Science.gov

Sample records for electronic tree inventory

  1. A tree species inventory over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Geels, C.; Hvidberg, M.; Hertel, O.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Christensen, J. H.; Moseholm, L.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric transport models are used in studies of atmospheric chemistry as well as aerobiology. Atmospheric transport models in general needs accurate emissions inventories, which includes biogenic emissions such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and pollen. Trees are important VOC and pollen sources and a needed requirement is specie distribution which takes into account important species such as Betula and Alnus. We present here a detailed tree species inventory covering Europe, parts of Africa and parts of Asia. Forest inventories have been obtained for each European country, parts of Asia and parts of Africa. The national inventories vary with respect to number of species as well as the number of sub-regions each nation is divided into. The inventories are therefore harmonised within a GIS system and afterwards gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model: 50 km x 50 km. The inventory is designed to be used with existing land-use data, which separates forest cover into broad leaved, mixed and conifer forests. This will be exemplified by using two different remote sensing products with different grid resolution such as GLC2000 and CLC2000 in selected areas. The final inventory includes 16 conifer species and 23 broadleaved species that are important for biogenic VOCs or pollen emission calculations. For example: Oak (Quercus), poplar (Populus), pines (Pinus), spruce (Picea), birch (Betula) and alder (Alnus). 774 regions with forest inventories are included, mainly on sub-national level. The coverage of each specie ranges from national to European scale, where the latter includes VOC and allergy relevant species such as Quercus, Alnus and Betula. The inventory is gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model, which is also the basis for many emissions inventories throughout Europe. The inventory is therefore prepared for easy implementation into atmospheric transport models by providing an extension to already applied land use data such as the

  2. Urban tree residues: Results of the first national inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.; Rue, D.; Haase, S.

    1994-12-31

    The volume and characteristics of urban tree residues associated with tree pruning and other urban forestry activities have never been well documented, yet disposal of this residue is subject to increasing regulatory actions. The regulatory actions have a considerable impact on the activities of commercial, utility, and municipal tree care operations. This paper reports the results of the first national inventory of the volume and characteristics of urban tree residues. Residues are classified as follows: chips, logs, mixed wood, tops and brush, leaves, lawn clippings, and stumps. Generators of residues include the following: commercial tree care firms, municipal park and recreation departments, municipal tree care divisions, county tree care divisions, electric/telephone utility power line maintenance departments, nurseries, orchards, and landscapers. The national inventory assesses volume, characteristics, and disposal of the residues on both a regional basis as well as by size of metropolitan area. Finally, irregular residue inputs associated with natural disasters are discussed.

  3. Use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for urban tree inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Brian A.

    In contrast to standard aerial imagery, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) utilize recent technological advances to provide an affordable alternative for imagery acquisition. Increased value can be realized through clarity and detail providing higher resolution (2-5 cm) over traditional products. Many natural resource disciplines such as urban forestry will benefit from UAS. Tree inventories for risk assessment, biodiversity, planning, and design can be efficiently achieved with the UAS. Recent advances in photogrammetric processing have proved automated methods for three dimensional rendering of aerial imagery. Point clouds can be generated from images providing additional benefits. Association of spatial locational information within the point cloud can be used to produce elevation models i.e. digital elevation, digital terrain and digital surface. Taking advantage of this point cloud data, additional information such as tree heights can be obtained. Several software applications have been developed for LiDAR data which can be adapted to utilize UAS point clouds. This study examines solutions to provide tree inventory and heights from UAS imagery. Imagery taken with a micro-UAS was processed to produce a seamless orthorectified image. This image provided an accurate way to obtain a tree inventory within the study boundary. Utilizing several methods, tree height models were developed with variations in spatial accuracy. Model parameters were modified to offset spatial inconsistencies providing statistical equality of means. Statistical results (p = 0.756) with a level of significance (α = 0.01) between measured and modeled tree height means resulted with 82% of tree species obtaining accurate tree heights. Within this study, the UAS has proven to be an efficient tool for urban forestry providing a cost effective and reliable system to obtain remotely sensed data.

  4. An exhaustive inventory of coniferous trees in an agricultural landscape

    PubMed Central

    Rousselet, Jérôme; Roques, Alain; Garcia, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Various species of forest trees are commonly used for ornamental purposes and are therefore frequently found in non-forest ecosystems. These trees constitute a significant component of the trees outside forests (TOF). Although increasingly recognized as prominent feature of agricultural lands and built-up areas, not much is known, however, about TOF since they are generally absent from forest inventories. New information In the present study, we focus on the coniferous tree species that constitute potential hosts for a forest defoliator, the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae). We carried out an exhaustive inventory of all pines (Pinus spp.), cedars (Cedrus spp.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in a 22 × 22 km study window located in the open-field region of Beauce in the centre of France. We recorded a total of 3834 individuals or small groups host trees corresponding a density of 7.9 occurrences per 100 ha. We provide the spatial coordinates of the points without differentiation between tree species. PMID:25733964

  5. An inventory of trees in Dublin city centre.

    PubMed

    Ningal, Tine; Mills, Gerald; Smithwick, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    While urban areas are often considered to be comprised chiefly of artificial surfaces, they can contain a substantial portion of green space and a great diversity of natural habitats. These spaces include public parks, private gardens and street trees, all of which can provide valuable environmental services, such as improved air quality. Trees play a particular role in cities as they are often placed along roadsides and in the median strip of busy streets. As such they regulate access to sunshine, restrict airflow, provide shelter, scavenge air pollutants and manage noise at the street level. A tree planting policy can be an important part of a broader environmental strategy aimed at improving the quality of life in urban areas but this requires up-to-date knowledge of the current tree stock, which does not exist for Dublin. This article presents an inventory of trees in Dublin's city centre, defined as the area between the Grand and Royal canals. The results show that there are over 10,000 trees in the study area representing a density of 684 trees km-2 or one tree to approximately every 50 residents of the city centre. The tree canopy extent when in full foliage was nearly 1 km2 in extent or 6% of the study area. A more detailed analysis of those trees planted along streets shows little species variation but clear distinction in the sizes of trees, which is indicative of the age of planting. These data are used to estimate the carbon stored in Dublin's trees. PMID:21197800

  6. A Structured Light Sensor System for Tree Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Chiun-Hong; Zemek, Michael C.

    2000-01-01

    Tree Inventory is referred to measurement and estimation of marketable wood volume in a piece of land or forest for purposes such as investment or for loan applications. Exist techniques rely on trained surveyor conducting measurements manually using simple optical or mechanical devices, and hence are time consuming subjective and error prone. The advance of computer vision techniques makes it possible to conduct automatic measurements that are more efficient, objective and reliable. This paper describes 3D measurements of tree diameters using a uniquely designed ensemble of two line laser emitters rigidly mounted on a video camera. The proposed laser camera system relies on a fixed distance between two parallel laser planes and projections of laser lines to calculate tree diameters. Performance of the laser camera system is further enhanced by fusion of information induced from structured lighting and that contained in video images. Comparison will be made between the laser camera sensor system and a stereo vision system previously developed for measurements of tree diameters.

  7. Geospatial Technologies and i-Tree Echo Inventory for Predicting Climate Change on Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriharan, S.; Robinson, L.; Ghariban, N.; Comar, M.; Pope, B.; Frey, G.

    2015-12-01

    Urban forests can be useful both in mitigating climate change and in helping cities adapt to higher temperatures and other impacts of climate change. Understanding and managing the impacts of climate change on the urban forest trees and natural communities will help us maintain their environmental, cultural, and economic benefits. Tree Inventory can provide important information on tree species, height, crown width, overall condition, health and maintenance needs. This presentation will demonstrate that a trees database system is necessary for developing a sustainable urban tree program. Virginia State University (VSU) campus benefits from large number and diversity of trees that are helping us by cleaning the air, retaining water, and providing shade on the buildings to reduce energy cost. The objectives of this study were to develop campus inventory of the trees, identify the tree species, map the locations of the trees with user-friendly tools such as i-Tree Eco and geospatial technologies by assessing the cost/benefit of employing student labor for training and ground validation of the results, and help campus landscape managers implement adaptive responses to climate change impacts. Data was collected on the location, species, and size of trees by using i-Tree urban forestry analysis software. This data was transferred to i-Tree inventory system for demonstrating types of trees, diameter of the trees, height of the trees, and vintage of the trees. The study site was mapped by collecting waypoints with GPS (Global Positioning System) at the trees and uploading these waypoints in ArcMap. The results of this study showed that: (i) students make good field crews, (ii) if more trees were placed in the proper area, the heating and cooling costs will reduce, and (iii) trees database system is necessary for planning, designing, planting, and maintenance, and removal of campus trees Research sponsored by the NIFA Grant, "Urban Forestry Management" (2012-38821-20153).

  8. Radioisotope inventory of T101AZ thermocouple tree from riser 13D

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, S.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    The radionuclide inventory for the thermocouple tree removed from tank T101-AZ riser 13D was estimated using measured {sup 137}Cs activity. This activity was measured by detectors as the tree was removed from the tank. Other radionuclide activities were estimated using the results of tank samples.

  9. Inventory methods for trees in nonforest areas in the Great Plains States.

    PubMed

    Lister, Andrew J; Scott, Charles T; Rasmussen, Steven

    2012-04-01

    The US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects information on trees in areas that meet its definition of forest. However, the inventory excludes trees in areas that do not meet this definition, such as those found in urban areas, in isolated patches, in areas with sparse or predominantly herbaceous vegetation, in narrow strips (e.g., shelterbelts), or in riparian areas. In the Great Plains States, little is known about the tree resource in these noninventoried, nonforest areas, and there is a great deal of concern about the potential impact of invasive pests, such as the emerald ash borer. To address this knowledge gap, FIA's National Inventory and Monitoring Applications Center has partnered with state cooperators and others in a project called the Great Plains Initiative to design and implement an inventory of trees in nonforest areas. The goal of the inventory is to characterize the nonforest tree resource using methods compatible with those of FIA so a holistic understanding of the resource can be obtained by integrating the two surveys. The goal of this paper is to describe the process of designing and implementing the survey, including plot and sample design, and to present some example results from a reporting tool we developed. PMID:21713500

  10. Diameter distribution estimation with laser scanning based multisource single tree inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankare, Ville; Liang, Xinlian; Vastaranta, Mikko; Yu, Xiaowei; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-10-01

    Tree detection and tree species recognition are bottlenecks of the airborne remote sensing-based single tree inventories. The effect of these factors in forest attribute estimation can be reduced if airborne measurements are aided with tree mapping information that is collected from the ground. The main objective here was to demonstrate the use of terrestrial laser scanning-derived (TLS) tree maps in aiding airborne laser scanning-based (ALS) single tree inventory (multisource single tree inventory, MS-STI) and its capability in predicting diameter distribution in various forest conditions. Automatic measurement of TLS point clouds provided the tree maps and the required reference information from the tree attributes. The study area was located in Evo, Finland, and the reference data was acquired from 27 different sample plots with varying forest conditions. The workflow of MS-STI included: (1) creation of automatic tree map from TLS point clouds, (2) automatic diameter at breast height (DBH) measurement from TLS point clouds, (3) individual tree detection (ITD) based on ALS, (4) matching the ITD segments to the field-measured reference, (5) ALS point cloud metric extraction from the single tree segments and (6) DBH estimation based on the derived metrics. MS-STI proved to be accurate and efficient method for DBH estimation and predicting diameter distribution. The overall accuracy (root mean squared error, RMSE) of the DBH was 36.9 mm. Results showed that the DBH accuracy decreased if the tree density (trees/ha) increased. The highest accuracies were found in old-growth forests (tree densities less than 500 stems/ha). MS-STI resulted in the best accuracies regarding Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.)-dominated forests (RMSE of 29.9 mm). Diameter distributions were predicted with low error indices, thereby resulting in a good fit compared to the reference. Based on the results, diameter distribution estimation with MS-STI is highly dependent on the forest

  11. 77 FR 13061 - Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...Facilities that currently report Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) use either paper reporting forms or the online reporting software application known as the Toxics Release Inventory-Made Easy Web or simply TRI- MEweb. Effective January 1, 2013, EPA proposes to require facilities to report non-confidential TRI data to EPA using electronic......

  12. Grading of Parameters for Urban Tree Inventories by City Officials, Arborists, and Academics Using the Delphi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östberg, Johan; Delshammar, Tim; Wiström, Björn; Nielsen, Anders Busse

    2013-03-01

    Tree inventories are expensive to conduct and update, so every inventory carried out must be maximized. However, increasing the number of constituent parameters increases the cost of performing and updating the inventory, illustrating the need for careful parameter selection. This article reports the results of a systematic expert rating of tree inventories aiming to quantify the relative importance of each parameter. Using the Delphi method, panels comprising city officials, arborists, and academics rated a total of 148 parameters. The total mean score, the top ranking parameters, which can serve as a guide for decision-making at practical level and for standardization of tree inventories, were: Scientific name of the tree species and genera, Vitality, Coordinates, Hazard class, and Identification number. The study also examined whether the different responsibilities and usage of urban tree databases among organizations and people engaged in urban tree inventories affected their prioritization. The results revealed noticeable dissimilarities in the ranking of parameters between the panels, underlining the need for collaboration between the research community and those commissioning, administrating, and conducting inventories. Only by applying such a transdisciplinary approach to parameter selection can urban tree inventories be strengthened and made more relevant.

  13. Integrating LIDAR and forest inventories to fill the trees outside forests data gap.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kristofer D; Birdsey, Richard; Cole, Jason; Swatantran, Anu; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath; Dubayah, Ralph; Lister, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Forest inventories are commonly used to estimate total tree biomass of forest land even though they are not traditionally designed to measure biomass of trees outside forests (TOF). The consequence may be an inaccurate representation of all of the aboveground biomass, which propagates error to the outputs of spatial and process models that rely on the inventory data. An ideal approach to fill this data gap would be to integrate TOF measurements within a traditional forest inventory for a parsimonious estimate of total tree biomass. In this study, Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data were used to predict biomass of TOF in all "nonforest" Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots in the state of Maryland. To validate the LIDAR-based biomass predictions, a field crew was sent to measure TOF on nonforest plots in three Maryland counties, revealing close agreement at both the plot and county scales between the two estimates. Total tree biomass in Maryland increased by 25.5 Tg, or 15.6%, when biomass of TOF were included. In two counties (Carroll and Howard), there was a 47% increase. In contrast, counties located further away from the interstate highway corridor showed only a modest increase in biomass when TOF were added because nonforest conditions were less common in those areas. The advantage of this approach for estimating biomass of TOF is that it is compatible with, and explicitly separates TOF biomass from, forest biomass already measured by FIA crews. By predicting biomass of TOF at actual FIA plots, this approach is directly compatible with traditionally reported FIA forest biomass, providing a framework for other states to follow, and should improve carbon reporting and modeling activities in Maryland. PMID:26364065

  14. SWAT (Student Weekend Arborist Team): A Model for Land Grant Institutions and Cooperative Extension Systems to Conduct Street Tree Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowett, F.D.; Bassuk, N.L.

    2012-01-01

    SWAT (Student Weekend Arborist Team) is a program affiliated with Cornell University and Extension founded to conduct street tree inventories in New York State communities with 10,000 residents or fewer, a group of communities underserved in community forestry planning. Between 2002 and 2010, SWAT conducted 40 inventories, and data from these…

  15. 78 FR 52860 - Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... ``Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data'' (March 5, 2012; 77 FR 13061). These comments are... EPA--U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPCRA--Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act FR... notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 2677) that the Agency was considering requiring TRI facilities...

  16. Using the PDD Behavior Inventory as a Level 2 Screener: A Classification and Regression Trees Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ira L; Liu, Xudong; Hudson, Melissa; Gillis, Jennifer; Cavalari, Rachel N S; Romanczyk, Raymond G; Karmel, Bernard Z; Gardner, Judith M

    2016-09-01

    In order to improve discrimination accuracy between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and similar neurodevelopmental disorders, a data mining procedure, Classification and Regression Trees (CART), was used on a large multi-site sample of PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) forms on children with and without ASD. Discrimination accuracy exceeded 80 %, generalized to an independent validation set, and generalized across age groups and sites, and agreed well with ADOS classifications. Parent PDDBIs yielded better results than teacher PDDBIs but, when CART predictions agreed across informants, sensitivity increased. Results also revealed three subtypes of ASD: minimally verbal, verbal, and atypical; and two, relatively common subtypes of non-ASD children: social pragmatic problems and good social skills. These subgroups corresponded to differences in behavior profiles and associated bio-medical findings. PMID:27318809

  17. Watershed Merge Tree Classification for Electron Microscopy Image Segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, TIng; Jurrus, Elizabeth R.; Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Ellisman, Mark; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2012-11-11

    Automated segmentation of electron microscopy (EM) images is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a novel method that utilizes a hierarchical structure and boundary classification for 2D neuron segmentation. With a membrane detection probability map, a watershed merge tree is built for the representation of hierarchical region merging from the watershed algorithm. A boundary classifier is learned with non-local image features to predict each potential merge in the tree, upon which merge decisions are made with consistency constraints in the sense of optimization to acquire the final segmentation. Independent of classifiers and decision strategies, our approach proposes a general framework for efficient hierarchical segmentation with statistical learning. We demonstrate that our method leads to a substantial improvement in segmentation accuracy.

  18. Improving Crop Classification Techniques Using Optical Remote Sensing Imagery, High-Resolution Agriculture Resource Inventory Shapefiles and Decision Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnychuk, A. L.; Berg, A. A.; Sweeney, S.

    2010-12-01

    Recognition of anthropogenic effects of land use management practices on bodies of water is important for remediating and preventing eutrophication. In the case of Lake Simcoe, Ontario the main surrounding landuse is agriculture. To better manage the nutrient flow into the lake, knowledge of the management of the agricultural land is important. For this basin, a comprehensive agricultural resource inventory is required for assessment of policy and for input into water quality management and assessment tools. Supervised decision tree classification schemes, used in many previous applications, have yielded reliable classifications in agricultural land-use systems. However, when using these classification techniques the user is confronted with numerous data sources. In this study we use a large inventory of optical satellite image products (Landsat, AWiFS, SPOT and MODIS) and ancillary data sources (temporal MODIS-NDVI product signatures, digital elevation models and soil maps) at various spatial and temporal resolutions in a decision tree classification scheme. The sensitivity of the classification accuracy to various products is assessed to identify optimal data sources for classifying crop systems.

