Science.gov

Sample records for electronics industry

  1. Electron tubes for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellert, Bernd

    1994-05-01

    This report reviews research and development efforts within the last years for vacuum electron tubes, in particular power grid tubes for industrial applications. Physical and chemical effects are discussed that determine the performance of todays devices. Due to the progress made in the fundamental understanding of materials and newly developed processes the reliability and reproducibility of power grid tubes could be improved considerably. Modern computer controlled manufacturing methods ensure a high reproducibility of production and continuous quality certification according to ISO 9001 guarantees future high quality standards. Some typical applications of these tubes are given as an example.

  2. General Industrial Electronics. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwick, Jim; Siebert, Leo

    This curriculum guide, part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial electricity and electronics, is designed for use in teaching a course in general industrial electronics. Covered in the first half of the guide are units on the following electronic components: semiconductors, solid-state diodes, bipolar transistors, and special…

  3. Industry/Electronics Education Joint Venture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookout, Susie; Cox, Ken

    In order to enable secondary electronics teachers in Tennessee to attend free training and skills updating at the National Program for Electronics Training (NPET), the University of Tennessee at Knoxville developed a program that seeks private sources of support for teacher participation. Teachers and local industries enter a joint venture to…

  4. Applied Industrial Electronics: Power Control and Electronic Troubleshooting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Rick; Humler, John

    This curriculum guide is designed to build upon the skills and knowledge of industrial electronics gained by the student through the learning activities of the introductory volumes of the electronics program. Specifically, the student, whether in secondary, postsecondary, or adult education, will have the opportunity to expand those skills in…

  5. Industrial Electronics II for ICT. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Bob

    This student manual contains the following six units for classroom and laboratory experiences in high school industrial electronics: (1) introduction and review of DC and AC circuits; (2) semiconductors; (3) integrated circuits; (4) digital basics; (5) complex digital circuits; and (6) computer circuits. The units include unit objectives, specific…

  6. Employment Lessons from the Electronics Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alic, John A.; Harris, Martha Caldwell

    1986-01-01

    Semiskilled and "unskilled" workers in semiconductors, computer manufacturing, and consumer electronics industries are more likely than other workers to lose jobs because of technology, imports, and offshore production. However, advances in technology do tend to create jobs for skilled workers. (CT)

  7. The New Industrial Electrics/Electronics Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German Federal Inst. for Vocational Training Affairs, Berlin (Germany).

    This publication provides information on occupations in industrial electrics/electronics in the Federal Republic of Germany. Section I contains the German vocational training regulations for these occupations, including an overview of training, examinations, and the new notion of qualification. A chart illustrates the structure for training in…

  8. Industrial Electronics. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffany, Earl

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 30 terminal objectives for a two-semester (2 hours daily) high school course in basic industrial electronics. The objectives cover instruction in basic electricity including AC-DC theory, magnetism, electrical safety, care and use of hand tools,…

  9. Vacuum and the electron tube industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redhead, P. A.

    2005-07-01

    The electron tube industry started with the patenting of the thermionic diode by John Ambrose Fleming in 1904. The vacuum technology used by the infant tube industry was copied from the existing incandescent lamp industry. The growing demands for electron tubes for the military in the first world war led to major improvements in pumps and processing methods. By the 1920s, mass production methods were developing to satisfy the demands for receiving tubes by the burgeoning radio industry. Further expansion in the 1930s and 1940s resulted in improvements in automatic equipment for pumping vacuum tubes leading to the massive production rates of electron tubes in the second world war and the following two decades. The demand for radar during the war resulted in the development of techniques for large-scale production of microwave tubes and CRTs, the latter technology being put to good use later in TV picture tube production. The commercial introduction of the transistor ended the massive demand for receiving tubes. This review concentrates on the vacuum technology developed for receiving tube production.

  10. Industrial Applications of Electronic Nose Technology in the Textiles Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Tim; Chandler, Rob; Hallam, Viv; Simpson, Claire; Bentham, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Electronic nose technology has been available commercially for over 12 years but uptake in actual industrial applications has yet to be fully realised. We report 2 specific test protocols being used in the textiles industry that allow the direct measurement of anti-odour and anti-microbial capabilities of fabrics. Results will be shown for the standard anti-odour test which was specifically commissioned by Courtaulds PLC and which is being used by a number of manufacturers. The second test, which measures the anti-microbial and the anti-odour capabilities of fabrics simultaneously was developed in 2008. Results will be shown that clearly indicate both parameters are detected and proofs of anti-microbial capabilities will be given. These 2 tests will for the first time, enable the fulfillment of legislation that states for textile product claims, anti-odour and anti-microbial capabilities of fabrics must be scientifically substantiated.

