in a small-to-medium scale unit for H2 production (in the range of 650-850 Nm3/h) via auto-thermal reforming of methane has been investigated in the present study. Membranes based on mixed ionic electronic conducting oxides such as Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) give sufficiently high oxygen fluxes at temperatures above 800 °C with high purity (higher than 99%). Experimental results of membrane permeation tests are presented and used for the reactor design with a detailed reactor model. The assessment of the H2 plant has been carried out for different operating conditions and reactor geometry and an energy analysis has been carried out with the flowsheeting software Aspen Plus, including also the turbomachines required for a proper thermal integration. A micro-gas turbine is integrated in the system in order to supply part of the electricity required in the system. The analysis of the system shows that the reforming efficiency is in the range of 62%-70% in the case where the temperature at the auto-thermal reforming membrane reactor (ATR-MR) is equal to 900 °C. When the electric consumption and the thermal export are included the efficiency of the plant approaches 74%-78%. The design of the reactor has been carried out using a reactor model linked to the Aspen flowsheet and the results show that with a larger reactor volume the performance of the system can be improved, especially because of the reduced electric consumption. From this analysis it has been found that for a production of about 790 Nm3/h pure H2, a reactor with a diameter of 1 m and length of 1.8 m with about 1500 membranes of 2 cm diameter is required. PMID:25793545

  16. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 1, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Kevin; Beeghly, Joel H.

    2000-11-30

    About 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable. This Executive Summary describes efforts to dewater the magnesium hydroxide and gypsum slurries and then process the solids into a more user friendly and higher value form. To eliminate the cost of solids disposal in its first generation Thiosorbic® system, the Dravo Lime Company developed the ThioClear® process that utilizes a magnesium based absorber liquor to remove S02 with minimal suspended solids. Magnesium enhanced lime is added to an oxidized bleed stream of thickener overflow (TOF) to produce magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and gypsum (CaS04 • 2H20), as by-products. This process was demonstrated at the 3 to 5 MW closed loop FGD system pilot plant at the Miami Fort Station of Cinergy, near Cincinnati, Ohio with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-91-6. A similar process strictly for'recovery and reuse of Mg(OH)2 began operation at the Zimmer Station of Cinergy in late 1994 that can produce 900 pounds of Mg(OH)2 per hour and 2,600 pounds of gypsum per hour. This by-product plant, called the Zimmer Slipstream Magnesium Hydroxide Recovery Project Demonstration, was conducted with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-921-004. Full scale ThioClear® plants began operating in 1997 at the 130 MW Applied Energy Services plant, in Monaca, PA, and in year 2000 at the 1,330 MW Allegheny Energy Pleasants Station at St. Marys, WV.

  17. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 2: System requirements and conceptual description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In the development of the business system for the SRB automated production control system, special attention had to be paid to the unique environment posed by the space shuttle. The issues posed by this environment, and the means by which they were addressed, are reviewed. The change in management philosphy which will be required as NASA switches from one-of-a-kind launches to multiple launches is discussed. The implications of the assembly process on the business system are described. These issues include multiple missions, multiple locations and facilities, maintenance and refurbishment, multiple sources, and multiple contractors. The implications of these aspects on the automated production control system are reviewed including an assessment of the six major subsystems, as well as four other subsystem. Some general system requirements which flow through the entire business system are described.

  18. Computer model for refinery operations with emphasis on jet fuel production. Volume 1: Program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, D. N.; Tunnah, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program is described for predicting the flow streams and material, energy, and economic balances of a typical petroleum refinery, with particular emphasis on production of aviation turbine fuel of varying end point and hydrogen content specifications. The program has provision for shale oil and coal oil in addition to petroleum crudes. A case study feature permits dependent cases to be run for parametric or optimization studies by input of only the variables which are changed from the base case.

  19. AgRISTARS: Foreign Commodity production forecasting. Project procedures designation and description document, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waggoner, J. T.; Phinney, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The crop estimation analysis procedures documentation of the AgRISTARS - Foreign Commodity Production Forecasting Project (FCPF) is presented. Specifically it includes the technical/management documentation of the remote sensing data analysis procedures prepared in accordance with the guidelines provided in the FCPF communication/documentation standards manual. Standard documentation sets are given arranged by procedural type and level then by crop types or other technically differentiating categories.

  20. Non-mass-analyzed ion implantation equipment for high volume solar cell production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armini, A. J.; Bunker, S. N.; Spitzer, M. B.

    1982-01-01

    Equipment designed for junction formation in silicon solar cells is described. The equipment, designed for a production level of approximately one megawatt per year, consists of an ion implanter and annealer. Low cost is achieved by foregoing the use of mass analysis during the implantation, and by the use of a belt furnace for annealing. Results of process development, machine design and cost analysis are presented.

  1. Design requirements for SRB production control system. Volume 1: Study background and overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The solid rocket boosters assembly environment is described in terms of the contraints it places upon an automated production control system. The business system generated for the SRB assembly and the computer system which meets the business system requirements are described. The selection software process and modifications required to the recommended software are addressed as well as the hardware and configuration requirements necessary to support the system.

  2. Phase 1 of the North Site cleanup: Definition of product streams. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sorini, S.; Merriam, N.

    1994-03-01

    Various materials and equipment have accumulated at the Western Research Institute (WRI) North Site Facility since its commissioning in 1968. This facility was built by the US Bureau of Mines, transferred to the US Energy Research Development Administration (ERDA) in 1976, and transferred once again to the US Department of Energy (DOE) shortly thereafter. In 1983, the North Site Facility became part of WRI. The materials that have accumulated over the years at the site have been stored in drums, tanks, and open piles. They vary from oil shale, tar sand, and coal feedstocks to products and materials associated with in situ simulation and surface process developments associated with these feedstocks. The majority of these materials have been associated with DOE North Site activities and work performed at the North Site under DOE-WRI cooperative agreement contracts. In phase I of the North Site Facility cleanup project, these materials were sampled and evaluated to determine their chemical characteristics for proper disposal or use in accordance with current local, state, and federal regulations. Phase I of the North Site Facility cleanup project involved dividing the stored materials into product streams and dividing each product stream into composite groups. Composite groups contain materials known to be similar in composition, source, and process exposure. For each composite group, materials, which are representative of the composite, were selected for sampling, compositing, and analysis.

  3. Volume production of negative ions in the reflex type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, K.

    1982-01-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion source. The extracted negative hydrogen currents of 9.7 mA (100 mA/cm/sup 2/) for H/sup -/ and of 4.1 mA (42 mA/cm/sup 2/) for D/sup -/ are obtained continuously. The impurity is less then 1%. An isotope effect of negative ion production is observed. When anomalous diffusion in the positive column was found by Lehnert and Hoh (1960), it was pointed out that the large particle loss produced by anomalous diffusion is compensated by the large particle production inside the plasma, i.e., the plasma tries to maintain itself. The self-sustaining property of the plasma is applied to the reflex-type negative ion source. Anomalous diffusion was artificially encouraged by changing the radial electric field inside the reflex discharge. The apparent encouragement of negative ion diffusion by the increase of density fluctuation amplitude is observed. Twice as much negative ion current was obtained with the artificial encouragement as without. It is found from the quasilinear theory that the inwardly directed radial electric field destabilizes the plasma in the reflex-type ion source. The nonlinear theory based on Yoshikawa method (1962) is extended, and the anomalous diffusion coefficient in a weakly ionized plasma is obtained. The electrostatic sheath trap, which increases the confinement of negative ions in the reflex-type ion source, is also discussed.

  4. Draft environmental impact statement siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 4, Appendices D-R

    SciTech Connect

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains 15 appendices.

  5. Photodetachment diagnostics of a volume production type negative ion source with a diode-laser

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Takahashi, H.; Wada, M.; Nishiura, M.

    2008-02-15

    Time evolution of photodetachment perturbation signal induced by a diode laser was observed in an O{sub 2} plasma. Photodetachment current collected by a Langmuir probe was directly measured and recorded by a digital oscilloscope. After integrating the recorded signal data, the waveform of the photodetachment current showed a time dependence resembling an error function. The waveform had changed its shape in accordance as the position between the probe and the laser beam axis was changed. These characteristics of the photodetachment signal are well explained by a diffusion model. The method has the possibility to yield information on various negative ion containing plasmas, but requires quiescence in the electron saturation current with the fluctuation level less than 10{sup -4}.

  6. Bound free electron-positron pair production accompanied by giant dipole resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Senguel, M. Y.; Gueclue, M. C.

    2011-01-15

    At the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), for example, virtual photons produce many particles. At small impact parameters where the colliding nuclei make peripheral collisions, photon fluxes are very large and these are responsible for the multiple photonuclear interactions. Free pair productions, bound free pair productions, and nuclear Coulomb excitations are important examples of such interactions, and these processes play important roles in the beam luminosity at RHIC and LHC. Here we obtained the impact parameter dependence of bound free pair production cross sections and by using this probability we obtained bound free electron-positron pair production with nuclear breakup for heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. We also compared our results to the other calculations.

  7. Electronic states of MgO: Spectroscopy, predissociation, and cold atomic Mg and O production

    SciTech Connect

    Maatouk, A.; Ben Houria, A.; Yazidi, O.; Jaidane, N.; Hochlaf, M.

    2010-10-14

    We used multiconfigurational methods and a large basis set to compute the potential energy curves of the valence and valence-Rydberg electronic states of MgO molecule. New bound electronic states are found. Using these highly correlated wave functions, we evaluated their mutual spin-orbit couplings and transition moment integrals. For the bound electronic states of MgO, we deduced an accurate set of spectroscopic constants that agree remarkably well with experimental results. Moreover, our potentials, transition moments, and spin-orbit coupling evolutions are incorporated into Fermi golden rule calculations to deduce the radiative lifetimes of MgO(B {sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}) rovibrational levels and the natural lifetimes of MgO(A {sup 1}{Pi}) vibrational levels, where a good agreement is found with experimental values. Finally, we suggest new routes for the production of cold Mg and O atoms and cold MgO molecules.

  8. Electron Beam Production and Characterization for the PLEIADES Thomson X-Ray Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. J.; Hartemann, F. V.; Tremaine, A. M.; Springer, P. T.; Le Sage, G. P.; Barty, C. P. J.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Crane, J. K.; Cross, R. R.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Gibson, D. J.; Slaughter, D. R.; Anderson, S.

    2002-12-01

    We report on the performance of an S-band RF photocathode electron gun and accelerator for operation with the PLEIADES Thomson x-ray source at LLNL. Simulations of beam production, transport, and focus are presented. It is shown that a 1 ps, 500 pC electron bunch with a normalized emittance of less than 5 πmm-mrad can be delivered to the interaction point. Initial electron measurements are presented. Calculations of expected x-ray flux are also performed, demonstrating an expected peak spectral brightness of 1020 photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1% bandwidth. Effects of RF phase jitter are also presented, and planned phase measurements and control methods are discussed.

  9. Electron Beam Production and Characterization for the PLEIADES Thomson X-ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W J; Hartemann, F V; Tremaine, A M; Springer, P T; Le Sage, G P; Barty, C P J; Rosenzweig, J B; Crane, J K; Cross, R R; Fittinghoff, D B; Gibson, D J; Slaughter, D R; Anderson, S

    2002-10-14

    We report on the performance of an S-band RF photocathode electron gun and accelerator for operation with the PLEIADES Thomson x-ray source at LLNL. Simulations of beam production, transport, and focus are presented. It is shown that a 1 ps, 500 pC electron bunch with a normalized emittance of less than 5 {pi}mm-mrad can be delivered to the interaction point. Initial electron measurements are presented. Calculations of expected x-ray flux are also performed, demonstrating an expected peak spectral brightness of 10{sup 20} photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% bandwidth. Effects of RF phase jitter are also presented, and planned phase measurements and control methods are discussed.

  10. Electron-beam stimulation of the reactivity of cellulose pulps for production of derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iller, Edward; Kukiełka, Aleksandra; Stupińska, Halina; Mikołajczyk, Włodzimierz

    2002-03-01

    New alternative technologies for manufacture of cellulose fibers are currently under development. The effect of electron beam irradiation on various types of cellulose pulps have been studied in order to improve the reactivity of raw material for production of cellulose derivatives. Three different types of textile pulps, Alicell (Canada), Borregaard (Norwegian), Ketchikan (USA) and Kraft softwood as well as Kraft hardwood pulps, have been irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam from LAE 13/g linear accelerator with dose 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50 kGy. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were applied for determination of structural changes in irradiated pulps. Such parameters as viscosity, average degree of polymerization and α-cellulose contents were determinated by means of analytical methods. Results of there investigations are presented and discussed.

  11. Large-Volume Reconstruction of Brain Tissue from High-Resolution Serial Section Images Acquired by SEM-Based Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M.; Harris, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    With recent improvements in instrumentation and computational tools, serial section electron microscopy has become increasingly straightforward. A new method for imaging ultrathin serial sections is developed based on a field emission scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector. This method is capable of automatically acquiring high-resolution serial images with a large field size and very little optical and physical distortions. In this chapter, we describe the procedures leading to the generation and analyses of a large-volume stack of high-resolution images (64 μm × 64 μm × 10 μm, or larger, at 2 nm pixel size), including how to obtain large-area serial sections of uniform thickness from well-preserved brain tissue that is rapidly perfusion-fixed with mixed aldehydes, processed with a microwave-enhanced method, and embedded into epoxy resin. PMID:23086880

  12. Emission characteristics and electron kinetic coefficients of the plasma of a transverse volume discharge initiated in a mixture of heavy inert gases with chlorine molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Chygin, V. I.; Shimon, L. L.; Shevera, I. V.; Gorun, P. P.; Obukhovskii, R. O.

    2010-05-01

    The results of studying the radiation due to argon, krypton, and xenon monochloride bands, as well as to the bands of chlorine molecules, from the plasma of a transverse Ar-Kr-Xe-Cl2 volume discharge are reported. The working mixture of a pulse radiation source is optimized with regard to its pressure and elemental composition and parameters of an excitation system. By numerically solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation for the electron energy distribution function, the transport characteristics of plasma electrons and discharge power specific losses are found for different values of the reduced electric field strength. The plasma parameters are simulated for the quaternary mixture, which is most appropriate for a multiwave UV-VUV source. Qualitative analysis is conducted for the most important electron processes in the multicomponent plasma that govern the joint formation of argon, krypton, and xenon monochlorides in the transverse discharge.

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101...-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.605 Items other than petroleum products and electronic...

  18. 4 CFR 22.14 - Production of Documents, Electronically Stored Information, Other Tangible Things, or Entry Onto...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production of Documents, Electronically Stored... ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.14 Production of Documents, Electronically Stored Information, Other Tangible...

