Science.gov

Sample records for electronic tree inventory

  1. A tree species inventory over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Geels, C.; Hvidberg, M.; Hertel, O.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Christensen, J. H.; Moseholm, L.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric transport models are used in studies of atmospheric chemistry as well as aerobiology. Atmospheric transport models in general needs accurate emissions inventories, which includes biogenic emissions such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and pollen. Trees are important VOC and pollen sources and a needed requirement is specie distribution which takes into account important species such as Betula and Alnus. We present here a detailed tree species inventory covering Europe, parts of Africa and parts of Asia. Forest inventories have been obtained for each European country, parts of Asia and parts of Africa. The national inventories vary with respect to number of species as well as the number of sub-regions each nation is divided into. The inventories are therefore harmonised within a GIS system and afterwards gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model: 50 km x 50 km. The inventory is designed to be used with existing land-use data, which separates forest cover into broad leaved, mixed and conifer forests. This will be exemplified by using two different remote sensing products with different grid resolution such as GLC2000 and CLC2000 in selected areas. The final inventory includes 16 conifer species and 23 broadleaved species that are important for biogenic VOCs or pollen emission calculations. For example: Oak (Quercus), poplar (Populus), pines (Pinus), spruce (Picea), birch (Betula) and alder (Alnus). 774 regions with forest inventories are included, mainly on sub-national level. The coverage of each specie ranges from national to European scale, where the latter includes VOC and allergy relevant species such as Quercus, Alnus and Betula. The inventory is gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model, which is also the basis for many emissions inventories throughout Europe. The inventory is therefore prepared for easy implementation into atmospheric transport models by providing an extension to already applied land use data such as the

  2. Urban tree residues: Results of the first national inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Whittier, J.; Rue, D.; Haase, S.

    1994-12-31

    The volume and characteristics of urban tree residues associated with tree pruning and other urban forestry activities have never been well documented, yet disposal of this residue is subject to increasing regulatory actions. The regulatory actions have a considerable impact on the activities of commercial, utility, and municipal tree care operations. This paper reports the results of the first national inventory of the volume and characteristics of urban tree residues. Residues are classified as follows: chips, logs, mixed wood, tops and brush, leaves, lawn clippings, and stumps. Generators of residues include the following: commercial tree care firms, municipal park and recreation departments, municipal tree care divisions, county tree care divisions, electric/telephone utility power line maintenance departments, nurseries, orchards, and landscapers. The national inventory assesses volume, characteristics, and disposal of the residues on both a regional basis as well as by size of metropolitan area. Finally, irregular residue inputs associated with natural disasters are discussed.

  3. Use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for urban tree inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Brian A.

    In contrast to standard aerial imagery, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) utilize recent technological advances to provide an affordable alternative for imagery acquisition. Increased value can be realized through clarity and detail providing higher resolution (2-5 cm) over traditional products. Many natural resource disciplines such as urban forestry will benefit from UAS. Tree inventories for risk assessment, biodiversity, planning, and design can be efficiently achieved with the UAS. Recent advances in photogrammetric processing have proved automated methods for three dimensional rendering of aerial imagery. Point clouds can be generated from images providing additional benefits. Association of spatial locational information within the point cloud can be used to produce elevation models i.e. digital elevation, digital terrain and digital surface. Taking advantage of this point cloud data, additional information such as tree heights can be obtained. Several software applications have been developed for LiDAR data which can be adapted to utilize UAS point clouds. This study examines solutions to provide tree inventory and heights from UAS imagery. Imagery taken with a micro-UAS was processed to produce a seamless orthorectified image. This image provided an accurate way to obtain a tree inventory within the study boundary. Utilizing several methods, tree height models were developed with variations in spatial accuracy. Model parameters were modified to offset spatial inconsistencies providing statistical equality of means. Statistical results (p = 0.756) with a level of significance (α = 0.01) between measured and modeled tree height means resulted with 82% of tree species obtaining accurate tree heights. Within this study, the UAS has proven to be an efficient tool for urban forestry providing a cost effective and reliable system to obtain remotely sensed data.

  4. An exhaustive inventory of coniferous trees in an agricultural landscape

    PubMed Central

    Rousselet, Jérôme; Roques, Alain; Garcia, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Various species of forest trees are commonly used for ornamental purposes and are therefore frequently found in non-forest ecosystems. These trees constitute a significant component of the trees outside forests (TOF). Although increasingly recognized as prominent feature of agricultural lands and built-up areas, not much is known, however, about TOF since they are generally absent from forest inventories. New information In the present study, we focus on the coniferous tree species that constitute potential hosts for a forest defoliator, the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae). We carried out an exhaustive inventory of all pines (Pinus spp.), cedars (Cedrus spp.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in a 22 × 22 km study window located in the open-field region of Beauce in the centre of France. We recorded a total of 3834 individuals or small groups host trees corresponding a density of 7.9 occurrences per 100 ha. We provide the spatial coordinates of the points without differentiation between tree species. PMID:25733964

  5. An inventory of trees in Dublin city centre.

    PubMed

    Ningal, Tine; Mills, Gerald; Smithwick, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    While urban areas are often considered to be comprised chiefly of artificial surfaces, they can contain a substantial portion of green space and a great diversity of natural habitats. These spaces include public parks, private gardens and street trees, all of which can provide valuable environmental services, such as improved air quality. Trees play a particular role in cities as they are often placed along roadsides and in the median strip of busy streets. As such they regulate access to sunshine, restrict airflow, provide shelter, scavenge air pollutants and manage noise at the street level. A tree planting policy can be an important part of a broader environmental strategy aimed at improving the quality of life in urban areas but this requires up-to-date knowledge of the current tree stock, which does not exist for Dublin. This article presents an inventory of trees in Dublin's city centre, defined as the area between the Grand and Royal canals. The results show that there are over 10,000 trees in the study area representing a density of 684 trees km-2 or one tree to approximately every 50 residents of the city centre. The tree canopy extent when in full foliage was nearly 1 km2 in extent or 6% of the study area. A more detailed analysis of those trees planted along streets shows little species variation but clear distinction in the sizes of trees, which is indicative of the age of planting. These data are used to estimate the carbon stored in Dublin's trees. PMID:21197800

  6. A Structured Light Sensor System for Tree Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Chiun-Hong; Zemek, Michael C.

    2000-01-01

    Tree Inventory is referred to measurement and estimation of marketable wood volume in a piece of land or forest for purposes such as investment or for loan applications. Exist techniques rely on trained surveyor conducting measurements manually using simple optical or mechanical devices, and hence are time consuming subjective and error prone. The advance of computer vision techniques makes it possible to conduct automatic measurements that are more efficient, objective and reliable. This paper describes 3D measurements of tree diameters using a uniquely designed ensemble of two line laser emitters rigidly mounted on a video camera. The proposed laser camera system relies on a fixed distance between two parallel laser planes and projections of laser lines to calculate tree diameters. Performance of the laser camera system is further enhanced by fusion of information induced from structured lighting and that contained in video images. Comparison will be made between the laser camera sensor system and a stereo vision system previously developed for measurements of tree diameters.

  7. Geospatial Technologies and i-Tree Echo Inventory for Predicting Climate Change on Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriharan, S.; Robinson, L.; Ghariban, N.; Comar, M.; Pope, B.; Frey, G.

    2015-12-01

    Urban forests can be useful both in mitigating climate change and in helping cities adapt to higher temperatures and other impacts of climate change. Understanding and managing the impacts of climate change on the urban forest trees and natural communities will help us maintain their environmental, cultural, and economic benefits. Tree Inventory can provide important information on tree species, height, crown width, overall condition, health and maintenance needs. This presentation will demonstrate that a trees database system is necessary for developing a sustainable urban tree program. Virginia State University (VSU) campus benefits from large number and diversity of trees that are helping us by cleaning the air, retaining water, and providing shade on the buildings to reduce energy cost. The objectives of this study were to develop campus inventory of the trees, identify the tree species, map the locations of the trees with user-friendly tools such as i-Tree Eco and geospatial technologies by assessing the cost/benefit of employing student labor for training and ground validation of the results, and help campus landscape managers implement adaptive responses to climate change impacts. Data was collected on the location, species, and size of trees by using i-Tree urban forestry analysis software. This data was transferred to i-Tree inventory system for demonstrating types of trees, diameter of the trees, height of the trees, and vintage of the trees. The study site was mapped by collecting waypoints with GPS (Global Positioning System) at the trees and uploading these waypoints in ArcMap. The results of this study showed that: (i) students make good field crews, (ii) if more trees were placed in the proper area, the heating and cooling costs will reduce, and (iii) trees database system is necessary for planning, designing, planting, and maintenance, and removal of campus trees Research sponsored by the NIFA Grant, "Urban Forestry Management" (2012-38821-20153).

  8. Radioisotope inventory of T101AZ thermocouple tree from riser 13D

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, S.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    The radionuclide inventory for the thermocouple tree removed from tank T101-AZ riser 13D was estimated using measured {sup 137}Cs activity. This activity was measured by detectors as the tree was removed from the tank. Other radionuclide activities were estimated using the results of tank samples.

  9. Inventory methods for trees in nonforest areas in the Great Plains States.

    PubMed

    Lister, Andrew J; Scott, Charles T; Rasmussen, Steven

    2012-04-01

    The US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program collects information on trees in areas that meet its definition of forest. However, the inventory excludes trees in areas that do not meet this definition, such as those found in urban areas, in isolated patches, in areas with sparse or predominantly herbaceous vegetation, in narrow strips (e.g., shelterbelts), or in riparian areas. In the Great Plains States, little is known about the tree resource in these noninventoried, nonforest areas, and there is a great deal of concern about the potential impact of invasive pests, such as the emerald ash borer. To address this knowledge gap, FIA's National Inventory and Monitoring Applications Center has partnered with state cooperators and others in a project called the Great Plains Initiative to design and implement an inventory of trees in nonforest areas. The goal of the inventory is to characterize the nonforest tree resource using methods compatible with those of FIA so a holistic understanding of the resource can be obtained by integrating the two surveys. The goal of this paper is to describe the process of designing and implementing the survey, including plot and sample design, and to present some example results from a reporting tool we developed. PMID:21713500

  10. Diameter distribution estimation with laser scanning based multisource single tree inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankare, Ville; Liang, Xinlian; Vastaranta, Mikko; Yu, Xiaowei; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-10-01

    Tree detection and tree species recognition are bottlenecks of the airborne remote sensing-based single tree inventories. The effect of these factors in forest attribute estimation can be reduced if airborne measurements are aided with tree mapping information that is collected from the ground. The main objective here was to demonstrate the use of terrestrial laser scanning-derived (TLS) tree maps in aiding airborne laser scanning-based (ALS) single tree inventory (multisource single tree inventory, MS-STI) and its capability in predicting diameter distribution in various forest conditions. Automatic measurement of TLS point clouds provided the tree maps and the required reference information from the tree attributes. The study area was located in Evo, Finland, and the reference data was acquired from 27 different sample plots with varying forest conditions. The workflow of MS-STI included: (1) creation of automatic tree map from TLS point clouds, (2) automatic diameter at breast height (DBH) measurement from TLS point clouds, (3) individual tree detection (ITD) based on ALS, (4) matching the ITD segments to the field-measured reference, (5) ALS point cloud metric extraction from the single tree segments and (6) DBH estimation based on the derived metrics. MS-STI proved to be accurate and efficient method for DBH estimation and predicting diameter distribution. The overall accuracy (root mean squared error, RMSE) of the DBH was 36.9 mm. Results showed that the DBH accuracy decreased if the tree density (trees/ha) increased. The highest accuracies were found in old-growth forests (tree densities less than 500 stems/ha). MS-STI resulted in the best accuracies regarding Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.)-dominated forests (RMSE of 29.9 mm). Diameter distributions were predicted with low error indices, thereby resulting in a good fit compared to the reference. Based on the results, diameter distribution estimation with MS-STI is highly dependent on the forest

  11. 77 FR 13061 - Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...Facilities that currently report Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) use either paper reporting forms or the online reporting software application known as the Toxics Release Inventory-Made Easy Web or simply TRI- MEweb. Effective January 1, 2013, EPA proposes to require facilities to report non-confidential TRI data to EPA using electronic......

  12. Grading of Parameters for Urban Tree Inventories by City Officials, Arborists, and Academics Using the Delphi Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östberg, Johan; Delshammar, Tim; Wiström, Björn; Nielsen, Anders Busse

    2013-03-01

    Tree inventories are expensive to conduct and update, so every inventory carried out must be maximized. However, increasing the number of constituent parameters increases the cost of performing and updating the inventory, illustrating the need for careful parameter selection. This article reports the results of a systematic expert rating of tree inventories aiming to quantify the relative importance of each parameter. Using the Delphi method, panels comprising city officials, arborists, and academics rated a total of 148 parameters. The total mean score, the top ranking parameters, which can serve as a guide for decision-making at practical level and for standardization of tree inventories, were: Scientific name of the tree species and genera, Vitality, Coordinates, Hazard class, and Identification number. The study also examined whether the different responsibilities and usage of urban tree databases among organizations and people engaged in urban tree inventories affected their prioritization. The results revealed noticeable dissimilarities in the ranking of parameters between the panels, underlining the need for collaboration between the research community and those commissioning, administrating, and conducting inventories. Only by applying such a transdisciplinary approach to parameter selection can urban tree inventories be strengthened and made more relevant.

  13. Integrating LIDAR and forest inventories to fill the trees outside forests data gap.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kristofer D; Birdsey, Richard; Cole, Jason; Swatantran, Anu; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath; Dubayah, Ralph; Lister, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Forest inventories are commonly used to estimate total tree biomass of forest land even though they are not traditionally designed to measure biomass of trees outside forests (TOF). The consequence may be an inaccurate representation of all of the aboveground biomass, which propagates error to the outputs of spatial and process models that rely on the inventory data. An ideal approach to fill this data gap would be to integrate TOF measurements within a traditional forest inventory for a parsimonious estimate of total tree biomass. In this study, Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data were used to predict biomass of TOF in all "nonforest" Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots in the state of Maryland. To validate the LIDAR-based biomass predictions, a field crew was sent to measure TOF on nonforest plots in three Maryland counties, revealing close agreement at both the plot and county scales between the two estimates. Total tree biomass in Maryland increased by 25.5 Tg, or 15.6%, when biomass of TOF were included. In two counties (Carroll and Howard), there was a 47% increase. In contrast, counties located further away from the interstate highway corridor showed only a modest increase in biomass when TOF were added because nonforest conditions were less common in those areas. The advantage of this approach for estimating biomass of TOF is that it is compatible with, and explicitly separates TOF biomass from, forest biomass already measured by FIA crews. By predicting biomass of TOF at actual FIA plots, this approach is directly compatible with traditionally reported FIA forest biomass, providing a framework for other states to follow, and should improve carbon reporting and modeling activities in Maryland. PMID:26364065

  14. SWAT (Student Weekend Arborist Team): A Model for Land Grant Institutions and Cooperative Extension Systems to Conduct Street Tree Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowett, F.D.; Bassuk, N.L.

    2012-01-01

    SWAT (Student Weekend Arborist Team) is a program affiliated with Cornell University and Extension founded to conduct street tree inventories in New York State communities with 10,000 residents or fewer, a group of communities underserved in community forestry planning. Between 2002 and 2010, SWAT conducted 40 inventories, and data from these…

  15. 78 FR 52860 - Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... ``Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data'' (March 5, 2012; 77 FR 13061). These comments are... EPA--U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPCRA--Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act FR... notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 2677) that the Agency was considering requiring TRI facilities...

  16. Using the PDD Behavior Inventory as a Level 2 Screener: A Classification and Regression Trees Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ira L; Liu, Xudong; Hudson, Melissa; Gillis, Jennifer; Cavalari, Rachel N S; Romanczyk, Raymond G; Karmel, Bernard Z; Gardner, Judith M

    2016-09-01

    In order to improve discrimination accuracy between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and similar neurodevelopmental disorders, a data mining procedure, Classification and Regression Trees (CART), was used on a large multi-site sample of PDD Behavior Inventory (PDDBI) forms on children with and without ASD. Discrimination accuracy exceeded 80 %, generalized to an independent validation set, and generalized across age groups and sites, and agreed well with ADOS classifications. Parent PDDBIs yielded better results than teacher PDDBIs but, when CART predictions agreed across informants, sensitivity increased. Results also revealed three subtypes of ASD: minimally verbal, verbal, and atypical; and two, relatively common subtypes of non-ASD children: social pragmatic problems and good social skills. These subgroups corresponded to differences in behavior profiles and associated bio-medical findings. PMID:27318809

  17. Watershed Merge Tree Classification for Electron Microscopy Image Segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, TIng; Jurrus, Elizabeth R.; Seyedhosseini, Mojtaba; Ellisman, Mark; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2012-11-11

    Automated segmentation of electron microscopy (EM) images is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a novel method that utilizes a hierarchical structure and boundary classification for 2D neuron segmentation. With a membrane detection probability map, a watershed merge tree is built for the representation of hierarchical region merging from the watershed algorithm. A boundary classifier is learned with non-local image features to predict each potential merge in the tree, upon which merge decisions are made with consistency constraints in the sense of optimization to acquire the final segmentation. Independent of classifiers and decision strategies, our approach proposes a general framework for efficient hierarchical segmentation with statistical learning. We demonstrate that our method leads to a substantial improvement in segmentation accuracy.

  18. Improving Crop Classification Techniques Using Optical Remote Sensing Imagery, High-Resolution Agriculture Resource Inventory Shapefiles and Decision Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnychuk, A. L.; Berg, A. A.; Sweeney, S.

    2010-12-01

    Recognition of anthropogenic effects of land use management practices on bodies of water is important for remediating and preventing eutrophication. In the case of Lake Simcoe, Ontario the main surrounding landuse is agriculture. To better manage the nutrient flow into the lake, knowledge of the management of the agricultural land is important. For this basin, a comprehensive agricultural resource inventory is required for assessment of policy and for input into water quality management and assessment tools. Supervised decision tree classification schemes, used in many previous applications, have yielded reliable classifications in agricultural land-use systems. However, when using these classification techniques the user is confronted with numerous data sources. In this study we use a large inventory of optical satellite image products (Landsat, AWiFS, SPOT and MODIS) and ancillary data sources (temporal MODIS-NDVI product signatures, digital elevation models and soil maps) at various spatial and temporal resolutions in a decision tree classification scheme. The sensitivity of the classification accuracy to various products is assessed to identify optimal data sources for classifying crop systems.

  19. Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  20. Inventory Control. Easily Made Electronic Device for Conductivity Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadek, Frank J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes how to construct an electronic device to be used in conductivity experiments using a 35 millimeter film canister, nine volt battery replacement snaps, a 200-300 ohm resistor, and a light-emitting diode. Provides a diagram and photographs of the device. (TW)

  1. Towards the harmonization between National Forest Inventory and Forest Condition Monitoring. Consistency of plot allocation and effect of tree selection methods on sample statistics in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Patrizia; Di Cosmo, Lucio; Cenni, Enrico; Pompei, Enrico; Ferretti, Marco

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of a process aiming at harmonizing National Forest Inventory (NFI) and ICP Forests Level I Forest Condition Monitoring (FCM) in Italy, we investigated (a) the long-term consistency between FCM sample points (a subsample of the first NFI, 1985, NFI_1) and recent forest area estimates (after the second NFI, 2005, NFI_2) and (b) the effect of tree selection method (tree-based or plot-based) on sample composition and defoliation statistics. The two investigations were carried out on 261 and 252 FCM sites, respectively. Results show that some individual forest categories (larch and stone pine, Norway spruce, other coniferous, beech, temperate oaks and cork oak forests) are over-represented and others (hornbeam and hophornbeam, other deciduous broadleaved and holm oak forests) are under-represented in the FCM sample. This is probably due to a change in forest cover, which has increased by 1,559,200 ha from 1985 to 2005. In case of shift from a tree-based to a plot-based selection method, 3,130 (46.7%) of the original 6,703 sample trees will be abandoned, and 1,473 new trees will be selected. The balance between exclusion of former sample trees and inclusion of new ones will be particularly unfavourable for conifers (with only 16.4% of excluded trees replaced by new ones) and less for deciduous broadleaves (with 63.5% of excluded trees replaced). The total number of tree species surveyed will not be impacted, while the number of trees per species will, and the resulting (plot-based) sample composition will have a much larger frequency of deciduous broadleaved trees. The newly selected trees have-in general-smaller diameter at breast height (DBH) and defoliation scores. Given the larger rate of turnover, the deciduous broadleaved part of the sample will be more impacted. Our results suggest that both a revision of FCM network to account for forest area change and a plot-based approach to permit statistical inference and avoid bias in the tree sample

  2. Tree Size Inequality Reduces Forest Productivity: An Analysis Combining Inventory Data for Ten European Species and a Light Competition Model.

    PubMed

    Bourdier, Thomas; Cordonnier, Thomas; Kunstler, Georges; Piedallu, Christian; Lagarrigues, Guillaume; Courbaud, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Plant structural diversity is usually considered as beneficial for ecosystem functioning. For instance, numerous studies have reported positive species diversity-productivity relationships in plant communities. However, other aspects of structural diversity such as individual size inequality have been far less investigated. In forests, tree size inequality impacts directly tree growth and asymmetric competition, but consequences on forest productivity are still indeterminate. In addition, the effect of tree size inequality on productivity is likely to vary with species shade-tolerance, a key ecological characteristic controlling asymmetric competition and light resource acquisition. Using plot data from the French National Geographic Agency, we studied the response of stand productivity to size inequality for ten forest species differing in shade tolerance. We fitted a basal area stand production model that included abiotic factors, stand density, stand development stage and a tree size inequality index. Then, using a forest dynamics model we explored whether mechanisms of light interception and light use efficiency could explain the tree size inequality effect observed for three of the ten species studied. Size inequality negatively affected basal area increment for seven out of the ten species investigated. However, this effect was not related to the shade tolerance of these species. According to the model simulations, the negative tree size inequality effect could result both from reduced total stand light interception and reduced light use efficiency. Our results demonstrate that negative relationships between size inequality and productivity may be the rule in tree populations. The lack of effect of shade tolerance indicates compensatory mechanisms between effect on light availability and response to light availability. Such a pattern deserves further investigations for mixed forests where complementarity effects between species are involved. When studying the

  3. Tree Size Inequality Reduces Forest Productivity: An Analysis Combining Inventory Data for Ten European Species and a Light Competition Model

    PubMed Central

    Bourdier, Thomas; Cordonnier, Thomas; Kunstler, Georges; Piedallu, Christian; Lagarrigues, Guillaume; Courbaud, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Plant structural diversity is usually considered as beneficial for ecosystem functioning. For instance, numerous studies have reported positive species diversity-productivity relationships in plant communities. However, other aspects of structural diversity such as individual size inequality have been far less investigated. In forests, tree size inequality impacts directly tree growth and asymmetric competition, but consequences on forest productivity are still indeterminate. In addition, the effect of tree size inequality on productivity is likely to vary with species shade-tolerance, a key ecological characteristic controlling asymmetric competition and light resource acquisition. Using plot data from the French National Geographic Agency, we studied the response of stand productivity to size inequality for ten forest species differing in shade tolerance. We fitted a basal area stand production model that included abiotic factors, stand density, stand development stage and a tree size inequality index. Then, using a forest dynamics model we explored whether mechanisms of light interception and light use efficiency could explain the tree size inequality effect observed for three of the ten species studied. Size inequality negatively affected basal area increment for seven out of the ten species investigated. However, this effect was not related to the shade tolerance of these species. According to the model simulations, the negative tree size inequality effect could result both from reduced total stand light interception and reduced light use efficiency. Our results demonstrate that negative relationships between size inequality and productivity may be the rule in tree populations. The lack of effect of shade tolerance indicates compensatory mechanisms between effect on light availability and response to light availability. Such a pattern deserves further investigations for mixed forests where complementarity effects between species are involved. When studying the

  4. Electronic Inventory Systems and Barcode Technology: Impact on Pharmacy Technical Accuracy and Error Liability

    PubMed Central

    Oldland, Alan R.; May, Sondra K.; Barber, Gerard R.; Stolpman, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the effects associated with sequential implementation of electronic medication storage and inventory systems and product verification devices on pharmacy technical accuracy and rates of potential medication dispensing errors in an academic medical center. Methods: During four 28-day periods of observation, pharmacists recorded all technical errors identified at the final visual check of pharmaceuticals prior to dispensing. Technical filling errors involving deviations from order-specific selection of product, dosage form, strength, or quantity were documented when dispensing medications using (a) a conventional unit dose (UD) drug distribution system, (b) an electronic storage and inventory system utilizing automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) within the pharmacy, (c) ADCs combined with barcode (BC) verification, and (d) ADCs and BC verification utilized with changes in product labeling and individualized personnel training in systems application. Results: Using a conventional UD system, the overall incidence of technical error was 0.157% (24/15,271). Following implementation of ADCs, the comparative overall incidence of technical error was 0.135% (10/7,379; P = .841). Following implementation of BC scanning, the comparative overall incidence of technical error was 0.137% (27/19,708; P = .729). Subsequent changes in product labeling and intensified staff training in the use of BC systems was associated with a decrease in the rate of technical error to 0.050% (13/26,200; P = .002). Conclusions: Pharmacy ADCs and BC systems provide complementary effects that improve technical accuracy and reduce the incidence of potential medication dispensing errors if this technology is used with comprehensive personnel training. PMID:25684799

  5. Citrus Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Florida's Charlotte County Property Appraiser is using an aerial color infrared mapping system for inventorying citrus trees for valuation purposes. The ACIR system has significantly reduced the time and manpower required for appraisal. Aerial photographs are taken and interpreted by a video system which makes it possible to detect changes from previous years. Potential problems can be identified. KSC's TU Office has awarded a contract to the Citrus Research and Education Center to adapt a prototype system which would automatically count trees and report totals.

  6. Mammal Inventory of the Mojave Network Parks-Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drost, Charles A.; Hart, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the results of a mammal inventory study of National Park Service units in the Mojave Desert Network, including Death Valley National Park, Joshua Tree National Park, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve. Fieldwork for the inventory focused on small mammals, primarily rodents and bats. Fieldwork for terrestrial small mammals used trapping with Sherman and Tomahawk small- and medium-sized mammal traps, along with visual surveys for diurnal species. The majority of sampling for terrestrial small mammals was carried out in 2002 and 2003. Methods used in field surveys for bats included mist-netting at tanks and other water bodies, along with acoustic surveys using Anabat. Most of the bat survey work was conducted in 2003. Because of extremely dry conditions in the first two survey years (and associated low mammal numbers), we extended field sampling into 2004, following a relatively wet winter. In addition to field sampling, we also reviewed, evaluated, and summarized museum and literature records of mammal species for all of the Park units. We documented a total of 59 mammal species as present at Death Valley National Park, with an additional five species that we consider of probable occurrence. At Joshua Tree, we also documented 50 species, and an additional four 'probable' species. At Lake Mead National Recreation Area, 57 mammal species have been positively documented, with 10 additional probable species. Manzanar National Historic Site had not been previously surveyed. We documented 19 mammal species at Manzanar, with an additional 11 probable species. Mojave National Preserve had not had a comprehensive list previously, either. There are now a total of 50 mammal species documented at Mojave, with three additional probable species. Of these totals, 23 occurrences are new at individual park units (positively documented for the first time), with most of these being at Manzanar

  7. Bridging local scale ground-based tree assessments to large scale inventory and remote sensing data to quantify landscape representativeness of an atmospheric study tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizjack, M.; Brooks, B.; Dietze, M. C.; Serbin, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of an ecosystem's capacity to sequester carbon from the atmosphere (e.g. net ecosystem exchange, NEE) are important measurements for validating results from model simulations and for determining the effects that climate change is having on the world's biomes. Eddy covariance towers in the Chequamegon Ecosystem Atmosphere Study domain (ChEAS) in northern Wisconsin were established to quantify this interaction between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. Data assimilation systems and modeling studies such as the PaleoEcological Observatory Network (PalEON) incorporate in situ data from ChEAS in order to determine climate change effects across landscapes. However, implicit to studies that use tower data is the assumption that the flux footprint is representative of the larger domain. In this study we quantify the forest landscape sampled by a tower and compare that to the landscape outside the flux footprint. To determine similarity indices and ecological-representativeness we canvassed small areas surrounding ChEAS flux towers and made ground-based biometry and forest composition measurements and combined these with remote sensing (LandSat), and Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data. We estimated landscape similarity based on tree species richness, composition and stand structure and extrapolated our plot-scale (20m2) ground-based measurements using a semi-supervised k-means clustering approach of satellite surface reflectance data. Because the productivity and ecology within a limited tower footprint (1km2) can still reflect the productivity and ecology of a larger region (100km2) despite different species composition, we collected additional growth data through a rapid tree assessment by measuring DBH and coring of dominant, codominant, and suppressed trees in each plot. We combined our ground-based data that is limited in extent with wide-ranging remote sensing data to develop similarity values across the region, which can be used to

  8. Enhancement mechanism of field electron emission properties in hybrid carbon nanotubes with tree- and wing-like features

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, G.M.; Yang, C.C.; Xu, Q.; Zheng, W.T.; Li, S.

    2009-12-15

    In this work, the tree-like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with branches of different diameters and the wing-like CNTs with graphitic-sheets of different densities were synthesized by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructures of the as-prepared hybrid carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The structural dependence of field electron emission (FEE) property was also investigated. It is found that both of the tree- and wing-like CNTs exhibit a lower turn-on field and higher emission current density than the pristine CNTs, which can be ascribed to the effects of branch size, crystal orientation, and graphitic-sheet density. - Graphical abstract: Tree-like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with branches and the wing-like CNTs with graphitic-sheets were synthesized by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The structural dependence of field electron emission property was also investigated.

  9. Timber inventory using Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    The results of recent efforts to apply Landsat MSS imagery, in concert with topological maps, to forestry timber inventories via the FOCIS program are reported. FOCIS (Forests Classification and Inventory System) was defined for inventorying the lumber volume of coniferous tree types in rugged terrain regions. Data from four bands serve as input for unsupervised clustering and iterative labeling of the elevation, slope angle, and subregions of interest. Simulated photographic maps are generated which serve as overlays for regular maps for assessing timber harvests and sales goals. Sample procedures followed in mapping the Eldorado region forests in the Sierra Nevada mountains are discussed.

  10. Inventory of Electronic Mobility Aids for Persons with Visual Impairments: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roentgen, Uta R.; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; Soede, Mathijs; de Witte, Luc P.

    2008-01-01

    This literature review of existing electronic mobility aids for persons who are visually impaired and recent developments in this field identified and classified 146 products, systems, and devices. The 21 that are currently available that can be used without environmental adaptation are described in functional terms. (Contains 2 tables.)

  11. If a Tree Dies in a Forest will it be Reflected in a Forest Carbon Inventory? Quantifying the Effect of Disturbance on U.S. Forest Carbon Stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, C. W.; Domke, G.; Westfall, J.; Perry, C.; Oswalt, C. M.; Smith, J.; Patel-Weynand, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service is charged with the responsibility of monitoring forest ecosystem attributes, such as carbon (C) stocks, across the U.S. Given the role of both natural and anthropocentric disturbance on forest C stocks across a range of spatial scales and intensity (e.g., stand-level canopy gaps to major hurricane), quantifying the statistical power of the FIA inventory to detect disturbance and resulting implications for climate change hypothesis testing and C cycle impacts is paramount. Our study evaluates the statistical power of the FIA inventory to detect C stock change, distribution of disturbance events over time, and implications for C accounting/dynamics.

  12. Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Known as MRO for Maintenance, Repair and Operating supplies, Tropicana Products, Inc.'s automated inventory management system is an adaptation of the Shuttle Inventory Management System (SIMS) developed by NASA to assure adequate supply of every item used in support of the Space Shuttle. The Tropicana version monitors inventory control, purchasing receiving and departmental costs for eight major areas of the company's operation.

  13. Atlas of relations between climatic parameters and distributions of important trees and shrubs in North America—Modern data for climatic estimation from vegetation inventories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Robert S.; Anderson, Katherine H.; Pelltier, Richard T.; Strickland, Laura E.; Shafer, Sarah L.; Bartlein, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetation inventories (plant taxa present in a vegetation assemblage at a given site) can be used to estimate climatic parameters based on the identification of the range of a given parameter where all taxa in an assemblage overlap ("Mutual Climatic Range"). For the reconstruction of past climates from fossil or subfossil plant assemblages, we assembled the data necessary for such analyses for 530 woody plant taxa and eight climatic parameters in North America. Here we present examples of how these data can be used to obtain paleoclimatic estimates from botanical data in a straightforward, simple, and robust fashion. We also include matrices of climate parameter versus occurrence or nonoccurrence of the individual taxa. These relations are depicted graphically as histograms of the population distributions of the occurrences of a given taxon plotted against a given climatic parameter. This provides a new method for quantification of paleoclimatic parameters from fossil plant assemblages.

  14. A stand-alone tree demography and landscape structure module for Earth system models: integration with inventory data from temperate and boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverd, V.; Smith, B.; Nieradzik, L. P.; Briggs, P. R.

    2014-08-01

    Poorly constrained rates of biomass turnover are a key limitation of Earth system models (ESMs). In light of this, we recently proposed a new approach encoded in a model called Populations-Order-Physiology (POP), for the simulation of woody ecosystem stand dynamics, demography and disturbance-mediated heterogeneity. POP is suitable for continental to global applications and designed for coupling to the terrestrial ecosystem component of any ESM. POP bridges the gap between first-generation dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) with simple large-area parameterisations of woody biomass (typically used in current ESMs) and complex second-generation DVMs that explicitly simulate demographic processes and landscape heterogeneity of forests. The key simplification in the POP approach, compared with second-generation DVMs, is to compute physiological processes such as assimilation at grid-scale (with CABLE (Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange) or a similar land surface model), but to partition the grid-scale biomass increment among age classes defined at sub-grid-scale, each subject to its own dynamics. POP was successfully demonstrated along a savanna transect in northern Australia, replicating the effects of strong rainfall and fire disturbance gradients on observed stand productivity and structure. Here, we extend the application of POP to wide-ranging temporal and boreal forests, employing paired observations of stem biomass and density from forest inventory data to calibrate model parameters governing stand demography and biomass evolution. The calibrated POP model is then coupled to the CABLE land surface model, and the combined model (CABLE-POP) is evaluated against leaf-stem allometry observations from forest stands ranging in age from 3 to 200 year. Results indicate that simulated biomass pools conform well with observed allometry. We conclude that POP represents an ecologically plausible and efficient alternative to large-area parameterisations of woody

  15. Aerosol deposition doses in the human respiratory tree of electronic cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Manigrasso, Maurizio; Buonanno, Giorgio; Fuoco, Fernanda Carmen; Stabile, Luca; Avino, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Aerosols from eight e-cigarettes at different nicotine levels and flavoring were characterized as particle number size distributions in the range 5.6-560 nm by FMPS and CPC. Results were used to provided osimetry estimates applying the MMPD model.Particle number concentrations varied between 3.26 x 10(9) and 4.09 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids without nicotine and between 5.08 x 10(9) and 5.29 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids with nicotine. No flavor effects were detected on particle concentration data. Particle size distributions were unimodal with modes between 107-165 nm and 165-255 nm, for number and volume metrics, respectively. Averagely, 6.25 x 10(10) particles were deposited in respiratory tree after a single puff. Highest deposition densities and mean layer thickness of e-cigarette liquid on the lung epithelium were estimated at lobar bronchi. Our study shows that e-cigarette aerosol is source of high particle dose in respiratory system, from 23%to 35% of the daily dose of a no-smoking individual. PMID:25463721

  16. An electronic flow control system for a variable-rate tree sprayer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precise modulation of nozzle flow rates is a critical measure to achieve variable-rate spray applications. An electronic flow rate control system accommodating with microprocessors and pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled solenoid valves was designed to manipulate the output of spray nozzles inde...