  11. Problems continue to plague electronic ballast industry

    SciTech Connect

    Warrock, A.M.

    1983-10-17

    Problems of unreliable components, poor quality due to the lack of performance testing standards, and electromagnetic radiation are preventing the electronic ballast industry from achieving the anticipated 40% electricity savings and have led several manufacturers to drop out of the market. The National Association of Lighting Maintenance Contractors (NALMCO) recognized the problem, and the remaining manufacturers plan to reduce the number of components to improve reliability until standards are developed. Many potential users are waiting for a larger selection and better product before they invest in electronic ballasts. A directory of major lighting equipment manufacturers accompanies the article. (DCK)

  12. Electronic waste disassembly with industrial waste heat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengjun; Wang, Jianbo; Chen, Haiyian; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhang, Mingxin; Zang, Hongbin; Hu, Jiukun

    2013-01-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are resource-rich but hazardous, demanding innovative strategies for post-consumer collection, recycling, and mining for economically precious constituents. A novel technology for disassembling electronic components from WPCBs is proposed, using hot air to melt solders and to separate the components and base boards. An automatic heated-air disassembling equipment was designed to operate at a heating source temperature at a maximum of 260 °C and an inlet pressure of 0.5 MPa. A total of 13 individual WPCBs were subjected to disassembling tests at different preheat temperatures in increments of 20 °C between 80 and 160 °C, heating source temperatures ranging from 220 to 300 °C in increments of 20 °C, and incubation periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. For each experimental treatment, the disassembly efficiency was calculated as the ratio of electronic components released from the board to the total number of its original components. The optimal preheat temperature, heating source temperature, and incubation period to disassemble intact components were 120 °C, 260 °C, and 2 min, respectively. The disassembly rate of small surface mount components (side length ≤ 3 mm) was 40-50% lower than that of other surface mount components and pin through hole components. On the basis of these results, a reproducible and sustainable industrial ecological protocol using steam produced by industrial exhaust heat coupled to electronic-waste recycling is proposed, providing an efficient, promising, and green method for both electronic component recovery and industrial exhaust heat reutilization. PMID:24073987

  13. Electron Beam Scanning in Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jongen, Yves; Herer, Arnold

    1996-05-01

    Scanned electron beams are used within many industries for applications such as sterilization of medical disposables, crosslinking of wire and cables insulating jackets, polymerization and degradation of resins and biomaterials, modification of semiconductors, coloration of gemstones and glasses, removal of oxides from coal plant flue gasses, and the curing of advanced composites and other molded forms. X-rays generated from scanned electron beams make yet other applications, such as food irradiation, viable. Typical accelerators for these applications range in beam energy from 0.5MeV to 10 MeV, with beam powers between 5 to 500kW and scanning widths between 20 and 300 cm. Since precise control of dose delivery is required in many of these applications, the integration of beam characteristics, product conveyance, and beam scanning mechanisms must be well understood and optimized. Fundamental issues and some case examples are presented.

  14. Applied Industrial Electronics. Sensors and Logic Systems. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwick, Jim; Siebert, Leo

    This curriculum guide, part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial electricity and industrial electronics, is designed for use in teaching a course in applied industrial electronics. The first half of the guide contains units on remote sensing devices and the industrial uses of transducers. The second part of the course,…

  15. Electronic business in the home medical equipment industry.

    PubMed

    Wei, June; Graham, Michael J; Liu, Lai C

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at developing electronic business solutions to increase value for the home medical equipment industry. First, an electronic strategic value chain model was developed for the home medical equipment industry. Second, electronic business solutions were mapped from this model. Third, the top 20 dominant companies in the home medical equipment industry were investigated to see the current adoption patterns of these electronic business solutions. The solutions will be beneficial to decision-makers in the information technology adoptions in the home medical equipment industry to increase the business values. PMID:22189178

  16. Forces Shaping the Electronic Publishing Industry of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Donald T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the conventional publishing industry, and discusses a study of the electronic publishing industry and its products and processes. Discusses seven major forces affecting it--technology, economics, demographics, social trends, government policies, applications growth, and industry trends--and outlines principles to follow for success in…

  17. Exploring Electricity/Electronics. The Illinois Plan for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal.

    This guide, which is one in the "Exploration" series of curriculum guides intended to assist junior high and middle school industrial educators in helping their students explore diverse industrial situations and technologies used in industry, deals with electricity and electronics. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons: the…

  18. Math for Electronics; Industrial Electronics 1: 9323.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This curriculum guide is designed for the student interested in preparing for vocational electronics and related fields of electricity, emphasizing the mathematics necessary for an indepth study of electronics. Included in the course content are goals, specific block objectives, basic algebra, powers of 10, the slide rule, basic trigonometry…

  19. A Suggested Basic Course Outline for Industrial Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This course outline for industrial electronics, one of a series for teaching vocational industrial shop subjects in public schools, includes basic skills and technical information for the course. It should be supplemented with other complementary and necessary areas of related instruction. Fifteen major blocks, divided into 2 years of instruction,…

  20. Low-energy electron accelerators in industry and applied research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelaers, W.