  19. Closed circuitry operation influence on microbial electrofermentation: Proton/electron effluxes on electro-fuels productivity.

    PubMed

    Nikhil, G N; Venkata Subhash, G; Yeruva, Dileep Kumar; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-11-01

    A novel biocatalyzed electrofermentor (BEF) was designed which uncovers the intricate role of biocatalyst involved in cogeneration of electro-fuels (hydrogen and electricity). The specific role of external resistance (Rext, electrical load) on the performance of BEF was evaluated. Four BEFs were operated separately with different resistances (25, 50, 100 and 200 Ω) at an organic load of 5 g/L. Among the tested conditions, external resistance (R3) with 100 Ω revealed maximum power and cumulative H2 production (148 mW and 450 mL, respectively). The competence of closed circuitry comparatively excelled because it facilitates congenial ambiance for the enriched EAB (electroactive bacteria) resulting high rate of metabolic activity that paves way for higher substrate degradation and electro-fuel productivity. Probing of electron kinetics was studied using voltammetric analyses wherein electron transfer by redox proteins was noticed. The designed BEF is found to be sustainable system for harnessing renewable energy through wastewater treatment. PMID:26189780

  20. Reestimation of the production spectra of cosmic ray secondary positrons and electrons in the ISM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, C. M.; Ng, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed calculation of the production spectra of charged hadrons produced by interactions of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium is presented along with a thorough treatment of pion and muon decays. Newly parameterized inclusive cross sections of hadrons were used and exact kinematic limitations were taken into account. Single parametrized expressions for the production spectra of both secondary positrons and electrons in the energy range .1 to 100 GeV are presented. The results are compared with other authors' predictions. Equilibrium spectra using various models are also presented.

  1. Front-End Electronics Characterization, Production, and QA for the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elia, Sophia; Majorana Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay ββ (0 ν) of the isotope 76Ge. In anticipation of the future tonne-scale experiments, its goal is to demonstrate a path forward to a background rate of one cnt/(ROI-t-y) in a 4 keV region around the Q-value of the 76Ge ββ (0 ν) . Such a background requirement significantly constrains the design of the front end electronics. Low background and low noise qualifications are a necessity. This poster first presents the characterization and noise performance in single and multi detector systems of the front end electronics developed for Majorana. The poster next reviews the full production process and finally describes the Quality Assurance tests developed for the electronics before installation in the experiment. The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay ββ (0 ν) of the isotope 76Ge. In anticipation of the future tonne-scale experiments, its goal is to demonstrate a path forward to a background rate of one cnt/(ROI-t-y) in a 4 keV region around the Q-value of the 76Ge ββ (0 ν) . Such a background requirement significantly constrains the design of the front end electronics. Low background and low noise qualifications are a necessity. This poster first presents the characterization and noise performance in single and multi detector systems of the front end electronics developed for Majorana. The poster next reviews the full production process and finally describes the Quality Assurance tests developed for the electronics before installation in the experiment. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the DOE Office of Science, the Particle and Nuclear Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  2. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD

    SciTech Connect

    Båth, Magnus Svalkvist, Angelica; Söderman, Christina

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. Methods: DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. Results: A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. Conclusions: A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis.

  3. Coeur d'Alene Tribal Production Facility, Volume I of III, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul

    2003-01-01

    In fulfillment of the NWPPC's 3-Step Process for the implementation of new hatcheries in the Columbia Basin, this Step 1 submission package to the Council includes four items: (1) Cover letter from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe, Interdisciplinary Team Chair, and the USFWS; (2) References to key information (Attachments 1-4); (3) The updated Master Plan for the Tribe's native cutthroat restoration project; and (4) Appendices. In support of the Master Plan submitted by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe the reference chart (Item 2) was developed to allow reviewers to quickly access information necessary for accurate peer review. The Northwest Power Planning Council identified pertinent issues to be addressed in the master planning process for new artificial production facilities. References to this key information are provided in three attachments: (1) NWPPC Program language regarding the Master Planning Process, (2) Questions Identified in the September 1997 Council Policy, and (3) Program language identified by the Council's Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP). To meet the need for off-site mitigation for fish losses on the mainstem Columbia River, in a manner consistent with the objectives of the Council's Program, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe is proposing that the BPA fund the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of a trout production facility located adjacent to Coeur d'Alene Lake on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. The updated Master Plan (Item 3) represents the needs associated with the re-evaluation of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Trout Production Facility (No.199004402). This plan addresses issues and concerns expressed by the NWPPC as part of the issue summary for the Mountain Columbia provincial review, and the 3-step hatchery review process. Finally, item 4 (Appendices) documents the 3-Step process correspondence to date between the Coeur d'Alene Tribe and additional relevant entities. Item 4 provides a chronological account of previous ISRP reviews

  4. Space Shuttle production verification motor 1 (PV-1) field joint protection system, volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of the field joint protection system (FJPS) of the Space Shuttle Production Verification Motor 1 (PV-1), as evaluated by postfire hardware inspection. Compliance with the specifications is shown for the FJPS assembly and components. The simplified FJPS and field joint heaters performed nominally, maintaining all joint seal temperatures within the required range. One anomally was noted on the igniter-to-case joint heater during postfire inspection. The heater buckled off the surface in two areas, resulting in two hot spots on the heater and darkened heater insulation. The condition did not affect heater performance during ignition countdown and all igniter seals were maintained within required temperature limits.

  5. Note: Production of a mercury beam with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.; Pardo, R.; Scott, R.

    2013-11-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been utilized to produce mercury beams with intensities of 4.5 eμA of {sup 202}Hg{sup 29+} and 3.0 eμA of {sup 202}Hg{sup 31+} from natural abundance mercury metal. The production technique relies on the evaporation of liquid mercury into the source plasma vacuum region and utilizes elemental mercury instead of a volatile organic compound as the neutral feed material.

  6. Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production by an Aluminum(III) Complex: Ligand-Based Proton and Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Emily J; Berben, Louise A

    2015-09-28

    Environmentally sustainable hydrogen-evolving electrocatalysts are key in a renewable fuel economy, and ligand-based proton and electron transfer could circumvent the need for precious metal ions in electrocatalytic H2 production. Herein, we show that electrocatalytic generation of H2 by a redox-active ligand complex of Al(3+) occurs at -1.16 V vs. SCE (500 mV overpotential). PMID:26249108

  7. Reaction by-products from high energy electron irradiation of aqueous solutions of trihalomethanes

    SciTech Connect

    Cadavid, E.M.; Cooper, W.J.; Nickelsen, M.G. ); Kurucz, C.N.; Waite, T.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are formed in water when chlorine is used for disinfection. The THMs of interest are chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. This study was undertaken to study the removal of the trihalomethanes using an innovative treatment technique, high energy electrons, for drinking water treatment. In addition to removal studies experiments were undertaken at low radiation doses to determine whether other chlorinated compounds are formed as reaction by-products.

  8. Observations from using models to fit the gas production of varying volume test cells and landfills.

    PubMed

    Lamborn, Julia

    2012-12-01

    Landfill operators are looking for more accurate models to predict waste degradation and landfill gas production. The simple microbial growth and decay models, whilst being easy to use, have been shown to be inaccurate. Many of the newer and more complex (component) models are highly parameter hungry and many of the required parameters have not been collected or measured at full-scale landfills. This paper compares the results of using different models (LANDGEM, HBM, and two Monod models developed by the author) to fit the gas production of laboratory scale, field test cell and full-scale landfills and discusses some observations that can be made regarding the scalability of gas generation rates. The comparison of these results show that the fast degradation rate that occurs at laboratory scale is not replicated at field-test cell and full-scale landfills. At small scale, all the models predict a slower rate of gas generation than actually occurs. At field test cell and full-scale a number of models predict a faster gas generation than actually occurs. Areas for future work have been identified, which include investigations into the capture efficiency of gas extraction systems and into the parameter sensitivity and identification of the critical parameters for field-test cell and full-scale landfill predication. PMID:22796013

  9. 30 CFR 202.551 - How do I determine the volume of production for which I must pay royalty if my lease is not in an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine the volume of production for... (AFA)? 202.551 Section 202.551 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Gas Production From Indian Leases § 202.551 How do...

  10. Production and loss of H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ in the volume of a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, G.W.; Bacal, M.

    1981-07-01

    The study of the production and loss of negative ions, H/sup -/ and D/sup -/, in the volume of a plasma has received considerable attention since the measurement of anomalously high densities of H/sup -/ in 1977. The most probable mechanism for production is dissociative attachment (DA) to vibrationally highly-excited hydrogen molecules. New diagnostics developed for this purpose are photodetachment and the extension of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) systems to the sensitivity required for low-pressure gases. Measurements and calculations indicate that the important loss mechanisms are diffusion to the walls at low densities and collisional destruction of several types at plasma densities above 10/sup 10/ cm/sup -3/. Production mechanisms must be highly efficient to compete with the losses. It appears to be straightforward to extrapolate measurements and theory to the densities above 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/ that are required for an intense source of D/sup -/ for neutral beam injection into magnetically-confined fusion devices.

  11. FY94 CAG trip reports, CAG memos and other products: Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-15

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) of the US DOE is tasked with designing, constructing, and operating an Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The purpose of the YMP is to provide detailed characterization of the Yucca Mountain site for the potential mined geologic repository for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Detailed characterization of properties of the site are to be conducted through a wide variety of short-term and long-term in-situ tests. Testing methods require the installation of a large number of test instruments and sensors with a variety of functions. These instruments produce analog and digital data that must be collected, processed, stored, and evaluated in an attempt to predict performance of the repository. The Integrated Data and Control System (IDCS) is envisioned as a distributed data acquisition that electronically acquires and stores data from these test instruments. IDCS designers are responsible for designing and overseeing the procurement of the system, IDCS Operation and Maintenance operates and maintains the installed system, and the IDCS Data Manager is responsible for distribution of IDCS data to participants. This report is a compilation of trip reports, interoffice memos, and other memos relevant to Computer Applications Group, Inc., work on this project.

  12. Use of electronic noses for detection of odour from animal production facilities: a review.

    PubMed

    Nimmermark, S

    2001-01-01

    In the field of controlling livestock and poultry odours in the internal and external environment and in derived food products, one main obstacle is how to measure the odour in a suitable way. Olfactometry and a human panel have been used in most studies of farm odour until now. Alternatives like electronic noses are interesting considering disadvantages for olfactometry regarding cost and labour requirement. An electronic device can produce an almost instant response which is useful in many applications. Studies have shown detection of farm odour for some electronic noses and also response to odour concentrations. Other studies have shown very high odour threshold values compared to human noses. Electronic noses with a large number of sensors have been developed since a base was formed in the 1950s. The fast progress in data processing and sensor development in the latest years have made the electronic noses interesting for a large number of industrial applications in the food processing industry, as well as in other areas. Materials like manure produce a complex mixture of odorous compounds and the interaction between these creates a unique odour where no specific dominating and characterising compound seems to exist. Related to swine farms almost 200 different odorous compounds have been reported. The electronic noses can, depending on the sensitivity of its sensors, detect some compounds at lower levels than the human nose, while other compounds offensive to a human nose cannot be detected. Proper function of the electronic noses with sensitivity for the odorous gases in the application must be followed by satisfying properties regarding ageing, temperature stability, humidity and other environmental factors. PMID:11762481

  13. Coeur d'Alene Tribal Production Facility, Volume II of III, 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This appendices covers the following reports: (1) Previous ISRP Reviews (Project 199004400) Implement Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities-Coeur d'Alene Reservation; (2) Step 1 review of the hatchery master plan (Memorandum from Mark Fritsch, Fish Production Coordinator, Draft version March 10, 2000); (3) Coeur d'Alene Tribe response to ISRP comments on Project No. 199004402; includes attachment A Water Quantity Report. This is an incomplete document Analysis of Well Yield Potential for a Portion of the Coeur d'Alene Reservation near Worley, Idaho, February 2001; (4) Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program, Rainbow Trout Feasibility Report on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation prepared by Ronald L. Peters, February 2001; (5) Coeur d'Alene Tribe response letter pursuant to the questions raised in the Step 1 review of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Trout Production Facility from Ronald L. Peters, March 27, 2001 ; includes attachments Water quantity report (this is the complete report), Appendix A Logs for Test Wells and 1999 Worley West Park Well, letters from Ralston, Appendix B Cost of Rainbow Purchase Alternative; (6) NPPC response (memorandum from Mark Fritsch, March 28, 2001); (7) Response to NPPC (letter to Frank Cassidy, Jr., Chair, from Ernest L. Stensgar, April 18, 2001); (8) Final ISRP review (ISRP 2001-4: Mountain Columbia Final Report); (9) Response to ISRP comment (letter to Mark Walker, Director of Public Affairs, from Ronald Peters, May 7, 2001); (10) Final comments to the Fish 4 committee; (11) Scope of Work/Budget FY 2001-2004; (12) Letter from City of Worley concerning water service; (13) Letter to BPA regarding status of Step 1 package; (14) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1990 annual report; (15) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1991 annual report; and (16) Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, 1992 annual

  14. Influences of traffic volumes and wind speeds on ambient ultrafine particle levels—Observations at a highway electronic toll collection (ETC) lane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Li, Yi-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    The levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and their size distributions on a highway electronic toll collection (ETC) lane were measured from October 30 to November 1 and November 5 to November 6, 2008. The hourly UFP levels measured at the highway ETC lane were 1.3 × 10 4-1.9 × 10 5 particles cm -3 (mean = 9.4 × 10 4 particles cm -3). Compared with urban UFP levels, average UFP levels at the highway ETC lane were about 5-10 times higher than those previously measured in urban areas, indicating that a considerable amount of UFPs were exhausted from vehicles. At the highway ETC lane, the average UFP number size distribution had a dominant mode at about 10 nm and a minor mode at about 33 nm. Measurement results indicate that nucleation mode particles remained at relatively high levels compared to Aitken mode and accumulation mode particles at the highway ETC lane. This study identifies the impacts of traffic volumes and wind speeds on ambient UFP levels. Measurement results show that the elevated UFP levels resulting from traffic volume decreased exponentially as wind speed increased on the highway when wind speed was <2.0 m s -1. However, the elevated UFP levels resulting from traffic volume increased slightly when wind speed was >2.0 m s -1 due to local turbulent mixing causes UFPs at high wind speeds. According to measurement results, high levels of UFP were observed at low wind speeds and under high traffic volumes.

  15. Instrument-quality digital camera that transitioned to low-cost high-volume production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, William J.