  17. Sustained Diurnal Stimulation of Cyclic Electron Flow in Two Tropical Tree Species Erythrophleum guineense and Khaya ivorensis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Hu, Hong; Cao, Kun-Fang; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    The photosystem II (PSII) activity of C3 plants is usually inhibited at noon associated with high light but can be repaired fast in the afternoon. However, the diurnal variation of photosystem I (PSI) activity is unknown. Although, cyclic electron flow (CEF) has been documented as an important mechanism for photosynthesis, the diurnal variation of CEF in sun leaves is little known. We determined the diurnal changes in PSI and PSII activities, light energy dissipation in PSII and the P700 redox state in two tropical tree species Erythrophleum guineense and Khaya ivorensis grown in an open field. The PSI activity (as indicated by the maximum quantity of photo-oxidizable P700) was maintained stable during the daytime. CEF was strongly activated under high light at noon, accompanying with high levels of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and PSI oxidation ratio. In the afternoon, CEF was maintained at a relatively high level under low light, which was accompanied with low levels of NPQ and P700 oxidation ratio. These results indicated that CEF was flexibly modulated during daytime under fluctuating light conditions. Under high light at noon, CEF-dependent generation of proton gradient across the thylakoid membranes (ΔpH) mainly contributed to photoprotection for PSI and PSII. By comparison, at low light in the afternoon, the CEF-dependent formation of ΔpH may be important for PSII repair via an additional ATP synthesis. PMID:27486473

  18. Mechanism of Action of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil on Staphylococcus aureus Determined by Time-Kill, Lysis, Leakage, and Salt Tolerance Assays and Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Christine F.; Mee, Brian J.; Riley, Thomas V.

    2002-01-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The mechanisms of action of tea tree oil and three of its components, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 were investigated. Treatment with these agents at their MICs and two times their MICs, particularly treatment with terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, reduced the viability of S. aureus. None of the agents caused lysis, as determined by measurement of the optical density at 620 nm, although cells became disproportionately sensitive to subsequent autolysis. Loss of 260-nm-absorbing material occurred after treatment with concentrations equivalent to the MIC, particularly after treatment with 1,8-cineole and α-terpineol. S. aureus organisms treated with tea tree oil or its components at the MIC or two times the MIC showed a significant loss of tolerance to NaCl. When the agents were tested at one-half the MIC, only 1,8-cineole significantly reduced the tolerance of S. aureus to NaCl. Electron microscopy of terpinen-4-ol-treated cells showed the formation of mesosomes and the loss of cytoplasmic contents. The predisposition to lysis, the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material, the loss of tolerance to NaCl, and the altered morphology seen by electron microscopy all suggest that tea tree oil and its components compromise the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:12019108

  19. 75 FR 82095 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. The inventory includes service contract... at the NRC's electronic Reading Room at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html . From this page... inventory includes service contract actions over $25,000 that were awarded in FY 2010. The...

  20. Inventory management.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger

    2004-06-01

    As dentistry continues to evolve, the best management systems of the business world need to be incorporated into each practice. As always, my goal in these columns is to bring and modify the best business principles available to readers of The Journal of the American Dental Association. Just in Time ordering and inventory control is one of the best, as evidenced by the fact that top-performing companies worldwide have adopted it. PMID:15270164

  1. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2001-12-19

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the

  2. Utilizing home health care electronic health records for telehomecare patients with heart failure: a decision tree approach to detect associations with rehospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Youjeong; McHugh, Matthew D; Chittams, Jesse; Bowles, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is a complex condition with a significant impact on patients’ lives. A few studies have identified risk factors associated with rehospitalization among telehomecare patients with heart failure using logistic regression or survival analysis models. To date there are no published studies that have used data mining techniques to detect associations with rehospitalizations among telehomecare patients with heart failure. This study is a secondary analysis of the home health care electronic medical record called the Outcome Assessment and Information Set (OASIS)-C for 552 telemonitored heart failure patients. Bivariate analyses using SAS™ and a decision tree technique using Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis were used. From the decision tree technique, the presence of skin issue(s) was identified as the top predictor of rehospitalization that could be identified during the start of care assessment, followed by patient’s living situation, patient’s overall health status, severe pain experiences, frequency of activity-limiting pain, and total number of anticipated therapy visits coombined. Examining risk factors for rehospitalization from the OASIS-C database using a decision tree approach among a cohort of telehomecare patients provided a broad understanding of the characteristics of patients who are appropriate for the use of telehomcare or who need additional supports. PMID:26848645

  3. Tree Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.; Maxwell, Taylor; Posada, David; Stengård, Jari H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    We use evolutionary trees of haplotypes to study phenotypic associations by exhaustively examining all possible biallelic partitions of the tree, a technique we call tree scanning. If the first scan detects significant associations, additional rounds of tree scanning are used to partition the tree into three or more allelic classes. Two worked examples are presented. The first is a reanalysis of associations between haplotypes at the Alcohol Dehydrogenase locus in Drosophila melanogaster that was previously analyzed using a nested clade analysis, a more complicated technique for using haplotype trees to detect phenotypic associations. Tree scanning and the nested clade analysis yield the same inferences when permutation testing is used with both approaches. The second example is an analysis of associations between variation in various lipid traits and genetic variation at the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene in three human populations. Tree scanning successfully identified phenotypic associations expected from previous analyses. Tree scanning for the most part detected more associations and provided a better biological interpretative framework than single SNP analyses. We also show how prior information can be incorporated into the tree scan by starting with the traditional three electrophoretic alleles at APOE. Tree scanning detected genetically determined phenotypic heterogeneity within all three electrophoretic allelic classes. Overall, tree scanning is a simple, powerful, and flexible method for using haplotype trees to detect phenotype/genotype associations at candidate loci. PMID:15371364

  4. New program controls tree management

    SciTech Connect

    Beaty, W.

    1995-02-01

    Senior management of TransAlta Utilities Corp. (TAU) Calgary, Alberta, Canada, was highly dissatisfied with the fact that even though the distribution line clearance budget had been increased an average 35 percent a year between 1978 and 1984, there were few if any discernible positive results. Tree-related power outages kept increasing and budget requests from the field kept increasing. In searching for a solution TAU had to deal with the concept that the right level of funding can only be determined through an inventory of tree work. This inventory is comprised of two factors, the number of trees in proximity to the power lines and the local growth rates. Based on the inventory of a hired consultant, a 12-year budget projection was established. The period covered entailed a six-year, first-cycle or catch up phase, and a six-year, second-cycle maintenance phase. In implementing the new vegetation management program in 1986, TAU decided to contact each landowner directly to obtain consent to undertake the tree work. The intent was to reduce the risk of claims while maximizing tree removals. Complaints and claims were dramatically reduced and currently run at about one per 1,000 landowners and budgets have dropped back to the 1985 levels as predicted for the maintenance phase.

  5. Tree Lifecycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nature Study, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents a Project Learning Tree (PLT) activity that has students investigate and compare the lifecycle of a tree to other living things and the tree's role in the ecosystem. Includes background material as well as step-by-step instructions, variation and enrichment ideas, assessment opportunities, and student worksheets. (SJR)

  6. Citrus Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An aerial color infrared (CIR) mapping system developed by Kennedy Space Center enables Florida's Charlotte County to accurately appraise its citrus groves while reducing appraisal costs. The technology was further advanced by development of a dual video system making it possible to simultaneously view images of the same area and detect changes. An image analysis system automatically surveys and photo interprets grove images as well as automatically counts trees and reports totals. The system, which saves both time and money, has potential beyond citrus grove valuation.

  7. Vascular plant inventory, Yosemite National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Moore, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    Plant and fuel inventory data from 362 sites across elevational and latitudinal gradients of Yosemite National Park. Data collected between 1989 and 1993 includes species composition and abundance data for tree, shrub and herbaceous vegetation layers and fuel information. Nonspatial, georeferenced.

  8. Inventory Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrum, David L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an electronic thermometer using a precision temperature sensor (includes detailed schematic of circuits) and inexpensive ring holders for round-bottomed flasks. Also describes a method for reducing funnel breakage. (JN)

  9. Strategy Inventory for E-Mail Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    A 50-item, five-point Likert scale inventory was designed to be a valid and reliable group-administered instrument to provide a profile of the declarative knowledge of electronic mail (e-mail) strategies used by students learning English as a second language (ESL) or foreign language (EFL). The inventory was developed primarily for voluntary use…

  10. Talking Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  11. Tree Amigos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Environmental Study, Grand Rapids, MI.

    Tree Amigos is a special cross-cultural program that uses trees as a common bond to bring the people of the Americas together in unique partnerships to preserve and protect the shared global environment. It is a tangible program that embodies the philosophy that individuals, acting together, can make a difference. This resource book contains…

  12. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  13. Increasing the Efficiency of LiDAR Based Forest Inventories: A Novel Approach for Integrating Variable Radius Inventory Plots with LiDAR Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowski, M. J.; Fekety, P.; Silva, C. A.; Hudak, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    LiDAR data are increasingly applied to support forest inventory and assessment across a variety of spatial scales. Typically this is achieved by integrating LiDAR data with forest inventory collected at fixed radius forest inventory plots. A well-designed forest inventory, one that covers the full range of structural and compositional variation across the forest of interest, is costly especially when collecting fixed radius plot data. Variable radius plots offer an alternative inventory protocol that is more efficient in terms of both time and money. However, integrating variable radius plot data with LiDAR data is problematic because the plots have unknown sizes that vary with variation in tree size. This leads to a spatial mismatch between LiDAR metrics (e.g., mean height, canopy cover, density, etc.) and plot data, which ultimately translates into errors in LiDAR derived forest inventory predictions. We propose and evaluate and novel approach for integrating variable radius plot data into a LiDAR based forest inventories in two different forest systems, one in the inland northwest and another in the northern lakes states of the USA. The novel approach calculates LiDAR metrics by weighting the point cloud proportional to return height, mimicking the way in which variable radius plot data weights tree measurements by tree size. This could increase inventory sampling efficiency, allowing for the collection of a greater number of inventory plots, and ultimately improve the performance of LiDAR based inventories.

  14. Greenhouse trees

    SciTech Connect

    Hanover, J.W.; Hart, J.W.

    1980-05-09

    Michigan State University has been conducting research on growth control of woody plants with emphasis on commercial plantations. The objective was to develop the optimum levels for the major factors that affect tree seedling growth and development so that high quality plants can be produced for a specific use. This article describes the accelerated-optimal-growth (AOG) concept, describes precautions to take in its application, and shows ways to maximize the potential of AOG for producing ornamental trees. Factors considered were container growing system; protective culture including light, temperature, mineral nutrients, water, carbon dioxide, growth regulators, mycorrhizae, growing media, competition, and pests; size of seedlings; and acclamation. 1 table. (DP)

  15. Audubon Tree Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Trees," a leaders' guide, and a large tree chart with 37 colored pictures. The student reader reviews several aspects of trees: a definition of a tree; where and how trees grow; flowers, pollination and seed production; how trees make their food; how to recognize trees; seasonal changes;…

  16. Visualizing phylogenetic trees using TreeView.

    PubMed

    Page, Roderic D M

    2002-08-01

    TreeView provides a simple way to view the phylogenetic trees produced by a range of programs, such as PAUP*, PHYLIP, TREE-PUZZLE, and ClustalX. While some phylogenetic programs (such as the Macintosh version of PAUP*) have excellent tree printing facilities, many programs do not have the ability to generate publication quality trees. TreeView addresses this need. The program can read and write a range of tree file formats, display trees in a variety of styles, print trees, and save the tree as a graphic file. Protocols in this unit cover both displaying and printing a tree. Support protocols describe how to download and install TreeView, and how to display bootstrap values in trees generated by ClustalX and PAUP*. PMID:18792942

  17. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories, source... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  18. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission inventories, source... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  19. Cabruca agroforests of southern Bahia Brazil: tree component, management, species conservation and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In southern Bahia, cabruca is the agroforestry system in which cocoa is cultivated under the shade of sparse native forest trees. Aiming to characterize the tree component of this system and its management practices, we conducted an inventory of the non-cocoa trees in 16 ha of cabruca and do intervi...

  20. Interactive inventory monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan M. (Inventor); Udoh, Usen E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring present location and/or present status of a target inventory item, where the inventory items are located on one or more inventory shelves or other inventory receptacles that communicate with an inventory base station through use of responders such as RFIDs. A user operates a hand held interrogation and display (IAD) module that communicates with, or is part of, the base station, to provide an initial inquiry. Information on location(s) of the target inventory item is also indicated visibly and/or audibly on the receptacle(s) for the user. Status information includes an assessment of operation readiness and a time, if known, that the specified inventory item or class was last removed or examined or modified. Presentation of a user access level may be required for access to the target inventory item. Another embodiment provides inventory information for a stack as a sight-impaired or hearing-impaired person passes adjacent to that stack.

  1. Recent Technical Changes to the United States Forest Carbon Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, C. W.; Smith, J.; Domke, G. M.; Healey, S. P.; Coulston, J.; Gray, A.

    2013-12-01

    A national system of field inventory plots is the primary data source for the annual assessment of US forest carbon (C) stocks and stock-change to meet reporting requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The inventory data and their role in carbon reporting continue to evolve. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service is charged with conducting the field inventory of US forest C. The FIA program employs remotely sensed imagery to define forest and nonforest plots which are systematically distributed approximately every 2,428 ha across the conterminous US. More than 125,000 plots in the current field inventory have at least one forested condition where field crews measure tree- and site-level attributes (e.g., diameter and tree height) at regular temporal intervals. A subset of forested plots is measured for additional variables related to forest non-tree C pools (e.g., downed woody materials, understory vegetation, and soils). The FIA program does not directly measure forest C stocks. Instead, a combination of empirically derived C estimates (e.g., standing live and dead trees) and models (e.g., forest floor C stocks related to stand age and forest type) are used to estimate forest C stocks. A series of recent refinements in FIA estimation procedures have replaced some of the purely modeled forest C stock estimates (e.g., downed dead wood) with estimates based on direct measurements from the national field inventory. Results indicated that models of non-live tree C pools differ significantly from field-based estimates at the plot-level but demonstrate only slight divergences of total C estimates at the national scale. The results of these studies in the context of forest carbon accounting and future refinements are discussed.

  2. Technical Tree Climbing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Peter

    Tree climbing offers a safe, inexpensive adventure sport that can be performed almost anywhere. Using standard procedures practiced in tree surgery or rock climbing, almost any tree can be climbed. Tree climbing provides challenge and adventure as well as a vigorous upper-body workout. Tree Climbers International classifies trees using a system…

  3. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NARSTO Emission Inventory Committee has been pursuing enhancement of the emission inventory program for North American countries--Canada, Mexico, and the United States. With the completion of the NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments, it was recognized that emissio...

  4. Force Concept Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hestenes, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reports the rationale, design, validation, and uses of the "Force Concept Inventory," an instrument to assess the students' beliefs on force. Includes results and implications of two studies that compared the inventory with the "Mechanics Baseline." Includes a copy of the instrument. (MDH)

  5. Interactive Inventory Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garud, Sumedha

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring present location and/or present status of a target inventory item, where the inventory items are located on one or more inventory shelves or other inventory receptacles that communicate with an inventory base station through use of responders such as RFIDs. A user operates a hand held interrogation and display (lAD) module that communicates with, or is part of the base station to provide an initial inquiry. lnformation on location(s) of the larget invenlory item is also indicated visibly and/or audibly on the receptacle(s) for the user. Status information includes an assessment of operation readiness and a time, if known, that the specified inventory item or class was last removed or examined or modified. Presentation of a user access level may be required for access to the target inventgory item. Another embodiment provides inventory informatin for a stack as a sight-impaired or hearing-impaired person adjacent to that stack.

  6. The Tree Worker's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithyman, S. J.

    This manual is designed to prepare students for entry-level positions as tree care professionals. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the tree service industry; clothing, eqiupment, and tools; tree workers; basic tree anatomy; techniques of pruning; procedures for climbing and working in the tree; aerial…

  7. Inventory count strategies.

    PubMed

    Springer, W H

    1996-02-01

    An important principle of accounting is that asset inventory needs to be correctly valued to ensure that the financial statements of the institution are accurate. Errors is recording the value of ending inventory in one fiscal year result in errors to published financial statements for that year as well as the subsequent fiscal year. Therefore, it is important that accurate physical counts be periodically taken. It is equally important that any system being used to generate inventory valuation, reordering or management reports be based on consistently accurate on-hand balances. At the foundation of conducting an accurate physical count of an inventory is a comprehensive understanding of the process coupled with a written plan. This article presents a guideline of the physical count processes involved in a traditional double-count approach. PMID:10165241

  8. Software Document Inventory Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwarth, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    Program offers ways to file and locate sources of reference. DOCLIB system consists of two parts to serve needs of two type of users: general user and librarian. DOCLIB systems provides user with interactive, menudriven document inventory capability.

  9. Health protection well inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, J.

    1989-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Health Protection (HP) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Plan (SRP) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRL research wells.

  10. Shuttle Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Inventory Management System (SIMS) consists of series of integrated support programs providing supply support for both Shuttle program and Kennedy Space Center base opeations SIMS controls all supply activities and requirements from single point. Programs written in COBOL.

  11. TOXICS RELEASE INVENTORY (TRI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) site is designed to provide information on toxic chemical releases including collected data, guidance documents, program planning, background, history, and, program contacts, among other things. The data included in this homepage have been submi...

  12. NATIONAL HEALTH PROVIDER INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Health Provider Inventory provides data on services, location, staff, capacity, and other characteristics of selected health care providers in the United States. Information is collected via mail questionnaire with telephone follow up to all providers (100% census) o...

  13. The adult children of alcoholics trauma inventory.

    PubMed

    Mackrill, Thomas; Hesse, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The Adult Children of Alcoholics Trauma Inventory (ACATI) registers variations in the recalled experience of growing up with problem drinkers. The ACATI includes measures of the duration and severity of parental alcohol-use-related problems, the drinking parents' behavior when intoxicated and sober, physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and environmental factors. The ACATI correlated well with the Family Tree Questionnaire and showed excellent 14-day test-retest reliability for most variables. The test-retest was carried out in 2009 at a counseling service for young adults from families with alcohol-use-related problems in Denmark (N = 49). PMID:21391809

  14. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  15. Methods of inventory control.

    PubMed

    Lindley, C; Mackowiak, J

    1985-01-01

    Various methods for controlling inventory are described, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. The open-to-buy (OTB) budget method limits purchases to a specific amount of funds available for purchasing pharmaceuticals during a specified period. The emphasis of the OTB method is financial control of the pharmacy inventory. Although it is useful in monitoring and adjusting the dollar value of the inventory, it should be combined with other methods for a total inventory control system. The primary emphasis of the short-list method is to provide accurate and timely inventory information to the person responsible for order placement. The short list identifies the items that are in short supply. It is the most common feedback and control mechanism in use, but it is best suited for settings where duplicate or reserve stock is maintained and monitored by more rigorous methods. The main objective of the minimum and maximum method is to determine when and how much to order of each item. It also provides limited dollar control. The major disadvantage of this method is the time it requires to establish the minimum and maximum levels and to update them regularly to reflect changes in demand. The stock record card method is used to record information on the movement of goods in and out of the storage area. Stock cards can also be used to monitor inventory levels and facilitate order initiation. It is probably the optimum method to be used alone. The most effective system of inventory control is one employing a combination of these methods tailored to meet the institution's needs and available resources. PMID:3970028

  16. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H

    2005-07-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  17. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  18. Mortality rates associated with crown health for eastern forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Morin, Randall S; Randolph, KaDonna C; Steinman, Jim

    2015-03-01

    The condition of tree crowns is an important indicator of tree and forest health. Crown conditions have been evaluated during inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program since 1999. In this study, remeasured data from 55,013 trees on 2616 FIA plots in the eastern USA were used to assess the probability of survival among various tree species using the suite of FIA crown condition variables. Logistic regression procedures were employed to develop models for predicting tree survival. Results of the regression analyses indicated that crown dieback was the most important crown condition variable for predicting tree survival for all species combined and for many of the 15 individual species in the study. The logistic models were generally successful in representing recent tree mortality responses to multiyear infestations of beech bark disease and hemlock woolly adelgid. Although our models are only applicable to trees growing in a forest setting, the utility of models that predict impending tree mortality goes beyond forest inventory or traditional forestry growth and yield models and includes any application where managers need to assess tree health or predict tree mortality including urban forest, recreation, wildlife, and pest management. PMID:25655130

  19. Tree Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Peter R.

    2004-09-01

    Nature often replicates her processes at different scales of space and time in differing media. Here a tree-trunk cross section I am preparing for a dendrochronological display at the Battle Creek Cypress Swamp Nature Sanctuary (Calvert County, Maryland) dried and cracked in a way that replicates practically all the planform features found along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge (see Figure 1). The left-lateral offset of saw marks, contrasting with the right-lateral ``rift'' offset, even illustrates the distinction between transcurrent (strike-slip) and transform faults, the latter only recognized as a geologic feature, by J. Tuzo Wilson, in 1965. However, wood cracking is but one of many examples of natural processes that replicate one or several elements of lithospheric plate tectonics. Many of these examples occur in everyday venues and thus make great teaching aids, ``teachable'' from primary school to university levels. Plate tectonics, the dominant process of Earth geology, also occurs in miniature on the surface of some lava lakes, and as ``ice plate tectonics'' on our frozen seas and lakes. Ice tectonics also happens at larger spatial and temporal scales on the Jovian moons Europa and perhaps Ganymede. Tabletop plate tectonics, in which a molten-paraffin ``asthenosphere'' is surfaced by a skin of congealing wax ``plates,'' first replicated Mid-Oceanic Ridge type seafloor spreading more than three decades ago. A seismologist (J. Brune, personal communication, 2004) discovered wax plate tectonics by casually and serendipitously pulling a stick across a container of molten wax his wife and daughters had used in making candles. Brune and his student D. Oldenburg followed up and mirabile dictu published the results in Science (178, 301-304).

  20. The Needs of Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Amy E.; Cooper, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Tree rings can be used not only to look at plant growth, but also to make connections between plant growth and resource availability. In this lesson, students in 2nd-4th grades use role-play to become familiar with basic requirements of trees and how availability of those resources is related to tree ring sizes and tree growth. These concepts can…

  1. Inventory-driven costs.

    PubMed

    Callioni, Gianpaolo; de Montgros, Xavier; Slagmulder, Regine; Van Wassenhove, Luk N; Wright, Linda

    2005-03-01

    In the 199os, Hewlett-Packard's PC business was struggling to turn a dollar, despite the company's success in winning market share. By 1997, margins on its PCs were as thin as a silicon wafer, and some product lines hadn't turned a profit since 1993. The problem had everything to do with the PC industry's notoriously short product cycles and brutal product and component price deflation. A common rule of thumb was that the value of a fully assembled PC decreased 1% a week. In such an environment, inventory costs become critical. But not just the inventory costs companies traditionally track, HP found, after a thorough review of the problem. The standard "holding cost of inventory"--the capital and physical costs of inventory--accounted for only about 10% of HP's inventory costs. The greater risks, it turned out, resided in four other, essentially hidden costs, which stemmed from mismatches between demand and supply: Component devaluation costs for components still held in production; Price protection costs incurred when product prices drop on the goods distributors still have on their shelves; Product return costs that have to be absorbed when distributors return and receive refunds on overstock items, and; Obsolescence costs for products still unsold when new models are introduced. By developing metrics to track those costs in a consistent way throughout the PC division, HP has found it can manage its supply chains with much more sophistication. Gone are the days of across-the-board measures such as,"Everyone must cut inventories by 20% by the end of the year," which usually resulted in a flurry of cookie-cutter lean production and just-in-time initiatives. Now, each product group is free to choose the supply chain configuration that best suits its needs. Other companies can follow HP's example. PMID:15768682

  2. Monitoring trees outside forests: a review.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Sebastian; Kleinn, Christoph; Ståhl, Göran

    2015-09-01

    Trees outside forests (TOFs) are an important natural resource that contributes substantially to national biomass and carbon stocks and to the livelihood of people in many regions. Over the last decades, decision makers have become increasingly aware of the importance of TOF, and as a consequence, this tree resource is nowadays often considered in forest monitoring systems. Our review shows that in many cases, TOF are included in national forest inventories, applying traditional methodologies with relatively sparse networks of field sample plots. Only in some countries, such as India, the design of the inventories has considered the special features of how TOFs occur in the landscape. Several research studies utilising remote sensing for monitoring TOF have been conducted lately, but very few studies include comparative studies to optimise sampling strategies for TOF. Our review indicates that methods combining remote sensing and field surveys appear to be very promising, especially when remote sensing techniques that assess both the horizontal and vertical structures of tree resources are applied. For example, two-phase sampling strategies with laser scanning in the first phase and a field survey in the second phase appear to be effective for assessing TOF resources. However, TOFs often exhibit different characteristics than forest trees. Thus, to improve TOF monitoring, there is often a need to develop models, e.g. for biomass assessment, that are specifically adapted to this tree resource. Alternatively, field-based remote sensing methods that provide structural information about individual trees, notably terrestrial laser scanning, could be further developed for TOF monitoring applications. This also would have a potential to reduce the problem of accessing TOF during field surveys, which is a problem, for example, in countries where TOF are present on intensively utilised private grounds like gardens and agricultural fields. PMID:26318320

  3. THE PRESCHOOL INVENTORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CALDWELL, BETTYE M.; SOULE, DONALD

    THE PRESCHOOL INVENTORY BEGAN AS AN ANSWER TO THE NEED FOR SOME TYPE OF INSTRUMENT THAT WOULD PROVIDE AN INDICATION OF HOW MUCH A DISADVANTAGED CHILD, PRIOR TO HIS INTRODUCTION TO HEAD START, HAD ACHIEVED IN AREAS REGARDED AS NECESSARY FOUNDATIONS FOR SUBSEQUENT SUCCESS IN SCHOOL. MEASURING BASIC INTELLIGENCE WAS NOT THE GOAL. RATHER, THE…

  4. Cluster Interest Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Douglas

    The Cluster Interest Inventory is designed to familiarize students with representative occupations in 13 career clusters: (1) agribusiness and natural resources, (2) business marketing, and office occupations, (3) communications and media, (4) consumer and homemaker, (5) fine arts and humanities, (6) health, (7) manufacturing and processing, (8)…

  5. Biogenic Emissions Inventory System

    EPA Science Inventory

    ***BEIS3 is now embedded in the CMAQ model***

    The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System, Version 3 (BEIS3) is being developed to support the needs of regional and urban-scale air quality simulation models. BEIS3 is designed to be incorporated into the Sparse Matrix Op...

  6. Digital Collections Inventory Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClung, Patricia A.

    This report is intended to inform and stimulate discussion on digital library programs as well as the potential usefulness, scope, and desired features of future inventories of online digital collections. It describes a joint project by the Commission on Preservation and Access and the Council on Library Resources to determine the extent to which…

  7. Natural vegetation inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    Unique characteristics of ERTS imagery can be used to inventory natural vegetation. While satellite images can seldom be interpreted and identified directly in terms of vegetation types, such types can be inferred by interpretation of physical terrain features and through an understanding of the ecology of the vegetation.

  8. The Learning Preference Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezler, Agnes G.; Rezmovic, Victor

    1981-01-01

    Describes the development, validity, and reliability of the Learning Preference Inventory (LPI) and its use with health professions students and practitioners. Use of the LPI allows identification of individual learning preferences with a fair degree of accuracy. Ways to improve motivation for learning are suggested. (JOW)

  9. NATIONAL EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Emisssions Inventory (NEI) is a data base containing estimates of air pollutant emissions in every US county for the years 1990-2002. National estimates back to 1970 are also part of the NEI. Access to NEI data is available from the following products and services:...

  10. NEW HAVEN TOXICS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA will be working with the New Haven Department of Health to collect data and create an inventory of toxic air pollutants in the New Haven area. Under section 112 of the Clean Air Act, EPA and cities and states are required to reduce cancer and non-cancer health risks in urb...

  11. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  12. Resource Materials Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Cynthia

    1986-01-01

    Lists and describes nine print materials--inventories, guides, check sheets--dealing with economic and emotional stress at both the rural family and rural community levels. Lists and describes six films/videotapes showing impact of the rural crisis on students/schools, churches, and families. Cites publication/print dates mainly from 1984-1985.…

  13. Inventory Control and Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mason

    1981-01-01

    An inventory control system stimulates competitive bidding, resulting in the best price for an item. Other cost savings can be achieved by specifying prepayment of freight charges by the successful bidder, seeking standardization of products, and purchasing jointly with nearby municipalities and school districts. (Author/MLF)

  14. Materials inventory management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Materials Inventory Management Manual (NHB 4100.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 USC 2473). It sets forth policy, performance standards, and procedures governing the acquisition, management and use of materials. This Manual is effective upon receipt.

  15. Student Attitude Inventory - 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

    This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…

  16. Ecological Inventory Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick, Ed.

    The document contains 20 ecological inventories (developed at the University of Minnesota and the University of Alberta) to help severely disabled students learn functional living skills. The ecological approach is designed to uncover the functions critical for success in specific environments which the student frequently encounters. Matching the…

  17. Fault tree handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation.

  18. The Employability Inventory: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michael J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes the background, development, content, and validation of the Employability Inventory, an instrument designed to assess knowledge of job seeking, job retention, and job success. Discusses usefulness of the inventory in both counseling and education. (ABL)

  19. Ellenore Flood's Skills Confidence Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subich, Linda Mezydlo

    1998-01-01

    Presents background information on the Skills Confidence Inventory (SCI) and the construct it assesses. Interprets the skills confidence and interest profiles of a 29-year-old female high school teacher using the SCI and the Strong Interest Inventory. (MKA)

  20. A Sustainability Initiative to Quantify Carbon Sequestration by Campus Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Over 3,900 trees on a university campus were inventoried by an instructor-led team of geography undergraduates in order to quantify the carbon sequestration associated with biomass growth. The setting of the project is described, together with its logistics, methodology, outcomes, and benefits. This hands-on project provided a team of students…

  1. A biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory for Yunnan Province.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Hui; Bai, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Yu

    2005-01-01

    The first detailed inventory for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from vegetation over Yunnan Province, China was presented. The spatially and temporally resolved inventory was developed based on a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing (RS) data and field measurement data, such as digitized land-use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and temperature data from direct real-time measurement. The inventory has a spatial resolution of 5 km x 5 km and a time resolution of 1 h. Urban, agriculture, and natural land-use distributions in Yunnan Province were combined with biomass factors for each land-use category to produce a spatially resolved biomass inventory. A biogenic emission inventory was developed by combining the biomass inventory with hourly emission rates for tree, shrub and ground cover species of the study area. Correcting for environmental factors, including light intensity and temperature, a value of 1.1 x 10(12) gC for total annual biogenic VOC emissions from Yunnan Province, including 6.1 x 10(11) gC for isoprene, 2.1 x 10(11) gC for monoterpenes, and 2.6 x 10(11) gC for OVOC was obtained. The highest VOC emissions occurred in the northwestern, southwestern and north region of Yunnan Province. Some uncertainties were also discussed in this study. PMID:16083102

  2. Categorizing Ideas about Trees: A Tree of Trees

    PubMed Central

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a “tree of trees.” Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like “cladists” and “pheneticists” are recovered but others are not: “gradists” are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here “grade theoreticians.” We propose new interesting categories like the “buffonian school,” the “metaphoricians,” and those using “strictly genealogical classifications.” We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization. PMID:23950877

  3. Inventory Costs: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haka, Clifford H.; Ursery, Nancy

    1985-01-01

    Presents procedures and statistics for a manual inventory and an inventory coordinated with conversion to an online circulation system at University of Kansas main library. Results of this two-phase inventory (Dewey Decimal-classified materials, LC-classified materials) and the cost-effectiveness of such a project in a large library are…

  4. Inventory Systems Laboratory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naddor, Eliezer

    Four computer programs to aid students in understanding inventory systems, constructing mathematical inventory models, and developing optimal decision rules are presented. The program series allows a user to set input levels, simulates the behavior of major variables in inventory systems, and provides performance measures as output. Inventory…

  5. Integrating RFID technique to design mobile handheld inventory management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yo-Ping; Yen, Wei; Chen, Shih-Chung

    2008-04-01

    An RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system is proposed in this paper. Differing from the manual inventory management method, the proposed system works on the personal digital assistant (PDA) with an RFID reader. The system identifies electronic tags on the properties and checks the property information in the back-end database server through a ubiquitous wireless network. The system also provides a set of functions to manage the back-end inventory database and assigns different levels of access privilege according to various user categories. In the back-end database server, to prevent improper or illegal accesses, the server not only stores the inventory database and user privilege information, but also keeps track of the user activities in the server including the login and logout time and location, the records of database accessing, and every modification of the tables. Some experimental results are presented to verify the applicability of the integrated RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system.

  6. Evolution of tree nutrition.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Andrews, Mitchell

    2010-09-01

    Using a broad definition of trees, the evolutionary origins of trees in a nutritional context is considered using data from the fossil record and molecular phylogeny. Trees are first known from the Late Devonian about 380 million years ago, originated polyphyletically at the pteridophyte grade of organization; the earliest gymnosperms were trees, and trees are polyphyletic in the angiosperms. Nutrient transporters, assimilatory pathways, homoiohydry (cuticle, intercellular gas spaces, stomata, endohydric water transport systems including xylem and phloem-like tissue) and arbuscular mycorrhizas preceded the origin of trees. Nutritional innovations that began uniquely in trees were the seed habit and, certainly (but not necessarily uniquely) in trees, ectomycorrhizas, cyanobacterial, actinorhizal and rhizobial (Parasponia, some legumes) diazotrophic symbioses and cluster roots. PMID:20581011

  7. Tree Classification Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the IND Tree Package to prospective users. IND does supervised learning using classification trees. This learning task is a basic tool used in the development of diagnosis, monitoring and expert systems. The IND Tree Package was developed as part of a NASA project to semi-automate the development of data analysis and modelling algorithms using artificial intelligence techniques. The IND Tree Package integrates features from CART and C4 with newer Bayesian and minimum encoding methods for growing classification trees and graphs. The IND Tree Package also provides an experimental control suite on top. The newer features give improved probability estimates often required in diagnostic and screening tasks. The package comes with a manual, Unix 'man' entries, and a guide to tree methods and research. The IND Tree Package is implemented in C under Unix and was beta-tested at university and commercial research laboratories in the United States.