    1998-04-01

    The use of electron accelerators in industry involve a broad range of machines and applications. The major actual large-scale applications are crosslinking of wire and cable insulation, plastic films and foam, curing of coatings and rubbers, and sterilisation of medical products. The recent availability, at attractive costs, of electron accelerators with high beam power (up to 200 kW) covering an energy range up to 10 MeV, has created new possibilities for a substantial expansion of the application range. The actual position of electron accelerators in industry is reviewed, new emerging applications and novel opportunities for multipurpose facilities are described.

  1. Advanced Electronics Systems 1, Industrial Electronics 3: 9327.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The 135 clock-hour course for the 12th year consists of outlines for blocks of instruction on transistor applications to basic circuits, principles of single sideband communications, maintenance practices, preparation for FCC licenses, application of circuits to advanced electronic systems, nonsinusoidal wave shapes, multivibrators, and blocking…

  2. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL, STATIC CONTROL SERIES. REMOTE CONTROL BY INDUSTRIAL TELEMETRY. UNIT 9C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Industrial Education Div.

    THIS SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED TEXT IS FOR STUDENT USE IN STUDYING INDUSTRIAL TELEMETRY CONTROL SYSTEMS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS AND TESTED BY STUDENT USE. THE MATERIAL IS DIVIDED INTO FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS AND LANGUAGE OF INDUSTRIAL TELEMETRY AND THE LOGIC OF THE…

  3. Introduction to Industrial Electricity-Electronics. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Leo N.; Pierce, Greg

    This manual provides a basic core of instruction for both industrial electricity and industrial electronics. The information should be adapted and modified to coincide with local conditions and supplemented by the instructor's own methods and materials. The manual includes 6 sections (instructional areas) and 24 units. Each unit of instruction…

  4. Communication and Industrial Electronics. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the electricity/electronics occupations cluster, this guide identifies the essentials of the communication and industrial electronics trade as recommended by the successful electrical servicemen. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to prepare a student to…

  5. Space Station - The base for tomorrow's electronic industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    The potential value of space material processing on the Space Station for the electronics industry is examined. The primary advantages of the space environment for producing high-purity semiconductors and electrooptical materials are identified as the virtual absence of gravity (suppressing buoyancy-driven convection in melts and density segregation of alloys) and the availabilty of high vacuum (with high pumping speed and heat rejection). The recent history of material development and processing technology in the electronics industry is reviewed, and the principal features of early space experiments are outlined.

  6. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  7. Industrial Electronics II for ICT. Instructor's Guide and Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Bob; Notgrass, Troy

    This manual is designed to help instructors guide students through their manuals and laboratory training stations in the field of industrial electronics. The manual consists of the following nine sections: (1) suggestions for teaching the course; (2) an instructional delivery outline; (3) lists of essential elements common to all trade and…

  8. Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide for Electricity/Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum provides a behaviorally written guide that offers a possible list of objectives to assist in establishing or revising an electrical/electronics curriculum. Teachers may choose specific objectives to suit age group and educational level or expertise. Introductory material describes the scope and sequence of an Industrial Arts…

  9. Industrial process profiles for environmental use: Chapter 30. The electronic component manufacturing industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report is one of a series constituting the catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use. Each industry sector is addressed as a separate chapter of the study. The catalog was developed for the purpose of compiling relevant information concerning air, water, and solid waste emissions from industries which employ similar technologies, have common types of environmental impacts, and supply their products for further processing or consumption to the same general population of customers. This report addresses the following segments of the electronic component manufacturing industry: semiconductors, SIC 3674; capacitors, SIC 3675; resistors, SIC 3676; transformer and inductors, SIC 3677; printed circuit boards, SIC 3679052; electron tubes, SIC 36711, 36713; and cathode ray tubes, SIC 36712, 3671385.

  10. Tribological sinks in emerging industries: electronics and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.A.; Hane, G.J.

    1986-08-01

    This report describes a preliminary review of the impact of tribological effects - losses due to friction and wear - in two emerging industries: robotics and electronics. Major sources of tribological wear in the robotics industry include the chains used to drive the robots and the joints in the elbow and wrist. In the electronics industry, the largest source of tribological wear is the particulate wear of vacuum pumps used in corrosive environments. Other significant sources of wear are the conveyor belts, blowers, and fans used for clean rooms, and the slicing, lapping and polishing operations for silicon wafers. The major loss mechanisms are friction and abrasion (abrasion includes 2-body wear, 3-body wear, gouging, grinding, erosion, and cutting wear).