  19. Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  20. Inventory Control. Easily Made Electronic Device for Conductivity Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadek, Frank J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes how to construct an electronic device to be used in conductivity experiments using a 35 millimeter film canister, nine volt battery replacement snaps, a 200-300 ohm resistor, and a light-emitting diode. Provides a diagram and photographs of the device. (TW)

  1. Towards the harmonization between National Forest Inventory and Forest Condition Monitoring. Consistency of plot allocation and effect of tree selection methods on sample statistics in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Patrizia; Di Cosmo, Lucio; Cenni, Enrico; Pompei, Enrico; Ferretti, Marco

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of a process aiming at harmonizing National Forest Inventory (NFI) and ICP Forests Level I Forest Condition Monitoring (FCM) in Italy, we investigated (a) the long-term consistency between FCM sample points (a subsample of the first NFI, 1985, NFI_1) and recent forest area estimates (after the second NFI, 2005, NFI_2) and (b) the effect of tree selection method (tree-based or plot-based) on sample composition and defoliation statistics. The two investigations were carried out on 261 and 252 FCM sites, respectively. Results show that some individual forest categories (larch and stone pine, Norway spruce, other coniferous, beech, temperate oaks and cork oak forests) are over-represented and others (hornbeam and hophornbeam, other deciduous broadleaved and holm oak forests) are under-represented in the FCM sample. This is probably due to a change in forest cover, which has increased by 1,559,200 ha from 1985 to 2005. In case of shift from a tree-based to a plot-based selection method, 3,130 (46.7%) of the original 6,703 sample trees will be abandoned, and 1,473 new trees will be selected. The balance between exclusion of former sample trees and inclusion of new ones will be particularly unfavourable for conifers (with only 16.4% of excluded trees replaced by new ones) and less for deciduous broadleaves (with 63.5% of excluded trees replaced). The total number of tree species surveyed will not be impacted, while the number of trees per species will, and the resulting (plot-based) sample composition will have a much larger frequency of deciduous broadleaved trees. The newly selected trees have-in general-smaller diameter at breast height (DBH) and defoliation scores. Given the larger rate of turnover, the deciduous broadleaved part of the sample will be more impacted. Our results suggest that both a revision of FCM network to account for forest area change and a plot-based approach to permit statistical inference and avoid bias in the tree sample

  2. Tree Size Inequality Reduces Forest Productivity: An Analysis Combining Inventory Data for Ten European Species and a Light Competition Model.

    PubMed

    Bourdier, Thomas; Cordonnier, Thomas; Kunstler, Georges; Piedallu, Christian; Lagarrigues, Guillaume; Courbaud, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Plant structural diversity is usually considered as beneficial for ecosystem functioning. For instance, numerous studies have reported positive species diversity-productivity relationships in plant communities. However, other aspects of structural diversity such as individual size inequality have been far less investigated. In forests, tree size inequality impacts directly tree growth and asymmetric competition, but consequences on forest productivity are still indeterminate. In addition, the effect of tree size inequality on productivity is likely to vary with species shade-tolerance, a key ecological characteristic controlling asymmetric competition and light resource acquisition. Using plot data from the French National Geographic Agency, we studied the response of stand productivity to size inequality for ten forest species differing in shade tolerance. We fitted a basal area stand production model that included abiotic factors, stand density, stand development stage and a tree size inequality index. Then, using a forest dynamics model we explored whether mechanisms of light interception and light use efficiency could explain the tree size inequality effect observed for three of the ten species studied. Size inequality negatively affected basal area increment for seven out of the ten species investigated. However, this effect was not related to the shade tolerance of these species. According to the model simulations, the negative tree size inequality effect could result both from reduced total stand light interception and reduced light use efficiency. Our results demonstrate that negative relationships between size inequality and productivity may be the rule in tree populations. The lack of effect of shade tolerance indicates compensatory mechanisms between effect on light availability and response to light availability. Such a pattern deserves further investigations for mixed forests where complementarity effects between species are involved. When studying the

  3. Tree Size Inequality Reduces Forest Productivity: An Analysis Combining Inventory Data for Ten European Species and a Light Competition Model

    PubMed Central

    Bourdier, Thomas; Cordonnier, Thomas; Kunstler, Georges; Piedallu, Christian; Lagarrigues, Guillaume; Courbaud, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Plant structural diversity is usually considered as beneficial for ecosystem functioning. For instance, numerous studies have reported positive species diversity-productivity relationships in plant communities. However, other aspects of structural diversity such as individual size inequality have been far less investigated. In forests, tree size inequality impacts directly tree growth and asymmetric competition, but consequences on forest productivity are still indeterminate. In addition, the effect of tree size inequality on productivity is likely to vary with species shade-tolerance, a key ecological characteristic controlling asymmetric competition and light resource acquisition. Using plot data from the French National Geographic Agency, we studied the response of stand productivity to size inequality for ten forest species differing in shade tolerance. We fitted a basal area stand production model that included abiotic factors, stand density, stand development stage and a tree size inequality index. Then, using a forest dynamics model we explored whether mechanisms of light interception and light use efficiency could explain the tree size inequality effect observed for three of the ten species studied. Size inequality negatively affected basal area increment for seven out of the ten species investigated. However, this effect was not related to the shade tolerance of these species. According to the model simulations, the negative tree size inequality effect could result both from reduced total stand light interception and reduced light use efficiency. Our results demonstrate that negative relationships between size inequality and productivity may be the rule in tree populations. The lack of effect of shade tolerance indicates compensatory mechanisms between effect on light availability and response to light availability. Such a pattern deserves further investigations for mixed forests where complementarity effects between species are involved. When studying the

  4. Electronic Inventory Systems and Barcode Technology: Impact on Pharmacy Technical Accuracy and Error Liability

    PubMed Central

    Oldland, Alan R.; May, Sondra K.; Barber, Gerard R.; Stolpman, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the effects associated with sequential implementation of electronic medication storage and inventory systems and product verification devices on pharmacy technical accuracy and rates of potential medication dispensing errors in an academic medical center. Methods: During four 28-day periods of observation, pharmacists recorded all technical errors identified at the final visual check of pharmaceuticals prior to dispensing. Technical filling errors involving deviations from order-specific selection of product, dosage form, strength, or quantity were documented when dispensing medications using (a) a conventional unit dose (UD) drug distribution system, (b) an electronic storage and inventory system utilizing automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) within the pharmacy, (c) ADCs combined with barcode (BC) verification, and (d) ADCs and BC verification utilized with changes in product labeling and individualized personnel training in systems application. Results: Using a conventional UD system, the overall incidence of technical error was 0.157% (24/15,271). Following implementation of ADCs, the comparative overall incidence of technical error was 0.135% (10/7,379; P = .841). Following implementation of BC scanning, the comparative overall incidence of technical error was 0.137% (27/19,708; P = .729). Subsequent changes in product labeling and intensified staff training in the use of BC systems was associated with a decrease in the rate of technical error to 0.050% (13/26,200; P = .002). Conclusions: Pharmacy ADCs and BC systems provide complementary effects that improve technical accuracy and reduce the incidence of potential medication dispensing errors if this technology is used with comprehensive personnel training. PMID:25684799

  5. Citrus Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Florida's Charlotte County Property Appraiser is using an aerial color infrared mapping system for inventorying citrus trees for valuation purposes. The ACIR system has significantly reduced the time and manpower required for appraisal. Aerial photographs are taken and interpreted by a video system which makes it possible to detect changes from previous years. Potential problems can be identified. KSC's TU Office has awarded a contract to the Citrus Research and Education Center to adapt a prototype system which would automatically count trees and report totals.

  6. Mammal Inventory of the Mojave Network Parks-Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drost, Charles A.; Hart, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the results of a mammal inventory study of National Park Service units in the Mojave Desert Network, including Death Valley National Park, Joshua Tree National Park, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve. Fieldwork for the inventory focused on small mammals, primarily rodents and bats. Fieldwork for terrestrial small mammals used trapping with Sherman and Tomahawk small- and medium-sized mammal traps, along with visual surveys for diurnal species. The majority of sampling for terrestrial small mammals was carried out in 2002 and 2003. Methods used in field surveys for bats included mist-netting at tanks and other water bodies, along with acoustic surveys using Anabat. Most of the bat survey work was conducted in 2003. Because of extremely dry conditions in the first two survey years (and associated low mammal numbers), we extended field sampling into 2004, following a relatively wet winter. In addition to field sampling, we also reviewed, evaluated, and summarized museum and literature records of mammal species for all of the Park units. We documented a total of 59 mammal species as present at Death Valley National Park, with an additional five species that we consider of probable occurrence. At Joshua Tree, we also documented 50 species, and an additional four 'probable' species. At Lake Mead National Recreation Area, 57 mammal species have been positively documented, with 10 additional probable species. Manzanar National Historic Site had not been previously surveyed. We documented 19 mammal species at Manzanar, with an additional 11 probable species. Mojave National Preserve had not had a comprehensive list previously, either. There are now a total of 50 mammal species documented at Mojave, with three additional probable species. Of these totals, 23 occurrences are new at individual park units (positively documented for the first time), with most of these being at Manzanar

  7. Bridging local scale ground-based tree assessments to large scale inventory and remote sensing data to quantify landscape representativeness of an atmospheric study tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizjack, M.; Brooks, B.; Dietze, M. C.; Serbin, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of an ecosystem's capacity to sequester carbon from the atmosphere (e.g. net ecosystem exchange, NEE) are important measurements for validating results from model simulations and for determining the effects that climate change is having on the world's biomes. Eddy covariance towers in the Chequamegon Ecosystem Atmosphere Study domain (ChEAS) in northern Wisconsin were established to quantify this interaction between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. Data assimilation systems and modeling studies such as the PaleoEcological Observatory Network (PalEON) incorporate in situ data from ChEAS in order to determine climate change effects across landscapes. However, implicit to studies that use tower data is the assumption that the flux footprint is representative of the larger domain. In this study we quantify the forest landscape sampled by a tower and compare that to the landscape outside the flux footprint. To determine similarity indices and ecological-representativeness we canvassed small areas surrounding ChEAS flux towers and made ground-based biometry and forest composition measurements and combined these with remote sensing (LandSat), and Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data. We estimated landscape similarity based on tree species richness, composition and stand structure and extrapolated our plot-scale (20m2) ground-based measurements using a semi-supervised k-means clustering approach of satellite surface reflectance data. Because the productivity and ecology within a limited tower footprint (1km2) can still reflect the productivity and ecology of a larger region (100km2) despite different species composition, we collected additional growth data through a rapid tree assessment by measuring DBH and coring of dominant, codominant, and suppressed trees in each plot. We combined our ground-based data that is limited in extent with wide-ranging remote sensing data to develop similarity values across the region, which can be used to

  8. Enhancement mechanism of field electron emission properties in hybrid carbon nanotubes with tree- and wing-like features

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, G.M.; Yang, C.C.; Xu, Q.; Zheng, W.T.; Li, S.

    2009-12-15

    In this work, the tree-like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with branches of different diameters and the wing-like CNTs with graphitic-sheets of different densities were synthesized by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructures of the as-prepared hybrid carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The structural dependence of field electron emission (FEE) property was also investigated. It is found that both of the tree- and wing-like CNTs exhibit a lower turn-on field and higher emission current density than the pristine CNTs, which can be ascribed to the effects of branch size, crystal orientation, and graphitic-sheet density. - Graphical abstract: Tree-like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with branches and the wing-like CNTs with graphitic-sheets were synthesized by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The structural dependence of field electron emission property was also investigated.

  9. Timber inventory using Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    The results of recent efforts to apply Landsat MSS imagery, in concert with topological maps, to forestry timber inventories via the FOCIS program are reported. FOCIS (Forests Classification and Inventory System) was defined for inventorying the lumber volume of coniferous tree types in rugged terrain regions. Data from four bands serve as input for unsupervised clustering and iterative labeling of the elevation, slope angle, and subregions of interest. Simulated photographic maps are generated which serve as overlays for regular maps for assessing timber harvests and sales goals. Sample procedures followed in mapping the Eldorado region forests in the Sierra Nevada mountains are discussed.

  10. Inventory of Electronic Mobility Aids for Persons with Visual Impairments: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roentgen, Uta R.; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; Soede, Mathijs; de Witte, Luc P.

    2008-01-01

    This literature review of existing electronic mobility aids for persons who are visually impaired and recent developments in this field identified and classified 146 products, systems, and devices. The 21 that are currently available that can be used without environmental adaptation are described in functional terms. (Contains 2 tables.)

  11. If a Tree Dies in a Forest will it be Reflected in a Forest Carbon Inventory? Quantifying the Effect of Disturbance on U.S. Forest Carbon Stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, C. W.; Domke, G.; Westfall, J.; Perry, C.; Oswalt, C. M.; Smith, J.; Patel-Weynand, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service is charged with the responsibility of monitoring forest ecosystem attributes, such as carbon (C) stocks, across the U.S. Given the role of both natural and anthropocentric disturbance on forest C stocks across a range of spatial scales and intensity (e.g., stand-level canopy gaps to major hurricane), quantifying the statistical power of the FIA inventory to detect disturbance and resulting implications for climate change hypothesis testing and C cycle impacts is paramount. Our study evaluates the statistical power of the FIA inventory to detect C stock change, distribution of disturbance events over time, and implications for C accounting/dynamics.

  12. Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Known as MRO for Maintenance, Repair and Operating supplies, Tropicana Products, Inc.'s automated inventory management system is an adaptation of the Shuttle Inventory Management System (SIMS) developed by NASA to assure adequate supply of every item used in support of the Space Shuttle. The Tropicana version monitors inventory control, purchasing receiving and departmental costs for eight major areas of the company's operation.

  13. Atlas of relations between climatic parameters and distributions of important trees and shrubs in North America—Modern data for climatic estimation from vegetation inventories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Robert S.; Anderson, Katherine H.; Pelltier, Richard T.; Strickland, Laura E.; Shafer, Sarah L.; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetation inventories (plant taxa present in a vegetation assemblage at a given site) can be used to estimate climatic parameters based on the identification of the range of a given parameter where all taxa in an assemblage overlap ("Mutual Climatic Range"). For the reconstruction of past climates from fossil or subfossil plant assemblages, we assembled the data necessary for such analyses for 530 woody plant taxa and eight climatic parameters in North America. Here we present examples of how these data can be used to obtain paleoclimatic estimates from botanical data in a straightforward, simple, and robust fashion. We also include matrices of climate parameter versus occurrence or nonoccurrence of the individual taxa. These relations are depicted graphically as histograms of the population distributions of the occurrences of a given taxon plotted against a given climatic parameter. This provides a new method for quantification of paleoclimatic parameters from fossil plant assemblages.

  14. A stand-alone tree demography and landscape structure module for Earth system models: integration with inventory data from temperate and boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverd, V.; Smith, B.; Nieradzik, L. P.; Briggs, P. R.

    2014-08-01

    Poorly constrained rates of biomass turnover are a key limitation of Earth system models (ESMs). In light of this, we recently proposed a new approach encoded in a model called Populations-Order-Physiology (POP), for the simulation of woody ecosystem stand dynamics, demography and disturbance-mediated heterogeneity. POP is suitable for continental to global applications and designed for coupling to the terrestrial ecosystem component of any ESM. POP bridges the gap between first-generation dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) with simple large-area parameterisations of woody biomass (typically used in current ESMs) and complex second-generation DVMs that explicitly simulate demographic processes and landscape heterogeneity of forests. The key simplification in the POP approach, compared with second-generation DVMs, is to compute physiological processes such as assimilation at grid-scale (with CABLE (Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange) or a similar land surface model), but to partition the grid-scale biomass increment among age classes defined at sub-grid-scale, each subject to its own dynamics. POP was successfully demonstrated along a savanna transect in northern Australia, replicating the effects of strong rainfall and fire disturbance gradients on observed stand productivity and structure. Here, we extend the application of POP to wide-ranging temporal and boreal forests, employing paired observations of stem biomass and density from forest inventory data to calibrate model parameters governing stand demography and biomass evolution. The calibrated POP model is then coupled to the CABLE land surface model, and the combined model (CABLE-POP) is evaluated against leaf-stem allometry observations from forest stands ranging in age from 3 to 200 year. Results indicate that simulated biomass pools conform well with observed allometry. We conclude that POP represents an ecologically plausible and efficient alternative to large-area parameterisations of woody

  15. Aerosol deposition doses in the human respiratory tree of electronic cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Manigrasso, Maurizio; Buonanno, Giorgio; Fuoco, Fernanda Carmen; Stabile, Luca; Avino, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Aerosols from eight e-cigarettes at different nicotine levels and flavoring were characterized as particle number size distributions in the range 5.6-560 nm by FMPS and CPC. Results were used to provided osimetry estimates applying the MMPD model.Particle number concentrations varied between 3.26 x 10(9) and 4.09 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids without nicotine and between 5.08 x 10(9) and 5.29 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids with nicotine. No flavor effects were detected on particle concentration data. Particle size distributions were unimodal with modes between 107-165 nm and 165-255 nm, for number and volume metrics, respectively. Averagely, 6.25 x 10(10) particles were deposited in respiratory tree after a single puff. Highest deposition densities and mean layer thickness of e-cigarette liquid on the lung epithelium were estimated at lobar bronchi. Our study shows that e-cigarette aerosol is source of high particle dose in respiratory system, from 23%to 35% of the daily dose of a no-smoking individual. PMID:25463721

  16. An electronic flow control system for a variable-rate tree sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precise modulation of nozzle flow rates is a critical measure to achieve variable-rate spray applications. An electronic flow rate control system accommodating with microprocessors and pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled solenoid valves was designed to manipulate the output of spray nozzles inde...

  17. Sustained Diurnal Stimulation of Cyclic Electron Flow in Two Tropical Tree Species Erythrophleum guineense and Khaya ivorensis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Hu, Hong; Cao, Kun-Fang; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    The photosystem II (PSII) activity of C3 plants is usually inhibited at noon associated with high light but can be repaired fast in the afternoon. However, the diurnal variation of photosystem I (PSI) activity is unknown. Although, cyclic electron flow (CEF) has been documented as an important mechanism for photosynthesis, the diurnal variation of CEF in sun leaves is little known. We determined the diurnal changes in PSI and PSII activities, light energy dissipation in PSII and the P700 redox state in two tropical tree species Erythrophleum guineense and Khaya ivorensis grown in an open field. The PSI activity (as indicated by the maximum quantity of photo-oxidizable P700) was maintained stable during the daytime. CEF was strongly activated under high light at noon, accompanying with high levels of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and PSI oxidation ratio. In the afternoon, CEF was maintained at a relatively high level under low light, which was accompanied with low levels of NPQ and P700 oxidation ratio. These results indicated that CEF was flexibly modulated during daytime under fluctuating light conditions. Under high light at noon, CEF-dependent generation of proton gradient across the thylakoid membranes (ΔpH) mainly contributed to photoprotection for PSI and PSII. By comparison, at low light in the afternoon, the CEF-dependent formation of ΔpH may be important for PSII repair via an additional ATP synthesis. PMID:27486473

  18. Mechanism of Action of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil on Staphylococcus aureus Determined by Time-Kill, Lysis, Leakage, and Salt Tolerance Assays and Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Christine F.; Mee, Brian J.; Riley, Thomas V.

    2002-01-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The mechanisms of action of tea tree oil and three of its components, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 were investigated. Treatment with these agents at their MICs and two times their MICs, particularly treatment with terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, reduced the viability of S. aureus. None of the agents caused lysis, as determined by measurement of the optical density at 620 nm, although cells became disproportionately sensitive to subsequent autolysis. Loss of 260-nm-absorbing material occurred after treatment with concentrations equivalent to the MIC, particularly after treatment with 1,8-cineole and α-terpineol. S. aureus organisms treated with tea tree oil or its components at the MIC or two times the MIC showed a significant loss of tolerance to NaCl. When the agents were tested at one-half the MIC, only 1,8-cineole significantly reduced the tolerance of S. aureus to NaCl. Electron microscopy of terpinen-4-ol-treated cells showed the formation of mesosomes and the loss of cytoplasmic contents. The predisposition to lysis, the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material, the loss of tolerance to NaCl, and the altered morphology seen by electron microscopy all suggest that tea tree oil and its components compromise the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:12019108

  19. 75 FR 82095 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. The inventory includes service contract... at the NRC's electronic Reading Room at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html . From this page... inventory includes service contract actions over $25,000 that were awarded in FY 2010. The...