  8. Chem-Is-Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Dana M.

    1997-01-01

    Provides details on the chemical composition of trees including a definition of wood. Also includes an activity on anthocyanins as well as a discussion of the resistance of wood to solvents and chemicals. Lists interesting products from trees. (DDR)

  9. Decision-Tree Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1994-01-01

    IND computer program introduces Bayesian and Markov/maximum-likelihood (MML) methods and more-sophisticated methods of searching in growing trees. Produces more-accurate class-probability estimates important in applications like diagnosis. Provides range of features and styles with convenience for casual user, fine-tuning for advanced user or for those interested in research. Consists of four basic kinds of routines: data-manipulation, tree-generation, tree-testing, and tree-display. Written in C language.

  10. Winter Birch Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  11. Illumination Under Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N

    2002-08-19

    This paper is a survey of the author's work on illumination and shadows under trees, including the effects of sky illumination, sun penumbras, scattering in a misty atmosphere below the trees, and multiple scattering and transmission between leaves. It also describes a hierarchical image-based rendering method for trees.

  12. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  13. The Wish Tree Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sarah DeWitt

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in implementing a Wish Tree project in her school in an effort to bring the school community together with a positive art-making experience during a potentially stressful time. The concept of a wish tree is simple: plant a tree; provide tags and pencils for writing wishes; and encourage everyone to…

  14. Diary of a Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srulowitz, Frances

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity to develop students' skills of observation and recordkeeping by studying the growth of a tree's leaves during the spring. Children monitor the growth of 11 tress over a 2-month period, draw pictures of the tree at different stages of growth, and write diaries of the tree's growth. (MDH)

  15. Distributed Contour Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther H.

    2014-03-31

    Topological techniques provide robust tools for data analysis. They are used, for example, for feature extraction, for data de-noising, and for comparison of data sets. This chapter concerns contour trees, a topological descriptor that records the connectivity of the isosurfaces of scalar functions. These trees are fundamental to analysis and visualization of physical phenomena modeled by real-valued measurements. We study the parallel analysis of contour trees. After describing a particular representation of a contour tree, called local{global representation, we illustrate how di erent problems that rely on contour trees can be solved in parallel with minimal communication.

  16. Growth of a Pine Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  17. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... surveillance, reports. 60.25 Section 60.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  18. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... surveillance, reports. 60.25 Section 60.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  19. 40 CFR 60.25 - Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... electronic documents shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 3—(Electronic reporting). (2) Periodic... surveillance, reports. 60.25 Section 60.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... State Plans for Designated Facilities § 60.25 Emission inventories, source surveillance, reports....

  20. Software for Managing Inventory of Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, John; Savage, Scott; Thomas, Shirman

    2003-01-01

    The Flight Hardware Support Request System (FHSRS) is a computer program that relieves engineers at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of most of the non-engineering administrative burden of managing an inventory of flight hardware. The FHSRS can also be adapted to perform similar functions for other organizations. The FHSRS affords a combination of capabilities, including those formerly provided by three separate programs in purchasing, inventorying, and inspecting hardware. The FHSRS provides a Web-based interface with a server computer that supports a relational database of inventory; electronic routing of requests and approvals; and electronic documentation from initial request through implementation of quality criteria, acquisition, receipt, inspection, storage, and final issue of flight materials and components. The database lists both hardware acquired for current projects and residual hardware from previous projects. The increased visibility of residual flight components provided by the FHSRS has dramatically improved the re-utilization of materials in lieu of new procurements, resulting in a cost savings of over $1.7 million. The FHSRS includes subprograms for manipulating the data in the database, informing of the status of a request or an item of hardware, and searching the database on any physical or other technical characteristic of a component or material. The software structure forces normalization of the data to facilitate inquiries and searches for which users have entered mixed or inconsistent values.

  1. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.D.

    1998-08-14

    Miscellaneous streams discharging to the soil column on the Hanford Site are subject to requirements of several milestones identified in Consent Order No. DE 9INM-177 (Ecology and DOE 1991). The Plan and Schedule for Disposition and Regulatory Compliance for Miscellaneous Stream (DOE/RL-93-94) provides a plan and schedule for the disposition of miscellaneous streams to satisfy one of the Section 6.0 requirements of the Consent Order. One of the commitments (Activity 6-2.2) established in the plan and schedule is to annually update, the miscellaneous streams inventory. This document constitutes the 1998 revision of the miscellaneous streams inventory. Miscellaneous stream discharges were grouped into four permitting categories (Table 1). The first miscellaneous streams Permit (ST 4508) was issued May 30, 1997, to cover wastewater discharges from hydrotesting, maintenance, and construction activities. The second miscellaneous streams Permit (ST4509) covers discharges from cooling water and condensate discharges. The third permit application for category three waste streams was eliminated by recategorizing waste streams into an existing miscellaneous streams permit or eliminating stream discharges. Elimination of the third categorical permit application was approved by Ecology in January 1997 (Ecology 1997). The fourth permit application, to cover storm water, is due to Ecology in September 1998. Table 1 provides a history of the miscellaneous streams permitting activities.

  2. Document image content inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Henry S.; Moll, Michael A.; An, Chang; Casey, Matthew R.

    2007-01-01

    We report an investigation into strategies, algorithms, and software tools for document image content extraction and inventory, that is, the location and measurement of regions containing handwriting, machine-printed text, photographs, blank space, etc. We have developed automatically trainable methods, adaptable to many kinds of documents represented as bilevel, greylevel, or color images, that offer a wide range of useful tradeoffs of speed versus accuracy using methods for exact and approximate k-Nearest Neighbor classification. We have adopted a policy of classifying each pixel (rather than regions) by content type: we discuss the motivation and engineering implications of this choice. We describe experiments on a wide variety of document-image and content types, and discuss performance in detail in terms of classification speed, per-pixel classification accuracy, per-page inventory accuracy, and subjective quality of page segmentation. These show that even modest per-pixel classification accuracies (of, e.g., 60-70%) support usefully high recall and precision rates (of, e.g., 80-90%) for retrieval queries of document collections seeking pages that contain a given minimum fraction of a certain type of content.

  3. An estimate of the number of tropical tree species

    PubMed Central

    Slik, J. W. Ferry; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Alves, Luciana F.; Ashton, Peter; Balvanera, Patricia; Bastian, Meredith L.; Bellingham, Peter J.; van den Berg, Eduardo; Bernacci, Luis; da Conceição Bispo, Polyanna; Blanc, Lilian; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Boeckx, Pascal; Bongers, Frans; Boyle, Brad; Bradford, Matt; Brearley, Francis Q.; Breuer-Ndoundou Hockemba, Mireille; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Calderado Leal Matos, Darley; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel; Catharino, Eduardo L. M.; Chai, Shauna-Lee; Chen, Yukai; Colwell, Robert K.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Clark, Connie; Clark, David B.; Clark, Deborah A.; Culmsee, Heike; Damas, Kipiro; Dattaraja, Handanakere S.; Dauby, Gilles; Davidar, Priya; DeWalt, Saara J.; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Duque, Alvaro; Durigan, Giselda; Eichhorn, Karl A. O.; Eisenlohr, Pedro V.; Eler, Eduardo; Ewango, Corneille; Farwig, Nina; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Ferreira, Leandro; Field, Richard; de Oliveira Filho, Ary T.; Fletcher, Christine; Forshed, Olle; Franco, Geraldo; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Gillespie, Thomas; Gillet, Jean-François; Amarnath, Giriraj; Griffith, Daniel M.; Grogan, James; Gunatilleke, Nimal; Harris, David; Harrison, Rhett; Hector, Andy; Homeier, Jürgen; Imai, Nobuo; Itoh, Akira; Jansen, Patrick A.; Joly, Carlos A.; de Jong, Bernardus H. J.; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Kelly, Daniel L.; Kenfack, David; Kessler, Michael; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Kooyman, Robert; Larney, Eileen; Laumonier, Yves; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F.; Lawes, Michael J.; do Amaral, Ieda Leao; Letcher, Susan G.; Lindsell, Jeremy; Lu, Xinghui; Mansor, Asyraf; Marjokorpi, Antti; Martin, Emanuel H.; Meilby, Henrik; Melo, Felipe P. L.; Metcalfe, Daniel J.; Medjibe, Vincent P.; Metzger, Jean Paul; Millet, Jerome; Mohandass, D.; Montero, Juan C.; de Morisson Valeriano, Márcio; Mugerwa, Badru; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Nilus, Reuben; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Onrizal; Page, Navendu; Parolin, Pia; Parren, Marc; Parthasarathy, Narayanaswamy; Paudel, Ekananda; Permana, Andrea; Piedade, Maria T. F.; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Poorter, Lourens; Poulsen, Axel D.; Poulsen, John; Powers, Jennifer; Prasad, Rama C.; Puyravaud, Jean-Philippe; Razafimahaimodison, Jean-Claude; Reitsma, Jan; dos Santos, João Roberto; Roberto Spironello, Wilson; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Rozak, Andes Hamuraby; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Rutishauser, Ervan; Saiter, Felipe; Saner, Philippe; Santos, Braulio A.; Santos, Fernanda; Sarker, Swapan K.; Satdichanh, Manichanh; Schmitt, Christine B.; Schöngart, Jochen; Schulze, Mark; Suganuma, Marcio S.; Sheil, Douglas; da Silva Pinheiro, Eduardo; Sist, Plinio; Stevart, Tariq; Sukumar, Raman; Sun, I.-Fang; Sunderland, Terry; Suresh, H. S.; Suzuki, Eizi; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Tang, Jangwei; Targhetta, Natália; Theilade, Ida; Thomas, Duncan W.; Tchouto, Peguy; Hurtado, Johanna; Valencia, Renato; van Valkenburg, Johan L. C. H.; Van Do, Tran; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Verbeeck, Hans; Adekunle, Victor; Vieira, Simone A.; Webb, Campbell O.; Whitfeld, Timothy; Wich, Serge A.; Williams, John; Wittmann, Florian; Wöll, Hannsjoerg; Yang, Xiaobo; Adou Yao, C. Yves; Yap, Sandra L.; Yoneda, Tsuyoshi; Zahawi, Rakan A.; Zakaria, Rahmad; Zang, Runguo; de Assis, Rafael L.; Garcia Luize, Bruno; Venticinque, Eduardo M.

    2015-01-01

    The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher’s alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between ∼40,000 and ∼53,000, i.e., at the high end of previous estimates. Contrary to common assumption, the Indo-Pacific region was found to be as species-rich as the Neotropics, with both regions having a minimum of ∼19,000–25,000 tree species. Continental Africa is relatively depauperate with a minimum of ∼4,500–6,000 tree species. Very few species are shared among the African, American, and the Indo-Pacific regions. We provide a methodological framework for estimating species richness in trees that may help refine species richness estimates of tree-dependent taxa. PMID:26034279

  4. Tree height-diameter allometry across the United States.

    PubMed

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between tree height and diameter is fundamental in determining community and ecosystem structure as well as estimates of biomass and carbon storage. Yet our understanding of how tree allometry relates to climate and whole organismal function is limited. We used the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program database to determine height-diameter allometries of 2,976,937 individuals of 293 tree species across the United States. The shape of the allometric relationship was determined by comparing linear and nonlinear functional forms. Mixed-effects models were used to test for allometric differences due to climate and floristic (between angiosperms and gymnosperms) and functional groups (leaf habit and shade tolerance). Tree allometry significantly differed across the United States largely because of climate. Temperature, and to some extent precipitation, in part explained tree allometric variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate, however, had a phylogenetic signal. Specifically, angiosperm allometry was more sensitive to differences in temperature compared to gymnosperms. Most notably, angiosperm height was more negatively influenced by increasing temperature variability, whereas gymnosperm height was negatively influenced by decreasing precipitation and increasing altitude. There was little evidence to suggest that shade tolerance influenced tree allometry except for very shade-intolerant trees which were taller for any given diameter. Tree allometry is plastic rather than fixed and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies. This allometric variation provides insight into life-history strategies, phylogenetic history, and environmental limitations at biogeographical scales. PMID:25859325

  5. Tree height–diameter allometry across the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between tree height and diameter is fundamental in determining community and ecosystem structure as well as estimates of biomass and carbon storage. Yet our understanding of how tree allometry relates to climate and whole organismal function is limited. We used the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program database to determine height–diameter allometries of 2,976,937 individuals of 293 tree species across the United States. The shape of the allometric relationship was determined by comparing linear and nonlinear functional forms. Mixed-effects models were used to test for allometric differences due to climate and floristic (between angiosperms and gymnosperms) and functional groups (leaf habit and shade tolerance). Tree allometry significantly differed across the United States largely because of climate. Temperature, and to some extent precipitation, in part explained tree allometric variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate, however, had a phylogenetic signal. Specifically, angiosperm allometry was more sensitive to differences in temperature compared to gymnosperms. Most notably, angiosperm height was more negatively influenced by increasing temperature variability, whereas gymnosperm height was negatively influenced by decreasing precipitation and increasing altitude. There was little evidence to suggest that shade tolerance influenced tree allometry except for very shade-intolerant trees which were taller for any given diameter. Tree allometry is plastic rather than fixed and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies. This allometric variation provides insight into life-history strategies, phylogenetic history, and environmental limitations at biogeographical scales. PMID:25859325

  6. An estimate of the number of tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Slik, J W Ferry; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Alves, Luciana F; Ashton, Peter; Balvanera, Patricia; Bastian, Meredith L; Bellingham, Peter J; van den Berg, Eduardo; Bernacci, Luis; da Conceição Bispo, Polyanna; Blanc, Lilian; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Boeckx, Pascal; Bongers, Frans; Boyle, Brad; Bradford, Matt; Brearley, Francis Q; Breuer-Ndoundou Hockemba, Mireille; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Calderado Leal Matos, Darley; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel; Catharino, Eduardo L M; Chai, Shauna-Lee; Chen, Yukai; Colwell, Robert K; Chazdon, Robin L; Robin, Chazdon L; Clark, Connie; Clark, David B; Clark, Deborah A; Culmsee, Heike; Damas, Kipiro; Dattaraja, Handanakere S; Dauby, Gilles; Davidar, Priya; DeWalt, Saara J; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Duque, Alvaro; Durigan, Giselda; Eichhorn, Karl A O; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Eler, Eduardo; Ewango, Corneille; Farwig, Nina; Feeley, Kenneth J; Ferreira, Leandro; Field, Richard; de Oliveira Filho, Ary T; Fletcher, Christine; Forshed, Olle; Franco, Geraldo; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Gillespie, Thomas; Gillet, Jean-François; Amarnath, Giriraj; Griffith, Daniel M; Grogan, James; Gunatilleke, Nimal; Harris, David; Harrison, Rhett; Hector, Andy; Homeier, Jürgen; Imai, Nobuo; Itoh, Akira; Jansen, Patrick A; Joly, Carlos A; de Jong, Bernardus H J; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Kelly, Daniel L; Kenfack, David; Kessler, Michael; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Kooyman, Robert; Larney, Eileen; Laumonier, Yves; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F; Lawes, Michael J; Amaral, Ieda Leao do; Letcher, Susan G; Lindsell, Jeremy; Lu, Xinghui; Mansor, Asyraf; Marjokorpi, Antti; Martin, Emanuel H; Meilby, Henrik; Melo, Felipe P L; Metcalfe, Daniel J; Medjibe, Vincent P; Metzger, Jean Paul; Millet, Jerome; Mohandass, D; Montero, Juan C; de Morisson Valeriano, Márcio; Mugerwa, Badru; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Nilus, Reuben; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Onrizal; Page, Navendu; Parolin, Pia; Parren, Marc; Parthasarathy, Narayanaswamy; Paudel, Ekananda; Permana, Andrea; Piedade, Maria T F; Pitman, Nigel C A; Poorter, Lourens; Poulsen, Axel D; Poulsen, John; Powers, Jennifer; Prasad, Rama C; Puyravaud, Jean-Philippe; Razafimahaimodison, Jean-Claude; Reitsma, Jan; Dos Santos, João Roberto; Roberto Spironello, Wilson; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Rozak, Andes Hamuraby; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Rutishauser, Ervan; Saiter, Felipe; Saner, Philippe; Santos, Braulio A; Santos, Fernanda; Sarker, Swapan K; Satdichanh, Manichanh; Schmitt, Christine B; Schöngart, Jochen; Schulze, Mark; Suganuma, Marcio S; Sheil, Douglas; da Silva Pinheiro, Eduardo; Sist, Plinio; Stevart, Tariq; Sukumar, Raman; Sun, I-Fang; Sunderland, Terry; Sunderand, Terry; Suresh, H S; Suzuki, Eizi; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Tang, Jangwei; Targhetta, Natália; Theilade, Ida; Thomas, Duncan W; Tchouto, Peguy; Hurtado, Johanna; Valencia, Renato; van Valkenburg, Johan L C H; Van Do, Tran; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Verbeeck, Hans; Adekunle, Victor; Vieira, Simone A; Webb, Campbell O; Whitfeld, Timothy; Wich, Serge A; Williams, John; Wittmann, Florian; Wöll, Hannsjoerg; Yang, Xiaobo; Adou Yao, C Yves; Yap, Sandra L; Yoneda, Tsuyoshi; Zahawi, Rakan A; Zakaria, Rahmad; Zang, Runguo; de Assis, Rafael L; Garcia Luize, Bruno; Venticinque, Eduardo M

    2015-06-16

    The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher's alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between ∼ 40,000 and ∼ 53,000, i.e., at the high end of previous estimates. Contrary to common assumption, the Indo-Pacific region was found to be as species-rich as the Neotropics, with both regions having a minimum of ∼ 19,000-25,000 tree species. Continental Africa is relatively depauperate with a minimum of ∼ 4,500-6,000 tree species. Very few species are shared among the African, American, and the Indo-Pacific regions. We provide a methodological framework for estimating species richness in trees that may help refine species richness estimates of tree-dependent taxa. PMID:26034279

  7. Controlling Inventory: Real-World Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas G.; Özgün-Koca, S. Asli; Chelst, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Amazon, Walmart, and other large-scale retailers owe their success partly to efficient inventory management. For such firms, holding too little inventory risks losing sales, whereas holding idle inventory wastes money. Therefore profits hinge on the inventory level chosen. In this activity, students investigate a simplified inventory-control…

  8. 21 CFR 1304.11 - Inventory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory requirements. 1304.11 Section 1304.11... REGISTRANTS Inventory Requirements § 1304.11 Inventory requirements. (a) General requirements. Each inventory... inventory is taken, and shall be maintained in written, typewritten, or printed form at the...

  9. Species integrity in trees.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel; Baack, Eric J

    2014-09-01

    From California sequoia, to Australian eucalyptus, to the outstanding diversity of Amazonian forests, trees are fundamental to many processes in ecology and evolution. Trees define the communities that they inhabit, are host to a multiplicity of other organisms and can determine the ecological dynamics of other plants and animals. Trees are also at the heart of major patterns of biodiversity such as the latitudinal gradient of species diversity and thus are important systems for studying the origin of new plant species. Although the role of trees in community assembly and ecological succession is partially understood, the origin of tree diversity remains largely opaque. For instance, the relative importance of differing habitats and phenologies as barriers to hybridization between closely related species is still largely uncharacterized in trees. Consequently, we know very little about the origin of trees species and their integrity. Similarly, studies on the interplay between speciation and tree community assembly are in their infancy and so are studies on how processes like forest maturation modifies the context in which reproductive isolation evolves. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lindtke et al. (2014) and Lagache et al. (2014) overcome some traditional difficulties in studying mating systems and sexual isolation in the iconic oaks and poplars, providing novel insights about the integrity of tree species and on how ecology leads to variation in selection on reproductive isolation over time and space. PMID:25155715

  10. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W.; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P.

    2016-07-01

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species’ range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species’ estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites.

  11. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa.

    PubMed

    Ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C A; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P

    2016-01-01

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species' range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species' estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites. PMID:27406027

  12. The discovery of the Amazonian tree flora with an updated checklist of all known tree taxa

    PubMed Central

    ter Steege, Hans; Vaessen, Rens W.; Cárdenas-López, Dairon; Sabatier, Daniel; Antonelli, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Jørgensen, Peter Møller; Salomão, Rafael P.

    2016-01-01

    Amazonia is the most biodiverse rainforest on Earth, and the debate over how many tree species grow there remains contentious. Here we provide a checklist of all tree species collected to date, and describe spatial and temporal trends in data accumulation. We report 530,025 unique collections of trees in Amazonia, dating between 1707 and 2015, for a total of 11,676 species in 1225 genera and 140 families. These figures support recent estimates of 16,000 total Amazonian tree species based on ecological plot data from the Amazonian Tree Diversity Network. Botanical collection in Amazonia is characterized by three major peaks, centred around 1840, 1920, and 1980, which are associated with flora projects and the establishment of inventory plots. Most collections were made in the 20th century. The number of collections has increased exponentially, but shows a slowdown in the last two decades. We find that a species’ range size is a better predictor of the number of times it has been collected than the species’ estimated basin-wide population size. Finding, describing, and documenting the distribution of the remaining species will require coordinated efforts at under-collected sites. PMID:27406027

  13. Indian scales and inventories.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, S

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

  14. Indian scales and inventories

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines. PMID:21836709

  15. Lao Depression Inventory.

    PubMed

    Davidson-Muskin, M B; Golden, C

    1989-01-01

    There are no measurement tools that accurately measure depression among Lao refugees. The overall purpose of this research was to complete the development and validation procedures for the Lao Depression Inventory (LDI). The study consisted of 216 Ethnic Lao refugees. A clinical interview and 164 true/false questions were administered to identify specific items which could identify depression among the Ethnic Lao people. All items were administered in both English and Lao. Overall, 78 of the 164 items differentiated groups of depressed and nondepressed Lao at the .01 level. Results of validation procedures showed that a 30-item scale had an accuracy rate of 89% in identifying the presence of depression in the validation group; the hit-rate for the same items and cutoff was 92% in the cross-validation group. Potential uses of the scale are discussed. PMID:2918451

  16. Task Analysis Inventories. Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Carl E.

    This second in a series of task analysis inventories contains checklists of work performed in twenty-two occupations. Each inventory is a comprehensive list of work activities, responsibilities, educational courses, machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used and the products produced or services rendered in a designated occupational area. The…

  17. Environmental protection well inventory (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, J.L.

    1990-03-01

    This report is an inventory of the wells contained in Environment Protection Department (EPD) documents since the startup of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and includes wells monitored by special request and SRS research wells. All wells listed in this inventory are monitoring wells unless otherwise indicated.

  18. NARSTO EMISSION INVENTORY WORKSHOP & ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes the NARSTO activities related to emission inventories in 2003-2005. The NARSTO Particulate Matter Assessment, issued in 2003, identified emission inventories as one of the critical elements of the air quality program which needs improvement if it i...

  19. Inventory behavior at remote sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, William C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An operations research study was conducted concerning inventory behavior on the space station. Historical data from the Space Shuttle was used. The results demonstrated a high logistics burden if Space Shuttle reliability technology were to be applied without modification to space station design (which it was not). Effects of rapid resupply and on board repair capabilities on inventory behavior were investigated.

  20. Computer program determines inventory size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaspar, H.

    1966-01-01

    FORTRAN 4 computer program calculates optimum size of a small inventory of relatively complex or expensive items. This program can be used in situations where the initial cost of purchase is large or when there is a need for a balanced inventory on a short production run.

  1. Automation of Space Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong; Wagner, Raymond; Barton, Richard; Gifford, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the utilization of automated space-based inventory management through handheld RFID readers and BioNet Middleware. The contents include: 1) Space-Based INventory Management; 2) Real-Time RFID Location and Tracking; 3) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) RFID; and 4) BioNet Middleware.

  2. Patterns of thinking about phylogenetic trees: A study of student learning and the potential of tree thinking to improve comprehension of biological concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naegle, Erin

    . Chapter 2 explores the construction, validity, and reliability of a tree thinking concept inventory. Concept inventories are research based instruments that diagnose faulty reasoning among students. Such inventories are tools for improving teaching and learning of concepts. Test scores indicate that tree thinking misconceptions are held by novice and intermediate biology students. Finally, Chapter 3 presents a tree thinking rubric. The rubric aids teachers in selecting and improving introductory tree thinking learning exercises that address students' tree thinking misconceptions.

  3. Merging National Forest and National Forest Health Inventories to Obtain an Integrated Forest Resource Inventory – Experiences from Bavaria, Slovenia and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Kovač, Marko; Bauer, Arthur; Ståhl, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds, Material and Methods To meet the demands of sustainable forest management and international commitments, European nations have designed a variety of forest-monitoring systems for specific needs. While the majority of countries are committed to independent, single-purpose inventorying, a minority of countries have merged their single-purpose forest inventory systems into integrated forest resource inventories. The statistical efficiencies of the Bavarian, Slovene and Swedish integrated forest resource inventory designs are investigated with the various statistical parameters of the variables of growing stock volume, shares of damaged trees, and deadwood volume. The parameters are derived by using the estimators for the given inventory designs. The required sample sizes are derived via the general formula for non-stratified independent samples and via statistical power analyses. The cost effectiveness of the designs is compared via two simple cost effectiveness ratios. Results In terms of precision, the most illustrative parameters of the variables are relative standard errors; their values range between 1% and 3% if the variables’ variations are low (s%<80%) and are higher in the case of higher variations. A comparison of the actual and required sample sizes shows that the actual sample sizes were deliberately set high to provide precise estimates for the majority of variables and strata. In turn, the successive inventories are statistically efficient, because they allow detecting the mean changes of variables with powers higher than 90%; the highest precision is attained for the changes of growing stock volume and the lowest for the changes of the shares of damaged trees. Two indicators of cost effectiveness also show that the time input spent for measuring one variable decreases with the complexity of inventories. Conclusion There is an increasing need for credible information on forest resources to be used for decision making and national and

  4. Tree Species Classification By Multiseasonal High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elatawneh, Alata; Wallner, Adelheid; Straub, Christoph; Schneider, Thomas; Knoke, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Accurate forest tree species mapping is a fundamental issue for sustainable forest management and planning. Forest tree species mapping with the means of remote sensing data is still a topic to be investigated. The Bavaria state institute of forestry is investigating the potential of using digital aerial images for forest management purposes. However, using aerial images is still cost- and time-consuming, in addition to their acquisition restrictions. The new space-born sensor generations such as, RapidEye, with a very high temporal resolution, offering multiseasonal data have the potential to improve the forest tree species mapping. In this study, we investigated the potential of multiseasonal RapidEye data for mapping tree species in a Mid European forest in Southern Germany. The RapidEye data of level A3 were collected on ten different dates in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. For data analysis, a model was developed, which combines the Spectral Angle Mapper technique with a 10-fold- cross-validation. The analysis succeeded to differentiate four tree species; Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), Silver Fir (Abies alba Mill.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus). The model success was evaluated using digital aerial images acquired in the year 2009 and inventory point records from 2008/09 inventory. Model results of the multiseasonal RapidEye data analysis achieved an overall accuracy of 76%. However, the success of the model was evaluated only for all the identified species and not for the individual.

  5. MetaTree: augmented reality narrative explorations of urban forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Ruth; Margolis, Todd; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath; Mendelowitz, Eitan

    2012-03-01

    As cities world-wide adopt and implement reforestation initiatives to plant millions of trees in urban areas, they are engaging in what is essentially a massive ecological and social experiment. Existing air-borne, space-borne, and fieldbased imaging and inventory mechanisms fail to provide key information on urban tree ecology that is crucial to informing management, policy, and supporting citizen initiatives for the planting and stewardship of trees. The shortcomings of the current approaches include: spatial and temporal resolution, poor vantage point, cost constraints and biological metric limitations. Collectively, this limits their effectiveness as real-time inventory and monitoring tools. Novel methods for imaging and monitoring the status of these emerging urban forests and encouraging their ongoing stewardship by the public are required to ensure their success. This art-science collaboration proposes to re-envision citizens' relationship with urban spaces by foregrounding urban trees in relation to local architectural features and simultaneously creating new methods for urban forest monitoring. We explore creating a shift from overhead imaging or field-based tree survey data acquisition methods to continuous, ongoing monitoring by citizen scientists as part of a mobile augmented reality experience. We consider the possibilities of this experience as a medium for interacting with and visualizing urban forestry data and for creating cultural engagement with urban ecology.

  6. 48 CFR 245.606 - Inventory schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory schedules. 245.606 Section 245.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Contractor Inventory 245.606 Inventory schedules....

  7. Trees Are Terrific!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. Contents are organized into the following sections: (1) "What Makes a Tree a Tree?," including information…

  8. The Flame Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Lewis's own experiences living in Indonesia are fertile ground for telling "a ripping good story," one found in "The Flame Tree." He hopes people will enjoy the tale and appreciate the differences of an unfamiliar culture. The excerpt from "The Flame Tree" will reel readers in quickly.

  9. Trees for Mother Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Sandy

    1993-01-01

    Describes Trees for Mother Earth, a program in which secondary students raise funds to buy fruit trees to plant during visits to the Navajo Reservation. Benefits include developing feelings of self-worth among participants, promoting cultural exchange and understanding, and encouraging self-sufficiency among the Navajo. (LP)

  10. Tree Topology Estimation.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Rolando; Tomasi, Carlo; Schmidler, Scott C; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-08-01

    Tree-like structures are fundamental in nature, and it is often useful to reconstruct the topology of a tree - what connects to what - from a two-dimensional image of it. However, the projected branches often cross in the image: the tree projects to a planar graph, and the inverse problem of reconstructing the topology of the tree from that of the graph is ill-posed. We regularize this problem with a generative, parametric tree-growth model. Under this model, reconstruction is possible in linear time if one knows the direction of each edge in the graph - which edge endpoint is closer to the root of the tree - but becomes NP-hard if the directions are not known. For the latter case, we present a heuristic search algorithm to estimate the most likely topology of a rooted, three-dimensional tree from a single two-dimensional image. Experimental results on retinal vessel, plant root, and synthetic tree data sets show that our methodology is both accurate and efficient. PMID:26353004

  11. Structural Equation Model Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  12. CSI for Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Darrin L.; Hanson, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The circles and patterns in a tree's stem tell a story, but that story can be a mystery. Interpreting the story of tree rings provides a way to heighten the natural curiosity of students and help them gain insight into the interaction of elements in the environment. It also represents a wonderful opportunity to incorporate the nature of science.…

  13. Tree nut oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  14. Tree growth and competition in an old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden: influence of tree spatial patterning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraver, Shawn; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar; Jönsson, Mari; Esseen, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    Question: What factors best characterize tree competitive environments in this structurally diverse old-growth forest, and do these factors vary spatially within and among stands? Location: Old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden. Methods: Using long-term, mapped permanent plot data augmented with dendrochronological analyses, we evaluated the effect of neighbourhood competition on focal tree growth by means of standard competition indices, each modified to include various metrics of trees size, neighbour mortality weighting (for neighbours that died during the inventory period), and within-neighbourhood tree clustering. Candidate models were evaluated using mixed-model linear regression analyses, with mean basal area increment as the response variable. We then analysed stand-level spatial patterns of competition indices and growth rates (via kriging) to determine if the relationship between these patterns could further elucidate factors influencing tree growth. Results: Inter-tree competition clearly affected growth rates, with crown volume being the size metric most strongly influencing the neighbourhood competitive environment. Including neighbour tree mortality weightings in models only slightly improved descriptions of competitive interactions. Although the within-neighbourhood clustering index did not improve model predictions, competition intensity was influenced by the underlying stand-level tree spatial arrangement: stand-level clustering locally intensified competition and reduced tree growth, whereas in the absence of such clustering, inter-tree competition played a lesser role in constraining tree growth. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that competition continues to influence forest processes and structures in an old-growth system that has not experienced major disturbances for at least two centuries. The finding that the underlying tree spatial pattern influenced the competitive environment suggests caution in interpreting traditional tree

  15. Patterns and Drivers of Tree Mortality in Iberian Forests: Climatic Effects Are Modified by Competition

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Lines, Emily R.; Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena; Zavala, Miguel A.; Coomes, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Tree mortality is a key process underlying forest dynamics and community assembly. Understanding how tree mortality is driven by simultaneous drivers is needed to evaluate potential effects of climate change on forest composition. Using repeat-measure information from c. 400,000 trees from the Spanish Forest Inventory, we quantified the relative importance of tree size, competition, climate and edaphic conditions on tree mortality of 11 species, and explored the combined effect of climate and competition. Tree mortality was affected by all of these multiple drivers, especially tree size and asymmetric competition, and strong interactions between climate and competition were found. All species showed L-shaped mortality patterns (i.e. showed decreasing mortality with tree size), but pines were more sensitive to asymmetric competition than broadleaved species. Among climatic variables, the negative effect of temperature on tree mortality was much larger than the effect of precipitation. Moreover, the effect of climate (mean annual temperature and annual precipitation) on tree mortality was aggravated at high competition levels for all species, but especially for broadleaved species. The significant interaction between climate and competition on tree mortality indicated that global change in Mediterranean regions, causing hotter and drier conditions and denser stands, could lead to profound effects on forest structure and composition. Therefore, to evaluate the potential effects of climatic change on tree mortality, forest structure must be considered, since two systems of similar composition but different structure could radically differ in their response to climatic conditions. PMID:23451096

  16. From Family Trees to Decision Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trobian, Helen R.

    This paper is a preliminary inquiry by a non-mathematician into graphic methods of sequential planning and ways in which hierarchical analysis and tree structures can be helpful in developing interest in the use of mathematical modeling in the search for creative solutions to real-life problems. Highlights include a discussion of hierarchical…

  17. Reducing Uncertainty and Increasing Consistency: Recent Technical Improvements to the 2015 United States Forest Carbon Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodall, C. W.; Domke, G. M.; Coulston, J.

    2014-12-01

    A national system of field inventory plots is the primary data source for the annual assessment of US forest carbon (C) stocks and stock-change to meet reporting requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The inventory data and their role in national carbon reporting continue to evolve. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service is charged with conducting the field inventory of US forest C. The FIA program employs remotely sensed imagery to define forest and nonforest plots which are systematically distributed approximately every 2,428 ha across the conterminous US. More than 125,000 plots in the current field inventory have at least one forested condition where field crews measure tree- and site-level attributes (e.g., diameter and tree height) at regular temporal intervals. A subset of forested plots is measured for additional variables related to forest non-tree C pools (e.g., downed woody materials, understory vegetation, and soils). The FIA program does not directly measure forest C stocks. Instead, a combination of empirically derived C estimates (e.g., standing live and dead trees) and models (e.g., understory C stocks related to stand age and forest type) are used to estimate forest C stocks. A series of recent refinements in FIA estimation procedures have sought to reduce the uncertainty associated with the national C inventory by: 1) refining forest floor C estimates with in situ data, 2) updating the live belowground and understory C pools modeling approaches, 3) refining objective delineations between woodland and forest land uses, and 4) revising managed land delineations. The results of these studies in the context of forest C accounting and future refinements are discussed in the context of UNFCCC reporting.