    2002-12-01

    MOSAD(copyright), Multiplexed OverSample Analog to Digital conversion, is a low power on focal plane analog to digital, A/D, process that places an oversample A/D at each pixel site. Two full custom designs for a visible light staring array were developed with this approach. One design approach uses a silicon photo diode in combination with photo gates at the pixel and the other approach uses an all photo gate sensor for detection. Both arrays were designed with a 320x240 format with the pixels placed on 16 micron centers. The system includes the camera assembly, driver interface assembly, a frame grabber board with integrated decimator and Windows 2000 compatible software for real time image display. The camera includes the sensor, either photo gate or photo diode, mounted on a PC card with support electronics. A custom lens mount attaches the camera to C or CS mount lens. Testing was done with a Tamron 13VM2812 CCTV CS mount lens. Both an RS644 and an RS422 parallel interface card assembly was developed to attach to the frame grabber board. The final iteration cameras were tested at the Amain facility and pictures were taken. At 400 samples per second, measured on chip power consumption is under 10 milliwatts. Noise measurements at sample rates from 400 samples per second to 1,600 samples per second were taken for both parts. The photo diode worked and produced images but it had a sense amplifier problem that prevented adequate noise measurement. At 28 times oversample, the photo gate achieved typical 9 to 11 bits signal to noise with best case measured at 13 bits. Nonuniformity variation was below the noise floor.

  16. Stereology of backscatter electron images of etched surfaces for characterization of particle size distributions and volume fractions: Estimation of imaging bias via Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Payton, E.J. Mills, M.J.

    2011-06-15

    On metallic specimens in which a secondary phase has been selectively removed by a chemical etchant, the use of backscatter electron (BSE) imaging yields images that are more readily segmented with image processing algorithms than other modes of imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The contrast mechanisms in this imaging mode, however, produce a bias in the observation of particle sizes and volume fractions due to the effects of the electron interaction volume in the specimen. This stereological bias is quantified using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of backscatter images. It is observed that the overprojection of features with centroids residing beneath the plane of polish is largely canceled out by the reduced segmentation size of features with centroids residing above the plane of polish. - Research Highlights: {yields} Backscatter imaging of selectively-etched surfaces can facilitate segmentation. {yields} Backscatter imaging of voids is simulated to estimate imaging/observation biases. {yields} The biases are quantified and incorporated into the stereological calculation. {yields} Systematic errors and imaging biases are observed to counteract one another. {yields} Results are illustrated using a bimodal gamma prime distribution in a Ni superalloy.

  17. High hydrophobic topcoat approach for high volume production and yield enhancement of immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagawa, Natsuko; Nakano, Katsushi; Ishii, Yuuki; Kusabiraki, Kazunori; Shima, Motoyuki

    2012-03-01

    Immersion scanner performance is being improved generation by generation. Faster scan speed is required to increase scanner productivity. There are, however, several papers reporting defect increase with higher scan speed1, 2, 3. To overcome this challenge, both material and immersion scanner requires special tuning and optimization. This high stage speed is possible by employing topcoats that have higher hydrophobicity. In general, blob defect are generated at a higher rate with increase in hydrophobicity of topcoat. Nikon and JSR have collaborated to address this challenge by using next generation scanner and a newly developed topcoat material, respectively. JSR, as a topcoat supplier, introduces a new topcoat (TCX279), which shows low blob defects even with very high hydrophobicity. Nikon's latest immersion scanner S621D, equipped with latest nozzle design for optimizing immersion water flow, and an improved tandem stage system to reduce edge particles, resulted in achieving 5x defect reduction compared to S620D. Ultimately, zero immersion defects were realized by a combination of Nikon's S621D scanner and JSR's new topcoat, TCX279.

  18. Development of SRC-I product analysis. Volume 3. Documentation of procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Schweighardt, F.K.; Kingsley, I.S.; Cooper, F.E.; Kamzelski, A.Z.; Parees, D.M.

    1983-09-01

    This section documents the BASIC computer program written to simulate Wilsonville's GC-simulated distillation (GCSD) results at APCI-CRSD Trexlertown. The GC conditions used at APCI for the Wilsonville GCSD analysis of coal-derived liquid samples were described in the SRC-I Quarterly Technical Report, April-June 1981. The approach used to simulate the Wilsonville GCSD results is also from an SRC-I Quarterly Technical Report and is reproduced in Appendix VII-A. The BASIC computer program is described in the attached Appendix VII-B. Analysis of gases produced during coal liquefaction generates key information needed to determine product yields for material balance and process control. Gas samples from the coal process development unit (CPDU) and tubing bombs are the primary samples analyzed. A Carle gas chromatographic system was used to analyze coal liquefaction gas samples. A BASIC computer program was written to calculate the gas chromatographic peak area results into mole percent results. ICRC has employed several analytical workup procedures to determine the amount of distillate, oils, asphaltenes, preasphaltenes, and residue in SRC-I process streams. The ASE procedure was developed using Conoco's liquid column fractionation (LC/F) method as a model. In developing the ASE procedure, ICRC was able to eliminate distillation, and therefore quantify the oils fraction in one extraction step. ASE results were shown to be reproducible within +- 2 wt %, and to yield acceptable material balances. Finally, the ASE method proved to be the least affected by sample composition.

  19. An economic model of the manufacturers' aircraft production and airline earnings potential, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Hill, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    A behavioral explanation of the process of technological change in the U. S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries is presented. The model indicates the principal factors which influence the aircraft (airframe) manufacturers in researching, developing, constructing and promoting new aircraft technology; and the financial requirements which determine the delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk airlines. Following specification and calibration of the model, the types and numbers of new aircraft were estimated historically for each airline's fleet. Examples of possible applications of the model to forecasting an individual airline's future fleet also are provided. The functional form of the model is a composite which was derived from several preceding econometric models developed on the foundations of the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change and represents an important contribution to the improved understanding of the economic and financial requirements for aircraft selection and production. The model's primary application will be to forecast the future types and numbers of new aircraft required for each domestic airline's fleet.

  20. Electronics Come of Age: A Taxonomy for Miscellaneous and LowPower Products

    SciTech Connect

    Nordman, Bruce; Sanchez, Marla C.

    2006-08-01

    Most energy end uses such as space conditioning or waterheating are apparently well-defined in what is included, and haveterminology that derives from the professionals who work in the relevantfield. The topic of miscellaneous consumption lacks such clarity forhistorical and practical reasons. As this end use grows in size andinterest for the energy community, the confusion and ambiguity around thetopic is an increasing barrier to progress. This paper providesdefinitions for key terms and concepts with the intent that that futurework can be more correctly and consistently reported and interpreted. Inaddition, it provides a taxonomy of product types and categories, whichcovers both residential and commercial miscellaneous consumption. A keyelement is identification of "electronics" as a distinct energy end use.Finally, products are identified as to whether they commonly have alow-power mode, and product types that have such modes within thetraditional end uses are also listed.

  1. Qualification of an integrated scatterometer for CD measurements of sub-100nm resist structures in a high-volume 300mm DRAM production environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschner, Thomas; Fleischer, Goeran; Fuchs, Stefan; Friedrich, Michael; Kramer, Uwe; Voigt, Matthias; Hetzer, Dave

    2005-05-01

    In our work, Tokyo Electron's iODP103 (integrated Optical Digital Profilometry) technology is used for integrated measurements on a next-generation Lithius Clean Track on after develop inspect (ADI) 300mm wafers. We show that single tool precision and tool-to-tool matching of three integrated systems fulfill the precision requirements of the 70nm DRAM technology node. Further results from a long-term pilot test using integrated scatterometry in a full-volume DRAM production of the 110nm technology node on 300mm wafers are also discussed. The data from our experiment is collected and charted in fab monitored statistical process control (SPC) charts, and compared to the charts from the POR CD-SEM measurements. The sampling plans are optimized in such a way as to perform fully integrated measurements on all wafers per lot, without throughput loss of the litho cluster. We demonstrate that the possibility of measuring all wafers per lot directly after development, in combination with the sensitivity of the method, allows the identification of effects that could not previously be identified by CD-SEM measurements alone.

  2. Electron Microscopic Analysis of Surface Inorganic Substances on Oral and Combustible Tobacco Products.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Mary M; Watson, Clifford H; Pappas, R Steven

    2015-01-01

    Although quantitative trace toxic metal analyses have been performed on tobacco products, little has been published on inorganic particulate constituents on and inside the products. We analyzed these constituents using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The nature of SEM-EDS instrumentation makes it an ideal choice for inorganic particulate analyses and yields relevant information to potential exposures during consumption of oral tobacco products, and possibly as a consequence of smoking. Aluminum silicates, silica and calcium compounds were common inorganic particulate constituents of tobacco products. Aluminum silicates and silica from soil were found on external leaf surfaces. Phytolithic silica, found in the lumen of the plant leaf, is of biogenic origin. Calcium oxalate was also apparently of biogenic origin. Small mineral deposits on tobacco could have health implications. Minerals found on the surfaces of smokeless tobacco products could possibly abrade the oral mucosa and contribute to the oral inflammatory responses observed with smokeless tobacco product use. If micron and sub-micron size calcium particles on cigarette filler were transported in mainstream smoke, they could potentially induce a pulmonary irritant inflammation when inhaled. The transport of aluminum silicate and silica in smoke could potentially also contribute to chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:26286581

  3. Production of High Energy Tail Electrons by Electron Bernstein Waves during the Current Start-up Discharges in the LATE Device

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Uchida, M.; Watanabe, F.; Noguchi, Y.; Maekawa, T.

    2011-12-23

    Toroidal plasma current is started and ramped up by injecting microwave power in the electron cyclotron range of frequency without induction in the LATE device. Radial scanning with hard X-ray pulse height analysis reveals the production of high energy electrons with average energy {approx}100 keV in the radial region from R = 28 cm to 40.5 cm, which are heated by electron Bernstein wave. The radial profile of photon counts in the energy range from 25 to 200 keV is very similar to that of perpendicular pressure obtained by magnetic measurement and equilibrium analysis, suggesting that a significant portion of trapped electrons exists outside the last closed flux surface. The plasma current inside the LCFS is carried mainly by passing electrons, while some portion of the outside current may be generated as a result of the toroidal precession of trapped electrons.

  4. Forward electron production in heavy ion-atom and ion-solid collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    A sharp cusp in the velocity spectrum of electrons, ejected in ion-atom and ion-solid collisions, is observed when the ejected electron velocity vector v/sub e/ matches that of the emergent ion vector v/sub p/ in both speed and direction. In ion-atom collisions, the electrons originate from capture to low-lying, projectile-centered continuum states (ECC) for fast bare or nearly bare projectiles, and from loss to those low-lying continuum states (ELC) when loosely bound projectile electrons are available. Most investigators now agree that ECC cusps are strongly skewed toward lower velocities, and exhibit full widths half maxima roughly proportional to v/sub p/ (neglecting target-shell effects, which are sometimes strong). A close examination of recent ELC data shows that ELC cusps are instead nearly symmetric, with widths nearly independent on v/sub p/ in the velocity range 6 to 18 a.u., a result only recently predicted by theory. Convoy electron cusps produced in heavy ion-solid collisions at MeV/u energies exhibit approximately velocity-independent widths very similar to ELC cusp widths. While the shape of the convoy peaks is approximately independent of projectile Z, velocity, and of target material, it is found that the yields in polycrystalline targets exhibit a strong dependence on projectile Z and velocity. While attempts have been made to link convoy electron production to binary ECC or ELC processes, sometimes at the last layer, or alternatively to a solid-state wake-riding model, our measured dependences of cusp shape and yield on projectile charge state and energy are inconsistent with the predictions of available theories. 10 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  5. Single impacts of keV fullerene ions on free standing graphene: Emission of ions and electrons from confined volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhoturov, Stanislav V.; Geng, Sheng; Czerwinski, Bartlomiej; Young, Amanda E.; Delcorte, Arnaud; Schweikert, Emile A.

    2015-10-01

    We present the first data from individual C60 impacting one to four layer graphene at 25 and 50 keV. Negative secondary ions and electrons emitted in transmission were recorded separately from each impact. The yields for Cn- clusters are above 10% for n ≤ 4, they oscillate with electron affinities and decrease exponentially with n. The result can be explained with the aid of MD simulation as a post-collision process where sufficient vibrational energy is accumulated around the rim of the impact hole for sputtering of carbon clusters. The ionization probability can be estimated by comparing experimental yields of Cn- with those of Cn0 from MD simulation, where it increases exponentially with n. The ionization probability can be approximated with ejecta from a thermally excited (3700 K) rim damped by cluster fragmentation and electron detachment. The experimental electron probability distributions are Poisson-like. On average, three electrons of thermal energies are emitted per impact. The thermal excitation model invoked for Cn- emission can also explain the emission of electrons. The interaction of C60 with graphene is fundamentally different from impacts on 3D targets. A key characteristic is the high degree of ionization of the ejecta.

  6. Single impacts of keV fullerene ions on free standing graphene: Emission of ions and electrons from confined volume

    SciTech Connect

    Verkhoturov, Stanislav V.; Geng, Sheng; Schweikert, Emile A.; Czerwinski, Bartlomiej; Young, Amanda E.; Delcorte, Arnaud

    2015-10-28

    We present the first data from individual C{sub 60} impacting one to four layer graphene at 25 and 50 keV. Negative secondary ions and electrons emitted in transmission were recorded separately from each impact. The yields for C{sub n}{sup −} clusters are above 10% for n ≤ 4, they oscillate with electron affinities and decrease exponentially with n. The result can be explained with the aid of MD simulation as a post-collision process where sufficient vibrational energy is accumulated around the rim of the impact hole for sputtering of carbon clusters. The ionization probability can be estimated by comparing experimental yields of C{sub n}{sup −} with those of C{sub n}{sup 0} from MD simulation, where it increases exponentially with n. The ionization probability can be approximated with ejecta from a thermally excited (3700 K) rim damped by cluster fragmentation and electron detachment. The experimental electron probability distributions are Poisson-like. On average, three electrons of thermal energies are emitted per impact. The thermal excitation model invoked for C{sub n}{sup −} emission can also explain the emission of electrons. The interaction of C{sub 60} with graphene is fundamentally different from impacts on 3D targets. A key characteristic is the high degree of ionization of the ejecta.

  7. A 1.4 meter electron curing system for the finishing of sheet wood products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, D.; Quintal, B. S.; Nablo, S. V.