  20. Inventory management.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger

    2004-06-01

    As dentistry continues to evolve, the best management systems of the business world need to be incorporated into each practice. As always, my goal in these columns is to bring and modify the best business principles available to readers of The Journal of the American Dental Association. Just in Time ordering and inventory control is one of the best, as evidenced by the fact that top-performing companies worldwide have adopted it. PMID:15270164

  1. Utilizing home health care electronic health records for telehomecare patients with heart failure: a decision tree approach to detect associations with rehospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Youjeong; McHugh, Matthew D; Chittams, Jesse; Bowles, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is a complex condition with a significant impact on patients’ lives. A few studies have identified risk factors associated with rehospitalization among telehomecare patients with heart failure using logistic regression or survival analysis models. To date there are no published studies that have used data mining techniques to detect associations with rehospitalizations among telehomecare patients with heart failure. This study is a secondary analysis of the home health care electronic medical record called the Outcome Assessment and Information Set (OASIS)-C for 552 telemonitored heart failure patients. Bivariate analyses using SAS™ and a decision tree technique using Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis were used. From the decision tree technique, the presence of skin issue(s) was identified as the top predictor of rehospitalization that could be identified during the start of care assessment, followed by patient’s living situation, patient’s overall health status, severe pain experiences, frequency of activity-limiting pain, and total number of anticipated therapy visits coombined. Examining risk factors for rehospitalization from the OASIS-C database using a decision tree approach among a cohort of telehomecare patients provided a broad understanding of the characteristics of patients who are appropriate for the use of telehomcare or who need additional supports. PMID:26848645

  2. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2001-12-19

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the

  3. Tree Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.; Maxwell, Taylor; Posada, David; Stengård, Jari H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    We use evolutionary trees of haplotypes to study phenotypic associations by exhaustively examining all possible biallelic partitions of the tree, a technique we call tree scanning. If the first scan detects significant associations, additional rounds of tree scanning are used to partition the tree into three or more allelic classes. Two worked examples are presented. The first is a reanalysis of associations between haplotypes at the Alcohol Dehydrogenase locus in Drosophila melanogaster that was previously analyzed using a nested clade analysis, a more complicated technique for using haplotype trees to detect phenotypic associations. Tree scanning and the nested clade analysis yield the same inferences when permutation testing is used with both approaches. The second example is an analysis of associations between variation in various lipid traits and genetic variation at the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene in three human populations. Tree scanning successfully identified phenotypic associations expected from previous analyses. Tree scanning for the most part detected more associations and provided a better biological interpretative framework than single SNP analyses. We also show how prior information can be incorporated into the tree scan by starting with the traditional three electrophoretic alleles at APOE. Tree scanning detected genetically determined phenotypic heterogeneity within all three electrophoretic allelic classes. Overall, tree scanning is a simple, powerful, and flexible method for using haplotype trees to detect phenotype/genotype associations at candidate loci. PMID:15371364

  4. New program controls tree management

    SciTech Connect

    Beaty, W.

    1995-02-01

    Senior management of TransAlta Utilities Corp. (TAU) Calgary, Alberta, Canada, was highly dissatisfied with the fact that even though the distribution line clearance budget had been increased an average 35 percent a year between 1978 and 1984, there were few if any discernible positive results. Tree-related power outages kept increasing and budget requests from the field kept increasing. In searching for a solution TAU had to deal with the concept that the right level of funding can only be determined through an inventory of tree work. This inventory is comprised of two factors, the number of trees in proximity to the power lines and the local growth rates. Based on the inventory of a hired consultant, a 12-year budget projection was established. The period covered entailed a six-year, first-cycle or catch up phase, and a six-year, second-cycle maintenance phase. In implementing the new vegetation management program in 1986, TAU decided to contact each landowner directly to obtain consent to undertake the tree work. The intent was to reduce the risk of claims while maximizing tree removals. Complaints and claims were dramatically reduced and currently run at about one per 1,000 landowners and budgets have dropped back to the 1985 levels as predicted for the maintenance phase.

  5. Tree Lifecycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nature Study, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents a Project Learning Tree (PLT) activity that has students investigate and compare the lifecycle of a tree to other living things and the tree's role in the ecosystem. Includes background material as well as step-by-step instructions, variation and enrichment ideas, assessment opportunities, and student worksheets. (SJR)

  6. Citrus Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An aerial color infrared (CIR) mapping system developed by Kennedy Space Center enables Florida's Charlotte County to accurately appraise its citrus groves while reducing appraisal costs. The technology was further advanced by development of a dual video system making it possible to simultaneously view images of the same area and detect changes. An image analysis system automatically surveys and photo interprets grove images as well as automatically counts trees and reports totals. The system, which saves both time and money, has potential beyond citrus grove valuation.

  7. Vascular plant inventory, Yosemite National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Moore, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    Plant and fuel inventory data from 362 sites across elevational and latitudinal gradients of Yosemite National Park. Data collected between 1989 and 1993 includes species composition and abundance data for tree, shrub and herbaceous vegetation layers and fuel information. Nonspatial, georeferenced.

  8. Inventory Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, David L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an electronic thermometer using a precision temperature sensor (includes detailed schematic of circuits) and inexpensive ring holders for round-bottomed flasks. Also describes a method for reducing funnel breakage. (JN)

  9. Strategy Inventory for E-Mail Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    A 50-item, five-point Likert scale inventory was designed to be a valid and reliable group-administered instrument to provide a profile of the declarative knowledge of electronic mail (e-mail) strategies used by students learning English as a second language (ESL) or foreign language (EFL). The inventory was developed primarily for voluntary use…

  10. Talking Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  11. Tree Amigos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Environmental Study, Grand Rapids, MI.

    Tree Amigos is a special cross-cultural program that uses trees as a common bond to bring the people of the Americas together in unique partnerships to preserve and protect the shared global environment. It is a tangible program that embodies the philosophy that individuals, acting together, can make a difference. This resource book contains…

  12. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  13. Increasing the Efficiency of LiDAR Based Forest Inventories: A Novel Approach for Integrating Variable Radius Inventory Plots with LiDAR Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, M. J.; Fekety, P.; Silva, C. A.; Hudak, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    LiDAR data are increasingly applied to support forest inventory and assessment across a variety of spatial scales. Typically this is achieved by integrating LiDAR data with forest inventory collected at fixed radius forest inventory plots. A well-designed forest inventory, one that covers the full range of structural and compositional variation across the forest of interest, is costly especially when collecting fixed radius plot data. Variable radius plots offer an alternative inventory protocol that is more efficient in terms of both time and money. However, integrating variable radius plot data with LiDAR data is problematic because the plots have unknown sizes that vary with variation in tree size. This leads to a spatial mismatch between LiDAR metrics (e.g., mean height, canopy cover, density, etc.) and plot data, which ultimately translates into errors in LiDAR derived forest inventory predictions. We propose and evaluate and novel approach for integrating variable radius plot data into a LiDAR based forest inventories in two different forest systems, one in the inland northwest and another in the northern lakes states of the USA. The novel approach calculates LiDAR metrics by weighting the point cloud proportional to return height, mimicking the way in which variable radius plot data weights tree measurements by tree size. This could increase inventory sampling efficiency, allowing for the collection of a greater number of inventory plots, and ultimately improve the performance of LiDAR based inventories.

  14. Greenhouse trees

    SciTech Connect

    Hanover, J.W.; Hart, J.W.

    1980-05-09

    Michigan State University has been conducting research on growth control of woody plants with emphasis on commercial plantations. The objective was to develop the optimum levels for the major factors that affect tree seedling growth and development so that high quality plants can be produced for a specific use. This article describes the accelerated-optimal-growth (AOG) concept, describes precautions to take in its application, and shows ways to maximize the potential of AOG for producing ornamental trees. Factors considered were container growing system; protective culture including light, temperature, mineral nutrients, water, carbon dioxide, growth regulators, mycorrhizae, growing media, competition, and pests; size of seedlings; and acclamation. 1 table. (DP)

  15. Audubon Tree Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Trees," a leaders' guide, and a large tree chart with 37 colored pictures. The student reader reviews several aspects of trees: a definition of a tree; where and how trees grow; flowers, pollination and seed production; how trees make their food; how to recognize trees; seasonal changes;…

  16. Visualizing phylogenetic trees using TreeView.

    PubMed

    Page, Roderic D M

    2002-08-01

    TreeView provides a simple way to view the phylogenetic trees produced by a range of programs, such as PAUP*, PHYLIP, TREE-PUZZLE, and ClustalX. While some phylogenetic programs (such as the Macintosh version of PAUP*) have excellent tree printing facilities, many programs do not have the ability to generate publication quality trees. TreeView addresses this need. The program can read and write a range of tree file formats, display trees in a variety of styles, print trees, and save the tree as a graphic file. Protocols in this unit cover both displaying and printing a tree. Support protocols describe how to download and install TreeView, and how to display bootstrap values in trees generated by ClustalX and PAUP*. PMID:18792942

  17. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories, source... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  18. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission inventories, source... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  19. Cabruca agroforests of southern Bahia Brazil: tree component, management, species conservation and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In southern Bahia, cabruca is the agroforestry system in which cocoa is cultivated under the shade of sparse native forest trees. Aiming to characterize the tree component of this system and its management practices, we conducted an inventory of the non-cocoa trees in 16 ha of cabruca and do intervi...

  20. Interactive inventory monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan M. (Inventor); Udoh, Usen E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring present location and/or present status of a target inventory item, where the inventory items are located on one or more inventory shelves or other inventory receptacles that communicate with an inventory base station through use of responders such as RFIDs. A user operates a hand held interrogation and display (IAD) module that communicates with, or is part of, the base station, to provide an initial inquiry. Information on location(s) of the target inventory item is also indicated visibly and/or audibly on the receptacle(s) for the user. Status information includes an assessment of operation readiness and a time, if known, that the specified inventory item or class was last removed or examined or modified. Presentation of a user access level may be required for access to the target inventory item. Another embodiment provides inventory information for a stack as a sight-impaired or hearing-impaired person passes adjacent to that stack.

  1. Recent Technical Changes to the United States Forest Carbon Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, C. W.; Smith, J.; Domke, G. M.; Healey, S. P.; Coulston, J.; Gray, A.

    2013-12-01

    A national system of field inventory plots is the primary data source for the annual assessment of US forest carbon (C) stocks and stock-change to meet reporting requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The inventory data and their role in carbon reporting continue to evolve. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service is charged with conducting the field inventory of US forest C. The FIA program employs remotely sensed imagery to define forest and nonforest plots which are systematically distributed approximately every 2,428 ha across the conterminous US. More than 125,000 plots in the current field inventory have at least one forested condition where field crews measure tree- and site-level attributes (e.g., diameter and tree height) at regular temporal intervals. A subset of forested plots is measured for additional variables related to forest non-tree C pools (e.g., downed woody materials, understory vegetation, and soils). The FIA program does not directly measure forest C stocks. Instead, a combination of empirically derived C estimates (e.g., standing live and dead trees) and models (e.g., forest floor C stocks related to stand age and forest type) are used to estimate forest C stocks. A series of recent refinements in FIA estimation procedures have replaced some of the purely modeled forest C stock estimates (e.g., downed dead wood) with estimates based on direct measurements from the national field inventory. Results indicated that models of non-live tree C pools differ significantly from field-based estimates at the plot-level but demonstrate only slight divergences of total C estimates at the national scale. The results of these studies in the context of forest carbon accounting and future refinements are discussed.

  2. Technical Tree Climbing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Peter

    Tree climbing offers a safe, inexpensive adventure sport that can be performed almost anywhere. Using standard procedures practiced in tree surgery or rock climbing, almost any tree can be climbed. Tree climbing provides challenge and adventure as well as a vigorous upper-body workout. Tree Climbers International classifies trees using a system…

  3. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Emission Inventory Committee has been pursuing enhancement of the emission inventory program for North American countries--Canada, Mexico, and the United States. With the completion of the NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments, it was recognized that emissio...

  4. Force Concept Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestenes, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reports the rationale, design, validation, and uses of the "Force Concept Inventory," an instrument to assess the students' beliefs on force. Includes results and implications of two studies that compared the inventory with the "Mechanics Baseline." Includes a copy of the instrument. (MDH)

  5. Interactive Inventory Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garud, Sumedha

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring present location and/or present status of a target inventory item, where the inventory items are located on one or more inventory shelves or other inventory receptacles that communicate with an inventory base station through use of responders such as RFIDs. A user operates a hand held interrogation and display (lAD) module that communicates with, or is part of the base station to provide an initial inquiry. lnformation on location(s) of the larget invenlory item is also indicated visibly and/or audibly on the receptacle(s) for the user. Status information includes an assessment of operation readiness and a time, if known, that the specified inventory item or class was last removed or examined or modified. Presentation of a user access level may be required for access to the target inventgory item. Another embodiment provides inventory informatin for a stack as a sight-impaired or hearing-impaired person adjacent to that stack.

  6. The Tree Worker's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithyman, S. J.

    This manual is designed to prepare students for entry-level positions as tree care professionals. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the tree service industry; clothing, eqiupment, and tools; tree workers; basic tree anatomy; techniques of pruning; procedures for climbing and working in the tree; aerial…

  7. Shuttle Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Inventory Management System (SIMS) consists of series of integrated support programs providing supply support for both Shuttle program and Kennedy Space Center base opeations SIMS controls all supply activities and requirements from single point. Programs written in COBOL.

  8. NATIONAL HEALTH PROVIDER INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Health Provider Inventory provides data on services, location, staff, capacity, and other characteristics of selected health care providers in the United States. Information is collected via mail questionnaire with telephone follow up to all providers (100% census) o...

  9. Inventory count strategies.

    PubMed

    Springer, W H

    1996-02-01

    An important principle of accounting is that asset inventory needs to be correctly valued to ensure that the financial statements of the institution are accurate. Errors is recording the value of ending inventory in one fiscal year result in errors to published financial statements for that year as well as the subsequent fiscal year. Therefore, it is important that accurate physical counts be periodically taken. It is equally important that any system being used to generate inventory valuation, reordering or management reports be based on consistently accurate on-hand balances. At the foundation of conducting an accurate physical count of an inventory is a comprehensive understanding of the process coupled with a written plan. This article presents a guideline of the physical count processes involved in a traditional double-count approach. PMID:10165241

  10. Software Document Inventory Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwarth, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    Program offers ways to file and locate sources of reference. DOCLIB system consists of two parts to serve needs of two type of users: general user and librarian. DOCLIB systems provides user with interactive, menudriven document inventory capability.

  11. Health protection well inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Health Protection (HP) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Plan (SRP) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRL research wells.

  12. TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY (TRI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) site is designed to provide information on toxic chemical releases including collected data, guidance documents, program planning, background, history, and, program contacts, among other things. The data included in this homepage have been submi...

  13. The adult children of alcoholics trauma inventory.

    PubMed

    Mackrill, Thomas; Hesse, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The Adult Children of Alcoholics Trauma Inventory (ACATI) registers variations in the recalled experience of growing up with problem drinkers. The ACATI includes measures of the duration and severity of parental alcohol-use-related problems, the drinking parents' behavior when intoxicated and sober, physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and environmental factors. The ACATI correlated well with the Family Tree Questionnaire and showed excellent 14-day test-retest reliability for most variables. The test-retest was carried out in 2009 at a counseling service for young adults from families with alcohol-use-related problems in Denmark (N = 49). PMID:21391809

  14. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  15. Mortality rates associated with crown health for eastern forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Morin, Randall S; Randolph, KaDonna C; Steinman, Jim

    2015-03-01

    The condition of tree crowns is an important indicator of tree and forest health. Crown conditions have been evaluated during inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program since 1999. In this study, remeasured data from 55,013 trees on 2616 FIA plots in the eastern USA were used to assess the probability of survival among various tree species using the suite of FIA crown condition variables. Logistic regression procedures were employed to develop models for predicting tree survival. Results of the regression analyses indicated that crown dieback was the most important crown condition variable for predicting tree survival for all species combined and for many of the 15 individual species in the study. The logistic models were generally successful in representing recent tree mortality responses to multiyear infestations of beech bark disease and hemlock woolly adelgid. Although our models are only applicable to trees growing in a forest setting, the utility of models that predict impending tree mortality goes beyond forest inventory or traditional forestry growth and yield models and includes any application where managers need to assess tree health or predict tree mortality including urban forest, recreation, wildlife, and pest management. PMID:25655130

  16. Methods of inventory control.

    PubMed

    Lindley, C; Mackowiak, J

    1985-01-01

    Various methods for controlling inventory are described, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. The open-to-buy (OTB) budget method limits purchases to a specific amount of funds available for purchasing pharmaceuticals during a specified period. The emphasis of the OTB method is financial control of the pharmacy inventory. Although it is useful in monitoring and adjusting the dollar value of the inventory, it should be combined with other methods for a total inventory control system. The primary emphasis of the short-list method is to provide accurate and timely inventory information to the person responsible for order placement. The short list identifies the items that are in short supply. It is the most common feedback and control mechanism in use, but it is best suited for settings where duplicate or reserve stock is maintained and monitored by more rigorous methods. The main objective of the minimum and maximum method is to determine when and how much to order of each item. It also provides limited dollar control. The major disadvantage of this method is the time it requires to establish the minimum and maximum levels and to update them regularly to reflect changes in demand. The stock record card method is used to record information on the movement of goods in and out of the storage area. Stock cards can also be used to monitor inventory levels and facilitate order initiation. It is probably the optimum method to be used alone. The most effective system of inventory control is one employing a combination of these methods tailored to meet the institution's needs and available resources. PMID:3970028

  17. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H

    2005-07-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  18. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  19. Tree Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Peter R.

    2004-09-01

    Nature often replicates her processes at different scales of space and time in differing media. Here a tree-trunk cross section I am preparing for a dendrochronological display at the Battle Creek Cypress Swamp Nature Sanctuary (Calvert County, Maryland) dried and cracked in a way that replicates practically all the planform features found along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge (see Figure 1). The left-lateral offset of saw marks, contrasting with the right-lateral ``rift'' offset, even illustrates the distinction between transcurrent (strike-slip) and transform faults, the latter only recognized as a geologic feature, by J. Tuzo Wilson, in 1965. However, wood cracking is but one of many examples of natural processes that replicate one or several elements of lithospheric plate tectonics. Many of these examples occur in everyday venues and thus make great teaching aids, ``teachable'' from primary school to university levels. Plate tectonics, the dominant process of Earth geology, also occurs in miniature on the surface of some lava lakes, and as ``ice plate tectonics'' on our frozen seas and lakes. Ice tectonics also happens at larger spatial and temporal scales on the Jovian moons Europa and perhaps Ganymede. Tabletop plate tectonics, in which a molten-paraffin ``asthenosphere'' is surfaced by a skin of congealing wax ``plates,'' first replicated Mid-Oceanic Ridge type seafloor spreading more than three decades ago. A seismologist (J. Brune, personal communication, 2004) discovered wax plate tectonics by casually and serendipitously pulling a stick across a container of molten wax his wife and daughters had used in making candles. Brune and his student D. Oldenburg followed up and mirabile dictu published the results in Science (178, 301-304).