  11. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Four-Year Industrial Technology Programs In Preparing Industrial Electronic Technicians to Meet the Requirements of Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Roger W.

    To determine the effectiveness of the 4-year industrial technology programs in preparing industrial electronic technicians for employment in industry, data were obtained through an opinionnaire, which was sent to the higher education institutions offering a 4-year electronic technician program and to selected industrial representatives located in…

  12. National Skills Standards Development Program: Organization and Operation of Technical Committees To Develop National Skill Standards for Competency in the Electronics Industry. The Third Party Summative Evaluation of the Electronic Industries Foundation Project. Phase I & II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losh, Charles

    The Electronics Industries Foundation was awarded a project to develop national entry-level standards and a certification system. Ten specialties were included: automotive electronics, avionics, biomedical electronics, business machines, consumer products electronics, general electronics, industrial electronics, instrumentation, microcomputer, and…

  13. Dose quality assurance for industrial irradiation with an electron linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, B. F.; Lawrence, C. B.; Lee-Whiting, G. E.; Lord, S.; Mason, V. A.; Smyth, D. L.; Ungrin, J.

    1989-04-01

    In the development of the IMPELA family of electron linacs for industrial radiation processing, the needs for on-line monitoring of exposure dose have been recognized. The diverse applications under consideration demand a broad range of control-system performance and delivered-dose assurance measures appropriate to the sensitivities of the processes. The AAMI Guideline for Electron Beam Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices points to a probable upper bound to the complexity of such requirements. ASTM and IAEA standards and guidelines for radiation dosimetry define the methods available for off-line verification of absorbed dose. The impact of the requirements for on-line measurements and the limitations inherent to the IMPELA design, are reviewed. The interdependencies of off-line product dosimetry and analyses with the on-line monitoring of process parameters are explored in search of criteria for optimization of cost-effective, flexible industrial irradiators.

  14. Integrated virtual factory and logistics for electronics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haibin; Mueller-Wittig, Wolfgang; Jegathese, Reginald; Song, Meehae; Quick, Jochen; Zhong, Yongmin

    2003-04-01

    Funded by the Singapore National Science and Technology Board (NSTB), CAMTech is collaborating with a Singaporean research institute and two industry partners with the objective to improve electronics assembly processes. The goal of this project is to visualize the behavior of an electronics assembly industry by simulating, visualizing the discrete events of the entire manufacturing processes and observing the flow of materials, size of buffers, and line balancing. The traditional scenario -- from the customer placing order for a product to delivery -- goes through various phases including manufacturing the product. Several major electronics manufacturing stages can be addressed: fabrication, assembly, testing, and packing. Each of these stages accounts for set up, process, failure, and wait time periods. A delay in one process will accumulate over to the future delays. To simulate the discrete events a general-purpose simulation system has been employed. For modeling and visualization CASUS (Computer Animation of Simulation Traces) system has been used developed by Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics (Fraunhofer-IGD). This work focuses on the prototype interface between simulation trace file and CASUS animation scripts. The final system provides a 3-D visualization of electronics assembly processes based on event-oriented simulator data.

  15. Conceptual design of industrial free electron laser using superconducting accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Ulyanov, Yu.N.

    1995-12-31

    Paper presents conceptual design of free electron laser (FEL) complex for industrial applications. The FEL complex consists of three. FEL oscillators with the optical output spanning the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) wave-lengths ({lambda} = 0.3...20 {mu}m) and with the average output power 10 - 20 kW. The driving beam for the FELs is produced by a superconducting accelerator. The electron beam is transported to the FELs via three beam lines (125 MeV and 2 x 250 MeV). Peculiar feature of the proposed complex is a high efficiency of the. FEL oscillators, up to 20 %. This becomes possible due to the use of quasi-continuous electron beam and the use of the time-dependent undulator tapering.

  16. 5 MV 30 mA industrial electron processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Y.; Mizusawa, K.

    1991-05-01

    Industrial electron beam processing systems have been in use in various application fields such as: improving heat resistivity of wire insulation; controlling quality of automobile rubber tires and melt index characteristics of PE foams; and curing paintings or printing inks. Recently, there has come up a need for electron beam with an energy higher than 3 MV in order to disinfect salmonella in chicken meat, to kill bugs in fruits, and to sterilize medical disposables. To meet this need we developed a 5 MV 30 mA electron processing system with an X-ray conversion target. The machine was tested in NHV's plant in Kyoto at continuous operation of full voltage and full current. It proved to be very steady in operation with a high efficiency (as much as 72%). Also, the X-ray target was tested in a continuous run of 5 MV 30 mA (150 kW). It proved to be viable in industrial utilization. This paper introduces the process and the results of the development.