    The advantages of high performance electron curable clear and pigmented topcoats, suitable for both wood and paper application, have been known for some time. Since 1978, great progress has also been made in the application of this technology to laminating for the flexible web converting industry. The combination of these systems with a single electron curing station offers the opportunity for "single-pass" finishing of laminated board which performs both the lamination and topcoat steps inline. A system is described which is used for the simultaneous laminating and topcoating of printed paper or vinyl to board. Typical panel dimensions are 1.2 × 2.5 meters (4 feet × 8 feet) and the product-handling Selfshield TM system used in-line to convey the panel products continuously through the electron curing station is 12.4 m × 1.56 m × 1.67 m (40 feet × 5 feet × 5.5 feet). The system is designed for use at speeds to 60 meters/minute (200 fpm). The performance specifications of both the Electrocurtain ® curing unit, and of typical topcoats and adhesives used with this system, will be discussed. The provisions required for inerting and venting of the processor zone when using these 100% reactive coatings will also be presented.

  8. Pair production from vacuum at the focus of an X-ray free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringwald, A.

    2001-06-01

    There are definite plans for the construction of X-ray free electron lasers (FEL), both at DESY, where the so-called XFEL is part of the design of the electron-positron linear collider TESLA, as well as at SLAC, where the so-called Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has been proposed. Such an X-ray laser would allow for high-field science applications: one could make use of not only the high energy and transverse coherence of the X-ray beam, but also of the possibility of focusing it to a spot with a small radius, hopefully in the range of the laser wavelength. Along this route one obtains very large electric fields, much larger than those obtainable with any optical laser of the same power. In this Letter we discuss the possibility of obtaining an electric field so high that electron-positron pairs are spontaneously produced in vacuum (Schwinger pair production). We find that if X-ray optics can be improved to approach the diffraction limit of focusing, and if the power of the planned X-ray FELs can be increased to the terawatt region, then there is ample room for an investigation of the Schwinger pair production mechanism.

  9. Production of O2 on icy satellites by electronic excitation of low-temperature water ice.

    PubMed

    Sieger, M T; Simpson, W C; Orlando, T M

    1998-08-01

    The signature of condensed molecular oxygen has been reported in recent optical-reflectance measurements of the jovian moon Ganymede, and a tenuous oxygen atmosphere has been observed on Europa. The surfaces of these moons contain large amounts of water ice, and it is thought that O2 is formed by the sputtering of ice by energetic particles from the jovian magnetosphere. Understanding how O2 might be formed from low-temperature ice is crucial for theoretical and experimental simulations of the surfaces and atmospheres of icy bodies in the Solar System. Here we report laboratory measurements of the threshold energy, cross-section and temperature dependence of O2 production by electronic excitation of ice in vacuum, following electron-beam irradiation. Molecular oxygen is formed by direct excitation and dissociation of a stable precursor molecule, rather than (as has been previously thought) by diffusion and chemical recombination of precursor fragments. The large cross-section for O2 production suggests that electronic excitation plays an important part in the formation of O2 on Ganymede and Europa. PMID:9707116

  10. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative

  11. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L.

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  12. Synchrotron radiation, pair production, and longitudinal electron motion during 10-100 PW laser solid interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, C. S.; Arber, T. D.; Ridgers, C. P.; York Plasma Institute, University of York, York, Yorkshire YO10 5DD ; Bell, A. R.

    2014-03-15

    At laser intensities above 10{sup 23} W/cm{sup 2}, the interaction of a laser with a plasma is qualitatively different to the interactions at lower intensities. In this intensity regime, solid targets start to become relativistically underdense, gamma-ray production by synchrotron emission starts to become an important feature of the dynamics and, at even higher intensities, electron-positron pair production by the non-linear Breit-Wheeler process starts to occur. In this paper, an analysis is presented of the effects of target density, laser intensity, target preplasma properties, and other parameters on the conversion efficiency, spectrum, and angular distribution of gamma-rays by synchrotron emission. An analysis of the importance of Breit-Wheeler pair production is also presented. Target electron densities between 10{sup 22} cm{sup −3} and 5 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup −3} and laser intensities covering the range between 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} (available with current generation laser facilities) and 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2} (upper intensity range expected from the ELI facility are considered. Results are explained in terms of the behaviour of the head of the laser pulse as it interacts with the target.

  13. Production of charm and beauty in e{sup +}e{sup -} with polarized electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Su, D.

    1995-09-01

    The test of the Standard Model through the measurements of Z{sup 0} to fermion couplings can benefit from much enhanced sensitivity by using longitudinally polarized electron beams. This report reviews preliminary electroweak measurements from SLD on heavy quark production at the Z{sup 0}, using 150,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays accumulated during the 93-95 runs with high electron beam polarization. The parity violating parameters A{sub b} and A{sub c} of the Zbb and Zcc couplings are measured directly from the left-right forward-backward asymmetries. A measurement of R{sub b} with a lifetime double tag and a summary of the preliminary measurement of A{sub LR} from the 93-95 SLD data are also included in this report.

  14. Plasma heating, plasma flow and wave production around an electron beam injected into the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.

    1986-01-01

    A brief historical summary of the Minnesota ECHO series and other relevant electron beam experiments is given. The primary purpose of the ECHO experiments is the use of conjugate echoes as probes of the magnetosphere, but beam-plasma and wave studies were also made. The measurement of quasi-dc electric fields and ion streaming during the ECHO 6 experiment has given a pattern for the plasma flow in the hot plasma region extending to 60m radius about the ECHO 6 electron beam. The sheath and potential well caused by ion orbits is discussed with the aid of a model which fits the observations. ELF wave production in the plasma sheath around the beam is briefly discussed. The new ECHO 7 mission to be launched from the Poker Flat range in November 1987 is described.

  15. Comparison of optics and electronics for the calculation of matrix-vector products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, C. K.

    1992-01-01

    Optical processors are attractive because of their ability to perform massively parallel operations such as matrix vector products. The inherently analog nature of optical calculations requires that optical processors be based on analog computations. While the speed at which such analog operations can be performed as well as the natural parallelism of optical systems are great advantages of optical processors, the analog representation of values severely limits the achievable accuracy. Furthermore, optical processors are limited by the need to convert information to and from the intensity of light. Digitization can be used to increase the accuracy of optical matrix-vector processors, but causes a severe reduction in speed. This paper compares the throughput and power requirements of optical and electronic processors, showing that optical matrix-vector processors can provide a greater number of operations/Watt than conventional electronics.

  16. Cross section for production of low-energy electron-positron pairs by relativistic heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eby, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    Starting with the lowest-order unscreened QED matrix element for electron-positron pair production by heavy charged particles, the paper calculates the cross section for this process differential in all independent variables and valid for all pair energies small compared to the incident particle energy. Integration over the possible emission angles of one of the pair members gives an expression that is valid for low-energy pairs that can be compared with previous work based on the Weizsaecker-Williams method. Integration over the possible angles of the other pair member then yields an expression identical to one derived by Racah. The high energy-transfer limit of the expression for the cross section integrated over electron and positron angles is found to be identical to that of Kelner in the unscreened case.

  17. Electron-Stimulated Reactions and O-2 Production in Methanol-Covered Amorphous Solid Water Films

    SciTech Connect

    Akin, Minta C.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Gregory A.

    2009-03-14

    The low-energy, electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of molecular products from amorphous solid water (ASW) films capped with methanol is investigated versus methanol coverage (0 - 4 x 1015 cm-2) at 50 K using 100 eV incident electrons. The major ESD products from a monolayer of methanol on ASW are quite similar to the ESD products from bulk methanol film: H2, CH4, H2O, C2H6, CO, CH2O, and CH3OH. For 40 ML ASW films, the molecular oxygen, hydrogen, and water ESD yields from the ASW are suppressed with increasing methanol coverage, while the CH3OH ESD yield increases proportionally to the methanol coverage. The suppression of the water ESD products by methanol is consistent with the non-thermal reactions occurring preferentially at or near the ASW/vacuum interface and not in the interior of the film. The water and molecular hydrogen ESD yields from the water layer decrease exponentially with the methanol cap coverage with 1/e constants of ~ 0.6 x 1015 cm-2 and 1.6 x 1015 cm-2, respectively. In contrast, the O2 ESD from the water layer is very efficiently quenched by small amounts of methanol (1/e ~ 6.5 x 1013 cm-2). The rapid suppression of O2 production by small amounts of methanol is due to reactions between CH3OH and the precursors for the O2 - mainly OH radicals. A kinetic model for the O2 ESD which semi-quantitatively accounts for the observations is presented.

  18. SF-6 production via excimer-mediated electron attachment to mixed rare gas/SF6 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foltin, M.; Rauth, T.; Märk, T. D.

    1992-08-01

    Electron attachment to mixed rare gas/SF6 clusters -- in contrast to pure SF6 clusters -- shows for the production of SF-6 ions, besides the zero energy resonance, an additional resonance peak at higher electron energies in the attachment cross-section function. The process of SF-6 production via this new resonance channel involves a multiple collision electron scavenging mechanism followed by an excimer-(R2*) induced decay of an intermediate complex ion (Rm·R2*SF-6 plus neutral products.

  19. Initial Assessment of Electron and X-Ray Production and Charge Exchange in the NDCX-II Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    COHEN, R.H.

    2010-02-18

    The purpose of this note is to provide initial assessments of some atomic physics effects for the accelerator section of NDCX-II. There are several effects we address: the production of electrons associated with loss of beam ions to the walls, the production of electrons associated with ionization of background gas, the possibly resultant production of X-rays when these electrons hit bounding surfaces, and charge exchange of beam ions on background gas. The results presented here are based on a number of caveats that will be stated below, which we will attempt to remove in the near future.

  20. Advanced rotor forgings for high-temperature steam turbines. Volume 1. Ingot and forging production. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, V.P.; Steiner, J.E.; Mitchell, A.

    1986-05-01

    Three advanced steel-melting processes - low-sulfur vacuum silicon deoxidation, electroslag remelting, and vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD) - were applied to produce three CrMoV (ASTM A470, Class 8) steel forgings for steam turbine application. Ingots weighing about 100 t each were produced using these three processes, and rotors were forged with final weights of about 30 t each. Compared to the conventionally produced forgings, the advanced technology forgings show better tensile ductility and better uniformity along the radial and longitudinal directions. Charpy upper-shelf energy shows about 40% improvement, and no temper embrittlement was found using step-cooled and isothermal-aging treatments. Significant improvement in fracture toughness (K/sub IC/ and J/sub IC/) is realized for these forgings. Low-cycle fatigue life is better at high temperatures because of the absence of nonmetallic inclusions. Creep strength shows slight improvement. However, creep ductility is improved, probably because of low residual elements. The VCD forgings show excellent creep ductility, even with long lives. Both the toughness and creep properties are equal to or better than those of oil-quenched rotors produced by European practices. These improvements are attributed to cleaner steel, better control of ingot solidification, low residual elements (especially very low sulfur content), and the associated reduction of nonmetallic inclusions. These three rotors have been placed in service in three operating power plants in units rated at 520 MW each. Volume 1 of this report covers ingot and forging production, and volume 2 covers mechanical property evaluation.

  1. Training effects on ROS production determined by electron paramagnetic resonance in master swimmers.

    PubMed

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Porcelli, Simone; Pugliese, Lorenzo; Pavei, Gaspare; Bellistri, Giuseppe; Montorsi, Michela; Tacchini, Philippe; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Acute exercise induces an increase in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production dependent on exercise intensity with highest ROS amount generated by strenuous exercise. However, chronic repetition of exercise, that is, exercise training, may reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6-weeks high-intensity discontinuous training (HIDT), characterized by repeated variations of intensity and changes of redox potential, on ROS production and antioxidant capacity in sixteen master swimmers. Time course changes of ROS generation were assessed by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in capillary blood by a microinvasive approach. An incremental arm-ergometer exercise (IE) until exhaustion was carried out at both before (PRE) and after (POST) training (Trg) period. A significant (P < 0.01) increase of ROS production from REST to the END of IE in PRE Trg (2.82 ± 0.66 versus 3.28 ± 0.66 µmol·min(-1)) was observed. HIDT increased peak oxygen consumption (36.1 ± 4.3 versus 40.6 ± 5.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) PRE and POST Trg, resp.) and the antioxidant capacity (+13%) while it significantly decreased the ROS production both at REST (-20%) and after IE (-25%). The observed link between ROS production, adaptive antioxidant defense mechanisms, and peak oxygen consumption provides new insight into the correlation between ROS response pathways and muscle metabolic function. PMID:25874024

  2. Training Effects on ROS Production Determined by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Master Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Porcelli, Simone; Pugliese, Lorenzo; Pavei, Gaspare; Bellistri, Giuseppe; Montorsi, Michela; Tacchini, Philippe; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Acute exercise induces an increase in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production dependent on exercise intensity with highest ROS amount generated by strenuous exercise. However, chronic repetition of exercise, that is, exercise training, may reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6-weeks high-intensity discontinuous training (HIDT), characterized by repeated variations of intensity and changes of redox potential, on ROS production and antioxidant capacity in sixteen master swimmers. Time course changes of ROS generation were assessed by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in capillary blood by a microinvasive approach. An incremental arm-ergometer exercise (IE) until exhaustion was carried out at both before (PRE) and after (POST) training (Trg) period. A significant (P < 0.01) increase of ROS production from REST to the END of IE in PRE Trg (2.82 ± 0.66 versus 3.28 ± 0.66 µmol·min−1) was observed. HIDT increased peak oxygen consumption (36.1 ± 4.3 versus 40.6 ± 5.7 mL·kg−1·min−1 PRE and POST Trg, resp.) and the antioxidant capacity (+13%) while it significantly decreased the ROS production both at REST (−20%) and after IE (−25%). The observed link between ROS production, adaptive antioxidant defense mechanisms, and peak oxygen consumption provides new insight into the correlation between ROS response pathways and muscle metabolic function. PMID:25874024

  3. Evaluation of the effect of tooth and dental restoration material on electron dose distribution and production of photon contamination in electron beam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Akbari, Fatemeh; Mehrpouyan, Mohammad; Sobhkhiz Sabet, Leila

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of tooth and dental restoration materials on electron dose distribution and photon contamination production in electron beams of a medical linac. This evaluation was performed on 8, 12 and 14 MeV electron beams of a Siemens Primus linac. MCNPX Monte Carlo code was utilized and a 10 × 10 cm(2) applicator was simulated in the cases of tooth and combinations of tooth and Ceramco C3 ceramic veneer, tooth and Eclipse alloy and tooth and amalgam restoration materials in a soft tissue phantom. The relative electron and photon contamination doses were calculated for these materials. The presence of tooth and dental restoration material changed the electron dose distribution and photon contamination in phantom, depending on the type of the restoration material and electron beam's energy. The maximum relative electron dose was 1.07 in the presence of tooth including amalgam for 14 MeV electron beam. When 100.00 cGy was prescribed for the reference point, the maximum absolute electron dose was 105.10 cGy in the presence of amalgam for 12 MeV electron beam and the maximum absolute photon contamination dose was 376.67 μGy for tooth in 14 MeV electron beam. The change in electron dose distribution should be considered in treatment planning, when teeth are irradiated in electron beam radiotherapy. If treatment planning can be performed in such a way that the teeth are excluded from primary irradiation, the potential errors in dose delivery to the tumour and normal tissues can be avoided. PMID:26581762

  4. Electron-cooled accumulation of 4 × 109 positrons for production and storage of antihydrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzakerley, D. W.; George, M. C.; Hessels, E. A.; Skinner, T. D. G.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Gabrielse, G.; Hamley, C. D.; Jones, N.; Marable, K.; Tardiff, E.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Zielinski, M.; ATRAP Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Four billion positrons (e+) are accumulated in a Penning-Ioffe trap apparatus at 1.2 K and <6 × 10-17 Torr. This is the largest number of positrons ever held in a Penning trap. The e+ are cooled by collisions with trapped electrons (e-) in this first demonstration of using e- for efficient loading of e+ into a Penning trap. The combined low temperature and vacuum pressure provide an environment suitable for antihydrogen (\\bar{{{H}}}) production, and long antimatter storage times, sufficient for high-precision tests of antimatter gravity and of CPT.