  20. The Needs of Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amy E.; Cooper, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Tree rings can be used not only to look at plant growth, but also to make connections between plant growth and resource availability. In this lesson, students in 2nd-4th grades use role-play to become familiar with basic requirements of trees and how availability of those resources is related to tree ring sizes and tree growth. These concepts can…

  1. Inventory-driven costs.

    PubMed

    Callioni, Gianpaolo; de Montgros, Xavier; Slagmulder, Regine; Van Wassenhove, Luk N; Wright, Linda

    2005-03-01

    In the 199os, Hewlett-Packard's PC business was struggling to turn a dollar, despite the company's success in winning market share. By 1997, margins on its PCs were as thin as a silicon wafer, and some product lines hadn't turned a profit since 1993. The problem had everything to do with the PC industry's notoriously short product cycles and brutal product and component price deflation. A common rule of thumb was that the value of a fully assembled PC decreased 1% a week. In such an environment, inventory costs become critical. But not just the inventory costs companies traditionally track, HP found, after a thorough review of the problem. The standard "holding cost of inventory"--the capital and physical costs of inventory--accounted for only about 10% of HP's inventory costs. The greater risks, it turned out, resided in four other, essentially hidden costs, which stemmed from mismatches between demand and supply: Component devaluation costs for components still held in production; Price protection costs incurred when product prices drop on the goods distributors still have on their shelves; Product return costs that have to be absorbed when distributors return and receive refunds on overstock items, and; Obsolescence costs for products still unsold when new models are introduced. By developing metrics to track those costs in a consistent way throughout the PC division, HP has found it can manage its supply chains with much more sophistication. Gone are the days of across-the-board measures such as,"Everyone must cut inventories by 20% by the end of the year," which usually resulted in a flurry of cookie-cutter lean production and just-in-time initiatives. Now, each product group is free to choose the supply chain configuration that best suits its needs. Other companies can follow HP's example. PMID:15768682

  2. Monitoring trees outside forests: a review.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Sebastian; Kleinn, Christoph; Ståhl, Göran

    2015-09-01

    Trees outside forests (TOFs) are an important natural resource that contributes substantially to national biomass and carbon stocks and to the livelihood of people in many regions. Over the last decades, decision makers have become increasingly aware of the importance of TOF, and as a consequence, this tree resource is nowadays often considered in forest monitoring systems. Our review shows that in many cases, TOF are included in national forest inventories, applying traditional methodologies with relatively sparse networks of field sample plots. Only in some countries, such as India, the design of the inventories has considered the special features of how TOFs occur in the landscape. Several research studies utilising remote sensing for monitoring TOF have been conducted lately, but very few studies include comparative studies to optimise sampling strategies for TOF. Our review indicates that methods combining remote sensing and field surveys appear to be very promising, especially when remote sensing techniques that assess both the horizontal and vertical structures of tree resources are applied. For example, two-phase sampling strategies with laser scanning in the first phase and a field survey in the second phase appear to be effective for assessing TOF resources. However, TOFs often exhibit different characteristics than forest trees. Thus, to improve TOF monitoring, there is often a need to develop models, e.g. for biomass assessment, that are specifically adapted to this tree resource. Alternatively, field-based remote sensing methods that provide structural information about individual trees, notably terrestrial laser scanning, could be further developed for TOF monitoring applications. This also would have a potential to reduce the problem of accessing TOF during field surveys, which is a problem, for example, in countries where TOF are present on intensively utilised private grounds like gardens and agricultural fields. PMID:26318320

  3. Natural vegetation inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    Unique characteristics of ERTS imagery can be used to inventory natural vegetation. While satellite images can seldom be interpreted and identified directly in terms of vegetation types, such types can be inferred by interpretation of physical terrain features and through an understanding of the ecology of the vegetation.

  4. The Learning Preference Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezler, Agnes G.; Rezmovic, Victor

    1981-01-01

    Describes the development, validity, and reliability of the Learning Preference Inventory (LPI) and its use with health professions students and practitioners. Use of the LPI allows identification of individual learning preferences with a fair degree of accuracy. Ways to improve motivation for learning are suggested. (JOW)

  5. NATIONAL EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Emisssions Inventory (NEI) is a data base containing estimates of air pollutant emissions in every US county for the years 1990-2002. National estimates back to 1970 are also part of the NEI. Access to NEI data is available from the following products and services:...

  6. NEW HAVEN TOXICS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA will be working with the New Haven Department of Health to collect data and create an inventory of toxic air pollutants in the New Haven area. Under section 112 of the Clean Air Act, EPA and cities and states are required to reduce cancer and non-cancer health risks in urb...

  7. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  8. Resource Materials Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Cynthia

    1986-01-01

    Lists and describes nine print materials--inventories, guides, check sheets--dealing with economic and emotional stress at both the rural family and rural community levels. Lists and describes six films/videotapes showing impact of the rural crisis on students/schools, churches, and families. Cites publication/print dates mainly from 1984-1985.…

  9. THE PRESCHOOL INVENTORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CALDWELL, BETTYE M.; SOULE, DONALD

    THE PRESCHOOL INVENTORY BEGAN AS AN ANSWER TO THE NEED FOR SOME TYPE OF INSTRUMENT THAT WOULD PROVIDE AN INDICATION OF HOW MUCH A DISADVANTAGED CHILD, PRIOR TO HIS INTRODUCTION TO HEAD START, HAD ACHIEVED IN AREAS REGARDED AS NECESSARY FOUNDATIONS FOR SUBSEQUENT SUCCESS IN SCHOOL. MEASURING BASIC INTELLIGENCE WAS NOT THE GOAL. RATHER, THE…

  10. Cluster Interest Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Douglas

    The Cluster Interest Inventory is designed to familiarize students with representative occupations in 13 career clusters: (1) agribusiness and natural resources, (2) business marketing, and office occupations, (3) communications and media, (4) consumer and homemaker, (5) fine arts and humanities, (6) health, (7) manufacturing and processing, (8)…

  11. Biogenic Emissions Inventory System

    EPA Science Inventory

    ***BEIS3 is now embedded in the CMAQ model***

    The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System, Version 3 (BEIS3) is being developed to support the needs of regional and urban-scale air quality simulation models. BEIS3 is designed to be incorporated into the Sparse Matrix Op...

  12. Digital Collections Inventory Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClung, Patricia A.

    This report is intended to inform and stimulate discussion on digital library programs as well as the potential usefulness, scope, and desired features of future inventories of online digital collections. It describes a joint project by the Commission on Preservation and Access and the Council on Library Resources to determine the extent to which…

  13. Student Attitude Inventory - 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

    This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…

  14. Ecological Inventory Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick, Ed.

    The document contains 20 ecological inventories (developed at the University of Minnesota and the University of Alberta) to help severely disabled students learn functional living skills. The ecological approach is designed to uncover the functions critical for success in specific environments which the student frequently encounters. Matching the…

  15. Materials inventory management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Materials Inventory Management Manual (NHB 4100.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 USC 2473). It sets forth policy, performance standards, and procedures governing the acquisition, management and use of materials. This Manual is effective upon receipt.

  16. Inventory Control and Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mason

    1981-01-01

    An inventory control system stimulates competitive bidding, resulting in the best price for an item. Other cost savings can be achieved by specifying prepayment of freight charges by the successful bidder, seeking standardization of products, and purchasing jointly with nearby municipalities and school districts. (Author/MLF)

  17. Fault tree handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation.

  18. Ellenore Flood's Skills Confidence Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subich, Linda Mezydlo

    1998-01-01

    Presents background information on the Skills Confidence Inventory (SCI) and the construct it assesses. Interprets the skills confidence and interest profiles of a 29-year-old female high school teacher using the SCI and the Strong Interest Inventory. (MKA)

  19. The Employability Inventory: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michael J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes the background, development, content, and validation of the Employability Inventory, an instrument designed to assess knowledge of job seeking, job retention, and job success. Discusses usefulness of the inventory in both counseling and education. (ABL)

  20. A Sustainability Initiative to Quantify Carbon Sequestration by Campus Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Over 3,900 trees on a university campus were inventoried by an instructor-led team of geography undergraduates in order to quantify the carbon sequestration associated with biomass growth. The setting of the project is described, together with its logistics, methodology, outcomes, and benefits. This hands-on project provided a team of students…

  1. A biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory for Yunnan Province.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Hui; Bai, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Yu

    2005-01-01

    The first detailed inventory for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from vegetation over Yunnan Province, China was presented. The spatially and temporally resolved inventory was developed based on a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing (RS) data and field measurement data, such as digitized land-use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and temperature data from direct real-time measurement. The inventory has a spatial resolution of 5 km x 5 km and a time resolution of 1 h. Urban, agriculture, and natural land-use distributions in Yunnan Province were combined with biomass factors for each land-use category to produce a spatially resolved biomass inventory. A biogenic emission inventory was developed by combining the biomass inventory with hourly emission rates for tree, shrub and ground cover species of the study area. Correcting for environmental factors, including light intensity and temperature, a value of 1.1 x 10(12) gC for total annual biogenic VOC emissions from Yunnan Province, including 6.1 x 10(11) gC for isoprene, 2.1 x 10(11) gC for monoterpenes, and 2.6 x 10(11) gC for OVOC was obtained. The highest VOC emissions occurred in the northwestern, southwestern and north region of Yunnan Province. Some uncertainties were also discussed in this study. PMID:16083102

  2. Categorizing Ideas about Trees: A Tree of Trees

    PubMed Central

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a “tree of trees.” Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like “cladists” and “pheneticists” are recovered but others are not: “gradists” are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here “grade theoreticians.” We propose new interesting categories like the “buffonian school,” the “metaphoricians,” and those using “strictly genealogical classifications.” We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization. PMID:23950877

  3. Inventory Systems Laboratory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naddor, Eliezer

    Four computer programs to aid students in understanding inventory systems, constructing mathematical inventory models, and developing optimal decision rules are presented. The program series allows a user to set input levels, simulates the behavior of major variables in inventory systems, and provides performance measures as output. Inventory…

  4. Inventory Costs: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haka, Clifford H.; Ursery, Nancy

    1985-01-01

    Presents procedures and statistics for a manual inventory and an inventory coordinated with conversion to an online circulation system at University of Kansas main library. Results of this two-phase inventory (Dewey Decimal-classified materials, LC-classified materials) and the cost-effectiveness of such a project in a large library are…

  5. Integrating RFID technique to design mobile handheld inventory management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yo-Ping; Yen, Wei; Chen, Shih-Chung

    2008-04-01

    An RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system is proposed in this paper. Differing from the manual inventory management method, the proposed system works on the personal digital assistant (PDA) with an RFID reader. The system identifies electronic tags on the properties and checks the property information in the back-end database server through a ubiquitous wireless network. The system also provides a set of functions to manage the back-end inventory database and assigns different levels of access privilege according to various user categories. In the back-end database server, to prevent improper or illegal accesses, the server not only stores the inventory database and user privilege information, but also keeps track of the user activities in the server including the login and logout time and location, the records of database accessing, and every modification of the tables. Some experimental results are presented to verify the applicability of the integrated RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system.

  6. Chem-Is-Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.

    1997-01-01

    Provides details on the chemical composition of trees including a definition of wood. Also includes an activity on anthocyanins as well as a discussion of the resistance of wood to solvents and chemicals. Lists interesting products from trees. (DDR)

  7. Evolution of tree nutrition.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Andrews, Mitchell

    2010-09-01

    Using a broad definition of trees, the evolutionary origins of trees in a nutritional context is considered using data from the fossil record and molecular phylogeny. Trees are first known from the Late Devonian about 380 million years ago, originated polyphyletically at the pteridophyte grade of organization; the earliest gymnosperms were trees, and trees are polyphyletic in the angiosperms. Nutrient transporters, assimilatory pathways, homoiohydry (cuticle, intercellular gas spaces, stomata, endohydric water transport systems including xylem and phloem-like tissue) and arbuscular mycorrhizas preceded the origin of trees. Nutritional innovations that began uniquely in trees were the seed habit and, certainly (but not necessarily uniquely) in trees, ectomycorrhizas, cyanobacterial, actinorhizal and rhizobial (Parasponia, some legumes) diazotrophic symbioses and cluster roots. PMID:20581011

  8. Tree Classification Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the IND Tree Package to prospective users. IND does supervised learning using classification trees. This learning task is a basic tool used in the development of diagnosis, monitoring and expert systems. The IND Tree Package was developed as part of a NASA project to semi-automate the development of data analysis and modelling algorithms using artificial intelligence techniques. The IND Tree Package integrates features from CART and C4 with newer Bayesian and minimum encoding methods for growing classification trees and graphs. The IND Tree Package also provides an experimental control suite on top. The newer features give improved probability estimates often required in diagnostic and screening tasks. The package comes with a manual, Unix 'man' entries, and a guide to tree methods and research. The IND Tree Package is implemented in C under Unix and was beta-tested at university and commercial research laboratories in the United States.

  9. Decision-Tree Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1994-01-01

    IND computer program introduces Bayesian and Markov/maximum-likelihood (MML) methods and more-sophisticated methods of searching in growing trees. Produces more-accurate class-probability estimates important in applications like diagnosis. Provides range of features and styles with convenience for casual user, fine-tuning for advanced user or for those interested in research. Consists of four basic kinds of routines: data-manipulation, tree-generation, tree-testing, and tree-display. Written in C language.

  10. The Wish Tree Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sarah DeWitt

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in implementing a Wish Tree project in her school in an effort to bring the school community together with a positive art-making experience during a potentially stressful time. The concept of a wish tree is simple: plant a tree; provide tags and pencils for writing wishes; and encourage everyone to…

  11. Illumination Under Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N

    2002-08-19

    This paper is a survey of the author's work on illumination and shadows under trees, including the effects of sky illumination, sun penumbras, scattering in a misty atmosphere below the trees, and multiple scattering and transmission between leaves. It also describes a hierarchical image-based rendering method for trees.

  12. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  13. Winter Birch Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  14. Diary of a Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srulowitz, Frances

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity to develop students' skills of observation and recordkeeping by studying the growth of a tree's leaves during the spring. Children monitor the growth of 11 tress over a 2-month period, draw pictures of the tree at different stages of growth, and write diaries of the tree's growth. (MDH)

  15. Distributed Contour Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther H.

    2014-03-31

    Topological techniques provide robust tools for data analysis. They are used, for example, for feature extraction, for data de-noising, and for comparison of data sets. This chapter concerns contour trees, a topological descriptor that records the connectivity of the isosurfaces of scalar functions. These trees are fundamental to analysis and visualization of physical phenomena modeled by real-valued measurements. We study the parallel analysis of contour trees. After describing a particular representation of a contour tree, called local{global representation, we illustrate how di erent problems that rely on contour trees can be solved in parallel with minimal communication.

  16. Growth of a Pine Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  17. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... surveillance, reports. 60.25 Section 60.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  18. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... surveillance, reports. 60.25 Section 60.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  19. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... surveillance, reports. 60.25 Section 60.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  20. Software for Managing Inventory of Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, John; Savage, Scott; Thomas, Shirman

    2003-01-01

    The Flight Hardware Support Request System (FHSRS) is a computer program that relieves engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of most of the non-engineering administrative burden of managing an inventory of flight hardware. The FHSRS can also be adapted to perform similar functions for other organizations. The FHSRS affords a combination of capabilities, including those formerly provided by three separate programs in purchasing, inventorying, and inspecting hardware. The FHSRS provides a Web-based interface with a server computer that supports a relational database of inventory; electronic routing of requests and approvals; and electronic documentation from initial request through implementation of quality criteria, acquisition, receipt, inspection, storage, and final issue of flight materials and components. The database lists both hardware acquired for current projects and residual hardware from previous projects. The increased visibility of residual flight components provided by the FHSRS has dramatically improved the re-utilization of materials in lieu of new procurements, resulting in a cost savings of over $1.7 million. The FHSRS includes subprograms for manipulating the data in the database, informing of the status of a request or an item of hardware, and searching the database on any physical or other technical characteristic of a component or material. The software structure forces normalization of the data to facilitate inquiries and searches for which users have entered mixed or inconsistent values.

  1. Document image content inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Henry S.; Moll, Michael A.; An, Chang; Casey, Matthew R.

    2007-01-01

    We report an investigation into strategies, algorithms, and software tools for document image content extraction and inventory, that is, the location and measurement of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. We have developed automatically trainable methods, adaptable to many kinds of documents represented as bilevel, greylevel, or color images, that offer a wide range of useful tradeoffs of speed versus accuracy using methods for exact and approximate k-Nearest Neighbor classification. We have adopted a policy of classifying each pixel (rather than regions) by content type: we discuss the motivation and engineering implications of this choice. We describe experiments on a wide variety of document-image and content types, and discuss performance in detail in terms of classification speed, per-pixel classification accuracy, per-page inventory accuracy, and subjective quality of page segmentation. These show that even modest per-pixel classification accuracies (of, e.g., 60-70%) support usefully high recall and precision rates (of, e.g., 80-90%) for retrieval queries of document collections seeking pages that contain a given minimum fraction of a certain type of content.

  2. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.D.

    1998-08-14

    Miscellaneous streams discharging to the soil column on the Hanford Site are subject to requirements of several milestones identified in Consent Order No. DE 9INM-177 (Ecology and DOE 1991). The Plan and Schedule for Disposition and Regulatory Compliance for Miscellaneous Stream (DOE/RL-93-94) provides a plan and schedule for the disposition of miscellaneous streams to satisfy one of the Section 6.0 requirements of the Consent Order. One of the commitments (Activity 6-2.2) established in the plan and schedule is to annually update, the miscellaneous streams inventory. This document constitutes the 1998 revision of the miscellaneous streams inventory. Miscellaneous stream discharges were grouped into four permitting categories (Table 1). The first miscellaneous streams Permit (ST 4508) was issued May 30, 1997, to cover wastewater discharges from hydrotesting, maintenance, and construction activities. The second miscellaneous streams Permit (ST4509) covers discharges from cooling water and condensate discharges. The third permit application for category three waste streams was eliminated by recategorizing waste streams into an existing miscellaneous streams permit or eliminating stream discharges. Elimination of the third categorical permit application was approved by Ecology in January 1997 (Ecology 1997). The fourth permit application, to cover storm water, is due to Ecology in September 1998. Table 1 provides a history of the miscellaneous streams permitting activities.