  18. IND - THE IND DECISION TREE PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, W.

    1994-01-01

    A common approach to supervised classification and prediction in artificial intelligence and statistical pattern recognition is the use of decision trees. A tree is "grown" from data using a recursive partitioning algorithm to create a tree which has good prediction of classes on new data. Standard algorithms are CART (by Breiman Friedman, Olshen and Stone) and ID3 and its successor C4 (by Quinlan). As well as reimplementing parts of these algorithms and offering experimental control suites, IND also introduces Bayesian and MML methods and more sophisticated search in growing trees. These produce more accurate class probability estimates that are important in applications like diagnosis. IND is applicable to most data sets consisting of independent instances, each described by a fixed length vector of attribute values. An attribute value may be a number, one of a set of attribute specific symbols, or it may be omitted. One of the attributes is delegated the "target" and IND grows trees to predict the target. Prediction can then be done on new data or the decision tree printed out for inspection. IND provides a range of features and styles with convenience for the casual user as well as fine-tuning for the advanced user or those interested in research. IND can be operated in a CART-like mode (but without regression trees, surrogate splits or multivariate splits), and in a mode like the early version of C4. Advanced features allow more extensive search, interactive control and display of tree growing, and Bayesian and MML algorithms for tree pruning and smoothing. These often produce more accurate class probability estimates at the leaves. IND also comes with a comprehensive experimental control suite. IND consists of four basic kinds of routines: data manipulation routines, tree generation routines, tree testing routines, and tree display routines. The data manipulation routines are used to partition a single large data set into smaller training and test sets. The

  19. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  20. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    SciTech Connect

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order. The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. The RL provided the US Congress a Plan and Schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site. The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the streams into two phases. The Phase 1 streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase 2 streams. The actions recommended for the Phase 1 and 2 streams in the two reports were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluents streams identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase 1 or Phase 2 Streams. This document consists of an inventory of the liquid effluent streams being discharged into the Hanford soil column.

  1. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, Tom L

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  2. Lazy decision trees

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, J.H.; Yun, Yeogirl; Kohavi, R.

    1996-12-31

    Lazy learning algorithms, exemplified by nearest-neighbor algorithms, do not induce a concise hypothesis from a given training set; the inductive process is delayed until a test instance is given. Algorithms for constructing decision trees, such as C4.5, ID3, and CART create a single {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} decision tree during the training phase, and this tree is then used to classify test instances. The tests at the nodes of the constructed tree are good on average, but there may be better tests for classifying a specific instance. We propose a lazy decision tree algorithm-LazyDT-that conceptually constructs the {open_quotes}best{close_quote} decision tree for each test instance. In practice, only a path needs to be constructed, and a caching scheme makes the algorithm fast. The algorithm is robust with respect to missing values without resorting to the complicated methods usually seen in induction of decision trees. Experiments on real and artificial problems are presented.

  3. [Regeneration of tree cover in a small urban forest reserve from the moist Premontane region].

    PubMed

    Di Stéfano, J; Nielsen, V; Hoomans, J; Fournier, L A

    1996-08-01

    The tropical premontane moist forest is one of the most destructed life zones in Costa Rica. For such regions, a small natural preserve system has been proposed. An inventory of trees greater than 3.5 cm in diameter at breast height was done in one hectare urban forest patch that was left under natural regeneration for 30 years. The inventory included 940 individuals of at least 55 species and 32 families. A Holdridge Complexity Index of 58 was obtained. There was a strong dominance by small-diameter trees of successional and exotic species. PMID:9246367

  4. Learning classification trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray

    1991-01-01

    Algorithms for learning classification trees have had successes in artificial intelligence and statistics over many years. How a tree learning algorithm can be derived from Bayesian decision theory is outlined. This introduces Bayesian techniques for splitting, smoothing, and tree averaging. The splitting rule turns out to be similar to Quinlan's information gain splitting rule, while smoothing and averaging replace pruning. Comparative experiments with reimplementations of a minimum encoding approach, Quinlan's C4 and Breiman et al. Cart show the full Bayesian algorithm is consistently as good, or more accurate than these other approaches though at a computational price.

  5. Evolutionary tree reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Kanefsky, Bob

    1990-01-01

    It is described how Minimum Description Length (MDL) can be applied to the problem of DNA and protein evolutionary tree reconstruction. If there is a set of mutations that transform a common ancestor into a set of the known sequences, and this description is shorter than the information to encode the known sequences directly, then strong evidence for an evolutionary relationship has been found. A heuristic algorithm is described that searches for the simplest tree (smallest MDL) that finds close to optimal trees on the test data. Various ways of extending the MDL theory to more complex evolutionary relationships are discussed.

  6. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  7. BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (BEIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) is a computer algorithm used to generate emissions for air quality simulation models, such as EPAs Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM). Emission sources that are modeled include volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegeta...

  8. Analyzing Forest Inventory Data from Geo-Located Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toivanen, Timo; Tergujeff, Renne; Andersson, Kaj; Molinier, Matthieu; Häme, Tuomas

    2015-04-01

    Forests are widely monitored using a variety of remote sensing data and techniques. Remote sensing offers benefits compared to traditional in-situ forest inventories made by experts. One of the main benefits is that the number of ground reference plots can be significantly reduced. Remote sensing of forests can provide reduced costs and time requirement compared to full forest inventories. The availability of ground reference data has been a bottleneck in remote sensing analysis over wide forested areas, as the acquisition of this data is an expensive and slow process. In this paper we present a tool for estimating forest inventory data from geo-located photographs. The tool can be used to estimate in-situ forest inventory data including estimated biomass, tree species, tree height and diameter. The collected in-situ forest measurements can be utilized as a ground reference material for spaceborne or airborne remote sensing data analysis. The GPS based location information with measured forest data makes it possible to introduce measurements easily as in-situ reference data. The central projection geometry of digital photographs allows the use of the relascope principle [1] to measure the basal area of stems per area unit, a variable very closely associated with tree biomass. Relascope is applied all over the world for forest inventory. Experiments with independent ground reference data have shown that in-situ data analysed from photographs can be utilised as reference data for satellite image analysis. The concept was validated by comparing mobile measurements with 54 independent ground reference plots from the Hyytiälä forest research station in Finland [2]. Citizen scientists could provide the manpower for analysing photographs from forests on a global level and support researchers working on tasks related to forests. This low-cost solution can also increase the coverage of forest management plans, particularly in regions where possibilities to invest on

  9. An Individual Tree Detection Algorithm for Dense Deciduous Forests with Spreading Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, G.

    2015-12-01

    Individual tree information derived from LiDAR may have the potential to assist forest inventory and improve the assessment of forest structure and composition for sustainable forest management. The algorithms developed for individual tree detection are commonly focusing on finding tree tops to allocation the tree positions. However, the spreading branches (cylinder crowns) in deciduous forests cause such kind of algorithms work less effectively on dense canopy. This research applies a machine learning algorithm, mean shift, to position individual trees based on the density of LiDAR point could instead of detecting tree tops. The study site locates in a dense oak forest in Indiana, US. The selection of mean shift kernels is discussed. The constant and dynamic bandwidths of mean shit algorithms are applied and compared.

  10. DIMA quick start, database for inventory, monitoring and assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Database for Inventory, Monitoring and Assessment (DIMA) is a highly-customized Microsoft Access database for collecting data electronically in the field and for organizing, storing and reporting those data for monitoring and assessment. While DIMA can be used for any number of different monito...

  11. Loops and trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron-Huot, S.

    2011-05-01

    We investigate relations between loop and tree amplitudes in quantum field theory that involve putting on-shell some loop propagators. This generalizes the so-called Feynman tree theorem which is satisfied at 1-loop. Exploiting retarded boundary conditions, we give a generalization to ℓ-loop expressing the loops as integrals over the on-shell phase space of exactly ℓ particles. We argue that the corresponding integrand for ℓ > 2 does not involve the forward limit of any physical tree amplitude, except in planar gauge theories. In that case we explicitly construct the relevant physical amplitude. Beyond the planar limit, abandoning direct integral representations, we propose that loops continue to be determined implicitly by the forward limit of physical connected trees, and we formulate a precise conjecture along this line. Finally, we set up technology to compute forward amplitudes in supersymmetric theories, in which specific simplifications occur.

  12. Structural Equation Model Trees

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree structures that separate a data set recursively into subsets with significantly different parameter estimates in a SEM. SEM Trees provide means for finding covariates and covariate interactions that predict differences in structural parameters in observed as well as in latent space and facilitate theory-guided exploration of empirical data. We describe the methodology, discuss theoretical and practical implications, and demonstrate applications to a factor model and a linear growth curve model. PMID:22984789

  13. Tree Nut Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... tree nut used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  14. The tree BVOC index.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J R; McPherson, E G

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes in BVOC emissions are calculated as the result of transitioning to a lower-emitting species mix in future planting. A simplified method for calculating the emissions reduction and a Tree BVOC index based on the calculated reduction is described. An example illustrates the use of the index as a tool for implementation and monitoring of a tree program designed to reduce BVOC emissions as a control measure being developed as part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Sacramento Federal Nonattainment Area. PMID:21435760

  15. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  16. Tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil. PMID:22653070

  17. Tree-bank grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E.

    1996-12-31

    By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

  18. Leonardo's Tree Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Suzanne K.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a series of activities exploring Leonardo da Vinci's tree theory that are designed to strengthen 8th grade students' data collection and problem solving skills in physical science classes. (KHR)

  19. Clean Lead Facility (CLF) Inventory System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-07-13

    The CLF Inventory System records shipments of clean or nonradioactive contaminated lead stored at the CLF. The Inventory System provides reports and inventory information to Facility operators. Annual, quarterly, monthly, and current inventory reports may be printed. Profile reports of each shipment of lead may also be printed for verification and documentation of lead transactions.

  20. 27 CFR 20.170 - Physical inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical inventory. 20.170... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Inventory and Records § 20.170 Physical inventory. Once in each... physical inventory of each formula of new and recovered specially denatured spirits. (Approved by...

  1. 27 CFR 40.523 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 40.523... Inventories. Every manufacturer of processed tobacco must provide a true and accurate inventory on TTB F 5210.9 in accordance with instructions for the form. The manufacturer must make such an inventory at...

  2. 27 CFR 19.353 - Storage inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage inventories. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Storage Inventories § 19.353 Storage inventories. Each warehouseman shall take a physical inventory of all spirits and wines held in the storage...

  3. 10 CFR 39.37 - Physical inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical inventory. 39.37 Section 39.37 Energy NUCLEAR... inventory. Each licensee shall conduct a semi-annual physical inventory to account for all licensed material received and possessed under the license. The licensee shall retain records of the inventory for 3...

  4. 27 CFR 40.201 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 40.201... PROCESSED TOBACCO Operations by Manufacturers of Tobacco Products Inventories and Reports § 40.201 Inventories. Every manufacturer of tobacco products shall make true and accurate inventories on Form...

  5. 48 CFR 1845.508 - Physical inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Physical inventories. 1845... Contractors 1845.508 Physical inventories. NASA contractors shall reconcile inventories with the official property records and submit reports to the property administrator within 30 days after inventory...

  6. 27 CFR 19.981 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 19.981... Spirits § 19.981 Inventories. Proprietors shall take actual physical inventory of all spirits (including... § 19.988. The results of the inventory shall be posted in the applicable records required by §...

  7. 10 CFR 300.6 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emissions inventories. 300.6 Section 300.6 Energy... Emissions inventories. (a) General. The objective of an emission inventory is to provide a full accounting... emission inventory must be prepared in accordance with Chapter 1 of the Technical Guidelines...

  8. Trees for reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Land reclamation programs sponsored by several state forestry organizations are summarized in these presentations. The use of trees as a preferred specie for revegetation of surface mined lands is addressed. Modern methods of forestry can be used to make land economically and aesthetically acceptable. Tree planting techniques are presented and the role of Mycorrhizae is discussed. There are 30 papers included in this proceedings. States represented include: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Virginia, Iowa, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia.

  9. Tree Crown Delineation using Watershed Techniques and Forest Metrics from NEON LiDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luong, K. Y.

    2014-12-01

    LiDAR is a powerful remote sensing tool allowing for forest metrics to be taken on varying scales, which ultimately provide important forestry variables used to calculate factors such as total biomass or leaf area index. These variables are most useful when calculated for individual trees throughout a stand, but in very dense forests, identifying single trees becomes more difficult by traditional means. Full forests can be quantified uniquely for the best understanding of ecological contributions as opposed to purely in situ tree inventories which are time consuming and extremely localized. Canopy height models (CHM) can be used to understand the forest as a whole. By inverting the CHM, the tree data becomes sinks in the ground, mimicking ponds; by applying watershed-related spatial analyst tools in ArcGIS and GrassGIS, the trees are delineated by makeshift "flooding." Within this algorithm, the crown peaks are also extracted as an intermediate step to delineation, but this is a reliable means to obtain an accurate number of trees, as well as their individual heights with high reliability (R2 = 0.87). Delineated tree polygons can be directly overlaid onto different rasters to get many forest variables. In tightly clustered and very sparse stands, this method of delineation has a high level of accuracy. Following the workflow studies conducted on NEON LiDAR data on the Soaproot Saddle site, a ground-truth comparison was made with the Teakettle Experimental Forest site due to the availability of tree inventory data.

  10. Tree Topology Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Rolando; Tomasi, Carlo; Schmidler, Scott C.; Farsiu, Sina

    2015-01-01

    Tree-like structures are fundamental in nature, and it is often useful to reconstruct the topology of a tree—what connects to what—from a two-dimensional image of it. However, the projected branches often cross in the image: the tree projects to a planar graph, and the inverse problem of reconstructing the topology of the tree from that of the graph is ill-posed. We regularize this problem with a generative, parametric tree-growth model. Under this model, reconstruction is possible in linear time if one knows the direction of each edge in the graph—which edge endpoint is closer to the root of the tree—but becomes NP-hard if the directions are not known. For the latter case, we present a heuristic search algorithm to estimate the most likely topology of a rooted, three-dimensional tree from a single two-dimensional image. Experimental results on retinal vessel, plant root, and synthetic tree datasets show that our methodology is both accurate and efficient. PMID:26353004

  11. Derivation of Forest Inventory Parameters for Carbon Estimation Using Terrestrial LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Kalwar, Om Prakash; Hussin, Yousif A.; Weir, Michael J. C.; Karna, Yogendra K.

    2016-06-01

    This research was conducted to derive forest sample plot inventory parameters from terrestrial LiDAR (T-LiDAR) for estimating above ground biomass (AGB)/carbon stocks in primary tropical rain forest. Inventory parameters of all sampled trees within circular plots of 500 m2 were collected from field observations while T-LiDAR data were acquired through multiple scanning using Reigl VZ-400 scanner. Pre-processing and registration of multiple scans were done in RSCAN PRO software. Point cloud constructing individual sampled tree was extracted and tree inventory parameters (diameter at breast height-DBH and tree height) were measured manually. AGB/carbon stocks were estimated using Chave et al., (2005) allometric equation. An average 80 % of sampled trees were detected from point cloud of the plots. The average of plots values of R2 and RMSE for manually measured DBHs were 0.95, 2.7 cm respectively. Similarly, the average of plots values of R2 and RMSE for manually measured trees heights were 0.77, 2.96 m respectively. The average value of AGB/carbon stocks estimated from field measurements and T-LiDAR manually derived DBHs and trees heights were 286 Mg ha-1 and 134 Mg ha-1; and 278 M ha-1 and 130 Mg ha-1 respectively. The R2 values for the estimated AGB and AGC were both 0.93 and corresponding RMSE values were 42.4 Mg ha-1 and 19.9 Mg ha-1 respectively. AGB and AGC were estimated with 14.8 % accuracy.

  12. Slow growth rates of Amazonian trees: Consequences for carbon cycling

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Simone; Trumbore, Susan; Camargo, Plinio B.; Selhorst, Diogo; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Higuchi, Niro; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Quantifying age structure and tree growth rate of Amazonian forests is essential for understanding their role in the carbon cycle. Here, we use radiocarbon dating and direct measurement of diameter increment to document unexpectedly slow growth rates for trees from three locations spanning the Brazilian Amazon basin. Central Amazon trees, averaging only ≈1mm/year diameter increment, grow half as fast as those from areas with more seasonal rainfall to the east and west. Slow growth rates mean that trees can attain great ages; across our sites we estimate 17-50% of trees with diameter >10 cm have ages exceeding 300 years. Whereas a few emergent trees that make up a large portion of the biomass grow faster, small trees that are more abundant grow slowly and attain ages of hundreds of years. The mean age of carbon in living trees (60-110 years) is within the range of or slightly longer than the mean residence time calculated from C inventory divided by annual C allocation to wood growth (40-100 years). Faster C turnover is observed in stands with overall higher rates of diameter increment and a larger fraction of the biomass in large, fast-growing trees. As a consequence, forests can recover biomass relatively quickly after disturbance, whereas recovering species composition may take many centuries. Carbon cycle models that apply a single turnover time for carbon in forest biomass do not account for variations in life strategy and therefore may overestimate the carbon sequestration potential of Amazon forests. PMID:16339903

  13. How Trees Can Save Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, James R., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This document might easily have been called "How To Use Trees To Save Energy". It presents the energy saving advantages of landscaping the home and community with trees. The discussion includes: (1) landscaping advice to obtain the benefits of tree shade; (2) the heat island phenomenon in cities; (3) how and where to properly plant trees for…

  14. Palm Tree Detection Using Circular Autocorrelation of Polar Shape Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manandhar, A.; Hoegner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    Palm trees play an important role as they are widely used in a variety of products including oil and bio-fuel. Increasing demand and growing cultivation have created a necessity in planned farming and the monitoring different aspects like inventory keeping, health, size etc. The large cultivation regions of palm trees motivate the use of remote sensing to produce such data. This study proposes an object detection methodology on the aerial images, using shape feature for detecting and counting palm trees, which can support an inventory. The study uses circular autocorrelation of the polar shape matrix representation of an image, as the shape feature, and the linear support vector machine to standardize and reduce dimensions of the feature. Finally, the study uses local maximum detection algorithm on the spatial distribution of standardized feature to detect palm trees. The method was applied to 8 images chosen from different tough scenarios and it performed on average with an accuracy of 84% and 76.1%, despite being subjected to different challenging conditions in the chosen test images.

  15. NEW 3D TECHNIQUES FOR RANKING AND PRIORITIZATION OF CHEMICAL INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    New three-dimensional quantitative structure activity (3-D QSAR) techniques for prioritizing chemical inventories for endocrine activity will be presented. The Common Reactivity Pattern (COREPA) approach permits identification of common steric and/or electronic patterns associate...

  16. Aging on Parisi's Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaud, J.-P.; Dean, D. S.

    1995-03-01

    We present a detailed study of simple “tree" models for off equilibrium dynamics and aging in glassy systems. The simplest tree describes the landscape of a random energy model, whereas multifurcating trees occur in the solution of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model. An important ingredient taken from these models is the exponential distribution of deep free-energies, which translate into a power-law distribution of the residence time within metastable “valleys". These power law distributions have infinite mean in the spin-glass phase and this leads to the aging phenomenon. To each level of the tree is associated an overlap and the exponent of the time distribution. We solve these models for a finite (but arbitrary) number of levels and show that a two-level tree accounts very well for many experimental observations (thermoremanent magnetization, a.c. susceptibility, second noise spectrum....). We introduce the idea that the deepest levels of the tree correspond to equilibrium dynamics whereas the upper levels correspond to aging. Temperature cycling experiments suggest that the borderline between the two is temperature dependent. The spin-glass transition corresponds to the temperature at which the uppermost level is put out of equilibrium but is subsequently followed by a sequence of (dynamical) phase transitions corresponding to non equilibrium dynamics within deeper and deeper levels. We tentatively try to relate this “tree" picture to the real space “droplet" model, and speculate on how the final description of spin-glasses might look like.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls inventory in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Kukharchyk, Tamara I; Kakareka, Sergey V

    2008-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) inventory is a key element of the ecologically sound management of these dangerous chemicals. This article presents the findings of the large-scale PCB inventory project that was implemented in Belarus in 2003-2004. Data on PCB-containing equipment of more than 2000 enterprises was recorded: trademarks; volumes of PCBs; dates of manufacture; condition of equipment; levels of operation, descriptions of installations or storage locations. In the course of the inventory about 1500 tones of PCBs were identified, 99% of this total was found in power transformers and capacitors. As it proved most equipment containing PCBs is still in service today due to its long life-time. Additionally, the PCB-containing equipment which has been taken out of service is primarily stored on the territory of enterprises. The distribution of PCBs in Belarus among economy sectors as well as regions is shown. Problems of the PCB inventory and disposal are discussed. It is shown that the inventory needs to be regularly updated in order to estimate temporal changes in PCB-containing equipment condition, current owners and a location. PMID:17597287

  18. Imputation of Continuous Tree Suitability over the Continental United States from Sparse Measurements Using Associative Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Kumar, J.; Hoffman, F. M.; Potter, K. M.; Mills, R. T.

    2012-12-01

    Up-scaling from sparse measurements to a continuous raster of estimated values is a common problem in Earth System Science. We present a new general-purpose empirical imputation method based on associative clustering, which associates sparse measurements of dependent variables with particular multivariate clustered combinations of the independent variables, and then uses several methods to estimate values for unmeasured clusters, based on directional proximity in multidimensional data space, at both the cluster and map cell levels of resolution. We demonstrate this new imputation tool on tree species range distribution maps, which describe the suitable extent and expected growth performance of a particular tree species over a wide area. Range maps having continuous estimates of tree growth performance are more useful than more classical tree range maps that simply show binary occurence suitability. The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory Assessment (FIA) plots provide information about the occurence and growth performance for various tree species across the US, but such measurements are limited to FIA plots. Using Associative Clustering, we scale up the discontinuous FIA Inventory growth measurements into continuous maps that show the expected growth and suitabilty for individual tree species covering the Continental United States. A multivariate cluster analysis was applied to global output from a General Circulation Model (GCM) consisting of 17 variables downscaled to 4km2 resolution. Present global growing conditions were divided into 30 thousand relatively homogeneous ecoregions describing climatic and topographic conditions. At every mapcell a multi-linear regression was applied in 17 dimensional hyperspace to derive the suitability of a tree species where not measured using the forest inventory data. The continuous species distribution maps obtained were compared and validated against existing tree range suitability maps. Associative Clustering is intended

  19. Robustness of Tree Extraction Algorithms from LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, M.; Strimbu, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Forest inventory faces a new era as unmanned aerial systems (UAS) increased the precision of measurements, while reduced field effort and price of data acquisition. A large number of algorithms were developed to identify various forest attributes from UAS data. The objective of the present research is to assess the robustness of two types of tree identification algorithms when UAS data are combined with digital elevation models (DEM). The algorithms use as input photogrammetric point cloud, which are subsequent rasterized. The first type of algorithms associate tree crown with an inversed watershed (subsequently referred as watershed based), while the second type is based on simultaneous representation of tree crown as an individual entity, and its relation with neighboring crowns (subsequently referred as simultaneous representation). A DJI equipped with a SONY a5100 was used to acquire images over an area from center Louisiana. The images were processed with Pix4D, and a photogrammetric point cloud with 50 points / m2 was attained. DEM was obtained from a flight executed in 2013, which also supplied a LIDAR point cloud with 30 points/m2. The algorithms were tested on two plantations with different species and crown class complexities: one homogeneous (i.e., a mature loblolly pine plantation), and one heterogeneous (i.e., an unmanaged uneven-aged stand with mixed species pine -hardwoods). Tree identification on photogrammetric point cloud reveled that simultaneous representation algorithm outperforms watershed algorithm, irrespective stand complexity. Watershed algorithm exhibits robustness to parameters, but the results were worse than majority sets of parameters needed by the simultaneous representation algorithm. The simultaneous representation algorithm is a better alternative to watershed algorithm even when parameters are not accurately estimated. Similar results were obtained when the two algorithms were run on the LIDAR point cloud.

  20. Reinforcement Learning Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ruoqing; Zeng, Donglin; Kosorok, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new type of tree-based method, reinforcement learning trees (RLT), which exhibits significantly improved performance over traditional methods such as random forests (Breiman, 2001) under high-dimensional settings. The innovations are three-fold. First, the new method implements reinforcement learning at each selection of a splitting variable during the tree construction processes. By splitting on the variable that brings the greatest future improvement in later splits, rather than choosing the one with largest marginal effect from the immediate split, the constructed tree utilizes the available samples in a more efficient way. Moreover, such an approach enables linear combination cuts at little extra computational cost. Second, we propose a variable muting procedure that progressively eliminates noise variables during the construction of each individual tree. The muting procedure also takes advantage of reinforcement learning and prevents noise variables from being considered in the search for splitting rules, so that towards terminal nodes, where the sample size is small, the splitting rules are still constructed from only strong variables. Last, we investigate asymptotic properties of the proposed method under basic assumptions and discuss rationale in general settings. PMID:26903687

  1. Tree nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2003-08-01

    Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn. PMID:12915766

  2. Predictive Classification Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugosz, Stephan; Müller-Funk, Ulrich

    CART (Breiman et al., Classification and Regression Trees, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1984) and (exhaustive) CHAID (Kass, Appl Stat 29:119-127, 1980) figure prominently among the procedures actually used in data based management, etc. CART is a well-established procedure that produces binary trees. CHAID, in contrast, admits multiple splittings, a feature that allows to exploit the splitting variable more extensively. On the other hand, that procedure depends on premises that are questionable in practical applications. This can be put down to the fact that CHAID relies on simultaneous Chi-Square- resp. F-tests. The null-distribution of the second test statistic, for instance, relies on the normality assumption that is not plausible in a data mining context. Moreover, none of these procedures - as implemented in SPSS, for instance - take ordinal dependent variables into account. In the paper we suggest an alternative tree-algorithm that: Requires explanatory categorical variables

  3. Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resource Inventory Demonstration project is designed to demonstrate to users from state and local agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the cost effective role that Landsat derived information can play in natural resource planning and management when properly supported by ground and aircraft data. The project has been organized into five main phases: (1) maps and overlays, (2) early digital image analysis, (3) demonstration of applications using interactive image analysis, (4) Landsat products and land resources information systems, and (5) documentation. The demonstration project has been applied to Washington forestry, water inventory in southern Idaho, and monitoring of tansy ragwort in western Oregon.

  4. Book Out! An Inventory Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panait, Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Library is a science and engineering research library providing the most current books, journals, CD-ROM's and documents to support the study of aeronautics, space propulsion and power, communications technology, materials and structures and microgravity science. The GRC technical library also supports the research and development efforts of all scientists and engineers on site via full text electronic files, literature searching, technical reports, etc. As an intern in the NASA Glenn Library, I attempt to support these objectives through efficiently and effectively fulfilling the assignment that was given to me. The assignment that was relegated to me was to catalog National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, NASA Technical Documents into NASA Galaxie. This process consists of holdings being added to existing Galaxie records, upgrades and editing done to the bibliographic records when needed, adding URL's into Galaxie when they were missing from the record. NASA ASAP and Digidoc was used to locate URL's of PDF's that were not in Galaxie. A spreadsheet of documents with no URL's were maintained. Also, a subject channel of web, fill-text, paid and free, journal and other subject specific pages were developed and expanded fiom current content of intranet pages. To expand upon the second half of my assignment, I was given the project of taking inventory of the library s book collection. I kept record of the books that were not accounted for on a master list I was given to work fiom and submitted them for correction and addition. I also made sure the books were placed in the appropriate order and made corrections to any discrepancies that existed between the master list and what was on the shelf. Upon completion of this assignment, I will have verified that 21,113 books were in the correct location, order and have the correct corresponding serial number and barcode. In conclusion, as of this date I have input around 750 documents into NASA Galaxie

  5. The effects of urban warming on herbivore abundance and street tree condition.

    PubMed

    Dale, Adam G; Frank, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Trees are essential to urban habitats because they provide services that benefit the environment and improve human health. Unfortunately, urban trees often have more herbivorous insect pests than rural trees but the mechanisms and consequences of these infestations are not well documented. Here, we examine how temperature affects the abundance of a scale insect, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on one of the most commonly planted street trees in the eastern U.S. Next, we examine how both pest abundance and temperature are associated with water stress, growth, and condition of 26 urban street trees. Although trees in the warmest urban sites grew the most, they were more water stressed and in worse condition than trees in cooler sites. Our analyses indicate that visible declines in tree condition were best explained by scale-insect infestation rather than temperature. To test the broader relevance of these results, we extend our analysis to a database of more than 2700 Raleigh, US street trees. Plotting these trees on a Landsat thermal image of Raleigh, we found that warmer sites had over 70% more trees in poor condition than those in cooler sites. Our results support previous studies linking warmer urban habitats to greater pest abundance and extend this association to show its effect on street tree condition. Our results suggest that street tree condition and ecosystem services may decline as urban expansion and global warming exacerbate the urban heat island effect. Although our non-probability sampling method limits our scope of inference, our results present a gloomy outlook for urban forests and emphasize the need for management tools. Existing urban tree inventories and thermal maps could be used to identify species that would be most suitable for urban conditions. PMID:25054326

  6. The Effects of Urban Warming on Herbivore Abundance and Street Tree Condition

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Adam G.; Frank, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Trees are essential to urban habitats because they provide services that benefit the environment and improve human health. Unfortunately, urban trees often have more herbivorous insect pests than rural trees but the mechanisms and consequences of these infestations are not well documented. Here, we examine how temperature affects the abundance of a scale insect, Melanaspis tenebricosa (Comstock) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), on one of the most commonly planted street trees in the eastern U.S. Next, we examine how both pest abundance and temperature are associated with water stress, growth, and condition of 26 urban street trees. Although trees in the warmest urban sites grew the most, they were more water stressed and in worse condition than trees in cooler sites. Our analyses indicate that visible declines in tree condition were best explained by scale-insect infestation rather than temperature. To test the broader relevance of these results, we extend our analysis to a database of more than 2700 Raleigh, US street trees. Plotting these trees on a Landsat thermal image of Raleigh, we found that warmer sites had over 70% more trees in poor condition than those in cooler sites. Our results support previous studies linking warmer urban habitats to greater pest abundance and extend this association to show its effect on street tree condition. Our results suggest that street tree condition and ecosystem services may decline as urban expansion and global warming exacerbate the urban heat island effect. Although our non-probability sampling method limits our scope of inference, our results present a gloomy outlook for urban forests and emphasize the need for management tools. Existing urban tree inventories and thermal maps could be used to identify species that would be most suitable for urban conditions. PMID:25054326

  7. Tree Nonstructural Carbohydrate Reserves Across Eastern US Temperate Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantooth, J.; Dietze, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the roles, importance, and dynamics of tree non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) is currently an active area of research. The question of how the relationships between NSCs, growth, and mortality can be used to develop more accurate projections of forest dynamics is central to this research. To begin to address this question, we have asked an even more fundamental question: How much are trees allocating carbon to storage, in the form of NSCs, versus new growth? Ecological theory predicts that there should be trade-offs between different plant life history strategies provided that there are the carbon mass-balance constraints to enforce these trade-offs. Current data on tree NSCs lack the spatial and taxonomic extent required to properly address this question. Therefore, we established a network of forest inventory plots at ten sites across the eastern US and measured growth in adult trees using increment cores and repeat measures of diameter at breast height (DBH). Increment cores were also used to measure sapwood NSCs. We hypothesized that across the eastern US, shade tolerant species, e.g. Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) have the largest NSC reserves and that shade intolerant species have the lowest reserves. We also hypothesized that NSC reserves increase with temperature and precipitation, as with growth, and that within species NSC reserves increase with growth rate. Initial analyses of tree NSCs indicates that trees of intermediate shade tolerance, e.g. Red Oak (Quercus rubra) have the highest concentrations of sapwood NSCs, and among the highest growth rates. Across the entire study region, NSC concentrations are positively correlated with tree size and growth rate. Within species, NSC concentrations are also positively correlated with growth rate. Across functional groups healthy individuals have significantly higher sapwood NSC concentrations than visibly stressed individuals. There are also significantly lower NSC concentrations in sapwood of

  8. Evaluating the Importance of Local Environment on Tree Structural Allometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncanson, L.; Cook, B. D.; Rourke, O.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.

    2013-12-01

    Allometric relationships relating various forest structural properties such as DBH, tree height and aboveground biomass have been developed through detailed field data collection both in the United States, and globally. However, there has been limited attention to explaining observed variability in these relationships. Often, a single relationship is developed for a single species, and is applied irrespective of environment. In this research, we attempt to explain allometry as a function of environment by focusing on the relationship between DBH, crown radius and tree height. Two primary datasets are used to conduct this research. First, the Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) dataset, including tree DBH and height information for the United States, are used to investigate variability in the relationship between DBH and tree height. Second, high-resolution airborne lidar datasets were collected from areas across the US, Canada and Costa Rica and are applied to investigate variability in the relationship between crown radius and height. The lidar datasets are run through a generalized canopy delineation algorithm to produce multilayered estimates of individual tree location, height, and crown radius. Power law functions are fit to the relationships between DBH and tree height, and crown radius and tree height. The mean and standard deviation of the power law exponents are compared to environmental attributes including precipitation, temperature, topography, and age since disturbance. This research demonstrates that although universal tendencies are observed in average power law exponents, considerable local variability exists that can be partially attributed to local environment. Therefore local environment, as well as tree species, should be accounted for in the development and application of allometric equations for forest studies.

  9. The gene tree delusion.

    PubMed

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level relationships among placental mammals are mostly resolved, but several polytomies remain contentious. Song et al. (2012) claimed to have resolved three of these using shortcut coalescence methods (MP-EST, STAR) and further concluded that these methods, which assume no within-locus recombination, are required to unravel deep-level phylogenetic problems that have stymied concatenation. Here, we reanalyze Song et al.'s (2012) data and leverage these re-analyses to explore key issues in systematics including the recombination ratchet, gene tree stoichiometry, the proportion of gene tree incongruence that results from deep coalescence versus other factors, and simulations that compare the performance of coalescence and concatenation methods in species tree estimation. Song et al. (2012) reported an average locus length of 3.1 kb for the 447 protein-coding genes in their phylogenomic dataset, but the true mean length of these loci (start codon to stop codon) is 139.6 kb. Empirical estimates of recombination breakpoints in primates, coupled with consideration of the recombination ratchet, suggest that individual coalescence genes (c-genes) approach ∼12 bp or less for Song et al.'s (2012) dataset, three to four orders of magnitude shorter than the c-genes reported by these authors. This result has general implications for the application of coalescence methods in species tree estimation. We contend that it is illogical to apply coalescence methods to complete protein-coding sequences. Such analyses amalgamate c-genes with different evolutionary histories (i.e., exons separated by >100,000 bp), distort true gene tree stoichiometry that is required for accurate species tree inference, and contradict the central rationale for applying coalescence methods to difficult phylogenetic problems. In addition, Song et al.'s (2012) dataset of 447 genes includes 21 loci with switched taxonomic names, eight duplicated loci, 26 loci with non-homologous sequences that are

  10. The forest and the trees: Applications for molecular markers in the Pecan Breeding Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inventory specific verification of accession identity is crucial to the function of the National Collection of Genetic Resources (NCGR) for Pecans and Hickories, and is an increasingly important component of the USDA ARS Pecan Breeding Program. The foundation of the NCGR is the living trees maintai...