  5. Numerical simulation study of positron production by intense laser-accelerated electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yonghong; Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 ; Dong, Kegong; Wu, Yuchi; Zhang, Bo; Gu, Yuqiu; Yao, Zeen

    2013-10-15

    Positron production by ultra-intense laser-accelerated electrons has been studied with two-dimensional particle-in-cell and Monte Carlo simulations. The dependence of the positron yield on plasma density, plasma length, and converter thickness was investigated in detail with fixed parameters of a typical 100 TW laser system. The results show that with the optimal plasma and converter parameters a positron beam containing up to 1.9 × 10{sup 10} positrons can be generated, which has a small divergence angle (10°), a high temperature (67.2 MeV), and a short pulse duration (1.7 ps)

  6. Production of Ne Auger electrons by Ne/+/ bombardment of Mg and Al surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Pepper, S. V.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of experiments which provide evidence for the production of an inner shell vacancy in the Ne by the asymmetric Ne-Mg and Ne-Al collision. In addition, autoionization states of neutral Ne have been observed. These states are to be distinguished from the more usual case in Auger electron spectroscopy of de-excitation of an ion with a core vacancy. The experiments involved the bombardment of Mg and Al surfaces with Ne(+) ions. A LEED-Auger system equipped with an ion gun and a four-grid retarding potential analyzer operated in the usual dN(E)/dE mode was used.

  7. Laser-driven wavebreaking, electron trapping, and mono-energetic beam production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esarey, Eric

    2006-10-01

    Recent breakthrough results reported in Nature demonstrate that laser-plasma accelerators can produce high quality (e.g., narrow energy spread) electron bunches at the 100 MeV level that may be useful for numerous applications. More recently, high quality electron beams at 1 GeV were produced in experiments at LBNL using 40 TW laser pulse interacting with a 3.3 cm plasma channel. In these experiments, the accelerated electrons were self-trapped from the background plasma, often attributed to the process of wavebreaking. Using a warm fluid model, a general analytic theory of wavebreaking has been developed that is valid for all regimes of interest, i.e., arbitrary temperature and phase velocity. This theory indicates that the maximum electric field obtainable by a relativistic plasma wave is lower that previously calculated. The relation between wavebreaking and particle trapping is discussed, and various quantities, such as the fraction of electrons trapped (i.e., the dark current), are calculated. A variety of methods for particle trapping relevant to present experiments, including 2D wavebreaking, density ramps, and laser injection, will be described. Limitations from dephasing and pump depletion will be summarized. Also presented will be 2D and 3D simulations modeling the production high quality electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators. C.G.R. Geddes et al., Nature 431, 538 (2004); S.P.D. Mangles et al., ibid., p. 535; J. Faure et al., ibid., p. 541. W.P. Leemans et al., submitted. C.B. Schroeder et al., Phys. Rev. E bf 72, 055401 (2005). C.B. Schroeder et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 033103 (2006). G. Fubiani et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 026402 (2006).

  8. Neutron production from a mobile linear accelerator operating in electron mode for intraoperative radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loi, G.; Dominietto, M.; Cannillo, B.; Ciocca, M.; Krengli, M.; Mones, E.; Negri, E.; Brambilla, M.

    2006-02-01

    Intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy is increasingly performed using mobile linac delivering therapeutic radiation doses in unshielded operating rooms. While no special neutron-shielding problem should arise for operation at 10 MeV or less, it is not clear whether this holds true for operation at higher energies. This paper reports the measured neutron production from a Mobetron mobile electron linac, operated at 12 MeV, and compares the results with those from a conventional linac, also operated at 12 MeV in electron mode. Neutron leakage measurements were performed by means of passive bubble detectors in the scattering foil, patient and floor planes. Neutron dose equivalent rates per unit of electron dose delivered by the Mobetron at its normal treatment distance (50 cm SSD) were 0.33 µSv Gy-1 at the accelerator head, 0.18 µSv Gy-1 in the patient plane at 15 cm from the beam axis and 0.31 µSv Gy-1 at the floor plane, on the beam axis and under the beam stopper. For a weekly workload of 250 Gy, the weekly neutron dose equivalents at 12 MeV for the Mobetron at a distance of 300 cm from the scattering foil were 14.3 and 1.7 µSv/week for floor below and adjoining areas on the same floor, respectively. Neutron dose equivalent rates generated from Mobetron are at least one order of magnitude lower than ones produced by a conventional linac operated at the same energy in electron mode. Mobetron can be used at 12 MeV in an unshielded operating room for a weekly workload of up to 250 Gy if the bremsstrahlung x-rays are shielded to negligible levels.

  9. A volume averaged global model study of the influence of the electron energy distribution and the wall material on an oxygen discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toneli, D. A.; Pessoa, R. S.; Roberto, M.; Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    A low pressure high density oxygen discharge is studied through a global (volume averaged) model in the pressure range 0.5-100 mTorr. The goal of this work is to evaluate the dependence of collisional energy loss per electron-ion pair created, effective electron temperature, mean density of species, and mean electronegativity on the electron energy distribution function. Differences in the results for Maxwellian and non-Maxwellian distributions show the importance of using a proper electron energy distribution function in discharge modelling. We also explore the differences due to different reactor wall materials comparing the results for an anodized aluminium reactor with a stainless steel reactor. Due to the low recombination coefficient for oxygen atoms on the anodized aluminium walls, the yield of atomic oxygen in anodized aluminium reactors increases significantly as compared to stainless steel reactors. However, the difference of the yield of atomic oxygen in these reactors decreases as pressure increases. Thus, anodized aluminium reactors can be desired for applications where a high concentration of atomic oxygen is required. Finally, the importance of quenching coefficient for plasma modelling is stressed through the quenching coefficient at the walls for {{\\text{O}}2} ({{\\text{b}}1}Σ\\text{g}+ ). Low quenching coefficients result in high densities of {{\\text{O}}2} ({{\\text{b}}1}Σ\\text{g}+ ) affecting the mean electronegativity of the plasma due to the decrease in the density of \\text{O}2- .

  10. Time evolution of bremsstrahlung and ion production of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Tarvainen, Ollie; Ropponen, Tommi; Jones, Peter; Peura, Pauli

    2008-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung radiation measurement is one of the most commonly used plasma diagnostics methods. Most of the bremsstrahlung measurements with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources have been performed in continuous operation mode yielding information only on the steady state bremsstrahlung emission. This article describes the results of bremsstrahlung and ion current measurement with the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS operated in pulsed mode. The experiments reveal information about the bremsstrahlung radiation in plasma conditions before reaching the equilibrium. The time scale of bremsstrahlung production is compared to ion production time scale for different charge states. The bremsstrahlung data is presented with 2 millisecond time intervals as a function of neutral gas pressure and microwave power. Data from hundreds of microwave pulses is combined in order to have a sufficient amount of events at each time step. The relevant plasma physics phenomena during both, the leading and the trailing edge of the RF pulse, are discussed.

  11. Production of doubly charmed tetraquarks with exotic color configurations in electron-positron collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, Tetsuo; Liu, Yan-Rui; Oka, Makoto; Sudoh, Kazutaka; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2013-04-01

    Structure and production of doubly charmed tetraquarks Tcc (cc ubardbar) are studied from the viewpoint of color configurations. Based on the diquark correlation, the tetraquark Tcc with I (JP) = 0 (1+) is considered to be stable against strong decay. We discuss that the mixing probability of color antitriplet and sextet cc components in Tcc is suppressed by 1 / mc2, so the two configurations are separately realized in the heavy quark limit. Utilizing the nonrelativistic QCD framework, we evaluate the production cross sections of Tcc in electron-positron collisions. The momentum dependence of the cross section of color antitriplet is found to be different from that of sextet, which can be used to discriminate the color structure of the Tcc states in experimental measurements.

  12. Dynamics of energy transport and entropy production in ac-driven quantum electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludovico, María Florencia; Moskalets, Michael; Sánchez, David; Arrachea, Liliana

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the time-resolved energy transport and the entropy production in ac-driven quantum coherent electron systems coupled to multiple reservoirs at finite temperature. At slow driving, we formulate the first and second laws of thermodynamics valid at each instant of time. We identify heat fluxes flowing through the different pieces of the device and emphasize the importance of the energy stored in the contact and central regions for the second law of thermodynamics to be instantaneously satisfied. In addition, we discuss conservative and dissipative contributions to the heat flux and to the entropy production as a function of time. We illustrate these ideas with a simple model corresponding to a driven level coupled to two reservoirs with different chemical potentials.

  13. Electron pair production in p + Be and Ca + Ca collisions at the Bevalac

    SciTech Connect

    Naudet, C.; Carroll, J.; Gordon, J.; Hallman, T.; Igo, G.; Kirk, P.; Krebs, G.F.; Lallier, E.; Landaud, G.; Letessier, A.

    1988-07-01

    We report on the measurements of direct electron pair production in p-Be interactions at 1.0, 2.1 and 4.9 GeV and Ca + Ca at 1.0 and 2.0 GeV/A. The distributions of invariant mass and p/sub t/ are presented along with the total cross section. We observe a structure in the invariant mass spectra at approximately 275 MeV for 2.0 and 4.9 GeV p + Be data. A rapid decrease in the p + Be total cross-section is observed between 2.1 and 1.0 GeV. Both observations are consistent with the interpretation that pion-pion annihilations dominate production mechanism. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Zeikus, J.G.; Jain, M.

    1993-12-31

    The project deals with understanding the fundamental biochemical mechanisms that physiologically control and regulate carbon and electron flow in anaerobic chemosynthetic bacteria that couple metabolism of single carbon compounds and hydrogen to the production of organic acids (formic, acetic, butyric, and succinic) or methane. The authors compare the regulation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism by fermentation, enzyme, and electron carrier analysis using Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, Anaeroblospirillum succiniciproducens, Methanosarcina barkeri, and a newly isolated tri-culture composed of a syntrophic butyrate degrader strain IB, Methanosarcina mazei and Methanobacterium formicicum as model systems. To understand the regulation of hydrogen metabolism during butyrate production or acetate degradation, hydrogenase activity in B. methylotrophicum or M. barkeri is measured in relation to growth substrate and pH; hydrogenase is purified and characterized to investigate number of hydrogenases; their localization and functions; and, their sequences are determined. To understand the mechanism for catabolic CO{sub 2} fixation to succinate the PEP carboxykinase enzyme and gene of A. succiniciproducens are purified and characterized. Genetically engineered strains of Escherichia coli containing the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase gene are examined for their ability to produce succinate in high yield. To understand the mechanism of fatty acid degradation by syntrophic acetogens during mixed culture methanogenesis formate and hydrogen production are characterized by radio tracer studies. It is intended that these studies provide strategies to improve anaerobic fermentations used for the production of organic acids or methane and, new basic understanding on catabolic CO{sub 2} fixation mechanisms and on the function of hydrogenase in anaerobic bacteria.

  15. Volume production of high quality SiC substrates and epitaxial layers: Defect trends and device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, St. G.; Sanchez, E. K.; Hansen, D. M.; Drachev, R. D.; Chung, G.; Thomas, B.; Zhang, J.; Loboda, M. J.; Dudley, M.; Wang, H.; Wu, F.; Byrappa, S.; Raghothamachar, B.; Choi, G.

    2012-08-01

    We review the progress of silicon carbide (SiC) bulk growth by the sublimation method, highlighting recent advances at Dow Corning, which resulted in the commercial release of 100 mm n-type 4H-SiC wafers with median micropipe densities (MPD) in production wafers <0.1 cm-2 and the demonstration of micropipe free material over a full 100 mm diameter. Investigations by Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWBXRT) and molten KOH etch pit analysis of 100 mm wafers demonstrate threading screw dislocation densities <500 cm-2. Additional results indicate the positive impact of maintaining thermo-mechanical stress levels in the growing crystal below the critical resolved shear stress on reducing basal plane dislocation densities to values as low as ˜300-400 cm-2 in 100 mm crystals. We summarize the steps of systematic quality improvements on increasing wafer diameter, utilizing numerical simulations of the SiC growth system as a critical tool to guide this process. For the economical production of SiC epitaxy, a 10×100 mm wafer platform has been established in a warm-wall planetary chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor. The combined improvements in the epitaxy process, pre-epi wafer surface preparation and the underlying substrate quality itself have led to a reduction of the device killer defect density from 8 cm-2 to 1.5 cm-2 on a volume product like 100 mm 4° off-axis 6.5 μm epi-wafers. Dow Corning production epi-wafers routinely show Schottky diode yields above 90% at a die size of 2 mm×2 mm. Additionally, 50-100 μm thick epitaxy on 76 mm 4° off-axis wafers with morphological defect densities of 2-6 cm-2, a surface roughness (RMS) ≤1 nm as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and carrier lifetimes consistently in the range of 2-3 μs has been demonstrated.