  3. Tree height-diameter allometry across the United States.

    PubMed

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between tree height and diameter is fundamental in determining community and ecosystem structure as well as estimates of biomass and carbon storage. Yet our understanding of how tree allometry relates to climate and whole organismal function is limited. We used the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program database to determine height-diameter allometries of 2,976,937 individuals of 293 tree species across the United States. The shape of the allometric relationship was determined by comparing linear and nonlinear functional forms. Mixed-effects models were used to test for allometric differences due to climate and floristic (between angiosperms and gymnosperms) and functional groups (leaf habit and shade tolerance). Tree allometry significantly differed across the United States largely because of climate. Temperature, and to some extent precipitation, in part explained tree allometric variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate, however, had a phylogenetic signal. Specifically, angiosperm allometry was more sensitive to differences in temperature compared to gymnosperms. Most notably, angiosperm height was more negatively influenced by increasing temperature variability, whereas gymnosperm height was negatively influenced by decreasing precipitation and increasing altitude. There was little evidence to suggest that shade tolerance influenced tree allometry except for very shade-intolerant trees which were taller for any given diameter. Tree allometry is plastic rather than fixed and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies. This allometric variation provides insight into life-history strategies, phylogenetic history, and environmental limitations at biogeographical scales. PMID:25859325

  4. An estimate of the number of tropical tree species

    PubMed Central

    Slik, J. W. Ferry; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Alves, Luciana F.; Ashton, Peter; Balvanera, Patricia; Bastian, Meredith L.; Bellingham, Peter J.; van den Berg, Eduardo; Bernacci, Luis; da Conceição Bispo, Polyanna; Blanc, Lilian; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Boeckx, Pascal; Bongers, Frans; Boyle, Brad; Bradford, Matt; Brearley, Francis Q.; Breuer-Ndoundou Hockemba, Mireille; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Calderado Leal Matos, Darley; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel; Catharino, Eduardo L. M.; Chai, Shauna-Lee; Chen, Yukai; Colwell, Robert K.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Clark, Connie; Clark, David B.; Clark, Deborah A.; Culmsee, Heike; Damas, Kipiro; Dattaraja, Handanakere S.; Dauby, Gilles; Davidar, Priya; DeWalt, Saara J.; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Duque, Alvaro; Durigan, Giselda; Eichhorn, Karl A. O.; Eisenlohr, Pedro V.; Eler, Eduardo; Ewango, Corneille; Farwig, Nina; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Ferreira, Leandro; Field, Richard; de Oliveira Filho, Ary T.; Fletcher, Christine; Forshed, Olle; Franco, Geraldo; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Gillespie, Thomas; Gillet, Jean-François; Amarnath, Giriraj; Griffith, Daniel M.; Grogan, James; Gunatilleke, Nimal; Harris, David; Harrison, Rhett; Hector, Andy; Homeier, Jürgen; Imai, Nobuo; Itoh, Akira; Jansen, Patrick A.; Joly, Carlos A.; de Jong, Bernardus H. J.; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Kelly, Daniel L.; Kenfack, David; Kessler, Michael; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Kooyman, Robert; Larney, Eileen; Laumonier, Yves; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F.; Lawes, Michael J.; do Amaral, Ieda Leao; Letcher, Susan G.; Lindsell, Jeremy; Lu, Xinghui; Mansor, Asyraf; Marjokorpi, Antti; Martin, Emanuel H.; Meilby, Henrik; Melo, Felipe P. L.; Metcalfe, Daniel J.; Medjibe, Vincent P.; Metzger, Jean Paul; Millet, Jerome; Mohandass, D.; Montero, Juan C.; de Morisson Valeriano, Márcio; Mugerwa, Badru; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Nilus, Reuben; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Onrizal; Page, Navendu; Parolin, Pia; Parren, Marc; Parthasarathy, Narayanaswamy; Paudel, Ekananda; Permana, Andrea; Piedade, Maria T. F.; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Poorter, Lourens; Poulsen, Axel D.; Poulsen, John; Powers, Jennifer; Prasad, Rama C.; Puyravaud, Jean-Philippe; Razafimahaimodison, Jean-Claude; Reitsma, Jan; dos Santos, João Roberto; Roberto Spironello, Wilson; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Rozak, Andes Hamuraby; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Rutishauser, Ervan; Saiter, Felipe; Saner, Philippe; Santos, Braulio A.; Santos, Fernanda; Sarker, Swapan K.; Satdichanh, Manichanh; Schmitt, Christine B.; Schöngart, Jochen; Schulze, Mark; Suganuma, Marcio S.; Sheil, Douglas; da Silva Pinheiro, Eduardo; Sist, Plinio; Stevart, Tariq; Sukumar, Raman; Sun, I.-Fang; Sunderland, Terry; Suresh, H. S.; Suzuki, Eizi; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Tang, Jangwei; Targhetta, Natália; Theilade, Ida; Thomas, Duncan W.; Tchouto, Peguy; Hurtado, Johanna; Valencia, Renato; van Valkenburg, Johan L. C. H.; Van Do, Tran; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Verbeeck, Hans; Adekunle, Victor; Vieira, Simone A.; Webb, Campbell O.; Whitfeld, Timothy; Wich, Serge A.; Williams, John; Wittmann, Florian; Wöll, Hannsjoerg; Yang, Xiaobo; Adou Yao, C. Yves; Yap, Sandra L.; Yoneda, Tsuyoshi; Zahawi, Rakan A.; Zakaria, Rahmad; Zang, Runguo; de Assis, Rafael L.; Garcia Luize, Bruno; Venticinque, Eduardo M.

    2015-01-01

    The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher’s alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between ∼40,000 and ∼53,000, i.e., at the high end of previous estimates. Contrary to common assumption, the Indo-Pacific region was found to be as species-rich as the Neotropics, with both regions having a minimum of ∼19,000–25,000 tree species. Continental Africa is relatively depauperate with a minimum of ∼4,500–6,000 tree species. Very few species are shared among the African, American, and the Indo-Pacific regions. We provide a methodological framework for estimating species richness in trees that may help refine species richness estimates of tree-dependent taxa. PMID:26034279

  5. Tree height–diameter allometry across the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between tree height and diameter is fundamental in determining community and ecosystem structure as well as estimates of biomass and carbon storage. Yet our understanding of how tree allometry relates to climate and whole organismal function is limited. We used the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program database to determine height–diameter allometries of 2,976,937 individuals of 293 tree species across the United States. The shape of the allometric relationship was determined by comparing linear and nonlinear functional forms. Mixed-effects models were used to test for allometric differences due to climate and floristic (between angiosperms and gymnosperms) and functional groups (leaf habit and shade tolerance). Tree allometry significantly differed across the United States largely because of climate. Temperature, and to some extent precipitation, in part explained tree allometric variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate, however, had a phylogenetic signal. Specifically, angiosperm allometry was more sensitive to differences in temperature compared to gymnosperms. Most notably, angiosperm height was more negatively influenced by increasing temperature variability, whereas gymnosperm height was negatively influenced by decreasing precipitation and increasing altitude. There was little evidence to suggest that shade tolerance influenced tree allometry except for very shade-intolerant trees which were taller for any given diameter. Tree allometry is plastic rather than fixed and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies. This allometric variation provides insight into life-history strategies, phylogenetic history, and environmental limitations at biogeographical scales. PMID:25859325

  6. An estimate of the number of tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Slik, J W Ferry; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Alves, Luciana F; Ashton, Peter; Balvanera, Patricia; Bastian, Meredith L; Bellingham, Peter J; van den Berg, Eduardo; Bernacci, Luis; da Conceição Bispo, Polyanna; Blanc, Lilian; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Boeckx, Pascal; Bongers, Frans; Boyle, Brad; Bradford, Matt; Brearley, Francis Q; Breuer-Ndoundou Hockemba, Mireille; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Calderado Leal Matos, Darley; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel; Catharino, Eduardo L M; Chai, Shauna-Lee; Chen, Yukai; Colwell, Robert K; Chazdon, Robin L; Robin, Chazdon L; Clark, Connie; Clark, David B; Clark, Deborah A; Culmsee, Heike; Damas, Kipiro; Dattaraja, Handanakere S; Dauby, Gilles; Davidar, Priya; DeWalt, Saara J; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Duque, Alvaro; Durigan, Giselda; Eichhorn, Karl A O; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Eler, Eduardo; Ewango, Corneille; Farwig, Nina; Feeley, Kenneth J; Ferreira, Leandro; Field, Richard; de Oliveira Filho, Ary T; Fletcher, Christine; Forshed, Olle; Franco, Geraldo; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Gillespie, Thomas; Gillet, Jean-François; Amarnath, Giriraj; Griffith, Daniel M; Grogan, James; Gunatilleke, Nimal; Harris, David; Harrison, Rhett; Hector, Andy; Homeier, Jürgen; Imai, Nobuo; Itoh, Akira; Jansen, Patrick A; Joly, Carlos A; de Jong, Bernardus H J; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Kelly, Daniel L; Kenfack, David; Kessler, Michael; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Kooyman, Robert; Larney, Eileen; Laumonier, Yves; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F; Lawes, Michael J; Amaral, Ieda Leao do; Letcher, Susan G; Lindsell, Jeremy; Lu, Xinghui; Mansor, Asyraf; Marjokorpi, Antti; Martin, Emanuel H; Meilby, Henrik; Melo, Felipe P L; Metcalfe, Daniel J; Medjibe, Vincent P; Metzger, Jean Paul; Millet, Jerome; Mohandass, D; Montero, Juan C; de Morisson Valeriano, Márcio; Mugerwa, Badru; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Nilus, Reuben; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Onrizal; Page, Navendu; Parolin, Pia; Parren, Marc; Parthasarathy, Narayanaswamy; Paudel, Ekananda; Permana, Andrea; Piedade, Maria T F; Pitman, Nigel C A; Poorter, Lourens; Poulsen, Axel D; Poulsen, John; Powers, Jennifer; Prasad, Rama C; Puyravaud, Jean-Philippe; Razafimahaimodison, Jean-Claude; Reitsma, Jan; Dos Santos, João Roberto; Roberto Spironello, Wilson; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Rozak, Andes Hamuraby; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Rutishauser, Ervan; Saiter, Felipe; Saner, Philippe; Santos, Braulio A; Santos, Fernanda; Sarker, Swapan K; Satdichanh, Manichanh; Schmitt, Christine B; Schöngart, Jochen; Schulze, Mark; Suganuma, Marcio S; Sheil, Douglas; da Silva Pinheiro, Eduardo; Sist, Plinio; Stevart, Tariq; Sukumar, Raman; Sun, I-Fang; Sunderland, Terry; Sunderand, Terry; Suresh, H S; Suzuki, Eizi; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Tang, Jangwei; Targhetta, Natália; Theilade, Ida; Thomas, Duncan W; Tchouto, Peguy; Hurtado, Johanna; Valencia, Renato; van Valkenburg, Johan L C H; Van Do, Tran; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Verbeeck, Hans; Adekunle, Victor; Vieira, Simone A; Webb, Campbell O; Whitfeld, Timothy; Wich, Serge A; Williams, John; Wittmann, Florian; Wöll, Hannsjoerg; Yang, Xiaobo; Adou Yao, C Yves; Yap, Sandra L; Yoneda, Tsuyoshi; Zahawi, Rakan A; Zakaria, Rahmad; Zang, Runguo; de Assis, Rafael L; Garcia Luize, Bruno; Venticinque, Eduardo M

    2015-06-16

    The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher's alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between ∼ 40,000 and ∼ 53,000, i.e., at the high end of previous estimates. Contrary to common assumption, the Indo-Pacific region was found to be as species-rich as the Neotropics, with both regions having a minimum of ∼ 19,000-25,000 tree species. Continental Africa is relatively depauperate with a minimum of ∼ 4,500-6,000 tree species. Very few species are shared among the African, American, and the Indo-Pacific regions. We provide a methodological framework for estimating species richness in trees that may help refine species richness estimates of tree-dependent taxa. PMID:26034279

  7. Species integrity in trees.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel; Baack, Eric J

    2014-09-01

    From California sequoia, to Australian eucalyptus, to the outstanding diversity of Amazonian forests, trees are fundamental to many processes in ecology and evolution. Trees define the communities that they inhabit, are host to a multiplicity of other organisms and can determine the ecological dynamics of other plants and animals. Trees are also at the heart of major patterns of biodiversity such as the latitudinal gradient of species diversity and thus are important systems for studying the origin of new plant species. Although the role of trees in community assembly and ecological succession is partially understood, the origin of tree diversity remains largely opaque. For instance, the relative importance of differing habitats and phenologies as barriers to hybridization between closely related species is still largely uncharacterized in trees. Consequently, we know very little about the origin of trees species and their integrity. Similarly, studies on the interplay between speciation and tree community assembly are in their infancy and so are studies on how processes like forest maturation modifies the context in which reproductive isolation evolves. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lindtke et al. (2014) and Lagache et al. (2014) overcome some traditional difficulties in studying mating systems and sexual isolation in the iconic oaks and poplars, providing novel insights about the integrity of tree species and on how ecology leads to variation in selection on reproductive isolation over time and space. PMID:25155715

  8. Controlling Inventory: Real-World Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas G.; Özgün-Koca, S. Asli; Chelst, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Amazon, Walmart, and other large-scale retailers owe their success partly to efficient inventory management. For such firms, holding too little inventory risks losing sales, whereas holding idle inventory wastes money. Therefore profits hinge on the inventory level chosen. In this activity, students investigate a simplified inventory-control…

  9. 21 CFR 1304.11 - Inventory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory requirements. 1304.11 Section 1304.11... REGISTRANTS Inventory Requirements § 1304.11 Inventory requirements. (a) General requirements. Each inventory... inventory is taken, and shall be maintained in written, typewritten, or printed form at the...

  10. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W.; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P.

    2016-07-01

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species’ range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species’ estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites.

  11. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa

    PubMed Central

    ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W.; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P.

    2016-01-01

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species’ range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species’ estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites. PMID:27406027

  12. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa.

    PubMed

    Ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C A; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P

    2016-01-01

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species' range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species' estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites. PMID:27406027

  13. Indian scales and inventories.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, S

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

  14. Lao Depression Inventory.

    PubMed

    Davidson-Muskin, M B; Golden, C

    1989-01-01

    There are no measurement tools that accurately measure depression among Lao refugees. The overall purpose of this research was to complete the development and validation procedures for the Lao Depression Inventory (LDI). The study consisted of 216 Ethnic Lao refugees. A clinical interview and 164 true/false questions were administered to identify specific items which could identify depression among the Ethnic Lao people. All items were administered in both English and Lao. Overall, 78 of the 164 items differentiated groups of depressed and nondepressed Lao at the .01 level. Results of validation procedures showed that a 30-item scale had an accuracy rate of 89% in identifying the presence of depression in the validation group; the hit-rate for the same items and cutoff was 92% in the cross-validation group. Potential uses of the scale are discussed. PMID:2918451

  15. Indian scales and inventories

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

  16. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY WORKSHOP & ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes the NARSTO activities related to emission inventories in 2003-2005. The NARSTO Particulate Matter Assessment, issued in 2003, identified emission inventories as one of the critical elements of the air quality program which needs improvement if it i...

  17. Task Analysis Inventories. Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Carl E.

    This second in a series of task analysis inventories contains checklists of work performed in twenty-two occupations. Each inventory is a comprehensive list of work activities, responsibilities, educational courses, machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used and the products produced or services rendered in a designated occupational area. The…

  18. Environmental protection well inventory (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, J.L.

    1990-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Environment Protection Department (EPD) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. All wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated.

  19. Automation of Space Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong; Wagner, Raymond; Barton, Richard; Gifford, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the utilization of automated space-based inventory management through handheld RFID readers and BioNet Middleware. The contents include: 1) Space-Based INventory Management; 2) Real-Time RFID Location and Tracking; 3) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) RFID; and 4) BioNet Middleware.

  20. Inventory behavior at remote sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, William C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An operations research study was conducted concerning inventory behavior on the space station. Historical data from the Space Shuttle was used. The results demonstrated a high logistics burden if Space Shuttle reliability technology were to be applied without modification to space station design (which it was not). Effects of rapid resupply and on board repair capabilities on inventory behavior were investigated.

  1. Computer program determines inventory size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaspar, H.

    1966-01-01

    FORTRAN 4 computer program calculates optimum size of a small inventory of relatively complex or expensive items. This program can be used in situations where the initial cost of purchase is large or when there is a need for a balanced inventory on a short production run.

  2. Patterns of thinking about phylogenetic trees: A study of student learning and the potential of tree thinking to improve comprehension of biological concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naegle, Erin

    . Chapter 2 explores the construction, validity, and reliability of a tree thinking concept inventory. Concept inventories are research based instruments that diagnose faulty reasoning among students. Such inventories are tools for improving teaching and learning of concepts. Test scores indicate that tree thinking misconceptions are held by novice and intermediate biology students. Finally, Chapter 3 presents a tree thinking rubric. The rubric aids teachers in selecting and improving introductory tree thinking learning exercises that address students' tree thinking misconceptions.

  3. MetaTree: augmented reality narrative explorations of urban forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Ruth; Margolis, Todd; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath; Mendelowitz, Eitan

    2012-03-01

    As cities world-wide adopt and implement reforestation initiatives to plant millions of trees in urban areas, they are engaging in what is essentially a massive ecological and social experiment. Existing air-borne, space-borne, and fieldbased imaging and inventory mechanisms fail to provide key information on urban tree ecology that is crucial to informing management, policy, and supporting citizen initiatives for the planting and stewardship of trees. The shortcomings of the current approaches include: spatial and temporal resolution, poor vantage point, cost constraints and biological metric limitations. Collectively, this limits their effectiveness as real-time inventory and monitoring tools. Novel methods for imaging and monitoring the status of these emerging urban forests and encouraging their ongoing stewardship by the public are required to ensure their success. This art-science collaboration proposes to re-envision citizens' relationship with urban spaces by foregrounding urban trees in relation to local architectural features and simultaneously creating new methods for urban forest monitoring. We explore creating a shift from overhead imaging or field-based tree survey data acquisition methods to continuous, ongoing monitoring by citizen scientists as part of a mobile augmented reality experience. We consider the possibilities of this experience as a medium for interacting with and visualizing urban forestry data and for creating cultural engagement with urban ecology.

  4. Tree Species Classification By Multiseasonal High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elatawneh, Alata; Wallner, Adelheid; Straub, Christoph; Schneider, Thomas; Knoke, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Accurate forest tree species mapping is a fundamental issue for sustainable forest management and planning. Forest tree species mapping with the means of remote sensing data is still a topic to be investigated. The Bavaria state institute of forestry is investigating the potential of using digital aerial images for forest management purposes. However, using aerial images is still cost- and time-consuming, in addition to their acquisition restrictions. The new space-born sensor generations such as, RapidEye, with a very high temporal resolution, offering multiseasonal data have the potential to improve the forest tree species mapping. In this study, we investigated the potential of multiseasonal RapidEye data for mapping tree species in a Mid European forest in Southern Germany. The RapidEye data of level A3 were collected on ten different dates in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. For data analysis, a model was developed, which combines the Spectral Angle Mapper technique with a 10-fold- cross-validation. The analysis succeeded to differentiate four tree species; Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus). The model success was evaluated using digital aerial images acquired in the year 2009 and inventory point records from 2008/09 inventory. Model results of the multiseasonal RapidEye data analysis achieved an overall accuracy of 76%. However, the success of the model was evaluated only for all the identified species and not for the individual.