  11. Applying Ligands Profiling Using Multiple Extended Electron Distribution Based Field Templates and Feature Trees Similarity Searching in the Discovery of New Generation of Urea-Based Antineoplastic Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dokla, Eman M.; Mahmoud, Amr H.; Elsayed, Mohamed S. A.; El-Khatib, Ahmed H.; Linscheid, Michael W.; Abouzid, Khaled A.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a comprehensive computational procedure for the discovery of novel urea-based antineoplastic kinase inhibitors while focusing on diversification of both chemotype and selectivity pattern. It presents a systematic structural analysis of the different binding motifs of urea-based kinase inhibitors and the corresponding configurations of the kinase enzymes. The computational model depends on simultaneous application of two protocols. The first protocol applies multiple consecutive validated virtual screening filters including SMARTS, support vector-machine model (ROC = 0.98), Bayesian model (ROC = 0.86) and structure-based pharmacophore filters based on urea-based kinase inhibitors complexes retrieved from literature. This is followed by hits profiling against different extended electron distribution (XED) based field templates representing different kinase targets. The second protocol enables cancericidal activity verification by using the algorithm of feature trees (Ftrees) similarity searching against NCI database. Being a proof-of-concept study, this combined procedure was experimentally validated by its utilization in developing a novel series of urea-based derivatives of strong anticancer activity. This new series is based on 3-benzylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-one scaffold which has interesting chemical feasibility and wide diversification capability. Antineoplastic activity of this series was assayed in vitro against NCI 60 tumor-cell lines showing very strong inhibition of GI50 as low as 0.9 uM. Additionally, its mechanism was unleashed using KINEX™ protein kinase microarray-based small molecule inhibitor profiling platform and cell cycle analysis showing a peculiar selectivity pattern against Zap70, c-src, Mink1, csk and MeKK2 kinases. Interestingly, it showed activity on syk kinase confirming the recent studies finding of the high activity of diphenyl urea containing compounds against this kinase. Allover, the new series, which is

  12. The Prevalence of Tree Nut Allergy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, Vicki; Koplin, Jennifer; Lodge, Caroline; Tang, Mimi; Dharmage, Shyamali; Allen, Katrina

    2015-09-01

    Tree nuts are one of the most common foods causing acute allergic reactions and nearly all tree nuts have been associated with fatal allergic reactions. Despite their clinical importance, tree nut allergy epidemiology remains understudied and the prevalence of tree nut allergy in different regions of the world has not yet been well characterised. We aimed to systematically review the population prevalence of tree nut allergy in children and adults. We searched three electronic databases (OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed) from January 1996 to December 2014. Eligible studies were categorised by age, region and method of assessment of tree nut allergy. Of the 36 studies identified most were in children (n = 24) and from Europe (n = 18), UK (n = 8) or USA (n = 5). Challenge-confirmed IgE-mediated tree nut allergy prevalence was less than 2 % (although only seven studies used this gold standard) while probable tree nut allergy prevalence ranged from 0.05 to 4.9 %. Prevalence estimates that included oral allergy syndrome (OAS) reactions to tree nut were significantly higher (8-11.4 %) and were predominantly from Europe. Prevalence of individual tree nut allergies varied significantly by region with hazelnut the most common tree nut allergy in Europe, walnut and cashew in the USA and Brazil nut, almond and walnut most commonly reported in the UK. Monitoring time trends of tree nut allergy prevalence (both overall and by individual nuts) as well as the prevalence of OAS should be considered given the context of the overall recent rise in IgE-mediated food allergy prevalence in the developed world. PMID:26233427

  13. The Values Inventory for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilford, Joan S.; And Others

    The inventory is designed to measure seven dimensions of value based on seven categories of needs: physiological; safety; love; esteem; aesthetic; self-actualization; and aggression. Each item was pretested and checked for validity and reliability. Two test formats, each containing 30 items, were prepared: a single picture format in which the…

  14. CAP Self-Inventory Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This booklet of Self-Inventory Cards is one of the 14 components of the Career Alert Planning (CAP) program (see note), a set of individualized materials designed to help participants find out about themselves and about the kind of work for which they are suited. In this program, participants become acquainted with occupations that are…

  15. NATIONAL WETLANDS INVENTORY (NWI) MAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Wetland Inventory digital data files are records of wetlands location and classification as defined by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. This data set is one of a series available in 7.5 minute by 7.5 minute blocks containing ground planimetric coordinates of wetlands p...

  16. RFID Technology for Inventory Management

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is leveraging the use and application of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to a variety of markets. Tagging and tracking of individual items for inventory control is revealing rich rewards through increased time efficiency and reduced human intervention.

  17. Sourcing Life Cycle Inventory Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection and validation of quality lifecycle inventory (LCI) data can be the most difficult and time-consuming aspect of developing a life cycle assessment (LCA). Large amounts of process and production data are needed to complete the LCI. For many studies, the LCA analyst ...

  18. Automated Interactive Storeroom Inventory System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Albert L.; Hess, Larry G.

    1989-01-01

    The inventory system designed for six storerooms in three buildings at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's School of Chemical Sciences replaced an issue-slip and transactions record system with barcode technology. Data collection error reductions have been significant, making it easier to determine stock levels and plan purchases.…

  19. Global National Qualifications Framework Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens; Pevec-Grm, Slava; Graham, Michael; Deij, Arjen; Singh, Madhu; Charkoun, Borhène; Agrawal, Shivani

    2013-01-01

    This publication is a global, country-by-country, inventory of National Qualifications Frameworks (NQFs). It is a copublication, prepared by two EU agencies, the European Training Foundation (ETF) and the Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop); and UNESCO's Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) and the Section for TVET at…

  20. Narratives Validate Communicative Development Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Marten

    2001-01-01

    Explores the criterion-related validity of the Swedish version of the Communicative Development Inventories--Words & Sentences (SECDI-W&S). In two follow-up procedures, SECDI-W&S was used to assess vocabulary and grammar skills in 32 children. Overall results confirm that the criterion-related validity of the SECDI is sound. (Author/VWL)

  1. RFID Technology for Inventory Management

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is leveraging the use and application of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to a variety of markets. Tagging and tracking of individual items for inventory control is revealing rich rewards through increased time efficiency and reduced human intervention.

  2. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for…

  3. The Personality Inventory for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachar, David

    The development of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) began with the core concept that maternal reports would provide data for child guidance evaluation and the consequent belief that maternal responses to a 600-item administration booklet could yield scales useful in determining child and family status. Two areas of weakness were found:…

  4. The Inference of Gene Trees with Species Trees

    PubMed Central

    Szöllősi, Gergely J.; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent; Boussau, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seldom identical, because genes duplicate, are lost or horizontally transferred, and because alleles can coexist in populations for periods that may span several speciation events. Building models describing the relationship between gene and species trees can thus improve the reconstruction of gene trees when a species tree is known, and vice versa. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem in one direction or the other, but in general neither gene trees nor species trees are known. Only a few studies have attempted to jointly infer gene trees and species trees. These models account for gene duplication and loss, transfer or incomplete lineage sorting. Some of them consider several types of events together, but none exists currently that considers the full repertoire of processes that generate gene trees along the species tree. Simulations as well as empirical studies on genomic data show that combining gene tree–species tree models with models of sequence evolution improves gene tree reconstruction. In turn, these better gene trees provide a more reliable basis for studying genome evolution or reconstructing ancestral chromosomes and ancestral gene sequences. We predict that gene tree–species tree methods that can deal with genomic data sets will be instrumental to advancing our understanding of genomic evolution. PMID:25070970

  5. Tree-Ties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresczyk, Rick

    Created to help students understand how plants were used for food, for medicine, and for arts and crafts among the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Indians, the game Tree-Ties combines earth and social sciences within a specific culture. The game requires mutual respect, understanding, and agreement to succeed. Sounding like the word "treaties", the title is a…

  6. Christmas Tree Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Pests and diseases of christmas tree plantations are identified and discussed. Section one deals with weeds and woody plants and the application, formulation and effects of herbicides in controlling them. Section two discusses specific diseases…

  7. Tree theorem for inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Steven

    2008-09-15

    It is shown that the generating function for tree graphs in the ''in-in'' formalism may be calculated by solving the classical equations of motion subject to certain constraints. This theorem is illustrated by application to the evolution of a single inflaton field in a Robertson-Walker background.

  8. A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

  9. MPI File Tree Walk

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-04-30

    MPI-FTW is a scalable MPI based software application that navigates a directory tree by dynamically allocating processes to navigate sub-directories found. Upon completion, MPI-FTW provides statistics on the number of directories found, files found, and time to complete. Inaddition, commands can be executed at each directory level.

  10. Starting Trees from Cuttings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for starting tree cuttings from woody plants, explaining "lag time," recommending materials, and giving step-by-step instructions for rooting and planting. Points out species which are likely candidates for cuttings and provides tips for teachers for developing a unit. (JM)

  11. The Medicine Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokenleg, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Demographic changes in population continue to bring children of different cultural backgrounds to classrooms. This article provides suggestions teachers and counselors can use to bridge cultures. Using the parable of a medicine tree, it explains how no society can endure without caring for its young. (Author/JDM)

  12. Phylogenics & Tree-Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, David A.; Offner, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees, which are depictions of the inferred evolutionary relationships among a set of species, now permeate almost all branches of biology and are appearing in increasing numbers in biology textbooks. While few state standards explicitly require knowledge of phylogenetics, most require some knowledge of evolutionary biology, and many…

  13. Trees at the Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura

    1998-01-01

    Recommends introducing students to biology using a topical focus that can offer intriguing perspectives on the discipline. Describes a biology course that uses trees as a topical focus. Presents a list of literary resources and reviews student interactions. Contains 50 references. (DDR)

  14. Arbutus unedo, Strawberry Tree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Encylopedia of Fruit and Nuts is designed as a research reference source on temperate and tropical fruit and nut crops. Strawberry tree or madrone is native to the Mediterranean region of southern Europe (Arbutus unedo L., Ericaceae) with a relict population in Ireland, as well as in North Ameri...

  15. The Sacred Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lethbridge Univ. (Alberta).

    Designed as a text for high school students and adults, this illustrated book presents ethical concepts and teachings of Native societies throughout North America concerning the nature and possibilities of human existence. The final component of a course in self-discovery and development, the book begins with the legend of the "Sacred Tree"…

  16. Digging Deeper with Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Growing Ideas, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes hands-on science areas that focus on trees. A project on leaf pigmentation involves putting crushed leaves in a test tube with solvent acetone to dissolve pigment. In another project, students learn taxonomy by sorting and classifying leaves based on observable characteristics. Includes a language arts connection. (PVD)

  17. Hug a Tree!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Robert E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Methods for teaching pupils to use their senses to explore colors, shapes, textures, and sounds of the great outdoors are described. Ideas include: (1) having children hug their own special tree; (2) looking for geometric shapes in nature; (3) taking nocturnal nature walks; (4) building a track for racing insects; and (5) collecting objects with…

  18. Cooperative forestry inventory project for Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, R.

    1981-01-01

    A forest inventory project employing computerized classification of LANDSAT data to inventory vegetation types in western Nevada is described. The methodology and applicability of the resulting survey are summarized.

  19. 77 FR 5280 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. The inventory includes service contract actions over $25,000 that were awarded in FY...

  20. Snow Water Equivalent Reconstruction Using FIA Tree Ring Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barandiaran, D.; Wang, S. Y.; DeRose, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Tree ring widths have been used as a proxy for climate variables for several decades. Temperature, precipitation, and less commonly, snow water equivalent have been modeled in numerous locations throughout the world. Typical studies use carefully selected trees to maximize length of record and sensitivity to the variable of interest, and result in a reconstruction for a specific location. Here we use tree ring data collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program, conducted by the U.S. Forest Service to reconstruct snow water equivalent for the state of Utah. This program collects increment cores on a geographically unbiased grid at horizontal resolution of 5-km across the U.S., resulting in an unprecedented sample density of tree ring data, and therefore enabling a reconstruction that covers a large geographic area at a resolution not possible using traditional dendroclimatology methods. Prior work (DeRose et al. 2013) has shown FIA to have coherence with previously published chronologies and with water-year precipitation. Snowpack is a major source of water in the Intermountain West, and yet few tree ring studies have reconstructed SWE and the instrumental record is limited in length, so this reconstruction represents a novel and useful dataset for water users and resource managers alike. Here we present initial results and a preliminary analysis of this unique dataset.

  1. Methane emissions from floodplain trees of the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangala, Sunitha; Bastviken, David; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Gauci, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are the largest source of methane to the atmosphere, but emission estimates are highly uncertain leading to large discrepancies between emission inventories and much larger estimates of the Amazon methane source derived at larger scales. We examined methane emissions from all emission pathways including aquatic surfaces, emergent soils and herbaceous vegetation and more than 2000 trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon floodplain in 2014. Our data are the first measurements of stem emission from emergent portions of inundated trees in the Amazon and they demonstrate that regionally, tree stems are the dominant means of emissions for soil produced methane to the atmosphere. Emissions via the range of egress pathways varied substantially between sample locations and water-table exerted some control over emissions from ~2m below the soil surface upto 0.5-1m of inundation. Higher water (upto ~10m of inundation) exerted no further control over emissions. Applying our measurements to models of whole tree emission and scaling to the entire Amazon lowland basin demonstrates the significant contribution of trees to regional emissions that can close the Amazon basin methane budget.

  2. Point and Fixed Plot Sampling Inventory Estimates at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2004-02-01

    This report provides calculation of systematic point sampling volume estimates for trees greater than or equal to 5 inches diameter breast height (dbh) and fixed radius plot volume estimates for trees < 5 inches dbh at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken County, South Carolina. The inventory of 622 plots was started in March 1999 and completed in January 2002 (Figure 1). Estimates are given in cubic foot volume. The analyses are presented in a series of Tables and Figures. In addition, a preliminary analysis of fuel levels on the SRS is given, based on depth measurements of the duff and litter layers on the 622 inventory plots plus line transect samples of down coarse woody material. Potential standing live fuels are also included. The fuels analyses are presented in a series of tables.

  3. Multistage variable probability forest volume inventory. [Defiance Unit of the Navajo Nation in Arizona and Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The net board foot volume (Scribner log rule) of the standing Ponderosa pine timber on the Defiance Unit of the Navajo Nation's forested land was estimated using a multistage forest volume inventory scheme with variable sample selection probabilities. The inventory designed to accomplish this task required that both LANDSAT MSS digital data and aircraft acquired data be used to locate one acre ground splits, which were subsequently visited by ground teams conducting detailed tree measurements using an optical dendrometer. The dendrometer measurements were then punched on computer input cards and were entered in a computer program developed by the U.S. Forest Service. The resulting individual tree volume estimates were then expanded through the use of a statistically defined equation to produce the volume estimate for the entire area which includes 192,026 acres and is approximately a 44% the total forested area of the Navajo Nation.

  4. 27 CFR 24.313 - Inventory record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory record. 24.313... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.313 Inventory record. A proprietor who files monthly or quarterly reports shall prepare a record of the physical inventory of all wine and spirits...

  5. 10 CFR 39.37 - Physical inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Physical inventory. 39.37 Section 39.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.37 Physical inventory. Each licensee shall conduct a semi-annual physical inventory to account for all licensed...

  6. 10 CFR 39.37 - Physical inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Physical inventory. 39.37 Section 39.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.37 Physical inventory. Each licensee shall conduct a semi-annual physical inventory to account for all licensed...

  7. 10 CFR 39.37 - Physical inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Physical inventory. 39.37 Section 39.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.37 Physical inventory. Each licensee shall conduct a semi-annual physical inventory to account for all licensed...

  8. Echoic Response Inventory for Children (ERIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Carolyn

    The Echoic Response Inventory for Children (ERIC) is part of a test battery which includes the Expressive Vocabulary Inventory (EVI) and the Children's Auditory Discrimination Inventory (CADI), designed to assess language skills of disadvantaged children. These tests also seek to provide data that can help determine what changes in language…

  9. 10 CFR 39.37 - Physical inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Physical inventory. 39.37 Section 39.37 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.37 Physical inventory. Each licensee shall conduct a semi-annual physical inventory to account for all licensed...

  10. Choosing a Hand-Held Inventory Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lois; Hughes, Janet; Neff, Verne; Notartomas, Trish

    2008-01-01

    In spring of 2006, a task force was charged to look at the feasibility of acquiring hand-held inventory devices for the Pennsylvania State University Libraries (PSUL). The task force's charge was not to look at the whole concept of doing an inventory, but rather to focus on the feasibility of acquiring hand-held devices to use in an inventory.…

  11. 40 CFR 52.1391 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) The Governor of the State of Montana submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories... Governor submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventory for Great Falls on April 23, 1997... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1391...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2309 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The Governor of the State of Texas submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the Houston... emission inventory requirement of section 182(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, has been... organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. The inventories cover point, area,...

  13. 40 CFR 52.384 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.384 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Connecticut submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for...

  14. 40 CFR 52.384 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.384 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Connecticut submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for...

  15. 40 CFR 52.384 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.384 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Connecticut submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1391 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) The Governor of the State of Montana submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories... Governor submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventory for Great Falls on April 23, 1997... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1391...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1391 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The Governor of the State of Montana submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories... Governor submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventory for Great Falls on April 23, 1997... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1391...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2350 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 1997, the Governor of Utah submitted the 1993 Carbon Monoxide Periodic Emission Inventories for Ogden... 14, 1999, the Governor of Utah submitted the 1996 Carbon Monoxide Periodic Emission Inventory for... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2350...

  19. 40 CFR 52.384 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.384 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Connecticut submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2350 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 1997, the Governor of Utah submitted the 1993 Carbon Monoxide Periodic Emission Inventories for Ogden... 14, 1999, the Governor of Utah submitted the 1996 Carbon Monoxide Periodic Emission Inventory for... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2350...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1391 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The Governor of the State of Montana submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories... Governor submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventory for Great Falls on April 23, 1997... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1391...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1125 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1125 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1125 Emission inventories... emission inventories for the Springfield nonattainment area and the Massachusetts portion of the...

  3. 40 CFR 52.348 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the State of Colorado submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories for the... submitted the 1990 Carbon Monoxide Base Year Emission Inventory for Greeley as a revision to the Colorado... 1996 Carbon Monoxide Periodic Emission Inventories for Denver and Fort Collins, as a revision to...

  4. 40 CFR 52.348 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the State of Colorado submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories for the... submitted the 1990 Carbon Monoxide Base Year Emission Inventory for Greeley as a revision to the Colorado... 1996 Carbon Monoxide Periodic Emission Inventories for Denver and Fort Collins, as a revision to...

  5. 27 CFR 22.162 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 22.162... Inventories. Each permittee shall take a physical inventory of the tax-free and recovered alcohol in its possession semi-annually for the periods ending June 30 and December 31 of each year; or other...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1125 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1125 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1125 Emission inventories... emission inventories for the Springfield nonattainment area and the Massachusetts portion of the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.384 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.384 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.384 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Connecticut submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for...

  8. 43 CFR 10.9 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventories. 10.9 Section 10.9 Public... Museums and Federal Collections § 10.9 Inventories. (a) General. This section carries out section 5 of the... holdings or collections of human remains and associated funerary objects must compile an inventory of...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1036 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The 2002 base year emission inventory requirement of 40 CFR 51.915 has been satisfied... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1036 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1036 Emission inventories. (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2350 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2350 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2350 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Utah submitted the 1990 base year emission inventory of ozone precursors,...

  11. 40 CFR 52.993 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions inventories. 52.993 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.993 Emissions inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Louisiana submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the Baton...

  12. 40 CFR 52.348 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.348 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.348 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Colorado submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission inventories for...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1374-7 - Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inventory. 1.1374-7 Section 1.1374-7 Internal... TAXES Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1374-7 Inventory. (a) Valuation. The fair market value of the inventory of an S corporation on the first day of the recognition period equals...

  14. 27 CFR 17.167 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 17.167... PRODUCTS Records § 17.167 Inventories. (a) Distilled spirits. The “on hand” figures reported in Part II of TTB Form 5154.2 shall be verified by physical inventories taken as of the end of each quarter in...

  15. 27 CFR 25.294 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories. 25.294... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.294 Inventories. (a) The brewer shall take a physical inventory of beer and cereal beverage at least once each calender month. The brewer may take...

  16. 30 CFR 220.032 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inventories. 220.032 Section 220.032 Mineral... Inventories. (a) The lessee is responsible for NPSL materiel and shall make proper and timely cost and credit... operations. The accumulation of surplus stocks shall be avoided by proper materiel control, inventory...

  17. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a quarterly physical inventory to account for all sealed sources and for devices containing depleted uranium...

  18. 47 CFR 32.1220 - Inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventories. 32.1220 Section 32.1220... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.1220 Inventories. (a) This account shall include the cost of materials and supplies held in stock and inventories of...

  19. 7 CFR 984.21 - Handler inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handler inventory. 984.21 Section 984.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.21 Handler inventory. Handler inventory as of any date means...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1533 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1533 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1533 Emission inventories... inventory for the entire state on January 26, 1993 as a revision to the State Implementation Plan...

  1. 23 CFR 650.315 - Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory. 650.315 Section 650.315 Highways FEDERAL..., STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.315 Inventory. (a) Each State or Federal agency must prepare and maintain an inventory of all bridges subject to the NBIS....

  2. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  3. 42 CFR 35.41 - Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory. 35.41 Section 35.41 Public Health PUBLIC... STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of Money and Effects of Deceased Patients § 35.41 Inventory. Promptly after the death of a patient in a station or hospital of the Service, an inventory of his money and...

  4. 78 FR 10642 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... COMMISSION Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. The inventory includes service contract actions over...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2309 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions inventories. 52.2309 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2309 Emissions inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Texas submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the...

  6. 27 CFR 24.313 - Inventory record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory record. 24.313... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.313 Inventory record. A proprietor who files monthly or quarterly reports shall prepare a record of the physical inventory of all wine and spirits...

  7. 27 CFR 24.266 - Inventory losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory losses. 24.266... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Losses of Wine § 24.266 Inventory losses. (a) General. The proprietor shall take a physical inventory of all untaxpaid wine on-hand on bonded wine premises as of the close...

  8. Psychometric Analysis of the Appreciative Advising Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crone, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    The Appreciative Advising Inventory is an instrument created for use in academic advising. The inventory helps the advisor get to know and understand the student, which in turn allows the advisor to better assist the student. This research provides a psychometric analysis of the Appreciative Advising Inventory to measure its validity and…

  9. 40 CFR 52.2086 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2086 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2086 Emission inventories... inventory for the Providence ozone nonattainment area on January 12, 1993 as a revision to the...

  10. Building Your Own Abseil Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Des

    2002-01-01

    The foot and mouth crisis forced many British outdoor education providers to develop new options. The construction of an abseiling tree is described, which requires a living, healthy, straight tree with a trunk thick enough to remain stable under load and with few branches in the lower 15-20 meters. An abseil tree code of practice is presented.…

  11. The Re-Think Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gear, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The Re-Think Tree is a simple framework to help individuals assess and improve their behaviors related to environmental issues. The branches of the tree in order of priority are refuse, reduce, re-use, and recycle. Roots of the tree include such things as public opinion, education, and watchdog groups. (KS)

  12. Our Air: Unfit for Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dochinger, Leon S.

    To help urban, suburban, and rural tree owners know about air pollution's effects on trees and their tolerance and intolerance to pollutants, the USDA Forest Service has prepared this booklet. It answers the following questions about atmospheric pollution: Where does it come from? What can it do to trees? and What can we do about it? In addition,…

  13. The Tree Worker's Manual. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, S. J.

    This manual acquaints readers with the general operations of the tree care industry. The manual covers subjects important to a tree worker and serves as a training aid for workers at the entry level as tree care professionals. Each chapter begins with a set of objectives and may include figures, tables, and photographs. Ten chapters are included:…

  14. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  15. Building up rhetorical structure trees

    SciTech Connect

    Marcu, D.

    1996-12-31

    I use the distinction between the nuclei and the satellites that pertain to discourse relations to introduce a compositionality criterion for discourse trees. I provide a first-order formalization of rhetorical structure trees and, on its basis, I derive an algorithm that constructs all the valid rhetorical trees that can be associated with a given discourse.

  16. New Life From Dead Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGraaf, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    There are numerous bird species that will nest only in dead or dying trees. Current forestry practices include clearing forests of these snags, or dead trees. This practice is driving many species out of the forests. An illustrated example of bird succession in and on a tree is given. (MA)

  17. Interest Inventory. [Includes Academic Interest Measure, Pupil Activity Inventory, and Semantic Differential].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    This Interest Inventory contains three inventories: Academic Interest Measure (AIM), Pupil Activity Inventory (PAI), and Semantic Differential test (SD). The AIM measures six subscales of academic interests; the PAI measures non-school activities in science; and the SD measures attitudes toward science and physics. The inventories are designed for…

  18. Real-time precision measuring device of tree diameter growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingming; Chen, Aijun; Li, Dongsheng; Liu, Nan; Yao, Jingyuan

    2016-01-01

    DBH(diameter at breast height) is an important factor to reflect of the quality of plant growth, also an important parameter indispensable in forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink, the accurate measurement of DBH or not is directly related to the research of forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink. In this paper, the principle and the mathematical model of DBH measurement device were introduced, the fixture measuring device and the hardware circuit for this tree diameter were designed, the measurement software programs were compiled, and the precision measuring device of tree diameter growth was developed. Some experiments with Australia fir were conducted. Based on experiment data, the correlations among the DBH variation of Australian fir, the environment temperature, air humility and PAR(photosynthetically active radiation) were obtained. The effects of environmental parameters (environment temperature, air humility and PAR) on tree diameter were analyzed. Experimental results show that there is a positive correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and environment temperature, a negative correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and air humility , so is PAR.

  19. PoInTree: a polar and interactive phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Carreras, Marco; Marco, Cerreras; Gianti, Eleonora; Eleonora, Gianti; Sartori, Luca; Luca, Sartori; Plyte, Simon Edward; Edward, Plyte Simon; Isacchi, Antonella; Antonella, Isacchi; Bosotti, Roberta; Roberta, Bosotti

    2005-02-01

    PoInTree (Polar and Interactive Tree) is an application that allows to build, visualize and customize phylogenetic trees in a polar interactive and highly flexible view. It takes as input a FASTA file or multiple alignment formats. Phylogenetic tree calculation is based on a sequence distance method and utilizes the Neighbor Joining (NJ) algorithm. It also allows displaying precalculated trees of the major protein families based on Pfam classification. In PoInTree, nodes can be dynamically opened and closed and distances between genes are graphically represented. Tree root can be centered on a selected leaf. Text search mechanism, color-coding and labeling display are integrated. The visualizer can be connected to an Oracle database containing information on sequences and other biological data, helping to guide their interpretation within a given protein family across multiple species. The application is written in Borland Delphi and based on VCL Teechart Pro 6 graphical component (Steema software). PMID:16144524

  20. Tree Colors: Color Schemes for Tree-Structured Data.

    PubMed

    Tennekes, Martijn; de Jonge, Edwin

    2014-12-01

    We present a method to map tree structures to colors from the Hue-Chroma-Luminance color model, which is known for its well balanced perceptual properties. The Tree Colors method can be tuned with several parameters, whose effect on the resulting color schemes is discussed in detail. We provide a free and open source implementation with sensible parameter defaults. Categorical data are very common in statistical graphics, and often these categories form a classification tree. We evaluate applying Tree Colors to tree structured data with a survey on a large group of users from a national statistical institute. Our user study suggests that Tree Colors are useful, not only for improving node-link diagrams, but also for unveiling tree structure in non-hierarchical visualizations. PMID:26356921

  1. Estimating potential emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) populations using ash inventory data.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Deborah G; Siegert, Nathan W

    2007-10-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a phloem-feeding pest native to Asia, was identified in June 2002 as the cause of widespread ash (Fraxinus spp.), mortality in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Localized populations of A. planipennis have since been found across lower Michigan and in areas of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, and Ontario. Officials working to contain A. planipennis and managers of forestlands near A. planipennis infestations must be able to compare alternative strategies to allocate limited funds efficiently and effectively. Empirical data from a total of 148 green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., and white ash, Fraxinus americana L., trees were used to develop models to estimate surface area of the trunk and branches by using tree diameter at breast height (dbh). Data collected from 71 additional F. pennsylvanica and F. americana trees killed by A. planipennis showed that on average, 88.9 +/- 4.6 beetles developed and emerged per m2 of surface area. Models were applied to ash inventory data collected at two outlier sites to estimate potential production of A. planipennis beetles at each site. Large trees of merchantable size (dbh > or = 26 cm) accounted for roughly 6% of all ash trees at the two sites, but they could have contributed 55-65% of the total A. planipennis production at both sites. In contrast, 75- 80% of the ash trees at the outlier sites were < or =13 cm dbh, but these small trees could have contributed only < or =12% of the potential A. planipennis production at both sites. Our results, in combination with inventory data, can be used by regulatory officials and resource managers to estimate potential A. planipennis production and to compare options for reducing A. planipennis density and slowing the rate of spread for any area of interest. PMID:17972635

  2. 41 CFR 109-27.5007 - Physical inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical inventories...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines § 109-27.5007 Physical inventories....

  3. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence. PMID:24429523

  4. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, N. L.; Das, A. J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S. E.; Baker, P. J.; Beckman, N. G.; Coomes, D. A.; Lines, E. R.; Morris, W. K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S. J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C. N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J. F.; Grau, H. R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M. E.; Hubbell, S. P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L. R.; Pabst, R. J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I.-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P. J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S. K.; Zavala, M. A.

    2014-03-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  5. Women, land, and trees.

    PubMed

    1999-07-01

    This article discusses women's land rights in the context of the findings of the paper, "Women's Land Rights in the Transition to Individualized Ownership: Implications for Tree Resource Management in Western Ghana." The study showed that customary land tenure institutions have evolved toward individualized systems, which provide incentives to invest in tree planting. In effect, individualization of land tenure had strengthened women's land rights through inter vivos gifts. However, transferring of land ownership to women is unlikely to raise productivity if access to and use of other inputs remains unequal. This suggests that attempts to equalize land rights of men and women are unlikely to lead to gender equity and improved efficiency and productivity of women farmers unless other constraints faced by women are also addressed. The article also documents comments, suggestions, and recommendations in response to the summary of the paper. In addition, the different practices of guaranteeing land ownership for women in some countries of Africa are presented. PMID:12295514

  6. Global value trees.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term "global value chains" (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  7. Doubly robust survival trees.

    PubMed

    Steingrimsson, Jon Arni; Diao, Liqun; Molinaro, Annette M; Strawderman, Robert L

    2016-09-10

    Estimating a patient's mortality risk is important in making treatment decisions. Survival trees are a useful tool and employ recursive partitioning to separate patients into different risk groups. Existing 'loss based' recursive partitioning procedures that would be used in the absence of censoring have previously been extended to the setting of right censored outcomes using inverse probability censoring weighted estimators of loss functions. In this paper, we propose new 'doubly robust' extensions of these loss estimators motivated by semiparametric efficiency theory for missing data that better utilize available data. Simulations and a data analysis demonstrate strong performance of the doubly robust survival trees compared with previously used methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037609

  8. Global Value Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term “global value chains” (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  9. Ensemble of Causal Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Piotr

    2003-10-01

    We discuss the geometry of trees endowed with a causal structure using the conventional framework of equilibrium statistical mechanics. We show how this ensemble is related to popular growing network models. In particular we demonstrate that on a class of afine attachment kernels the two models are identical but they can differ substantially for other choice of weights. We show that causal trees exhibit condensation even for asymptotically linear kernels. We derive general formulae describing the degree distribution, the ancestor--descendant correlation and the probability that a randomly chosen node lives at a given geodesic distance from the root. It is shown that the Hausdorff dimension dH of the causal networks is generically infinite.

  10. Mapping trees outside forests using high-resolution aerial imagery: a comparison of pixel- and object-based classification approaches.

    PubMed

    Meneguzzo, Dacia M; Liknes, Greg C; Nelson, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    Discrete trees and small groups of trees in nonforest settings are considered an essential resource around the world and are collectively referred to as trees outside forests (ToF). ToF provide important functions across the landscape, such as protecting soil and water resources, providing wildlife habitat, and improving farmstead energy efficiency and aesthetics. Despite the significance of ToF, forest and other natural resource inventory programs and geospatial land cover datasets that are available at a national scale do not include comprehensive information regarding ToF in the United States. Additional ground-based data collection and acquisition of specialized imagery to inventory these resources are expensive alternatives. As a potential solution, we identified two remote sensing-based approaches that use free high-resolution aerial imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) to map all tree cover in an agriculturally dominant landscape. We compared the results obtained using an unsupervised per-pixel classifier (independent component analysis-[ICA]) and an object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure in Steele County, Minnesota, USA. Three types of accuracy assessments were used to evaluate how each method performed in terms of: (1) producing a county-level estimate of total tree-covered area, (2) correctly locating tree cover on the ground, and (3) how tree cover patch metrics computed from the classified outputs compared to those delineated by a human photo interpreter. Both approaches were found to be viable for mapping tree cover over a broad spatial extent and could serve to supplement ground-based inventory data. The ICA approach produced an estimate of total tree cover more similar to the photo-interpreted result, but the output from the OBIA method was more realistic in terms of describing the actual observed spatial pattern of tree cover. PMID:23255169

  11. Waste management and chemical inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  12. Developing an action concept inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for incorporating expert and student feedback into successive revisions of the ACI. The student feedback, including think-aloud interviews, enabled us to identify their misconceptions about action physics.

  13. Insert tree completion system

    SciTech Connect

    Brands, K.W.; Ball, I.G.; Cegielski, E.J.; Gresham, J.S.; Saunders, D.N.

    1982-09-01

    This paper outlines the overall project for development and installation of a low-profile, caisson-installed subsea Christmas tree. After various design studies and laboratory and field tests of key components, a system for installation inside a 30-in. conductor was ordered in July 1978 from Cameron Iron Works Inc. The system is designed to have all critical-pressure-containing components below the mudline and, with the reduced profile (height) above seabed, provides for improved safety of satellite underwater wells from damage by anchors, trawl boards, and even icebergs. In addition to the innovative nature of the tree design, the completion includes improved 3 1/2-in. through flowline (TFL) pumpdown completion equipment with deep set safety valves and a dual detachable packer head for simplified workover capability. The all-hydraulic control system incorporates a new design of sequencing valve for both Christmas tree control and remote flowline connection. A semisubmersible drilling rig was used to initiate the first end flowline connection at the wellhead for subsequent tie-in to the prelaid, surface-towed, all-welded subsea pipeline bundle.