  16. Structural identification of electron transfer dissociation products in mass spectrometry using infrared ion spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Martens, Jonathan; Grzetic, Josipa; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry occupies a principle place among modern analytical methods and drives many developments in the 'omics' sciences. Electron attachment induced dissociation methods, as alternatives for collision-induced dissociation have profoundly influenced the field of proteomics, enabling among others the top-down sequencing of entire proteins and the analysis of post-translational modifications. The technique, however, produces more complex mass spectra and its radical-driven reaction mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate the facile structural characterization of electron transfer dissociation generated peptide fragments by infrared ion spectroscopy using the tunable free-electron laser FELIX, aiding the elucidation of the underlying dissociation mechanisms. We apply this method to verify and revise previously proposed product ion structures for an often studied model tryptic peptide, [AlaAlaHisAlaArg+2H](2+). Comparing experiment with theory reveals that structures that would be assigned using only theoretical thermodynamic considerations often do not correspond to the experimentally sampled species. PMID:27277826

  17. Matrix-product-state method with local basis optimization for nonequilibrium electron-phonon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Brockt, Christoph; Dorfner, Florian; Vidmar, Lev; Jeckelmann, Eric

    We present a method for simulating the time evolution of quasi-one-dimensional correlated systems with strongly fluctuating bosonic degrees of freedom (e.g., phonons) using matrix product states. For this purpose we combine the time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) algorithm with a local basis optimization (LBO) approach. We discuss the performance of our approach in comparison to TEBD with a bare boson basis, exact diagonalization, and diagonalization in a limited functional space. TEBD with LBO can reduce the computational cost by orders of magnitude when boson fluctuations are large and thus it allows one to investigate problems that are out of reach of other approaches. First, we test our method on the non-equilibrium dynamics of a Holstein polaron and show that it allows us to study the regime of strong electron-phonon coupling. Second, the method is applied to the scattering of an electronic wave packet off a region with electron-phonon coupling. Our study reveals a rich physics including transient self-trapping and dissipation. Supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via FOR 1807.

  18. Direct electron-pair production by high energy heavy charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Dong, B. L.

    1989-01-01

    Direct electron pain production via virtual photons by moving charged particles is a unique electro-magnetic process having a substantial dependence on energy. Most electro-magnetic processes, including transition radiation, cease to be sensitive to the incident energy above 10 TeV/AMU. Thus, it is expected, that upon establishment of cross section and detection efficiency of this process, it may provide a new energy measuring technique above 10 TeV/AMU. Three accelerator exposures of emulsion chambers designed for measurements of direct electron-pains were performed. The objectives of the investigation were to provide the fundamental cross-section data in emulsion stacks to find the best-fit theoretical model, and to provide a calibration of measurements of direct electron-pairs in emulsion chamber configurations. This paper reports the design of the emulsion chambers, accelerator experiments, microscope measurements, and related considerations for future improvements of the measurements, and for possible applications to high energy cosmic ray experiments. Also discussed are the results from scanning 56m of emulsion tracks at 1200x magnification so that scanning efficiency is optimized. Measurements of the delta-ray range spectrum were also performed for much shorter track lengths, but with sufficiently large statistics in the number of measured delta-rays.

  19. Electron Acceleration and Ionization Production in High-Power Heating Experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, E. V.; Pedersen, T.

    2012-12-01

    Recent ionospheric modification experiments with the 3.6 MW transmitter at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska led to discovery of artificial ionization descending from the nominal interaction altitude in the background F-region ionosphere by ~60-80 km. Artificial ionization production is indicated by significant 427.8 nm emissions from the 1st negative band of N2+ and the appearance of transmitter-induced bottomside traces in ionosonde data during the periods of most intense optical emissions. However, the exact mechanisms producing the artificial plasmas remain to be determined. Yet the only existing theoretical models explain the development of artificial plasma as an ionizing wavefront moving downward due to ionization by electrons accelerated by HF-excited strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) generated near the plasma resonance, where the pump frequency matches the plasma frequency. However, the observations suggest also the significance of interactions with upper hybrid and electron Bernstein waves near multiples of the electron gyrofrequency. We describe recent observations and discuss suitable acceleration mechanisms.

  20. Photon emission and pair production in the interaction of ultra-intense lasers with electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirka, Martin; Klimo, Ondrej; Bulanov, Sergei; Weber, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    With the advent of 10 PW laser facilities, new regimes of laser-matter interaction are opening since QED effects come into play. Due to the radiation reaction which takes place in ultra-intense laser-matter interactions, charged particles lose their energy by emitting high-energy photons. These photons can in the strong laser field create electron-positron pairs via Breit-Wheeler process. One possible interaction scenario leading to efficient generation of pairs is the interaction of two colliding laser pulses with an electron target lying in the common focal spot. In our PIC simulations, gamma-ray photon emission and pair production are studied for different laser wavelengths, intensities and both laser polarization. According to our results, linearly polarized laser pulses seem to be more convenient for efficient pair creation. The role of ions contained in the target and its density are also assessed. Results are compared with the different interaction configuration when the energetic electron bunch interacts with one counter-propagating laser pulse. This research has been partially supported by the Czech Science Foundation (Project No. 15-02964S).

  1. Structural identification of electron transfer dissociation products in mass spectrometry using infrared ion spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Jonathan; Grzetic, Josipa; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry occupies a principle place among modern analytical methods and drives many developments in the ‘omics' sciences. Electron attachment induced dissociation methods, as alternatives for collision-induced dissociation have profoundly influenced the field of proteomics, enabling among others the top-down sequencing of entire proteins and the analysis of post-translational modifications. The technique, however, produces more complex mass spectra and its radical-driven reaction mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate the facile structural characterization of electron transfer dissociation generated peptide fragments by infrared ion spectroscopy using the tunable free-electron laser FELIX, aiding the elucidation of the underlying dissociation mechanisms. We apply this method to verify and revise previously proposed product ion structures for an often studied model tryptic peptide, [AlaAlaHisAlaArg+2H]2+. Comparing experiment with theory reveals that structures that would be assigned using only theoretical thermodynamic considerations often do not correspond to the experimentally sampled species. PMID:27277826

  2. Effect of industrial by-products containing electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice cultivation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2009-10-01

    Three industrial by-products (fly ash, phosphogypsum and blast furnace slag), were evaluated for their potential re-use as soil amendments to reduce methane (CH(4)) emission resulting from rice cultivation. In laboratory incubations, CH(4) production rates from anoxic soil slurries were significantly reduced at amendment levels of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (wt wt(-1)), while observed CO(2) production rates were enhanced. The level of suppression in methane production was the highest for phosphogypsum, followed by blast slag and then fly ash. In the greenhouse experiment, CH(4) emission rates from the rice planted potted soils significantly decreased with the increasing levels (2-20 Mg ha(-1)) of the selected amendments applied, while rice yield simultaneously increased compared to the control treatment. At 10 Mg ha(-1) application level of the amendments, total seasonal CH(4) emissions were reduced by 20%, 27% and 25%, while rice grain yields were increased by 17%, 15% and 23% over the control with fly ash, phosphogypsum, and blast slag amendments, respectively. The suppression of CH(4) production rates as well as total seasonal CH(4) flux could be due to the increased concentrations of active iron, free iron, manganese oxides, and sulfate in the amended soil, which acted as electron acceptors and controlled methanogens' activity by limiting substrates availability. Among the amendments, blast furnace slag and fly ash contributed mainly to improve the soil nutrients balance and increased the soil pH level towards neutral point, but soil acidity was developed with phosphogypsum application. Conclusively, blast slag among the selected amendments would be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH(4) emissions as well as sustaining rice productivity. PMID:19560334

  3. Effect of industrial by-products containing electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice cultivation

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2009-10-15

    Three industrial by-products (fly ash, phosphogypsum and blast furnace slag), were evaluated for their potential re-use as soil amendments to reduce methane (CH{sub 4}) emission resulting from rice cultivation. In laboratory incubations, CH{sub 4} production rates from anoxic soil slurries were significantly reduced at amendment levels of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (wt wt{sup -1}), while observed CO{sub 2} production rates were enhanced. The level of suppression in methane production was the highest for phosphogypsum, followed by blast slag and then fly ash. In the greenhouse experiment, CH{sub 4} emission rates from the rice planted potted soils significantly decreased with the increasing levels (2-20 Mg ha{sup -1}) of the selected amendments applied, while rice yield simultaneously increased compared to the control treatment. At 10 Mg ha{sup -1} application level of the amendments, total seasonal CH{sub 4} emissions were reduced by 20%, 27% and 25%, while rice grain yields were increased by 17%, 15% and 23% over the control with fly ash, phosphogypsum, and blast slag amendments, respectively. The suppression of CH{sub 4} production rates as well as total seasonal CH{sub 4} flux could be due to the increased concentrations of active iron, free iron, manganese oxides, and sulfate in the amended soil, which acted as electron acceptors and controlled methanogens' activity by limiting substrates availability. Among the amendments, blast furnace slag and fly ash contributed mainly to improve the soil nutrients balance and increased the soil pH level towards neutral point, but soil acidity was developed with phosphogypsum application. Conclusively, blast slag among the selected amendments would be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH{sub 4} emissions as well as sustaining rice productivity.

  4. Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous Solid Water

    SciTech Connect

    Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kavetski, Alexandre G.; Kimmel, Greg A.

    2006-02-16

    The low-energy, electron-stimulated production of molecular oxygen from pure amorphous solid water (ASW) films and ASW films co-dosed with H2O2 is investigated. Layered films of H216O and H218O are used to determine the spatial profile of the reactions in the films leading to O2. The O2 yield is dose-dependent, indicating that precursors are involved in the O2 production. For temperatures below {approx}80 K, the O2 yield at steady state is relatively low and nearly independent of temperature. At higher temperatures, the yield increases rapidly. The O2 yield is enhanced from H2O2-dosed water films, but the experiments show that H2O2 is not the final precursor in the reactions leading to O2. Instead, a stable precursor for O2 is produced through a multi-step reaction sequence probably involving the reactions of OH radicals to produce H2O2 and then HO2. The O2 is produced in a non-thermal reaction from the HO2. For relatively thick films, the reactions leading to O2 occur at or near the ASW/vacuum interface. However, the electronic excitations which initiate the reactions occur over a larger range in the film. A kinetic model which qualitatively accounts for all of the observations is presented.

  5. Rerouting Cellular Electron Flux To Increase the Rate of Biological Methane Production

    PubMed Central

    Catlett, Jennie L.; Ortiz, Alicia M.

    2015-01-01

    Methanogens are anaerobic archaea that grow by producing methane, a gas that is both an efficient renewable fuel and a potent greenhouse gas. We observed that overexpression of the cytoplasmic heterodisulfide reductase enzyme HdrABC increased the rate of methane production from methanol by 30% without affecting the growth rate relative to the parent strain. Hdr enzymes are essential in all known methane-producing archaea. They function as the terminal oxidases in the methanogen electron transport system by reducing the coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethane sulfonate) and coenzyme B (7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine sulfonate) heterodisulfide, CoM-S-S-CoB, to regenerate the thiol-coenzymes for reuse. In Methanosarcina acetivorans, HdrABC expression caused an increased rate of methanogenesis and a decrease in metabolic efficiency on methylotrophic substrates. When acetate was the sole carbon and energy source, neither deletion nor overexpression of HdrABC had an effect on growth or methane production rates. These results suggest that in cells grown on methylated substrates, the cell compensates for energy losses due to expression of HdrABC with an increased rate of substrate turnover and that HdrABC lacks the appropriate electron donor in acetate-grown cells. PMID:26162885

  6. Rerouting Cellular Electron Flux To Increase the Rate of Biological Methane Production.

    PubMed

    Catlett, Jennie L; Ortiz, Alicia M; Buan, Nicole R

    2015-10-01

    Methanogens are anaerobic archaea that grow by producing methane, a gas that is both an efficient renewable fuel and a potent greenhouse gas. We observed that overexpression of the cytoplasmic heterodisulfide reductase enzyme HdrABC increased the rate of methane production from methanol by 30% without affecting the growth rate relative to the parent strain. Hdr enzymes are essential in all known methane-producing archaea. They function as the terminal oxidases in the methanogen electron transport system by reducing the coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethane sulfonate) and coenzyme B (7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine sulfonate) heterodisulfide, CoM-S-S-CoB, to regenerate the thiol-coenzymes for reuse. In Methanosarcina acetivorans, HdrABC expression caused an increased rate of methanogenesis and a decrease in metabolic efficiency on methylotrophic substrates. When acetate was the sole carbon and energy source, neither deletion nor overexpression of HdrABC had an effect on growth or methane production rates. These results suggest that in cells grown on methylated substrates, the cell compensates for energy losses due to expression of HdrABC with an increased rate of substrate turnover and that HdrABC lacks the appropriate electron donor in acetate-grown cells. PMID:26162885

  7. Electron Source in Photoinduced Hydrogen Production on Pt-supported TiO Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Craig L.; Henderson, Michael A.; McCready, David E.; Herman, Gregory S.

    2001-01-18

    Abe et al. illuminated an aqueous suspension of TiO/Pt with a Hg arc lamp and observed H production in the absence of O production. An unspecified elemental analysis excluded carbonaceous contaminants, and the source of the electron donor was concluded to be Ti+ cations. We can suggest at least three more likely (than Ti) sources for their mysterious electron donor: (1)an overlooked inorganic species, (2) Ti, and/or (3)organic impurities. The authors excluded the latter in their paper, but we view this conclusion as suspect given the lack of information on the limits of detection of the carbon assay, and the fact that the choice of argon(thermal conductivity= 41.33 x 10-6 cal cm-2s-1 (C cm-1)-1)3 as a carrier gas in their thermal conductivity detector4 probably precluded the observation of CO (thermal conductivity= 37.61 x 10-6 cal cm-2s-1 (C cm-1)-1)3, which is a common product of organic photochemical oxidations. No mention is made of an analysis for inorganic impurities. It is widely accepted that nanometer scale TiO particles can have significant fractions of undercoordinated Ti sites which can be easily oxidized to Ti, the highest valence of Ti observed in condensed phases. Here we point out that oxidation of Ti to Ti is much more physically realistic than oxidation of Ti to Ti. Removal of a fifth electron from titanium requires {approx}56 eV5.Ti, if it were to be generated in a solid oxide, would extract an electron from the valence band composed mainly of oxygen 2s and 2p states rather than remain in the 5 valence state. This unrealistically high oxidation state seems even more unlikely given the fact that at the room temperatures used in the authors' reactions Ti would have been generated and remained at the surface (at room temperature the diffusion of Ti cations in TiO is minimal), and the fact that the surface Madelung potential is smaller than that of the bulk6.