  5. Merging National Forest and National Forest Health Inventories to Obtain an Integrated Forest Resource Inventory – Experiences from Bavaria, Slovenia and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Kovač, Marko; Bauer, Arthur; Ståhl, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds, Material and Methods To meet the demands of sustainable forest management and international commitments, European nations have designed a variety of forest-monitoring systems for specific needs. While the majority of countries are committed to independent, single-purpose inventorying, a minority of countries have merged their single-purpose forest inventory systems into integrated forest resource inventories. The statistical efficiencies of the Bavarian, Slovene and Swedish integrated forest resource inventory designs are investigated with the various statistical parameters of the variables of growing stock volume, shares of damaged trees, and deadwood volume. The parameters are derived by using the estimators for the given inventory designs. The required sample sizes are derived via the general formula for non-stratified independent samples and via statistical power analyses. The cost effectiveness of the designs is compared via two simple cost effectiveness ratios. Results In terms of precision, the most illustrative parameters of the variables are relative standard errors; their values range between 1% and 3% if the variables’ variations are low (s%<80%) and are higher in the case of higher variations. A comparison of the actual and required sample sizes shows that the actual sample sizes were deliberately set high to provide precise estimates for the majority of variables and strata. In turn, the successive inventories are statistically efficient, because they allow detecting the mean changes of variables with powers higher than 90%; the highest precision is attained for the changes of growing stock volume and the lowest for the changes of the shares of damaged trees. Two indicators of cost effectiveness also show that the time input spent for measuring one variable decreases with the complexity of inventories. Conclusion There is an increasing need for credible information on forest resources to be used for decision making and national and

  6. CSI for Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Darrin L.; Hanson, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The circles and patterns in a tree's stem tell a story, but that story can be a mystery. Interpreting the story of tree rings provides a way to heighten the natural curiosity of students and help them gain insight into the interaction of elements in the environment. It also represents a wonderful opportunity to incorporate the nature of science.…

  7. Tree Topology Estimation.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Rolando; Tomasi, Carlo; Schmidler, Scott C; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-08-01

    Tree-like structures are fundamental in nature, and it is often useful to reconstruct the topology of a tree - what connects to what - from a two-dimensional image of it. However, the projected branches often cross in the image: the tree projects to a planar graph, and the inverse problem of reconstructing the topology of the tree from that of the graph is ill-posed. We regularize this problem with a generative, parametric tree-growth model. Under this model, reconstruction is possible in linear time if one knows the direction of each edge in the graph - which edge endpoint is closer to the root of the tree - but becomes NP-hard if the directions are not known. For the latter case, we present a heuristic search algorithm to estimate the most likely topology of a rooted, three-dimensional tree from a single two-dimensional image. Experimental results on retinal vessel, plant root, and synthetic tree data sets show that our methodology is both accurate and efficient. PMID:26353004

  8. Structural Equation Model Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  9. Trees Are Terrific!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. Contents are organized into the following sections: (1) "What Makes a Tree a Tree?," including information…

  10. The Flame Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Lewis's own experiences living in Indonesia are fertile ground for telling "a ripping good story," one found in "The Flame Tree." He hopes people will enjoy the tale and appreciate the differences of an unfamiliar culture. The excerpt from "The Flame Tree" will reel readers in quickly.

  11. Trees for Mother Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Sandy

    1993-01-01

    Describes Trees for Mother Earth, a program in which secondary students raise funds to buy fruit trees to plant during visits to the Navajo Reservation. Benefits include developing feelings of self-worth among participants, promoting cultural exchange and understanding, and encouraging self-sufficiency among the Navajo. (LP)

  12. Tree nut oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  13. 48 CFR 245.606 - Inventory schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory schedules. 245.606 Section 245.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Contractor Inventory 245.606 Inventory schedules....

  14. Tree growth and competition in an old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden: influence of tree spatial patterning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraver, Shawn; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar; Jönsson, Mari; Esseen, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    Question: What factors best characterize tree competitive environments in this structurally diverse old-growth forest, and do these factors vary spatially within and among stands? Location: Old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden. Methods: Using long-term, mapped permanent plot data augmented with dendrochronological analyses, we evaluated the effect of neighbourhood competition on focal tree growth by means of standard competition indices, each modified to include various metrics of trees size, neighbour mortality weighting (for neighbours that died during the inventory period), and within-neighbourhood tree clustering. Candidate models were evaluated using mixed-model linear regression analyses, with mean basal area increment as the response variable. We then analysed stand-level spatial patterns of competition indices and growth rates (via kriging) to determine if the relationship between these patterns could further elucidate factors influencing tree growth. Results: Inter-tree competition clearly affected growth rates, with crown volume being the size metric most strongly influencing the neighbourhood competitive environment. Including neighbour tree mortality weightings in models only slightly improved descriptions of competitive interactions. Although the within-neighbourhood clustering index did not improve model predictions, competition intensity was influenced by the underlying stand-level tree spatial arrangement: stand-level clustering locally intensified competition and reduced tree growth, whereas in the absence of such clustering, inter-tree competition played a lesser role in constraining tree growth. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that competition continues to influence forest processes and structures in an old-growth system that has not experienced major disturbances for at least two centuries. The finding that the underlying tree spatial pattern influenced the competitive environment suggests caution in interpreting traditional tree

  15. Patterns and Drivers of Tree Mortality in Iberian Forests: Climatic Effects Are Modified by Competition

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Lines, Emily R.; Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena; Zavala, Miguel A.; Coomes, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Tree mortality is a key process underlying forest dynamics and community assembly. Understanding how tree mortality is driven by simultaneous drivers is needed to evaluate potential effects of climate change on forest composition. Using repeat-measure information from c. 400,000 trees from the Spanish Forest Inventory, we quantified the relative importance of tree size, competition, climate and edaphic conditions on tree mortality of 11 species, and explored the combined effect of climate and competition. Tree mortality was affected by all of these multiple drivers, especially tree size and asymmetric competition, and strong interactions between climate and competition were found. All species showed L-shaped mortality patterns (i.e. showed decreasing mortality with tree size), but pines were more sensitive to asymmetric competition than broadleaved species. Among climatic variables, the negative effect of temperature on tree mortality was much larger than the effect of precipitation. Moreover, the effect of climate (mean annual temperature and annual precipitation) on tree mortality was aggravated at high competition levels for all species, but especially for broadleaved species. The significant interaction between climate and competition on tree mortality indicated that global change in Mediterranean regions, causing hotter and drier conditions and denser stands, could lead to profound effects on forest structure and composition. Therefore, to evaluate the potential effects of climatic change on tree mortality, forest structure must be considered, since two systems of similar composition but different structure could radically differ in their response to climatic conditions. PMID:23451096

  16. From Family Trees to Decision Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trobian, Helen R.

    This paper is a preliminary inquiry by a non-mathematician into graphic methods of sequential planning and ways in which hierarchical analysis and tree structures can be helpful in developing interest in the use of mathematical modeling in the search for creative solutions to real-life problems. Highlights include a discussion of hierarchical…

  17. Reducing Uncertainty and Increasing Consistency: Recent Technical Improvements to the 2015 United States Forest Carbon Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, C. W.; Domke, G. M.; Coulston, J.

    2014-12-01

    A national system of field inventory plots is the primary data source for the annual assessment of US forest carbon (C) stocks and stock-change to meet reporting requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The inventory data and their role in national carbon reporting continue to evolve. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service is charged with conducting the field inventory of US forest C. The FIA program employs remotely sensed imagery to define forest and nonforest plots which are systematically distributed approximately every 2,428 ha across the conterminous US. More than 125,000 plots in the current field inventory have at least one forested condition where field crews measure tree- and site-level attributes (e.g., diameter and tree height) at regular temporal intervals. A subset of forested plots is measured for additional variables related to forest non-tree C pools (e.g., downed woody materials, understory vegetation, and soils). The FIA program does not directly measure forest C stocks. Instead, a combination of empirically derived C estimates (e.g., standing live and dead trees) and models (e.g., understory C stocks related to stand age and forest type) are used to estimate forest C stocks. A series of recent refinements in FIA estimation procedures have sought to reduce the uncertainty associated with the national C inventory by: 1) refining forest floor C estimates with in situ data, 2) updating the live belowground and understory C pools modeling approaches, 3) refining objective delineations between woodland and forest land uses, and 4) revising managed land delineations. The results of these studies in the context of forest C accounting and future refinements are discussed in the context of UNFCCC reporting.

  18. IND - THE IND DECISION TREE PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, W.

    1994-01-01

    A common approach to supervised classification and prediction in artificial intelligence and statistical pattern recognition is the use of decision trees. A tree is "grown" from data using a recursive partitioning algorithm to create a tree which has good prediction of classes on new data. Standard algorithms are CART (by Breiman Friedman, Olshen and Stone) and ID3 and its successor C4 (by Quinlan). As well as reimplementing parts of these algorithms and offering experimental control suites, IND also introduces Bayesian and MML methods and more sophisticated search in growing trees. These produce more accurate class probability estimates that are important in applications like diagnosis. IND is applicable to most data sets consisting of independent instances, each described by a fixed length vector of attribute values. An attribute value may be a number, one of a set of attribute specific symbols, or it may be omitted. One of the attributes is delegated the "target" and IND grows trees to predict the target. Prediction can then be done on new data or the decision tree printed out for inspection. IND provides a range of features and styles with convenience for the casual user as well as fine-tuning for the advanced user or those interested in research. IND can be operated in a CART-like mode (but without regression trees, surrogate splits or multivariate splits), and in a mode like the early version of C4. Advanced features allow more extensive search, interactive control and display of tree growing, and Bayesian and MML algorithms for tree pruning and smoothing. These often produce more accurate class probability estimates at the leaves. IND also comes with a comprehensive experimental control suite. IND consists of four basic kinds of routines: data manipulation routines, tree generation routines, tree testing routines, and tree display routines. The data manipulation routines are used to partition a single large data set into smaller training and test sets. The

  19. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    SciTech Connect

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order. The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. The RL provided the US Congress a Plan and Schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site. The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the streams into two phases. The Phase 1 streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase 2 streams. The actions recommended for the Phase 1 and 2 streams in the two reports were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluents streams identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase 1 or Phase 2 Streams. This document consists of an inventory of the liquid effluent streams being discharged into the Hanford soil column.

  20. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  1. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom L

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  2. Lazy decision trees

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.H.; Yun, Yeogirl; Kohavi, R.

    1996-12-31

    Lazy learning algorithms, exemplified by nearest-neighbor algorithms, do not induce a concise hypothesis from a given training set; the inductive process is delayed until a test instance is given. Algorithms for constructing decision trees, such as C4.5, ID3, and CART create a single {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} decision tree during the training phase, and this tree is then used to classify test instances. The tests at the nodes of the constructed tree are good on average, but there may be better tests for classifying a specific instance. We propose a lazy decision tree algorithm-LazyDT-that conceptually constructs the {open_quotes}best{close_quote} decision tree for each test instance. In practice, only a path needs to be constructed, and a caching scheme makes the algorithm fast. The algorithm is robust with respect to missing values without resorting to the complicated methods usually seen in induction of decision trees. Experiments on real and artificial problems are presented.

  3. [Regeneration of tree cover in a small urban forest reserve from the moist Premontane region].

    PubMed

    Di Stéfano, J; Nielsen, V; Hoomans, J; Fournier, L A

    1996-08-01

    The tropical premontane moist forest is one of the most destructed life zones in Costa Rica. For such regions, a small natural preserve system has been proposed. An inventory of trees greater than 3.5 cm in diameter at breast height was done in one hectare urban forest patch that was left under natural regeneration for 30 years. The inventory included 940 individuals of at least 55 species and 32 families. A Holdridge Complexity Index of 58 was obtained. There was a strong dominance by small-diameter trees of successional and exotic species. PMID:9246367

  4. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  5. Evolutionary tree reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Kanefsky, Bob

    1990-01-01

    It is described how Minimum Description Length (MDL) can be applied to the problem of DNA and protein evolutionary tree reconstruction. If there is a set of mutations that transform a common ancestor into a set of the known sequences, and this description is shorter than the information to encode the known sequences directly, then strong evidence for an evolutionary relationship has been found. A heuristic algorithm is described that searches for the simplest tree (smallest MDL) that finds close to optimal trees on the test data. Various ways of extending the MDL theory to more complex evolutionary relationships are discussed.

  6. Learning classification trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

  7. BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (BEIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) is a computer algorithm used to generate emissions for air quality simulation models, such as EPAs Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM). Emission sources that are modeled include volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegeta...

  8. An Individual Tree Detection Algorithm for Dense Deciduous Forests with Spreading Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, G.

    2015-12-01

    Individual tree information derived from LiDAR may have the potential to assist forest inventory and improve the assessment of forest structure and composition for sustainable forest management. The algorithms developed for individual tree detection are commonly focusing on finding tree tops to allocation the tree positions. However, the spreading branches (cylinder crowns) in deciduous forests cause such kind of algorithms work less effectively on dense canopy. This research applies a machine learning algorithm, mean shift, to position individual trees based on the density of LiDAR point could instead of detecting tree tops. The study site locates in a dense oak forest in Indiana, US. The selection of mean shift kernels is discussed. The constant and dynamic bandwidths of mean shit algorithms are applied and compared.

  9. Analyzing Forest Inventory Data from Geo-Located Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toivanen, Timo; Tergujeff, Renne; Andersson, Kaj; Molinier, Matthieu; Häme, Tuomas

    2015-04-01

    Forests are widely monitored using a variety of remote sensing data and techniques. Remote sensing offers benefits compared to traditional in-situ forest inventories made by experts. One of the main benefits is that the number of ground reference plots can be significantly reduced. Remote sensing of forests can provide reduced costs and time requirement compared to full forest inventories. The availability of ground reference data has been a bottleneck in remote sensing analysis over wide forested areas, as the acquisition of this data is an expensive and slow process. In this paper we present a tool for estimating forest inventory data from geo-located photographs. The tool can be used to estimate in-situ forest inventory data including estimated biomass, tree species, tree height and diameter. The collected in-situ forest measurements can be utilized as a ground reference material for spaceborne or airborne remote sensing data analysis. The GPS based location information with measured forest data makes it possible to introduce measurements easily as in-situ reference data. The central projection geometry of digital photographs allows the use of the relascope principle [1] to measure the basal area of stems per area unit, a variable very closely associated with tree biomass. Relascope is applied all over the world for forest inventory. Experiments with independent ground reference data have shown that in-situ data analysed from photographs can be utilised as reference data for satellite image analysis. The concept was validated by comparing mobile measurements with 54 independent ground reference plots from the Hyytiälä forest research station in Finland [2]. Citizen scientists could provide the manpower for analysing photographs from forests on a global level and support researchers working on tasks related to forests. This low-cost solution can also increase the coverage of forest management plans, particularly in regions where possibilities to invest on

  10. DIMA quick start, database for inventory, monitoring and assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Database for Inventory, Monitoring and Assessment (DIMA) is a highly-customized Microsoft Access database for collecting data electronically in the field and for organizing, storing and reporting those data for monitoring and assessment. While DIMA can be used for any number of different monito...

  11. Tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil. PMID:22653070

  12. Structural Equation Model Trees

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree structures that separate a data set recursively into subsets with significantly different parameter estimates in a SEM. SEM Trees provide means for finding covariates and covariate interactions that predict differences in structural parameters in observed as well as in latent space and facilitate theory-guided exploration of empirical data. We describe the methodology, discuss theoretical and practical implications, and demonstrate applications to a factor model and a linear growth curve model. PMID:22984789

  13. Tree Nut Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... tree nut used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  14. Loops and trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron-Huot, S.

    2011-05-01

    We investigate relations between loop and tree amplitudes in quantum field theory that involve putting on-shell some loop propagators. This generalizes the so-called Feynman tree theorem which is satisfied at 1-loop. Exploiting retarded boundary conditions, we give a generalization to ℓ-loop expressing the loops as integrals over the on-shell phase space of exactly ℓ particles. We argue that the corresponding integrand for ℓ > 2 does not involve the forward limit of any physical tree amplitude, except in planar gauge theories. In that case we explicitly construct the relevant physical amplitude. Beyond the planar limit, abandoning direct integral representations, we propose that loops continue to be determined implicitly by the forward limit of physical connected trees, and we formulate a precise conjecture along this line. Finally, we set up technology to compute forward amplitudes in supersymmetric theories, in which specific simplifications occur.

  15. Tree-bank grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E.

    1996-12-31

    By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

  16. The tree BVOC index.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J R; McPherson, E G

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes in BVOC emissions are calculated as the result of transitioning to a lower-emitting species mix in future planting. A simplified method for calculating the emissions reduction and a Tree BVOC index based on the calculated reduction is described. An example illustrates the use of the index as a tool for implementation and monitoring of a tree program designed to reduce BVOC emissions as a control measure being developed as part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Sacramento Federal Nonattainment Area. PMID:21435760

  17. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  18. Leonardo's Tree Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Suzanne K.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a series of activities exploring Leonardo da Vinci's tree theory that are designed to strengthen 8th grade students' data collection and problem solving skills in physical science classes. (KHR)

  19. Trees for reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Land reclamation programs sponsored by several state forestry organizations are summarized in these presentations. The use of trees as a preferred specie for revegetation of surface mined lands is addressed. Modern methods of forestry can be used to make land economically and aesthetically acceptable. Tree planting techniques are presented and the role of Mycorrhizae is discussed. There are 30 papers included in this proceedings. States represented include: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Virginia, Iowa, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia.

  20. Clean Lead Facility (CLF) Inventory System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-07-13

    The CLF Inventory System records shipments of clean or nonradioactive contaminated lead stored at the CLF. The Inventory System provides reports and inventory information to Facility operators. Annual, quarterly, monthly, and current inventory reports may be printed. Profile reports of each shipment of lead may also be printed for verification and documentation of lead transactions.

  1. 27 CFR 20.170 - Physical inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical inventory. 20.170... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Inventory and Records § 20.170 Physical inventory. Once in each... physical inventory of each formula of new and recovered specially denatured spirits. (Approved by...

  2. 27 CFR 40.523 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 40.523... Inventories. Every manufacturer of processed tobacco must provide a true and accurate inventory on TTB F 5210.9 in accordance with instructions for the form. The manufacturer must make such an inventory at...

  3. 27 CFR 19.353 - Storage inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage inventories. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage Inventories § 19.353 Storage inventories. Each warehouseman shall take a physical inventory of all spirits and wines held in the storage...

  4. 10 CFR 39.37 - Physical inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical inventory. 39.37 Section 39.37 Energy NUCLEAR... inventory. Each licensee shall conduct a semi-annual physical inventory to account for all licensed material received and possessed under the license. The licensee shall retain records of the inventory for 3...

  5. 27 CFR 40.201 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 40.201... PROCESSED TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Inventories and Reports § 40.201 Inventories. Every manufacturer of tobacco products shall make true and accurate inventories on Form...

  6. 48 CFR 1845.508 - Physical inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Physical inventories. 1845... Contractors 1845.508 Physical inventories. NASA contractors shall reconcile inventories with the official property records and submit reports to the property administrator within 30 days after inventory...

  7. 27 CFR 19.981 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 19.981... Spirits § 19.981 Inventories. Proprietors shall take actual physical inventory of all spirits (including... § 19.988. The results of the inventory shall be posted in the applicable records required by §...

  8. 10 CFR 300.6 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emissions inventories. 300.6 Section 300.6 Energy... Emissions inventories. (a) General. The objective of an emission inventory is to provide a full accounting... emission inventory must be prepared in accordance with Chapter 1 of the Technical Guidelines...

  9. Tree Crown Delineation using Watershed Techniques and Forest Metrics from NEON LiDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luong, K. Y.

    2014-12-01

    LiDAR is a powerful remote sensing tool allowing for forest metrics to be taken on varying scales, which ultimately provide important forestry variables used to calculate factors such as total biomass or leaf area index. These variables are most useful when calculated for individual trees throughout a stand, but in very dense forests, identifying single trees becomes more difficult by traditional means. Full forests can be quantified uniquely for the best understanding of ecological contributions as opposed to purely in situ tree inventories which are time consuming and extremely localized. Canopy height models (CHM) can be used to understand the forest as a whole. By inverting the CHM, the tree data becomes sinks in the ground, mimicking ponds; by applying watershed-related spatial analyst tools in ArcGIS and GrassGIS, the trees are delineated by makeshift "flooding." Within this algorithm, the crown peaks are also extracted as an intermediate step to delineation, but this is a reliable means to obtain an accurate number of trees, as well as their individual heights with high reliability (R2 = 0.87). Delineated tree polygons can be directly overlaid onto different rasters to get many forest variables. In tightly clustered and very sparse stands, this method of delineation has a high level of accuracy. Following the workflow studies conducted on NEON LiDAR data on the Soaproot Saddle site, a ground-truth comparison was made with the Teakettle Experimental Forest site due to the availability of tree inventory data.