  14. Tree Rings: Timekeepers of the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, R. L.; McGowan, J.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science issues, this booklet describes the uses of tree rings in historical and biological recordkeeping. Separate sections cover the following topics: dating of tree rings, dating with tree rings, tree ring formation, tree ring identification, sample collections, tree ring cross dating, tree…

  15. How To Write a Municipal Tree Ordinance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, James R., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    At the heart of the Tree City USA program are four basic requirements: The community must have the following: (1) a tree board or department; (2) an annual community forestry program with financial provisions for trees and tree care; (3) an annual Arbor Day proclamation and observance; and (4) a tree ordinance. Sections of a model tree ordinance…

  16. Automated Large Scale Parameter Extraction of Road-Side Trees Sampled by a Laser Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenbergh, R. C.; Berthold, D.; Sirmacek, B.; Herrero-Huerta, M.; Wang, J.; Ebersbach, D.

    2015-08-01

    In urbanized Western Europe trees are considered an important component of the built-up environment. This also means that there is an increasing demand for tree inventories. Laser mobile mapping systems provide an efficient and accurate way to sample the 3D road surrounding including notable roadside trees. Indeed, at, say, 50 km/h such systems collect point clouds consisting of half a million points per 100m. Method exists that extract tree parameters from relatively small patches of such data, but a remaining challenge is to operationally extract roadside tree parameters at regional level. For this purpose a workflow is presented as follows: The input point clouds are consecutively downsampled, retiled, classified, segmented into individual trees and upsampled to enable automated extraction of tree location, tree height, canopy diameter and trunk diameter at breast height (DBH). The workflow is implemented to work on a laser mobile mapping data set sampling 100 km of road in Sachsen, Germany and is tested on a stretch of road of 7km long. Along this road, the method detected 315 trees that were considered well detected and 56 clusters of tree points were no individual trees could be identified. Using voxels, the data volume could be reduced by about 97 % in a default scenario. Processing the results of this scenario took ~2500 seconds, corresponding to about 10 km/h, which is getting close to but is still below the acquisition rate which is estimated at 50 km/h.

  17. Monitoring the progress of emission inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, J.A. Jr.; Solomon, D.; Husk, M.; Irving, B.; Kruger, D.; Levin. L.

    2006-12-15

    This issue of EM contains three articles which focus on the latest improvements on the emissions inventory process. The first, 'Building the national emissions inventory: challenges and plans for improvements' by Doug Solomon and Martin Husk (pages 8-11), looks at the US national emissions inventory. The next, 'Greenhouse gas inventories - a historical perspective and assessment of improvements since 1990' by Bill Irving and Dina Kruger (pages 12-19) assesses improvements in national and international greenhouse gas emissions inventories over the last 15 years. The third article, 'The global mercury emissions inventory' by Leonard Levin (pages 20-25) gives an overview of the challenges associated with conducting a worldwide inventory of mercury emissions.

  18. Exact solutions for species tree inference from discordant gene trees.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chieh; Górecki, Paweł; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2013-10-01

    Phylogenetic analysis has to overcome the grant challenge of inferring accurate species trees from evolutionary histories of gene families (gene trees) that are discordant with the species tree along whose branches they have evolved. Two well studied approaches to cope with this challenge are to solve either biologically informed gene tree parsimony (GTP) problems under gene duplication, gene loss, and deep coalescence, or the classic RF supertree problem that does not rely on any biological model. Despite the potential of these problems to infer credible species trees, they are NP-hard. Therefore, these problems are addressed by heuristics that typically lack any provable accuracy and precision. We describe fast dynamic programming algorithms that solve the GTP problems and the RF supertree problem exactly, and demonstrate that our algorithms can solve instances with data sets consisting of as many as 22 taxa. Extensions of our algorithms can also report the number of all optimal species trees, as well as the trees themselves. To better asses the quality of the resulting species trees that best fit the given gene trees, we also compute the worst case species trees, their numbers, and optimization score for each of the computational problems. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of our exact algorithms using empirical and simulated data sets, and analyze the quality of heuristic solutions for the studied problems by contrasting them with our exact solutions. PMID:24131054

  19. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage—increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  20. Isoprene Emission Factors for Subtropical Street Trees for Regional Air Quality Modeling.

    PubMed

    Dunn-Johnston, Kristina A; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Plant, Lyndal; Rennenberg, Heinz; Schmidt, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the environmental benefits and consequences of urban trees supports their sustainable management in cities. Models such as i-Tree Eco enable decision-making by quantifying effects associated with particular tree species. Of specific concern are emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, particularly isoprene, that contribute to the formation of photochemical smog and ground level ozone. Few studies have quantified these potential disservices of urban trees, and current models predominantly use emissions data from trees that differ from those in our target region of subtropical Australia. The present study aimed (i) to quantify isoprene emission rates of three tree species that together represent 16% of the inventoried street trees in the target region; (ii) to evaluate outputs of the i-Tree Eco model using species-specific versus currently used, generic isoprene emission rates; and (iii) to evaluate the findings in the context of regional air quality. Isoprene emission rates of (Myrtaceae) and (Proteaceae) were 2.61 and 2.06 µg g dry leaf weight h, respectively, whereas (Sapindaceae) was a nonisoprene emitter. We substituted the generic isoprene emission rates with these three empirical values in i-Tree Eco, resulting in a 182 kg yr (97%) reduction in isoprene emissions, totaling 6284 kg yr when extrapolated to the target region. From these results we conclude that care has to be taken when using generic isoprene emission factors for urban tree models. We recommend that emissions be quantified for commonly planted trees, allowing decision-makers to select tree species with the greatest overall benefit for the urban environment. PMID:26828179

  1. A Section-based Method For Tree Species Classification Using Airborne LiDAR Discrete Points In Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunjing, Y. C.; Hui, T.; Zhongjie, R.; Guikai, B.

    2015-12-01

    As a new approach to forest inventory utilizing, LiDAR remote sensing has become an important research issue in the past. Lidar researches initially concentrate on the investigation for mapping forests at the tree level and identifying important structural parameters, such as tree height, crown size, crown base height, individual tree species, and stem volume etc. But for the virtual city visualization and mapping, the traditional methods of tree classification can't satisfy the more complex conditions. Recently, the advanced LiDAR technology has generated new full waveform scanners that provide a higher point density and additional information about the reflecting characteristics of trees. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that it is feasible to detect individual overstorey trees in forests and classify species. But the important issues like the calibration and the decomposition of full waveform data with a series of Gaussian functions usually take a lot of works. What's more, the detection and classification of vegetation results relay much on the prior outcomes. From all above, the section-based method for tree species classification using small footprint and high sampling density lidar data is proposed in this paper, which can overcome the tree species classification issues in urban areas. More specific objectives are to: (1)use local maximum height decision and four direction sections certification methods to get the precise locations of the trees;(2) develop new lidar-derived features processing techniques for characterizing the section structure of individual tree crowns;(3) investigate several techniques for filtering and analyzing vertical profiles of individual trees to classify the trees, and using the expert decision skills based on percentile analysis;(4) assess the accuracy of estimating tree species for each tree, and (5) investigate which type of lidar data, point frequency or intensity, provides the most accurate estimate of tree species

  2. On Determining if Tree-based Networks Contain Fixed Trees.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Maria; Anipchenko-Ulaj, Olga; Ashfaq, Aisha; Chiu, Joyce; Kaiser, Mahedi; Ohsawa, Max Shoji; Owen, Megan; Pavlechko, Ella; St John, Katherine; Suleria, Shivam; Thompson, Keith; Yap, Corrine

    2016-05-01

    We address an open question of Francis and Steel about phylogenetic networks and trees. They give a polynomial time algorithm to decide if a phylogenetic network, N, is tree-based and pose the problem: given a fixed tree T and network N, is N based on T? We show that it is [Formula: see text]-hard to decide, by reduction from 3-Dimensional Matching (3DM) and further that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable. PMID:27125655

  3. Adaptive circle-ellipse fitting method for estimating tree diameter based on single terrestrial laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Guochao; Wang, Pei

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has been used to extract accurate forest biophysical parameters for inventory purposes. The diameter at breast height (DBH) is a key parameter for individual trees because it has the potential for modeling the height, volume, biomass, and carbon sequestration potential of the tree based on empirical allometric scaling equations. In order to extract the DBH from the single-scan data of TLS automatically and accurately within a certain range, we proposed an adaptive circle-ellipse fitting method based on the point cloud transect. This proposed method can correct the error caused by the simple circle fitting method when a tree is slanted. A slanted tree was detected by the circle-ellipse fitting analysis, then the corresponding slant angle was found based on the ellipse fitting result. With this information, the DBH of the trees could be recalculated based on reslicing the point cloud data at breast height. Artificial stem data simulated by a cylindrical model of leaning trees and the scanning data acquired with the RIEGL VZ-400 were used to test the proposed adaptive fitting method. The results shown that the proposed method can detect the trees and accurately estimate the DBH for leaning trees.

  4. Estimates of live-tree carbon stores in the Pacific Northwest are sensitive to model selection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Estimates of live-tree carbon stores are influenced by numerous uncertainties. One of them is model-selection uncertainty: one has to choose among multiple empirical equations and conversion factors that can be plausibly justified as locally applicable to calculate the carbon store from inventory measurements such as tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH). Here we quantify the model-selection uncertainty for the five most numerous tree species in six counties of northwest Oregon, USA. Results The results of our study demonstrate that model-selection error may introduce 20 to 40% uncertainty into a live-tree carbon estimate, possibly making this form of error the largest source of uncertainty in estimation of live-tree carbon stores. The effect of model selection could be even greater if models are applied beyond the height and DBH ranges for which they were developed. Conclusions Model-selection uncertainty is potentially large enough that it could limit the ability to track forest carbon with the precision and accuracy required by carbon accounting protocols. Without local validation based on detailed measurements of usually destructively sampled trees, it is very difficult to choose the best model when there are several available. Our analysis suggests that considering tree form in equation selection may better match trees to existing equations and that substantial gaps exist, in terms of both species and diameter ranges, that are ripe for new model-building effort. PMID:21477353

  5. Efficient tree tensor network states (TTNS) for quantum chemistry: Generalizations of the density matrix renormalization group algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatani, Naoki; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2013-04-01

    We investigate tree tensor network states for quantum chemistry. Tree tensor network states represent one of the simplest generalizations of matrix product states and the density matrix renormalization group. While matrix product states encode a one-dimensional entanglement structure, tree tensor network states encode a tree entanglement structure, allowing for a more flexible description of general molecules. We describe an optimal tree tensor network state algorithm for quantum chemistry. We introduce the concept of half-renormalization which greatly improves the efficiency of the calculations. Using our efficient formulation we demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of tree tensor network states versus matrix product states. We carry out benchmark calculations both on tree systems (hydrogen trees and π-conjugated dendrimers) as well as non-tree molecules (hydrogen chains, nitrogen dimer, and chromium dimer). In general, tree tensor network states require much fewer renormalized states to achieve the same accuracy as matrix product states. In non-tree molecules, whether this translates into a computational savings is system dependent, due to the higher prefactor and computational scaling associated with tree algorithms. In tree like molecules, tree network states are easily superior to matrix product states. As an illustration, our largest dendrimer calculation with tree tensor network states correlates 110 electrons in 110 active orbitals.

  6. Managing Inventories of Heavy Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Wham, Robert M; Patton, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has stored a limited inventory of heavy actinides contained in irradiated targets, some partially processed, at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 'heavy actinides' of interest include plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes; specifically 242Pu and 244Pu, 243Am, and 244/246/248Cm. No alternate supplies of these heavy actinides and no other capabilities for producing them are currently available. Some of these heavy actinide materials are important for use as feedstock for producing heavy isotopes and elements needed for research and commercial application. The rare isotope 244Pu is valuable for research, environmental safeguards, and nuclear forensics. Because the production of these heavy actinides was made possible only by the enormous investment of time and money associated with defense production efforts, the remaining inventories of these rare nuclear materials are an important part of the legacy of the Nuclear Weapons Program. Significant unique heavy actinide inventories reside in irradiated Mark-18A and Mark-42 targets at SRS and ORNL, with no plans to separate and store the isotopes for future use. Although the costs of preserving these heavy actinide materials would be considerable, for all practical purposes they are irreplaceable. The effort required to reproduce these heavy actinides today would likely cost billions of dollars and encompass a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles for at least 50 years; thus, reproduction is virtually impossible. DOE has a limited window of opportunity to recover and preserve these heavy actinides before they are disposed of as waste. A path forward is presented to recover and manage these irreplaceable National Asset materials for future use in research, nuclear forensics, and other potential applications.

  7. The fault-tree compiler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martensen, Anna L.; Butler, Ricky W.

    1987-01-01

    The Fault Tree Compiler Program is a new reliability tool used to predict the top event probability for a fault tree. Five different gate types are allowed in the fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N gates. The high level input language is easy to understand and use when describing the system tree. In addition, the use of the hierarchical fault tree capability can simplify the tree description and decrease program execution time. The current solution technique provides an answer precise (within the limits of double precision floating point arithmetic) to the five digits in the answer. The user may vary one failure rate or failure probability over a range of values and plot the results for sensitivity analyses. The solution technique is implemented in FORTRAN; the remaining program code is implemented in Pascal. The program is written to run on a Digital Corporation VAX with the VMS operation system.

  8. Regional Mapping, Modelling, and Monitoring of Tree Aboveground Biomass Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudak, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Airborne lidar collections are preferred for mapping aboveground biomass carbon (AGBC), while historical Landsat imagery are preferred for monitoring decadal scale forest cover change. Our modelling approach tracks AGBC change regionally using Landsat time series metrics; training areas are defined by airborne lidar extents within which AGBC is accurately mapped with high confidence. Geospatial topographic and climate layers are also included in the predictive model. Validation is accomplished using systematically sampled Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot data that have been independently collected, processed and summarized at the county level. Our goal is to demonstrate that spatially and temporally aggregated annual AGBC map predictions show no bias when compared to annual county-level summaries across the Northwest USA. A prominent source of bias is trees outside forest; much of the more arid portions of our study area meet the FIA definition of non-forest because the tree cover does not exceed their minimum tree cover threshold. We employ detailed tree cover maps derived from high-resolution aerial imagery to extend our AGBC predictions into non-forest areas. We also employ Landsat-derived annual disturbance maps into our mapped AGBC predictions prior to aggregation and validation.

  9. Stable feature selection for clinical prediction: exploiting ICD tree structure using Tree-Lasso.

    PubMed

    Kamkar, Iman; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Phung, Dinh; Venkatesh, Svetha

    2015-02-01

    Modern healthcare is getting reshaped by growing Electronic Medical Records (EMR). Recently, these records have been shown of great value towards building clinical prediction models. In EMR data, patients' diseases and hospital interventions are captured through a set of diagnoses and procedures codes. These codes are usually represented in a tree form (e.g. ICD-10 tree) and the codes within a tree branch may be highly correlated. These codes can be used as features to build a prediction model and an appropriate feature selection can inform a clinician about important risk factors for a disease. Traditional feature selection methods (e.g. Information Gain, T-test, etc.) consider each variable independently and usually end up having a long feature list. Recently, Lasso and related l1-penalty based feature selection methods have become popular due to their joint feature selection property. However, Lasso is known to have problems of selecting one feature of many correlated features randomly. This hinders the clinicians to arrive at a stable feature set, which is crucial for clinical decision making process. In this paper, we solve this problem by using a recently proposed Tree-Lasso model. Since, the stability behavior of Tree-Lasso is not well understood, we study the stability behavior of Tree-Lasso and compare it with other feature selection methods. Using a synthetic and two real-world datasets (Cancer and Acute Myocardial Infarction), we show that Tree-Lasso based feature selection is significantly more stable than Lasso and comparable to other methods e.g. Information Gain, ReliefF and T-test. We further show that, using different types of classifiers such as logistic regression, naive Bayes, support vector machines, decision trees and Random Forest, the classification performance of Tree-Lasso is comparable to Lasso and better than other methods. Our result has implications in identifying stable risk factors for many healthcare problems and therefore can

  10. Toxic chemical release inventory information.

    PubMed

    Bronson, R J

    1991-01-01

    As part of a U.S. government effort to inform the public about toxic or hazardous chemicals released into the environment, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are jointly producing the TRI (Toxic Chemical Release Inventory) databanks which consist of two separate files, TRI87 and TRI88. Both files reside on NLM's TOX-NET system. The files contain geographic information about reporting facilities and land, air, and water release data for approximately 300 listed chemicals. PMID:10111718

  11. OSSA Space Station waste inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Bosley, John J.; Curran, George L.; Mains, Richard

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has compiled an inventory of the types and quantities of the wastes that will be generated by the Space Station's initial operational phase in 35 possible mission scenarios. The objective of this study was the definition of waste management requirements for both the Space Station and the Space Shuttles servicing it. All missions, when combined, will produce about 5350 kg of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes every 90 days. A characterization has been made of the wastes in terms of toxicity, corrosiveness, and biological activity.

  12. Barking up the Right Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    There is a childhood saying about a confused dog who thinks he sees a possum in a tree. The problem is that the possum is actually in a different tree so the dog barks up the wrong tree. American education is constantly playing both dog and possum. Sometimes they are the prey, and sometimes they are just confused about what and where the prey is.…

  13. Tropical Forest Tree Height Retrieval With Tandem-X: Algorithm Development And Accuracy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antropov, Oleg; Rauste, Yrjo; Hame, Tuomas; de Jong, Ben

    2013-12-01

    Two semi-empirical approaches suitable for forest tree height retrieval from interferometric SAR images were developed in this study. Methods developed are mainly meant for cases when reference elevation model is missing. Spaceborne interferometric SAR data from TanDEM-X mission was used in the study. The study site was located in the south-eastern part of the state of Chiapas, Mexico. The TanDEM-X images were acquired during spring and summer 2012. The height estimates obtained in the study varied between 15 and 35 meters in the area of interest covered by the TanDEM-X images. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between estimated tree heights and reference ground plots form National Forest Inventory were 0.25 and 0.32 for maximum and average tree height measures, respectively. This work on tropical forest tree height retrieval from interferometric TanDEM-X images was performed within the EU FP7 project ReCover.

  14. Ozone exposure : Areas of potential ozone risk for selected tree species in Austria.

    PubMed

    Loibl, W; Smidt, S

    1996-12-01

    Increased tropospheric ozone concentrations cause damage to both human health and the environment. To assess the exposure of forest areas and selected tree species to ozone, it is necessary to calculate the ozone exposure distribution. The present article describes the application of an ozone interpolation model to the calculation of the ozone exposure distribution in combination with forest inventory data.The exposure of forest regions to ozone was assessed by means of an AOT40 map (accumulated ozone exposure over a threshold of 40 ppb). The calculation was performed by hourly running of the model during the summer term and accumulation of the patterns that exceeded 40 ppb.The exposure of the primary Austrian tree species to ozone can be assessed due to the spatial relation of ozone exposure and tree species patterns. This spatial relation also allows the verification of assumptions concerning ozone-related tree damage. PMID:24233419

  15. Classifying pairs with trees for supervised biological network inference† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Implementation and computational issues, supplementary performance curves, and illustration of interpretability of trees. See DOI: 10.1039/c5mb00174a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Wehenkel, Louis; Babu, M. Madan; Geurts, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Networks are ubiquitous in biology, and computational approaches have been largely investigated for their inference. In particular, supervised machine learning methods can be used to complete a partially known network by integrating various measurements. Two main supervised frameworks have been proposed: the local approach, which trains a separate model for each network node, and the global approach, which trains a single model over pairs of nodes. Here, we systematically investigate, theoretically and empirically, the exploitation of tree-based ensemble methods in the context of these two approaches for biological network inference. We first formalize the problem of network inference as a classification of pairs, unifying in the process homogeneous and bipartite graphs and discussing two main sampling schemes. We then present the global and the local approaches, extending the latter for the prediction of interactions between two unseen network nodes, and discuss their specializations to tree-based ensemble methods, highlighting their interpretability and drawing links with clustering techniques. Extensive computational experiments are carried out with these methods on various biological networks that clearly highlight that these methods are competitive with existing methods. PMID:26008881

  16. Distributed Merge Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther

    2013-01-08

    Improved simulations and sensors are producing datasets whose increasing complexity exhausts our ability to visualize and comprehend them directly. To cope with this problem, we can detect and extract significant features in the data and use them as the basis for subsequent analysis. Topological methods are valuable in this context because they provide robust and general feature definitions. As the growth of serial computational power has stalled, data analysis is becoming increasingly dependent on massively parallel machines. To satisfy the computational demand created by complex datasets, algorithms need to effectively utilize these computer architectures. The main strength of topological methods, their emphasis on global information, turns into an obstacle during parallelization. We present two approaches to alleviate this problem. We develop a distributed representation of the merge tree that avoids computing the global tree on a single processor and lets us parallelize subsequent queries. To account for the increasing number of cores per processor, we develop a new data structure that lets us take advantage of multiple shared-memory cores to parallelize the work on a single node. Finally, we present experiments that illustrate the strengths of our approach as well as help identify future challenges.

  17. Tree Modeling and Dynamics Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian-shuang, Fu; Yi-bing, Li; Dong-xu, Shen

    This paper introduces the theory about tree modeling and dynamic movements simulation in computer graphics. By comparing many methods we choose Geometry-based rendering as our method. The tree is decomposed into branches and leaves, under the rotation and quaternion methods we realize the tree animation and avoid the Gimbals Lock in Euler rotation. We take Orge 3D as render engine, which has good graphics programming ability. By the end we realize the tree modeling and dynamic movements simulation, achieve realistic visual quality with little computation cost.

  18. Human decision error (HUMDEE) trees

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrom, L.T.

    1993-08-01

    Graphical presentations of human actions in incident and accident sequences have been used for many years. However, for the most part, human decision making has been underrepresented in these trees. This paper presents a method of incorporating the human decision process into graphical presentations of incident/accident sequences. This presentation is in the form of logic trees. These trees are called Human Decision Error Trees or HUMDEE for short. The primary benefit of HUMDEE trees is that they graphically illustrate what else the individuals involved in the event could have done to prevent either the initiation or continuation of the event. HUMDEE trees also present the alternate paths available at the operator decision points in the incident/accident sequence. This is different from the Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP) event trees. There are many uses of these trees. They can be used for incident/accident investigations to show what other courses of actions were available and for training operators. The trees also have a consequence component so that not only the decision can be explored, also the consequence of that decision.

  19. Laser Safety Audit and Inventory System Database

    SciTech Connect

    AUGUSTONI, ARNOLD L.

    2003-05-01

    A laser safety auditing and inventory system has been in use at Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque for the past five years and has recently been considered for adoption by Sandia National Laboratories--Livermore. The system utilizes the ''Microsoft Access'' database application, part of the Office 2000 software package. Audit and inventory data is available on-line for ready access by laser users. Data is updated weekly to provide users with current information relating to laser facility audits and laser inventories.

  20. Hanford inventory program user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkelman, K.C.

    1994-09-12

    Provides users with instructions and information about accessing and operating the Hanford Inventory Program (HIP) system. The Hanford Inventory Program is an integrated control system that provides a single source for the management and control of equipment, parts, and material warehoused by Westinghouse Hanford Company in various site-wide locations. The inventory is comprised of spare parts and equipment, shop stock, special tools, essential materials, and convenience storage items. The HIP replaced the following systems; ACA, ASP, PICS, FSP, WSR, STP, and RBO. In addition, HIP manages the catalog maintenance function for the General Supplies inventory stocked in the 1164 building and managed by WIMS.

  1. 40 CFR 52.1125 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission inventories for the Springfield nonattainment area and the Massachusetts portion of the Boston... Springfield nonattainment area and the Massachusetts portion of the Boston-Lawrence-Worcester...

  2. Assessment of ASTER data for forest inventory in Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Benito, Alfonso; Arbelo, Manuel; Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; González-Calvo, Alejandro; Labrador Garcia, Mauricio

    To understand and evaluate the forest structural attributes, forest inventories are conducted, which are costly and lengthy in time. Since the last 10-15 years there has been examining the possibility of using remote sensing data, to save costs and cheapen the process. One of the aims of SATELMAC, a project PCT-MAC 2007-2013 co-financing with FEDER funds, is to automate the forest inventory in Canary Islands using satellite images. In this study, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data were used to estimate forest structure of the endemic vegetal specie, Pinus canariensis, located on the island of Tenerife (Spain). The forest structural attributes analyzed have been volume, basal area, stem per hectare and tree height. ASTER is an imaging instrument flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASA's Earth Observing System. ASTER data were used because it have relatively high spatial resolution in the three visible and near-infrared bands (15 m) and in the six spectral bands (30 m) in the shortwave-IR region. To identify the vegetation index that is most suitable to use, about specific forest structural attributes in our study area, we assess the ability of different spectral indices: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, Modified Soil adjusted Vegetation Index, Perpendicular Vegetation Index and Reduced Simple Ratio. The information provided by the ASTER data has been supplemented by the Third National Forest Inventory (III NFI) and field data. The results are analyzed statistically in order to see the degree of correlation (R2) and the mean square error (RMSE) of the values studied.

  3. Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-11-01

    Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology. PMID:24037268

  4. DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

  5. Estimating urban trees and carbon stock potentials for mitigating climate change in Lagos: Case of Ikeja Government Reserved Area (GRA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, P. O.; Faderin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Urban trees are a component of the urban infrastructure which offers diverse services including environmental, aesthetic and economic. The accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere resulting from the indiscriminate distribution of human populations and urban activities with the unsustainable consumption of natural resources contributes to global environmental change especially in coastal cities like Lagos. Carbon stocks and sequestration by urban trees are increasingly recognized to play significant roles for mitigating climate change. This paper focuses on the estimation of carbon stock and sequestration through biomass estimation and quantification in Ikeja GRA, Lagos. Ikeja possesses a characteristic feature as a microcosm of Lagos due to the wide range of land uses. A canopy assessment of tree population was carried out using itree canopy software. A GPS survey was used to collect an inventory of all trees showing their location, spatial distribution and other attributes. The analysis of the carbon storage and sequestration potential of both actual and potential tree planting sites involved biomass estimations from tree allometry equations. Trees were identified at species level and measurements of their dendrometric values were recorded and integrated into the GIS database to estimate biomass of trees and carbon storage. The trees in the study area were estimated to have a biomass of 441.9 mg and carbon storage of 221.395 kg/tree. By considering the potential tree planting sites the estimated carbon stored increased to 11,352.73 kg. Carbon sequestration value in the study area was found to be 1.6790 tonnes for the existing trees and 40.707 tonnes for the potential tree planting sites (PTPS). The estimation of carbon storage and sequestration values of trees are important incentives for carbon accounting/footprints and monitoring of climate change mitigation which has implications for evaluation and monitoring of urban ecosystem.

  6. Forest Tree Species Distribution Mapping Using Landsat Satellite Imagery and Topographic Variables with the Maximum Entropy Method in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao Chiang, Shou; Valdez, Miguel; Chen, Chi-Farn

    2016-06-01

    Forest is a very important ecosystem and natural resource for living things. Based on forest inventories, government is able to make decisions to converse, improve and manage forests in a sustainable way. Field work for forestry investigation is difficult and time consuming, because it needs intensive physical labor and the costs are high, especially surveying in remote mountainous regions. A reliable forest inventory can give us a more accurate and timely information to develop new and efficient approaches of forest management. The remote sensing technology has been recently used for forest investigation at a large scale. To produce an informative forest inventory, forest attributes, including tree species are unavoidably required to be considered. In this study the aim is to classify forest tree species in Erdenebulgan County, Huwsgul province in Mongolia, using Maximum Entropy method. The study area is covered by a dense forest which is almost 70% of total territorial extension of Erdenebulgan County and is located in a high mountain region in northern Mongolia. For this study, Landsat satellite imagery and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) were acquired to perform tree species mapping. The forest tree species inventory map was collected from the Forest Division of the Mongolian Ministry of Nature and Environment as training data and also used as ground truth to perform the accuracy assessment of the tree species classification. Landsat images and DEM were processed for maximum entropy modeling, and this study applied the model with two experiments. The first one is to use Landsat surface reflectance for tree species classification; and the second experiment incorporates terrain variables in addition to the Landsat surface reflectance to perform the tree species classification. All experimental results were compared with the tree species inventory to assess the classification accuracy. Results show that the second one which uses Landsat surface reflectance coupled

  7. Enumeration of spanning trees in planar unclustered networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yuzhi; Zhao, Haixing; Hu, Guona; Ma, Xiujuan

    2014-07-01

    Among a variety of subgraphs, spanning trees are one of the most important and fundamental categories. They are relevant to diverse aspects of networks, including reliability, transport, self-organized criticality, loop-erased random walks and so on. In this paper, we introduce a family of modular, self-similar planar networks with zero clustering. Relevant properties of this family are comparable to those networks associated with technological systems having low clustering, like power grids, some electronic circuits, the Internet and some biological systems. So, it is very significant to research on spanning trees of planar networks. However, for a large network, evaluating the relevant determinant is intractable. In this paper, we propose a fairly generic linear algorithm for counting the number of spanning trees of a planar network. Using the algorithm, we derive analytically the exact numbers of spanning trees in planar networks. Our result shows that the computational complexity is O(t), which is better than that of the matrix tree theorem with O(m2t2), where t is the number of steps and m is the girth of the planar network. We also obtain the entropy for the spanning trees of a given planar network. We find that the entropy of spanning trees in the studied network is small, which is in sharp contrast to the previous result for planar networks with the same average degree. We also determine an upper bound and a lower bound for the numbers of spanning trees in the family of planar networks by the algorithm. As another application of the algorithm, we give a formula for the number of spanning trees in an outerplanar network with small-world features.

  8. Two Trees: Migrating Fault Trees to Decision Trees for Real Time Fault Detection on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Charles; Alena, Richard L.; Robinson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We started from ISS fault trees example to migrate to decision trees, presented a method to convert fault trees to decision trees. The method shows that the visualizations of root cause of fault are easier and the tree manipulating becomes more programmatic via available decision tree programs. The visualization of decision trees for the diagnostic shows a format of straight forward and easy understands. For ISS real time fault diagnostic, the status of the systems could be shown by mining the signals through the trees and see where it stops at. The other advantage to use decision trees is that the trees can learn the fault patterns and predict the future fault from the historic data. The learning is not only on the static data sets but also can be online, through accumulating the real time data sets, the decision trees can gain and store faults patterns in the trees and recognize them when they come.

  9. The Group Tree of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ping, Ki

    1994-01-01

    Describes a group activity that uses a tree as a metaphor to reflect both group and personal growth during adventure activities. The tree's roots represent the group's formation, the branches and leaves represent the group's diversity and capabilities, and the seeds represent the personal learning and growth that took place within the group.…

  10. Studying Evergreen Trees in December.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Dorothy K.

    1991-01-01

    This lesson plan uses evergreen trees on sale in cities and villages during the Christmas season to teach identification techniques. Background information, activities, and recommended references guides deal with historical, symbolic and current uses of evergreen trees, physical characteristics, selection, care, and suggestions for post-Christmas…

  11. Fractions, trees and unfinished business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shraiman, Boris

    In this talk, mourning the loss of a teacher and a dear friend, I would like to share some unfinished thoughts loosely connecting - via Farey fraction trees - Kadanoff's study of universality of quasi-periodic route to chaos with the effort to understand universal features of genealogical trees.

  12. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  13. Hydrocarbons from plants and trees

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, M.

    1982-07-01

    The way energy was used in the US in 1980 was examined. A diagram shows the development of energy from its source to its end use. The following are described: the carbon dioxide problem - the greenhouse effect, sugar cane as an energy source, hydrocarbon-producing plants and trees, and isoprenoids from plants and trees. (MHR)

  14. Inventory processes for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    Inventory records are maintained in the following inventory systems: HIP, (Spare Parts), WIM, (General Supplies): Convenient Storage, Shop Stock, Essential Materials, Special Tools, ESP (Excess Inventory). Requisitions for replenishment of inventory items are initiated in the respective inventory system and then forwarded to the purchasing system.

  15. 10 CFR 75.32 - Initial inventory report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial inventory report. 75.32 Section 75.32 Energy... AGREEMENT Reports § 75.32 Initial inventory report. (a) The initial inventory reporting date shall be the... inventory report is required. (b) The initial inventory report, to be submitted to the Commission...

  16. 41 CFR 109-27.5007-2 - Inventory adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inventory adjustments... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines § 109-27.5007-2 Inventory adjustments. Discrepancies between physical inventories and stock records shall...

  17. 41 CFR 109-27.5002 - Stores inventory turnover ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stores inventory... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines § 109-27.5002 Stores inventory turnover ratio. Comparison of investment in stores inventories to annual...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1013-1 - Property included in inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Property included in inventory. 1.1013-1 Section... inventory. The basis of property required to be included in inventory is the last inventory value of such property in the hands of the taxpayer. The requirements with respect to the valuation of an inventory...

  19. Early evolution without a tree of life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Life is a chemical reaction. Three major transitions in early evolution are considered without recourse to a tree of life. The origin of prokaryotes required a steady supply of energy and electrons, probably in the form of molecular hydrogen stemming from serpentinization. Microbial genome evolution is not a treelike process because of lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiotic origins of organelles. The lack of true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition has a bioenergetic cause. This article was reviewed by Dan Graur, W. Ford Doolittle, Eugene V. Koonin and Christophe Malaterre. PMID:21714942

  20. Accurate Inventories Of Irrigated Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S.; Thomas, R.; Brown, C.

    1992-01-01

    System for taking land-use inventories overcomes two problems in estimating extent of irrigated land: only small portion of large state surveyed in given year, and aerial photographs made on 1 day out of year do not provide adequate picture of areas growing more than one crop per year. Developed for state of California as guide to controlling, protecting, conserving, and distributing water within state. Adapted to any large area in which large amounts of irrigation water needed for agriculture. Combination of satellite images, aerial photography, and ground surveys yields data for computer analysis. Analyst also consults agricultural statistics, current farm reports, weather reports, and maps. These information sources aid in interpreting patterns, colors, textures, and shapes on Landsat-images.

  1. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Collections Inventory Project: A Statistical Analysis of Inventory Data from a Medium-Sized Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jan S.; Whisler, John A.; Sung, Nackil

    2009-01-01

    Using an electronic shelf-reading system a cost-benefit analysis was conducted of an inventory/shelf-reading project in a medium-sized academic library. Analyses include time spent, cataloging discrepancies, books found with active statuses, mis-shelving rate and distance, and subsequent use of found books. Correctly re-shelving "missing"…

  2. Imputing forest carbon stock estimates from inventory plots to a nationally continuous coverage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. has been providing national-scale estimates of forest carbon (C) stocks and stock change to meet United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reporting requirements for years. Although these currently are provided as national estimates by pool and year to meet greenhouse gas monitoring requirements, there is growing need to disaggregate these estimates to finer scales to enable strategic forest management and monitoring activities focused on various ecosystem services such as C storage enhancement. Through application of a nearest-neighbor imputation approach, spatially extant estimates of forest C density were developed for the conterminous U.S. using the U.S.’s annual forest inventory. Results suggest that an existing forest inventory plot imputation approach can be readily modified to provide raster maps of C density across a range of pools (e.g., live tree to soil organic carbon) and spatial scales (e.g., sub-county to biome). Comparisons among imputed maps indicate strong regional differences across C pools. The C density of pools closely related to detrital input (e.g., dead wood) is often highest in forests suffering from recent mortality events such as those in the northern Rocky Mountains (e.g., beetle infestations). In contrast, live tree carbon density is often highest on the highest quality forest sites such as those found in the Pacific Northwest. Validation results suggest strong agreement between the estimates produced from the forest inventory plots and those from the imputed maps, particularly when the C pool is closely associated with the imputation model (e.g., aboveground live biomass and live tree basal area), with weaker agreement for detrital pools (e.g., standing dead trees). Forest inventory imputed plot maps provide an efficient and flexible approach to monitoring diverse C pools at national (e.g., UNFCCC) and regional scales (e.g., Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation projects) while

  3. 36 CFR 223.4 - Exchange of trees or portions of trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exchange of trees or portions of trees. 223.4 Section 223.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.4 Exchange of trees or portions of trees. Trees or portions of trees...