  8. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 42; Satellite Primary Productivity Data and Algorithm Development: A Science Plan for Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falkowski, Paul G.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Balch, William; Campbell, Janet W.; Iverson, Richard L.; Kiefer, Dale A.; Morel, Andre; Yoder, James A.; Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Two issues regarding primary productivity, as it pertains to the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Program and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) are presented in this volume. Chapter 1 describes the development of a science plan for deriving primary production for the world ocean using satellite measurements, by the Ocean Primary Productivity Working Group (OPPWG). Chapter 2 presents discussions by the same group, of algorithm classification, algorithm parameterization and data availability, algorithm testing and validation, and the benefits of a consensus primary productivity algorithm.

  9. Observations of Recent Arctic Sea Ice Volume Loss and Its Impact on Ocean-Atmosphere Energy Exchange and Ice Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.; Farrell, S. L.; Worthen, D. L.; Boisvert, L. N.

    2011-01-01

    Using recently developed techniques we estimate snow and sea ice thickness distributions for the Arctic basin through the combination of freeboard data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and a snow depth model. These data are used with meteorological data and a thermodynamic sea ice model to calculate ocean-atmosphere heat exchange and ice volume production during the 2003-2008 fall and winter seasons. The calculated heat fluxes and ice growth rates are in agreement with previous observations over multiyear ice. In this study, we calculate heat fluxes and ice growth rates for the full distribution of ice thicknesses covering the Arctic basin and determine the impact of ice thickness change on the calculated values. Thinning of the sea ice is observed which greatly increases the 2005-2007 fall period ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes compared to those observed in 2003. Although there was also a decline in sea ice thickness for the winter periods, the winter time heat flux was found to be less impacted by the observed changes in ice thickness. A large increase in the net Arctic ocean-atmosphere heat output is also observed in the fall periods due to changes in the areal coverage of sea ice. The anomalously low sea ice coverage in 2007 led to a net ocean-atmosphere heat output approximately 3 times greater than was observed in previous years and suggests that sea ice losses are now playing a role in increasing surface air temperatures in the Arctic.

  10. Collisions of carbon and oxygen ions with electrons, H, H/sub 2/ and He: Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Phaneuf, R.A.; Janev, R.K.; Pindzola, M.S.

    1987-02-01

    This report provides a handbook for fusion research of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for collisions of carbon and oxygen ions with electrons, hydrogen atoms and molecules, and helium atoms. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical, and parametrized form. Processes considered include exciation, ionization, and charge exchange at collision energies appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  11. Addition of water, methanol, and ammonia to Al3O3- clusters: Reaction products, transition states, and electron detachment energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara-García, Alfredo; Martínez, Ana; Ortiz, J. V.

    2005-06-01

    Products of reactions between the book and kite isomers of Al3O3- and three important molecules are studied with electronic structure calculations. Dissociative adsorption of H2O or CH3OH is highly exothermic and proton-transfer barriers between anion-molecule complexes and the products of these reactions are low. For NH3, the reaction energies are less exothermic and the corresponding barriers are higher. Depending on experimental conditions, Al3O3- (NH3) coordination complexes or products of dissociative adsorption may be prepared. Vertical electron detachment energies of stable anions are predicted with ab initio electron propagator calculations and are in close agreement with experiments on Al3O3- and its products with H2O and CH3OH. Changes in the localization properties of two Al-centered Dyson orbitals account for the differences between the photoelectron spectra of Al3O3- and those of the product anions.

  12. National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research quarterly technical report, July 1--September 30, 1992. Volume 2, Energy production research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Volume II includes: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; and microbial technology.

  13. Studies of fullerene absorption and production using an infrared free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Affatigato, M.; Haglund, R.F.; Ying, Z.C.; Compton, R.N.

    1995-12-31

    Tunable photon sources such as free-electron lasers are potentially valuable tools in spectroscopic studies of fullerenes, a new class of carbon materials with unique cage structures. We have used the infrared free-electron-laser facility at Vanderbilt University to study the infrared absorption of gas-phase fullerene molecules and also to investigate the effects of an infrared laser in the synthesis and crystallization of fullerene materials. In one experiment, fullerene vapor was created in a heat pipe through which the FEL beam was passed; the transmission of the FEL beam relative to a reference detector was measured as a function of wavelength. A large (>10%) absorption of the IR laser was observed when it passed through C{sub 60} vapor at {approximately}800{degrees}C. Due to the broad spectral width of the FEL as well as spectral congestion, no spectral peaks were seen when the laser wavelength was tuned across a T{sub 1u}C{sub 60} IR mode near 7.0 {mu}. However, it is expected that the vibrational features can be resolved experimentally by passing the transmitted beam through a monochromator. In a separate experiment, the FEL beam was focused onto a surface of graphite or graphite/metal mixture target. Various fullerene molecules, including endohedral types, were produced when the soot was recovered from the ablation chamber. The yield of the products was measured to be {approximately}0.4 g/J of the incident laser energy. However, both the yield and the product distribution are virtually, the same as those in experiments using a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser. This suggests that the laser wavelength is not a crucial parameter in making fullerenes by laser ablation. Even when the laser is at resonance with one of the vibrational modes of C{sub 60}, the fullerene production is neither substantially enhanced nor suppressed.

  14. Statistics-related and reliability-physics-related failure processes in electronics devices and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, E.

    2014-05-01

    The well known and widely used experimental reliability "passport" of a mass manufactured electronic or a photonic product — the bathtub curve — reflects the combined contribution of the statistics-related and reliability-physics (physics-of-failure)-related processes. When time progresses, the first process results in a decreasing failure rate, while the second process associated with the material aging and degradation leads to an increased failure rate. An attempt has been made in this analysis to assess the level of the reliability physics-related aging process from the available bathtub curve (diagram). It is assumed that the products of interest underwent the burn-in testing and therefore the obtained bathtub curve does not contain the infant mortality portion. It has been also assumed that the two random processes in question are statistically independent, and that the failure rate of the physical process can be obtained by deducting the theoretically assessed statistical failure rate from the bathtub curve ordinates. In the carried out numerical example, the Raleigh distribution for the statistical failure rate was used, for the sake of a relatively simple illustration. The developed methodology can be used in reliability physics evaluations, when there is a need to better understand the roles of the statistics-related and reliability-physics-related irreversible random processes in reliability evaluations. The future work should include investigations on how powerful and flexible methods and approaches of the statistical mechanics can be effectively employed, in addition to reliability physics techniques, to model the operational reliability of electronic and photonic products.

  15. Biosynthesis of indigo using recombinant E. coli: Development of a biological system for the cost-effective production of a large volume chemical

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, A.; Battist, S.; Chotani, G.

    1995-11-01

    Cost-effective production of any large-volume chemical by fermentation requires extensive manipulation of both the production organism and the fermentation and recovery processes. We have developed a recombinant E. coli system for the production of tryptophan and several other products derived from the aromatic amino acid pathway. By linking our technology for low-cost production of tryptophan from glucose with the enzyme naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO), we have achieved an overall process for the production of indigo dye from glucose. To successfully join these two technologies, both the tryptophan pathway and NDO were extensively modified via genetic engineering. In addition, systems were developed to remove deleterious by-products generated during the chemical oxidations leading to indigo formation. Low-cost fermentation processes were developed that utilized minimal-salts media containing glucose as the sole carbon source. Finally, economical recovery processes were used that preserved the environmental friendliness of the biosynthetic route to indigo.

  16. Differential cross sections for secondary electron production by 1. 5-keV electrons in water vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Hollman, K.W.; Kerby G.W. III; Rudd, M.E.; Miller, J.H.; Manson, S.T.

    1988-10-01

    Discrepancies between previous experimental values of differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of water vapor and recent model calculations have been largely resolved. A new measurement with improved suppression of spurious electrons has removed most of the discrepancy in the midrange of detected electron energies. A second discrepancy at secondary energies just below the primary energy has been explained by a more accurate accounting for electrons scattered at angles between zero and the minimum angle of the experimental apparatus. The improved data show more clearly the oxygen K-shell edge in the spectra at small angles and the Bethe ridge at angles up to 90/sup 0/. The forward peak seen in the earlier data is no longer present.

  17. Differential cross sections for secondary electron production by 1. 5-keV electrons in water vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Hollman, K.W.; Kerby, G.W.; Rudd, M.E.; Miller, J.H.; Manson, S.T.

    1988-10-01

    Discrepancies between previous experimental values of differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of water vapor and recent model calculations have been largely resolved. A new measurement with improved suppression of spurious electrons has removed most of the discrepancy in the midrange of detected electron energies. A second discrepancy at secondary energies just below the primary energy has been explained by a more accurate accounting for electrons scattered at angles between zero and the minimum angle of the experimental apparatus. The improved data show more clearly the oxygen K-shell edge in the spectra at small angles and the Bethe ridge at angles up to 90 deg. The forward peak seen in the earlier data is no longer present.

  18. The estimations of electron-positron pair's production at the high-intensity laser interactions with matter

    SciTech Connect

    Gryaznykh, D. A.; Kandiev, Y. Z.; Lykov, V. A.

    1997-04-15

    The processes of electron-positron pairs generation induced by laser radiation of 10{sup 18}-10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} are studied. The results of pairs production in Coulomb field of nucleus by relativistic electrons are presented. The estimations of positrons generation and yield from targets considering production from electrons and bremsstrahlung photons are made. The PRIZMA-code simulations performed using Monte-Carlo method confirm the estimations. The positrons yield of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} from high-Z targets irradiated by picosecond lasers of power 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} TW is found to be possible.

  19. Magnetite nanoparticles facilitate methane production from ethanol via acting as electron acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiman; Shi, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Chuanshui; Wang, Lin; Guo, Rongbo

    2015-11-01

    Potential for interspecies hydrogen transfer within paddy soil enrichments obtained via addition of magnetite nanoparticles and ethanol (named as PEM) was investigated. To do this, PEM derived from rice field of Hangzhou (named as PEM-HZ) was employed, because it offered the best methane production performance. Methane production and Fe (III) reduction proceeded in parallel in the presence of magnetite. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethane sulfonate (BES) or phosphate showed that interspecies hydrogen transfer and Fe (III) reduction also occurred in methane production from ethanol. 16S rRNA-based Illumina sequencing results showed that Dechloromonas, Thauera, Desulfovibrio and Clostridium were the dominant putative Fe (III) -reducers, and that hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium accounted for about 88% of the total archaeal community. These results indicated that magnetite nanoparticles that acted as electron acceptor could facilitate rapid oxidation of ethanol by members of the Fe (III) -reducers in PEM-HZ and establishment of the syntrophic relationship of Fe (III) -reducers with Methanobacterium via interspecies hydrogen transfer. Our results could offer a model to understand the microbial interaction with magnetite from a novel angle during methanogenesis.

  20. Magnetite nanoparticles facilitate methane production from ethanol via acting as electron acceptors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiman; Shi, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Chuanshui; Wang, Lin; Guo, Rongbo

    2015-01-01

    Potential for interspecies hydrogen transfer within paddy soil enrichments obtained via addition of magnetite nanoparticles and ethanol (named as PEM) was investigated. To do this, PEM derived from rice field of Hangzhou (named as PEM-HZ) was employed, because it offered the best methane production performance. Methane production and Fe (III) reduction proceeded in parallel in the presence of magnetite. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethane sulfonate (BES) or phosphate showed that interspecies hydrogen transfer and Fe (III) reduction also occurred in methane production from ethanol. 16S rRNA-based Illumina sequencing results showed that Dechloromonas, Thauera, Desulfovibrio and Clostridium were the dominant putative Fe (III) -reducers, and that hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium accounted for about 88% of the total archaeal community. These results indicated that magnetite nanoparticles that acted as electron acceptor could facilitate rapid oxidation of ethanol by members of the Fe (III) -reducers in PEM-HZ and establishment of the syntrophic relationship of Fe (III) -reducers with Methanobacterium via interspecies hydrogen transfer. Our results could offer a model to understand the microbial interaction with magnetite from a novel angle during methanogenesis. PMID:26559132

  1. Magnetite nanoparticles facilitate methane production from ethanol via acting as electron acceptors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhiman; Shi, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Chuanshui; Wang, Lin; Guo, Rongbo

    2015-01-01

    Potential for interspecies hydrogen transfer within paddy soil enrichments obtained via addition of magnetite nanoparticles and ethanol (named as PEM) was investigated. To do this, PEM derived from rice field of Hangzhou (named as PEM-HZ) was employed, because it offered the best methane production performance. Methane production and Fe (III) reduction proceeded in parallel in the presence of magnetite. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethane sulfonate (BES) or phosphate showed that interspecies hydrogen transfer and Fe (III) reduction also occurred in methane production from ethanol. 16S rRNA-based Illumina sequencing results showed that Dechloromonas, Thauera, Desulfovibrio and Clostridium were the dominant putative Fe (III) -reducers, and that hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium accounted for about 88% of the total archaeal community. These results indicated that magnetite nanoparticles that acted as electron acceptor could facilitate rapid oxidation of ethanol by members of the Fe (III) -reducers in PEM-HZ and establishment of the syntrophic relationship of Fe (III) -reducers with Methanobacterium via interspecies hydrogen transfer. Our results could offer a model to understand the microbial interaction with magnetite from a novel angle during methanogenesis. PMID:26559132

  2. A New Mean-Field Method Suitable for Strongly Correlated Electrons: Computationally Facile Antisymmetric Products of Nonorthogonal Geminals.

    PubMed

    Limacher, Peter A; Ayers, Paul W; Johnson, Paul A; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Van Neck, Dimitri; Bultinck, Patrick

    2013-03-12

    We propose an approach to the electronic structure problem based on noninteracting electron pairs that has similar computational cost to conventional methods based on noninteracting electrons. In stark contrast to other approaches, the wave function is an antisymmetric product of nonorthogonal geminals, but the geminals are structured so the projected Schrödinger equation can be solved very efficiently. We focus on an approach where, in each geminal, only one of the orbitals in a reference Slater determinant is occupied. The resulting method gives good results for atoms and small molecules. It also performs well for a prototypical example of strongly correlated electronic systems, the hydrogen atom chain. PMID:26587601

  3. UV pulse trains by α-BBO crystal stacking for the production of THz-rap-rate electron bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li-Xin; Hua, Jian-Fei; Du, Ying-Chao; Huang, Yuan-Fang; You, Yan; Wang, Dan; Huang, Wen-Hui; Tang, Chuan-Xiang; Tang

    2012-08-01

    Ultrashort electron bunch trains can be used for plasma wake field acceleration (PWFA) to overcome the limit of transformer ratio of a single electron bunch, or high-power terahertz (Thz) radiation production by various radiation mechanisms. Basic facility for high-power THz radiation development based on ultrashort electron beam has been set up at accelerator lab of TUB. Using birefringent crystal serials, ultraviolet (UV) pulse shaping for photocathode radio frequency gun to produce THz-repetition-rate pulse train was realized. Driven by such pulses, ultrashort electron bunch train with picosecond (ps) spacing was obtained for THz production. Measurement of the stacked UV pulse trains was done by difference frequency generation (DFG), and the measured group velocity mismatch of α-BBO crystal at 266.7-nm wavelength was 0.8 ps/mm. This method may also be applied to form ramped electron bunch trains for PWFA.