  17. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Julia R.; Boehm, Michael W.; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Given a large flow rate of CRT glass {approx}10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source

  18. Individual and group electronic brainstorming in an industrial setting.

    SciTech Connect

    Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Davidson, George S.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2008-05-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming in addressing real-world 'wickedly difficult' challenges. Previous laboratory research has engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The current experiment extended this research to larger, real-world employee groups engaged in addressing organization-relevant challenges. Within the present experiment, the data demonstrated that individuals performed at least as well as groups in terms of number of ideas produced and significantly (p < .02) outperformed groups in terms of the quality of those ideas (as measured along the dimensions of originality, feasibility, and effectiveness).

  19. Trends for Electron Beam Accelerator Applications in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machi, Sueo

    2011-02-01

    Electron beam (EB) accelerators are major pieces of industrial equipment used for many commercial radiation processing applications. The industrial use of EB accelerators has a history of more than 50 years and is still growing in terms of both its economic scale and new applications. Major applications involve the modification of polymeric materials to create value-added products, such as heat-resistant wires, heat-shrinkable sheets, automobile tires, foamed plastics, battery separators and hydrogel wound dressing. The surface curing of coatings and printing inks is a growing application for low energy electron accelerators, resulting in an environmentally friendly and an energy-saving process. Recently there has been the acceptance of the use of EB accelerators in lieu of the radioactive isotope cobalt-60 as a source for sterilizing disposable medical products. Environmental protection by the use of EB accelerators is a new and important field of application. A commercial plant for the cleaning flue gases from a coal-burning power plant is in operation in Poland, employing high power EB accelerators. In Korea, a commercial plant uses EB to clean waste water from a dye factory.

  20. Quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecht, Michael; Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    Quality and reliability are two attributes required for all Japanese products, although the JTEC panel found these attributes to be secondary to customer cost requirements. While our Japanese hosts gave presentations on the challenges of technology, cost, and miniaturization, quality and reliability were infrequently the focus of our discussions. Quality and reliability were assumed to be sufficient to meet customer needs. Fujitsu's slogan, 'quality built-in, with cost and performance as prime consideration,' illustrates this point. Sony's definition of a next-generation product is 'one that is going to be half the size and half the price at the same performance of the existing one'. Quality and reliability are so integral to Japan's electronics industry that they need no new emphasis.

  1. Quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecht, Michael; Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    Quality and reliability are two attributes required for all Japanese products, although the JTEC panel found these attributes to be secondary to customer cost requirements. While our Japanese hosts gave presentations on the challenges of technology, cost, and miniaturization, quality and reliability were infrequently the focus of our discussions. Quality and reliability were assumed to be sufficient to meet customer needs. Fujitsu's slogan, 'quality built-in, with cost and performance as prime consideration,' illustrates this point. Sony's definition of a next-generation product is 'one that is going to be half the size and half the price at the same performance of the existing one'. Quality and reliability are so integral to Japan's electronics industry that they need no new emphasis.

  2. Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2004-10-06

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government.

  3. Operation of industrial-scale electron beam wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kyu Kim, Jin; Kim, Yuri; Seung Choi, Jang; Young Jeong, Kwang

    2012-09-01

    Textile dyeing processes consume large amount of water, steam and discharge filthy and colored wastewater. A pilot scale e-beam plant with an electron accelerator of 1 MeV, 40 kW had constructed at Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) in 1997 for treating 1,000 m3 per day. Continuous operation of this plant showed the preliminary e-beam treatment reduced bio-treatment time and resulted in more significant decreasing TOC, CODCr, and BOD5. Convinced of the economics and efficiency of the process, a commercial plant with 1 MeV, 400 kW electron accelerator has constructed in 2005. This plant improves the removal efficiency of wastewater with decreasing the retention time in bio-treatment at around 1 kGy. This plant is located on the area of existing wastewater treatment facility in DDIC and the treatment capacity is 10,000 m3 of wastewater per day. The total construction cost for this plant was USD 4 M and the operation cost has been obtained was not more than USD 1 M per year and about USD 0.3 per each m3 of wastewater.

  4. The Extent to Which Electronic Technology Education Is Meeting Employment Needs of Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamble, Jack D.