  10. Tree Topology Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Rolando; Tomasi, Carlo; Schmidler, Scott C.; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Tree-like structures are fundamental in nature, and it is often useful to reconstruct the topology of a tree—what connects to what—from a two-dimensional image of it. However, the projected branches often cross in the image: the tree projects to a planar graph, and the inverse problem of reconstructing the topology of the tree from that of the graph is ill-posed. We regularize this problem with a generative, parametric tree-growth model. Under this model, reconstruction is possible in linear time if one knows the direction of each edge in the graph—which edge endpoint is closer to the root of the tree—but becomes NP-hard if the directions are not known. For the latter case, we present a heuristic search algorithm to estimate the most likely topology of a rooted, three-dimensional tree from a single two-dimensional image. Experimental results on retinal vessel, plant root, and synthetic tree datasets show that our methodology is both accurate and efficient. PMID:26353004

  11. Slow growth rates of Amazonian trees: Consequences for carbon cycling

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Simone; Trumbore, Susan; Camargo, Plinio B.; Selhorst, Diogo; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Higuchi, Niro; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Quantifying age structure and tree growth rate of Amazonian forests is essential for understanding their role in the carbon cycle. Here, we use radiocarbon dating and direct measurement of diameter increment to document unexpectedly slow growth rates for trees from three locations spanning the Brazilian Amazon basin. Central Amazon trees, averaging only ≈1mm/year diameter increment, grow half as fast as those from areas with more seasonal rainfall to the east and west. Slow growth rates mean that trees can attain great ages; across our sites we estimate 17-50% of trees with diameter >10 cm have ages exceeding 300 years. Whereas a few emergent trees that make up a large portion of the biomass grow faster, small trees that are more abundant grow slowly and attain ages of hundreds of years. The mean age of carbon in living trees (60-110 years) is within the range of or slightly longer than the mean residence time calculated from C inventory divided by annual C allocation to wood growth (40-100 years). Faster C turnover is observed in stands with overall higher rates of diameter increment and a larger fraction of the biomass in large, fast-growing trees. As a consequence, forests can recover biomass relatively quickly after disturbance, whereas recovering species composition may take many centuries. Carbon cycle models that apply a single turnover time for carbon in forest biomass do not account for variations in life strategy and therefore may overestimate the carbon sequestration potential of Amazon forests. PMID:16339903

  12. Derivation of Forest Inventory Parameters for Carbon Estimation Using Terrestrial LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Kalwar, Om Prakash; Hussin, Yousif A.; Weir, Michael J. C.; Karna, Yogendra K.

    2016-06-01

    This research was conducted to derive forest sample plot inventory parameters from terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) for estimating above ground biomass (AGB)/carbon stocks in primary tropical rain forest. Inventory parameters of all sampled trees within circular plots of 500 m2 were collected from field observations while T-LiDAR data were acquired through multiple scanning using Reigl VZ-400 scanner. Pre-processing and registration of multiple scans were done in RSCAN PRO software. Point cloud constructing individual sampled tree was extracted and tree inventory parameters (diameter at breast height-DBH and tree height) were measured manually. AGB/carbon stocks were estimated using Chave et al., (2005) allometric equation. An average 80 % of sampled trees were detected from point cloud of the plots. The average of plots values of R2 and RMSE for manually measured DBHs were 0.95, 2.7 cm respectively. Similarly, the average of plots values of R2 and RMSE for manually measured trees heights were 0.77, 2.96 m respectively. The average value of AGB/carbon stocks estimated from field measurements and T-LiDAR manually derived DBHs and trees heights were 286 Mg ha-1 and 134 Mg ha-1; and 278 M ha-1 and 130 Mg ha-1 respectively. The R2 values for the estimated AGB and AGC were both 0.93 and corresponding RMSE values were 42.4 Mg ha-1 and 19.9 Mg ha-1 respectively. AGB and AGC were estimated with 14.8 % accuracy.

  13. How Trees Can Save Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, James R., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This document might easily have been called "How To Use Trees To Save Energy". It presents the energy saving advantages of landscaping the home and community with trees. The discussion includes: (1) landscaping advice to obtain the benefits of tree shade; (2) the heat island phenomenon in cities; (3) how and where to properly plant trees for…

  14. Palm Tree Detection Using Circular Autocorrelation of Polar Shape Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manandhar, A.; Hoegner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Palm trees play an important role as they are widely used in a variety of products including oil and bio-fuel. Increasing demand and growing cultivation have created a necessity in planned farming and the monitoring different aspects like inventory keeping, health, size etc. The large cultivation regions of palm trees motivate the use of remote sensing to produce such data. This study proposes an object detection methodology on the aerial images, using shape feature for detecting and counting palm trees, which can support an inventory. The study uses circular autocorrelation of the polar shape matrix representation of an image, as the shape feature, and the linear support vector machine to standardize and reduce dimensions of the feature. Finally, the study uses local maximum detection algorithm on the spatial distribution of standardized feature to detect palm trees. The method was applied to 8 images chosen from different tough scenarios and it performed on average with an accuracy of 84% and 76.1%, despite being subjected to different challenging conditions in the chosen test images.

  15. Aging on Parisi's Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaud, J.-P.; Dean, D. S.

    1995-03-01

    We present a detailed study of simple “tree" models for off equilibrium dynamics and aging in glassy systems. The simplest tree describes the landscape of a random energy model, whereas multifurcating trees occur in the solution of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model. An important ingredient taken from these models is the exponential distribution of deep free-energies, which translate into a power-law distribution of the residence time within metastable “valleys". These power law distributions have infinite mean in the spin-glass phase and this leads to the aging phenomenon. To each level of the tree is associated an overlap and the exponent of the time distribution. We solve these models for a finite (but arbitrary) number of levels and show that a two-level tree accounts very well for many experimental observations (thermoremanent magnetization, a.c. susceptibility, second noise spectrum....). We introduce the idea that the deepest levels of the tree correspond to equilibrium dynamics whereas the upper levels correspond to aging. Temperature cycling experiments suggest that the borderline between the two is temperature dependent. The spin-glass transition corresponds to the temperature at which the uppermost level is put out of equilibrium but is subsequently followed by a sequence of (dynamical) phase transitions corresponding to non equilibrium dynamics within deeper and deeper levels. We tentatively try to relate this “tree" picture to the real space “droplet" model, and speculate on how the final description of spin-glasses might look like.

  16. NEW 3D TECHNIQUES FOR RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION OF CHEMICAL INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    New three-dimensional quantitative structure activity (3-D QSAR) techniques for prioritizing chemical inventories for endocrine activity will be presented. The Common Reactivity Pattern (COREPA) approach permits identification of common steric and/or electronic patterns associate...

  17. Imputation of Continuous Tree Suitability over the Continental United States from Sparse Measurements Using Associative Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.; Potter, K. M.; Mills, R. T.

    2012-12-01

    Up-scaling from sparse measurements to a continuous raster of estimated values is a common problem in Earth System Science. We present a new general-purpose empirical imputation method based on associative clustering, which associates sparse measurements of dependent variables with particular multivariate clustered combinations of the independent variables, and then uses several methods to estimate values for unmeasured clusters, based on directional proximity in multidimensional data space, at both the cluster and map cell levels of resolution. We demonstrate this new imputation tool on tree species range distribution maps, which describe the suitable extent and expected growth performance of a particular tree species over a wide area. Range maps having continuous estimates of tree growth performance are more useful than more classical tree range maps that simply show binary occurence suitability. The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory Assessment (FIA) plots provide information about the occurence and growth performance for various tree species across the US, but such measurements are limited to FIA plots. Using Associative Clustering, we scale up the discontinuous FIA Inventory growth measurements into continuous maps that show the expected growth and suitabilty for individual tree species covering the Continental United States. A multivariate cluster analysis was applied to global output from a General Circulation Model (GCM) consisting of 17 variables downscaled to 4km2 resolution. Present global growing conditions were divided into 30 thousand relatively homogeneous ecoregions describing climatic and topographic conditions. At every mapcell a multi-linear regression was applied in 17 dimensional hyperspace to derive the suitability of a tree species where not measured using the forest inventory data. The continuous species distribution maps obtained were compared and validated against existing tree range suitability maps. Associative Clustering is intended

  18. Robustness of Tree Extraction Algorithms from LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, M.; Strimbu, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Forest inventory faces a new era as unmanned aerial systems (UAS) increased the precision of measurements, while reduced field effort and price of data acquisition. A large number of algorithms were developed to identify various forest attributes from UAS data. The objective of the present research is to assess the robustness of two types of tree identification algorithms when UAS data are combined with digital elevation models (DEM). The algorithms use as input photogrammetric point cloud, which are subsequent rasterized. The first type of algorithms associate tree crown with an inversed watershed (subsequently referred as watershed based), while the second type is based on simultaneous representation of tree crown as an individual entity, and its relation with neighboring crowns (subsequently referred as simultaneous representation). A DJI equipped with a SONY a5100 was used to acquire images over an area from center Louisiana. The images were processed with Pix4D, and a photogrammetric point cloud with 50 points / m2 was attained. DEM was obtained from a flight executed in 2013, which also supplied a LIDAR point cloud with 30 points/m2. The algorithms were tested on two plantations with different species and crown class complexities: one homogeneous (i.e., a mature loblolly pine plantation), and one heterogeneous (i.e., an unmanaged uneven-aged stand with mixed species pine -hardwoods). Tree identification on photogrammetric point cloud reveled that simultaneous representation algorithm outperforms watershed algorithm, irrespective stand complexity. Watershed algorithm exhibits robustness to parameters, but the results were worse than majority sets of parameters needed by the simultaneous representation algorithm. The simultaneous representation algorithm is a better alternative to watershed algorithm even when parameters are not accurately estimated. Similar results were obtained when the two algorithms were run on the LIDAR point cloud.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls inventory in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Kukharchyk, Tamara I; Kakareka, Sergey V

    2008-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) inventory is a key element of the ecologically sound management of these dangerous chemicals. This article presents the findings of the large-scale PCB inventory project that was implemented in Belarus in 2003-2004. Data on PCB-containing equipment of more than 2000 enterprises was recorded: trademarks; volumes of PCBs; dates of manufacture; condition of equipment; levels of operation, descriptions of installations or storage locations. In the course of the inventory about 1500 tones of PCBs were identified, 99% of this total was found in power transformers and capacitors. As it proved most equipment containing PCBs is still in service today due to its long life-time. Additionally, the PCB-containing equipment which has been taken out of service is primarily stored on the territory of enterprises. The distribution of PCBs in Belarus among economy sectors as well as regions is shown. Problems of the PCB inventory and disposal are discussed. It is shown that the inventory needs to be regularly updated in order to estimate temporal changes in PCB-containing equipment condition, current owners and a location. PMID:17597287

  20. Reinforcement Learning Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ruoqing; Zeng, Donglin; Kosorok, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new type of tree-based method, reinforcement learning trees (RLT), which exhibits significantly improved performance over traditional methods such as random forests (Breiman, 2001) under high-dimensional settings. The innovations are three-fold. First, the new method implements reinforcement learning at each selection of a splitting variable during the tree construction processes. By splitting on the variable that brings the greatest future improvement in later splits, rather than choosing the one with largest marginal effect from the immediate split, the constructed tree utilizes the available samples in a more efficient way. Moreover, such an approach enables linear combination cuts at little extra computational cost. Second, we propose a variable muting procedure that progressively eliminates noise variables during the construction of each individual tree. The muting procedure also takes advantage of reinforcement learning and prevents noise variables from being considered in the search for splitting rules, so that towards terminal nodes, where the sample size is small, the splitting rules are still constructed from only strong variables. Last, we investigate asymptotic properties of the proposed method under basic assumptions and discuss rationale in general settings. PMID:26903687

  1. Tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2003-08-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn. PMID:12915766

  2. Predictive Classification Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugosz, Stephan; Müller-Funk, Ulrich

    CART (Breiman et al., Classification and Regression Trees, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1984) and (exhaustive) CHAID (Kass, Appl Stat 29:119-127, 1980) figure prominently among the procedures actually used in data based management, etc. CART is a well-established procedure that produces binary trees. CHAID, in contrast, admits multiple splittings, a feature that allows to exploit the splitting variable more extensively. On the other hand, that procedure depends on premises that are questionable in practical applications. This can be put down to the fact that CHAID relies on simultaneous Chi-Square- resp. F-tests. The null-distribution of the second test statistic, for instance, relies on the normality assumption that is not plausible in a data mining context. Moreover, none of these procedures - as implemented in SPSS, for instance - take ordinal dependent variables into account. In the paper we suggest an alternative tree-algorithm that: Requires explanatory categorical variables

  3. The Effects of Urban Warming on Herbivore Abundance and Street Tree Condition

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Adam G.; Frank, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Trees are essential to urban habitats because they provide services that benefit the environment and improve human health. Unfortunately, urban trees often have more herbivorous insect pests than rural trees but the mechanisms and consequences of these infestations are not well documented. Here, we examine how temperature affects the abundance of a scale insect, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on one of the most commonly planted street trees in the eastern U.S. Next, we examine how both pest abundance and temperature are associated with water stress, growth, and condition of 26 urban street trees. Although trees in the warmest urban sites grew the most, they were more water stressed and in worse condition than trees in cooler sites. Our analyses indicate that visible declines in tree condition were best explained by scale-insect infestation rather than temperature. To test the broader relevance of these results, we extend our analysis to a database of more than 2700 Raleigh, US street trees. Plotting these trees on a Landsat thermal image of Raleigh, we found that warmer sites had over 70% more trees in poor condition than those in cooler sites. Our results support previous studies linking warmer urban habitats to greater pest abundance and extend this association to show its effect on street tree condition. Our results suggest that street tree condition and ecosystem services may decline as urban expansion and global warming exacerbate the urban heat island effect. Although our non-probability sampling method limits our scope of inference, our results present a gloomy outlook for urban forests and emphasize the need for management tools. Existing urban tree inventories and thermal maps could be used to identify species that would be most suitable for urban conditions. PMID:25054326

  4. The effects of urban warming on herbivore abundance and street tree condition.

    PubMed

    Dale, Adam G; Frank, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Trees are essential to urban habitats because they provide services that benefit the environment and improve human health. Unfortunately, urban trees often have more herbivorous insect pests than rural trees but the mechanisms and consequences of these infestations are not well documented. Here, we examine how temperature affects the abundance of a scale insect, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on one of the most commonly planted street trees in the eastern U.S. Next, we examine how both pest abundance and temperature are associated with water stress, growth, and condition of 26 urban street trees. Although trees in the warmest urban sites grew the most, they were more water stressed and in worse condition than trees in cooler sites. Our analyses indicate that visible declines in tree condition were best explained by scale-insect infestation rather than temperature. To test the broader relevance of these results, we extend our analysis to a database of more than 2700 Raleigh, US street trees. Plotting these trees on a Landsat thermal image of Raleigh, we found that warmer sites had over 70% more trees in poor condition than those in cooler sites. Our results support previous studies linking warmer urban habitats to greater pest abundance and extend this association to show its effect on street tree condition. Our results suggest that street tree condition and ecosystem services may decline as urban expansion and global warming exacerbate the urban heat island effect. Although our non-probability sampling method limits our scope of inference, our results present a gloomy outlook for urban forests and emphasize the need for management tools. Existing urban tree inventories and thermal maps could be used to identify species that would be most suitable for urban conditions. PMID:25054326

  5. Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resource Inventory Demonstration project is designed to demonstrate to users from state and local agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the cost effective role that Landsat derived information can play in natural resource planning and management when properly supported by ground and aircraft data. The project has been organized into five main phases: (1) maps and overlays, (2) early digital image analysis, (3) demonstration of applications using interactive image analysis, (4) Landsat products and land resources information systems, and (5) documentation. The demonstration project has been applied to Washington forestry, water inventory in southern Idaho, and monitoring of tansy ragwort in western Oregon.

  6. Book Out! An Inventory Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panait, Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Library is a science and engineering research library providing the most current books, journals, CD-ROM's and documents to support the study of aeronautics, space propulsion and power, communications technology, materials and structures and microgravity science. The GRC technical library also supports the research and development efforts of all scientists and engineers on site via full text electronic files, literature searching, technical reports, etc. As an intern in the NASA Glenn Library, I attempt to support these objectives through efficiently and effectively fulfilling the assignment that was given to me. The assignment that was relegated to me was to catalog National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, NASA Technical Documents into NASA Galaxie. This process consists of holdings being added to existing Galaxie records, upgrades and editing done to the bibliographic records when needed, adding URL's into Galaxie when they were missing from the record. NASA ASAP and Digidoc was used to locate URL's of PDF's that were not in Galaxie. A spreadsheet of documents with no URL's were maintained. Also, a subject channel of web, fill-text, paid and free, journal and other subject specific pages were developed and expanded fiom current content of intranet pages. To expand upon the second half of my assignment, I was given the project of taking inventory of the library s book collection. I kept record of the books that were not accounted for on a master list I was given to work fiom and submitted them for correction and addition. I also made sure the books were placed in the appropriate order and made corrections to any discrepancies that existed between the master list and what was on the shelf. Upon completion of this assignment, I will have verified that 21,113 books were in the correct location, order and have the correct corresponding serial number and barcode. In conclusion, as of this date I have input around 750 documents into NASA Galaxie

  7. Tree Nonstructural Carbohydrate Reserves Across Eastern US Temperate Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantooth, J.; Dietze, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the roles, importance, and dynamics of tree non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) is currently an active area of research. The question of how the relationships between NSCs, growth, and mortality can be used to develop more accurate projections of forest dynamics is central to this research. To begin to address this question, we have asked an even more fundamental question: How much are trees allocating carbon to storage, in the form of NSCs, versus new growth? Ecological theory predicts that there should be trade-offs between different plant life history strategies provided that there are the carbon mass-balance constraints to enforce these trade-offs. Current data on tree NSCs lack the spatial and taxonomic extent required to properly address this question. Therefore, we established a network of forest inventory plots at ten sites across the eastern US and measured growth in adult trees using increment cores and repeat measures of diameter at breast height (DBH). Increment cores were also used to measure sapwood NSCs. We hypothesized that across the eastern US, shade tolerant species, e.g. Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) have the largest NSC reserves and that shade intolerant species have the lowest reserves. We also hypothesized that NSC reserves increase with temperature and precipitation, as with growth, and that within species NSC reserves increase with growth rate. Initial analyses of tree NSCs indicates that trees of intermediate shade tolerance, e.g. Red Oak (Quercus rubra) have the highest concentrations of sapwood NSCs, and among the highest growth rates. Across the entire study region, NSC concentrations are positively correlated with tree size and growth rate. Within species, NSC concentrations are also positively correlated with growth rate. Across functional groups healthy individuals have significantly higher sapwood NSC concentrations than visibly stressed individuals. There are also significantly lower NSC concentrations in sapwood of

  8. Evaluating the Importance of Local Environment on Tree Structural Allometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncanson, L.; Cook, B. D.; Rourke, O.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.