  4. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 1, Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L.

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The research has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc. (Beckley) and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Phase 1 of the project consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in selected areas of Raleigh County, West Virginia, ultimately narrowed to the Eccles, West Virginia, 7 {1/2} minute Quadrangle. The Phase 1 analysis identified key parameters contributing to the accumulation and production of natural gas in Raleigh County, developed analog models relating geological factors to gas production, and identified specific sites to test and verify the analysis methodologies by drilling. Based on the Phase 1 analysis, five sites have been identified with high potential for economic gas production. Phase 2 will consist of drilling, completing, and producing one or more wells at the sites identified in the Phase 1 analyses. The initial well is schedules to the drilled in April 1991. This report summarizes the results of the Phase 1 investigations. For clarity, the report has been prepared in two volumes. Volume 1 presents the Phase 1 overview; Volume 2 contains the detailed geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study.

  5. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health related research. Volume 4: Production and materials handling

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This is the fourth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume 4 is to describe record series pertaining to production and materials handling activities at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of production and materials handling practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to production and materials handling policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records.

  6. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  7. Fluorine Auger-electron production in collisions of H+ and Li2+ with fluorocarbon targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinpaugh, J. L.; Toburen, L. H.; Justiniano, E. L. B.

    1999-12-01

    Relative and absolute cross sections are presented for fluorine KLL Auger-electron production in collisions of 2.0-MeV H+ and 0.5-MeV/amu Li2+ with various fluorocarbon targets. Auger yields were measured for molecular targets of CH3F, CH2F2, C2H2F2, CHF3, CF4, C2F6, and C4F8. The fluorine Auger cross sections for these collision systems were found to be independent of the chemical environment, i.e., the atomic cross sections were found to obey additivity for these molecules. This is in contrast to recently reported fluorine K-shell ionization cross sections found for He+ impact on fluorocarbon targets, where the atomic cross sections were found to differ by up to a factor of 3.

  8. Search for pair production of the scalar top quark in the electron+muon final state

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Altona, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.

    2010-09-01

    We report the result of a search for the pair production of the lightest supersymmetric partner of the top quark ({tilde t}{sub 1}) in p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb{sup -1}. The scalar top quarks are assumed to decay into a b quark, a charged lepton, and a scalar neutrino ({tilde {nu}}), and the search is performed in the electron plus muon final state. No significant excess of events above the standard model prediction is detected, and improved exclusion limits at the 95% C.L. are set in the (M{sub {tilde t}{sub 1}}, M{sub {tilde {nu}}}) mass plane.

  9. Electron accelerator-based production of molybdenum-99: Bremsstrahlung and photoneutron generation from molybdenum vs. tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsechanski, A.; Bielajew, A. F.; Archambault, J. P.; Mainegra-Hing, E.

    2016-01-01

    A new "one-stage" approach for production of 99Mo and other radioisotopes by means of an electron linear accelerator is described. It is based on using a molybdenum target both as a bremsstrahlung converter and as a radioisotope producing target for the production of 99Mo via the photoneutron reaction 100Mo(γ,n)99Mo. Bremsstrahlung characteristics, such as bremsstrahlung efficiency, angular distribution, and energy deposition for molybdenum targets were obtained by means of the EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code system. As a result of our simulations, it is concluded that a 60 MeV electron beam incident on a thick Mo target will have greater bremsstrahlung efficiency than the same thickness (in units of r0) W target, for target thickness z > 1.84r0, where r0 is the electron range. A 50 MeV electron beam incident on a Mo target will result in greater bremsstrahlung efficiency than the same thickness W target (in units of r0) for target thickness case: z ⩾ 2.0r0. It is shown for the one-stage approach with thicknesses of (1.84-2.0)r0, that the 99Mo-production bremsstrahlung efficiency of a molybdenum target is greater by ∼100% at 30 MeV and by ∼70% at 60 MeV compared to the values for tungsten of the same thickness (in units of the appropriate r0) in the traditional two-stage approach (W converter and separate 99Mo producing target). This advantage of the one-stage approach arises from the fact that the bremsstrahlung produced is attenuated only once from attenuation in the molybdenum converter/target. In the traditional, two-stage approach, the bremsstrahlung generated in the W-converter/target is attenuated both in the converter in the 99Mo-producing molybdenum target. The photoneutron production yield of molybdenum and tantalum (as a substitute for tungsten) target was calculated by means of the MCNP5 transport code. On the basis of these data, the specific activity for the one-stage approach of three enriched 100Mo-targets of a 2 cm diameter and

  10. Computer simulation of electron-positron pair production by channeling radiation in amorphous converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdrashitov, S. V.; Bogdanov, O. V.; Dabagov, S. B.; Pivovarov, Yu L.; Tukhfatullin, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the radiator-converter approach at 200 MeV channeled electrons (the SPARC_LAB LNF facility energies) for the case of using W crystalline radiator and W amorphous converter. A comparison of the positron production by the axial channeling radiation and the bremsstrahlung is performed. The positron stopping in the convertor is studied by means of computer simulations. It is shown that for the maximum yield of positrons the thickness of the W amorphous converter should be taken 0.35 cm in the case of using the axial channeling radiation resulting to total yield of positrons 5 10-3 e+/e- and 0.71 cm in the case of using the bremsstrahlung resulting to total yield of positrons 3.3 10-3 e+/e-.

  11. Design and experimental activities supporting commercial U.S. electron accelerator production of Mo-99

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Gregory E.; Woloshun, Keith A.; Kelsey IV, Charles T.; Olivas, Eric R.; Holloway, Michael A.; Hurtle, Ken P.; Romero, Frank P.; Dalmas, Dale A.; Chemerisov, Sergey D.; Vandegrift, George F.; Tkac, Peter; Makarashvili, Vakho; Jonah, Charles D.; Harvey, James T.

    2013-04-19

    {sup 99m}Tc, the daughter isotope of {sup 99}Mo, is the most commonly used radioisotope for nuclear medicine in the United States. Under the direction of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are partnering with North Star Medical Technologies to demonstrate the viability of large-scale {sup 99}Mo production using electron accelerators. In this process, {sup 99}Mo is produced in an enriched {sup 100}Mo target through the {sup 100}Mo({gamma},n){sup 99}Mo reaction. Five experiments have been performed to date at ANL to demonstrate this process. This paper reviews the current status of these activities, specifically the design and performance of the helium gas target cooling system.

  12. Solderability of melting lead-free solder to tiny joint of electronic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fang; Du, Changhua; Du, Yunfei

    2005-12-01

    The behavior of melting solder has an important influence on the tiny joints of electronic products. In order to improve the properties of lead-free solder, a Sn-3.5Ag0.6Cu alloy was smelted using traditional and a modified technology, respectively. The solderability of the two alloys were investigated using a wetting balance method for the different conditions. The test results showed that the modified solder had good solderability, where the excellent flux used was rosin-ethanol or rosin-isopropanol solution. In experimental condition, when the added active agent is 0.4% of rosin mass or 0.1% of solution mass, the wetting velocity and wetting force can be improved 5 times and 1.5 times, respectively. The best soldering parameters are temperature levels less than or equal to 270°, and the soakage time in 2-3s.

  13. O/S-1/ interactions - The product channels. [collisional electron quenching and chemical reaction pathway frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, T. G.; Black, G.

    1978-01-01

    The first measurements are reported of the reaction pathways for the interaction between oxygen atoms in the 4.19 eV S-1 state, and four molecules, N2O, CO2, H2O, and NO. Distinction is made between three possible paths - quenching to O(D-1), quenching to O(P-3), and chemical reaction. With N2O, the most reasonable interpretation of the data indicates that there no reaction, in sharp contrast with the interaction between O(D-1) and N2O, which proceeds entirely by reaction. Similarly, there is no reaction with CO2. With H2O, the reactive pathway is the dominant one, although electronic quenching is not negligible. With NO, O(D-1) is the preferred product.

  14. Programmatic Assessment of Potential Induced Radioactivity in Electron Beam Sterilization of Healthcare Products.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark; Logar, John; Montgomery, Alan; Vrain, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    ISO 11137-1:2006 Sterilization of Healthcare Products-Radiation requires that the potential for induced radioactivity be evaluated for medical devices irradiated with electrons with energy more than 10 MeV. For a manufacturing operation where new devices are being developed, a practical program for making such an evaluation should be engrained in the process, including the device design phase, where selection of materials can make a difference in the potential for activation to occur as a result of the irradiation process. The program, which is based on general assumptions as to the likely activation processes and generalized process assessments is being implemented in three phases: (1) incorporating materials consideration in the design phase, (2) evaluating potential activation empirically, including measurement at the point of irradiation, and (3) implementing routine procedures for the program, including developing a data base of results for consideration in future design efforts. PMID:27356164

  15. A study of 192Ir production conditions at an electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovbnya, A. N.; Rogov, Yu. V.; Shevchenko, V. A.; Shramenko, B. I.; Tenishev, A. Eh.; Torgovkin, A. V.; Uvarov, V. L.

    2014-09-01

    This communication deals with the conditions of 192Ir isotope production under a nonreactor technology via the 193Ir(γ, n)192Ir reaction. It can be carried out by irradiation of a target from natural iridium with the high-energy X-ray of an electron accelerator. The possibility of increasing the photonuclear yield of the target isotope by addition of the 191Ir( n, γ)192Ir reaction induced by moderated photoneutrons has been shown. For this, an X-ray converter and a target were placed inside a neutron moderator. Data on the 192Ir and admixture yields for the techniques using the moderator and without it have been obtained by computer simulation and experimentally.

  16. Electronic Cigarette Marketing Online: a Multi-Site, Multi-Product Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Anupreet K; Valente, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarette awareness and use has been increasing rapidly. E-cigarette brands have utilized social networking sites to promote their products, as the growth of the e-cigarette industry has paralleled that of Web 2.0. These online platforms are cost-effective and have unique technological features and user demographics that can be attractive for selective marketing. The popularity of multiple sites also poses a risk of exposure to social networks where e-cigarette brands might not have a presence. Objective To examine the marketing strategies of leading e-cigarette brands on multiple social networking sites, and to identify how affordances of the digital media are used to their advantage. Secondary analyses include determining if any brands are benefitting from site demographics, and exploring cross-site diffusion of marketing content through multi-site users. Methods We collected data from two e-cigarette brands from four social networking sites over approximately 2.5 years. Content analysis is used to search for themes, population targeting, marketing strategies, and cross-site spread of messages. Results Twitter appeared to be the most frequently used social networking site for interacting directly with product users. Facebook supported informational broadcasts, such as announcements regarding political legislation. E-cigarette brands also differed in their approaches to their users, from informal conversations to direct product marketing. Conclusions E-cigarette makers use different strategies to market their product and engage their users. There was no evidence of direct targeting of vulnerable populations, but the affordances of the different sites are exploited to best broadcast context-specific messages. We developed a viable method to study cross-site diffusion, although additional refinement is needed to account for how different types of digital media are used. PMID:27227129

  17. Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1993-01-01

    Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.

  18. Color-Center Production and Formation in Electron-Irradiated Magnesium Aluminate Spinel and Ceria

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Lelong, Gerald; Guillaumet, Maxime; Weber, William J.; Takaki, Seiya; Yasuda, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-20

    Single crystals of magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) with (100) or (110) orientations and cerium dioxide or ceria (CeO2) were irradiated by 1.0-MeV and 2.5-MeV electrons in a high fluence range. Point-defect production was studied by off-line UV-visible optical spectroscopy after irradiation. For spinel, regardless of both crystal orientation and electron energy, two characteristic broad bands centered at photon energies of 5.4 eV and 4.9 eV were assigned to F and F+ centers (neutral and singly-ionized oxygen vacancies), respectively, on the basis of available literature data. No clear differences in colour-centre formation were observed for the two crystal orientations. Using calculationsmore » of displacement cross sections by elastic collisions, these results are consistent with a very large threshold displacement energy (200 eV) for oxygen atoms at RT. A third very broad band centered at 3.7 eV might be attributed either to an oxygen hole center (V-type center) or an F2 dimer center (oxygen di-vacancy). The onset of recovery of these color centers took place at 200°C with almost full bleaching at 600°C. Activation energies (~0.3-0.4 eV) for defect recovery were deduced from the isochronal annealing data by using a first-order kinetics analysis. For ceria, a sub band-gap absorption feature peaked at ~3.1 eV was recorded for 2.5-MeV electron irradiation only. Assuming a ballistic process, we suggest that the latter defect might result from cerium atom displacement on the basis of computed cross sections.« less

  19. Color-center production and recovery in electron-irradiated magnesium aluminate spinel and ceria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Lelong, Gérald; Guillaumet, Maxime; Weber, William J.; Takaki, Seiya; Yasuda, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Single crystals of magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) with (1 0 0) or (1 1 0) orientations and cerium dioxide or ceria (CeO2) were irradiated by 1.0 MeV and 2.5 MeV electrons in a high-fluence range. Point-defect production was studied by off-line UV–visible optical spectroscopy after irradiation. For spinel, regardless of both crystal orientation and electron energy, two characteristic broad bands centered at photon energies of 5.4 eV and 4.9 eV were assigned to F and F+ centers (neutral and singly ionized oxygen vacancies), respectively, on the basis of available literature data. No clear differences in color-center formation were observed for the two crystal orientations. Using calculations from displacement cross sections by elastic collisions, these results are consistent with a very large threshold displacement energy (200 eV) for oxygen atoms at room temperature. A third very broad band centered at 3.7 eV might be attributed either to an oxygen hole center (V-type center) or an F2 dimer center (oxygen di-vacancy). The onset of recovery of these color centers took place at 200 °C with almost full bleaching at 600 °C. Activation energies (~0.3–0.4 eV) for defect recovery were deduced from the isochronal annealing data by using a first-order kinetics analysis. For ceria, a sub-band-gap absorption feature, which peaked at ~3.1 eV, was recorded for 2.5 MeV electron irradiation only. Assuming a ballistic process, we suggest that the latter defect might result from cerium atom displacement on the basis of computed cross sections.

  20. Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1993-03-01

    Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.