    A study compared the perceptions of electronic technology education teachers and employers in the electronics industry regarding the competencies graduates need for employment in the industry. The study population consisted of 27 state institutions with electronics technology programs in Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Illinois, Kentucky,…

  5. 40 CFR Table I-2 to Subpart I of... - Examples of Fluorinated GHGs Used by the Electronics Industry

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Electronics Industry I Table I-2 to Subpart I of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electronics... the Electronics Industry Product type Fluorinated GHGs and fluorinated heat transfer fluids...

  6. Application of electronic nose for industrial odors and gaseous emissions measurement and monitoring--An overview.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sharvari; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Pandey, R A; Jana, Arun

    2015-11-01

    The present review evaluates the key modules of the electronic nose, a biomimetic system, with specific examples of applications to industrial emissions monitoring and measurement. Regulations concerning the odor control are becoming very strict, due to ever mounting environmental pollution and its subsequent consequences and it is advantageous to employ real time measurement system. In this perspective, systems like the electronic nose are an improved substitute for assessing the complex industrial emissions over other analytical techniques (odorant concentration measurement) and olfactometry (odor concentration measurement). Compared to tools like gas chromatography, electronic nose systems are easy to develop, are non-destructive and useful for both laboratory and on field purposes. Although there has been immense development of more sensitive and selective sensor arrays and advanced data mining techniques, there have been limited reports on the application of electronic nose for the measurement of industrial emissions. The current study sheds light on the practical applicability of electronic nose for the effective industrial odor and gaseous emissions measurement. The applications categorization is based on gaseous pollutants released from the industries. Calibration and calibration transfer methodologies have been discussed to enhance the applicability of electronic nose system. Further, industrial gas grab sampling technique is reviewed. Lastly, the electronic mucosa system, which has the ability to overcome the flaws of electronic nose system, has been examined. The review ends with the concluding remarks describing the pros and cons of artificial olfaction technique for the industrial applications. PMID:26452830

  7. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATING IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. owever, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. his study was ini...

  8. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  9. The Impact of Electronic Commerce on the Publishing Industry: Towards a Business Value Complementarity Framework of Electronic Publishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scupola, Ada

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the publishing industry and its use of information and communication technologies focuses on the way in which electronic-commerce technologies are changing and could change the publishing processes, and develops a business complementarity model of electronic publishing to maximize profitability and improve the competitive position.…

  10. A Curriculum Guide for Intermediate and Secondary Level Programs. Industrial Arts: Electricity-Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City.

    Units of instruction at four levels are designed for use by teachers preparing industrial arts courses in electricity and electronics in junior high and high school. Exploring Electricity-Electronics introduces the subject with attention to circuits, laws, and applications. Basic Electricity-Electronics covers batteries, magnetism, transformers,…

  11. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 30. THE ELECTRONIC COMPONENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is one of a series constituting the catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use. Each industry sector is addressed as a separate chapter of the study. The catalog was developed for the purpose of compiling relevant information concerning air, water, a...

  12. Electricity-Electronics for Industrial Arts. Instructors Lesson Plans. Industrial Arts Series, Publication Number 10,010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, Roy S., Comp.

    Thirty-one lesson plans on electricity-electronics are presented in this guide designed for industrial arts instructors. Each lesson plan is organized into the following format: (1) lesson objective; (2) supplementary teaching items; (3) presentation; (4) demonstration; (5) laboratory or other activities; and (6) test items (oral, written, or…

  13. MERCURY REDUCTION IN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrical and electronics industries have significantly reduced the amount of mercury from various products and processes. owever, the unique electromechanical and photoelectronic properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some ...

  14. MERCURY REDUCTION IN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES: A REVIEW OF THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The electrical and electronics industries have significantly reduced the amount of mercury from various products and processes. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectronic properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some...

  15. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 3, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIRECT CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  16. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. BASIC ELECTRICITY, UNIT 4, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. THE COURSE OBJECTIVE IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS. EACH OF THE 16 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE,…

  17. 10MeV 25KW industrial electron LINAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamino, Y.

    1998-06-01

    A 10MeV 25KW plus class electron LINAC was developed for sterilisation of medical devices. The LINAC composed of a standing wave type single cavity prebuncher and a 2m electro-plated travelling wave guide uses a 5MW 2856MHz pulse klystron as an RF source and provides 25KW beam power at the Ti alloy beam window stably after the energy analysing magnet with 10MeV plus-minus 1 MeV energy slit. The practical maximum beam power reached 29 KW and this demonstrated the LINAC as one of the most powerful S-band electron LINACs in the world. The control of the LINAC is fully automated and the "One-Button Operation" is realised, which is valuable for easy operation as a plant system. 2 systems have been delivered and are being operated stably.

  18. EVALUATION OF ELECTRON MICROSCOPY FOR PROCESS CONTROL IN THE ASBESTOS INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) as potential tools for fine particle asbestos fiber counting for process control in the asbestos industry. The study defined the capabilities and lim...