  4. 36 CFR 223.4 - Exchange of trees or portions of trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exchange of trees or portions of trees. 223.4 Section 223.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.4 Exchange of trees or portions of trees. Trees or portions of trees...

  5. 36 CFR 223.4 - Exchange of trees or portions of trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exchange of trees or portions of trees. 223.4 Section 223.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.4 Exchange of trees or portions of trees. Trees or portions of trees...

  6. 36 CFR 223.4 - Exchange of trees or portions of trees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exchange of trees or portions of trees. 223.4 Section 223.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.4 Exchange of trees or portions of trees. Trees or portions of trees...

  7. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: INVENTORY GUIDELINES AND PRINCIPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is describing the process, the underlying data, and the Inherent assumptions Involved in conducting the Inventory component of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) In order to facilitate understanding by potential users. This Inventory...

  8. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a...

  9. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a...

  10. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a...

  11. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a...

  12. Development of Mentor Teacher Role Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Ebru Melek

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and investigate the validity and reliability of the Mentor Teacher Role Inventory (MTRI). A total of 1843 student teachers in the Distance English Teacher Training Program participated in the study. The 58 items of the Mentor Teacher Role Inventory underwent principal factor analysis, which revealed nine factors…

  13. The Padua Inventory: Do Revisions Need Revision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonner, Sascha; Ecker, Willi; Leonhart, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties, factorial structure, and validity of the Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision and of the Padua Inventory-Revised in a large sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 228) and with anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 213). The…

  14. Global emissions inventories to aid atmospheric modelers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graedel, T. E.

    Computer projections of changes in global atmospheric chemistry could become more accurate and more easily compared with the availability of standard global emissions inventories. Starting in 1994, the Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) began to finalize gridded global emissions inventories and distribute them to atmospheric scientists. GEIA operates under the auspices of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project, a cooperative effort of several hundred atmospheric scientists from more than 30 countries. The purpose of the IGAC Project is to measure, understand, and predict changes in global atmospheric chemistry, particularly those contributing to global problems such as acid rain, depletion of stratospheric ozone, greenhouse warming, and increased oxidant levels that damage biota.A 1992 survey by participants in the GEIA project [Graedel et al., 1993] showed that suitable emissions inventories are rarely available. The chlorofluorocarbon inventory, regarded as well quantified, was unavailable in gridded form. Inventories for CO2, CH4, NOx, SO2, reduced sulfur, and radon were regarded as having excess uncertainty, inadequate spatial resolution, or both; inventories for other chemical species were sketchy or nonexistent. Temporal resolution was almost uniformly poor. The survey made it clear that internally consistent, rigorously developed, gridded inventories with adequate spatial and temporal resolution would be valuable.

  15. 40 CFR 52.2309 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2309 Emissions inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Texas submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the Houston... Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission submitted State Implementation Plan revisions to the...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2309 - Emissions inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2309 Emissions inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Texas submitted the 1990 base year emission inventories for the Houston... Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission submitted State Implementation Plan revisions to the...

  17. Validation of the Classroom Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunden, Dale; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Factor-analytic methods were used toassess contruct validity of the Classroom Behavior Inventory, a scale for rating behaviors associated with hyperactivity. The Classroom Behavior Inventory measures three dimensions of behavior: Hyperactivity, Hostility, and Sociability. Significant concurrent validity was obtained for only one Classroom Behavior…

  18. Informal Reading Inventories--A New Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Thomas S.

    Although informal reading inventories are widely used, they are not without their shortcomings, regardless of whether they have been published commercially or have been constructed by the teacher. There are at least two significant weaknesses in inventories developed by the teacher: (1) passages selected randomly from the graded basal readers that…

  19. 27 CFR 24.266 - Inventory losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inventory losses. 24.266 Section 24.266 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Losses of Wine § 24.266 Inventory losses. (a) General. The...

  20. 27 CFR 24.266 - Inventory losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inventory losses. 24.266 Section 24.266 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Losses of Wine § 24.266 Inventory losses. (a) General. The...

  1. Construct Validation of the Physics Metacognition Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John

    2013-01-01

    The 24-item Physics Metacognition Inventory was developed to measure physics students' metacognition for problem solving. Items were classified into eight subcomponents subsumed under two broader components: knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition. The students' scores on the inventory were found to be reliable and related to…

  2. 40 CFR 52.1533 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1533 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1533 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of New Hampshire submitted a 1990 base year...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1533 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1533 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1533 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of New Hampshire submitted a 1990 base year...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2086 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2086 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2086 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Rhode Island submitted the 1990 base year...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1533 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1533 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1533 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of New Hampshire submitted a 1990 base year...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2086 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2086 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2086 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Rhode Island submitted the 1990 base year...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1533 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1533 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1533 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of New Hampshire submitted a 1990 base year...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2086 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.2086 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2086 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor's designee for the State of Rhode Island submitted the 1990 base year...

  9. Validity of the Decisional Process Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marco, Cynthia D.; Hartung, Paul J.; Newman, Isadore; Parr, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    The Gestalt-based Decisional Process Inventory and measures of career indecision and vocational identity were completed by 201 subjects. Results supported the inventory's ability to differentiate by career choice states. Concurrent validity was supported, but confirmatory factor analysis did not support the factor structure regarding measurement…

  10. 40 CFR 52.1036 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The 2002 base year emission inventory requirement of 40 CFR 51.915 has been satisfied... Cumberland, Sagadahoc and York Counties. The Hancock and Waldo Counties nonattainment area is classified as... submitted a 2002 base year emission inventory for Cumberland, Sagadahoc, and York counties, to...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1036 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The 2002 base year emission inventory requirement of 40 CFR 51.915 has been satisfied... Cumberland, Sagadahoc and York Counties. The Hancock and Waldo Counties nonattainment area is classified as... submitted a 2002 base year emission inventory for Cumberland, Sagadahoc, and York counties, to...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1036 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The 2002 base year emission inventory requirement of 40 CFR 51.915 has been satisfied... Cumberland, Sagadahoc and York Counties. The Hancock and Waldo Counties nonattainment area is classified as... submitted a 2002 base year emission inventory for Cumberland, Sagadahoc, and York counties, to...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1036 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). The 2002 base year emission inventory requirement of 40 CFR 51.915 has been satisfied... Cumberland, Sagadahoc and York Counties. The Hancock and Waldo Counties nonattainment area is classified as... submitted a 2002 base year emission inventory for Cumberland, Sagadahoc, and York counties, to...

  14. 27 CFR 19.329 - Production inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production inventories. 19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production Inventories § 19.329 Production... other vessels in the production account at the close of each calendar quarter and at such other times...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1391 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission inventories. 52.1391 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1391 Emission inventories. (a) The Governor of the State of Montana submitted the 1990 carbon monoxide base year emission...

  16. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  17. 76 FR 62327 - Retail Inventory Method

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...-3(e) (75 FR 78944), the amount of an allowance, discount, or price rebate a taxpayer earns by... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ64 Retail Inventory Method AGENCY: Internal Revenue... regulations relating to the retail inventory method of accounting. The regulations restate and clarify...

  18. Relativity Concept Inventory: Development, Analysis, and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example,…

  19. 48 CFR 3045.508 - Physical inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Physical inventories. 3045.508 Section 3045.508 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Property in the Possession of Contractors 3045.508 Physical inventories....

  20. 23 CFR 650.315 - Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inventory. 650.315 Section 650.315 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.315 Inventory. (a) Each State...

  1. 23 CFR 650.315 - Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory. 650.315 Section 650.315 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.315 Inventory. (a) Each State...

  2. 23 CFR 650.315 - Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inventory. 650.315 Section 650.315 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.315 Inventory. (a) Each State...

  3. 23 CFR 650.315 - Inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inventory. 650.315 Section 650.315 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.315 Inventory. (a) Each State...

  4. Inventory and Billing Systems for Multiple Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lavon

    Washington State University developed a comprehensive supplies inventory system and a generalized billing system with multiple users in mind. The supplies inventory control system developed for Central Stores, a self-sustaining service center that purchases and warehouses office, laboratory, and hardware supplies, was called AIMS, An Inventory…

  5. Determining Factor Structure in a Multidimensional Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeter, Thomas E.; Gill, Diane L.

    A two-step procedure is described and used to revise a multidimensional inventory in its developmental stages. First, the latent factors influencing the observed variables on the inventory are determined and justified using the following five methods: Kaiser's criterion, root staring, examination of difference values, examination of root mean…

  6. Subsea tree cap well choke system

    SciTech Connect

    Bednar, J.M.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes an apparatus useful in subsea well completions requiring a subsea choke. It comprises: a wellhead connector; a tree flow passage; a tree annulus passage; a tree cap; a choke; and a production line.

  7. The Effect of Wind on Tree STEM Parameter Estimation Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaaja, M. T.; Virtanen, J.-P.; Kurkela, M.; Lehtola, V.; Hyyppä, J.; Hyyppä, H.

    2016-06-01

    The 3D measurement technique of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in forest inventories has shown great potential for improving the accuracy and efficiency of both individual tree and plot level data collection. However, the effect of wind has been poorly estimated in the error analysis of TLS tree measurements although it causes varying deformations to the trees. In this paper, we evaluated the effect of wind on tree stem parameter estimation at different heights using TLS. The data consists of one measured Scots pine captured from three different scanning directions with two different scanning resolutions, 6.3 mm and 3.1 mm at 10 m. The measurements were conducted under two different wind speeds, approximately 3 m/s and 9 m/s, as recorded by a nearby weather station of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Our results show that the wind may cause both the underestimation and overestimation of tree diameter when using TLS. The duration of the scanning is found to have an impact for the measured shape of the tree stem under 9 m/s wind conditions. The results also indicate that a 9 m/s wind does not have a significant effect on the stem parameters of the lower part of a tree (<28% of the tree height). However, as the results imply, the wind conditions should be taken into account more comprehensively in analysis of TLS tree measurements, especially if multiple scans from different positions are registered together. In addition, TLS could potentially be applied to indirectly measure wind speed by observing the tree stem movement.

  8. National Facilities Study. Volume 1: Facilities Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The inventory activity was initiated to solve the critical need for a single source of site specific descriptive and parametric data on major public and privately held aeronautics and aerospace related facilities. This a challenging undertaking due to the scope of the effort and the short lead time in which to assemble the inventory and have it available to support the task group study needs. The inventory remains dynamic as sites are being added and the data is accessed and refined as the study progresses. The inventory activity also included the design and implementation of a computer database and analytical tools to simplify access to the data. This volume describes the steps which were taken to define the data requirements, select sites, and solicit and acquire data from them. A discussion of the inventory structure and analytical tools is also provided.

  9. Inventory Data Package for Hanford Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, Charles T.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Miley, Terri B.; Nelson, Iral C.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Evans, John C.

    2006-06-01

    This document presents the basis for a compilation of inventory for radioactive contaminants of interest by year for all potentially impactive waste sites on the Hanford Site for which inventory data exist in records or could be reasonably estimated. This document also includes discussions of the historical, current, and reasonably foreseeable (1944 to 2070) future radioactive waste and waste sites; the inventories of radionuclides that may have a potential for environmental impacts; a description of the method(s) for estimating inventories where records are inadequate; a description of the screening method(s) used to select those sites and contaminants that might make a substantial contribution to impacts; a listing of the remedial actions and their completion dates for waste sites; and tables showing the best estimate inventories available for Hanford assessments.

  10. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Urban Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem

    1997-09-01

    Urban shade trees offer significant benefits in reducing building air- conditioning and improving urban air quality by reducing smog. The savings associated with these benefits varies by climate regions and can be up to $200 per tree. The cost of planting trees and maintaining them can vary from $10 to $500 per tree. Tree planting programs can be designed offer savings to communities that plant trees.

  11. Trees increase their P:N ratio with size

    PubMed Central

    Sardans, J; Peñuelas, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Phosphorus (P) tends to become limiting in aging terrestrial ecosystems, and its resorption efficiency is higher than for other elements such as nitrogen (N). We thus hypothesized that trees should store more P than those other elements such as N when tree size increases and that this process should be enhanced in slow-growing late successional trees. Location Catalan forests. Methods We have used data from the Catalan Forest Inventory that contains field data of the P and N contents of total aboveground, foliar and woody biomasses of the diverse Mediterranean, temperate and alpine forests of Catalonia (1018 sites). We used correlation and general lineal models (GLM) to analyze the allometric relationships between nutrient contents of different aboveground biomass fractions (foliar, branches and stems) and total aboveground biomass. Results Aboveground forest P content increases proportionally more than aboveground forest N content with increasing aboveground biomass. Two mechanisms underlie this. First, woody biomass increases proportionally more than foliar biomass having woody biomass higher P:N ratio than foliar biomass. Second, wood P:N ratio increases with tree size. These results are consistent with the generally higher foliar resorption of P than of N. Slow-growing species accumulate more P in total aboveground with size than fast-growing species mainly as a result of their large capacity to store P in wood. Main conclusions Trees may have thus developed long-term adaptive mechanisms to store P in biomass, mainly in wood, thereby slowing the loss of P from the ecosystems, reducing its availability for competitors, and implying an increase in the P:N ratio in forest biomass with aging. This trend to accumulate more P than N with size is more accentuated in slow-growing, large, long-living species of late successional stages. This way they partly counterbalance the gradual decrease of P in the soil. PMID:25983656

  12. Climate and Edaphic Controls on Humid Tropical Forest Tree Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Saatchi, S. S.; Xu, L.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainty in the magnitude and spatial variations of forest carbon density in tropical regions is due to under sampling of forest structure from inventory plots and the lack of regional allometry to estimate the carbon density from structure. Here we quantify the variation of tropical forest structure by using more than 2.5 million measurements of canopy height from systematic sampling of Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) satellite observations between 2004 to 2008 and examine the climate and edaphic variables influencing the variations. We used top canopy height of GLAS footprints (~ 0.25 ha) to grid the statistical mean and 90 percentile of samples at 0.5 degrees to capture the regional variability of large trees in tropics. GLAS heights were also aggregated based on a stratification of tropical regions using soil, elevation, and forest types. Both approaches provided consistent patterns of statistically dominant large trees and the least heterogeneity, both as strong drivers of distribution of high biomass forests. Statistical models accounting for spatial autocorrelation suggest that climate, soil and spatial features together can explain more than 60% of the variations in observed tree height information, while climate-only variables explains about one third of the first-order changes in tree height. Soil basics, including physical compositions such as clay and sand contents, chemical properties such as PH values and cation-exchange capacity, as well as biological variables such as organic matters, all present independent but statistically significant relationships to tree height variations. The results confirm other landscape and regional studies that soil fertility, geology and climate may jointly control a majority of the regional variations of forest structure in pan-tropics and influencing both biomass stocks and dynamics. Consequently, other factors such as biotic and disturbance regimes, not included in this study, may have less influence on

  13. 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF SPATIAL ALLOCATION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development and application of spatial allocation factors for the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment program(NAPAP) Emissions Inventory (Version 2). The 1985 annual inventory and related modelers' inventory represent the most comprehensive and hi...

  14. 78 FR 47273 - Information Collection; Inventory Property Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection; Inventory Property Management AGENCY: Farm Service Agency... Inventory Property Management. The information is used to evaluate applicant requests to purchase inventory... Desk Officer for Agriculture, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management...

  15. 48 CFR 645.608 - Screening of contractor inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inventory. 645.608 Section 645.608 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 645.608 Screening of contractor inventory....

  16. Are There Infinite Irrigation Trees?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernot, M.; Caselles, V.; Morel, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    In many natural or artificial flow systems, a fluid flow network succeeds in irrigating every point of a volume from a source. Examples are the blood vessels, the bronchial tree and many irrigation and draining systems. Such systems have raised recently a lot of interest and some attempts have been made to formalize their description, as a finite tree of tubes, and their scaling laws [25], [26]. In contrast, several mathematical models [5], [22], [10], propose an idealization of these irrigation trees, where a countable set of tubes irrigates any point of a volume with positive Lebesgue measure. There is no geometric obstruction to this infinitesimal model and general existence and structure theorems have been proved. As we show, there may instead be an energetic obstruction. Under Poiseuille law R(s) = s -2 for the resistance of tubes with section s, the dissipated power of a volume irrigating tree cannot be finite. In other terms, infinite irrigation trees seem to be impossible from the fluid mechanics viewpoint. This also implies that the usual principle analysis performed for the biological models needs not to impose a minimal size for the tubes of an irrigating tree; the existence of the minimal size can be proven from the only two obvious conditions for such irrigation trees, namely the Kirchhoff and Poiseuille laws.

  17. Terrestrial apes and phylogenetic trees

    PubMed Central

    Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2010-01-01

    The image that best expresses Darwin’s thinking is the tree of life. However, Darwin’s human evolutionary tree lacked almost everything because only the Neanderthals were known at the time and they were considered one extreme expression of our own species. Darwin believed that the root of the human tree was very deep and in Africa. It was not until 1962 that the root was shown to be much more recent in time and definitively in Africa. On the other hand, some neo-Darwinians believed that our family tree was not a tree, because there were no branches, but, rather, a straight stem. The recent years have witnessed spectacular discoveries in Africa that take us close to the origin of the human tree and in Spain at Atapuerca that help us better understand the origin of the Neanderthals as well as our own species. The final form of the tree, and the number of branches, remains an object of passionate debate. PMID:20445090

  18. Disturbance legacies and climate jointly drive tree growth and mortality in an intensively studied boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Rocha, Adrian V; Calvin, Katherine; Holmes, Bruce; Wang, Chuankuan; Goulden, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    Most North American forests are at some stage of post-disturbance regrowth, subject to a changing climate, and exhibit growth and mortality patterns that may not be closely coupled to annual environmental conditions. Distinguishing the possibly interacting effects of these processes is necessary to put short-term studies in a longer term context, and particularly important for the carbon-dense, fire-prone boreal forest. The goals of this study were to combine dendrochronological sampling, inventory records, and machine-learning algorithms to understand how tree growth and death have changed at one highly studied site (Northern Old Black Spruce, NOBS) in the central Canadian boreal forest. Over the 1999-2012 inventory period, mean tree diameter increased even as stand density and basal area declined significantly. Tree mortality averaged 1.4 ± 0.6% yr-(1), with most mortality occurring in medium-sized trees; new recruitment was minimal. There have been at least two, and probably three, significant influxes of new trees since stand initiation, but none in recent decades. A combined tree ring chronology constructed from sampling in 2001, 2004, and 2012 showed several periods of extreme growth depression, with increased mortality lagging depressed growth by ~5 years. Higher minimum and maximum air temperatures exerted a negative influence on tree growth, while precipitation and climate moisture index had a positive effect; both current- and previous-year data exerted significant effects. Models based on these variables explained 23-44% of the ring-width variability. We suggest that past climate extremes led to significant mortality still visible in the current forest structure, with decadal dynamics superimposed on slower patterns of fire and succession. These results have significant implications for our understanding of previous work at NOBS, the carbon sequestration capability of old-growth stands in a disturbance-prone landscape, and the sustainable management of

  19. Public health preparedness and response capacity inventory validity study.

    PubMed

    Costich, Julia Field; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Practice Program Office has issued a Public Health Preparedness and Response Capacity Inventory to help state and local public health systems assess their progress towards achievement of the critical capacities and benchmarks specified in the federal Supplemental Funds for Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. The criterion validity of the capacity inventory was assessed by comparing selected state and local agency responses with documentation provided by the agencies to corroborate their answers. Content validity assessment took the form of a mailed survey that also identified the most important questions from the perspective of a separate set of state and local officials. Responses generally upheld the validity of the capacity inventory, although circumstantial threats to validity were identified in the testing process. The instrument's use has been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by approximately half the states and over 800 local public health entities. An interactive electronic version includes a scoring mechanism that allows agencies to judge progress towards the critical capacities and benchmarks over time. PMID:15253518

  20. Implementing municipal tree planting: Los Angeles million-tree initiative.

    PubMed

    Pincetl, Stephanie

    2010-02-01

    Urban forests are increasingly being seen as an important infrastructure that can help cities remediate their environmental impacts. This work reports on the first steps in implementing a million tree program in Los Angeles and the ways such a biogenic-living-infrastructure has been approached. Numbers of studies have been done to quantify the benefits of urban forests, but little has been written on the process of implementing urban tree planting programs. The investigative methods were primarily qualitative, involving interviews, attending meetings and conducting literature reviews. Results indicate that multiple nonprofit and city agency programs are involved in planting and maintaining trees and this has required coordination among groups that here-to-fore were unaccustomed to having to collaborate. The main finding that emerge from this research is that the implementation of such a program in Los Angeles is more complicated than it may seem due to several interacting factors: the need to rely on multiple public and private organizations to put trees into the ground and to maintain them; coordination of these multiple efforts must be centralized, but requires a great deal of time and effort and maybe resisted by some of the partners; funding for planting and long term maintenance must be pieced together from multiple sources; acceptance of trees by residents varies by neighborhood as does tree canopy cover; appropriate nursery supply can be limited; the location of the program within the city administration is determined by who initiates the program. PMID:20016982

  1. Implementing Municipal Tree Planting: Los Angeles Million-Tree Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincetl, Stephanie

    2010-02-01

    Urban forests are increasingly being seen as an important infrastructure that can help cities remediate their environmental impacts. This work reports on the first steps in implementing a million tree program in Los Angeles and the ways such a biogenic—living—infrastructure has been approached. Numbers of studies have been done to quantify the benefits of urban forests, but little has been written on the process of implementing urban tree planting programs. The investigative methods were primarily qualitative, involving interviews, attending meetings and conducting literature reviews. Results indicate that multiple nonprofit and city agency programs are involved in planting and maintaining trees and this has required coordination among groups that here-to-fore were unaccustomed to having to collaborate. The main finding that emerge from this research is that the implementation of such a program in Los Angeles is more complicated than it may seem due to several interacting factors: the need to rely on multiple public and private organizations to put trees into the ground and to maintain them; coordination of these multiple efforts must be centralized, but requires a great deal of time and effort and maybe resisted by some of the partners; funding for planting and long term maintenance must be pieced together from multiple sources; acceptance of trees by residents varies by neighborhood as does tree canopy cover; appropriate nursery supply can be limited; the location of the program within the city administration is determined by who initiates the program.

  2. STRAW: Species TRee Analysis Web server

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Timothy I.; Ruan, Zheng; Glenn, Travis C.; Liu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    The coalescent methods for species tree reconstruction are increasingly popular because they can accommodate coalescence and multilocus data sets. Herein, we present STRAW, a web server that offers workflows for reconstruction of phylogenies of species using three species tree methods—MP-EST, STAR and NJst. The input data are a collection of rooted gene trees (for STAR and MP-EST methods) or unrooted gene trees (for NJst). The output includes the estimated species tree, modified Robinson-Foulds distances between gene trees and the estimated species tree and visualization of trees to compare gene trees with the estimated species tree. The web sever is available at http://bioinformatics.publichealth.uga.edu/SpeciesTreeAnalysis/. PMID:23661681

  3. Semi-supervised SVM for individual tree crown species classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalponte, Michele; Ene, Liviu Theodor; Marconcini, Mattia; Gobakken, Terje; Næsset, Erik

    2015-12-01

    In this paper a novel semi-supervised SVM classifier is presented, specifically developed for tree species classification at individual tree crown (ITC) level. In ITC tree species classification, all the pixels belonging to an ITC should have the same label. This assumption is used in the learning of the proposed semi-supervised SVM classifier (ITC-S3VM). This method exploits the information contained in the unlabeled ITC samples in order to improve the classification accuracy of a standard SVM. The ITC-S3VM method can be easily implemented using freely available software libraries. The datasets used in this study include hyperspectral imagery and laser scanning data acquired over two boreal forest areas characterized by the presence of three information classes (Pine, Spruce, and Broadleaves). The experimental results quantify the effectiveness of the proposed approach, which provides classification accuracies significantly higher (from 2% to above 27%) than those obtained by the standard supervised SVM and by a state-of-the-art semi-supervised SVM (S3VM). Particularly, by reducing the number of training samples (i.e. from 100% to 25%, and from 100% to 5% for the two datasets, respectively) the proposed method still exhibits results comparable to the ones of a supervised SVM trained with the full available training set. This property of the method makes it particularly suitable for practical forest inventory applications in which collection of in situ information can be very expensive both in terms of cost and time.

  4. Decision tree modeling using R

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In machine learning field, decision tree learner is powerful and easy to interpret. It employs recursive binary partitioning algorithm that splits the sample in partitioning variable with the strongest association with the response variable. The process continues until some stopping criteria are met. In the example I focus on conditional inference tree, which incorporates tree-structured regression models into conditional inference procedures. While growing a single tree is subject to small changes in the training data, random forests procedure is introduced to address this problem. The sources of diversity for random forests come from the random sampling and restricted set of input variables to be selected. Finally, I introduce R functions to perform model based recursive partitioning. This method incorporates recursive partitioning into conventional parametric model building. PMID:27570769

  5. Decision tree modeling using R.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2016-08-01

    In machine learning field, decision tree learner is powerful and easy to interpret. It employs recursive binary partitioning algorithm that splits the sample in partitioning variable with the strongest association with the response variable. The process continues until some stopping criteria are met. In the example I focus on conditional inference tree, which incorporates tree-structured regression models into conditional inference procedures. While growing a single tree is subject to small changes in the training data, random forests procedure is introduced to address this problem. The sources of diversity for random forests come from the random sampling and restricted set of input variables to be selected. Finally, I introduce R functions to perform model based recursive partitioning. This method incorporates recursive partitioning into conventional parametric model building. PMID:27570769

  6. Inventory to go: can stockless deliver efficiency?

    PubMed

    Kowalski, J C

    1991-11-01

    Influenced by the Japanese management concept of "just-in-time," healthcare organizations are looking to their departmental inventories for possible cost reductions. Some organizations have developed a materials management technique known as stockless inventory, in which much of the management of an organization's supplies is switched to an outside vendor. By eliminating its storeroom and many of the staffing needs that go along with it, a hospital with a stockless inventory program can realize significant cost savings. Whether these savings offset potentially large service fees is a question each hospital must decide on its own. PMID:10145526

  7. How to conduct an emissions inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Topazio, R.J.

    1994-07-01

    An inventory will quantify emissions through source identification, extensive data gathering, research, process investigation, emission rate calculation and control equipment efficiency determination. For most facilities, a proper inventory will take six months to complete. Add that to the time it will take to prepare the permit application and it becomes evident that action needs to be taken now. Deadlines for submitting Title V operating permit applications to state agencies are right around the corner. This paper describes the process of conducting an emissions inventory.

  8. Relativity concept inventory: Development, analysis, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanides, J. S.; Savage, C. M.

    2013-06-01

    We report on a concept inventory for special relativity: the development process, data analysis methods, and results from an introductory relativity class. The Relativity Concept Inventory tests understanding of relativistic concepts. An unusual feature is confidence testing for each question. This can provide additional information; for example, high confidence correlated with incorrect answers suggests a misconception. A novel aspect of our data analysis is the use of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the significance of correlations. This approach is particularly useful for small sample sizes, such as ours. Our results show a gender bias that was not present in course assessment, similar to that reported for the Force Concept Inventory.

  9. SCIS. Small Container Storage Inventory System

    SciTech Connect

    Esworthy, S.

    1988-09-01

    SCIS, the Small Container Inventory System, was developed to track the chemical inventory in the Small Container Storage Facility. Running totals of the amounts of stored chemicals can be extracted daily, with reports generated at the close of business on the last working day of each month. SCIS is designed to provide complete logging of all chemical transactions of the Facility. Records can be retrieved based on key information in any of the 14 fields in the system. Eight reports are available by division, cabinet number, and chemical name; for chemicals removed and chemicals remaining; for all transactions occurring during a specified month; and a current inventory by chemical name and cabinet number.

  10. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  11. Inventory of state energy models

    SciTech Connect

    Melcher, A.G.; Gist, R.L.; Underwood, R.G.; Weber, J.C.

    1980-03-31

    These models address a variety of purposes, such as supply or demand of energy or of certain types of energy, emergency management of energy, conservation in end uses of energy, and economic factors. Fifty-one models are briefly described as to: purpose; energy system; applications;status; validation; outputs by sector, energy type, economic and physical units, geographic area, and time frame; structure and modeling techniques; submodels; working assumptions; inputs; data sources; related models; costs; references; and contacts. Discussions in the report include: project purposes and methods of research, state energy modeling in general, model types and terminology, and Federal legislation to which state modeling is relevant. Also, a state-by-state listing of modeling efforts is provided and other model inventories are identified. The report includes a brief encylopedia of terms used in energy models. It is assumed that many readers of the report will not be experienced in the technical aspects of modeling. The project was accomplished by telephone conversations and document review by a team from the Colorado School of Mines Research Institute and the faculty of the Colorado School of Mines. A Technical Committee (listed in the report) provided advice during the course of the project.

  12. Strategies for the use of mixed-effects models in continuous forest inventories.

    PubMed

    Westfall, James A

    2016-04-01

    Forest inventory data often consists of measurements taken on field plots as well as values predicted from statistical models, e.g., tree biomass. Many of these models only include fixed-effects parameters either because at the time the models were established, mixed-effects model theory had not yet been thoroughly developed or the use of mixed models was deemed unnecessary or too complex. Over the last two decades, considerable research has been conducted on the use of mixed models in forestry, such that mixed models and their applications are generally well understood. However, most of these assessments have focused on static validation data, and mixed model applications in the context of continuous forest inventories have not been evaluated. In comparison to fixed-effects models, the results of this study showed that mixed models can provide considerable reductions in prediction bias and variance for the population and also for subpopulations therein. However, the random effects resulting from the initial model fit deteriorated rapidly over time, such that some field data is needed to effectively recalibrate the random effects for each inventory cycle. Thus, implementation of mixed models requires ongoing maintenance to reap the benefits of improved predictive behavior. Forest inventory managers must determine if this gain in predictive power outweighs the additional effort needed to employ mixed models in a temporal framework. PMID:27010710

  13. Fault Tree Analysis: A Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Fault tree analysis is a top-down approach to the identification of process hazards. It is as one of the best methods for systematically identifying an graphically displaying the many ways some things can go wrong. This bibliography references 266 documents in the NASA STI Database that contain the major concepts. fault tree analysis, risk an probability theory, in the basic index or major subject terms. An abstract is included with most citations, followed by the applicable subject terms.