    2013-12-01

    Allometric relationships relating various forest structural properties such as DBH, tree height and aboveground biomass have been developed through detailed field data collection both in the United States, and globally. However, there has been limited attention to explaining observed variability in these relationships. Often, a single relationship is developed for a single species, and is applied irrespective of environment. In this research, we attempt to explain allometry as a function of environment by focusing on the relationship between DBH, crown radius and tree height. Two primary datasets are used to conduct this research. First, the Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) dataset, including tree DBH and height information for the United States, are used to investigate variability in the relationship between DBH and tree height. Second, high-resolution airborne lidar datasets were collected from areas across the US, Canada and Costa Rica and are applied to investigate variability in the relationship between crown radius and height. The lidar datasets are run through a generalized canopy delineation algorithm to produce multilayered estimates of individual tree location, height, and crown radius. Power law functions are fit to the relationships between DBH and tree height, and crown radius and tree height. The mean and standard deviation of the power law exponents are compared to environmental attributes including precipitation, temperature, topography, and age since disturbance. This research demonstrates that although universal tendencies are observed in average power law exponents, considerable local variability exists that can be partially attributed to local environment. Therefore local environment, as well as tree species, should be accounted for in the development and application of allometric equations for forest studies.

  9. The gene tree delusion.

    PubMed

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level relationships among placental mammals are mostly resolved, but several polytomies remain contentious. Song et al. (2012) claimed to have resolved three of these using shortcut coalescence methods (MP-EST, STAR) and further concluded that these methods, which assume no within-locus recombination, are required to unravel deep-level phylogenetic problems that have stymied concatenation. Here, we reanalyze Song et al.'s (2012) data and leverage these re-analyses to explore key issues in systematics including the recombination ratchet, gene tree stoichiometry, the proportion of gene tree incongruence that results from deep coalescence versus other factors, and simulations that compare the performance of coalescence and concatenation methods in species tree estimation. Song et al. (2012) reported an average locus length of 3.1 kb for the 447 protein-coding genes in their phylogenomic dataset, but the true mean length of these loci (start codon to stop codon) is 139.6 kb. Empirical estimates of recombination breakpoints in primates, coupled with consideration of the recombination ratchet, suggest that individual coalescence genes (c-genes) approach ∼12 bp or less for Song et al.'s (2012) dataset, three to four orders of magnitude shorter than the c-genes reported by these authors. This result has general implications for the application of coalescence methods in species tree estimation. We contend that it is illogical to apply coalescence methods to complete protein-coding sequences. Such analyses amalgamate c-genes with different evolutionary histories (i.e., exons separated by >100,000 bp), distort true gene tree stoichiometry that is required for accurate species tree inference, and contradict the central rationale for applying coalescence methods to difficult phylogenetic problems. In addition, Song et al.'s (2012) dataset of 447 genes includes 21 loci with switched taxonomic names, eight duplicated loci, 26 loci with non-homologous sequences that are

  10. The forest and the trees: Applications for molecular markers in the Pecan Breeding Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inventory specific verification of accession identity is crucial to the function of the National Collection of Genetic Resources (NCGR) for Pecans and Hickories, and is an increasingly important component of the USDA ARS Pecan Breeding Program. The foundation of the NCGR is the living trees maintai...

  11. Applying Ligands Profiling Using Multiple Extended Electron Distribution Based Field Templates and Feature Trees Similarity Searching in the Discovery of New Generation of Urea-Based Antineoplastic Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dokla, Eman M.; Mahmoud, Amr H.; Elsayed, Mohamed S. A.; El-Khatib, Ahmed H.; Linscheid, Michael W.; Abouzid, Khaled A.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive computational procedure for the discovery of novel urea-based antineoplastic kinase inhibitors while focusing on diversification of both chemotype and selectivity pattern. It presents a systematic structural analysis of the different binding motifs of urea-based kinase inhibitors and the corresponding configurations of the kinase enzymes. The computational model depends on simultaneous application of two protocols. The first protocol applies multiple consecutive validated virtual screening filters including SMARTS, support vector-machine model (ROC = 0.98), Bayesian model (ROC = 0.86) and structure-based pharmacophore filters based on urea-based kinase inhibitors complexes retrieved from literature. This is followed by hits profiling against different extended electron distribution (XED) based field templates representing different kinase targets. The second protocol enables cancericidal activity verification by using the algorithm of feature trees (Ftrees) similarity searching against NCI database. Being a proof-of-concept study, this combined procedure was experimentally validated by its utilization in developing a novel series of urea-based derivatives of strong anticancer activity. This new series is based on 3-benzylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-one scaffold which has interesting chemical feasibility and wide diversification capability. Antineoplastic activity of this series was assayed in vitro against NCI 60 tumor-cell lines showing very strong inhibition of GI50 as low as 0.9 uM. Additionally, its mechanism was unleashed using KINEX™ protein kinase microarray-based small molecule inhibitor profiling platform and cell cycle analysis showing a peculiar selectivity pattern against Zap70, c-src, Mink1, csk and MeKK2 kinases. Interestingly, it showed activity on syk kinase confirming the recent studies finding of the high activity of diphenyl urea containing compounds against this kinase. Allover, the new series, which is

  12. The Prevalence of Tree Nut Allergy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, Vicki; Koplin, Jennifer; Lodge, Caroline; Tang, Mimi; Dharmage, Shyamali; Allen, Katrina

    2015-09-01

    Tree nuts are one of the most common foods causing acute allergic reactions and nearly all tree nuts have been associated with fatal allergic reactions. Despite their clinical importance, tree nut allergy epidemiology remains understudied and the prevalence of tree nut allergy in different regions of the world has not yet been well characterised. We aimed to systematically review the population prevalence of tree nut allergy in children and adults. We searched three electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed) from January 1996 to December 2014. Eligible studies were categorised by age, region and method of assessment of tree nut allergy. Of the 36 studies identified most were in children (n = 24) and from Europe (n = 18), UK (n = 8) or USA (n = 5). Challenge-confirmed IgE-mediated tree nut allergy prevalence was less than 2 % (although only seven studies used this gold standard) while probable tree nut allergy prevalence ranged from 0.05 to 4.9 %. Prevalence estimates that included oral allergy syndrome (OAS) reactions to tree nut were significantly higher (8-11.4 %) and were predominantly from Europe. Prevalence of individual tree nut allergies varied significantly by region with hazelnut the most common tree nut allergy in Europe, walnut and cashew in the USA and Brazil nut, almond and walnut most commonly reported in the UK. Monitoring time trends of tree nut allergy prevalence (both overall and by individual nuts) as well as the prevalence of OAS should be considered given the context of the overall recent rise in IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence in the developed world. PMID:26233427

  13. The Inference of Gene Trees with Species Trees

    PubMed Central

    Szöllősi, Gergely J.; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent; Boussau, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seldom identical, because genes duplicate, are lost or horizontally transferred, and because alleles can coexist in populations for periods that may span several speciation events. Building models describing the relationship between gene and species trees can thus improve the reconstruction of gene trees when a species tree is known, and vice versa. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem in one direction or the other, but in general neither gene trees nor species trees are known. Only a few studies have attempted to jointly infer gene trees and species trees. These models account for gene duplication and loss, transfer or incomplete lineage sorting. Some of them consider several types of events together, but none exists currently that considers the full repertoire of processes that generate gene trees along the species tree. Simulations as well as empirical studies on genomic data show that combining gene tree–species tree models with models of sequence evolution improves gene tree reconstruction. In turn, these better gene trees provide a more reliable basis for studying genome evolution or reconstructing ancestral chromosomes and ancestral gene sequences. We predict that gene tree–species tree methods that can deal with genomic data sets will be instrumental to advancing our understanding of genomic evolution. PMID:25070970

  14. The Personality Inventory for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachar, David

    The development of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) began with the core concept that maternal reports would provide data for child guidance evaluation and the consequent belief that maternal responses to a 600-item administration booklet could yield scales useful in determining child and family status. Two areas of weakness were found:…

  15. The Values Inventory for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilford, Joan S.; And Others

    The inventory is designed to measure seven dimensions of value based on seven categories of needs: physiological; safety; love; esteem; aesthetic; self-actualization; and aggression. Each item was pretested and checked for validity and reliability. Two test formats, each containing 30 items, were prepared: a single picture format in which the…

  16. CAP Self-Inventory Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet of Self-Inventory Cards is one of the 14 components of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program (see note), a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are…

  17. NATIONAL WETLANDS INVENTORY (NWI) MAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Wetland Inventory digital data files are records of wetlands location and classification as defined by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. This data set is one of a series available in 7.5 minute by 7.5 minute blocks containing ground planimetric coordinates of wetlands p...

  18. RFID Technology for Inventory Management

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is leveraging the use and application of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to a variety of markets. Tagging and tracking of individual items for inventory control is revealing rich rewards through increased time efficiency and reduced human intervention.

  19. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for…

  20. Narratives Validate Communicative Development Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Marten

    2001-01-01

    Explores the criterion-related validity of the Swedish version of the Communicative Development Inventories--Words & Sentences (SECDI-W&S). In two follow-up procedures, SECDI-W&S was used to assess vocabulary and grammar skills in 32 children. Overall results confirm that the criterion-related validity of the SECDI is sound. (Author/VWL)

  1. RFID Technology for Inventory Management

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is leveraging the use and application of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to a variety of markets. Tagging and tracking of individual items for inventory control is revealing rich rewards through increased time efficiency and reduced human intervention.

  2. Sourcing Life Cycle Inventory Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection and validation of quality lifecycle inventory (LCI) data can be the most difficult and time-consuming aspect of developing a life cycle assessment (LCA). Large amounts of process and production data are needed to complete the LCI. For many studies, the LCA analyst ...

  3. Automated Interactive Storeroom Inventory System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Albert L.; Hess, Larry G.

    1989-01-01

    The inventory system designed for six storerooms in three buildings at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's School of Chemical Sciences replaced an issue-slip and transactions record system with barcode technology. Data collection error reductions have been significant, making it easier to determine stock levels and plan purchases.…

  4. Global National Qualifications Framework Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens; Pevec-Grm, Slava; Graham, Michael; Deij, Arjen; Singh, Madhu; Charkoun, Borhène; Agrawal, Shivani

    2013-01-01

    This publication is a global, country-by-country, inventory of National Qualifications Frameworks (NQFs). It is a copublication, prepared by two EU agencies, the European Training Foundation (ETF) and the Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop); and UNESCO's Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) and the Section for TVET at…

  5. The Medicine Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokenleg, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Demographic changes in population continue to bring children of different cultural backgrounds to classrooms. This article provides suggestions teachers and counselors can use to bridge cultures. Using the parable of a medicine tree, it explains how no society can endure without caring for its young. (Author/JDM)

  6. Tree-Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresczyk, Rick

    Created to help students understand how plants were used for food, for medicine, and for arts and crafts among the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians, the game Tree-Ties combines earth and social sciences within a specific culture. The game requires mutual respect, understanding, and agreement to succeed. Sounding like the word "treaties", the title is a…

  7. Christmas Tree Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Pests and diseases of christmas tree plantations are identified and discussed. Section one deals with weeds and woody plants and the application, formulation and effects of herbicides in controlling them. Section two discusses specific diseases…

  8. Tree theorem for inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Steven

    2008-09-15

    It is shown that the generating function for tree graphs in the ''in-in'' formalism may be calculated by solving the classical equations of motion subject to certain constraints. This theorem is illustrated by application to the evolution of a single inflaton field in a Robertson-Walker background.

  9. A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

  10. MPI File Tree Walk

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-04-30

    MPI-FTW is a scalable MPI based software application that navigates a directory tree by dynamically allocating processes to navigate sub-directories found. Upon completion, MPI-FTW provides statistics on the number of directories found, files found, and time to complete. Inaddition, commands can be executed at each directory level.

  11. Starting Trees from Cuttings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for starting tree cuttings from woody plants, explaining "lag time," recommending materials, and giving step-by-step instructions for rooting and planting. Points out species which are likely candidates for cuttings and provides tips for teachers for developing a unit. (JM)

  12. Arbutus unedo, Strawberry Tree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Strawberry tree or madrone is native to the Mediterranean region of southern Europe (Arbutus unedo L., Ericaceae) with a relict population in Ireland, as well as in North Ameri...

  13. The Sacred Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lethbridge Univ. (Alberta).

    Designed as a text for high school students and adults, this illustrated book presents ethical concepts and teachings of Native societies throughout North America concerning the nature and possibilities of human existence. The final component of a course in self-discovery and development, the book begins with the legend of the "Sacred Tree"…

  14. Digging Deeper with Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Growing Ideas, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes hands-on science areas that focus on trees. A project on leaf pigmentation involves putting crushed leaves in a test tube with solvent acetone to dissolve pigment. In another project, students learn taxonomy by sorting and classifying leaves based on observable characteristics. Includes a language arts connection. (PVD)

  15. Hug a Tree!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Robert E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Methods for teaching pupils to use their senses to explore colors, shapes, textures, and sounds of the great outdoors are described. Ideas include: (1) having children hug their own special tree; (2) looking for geometric shapes in nature; (3) taking nocturnal nature walks; (4) building a track for racing insects; and (5) collecting objects with…

  16. Phylogenics & Tree-Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, David A.; Offner, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees, which are depictions of the inferred evolutionary relationships among a set of species, now permeate almost all branches of biology and are appearing in increasing numbers in biology textbooks. While few state standards explicitly require knowledge of phylogenetics, most require some knowledge of evolutionary biology, and many…

  17. Trees at the Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura

    1998-01-01

    Recommends introducing students to biology using a topical focus that can offer intriguing perspectives on the discipline. Describes a biology course that uses trees as a topical focus. Presents a list of literary resources and reviews student interactions. Contains 50 references. (DDR)

  18. 77 FR 5280 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. The inventory includes service contract actions over $25,000 that were awarded in FY...

  19. Cooperative forestry inventory project for Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, R.

    1981-01-01

    A forest inventory project employing computerized classification of LANDSAT data to inventory vegetation types in western Nevada is described. The methodology and applicability of the resulting survey are summarized.

  20. Methane emissions from floodplain trees of the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangala, Sunitha; Bastviken, David; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Gauci, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are the largest source of methane to the atmosphere, but emission estimates are highly uncertain leading to large discrepancies between emission inventories and much larger estimates of the Amazon methane source derived at larger scales. We examined methane emissions from all emission pathways including aquatic surfaces, emergent soils and herbaceous vegetation and more than 2000 trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon floodplain in 2014. Our data are the first measurements of stem emission from emergent portions of inundated trees in the Amazon and they demonstrate that regionally, tree stems are the dominant means of emissions for soil produced methane to the atmosphere. Emissions via the range of egress pathways varied substantially between sample locations and water-table exerted some control over emissions from ~2m below the soil surface upto 0.5-1m of inundation. Higher water (upto ~10m of inundation) exerted no further control over emissions. Applying our measurements to models of whole tree emission and scaling to the entire Amazon lowland basin demonstrates the significant contribution of trees to regional emissions that can close the Amazon basin methane budget.

  1. Snow Water Equivalent Reconstruction Using FIA Tree Ring Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barandiaran, D.; Wang, S. Y.; DeRose, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Tree ring widths have been used as a proxy for climate variables for several decades. Temperature, precipitation, and less commonly, snow water equivalent have been modeled in numerous locations throughout the world. Typical studies use carefully selected trees to maximize length of record and sensitivity to the variable of interest, and result in a reconstruction for a specific location. Here we use tree ring data collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program, conducted by the U.S. Forest Service to reconstruct snow water equivalent for the state of Utah. This program collects increment cores on a geographically unbiased grid at horizontal resolution of 5-km across the U.S., resulting in an unprecedented sample density of tree ring data, and therefore enabling a reconstruction that covers a large geographic area at a resolution not possible using traditional dendroclimatology methods. Prior work (DeRose et al. 2013) has shown FIA to have coherence with previously published chronologies and with water-year precipitation. Snowpack is a major source of water in the Intermountain West, and yet few tree ring studies have reconstructed SWE and the instrumental record is limited in length, so this reconstruction represents a novel and useful dataset for water users and resource managers alike. Here we present initial results and a preliminary analysis of this unique dataset.

  2. Multistage variable probability forest volume inventory. [Defiance Unit of the Navajo Nation in Arizona and Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The net board foot volume (Scribner log rule) of the standing Ponderosa pine timber on the Defiance Unit of the Navajo Nation's forested land was estimated using a multistage forest volume inventory scheme with variable sample selection probabilities. The inventory designed to accomplish this task required that both LANDSAT MSS digital data and aircraft acquired data be used to locate one acre ground splits, which were subsequently visited by ground teams conducting detailed tree measurements using an optical dendrometer. The dendrometer measurements were then punched on computer input cards and were entered in a computer program developed by the U.S. Forest Service. The resulting individual tree volume estimates were then expanded through the use of a statistically defined equation to produce the volume estimate for the entire area which includes 192,026 acres and is approximately a 44% the total forested area of the Navajo Nation.

  3. Point and Fixed Plot Sampling Inventory Estimates at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2004-02-01

    This report provides calculation of systematic point sampling volume estimates for trees greater than or equal to 5 inches diameter breast height (dbh) and fixed radius plot volume estimates for trees < 5 inches dbh at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken County, South Carolina. The inventory of 622 plots was started in March 1999 and completed in January 2002 (Figure 1). Estimates are given in cubic foot volume. The analyses are presented in a series of Tables and Figures. In addition, a preliminary analysis of fuel levels on the SRS is given, based on depth measurements of the duff and litter layers on the 622 inventory plots plus line transect samples of down coarse woody material. Potential standing live fuels are also included. The fuels analyses are presented in a series of tables.

  4. Our Air: Unfit for Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dochinger, Leon S.

    To help urban, suburban, and rural tree owners know about air pollution's effects on trees and their tolerance and intolerance to pollutants, the USDA Forest Service has prepared this booklet. It answers the following questions about atmospheric pollution: Where does it come from? What can it do to trees? and What can we do about it? In addition,…

  5. The Tree Worker's Manual. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, S. J.

    This manual acquaints readers with the general operations of the tree care industry. The manual covers subjects important to a tree worker and serves as a training aid for workers at the entry level as tree care professionals. Each chapter begins with a set of objectives and may include figures, tables, and photographs. Ten chapters are included:…

  6. Building Your Own Abseil Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Des

    2002-01-01

    The foot and mouth crisis forced many British outdoor education providers to develop new options. The construction of an abseiling tree is described, which requires a living, healthy, straight tree with a trunk thick enough to remain stable under load and with few branches in the lower 15-20 meters. An abseil tree code of practice is presented.…

  7. The Re-Think Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gear, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The Re-Think Tree is a simple framework to help individuals assess and improve their behaviors related to environmental issues. The branches of the tree in order of priority are refuse, reduce, re-use, and recycle. Roots of the tree include such things as public opinion, education, and watchdog groups. (KS)

  8. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  9. Building up rhetorical structure trees

    SciTech Connect

    Marcu, D.

    1996-12-31

    I use the distinction between the nuclei and the satellites that pertain to discourse relations to introduce a compositionality criterion for discourse trees. I provide a first-order formalization of rhetorical structure trees and, on its basis, I derive an algorithm that constructs all the valid rhetorical trees that can be associated with a given discourse.

  10. New Life From Dead Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGraaf, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    There are numerous bird species that will nest only in dead or dying trees. Current forestry practices include clearing forests of these snags, or dead trees. This practice is driving many species out of the forests. An illustrated example of bird succession in and on a tree is given. (MA)