  19. Vocational Schools: Relation of Curricula To Needs in the Fields of the Electrical and Electronic Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitzan, Esther

    The primary purpose of this survey was to bring about closer contacts between vocational education and the electrical and electronic goods industry of Israel. In addition to a review of literature, engineers and managers were surveyed, via questionnaires, with respect to: (1) The various occupations existing in electricity and electronics, (2)…

  20. 76 FR 1173 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Electronic Source Documentation in Clinical Investigations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Electronic Source Documentation in Clinical Investigations.'' This document provides guidance to sponsors, contract research organizations (CROs), data management centers, and clinical investigators on capturing, using, and archiving electronic data in FDA-regulated clinical......

  1. 77 FR 69632 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Electronic Source Data in Clinical Investigations; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Electronic Source Data in Clinical Investigations.'' This document revises and updates the draft guidance entitled ``Electronic Source Documentation in Clinical Investigations.'' This revised draft document provides guidance to sponsors, contract research organizations (CROs), data......

  2. Ergonomic task analysis in electronics industries: some case studies.

    PubMed

    Tan, G L

    1996-06-01

    The analyses of a few tasks were carried out in an electronics factory. The main objectives are to identify the ergonomic and biomechanical hazards of problem work tasks, to analyze each task systematically in order to evaluate the workers' exposures to the risk factors of force, posture pressure and repetition and to make recommendations to reduce the risks and hazards. The methodology includes objective measures--detailed analysis by going through training manuals, job description and production records. Subjective measures include interviewing the operator and supervisors informally, the operators were also required to fill in a structured questionnaire. The paper concludes by making recommendations to reduce the ergonomic hazards by engineering solutions, redesign or administrative controls or the implementation of procedures. PMID:9551132

  3. The Electronics Quality/Reliability Center: Lessons learned from partnering with industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dellin, T.A.

    1993-10-01

    The government electronics community faces the exciting challenge of entering into new of types of partnerships with the commercial electronics industry. Past interactions have been based primarily on the needs of government. Future interactions will be based more on the needs of industry, particularly its need to be competitive in commercial products. The most successful groups will be those most adept at forming this new type of ``win-win`` partner. Fortunately, both government and industry want to make these new partnerships successful. The government is driven by the necessity of establishing a common government/commercial manufacturing base and the desire to support US competitiveness. Industry is driven by the need to partner with government to remain competitive. Unfortunately, there are no detailed guides available to help government electronics groups and their sponsors in the Administration and Congress cross this uncharted terrain. The purpose of this paper is to share some ``lessons learned`` from the experiences of a government electronics group that has been active in establishing these new types of partnerships with industry. It is our hope that by sharing these lessons we will make it easier for other government groups to work with the commercial industry.

  4. Electron-processing technology: A promising application for the viscose industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Rajagopal, S.; Ewing, D.; Whitehouse, R.

    1998-06-01

    In marketing its IMPELA ® line of high power, high-throughput industrial accelerators, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is working with viscose (rayon) companies world-wide to integrate electron-processing technology as part of the viscose manufacturing process. The viscose industry converts cellulose wood pulp into products such as staple fiber, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. This multibillion dollar industry is currently suffering from high production costs, and is facing increasingly stringent environmental regulations. The use of electron-treated pulp can significantly lower production costs and can provide equally significant environmental benefits. This paper describes our current understanding of the benefits of using electron-treated pulp in this process, and AECL's efforts in developing this technology.

  5. Continuation of Research, Commercialization, and Workforce Development in the Polymer/Electronics Recycling Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mel Croucher; Rakesh Gupta; Hota GangaRao; Darran Cairns; Jinzing Wang; Xiaodong Shi; Jason Linnell; Karen Facemyer; Doug Ritchie; Jeff Tucker

    2009-09-30

    The MARCEE Project was established to understand the problems associated with electronics recycling and to develop solutions that would allow an electronics recycling industry to emerge. While not all of the activities have been funded by MARCEE, but through private investment, they would not have occurred had the MARCEE Project not been undertaken. The problems tackled and the results obtained using MARCEE funds are discussed in detail in this report.

  6. New trends in the commercial IC industry and the impact on defense electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Dellin, T.A.; Jorgenson, J.L.; Winokur, P.S.; Romig, A.D. Jr.