  14. Short Tree, Long Tree, Right Tree, Wrong Tree: New Acquisition Bias Corrections for Inferring SNP Phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Leaché, Adam D; Banbury, Barbara L; Felsenstein, Joseph; de Oca, Adrián Nieto-Montes; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2015-11-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful markers for phylogenetic studies owing in part to their ubiquity throughout the genome and ease of collection. Restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) methods are becoming increasingly popular for SNP data collection, but an assessment of the best practises for using these data in phylogenetics is lacking. We use computer simulations, and new double digest RADseq (ddRADseq) data for the lizard family Phrynosomatidae, to investigate the accuracy of RAD loci for phylogenetic inference. We compare the two primary ways RAD loci are used during phylogenetic analysis, including the analysis of full sequences (i.e., SNPs together with invariant sites), or the analysis of SNPs on their own after excluding invariant sites. We find that using full sequences rather than just SNPs is preferable from the perspectives of branch length and topological accuracy, but not of computational time. We introduce two new acquisition bias corrections for dealing with alignments composed exclusively of SNPs, a conditional likelihood method and a reconstituted DNA approach. The conditional likelihood method conditions on the presence of variable characters only (the number of invariant sites that are unsampled but known to exist is not considered), while the reconstituted DNA approach requires the user to specify the exact number of unsampled invariant sites prior to the analysis. Under simulation, branch length biases increase with the amount of missing data for both acquisition bias correction methods, but branch length accuracy is much improved in the reconstituted DNA approach compared to the conditional likelihood approach. Phylogenetic analyses of the empirical data using concatenation or a coalescent-based species tree approach provide strong support for many of the accepted relationships among phrynosomatid lizards, suggesting that RAD loci contain useful phylogenetic signal across a range of divergence times despite the

  15. Short Tree, Long Tree, Right Tree, Wrong Tree: New Acquisition Bias Corrections for Inferring SNP Phylogenies

    PubMed Central

    Leaché, Adam D.; Banbury, Barbara L.; Felsenstein, Joseph; de Oca, Adrián nieto-Montes; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful markers for phylogenetic studies owing in part to their ubiquity throughout the genome and ease of collection. Restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) methods are becoming increasingly popular for SNP data collection, but an assessment of the best practises for using these data in phylogenetics is lacking. We use computer simulations, and new double digest RADseq (ddRADseq) data for the lizard family Phrynosomatidae, to investigate the accuracy of RAD loci for phylogenetic inference. We compare the two primary ways RAD loci are used during phylogenetic analysis, including the analysis of full sequences (i.e., SNPs together with invariant sites), or the analysis of SNPs on their own after excluding invariant sites. We find that using full sequences rather than just SNPs is preferable from the perspectives of branch length and topological accuracy, but not of computational time. We introduce two new acquisition bias corrections for dealing with alignments composed exclusively of SNPs, a conditional likelihood method and a reconstituted DNA approach. The conditional likelihood method conditions on the presence of variable characters only (the number of invariant sites that are unsampled but known to exist is not considered), while the reconstituted DNA approach requires the user to specify the exact number of unsampled invariant sites prior to the analysis. Under simulation, branch length biases increase with the amount of missing data for both acquisition bias correction methods, but branch length accuracy is much improved in the reconstituted DNA approach compared to the conditional likelihood approach. Phylogenetic analyses of the empirical data using concatenation or a coalescent-based species tree approach provide strong support for many of the accepted relationships among phrynosomatid lizards, suggesting that RAD loci contain useful phylogenetic signal across a range of divergence times despite the

  16. Spatial variation in the (137)Cs inventory in soils in a mixed deciduous forest in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takada, Momo; Yamada, Toshihiro; Takahara, Teruhiko; Okuda, Toshinori

    2016-09-01

    The spatial variation of the radiocesium inventory in forest soil was studied c.a. 44 km northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Japan. This study focuses on the effects of canopy interception and downward transfer from the forest canopy to the forest floor via stemflow and throughfall. We established a study plot (400 m(2)) in the canopy layer of a secondary mixed deciduous forest dominated by Japanese oak (Quercus crispula) and Japanese fir (Abies firma), in August and November 2014. Soil was sampled from 0 to 5 cm depth and (137)Cs was measured under the canopy using a 2-m grid and also at the tree trunk bases. We divided the study plot into the five different types of subplot according to the canopy projection areas and the tree species for the analysis. The geometric mean and coefficient of variation of the (137)Cs inventory were 202 kBq m(-2) and 0.11 (0.52 in the arithmetic coefficient of variation), respectively. Within the forest, the variation in the (137)Cs inventory under trees was larger than in crown gap areas. The large spatial variation may be attributed to canopy interception of the initial deposition and downward transfer of radiocesium via stemflow and throughfall. PMID:27173786

  17. Multipolar consensus for phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Bonnard, Cécile; Berry, Vincent; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2006-10-01

    Collections of phylogenetic trees are usually summarized using consensus methods. These methods build a single tree, supposed to be representative of the collection. However, in the case of heterogeneous collections of trees, the resulting consensus may be poorly resolved (strict consensus, majority-rule consensus, ...), or may perform arbitrary choices among mutually incompatible clades, or splits (greedy consensus). Here, we propose an alternative method, which we call the multipolar consensus (MPC). Its aim is to display all the splits having a support above a predefined threshold, in a minimum number of consensus trees, or poles. We show that the problem is equivalent to a graph-coloring problem, and propose an implementation of the method. Finally, we apply the MPC to real data sets. Our results indicate that, typically, all the splits down to a weight of 10% can be displayed in no more than 4 trees. In addition, in some cases, biologically relevant secondary signals, which would not have been present in any of the classical consensus trees, are indeed captured by our method, indicating that the MPC provides a convenient exploratory method for phylogenetic analysis. The method was implemented in a package freely available at http://www.lirmm.fr/~cbonnard/MPC.html PMID:17060203

  18. Generic physical protection logic trees

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  19. Chronic nitrogen deposition alters tree allometric relationships: implications for biomass production and carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Inés; Zak, Donald R; Burton, Andrew J; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2016-04-01

    As increasing levels of nitrogen (N) deposition impact many terrestrial ecosystems, understanding the potential effects of higher N availability is critical for forecasting tree carbon allocation patterns and thus future forest productivity. Most regional estimates of forest biomass apply allometric equations, with parameters estimated from a limited number of studies, to forest inventory data (i.e., tree diameter). However most of these allometric equations cannot account for potential effects of increased N availability on biomass allocation patterns. Using 18 yr of tree diameter, height, and mortality data collected for a dominant tree species (Acer saccharum) in an atmospheric N deposition experiment, we evaluated how greater N availability affects allometric relationships in this species. After taking into account site and individual variability, our results reveal significant differences in allometric parameters between ambient and experimental N deposition treatments. Large trees under experimental N deposition reached greater heights at a given diameter; moreover, their estimated maximum height (mean ± standard deviation: 33.7 ± 0.38 m) was significantly higher than that estimated under the ambient condition (31.3 ± 0.31 m). Within small tree sizes (5-10 cm diameter) there was greater mortality under experimental N deposition, whereas the relative growth rates of small trees were greater under experimental N deposition. Calculations of stemwood biomass using our parameter estimates for the diameter-height relationship indicated the potential for significant biases in these estimates (~2.5%), with under predictions of stemwood biomass averaging 4 Mg/ha lower if ambient parameters were to be used to estimate stem biomass of trees in the experimental N deposition treatment. As atmospheric N deposition continues to increase into the future, ignoring changes in tree allometry will contribute to the uncertainty associated with aboveground carbon storage

  20. Version 5 of Forecasts; Forecasts of Climate-Associated Shifts in Tree Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Kumar, J.; Potter, K. M.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2014-12-01

    Version 5 of the ForeCASTS tree range shift atlas (www.geobabble.org/~hnw/global/treeranges5/climate_change/atlas.html) now predicts global shifts in the suitable ranges of 335 tree species (essentially all woody species measured in Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA)) under forecasts from the Parallel Climate Model, and the Hadley Model, each under future climatic scenarios A1 and B1, each at two future dates (2050 and 2100). Version 5 includes more Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) occurrence points, uses improved heuristics for occurrence training, and recovers occurrence points that fall in water. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to quantitatively delineate 30 thousand environmentally homogeneous ecoregions across present and 8 potential future global locations at once, using global maps of 17 environmental characteristics describing temperature, precipitation, soils, topography and solar insolation. Occurrence of each tree species on FIA plots and in GBIF samples was used to identify a subset of suitable ecoregions from the full set of 30 thousand. This subset of suitable ecoregions was compared to the known current present range of the tree species. Predicted present ranges correspond well with existing ranges for all but a few of the 335 tree species. The subset of suitable ecoregions can then be tracked into the future to determine whether the suitable home range remains the same, moves, grows, shrinks, or disappears under each model/scenario combination. A quantitative niche breadth analysis allows sorting of the 17 environmental variables from the narrowest, most important, to the broadest, least restrictive environmental factors limiting each tree species. Potential tree richness maps were produced, along with a quantitative potential tree endemism map for present and future CONUS. Using a new empirical imputation method which associates sparse measurements of dependent variables with particular clustered combinations of the

  1. Microwave sensing of tree trunks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezova, Jana; Mertens, Laurence; Lambot, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    The main subject of this research is the observation of the inner part of living tree trunks using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Trees are everyday part of human life and therefore it is important to pay attention to the tree conditions. The most obvious consequence of the poor tree condition is dead or injury caused by falling tree. The trunk internal structure is divided into three main parts: heartwood, sapwood and bark, which make this medium highly anisotropic and heterogeneous. Furthermore, the properties of the wood are not only specie-dependent but also depend on genetic and on environmental conditions. In urban areas the main problem for the stability of the trees relies in the apparition of decays provoked by fungi, insect or birds. This results in cavities or decreasing of the support capacity of the tree. GPR has proved itself to be a very powerful electromagnetic tool for non-destructive detection of buried objects. Since the beginning of the 20th century it has been used in several different areas (archaeology, landmine detection, civil engineering, ...). GPR uses the principle of the scattering of the electromagnetic waves that are radiated from a transmitting antenna. Then the waves propagate through the medium and are reflected from the object and then they are received by a receiving antenna. The velocity of the scattered signal is determined primarily by the permittivity of the material. The optimal functionality of the GPR was investigated using the numerical simulation tool gprMax2D. This tool is based on a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) numerical model. Subsequently, the GPR functionality was tested using the laboratory model of a decayed tree trunk. Afterwards, the results and lessons learnt in the simplified tests will be used in the processing of the real data and will help to achieve deeper understanding of them. The laboratory model of the tree trunk was made by plastic or carton pipes and filled by sand. Space inside the model

  2. Growing a Forest for the Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Growing Ideas, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a tree studies program in a fourth-grade classroom. Students collected local tree seeds and seeds from supermarket fruits, researched growing conditions, and grew seeds under various conditions. Students kept journals on local trees, observing seed dispersal mechanisms and examining rings on trunk slices. Inquiry-based tree studies…

  3. How To Select and Plant a Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, James R., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This bulletin furnishes information about selecting and planting trees. The tree selection process includes being aware of the physical characteristics of bare root seedlings, containerized seedlings, balled and burlapped, or potted trees and determining the proper size and root ball proportions. The section on tree planting discusses how to: (1)…

  4. Automatic water inventory, collecting, and dispensing unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Williams, E. F.

    1972-01-01

    Two cylindrical tanks with piston bladders and associated components for automatic filling and emptying use liquid inventory readout devices in control of water flow. Unit provides for adaptive water collection, storage, and dispensation in weightlessness environment.

  5. Development of a Sex Anxiety Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janda, Louis H.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicate that the scale is psychometrically sound and has discriminant validity in relation to the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory Sex Guilt subscale. The clinical implications of distinguishing between sexual anxiety and sexual guilt are discussed. (Author)

  6. The Vocational Interest Inventory: Development and Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunneborg, Patricia W.

    1979-01-01

    The development and validation of the Vocational Interest Inventory, a forced choice guidance instrument is described. It assists high school students, whose interests are not well differentiated, in making post-high school educational and vocational decisions. (JKS)

  7. 40 CFR 52.2086 - Emission inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... precursors which are volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide. The inventory covers... volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides, and cover point, area, non-road mobile, on-road mobile...

  8. Integrative Interpretation of Vocational Interest Inventory Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Malcolm R.

    1978-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of interpretation of vocational interest inventory results. Data provide limited support for the hypotheses that integrative interpretation is most effective. Significant interactions exist between counselors and interpretation procedures. Failure to find significant differences between traditional-individual and…

  9. Validation Testing of the Rational Behavior Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Victor L.; Shorkey, Clayton T.

    1978-01-01

    The validity of the Rational Behavior Inventory was investigated by examining its relationship with four other measures of personality in addition to class standing and age. Results supported the validity of the measure. (JKS)

  10. NASA's Education Program Inventory FY 91

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1988, the Education Division produced an inventory of NASA-supported education programs. Since then, mathematics, science, and technology education has taken on a more visible role, not only as part of NASA's mission, but as part of the National Education Goals and other Federal initiatives. Therefore, it became important to update the 1988 inventory in order to achieve a more accurate and comprehensive look at NASA's educational programs. The data collected is summarized and descriptions of each program are provided.

  11. Wildlife Inventory, Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    SciTech Connect

    Cassirer, E. Frances

    1995-06-01

    Wildlife distribution/abundance were studied at this location during 1993 and 1994 to establish the baseline as part of the wildlife mitigation agreement for construction of Dworshak reservoir. Inventory efforts were designed to (1) document distribution/abundance of 4 target species: pileated woodpecker, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, and river otter, (2) determine distribution/abundance of rare animals, and (3) determine presence and relative abundance of all other species except deer and elk. 201 wildlife species were observed during the survey period; most were residents or used the area seasonally for breeding or wintering. New distribution or breeding records were established for at least 6 species. Pileated woodpeckers were found at 35% of 134 survey points in upland forests; estimated densities were 0-0.08 birds/ha, averaging 0.02 birds/ha. Yellow warblers were found in riparian areas and shrubby draws below 3500 ft elev., and were most abundant in white alder plant communities (ave. est. densities 0.2-2. 1 birds/ha). Black-capped chickadees were found in riparian and mixed tall shrub vegetation at all elevations (ave. est. densities 0-0.7 birds/ha). River otters and suitable otter denning and foraging habitat were observed along the Snake and Salmon rivers. 15 special status animals (threatened, endangered, sensitive, state species of special concern) were observed at Craig Mt: 3 amphibians, 1 reptile, 8 birds, 3 mammals. Another 5 special status species potentially occur (not documented). Ecosystem-based wildlife management issues are identified. A monitoring plant is presented for assessing effects of mitigation activities.

  12. TreeGenes: A Forest Tree Genome Database

    PubMed Central

    Wegrzyn, Jill L.; Lee, Jennifer M.; Tearse, Brandon R.; Neale, David B.

    2008-01-01

    The Dendrome Project and associated TreeGenes database serve the forest genetics research community through a curated and integrated web-based relational database. The research community is composed of approximately 2 000 members representing over 730 organizations worldwide. The database itself is composed of a wide range of genetic data from many forest trees with focused efforts on commercially important members of the Pinaceae family. The primary data types curated include species, publications, tree and DNA extraction information, genetic maps, molecular markers, ESTs, genotypic, and phenotypic data. There are currently ten main search modules or user access points within this PostgreSQL database. These access points allow users to navigate logically through the related data types. The goals of the Dendrome Project are to (1) provide a comprehensive resource for forest tree genomics data to facilitate gene discovery in related species, (2) develop interfaces that encourage the submission and integration of all genomic data, and to (3) centralize and distribute existing and novel online tools for the research community that both support and ease analysis. Recent developments have focused on increasing data content, functional annotations, data retrieval, and visualization tools. TreeGenes was developed to provide a centralized web resource with analysis and visualization tools to support data storage and exchange. PMID:18725987

  13. Sussing Merger Trees: The Merger Trees Comparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srisawat, Chaichalit; Knebe, Alexander; Pearce, Frazer R.; Schneider, Aurel; Thomas, Peter A.; Behroozi, Peter; Dolag, Klaus; Elahi, Pascal J.; Han, Jiaxin; Helly, John; Jing, Yipeng; Jung, Intae; Lee, Jaehyun; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Onions, Julian; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Tweed, Dylan; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2013-11-01

    Merger trees follow the growth and merger of dark-matter haloes over cosmic history. As well as giving important insights into the growth of cosmic structure in their own right, they provide an essential backbone to semi-analytic models of galaxy formation. This paper is the first in a series to arise from the Sussing Merger Trees Workshop in which 10 different tree-building algorithms were applied to the same set of halo catalogues and their results compared. Although many of these codes were similar in nature, all algorithms produced distinct results. Our main conclusions are that a useful merger-tree code should possess the following features: (i) the use of particle IDs to match haloes between snapshots; (ii) the ability to skip at least one, and preferably more, snapshots in order to recover subhaloes that are temporarily lost during merging; (iii) the ability to cope with (and ideally smooth out) large, temporary fluctuations in halo mass. Finally, to enable different groups to communicate effectively, we defined a common terminology that we used when discussing merger trees and we encourage others to adopt the same language. We also specified a minimal output format to record the results.

  14. 48 CFR 1852.245-78 - Physical inventory of capital personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Physical inventory of capital personal property. 1852.245-78 Section 1852.245-78 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... conditions in either (1) or (2) of this paragraph are met. (1) The Contractor utilizes an electronic...

  15. 48 CFR 1852.245-78 - Physical inventory of capital personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Physical inventory of capital personal property. 1852.245-78 Section 1852.245-78 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... conditions in either (1) or (2) of this paragraph are met. (1) The Contractor utilizes an electronic...

  16. 48 CFR 1852.245-78 - Physical inventory of capital personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Physical inventory of capital personal property. 1852.245-78 Section 1852.245-78 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... conditions in either (1) or (2) of this paragraph are met. (1) The Contractor utilizes an electronic...

  17. 48 CFR 1852.245-78 - Physical inventory of capital personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Physical inventory of capital personal property. 1852.245-78 Section 1852.245-78 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... conditions in either (1) or (2) of this paragraph are met. (1) The Contractor utilizes an electronic...

  18. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  19. Strategic special nuclear material Inventory Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-07-01

    This sixteenth periodic semiannual report of Inventory Differences (ID) covers the last six months of fiscal year 1984 (April 1, 1984, through September 30, 1984), for the Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor facilities possessing significant quantities of strategic special nuclear material (SSNM). Inventory Differences are simply the differences between the amount of material shown in the accounting records and the amount of material reported in the physical inventory. These differences are generally due to errors in estimating material in unmeasurable form at the time of an inventory, unmeasurable holdup in equipment, measurement imprecisions, inaccuracies in initial determinations of SSNM produced or used in nuclear reactors, and inventory or bookkeeping errors. Both DOE and contractors operating DOE facilities carefully maintain, analyze, and investigate ID data. Inventory Differences are expected in nuclear material processing and are not, in and of themselves, evidence of lost or stolen material. On the other hand, ID analysis provides valuable information on the effectiveness of the safeguards system's physical protection and material control measures as well as a check on the process controls and material management procedures. If necessary, an operation may be shut down until an ID is resolved.

  20. GIS-based glacier inventory of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Wu, L.-Z.

    2003-04-01

    The project of the Glacier Inventory of China initialized in 1979 was just accomplished in 2000. This inventory was complied based on numerous LandSat TM images, aerial photographs, and topographic maps. More than 40 Chinese glaciologists made their great efforts in this work. With the newest statistics from the inventory, there are total 46,928 glaciers in China; the total area is 59,406 km2 and the ice volume is 5,598 km3. We launched a new project to digitize the 11 volumes of published glacier data and all the distribution maps of glaciers in China. Large-scale topographic maps were also used as reference to reconstruct a more accurate geographic coordinate system of the inventory. We paid particularly attention to the data quality control. The properties of both the spatial and attribute data were carefully examined with a few operations by manual and computerized checks. Since the digital inventory lays a baseline for the monitoring of glacier change, we are going to release the database on the Internet and with CD-ROMs. In additions, the second glacier inventory in some glaciered drainages were carried out. Chinese glaciologist are using new generation remote sensors such as ASTER and LandSat ETM+ to identify glacier change in many areas. Preliminary results showed that the change is significant.

  1. Anthropogenic Emission Inventories for SAFARI 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, G.; van der Merwe, M.

    2001-12-01

    Surface emission inventories are required as input into atmospheric transport models and other investigations forming part of SAFARI 2000. We have generated an anthropogenic emissions inventory for continental Africa south of the equator. It covers the period 1999 to 2001 with a monthly temporal resolution and a 20km spatial resolution. The anthropogenic inventory covers emissions of CH4, CO2, CO, SO2, VOC (volatile organic carbons), NOx and N2O from the energy sector, mines, transport, industries and other major emitting sectors, in all major emitting countries south of the equator. The baseline country total emissions data were taken from the 1990 IPCC Greenhouse Gas Inventory Country Summaries. Emissions reported for 1990 were extrapolated to the SAFARI 2000 study period, temporally distributed by month and spatially disaggregated according to sector-specific driver surfaces. This anthropogenic emissions inventory together with others developed during SAFARI 2000, namely those for soil, vegetation, domestic biomass combustion and fire constitute a comprehensive new emissions inventory.

  2. Change in avian abundance predicted from regional forest inventory data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Tirpak, John M.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Thompson, Frank R., III; Uihlein, William B.; Fitzgerald, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    An inability to predict population response to future habitat projections is a shortcoming in bird conservation planning. We sought to predict avian response to projections of future forest conditions that were developed from nationwide forest surveys within the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program. To accomplish this, we evaluated the historical relationship between silvicolous bird populations and FIA-derived forest conditions within 25 ecoregions that comprise the southeastern United States. We aggregated forest area by forest ownership, forest type, and tree size-class categories in county-based ecoregions for 5 time periods spanning 1963-2008. We assessed the relationship of forest data with contemporaneous indices of abundance for 24 silvicolous bird species that were obtained from Breeding Bird Surveys. Relationships between bird abundance and forest inventory data for 18 species were deemed sufficient as predictive models. We used these empirically derived relationships between regional forest conditions and bird populations to predict relative changes in abundance of these species within ecoregions that are anticipated to coincide with projected changes in forest variables through 2040. Predicted abundances of these 18 species are expected to remain relatively stable in over a quarter (27%) of the ecoregions. However, change in forest area and redistribution of forest types will likely result in changed abundance of some species within many ecosystems. For example, abundances of 11 species, including pine warbler (Dendroica pinus), brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), and chuckwills- widow (Caprimulgus carolinensis), are projected to increase within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will decrease. For 6 other species, such as blue-winged warbler (Vermivora pinus), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), and indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), we projected abundances will decrease within more ecoregions than ecoregions where they will

  3. 7 CFR 767.101 - Leasing real estate inventory property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leasing real estate inventory property. 767.101..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Lease of Real Estate Inventory Property § 767.101 Leasing real estate inventory property. (a) The Agency may lease real estate...

  4. 7 CFR 767.101 - Leasing real estate inventory property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leasing real estate inventory property. 767.101..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Lease of Real Estate Inventory Property § 767.101 Leasing real estate inventory property. (a) The Agency may lease real estate...

  5. 7 CFR 767.101 - Leasing real estate inventory property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leasing real estate inventory property. 767.101..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Lease of Real Estate Inventory Property § 767.101 Leasing real estate inventory property. (a) The Agency may lease real estate...

  6. 7 CFR 767.101 - Leasing real estate inventory property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leasing real estate inventory property. 767.101..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Lease of Real Estate Inventory Property § 767.101 Leasing real estate inventory property. (a) The Agency may lease real estate...

  7. 26 CFR 1.471-8 - Inventories of retail merchants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventories of retail merchants. 1.471-8 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Inventories § 1.471-8 Inventories of retail merchants. (a) Retail merchants who employ what is known as the “retail method” of pricing inventories may make their returns...

  8. 27 CFR 46.203 - Record (book) inventory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record (book) inventory... Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.203 Record (book) inventory requirements. (a) The dealer may use a record (book) inventory if the dealer has source records that show: (1)...

  9. 27 CFR 46.203 - Record (book) inventory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Record (book) inventory... Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.203 Record (book) inventory requirements. (a) The dealer may use a record (book) inventory if the dealer has source records that show: (1)...

  10. 27 CFR 46.203 - Record (book) inventory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record (book) inventory... Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.203 Record (book) inventory requirements. (a) The dealer may use a record (book) inventory if the dealer has source records that show: (1)...

  11. 7 CFR 1435.401 - CCC sugar inventory disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false CCC sugar inventory disposition. 1435.401 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Disposition of CCC Inventory § 1435.401 CCC sugar inventory disposition. (a) CCC will dispose of inventory in the...

  12. 27 CFR 19.464 - Denatured spirits inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... inventories. 19.464 Section 19.464 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Inventories § 19.464 Denatured spirits inventories. Each proprietor shall take a physical inventory of all denatured spirits in the processing account at the close of each calendar quarter and...

  13. 26 CFR 1.471-2 - Valuation of inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of inventories. 1.471-2 Section 1.471... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-2 Valuation of inventories. (a) Section 471 provides two tests to which each inventory must conform: (1) It must conform as nearly as may be to the best...

  14. 48 CFR 49.602-2 - Inventory forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory forms. 49.602-2... TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Contract Termination Forms and Formats 49.602-2 Inventory forms. Standard Form (SF) 1428, Inventory Disposal Schedule, and SF 1429, Inventory Disposal Schedule—Continuation Sheet,...

  15. 10 CFR 75.34 - Inventory change reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inventory change reports. 75.34 Section 75.34 Energy... AGREEMENT Reports § 75.34 Inventory change reports. (a) Nuclear Material Transaction Reports (Inventory... identification and batch data for each batch of nuclear material, the date of the inventory change, and,...

  16. 26 CFR 1.471-11 - Inventories of manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of manufacturers. 1.471-11 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-11 Inventories of manufacturers. (a) Use of full absorption method of inventory costing. In order to conform as nearly as may be possible to the best...

  17. 27 CFR 46.203 - Record (book) inventory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record (book) inventory... Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.203 Record (book) inventory requirements. (a) The dealer may use a record (book) inventory if the dealer has source records that show: (1)...

  18. 77 FR 8818 - Publication of FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... PROTECTION Publication of FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of public availability of FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory. SUMMARY: In accordance with... of the FY 2011 service contract inventory. This inventory provides information on service...

  19. 7 CFR 930.13 - Primary inventory reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary inventory reserve. 930.13 Section 930.13... Handling Definitions § 930.13 Primary inventory reserve. Primary inventory reserve means that portion of handled cherries that are placed into handlers' inventories in accordance with any restricted...

  20. 7 CFR 930.17 - Secondary inventory reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secondary inventory reserve. 930.17 Section 930.17... Handling Definitions § 930.17 Secondary inventory reserve. Secondary inventory reserve means any portion of handled cherries voluntarily placed into inventory by a handler under § 930.57....

  1. 48 CFR 3045.508-2 - Reporting results of inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inventories. 3045.508-2 Section 3045.508-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... inventories. The inventory report shall also include the following: (a) Name and title of the individual(s) that performed the physical inventory; (b) An itemized, categorized listing of all property...

  2. 41 CFR 109-1.5108-3 - Stores inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stores inventories. 109....51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5108-3 Stores inventories. Perpetual inventory records are to be maintained for stores inventory items....

  3. 27 CFR 46.202 - Physical inventory requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical inventory... Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.202 Physical inventory requirements. The dealer's physical inventory must result in a written record of: (a) The quantity and type of each...

  4. 48 CFR 1245.508-2 - Reporting results of inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inventories. 1245.508-2 Section 1245.508-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... 1245.508-2 Reporting results of inventories. The inventory report shall also include the following: (a) Name and title of the individual(s) that performed the physical inventory; (b) An itemized,...

  5. Teaching Accounting for Inventory by Calling on Students' Personal Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briginshaw, John

    2010-01-01

    This essay seeks to give practical guidance to accounting instructors seeking to convey the difficult concepts of accounting for inventory. Techniques to convey the concepts of assumed inventory flow, inventory valuation under inflation and deflation, impairment of inventories, LIFO [Last In, First Out] liquidations and the concept of the periodic…

  6. 26 CFR 1.471-1 - Need for inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Need for inventories. 1.471-1 Section 1.471-1...) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-1 Need for inventories. In order to reflect taxable income correctly, inventories at the beginning and end of each taxable year are necessary in every case in which the...

  7. 27 CFR 19.764 - Inventory reserve records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory reserve records... Inventory reserve records. (a) General. The proprietor shall establish an inventory reserve account, as... shall enter into the inventory reserve account a deposit record, which may be combined with the...

  8. 26 CFR 1.471-8 - Inventories of retail merchants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of retail merchants. 1.471-8 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-8 Inventories of retail merchants. (a) Retail merchants who employ what is known as the “retail method” of pricing inventories may make their returns upon...

  9. 41 CFR 109-27.5104-3 - Perpetual inventory records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Perpetual inventory... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5104-3 Perpetual inventory records. Perpetual inventory records shall be maintained as specified in Chapter V of DOE Order...

  10. 41 CFR 109-27.5104-4 - Physical inventories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical inventories... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5104-4 Physical inventories. (a) Physical inventories shall be conducted annually by custodians, and witnessed by the...

  11. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy... Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the... inventory, the responsible employer must: (1) Review current and historical records; (2) Interview...

  12. 26 CFR 1.471-3 - Inventories at cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories at cost. 1.471-3 Section 1.471-3...) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-3 Inventories at cost. Cost means: (a) In the case of merchandise on hand at the beginning of the taxable year, the inventory price of such goods. (b) In the case...

  13. System to maximize inventory performance in a small hospital.

    PubMed

    VanDerLinde, L P

    1983-01-01

    A computerized system to maximize inventory performance in a small hospital is described. An inventory control system, which integrates economic order quantity (EOQ) and ABC inventory models was implemented in a 146-bed hospital. The perpetual inventory control data base, supported by the hospital's mainframe computer, generates monthly inventory statistics that are segregated into A, B, and C reports. Using a hand-held computer that interfaces with the perpetual inventory system, a series of inventory management reports were developed. These reports, which are based on the EOQ model, provide the following information for each drug line item: EOQ, EOQ proposed carrying cost, actual inventory carrying costs, safety stock, order point, average inventory, and the "on hand/on order" point. Several supplemental inventory management reports were also developed. While implementing the computerized inventory system, the pharmacy also changed its purchasing strategy from predominantly direct accounts to a progressive prime-vendor wholesaler. From December 1980 to December 1981, the ABC/EOQ system with progressive prime-vendor involvement essentially doubled total aggregate inventory turnover. A 46.5% reduction in standing inventory levels occurred. The drug cost per line item dispersed remained relatively constant over the one-year period, despite price increases. The application of the computerized ABC/EOQ inventory model to an online perpetual inventory control data base effectively reduced the inventory operation costs. PMID:6823992

  14. Using forest inventory data to assess fisher resting habitat suitability in California.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, William J; Truex, Richard L; Dunk, Jeffrey R; Gaman, Tom

    2006-06-01

    The fisher (Martes pennanti) is a forest-dwelling carnivore whose current distribution and association with late-seral forest conditions make it vulnerable to stand-altering human activities or natural disturbances. Fishers select a variety of structures for daily resting bouts. These habitat elements, together with foraging and reproductive (denning) habitat, constitute the habitat requirements of fishers. We develop a model capable of predicting the suitability of fisher resting habitat using standard forest vegetation inventory data. The inventory data were derived from Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA), a nationwide probability-based sample used to estimate forest characteristics. We developed the model by comparing vegetation and topographic data at 75 randomly selected fisher resting structures in the southern Sierra Nevada with 232 forest inventory plots. We collected vegetation data at fisher resting locations using the FIA vegetation sampling protocol and centering the 1-ha FIA plot on the resting structure. To distinguish used and available inventory plots, we used nonparametric logistic regression to evaluate a set of a priori biological models. The top model represented a dominant portion of the Akaike weights (0.87), explained 31.5% of the deviance, and included the following variables: average canopy closure, basal area of trees <51 cm diameter breast height (dbh), average hardwood dbh, maximum tree dbh, percentage slope, and the dbh of the largest conifer snag. Our use of routinely collected forest inventory data allows the assessment and monitoring of change in fisher resting habitat suitability over large regions with no additional sampling effort. Although models were constrained to include only variables available from the list of those measured using the FIA protocol, we did not find this to be a shortcoming. The model makes it possible to compare average resting habitat suitability values before and after forest management treatments, among

  15. Genealogical trees from genetic distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prignano, L.; Serva, M.

    2009-06-01

    In a population with haploid reproduction any individual has a single parent in the previous generation. If all genealogical distances among pairs of individuals (generations from the closest common ancestor) are known it is possible to exactly reconstruct their genealogical tree. Unfortunately, in most cases, genealogical distances are unknown and only genetic distances are available. The genetic distance between two individuals is measurable from differences in mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) since in the case of humans or other complex organisms mtDNA is transmitted in a haploid manner. An analogous distance can be also computed for languages where it may be measured from lexical differences, in this case, nevertheless, haploid reproduction is only a raw approximation. Assuming a constant rate of mutation, these genetic distances are random and proportional only on average to genealogical ones. The reconstruction of the genealogical tree from the available genetic distances is forceful imprecise. In this paper we try to quantify the error one may commit in the reconstruction of the tree for different degrees of randomness. The errors may concern both topology of the tree (the branching hierarchy) and, in case of correct topology, the proportions of the tree (length of various branches).

  16. Mapping Understory Trees Using Airborne Discrete-Return LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korpela, I.; Hovi, A.; Morsdorf, F.

    2011-09-01

    Understory trees in multi-layer stands are often ignored in forest inventories. Information about them would benefit silviculture, wood procurement and biodiversity management. Cost-efficient inventory methods for the assessment of the presence, density, species- and size-distributions are called for. LiDAR remote sensing is a promising addition to field work. Unlike in passive image data, in which the signals from multiple layers mix, the 3D position of each hot-spot reflection is known in LiDAR data. The overstory however prevents from obtaining a wall-to-wall sample of understory, and measurements are subject to transmission losses. Discriminating between the crowns of dominant and suppressed trees can also be challenging. We examined the potential of LiDAR for the mapping of the understory trees in Scots pine stands (62°N, 24°E), using carefully georeferenced reference data and several LiDAR data sets. We present results that highlight differences in echo-triggering between sensors that affect the near-ground height data. A conceptual model for the transmission losses in the overstory was created and formulated into simple compensation models that reduced the intensity variation in second- and third return data. The task is highly ill-posed in discrete-return LiDAR data, and our models employed the geometry of the overstory as well as the intensity of previous returns. We showed that even first-return data in the understory is subject to losses in the overstory that did not trigger an echo. Even with compensation of the losses, the intensity data was deemed of low value in species discrimination. Area-based LiDAR height metrics that were derived from the data belonging to the crown volume of the understory showed reasonable correlation with the density and mean height of the understory trees. Assessment of the species seems out of reach in discrete-return LiDAR data, which is a drastic drawback.

  17. Tree Growth Stage and Environment after Pathogen Inoculation Alters Susceptibility of Pear Trees to Phytophthora Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated whether growth stage of pear (Pyrus communis) tree rootstock and environment after inoculation with Phytophthora syringae influences tree susceptibility to infection. Trees at different stages of dormancy development were inoculated with the pathogen and maintained in different condi...

  18. Unified Communications for Space Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gifford, Kevin K.; Fink, Patrick W.; Barton, Richard; Ngo, Phong H.

    2009-01-01

    To help assure mission success for long-duration exploration activities, NASA is actively pursuing wireless technologies that promote situational awareness and autonomy. Wireless technologies are typically extensible, offer freedom from wire tethers, readily support redundancy, offer potential for decreased wire weight, and can represent dissimilar implementation for increased reliability. In addition, wireless technologies can enable additional situational awareness that otherwise would be infeasible. For example, addition of wired sensors, the need for which might not have been apparent at the outset of a program, night be extremely costly due in part to the necessary routing of cables through the vehicle. RFID, or radio frequency identification, is a wireless technology with the potential for significant savings and increased reliability and safety in space operations. Perhaps the most obvious savings relate to the application of inventory management. A fully automated inventory management system is highly desirable for long-term sustaining operations in space environments. This assertion is evidenced by inventory activities on the International Space Station, which represents the most extensive inventory tracking experience base in the history of space operations. In the short tern, handheld RFID readers offer substantial savings owing to reduced crew time for inventory audits. Over the long term, a combination of improved RFID technology and operational concepts modified to fully utilize the technology should result in space based inventory management that is highly reliable and requires very little crew time. In addition to inventory management, RFID is likely to find space applications in real-time location and tracking systems. These could vary from coarse-resolution RFID portals to the high resolution afforded by ultra-wideband (UWB) RFID. Longer range RFID technologies that leverage passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are being investigated to

  19. The pharmaceutical management system at Shade Tree Family Clinic: a medical student-run free clinic's experience.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Patel, Sanjay G; Guyer, Dana L; Dunn, Sarah R; Herceg, Megan E; Knox, Caroline K; Miller, Robert F

    2008-09-01

    The Shade Tree Family Clinic (STFC) is a student-run free walk-in health clinic opened by Vanderbilt University medical students in October 2005 to address the acute and chronic health needs of the underinsured community in East Nashville. STFC founders decided that the clinic would provide complete medical care, including dispensing commonly prescribed medications at no charge to patients. After several months of managing the inventory in a log book, a medical student author created a Web-based pharmaceutical tracking system to manage the medication formulary. In the process, the authors found little literature available addressing the logistics of setting up an electronic pharmacy system. The system created uses the freely available RxNorm and US Department of Veterans Affairs National Drug File Reference Terminology databases for medication and classification data. Incorporation of these databases allows medical students to dispense and restock medications with ease. The system ensures accurate data entry, improves efficiency, and facilitates continuity of care at a clinic staffed by hundreds of different students and physicians. The STFC pharmaceutical tracking system has facilitated the acquisition and efficient management of medications and consequently has had a great impact on the success of STFC. PMID:18850398

  20. Measurement of tree canopy architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, S. N.; Ustin, S. L.; Norman, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The lack of accurate extensive geometric data on tree canopies has retarded development and validation of radiative transfer models. A stratified sampling method was devised to measure the three-dimensional geometry of 16 walnut trees which had received irrigation treatments of either 100 or 33 per cent of evapotranspirational (ET) demand for the previous two years. Graphic reconstructions of the three-dimensional geometry were verified by 58 independent measurements. The distributions of stem- and leaf-size classes, lengths, and angle classes were determined and used to calculate leaf area index (LAI), stem area, and biomass. Reduced irrigation trees have lower biomass of stems, leaves and fruit, lower LAI, steeper leaf angles and altered biomass allocation to large stems. These data can be used in ecological models that link canopy processes with remotely sensed measurements.