    1998-02-01

    The unprecedented rate and scope of change in the commercial microelectronics industry presents a significant challenge to, and a significant opportunity for, achieving affordable superiority in defense electronics. A proactive approach to making the industry inherently more leveragable is discussed. Defense microelectronics is inexorably linked to the commercial semiconductor industry. This is obvious in the case of COTS (Commercial Off the Shelf parts) and MOTS (Modified--e.g., upscreened--Off the Shelf parts) as these parts are produced by the commercial industry. However, even captive defense integrated circuit lines building specialized parts are being forced by their dependence on a commercial-industry-driven supplier base to follow commercial product/process/design trends. The just released 1997 version of the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS) describes the unprecedented changes occurring in the commercial industry. The industry is evolving from a more stable pre-1994 technology evolution to a discontinuous post-1997 technology evolution. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how these changes present both major challenges and major opportunities, for defense microelectronics, especially for applications involving long lifetimes, harsh environments and/or high consequences of failures.

  7. A Hierarchy Fuzzy MCDM Method for Studying Electronic Marketing Strategies in the Information Service Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Michael T.; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung

    In this paper, the impacts of Electronic Commerce (EC) on the international marketing strategies of information service industries are studied. In seeking to blend humanistic concerns in this research with technological development by addressing challenges for deterministic attitudes, the paper examines critical environmental factors relevant to…

  8. 78 FR 310 - Draft Revision of Guidance for Industry on Providing Regulatory Submissions in Electronic Format...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of draft guidance for industry entitled ``Providing Regulatory Submissions in Electronic Format--Certain Human Pharmaceutical Product Applications and Related Submissions Using the eCTD Specifications.'' The draft guidance announced in this notice is being issued in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration Safety and......

  9. Industrial Arts Electricity/Electronics. A Curriculum Guide for Intermediate and Secondary Level Programs. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist administrators and teachers of industrial arts and vocational and technical school programs with the development of a meaningful curriculum in the area of electricity and electronics. Included in the volume are curriculum guides for the following courses: Self- and Career Awareness of Electricity and…

  10. Basic Electricity/Electronics (Industrial Arts). Vocational Education Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1724.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist industrial arts teachers, counselors, and administrators in improving instruction in the areas of electricity and basic electronics. Included in the first part of the guide are a course flow chart, a course description, a discussion of target grade levels and prerequisites, course goals and objectives,…

  11. Strain mapping for the semiconductor industry by dark-field electron holography and nanobeam electron diffraction with nm resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, David; Béché, Armand; Hartmann, Jean Michel; Carron, Veronique; Rouvière, Jean-Luc

    2010-09-01

    There is a requirement of the semiconductor industry to measure strain in semiconductor devices with nm-scale resolution. Here we show that dark-field electron holography and nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED) are both complementary techniques that can be used to determine the strain in these devices. We show two-dimensional strain maps acquired by dark holography and line profiles that have been acquired by NBED of recessed SiGe sources and drains with a variety of different gate lengths and Ge concentrations. We have also used dark-field electron holography to measure the evolution in strain during the silicidation process, showing that this can reduce the applied uniaxial compressive strain in the conduction channel by up to a factor of 3.

  12. Vacuum system of the 3MeV industrial electron beam accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaprakash, D.; Mishra, R. L.; Ghodke, S. R.; kumar, M.; kumar, M.; Nanu, K.; Mittal, K. C., Dr

    2008-05-01

    One DC Accelerator, for electron beam of 3 MeV energy and 10 mA beam current, to derive 30 KW beam power for Industrial applications is nearing completion at Electron Beam Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. Beam-line of the accelerator is six meters long, consists of electron gun at top, followed by the accelerating column and finally the scan horn. Electron gun and the accelerating column is exposed to SF6 gas at six atmospheres. Area exposed to the vacuum is 65,000 sq: cm, and includes a volume of 200 litres. Vacuum of the order of 1×10-7mbar is desired. To ensure a good vacuum gradient, distributive pumping is implemented. Electron beam is scanned to a size of 5cm × 120cm, to get a useful beam coverage, for industrial radiation applications. The beam is extracted through a window of Titanium foil of 50μm thickness. A safety interlock, to protect the electron gun, accelerating column and sputter ion pumps, in case of a foil rupture, is incorporated. Foil change can be done without disturbing the vacuum in the other zones. System will be integrated to a master control system to take care of the various safety aspects, and to make it operator friendly.

  13. Electrical/Electronic Technology (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an electrical/electronic technology course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a…

  14. Evaluation test of the energy monitoring device in industrial electron beam facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Martelli, A.; Corda, U.; Cornia, G.; Kovács, A.

    2009-07-01

    The electron beam energy monitoring device, previously developed and tested under standard laboratory conditions using electron beams in the energy range 4-12 MeV, has now been tested under industrial irradiation conditions in high-energy, high-power electron beam facilities. The measuring instrument was improved in order to measure high peak current delivered at low pulse repetition rate as well. Tests, with good results, were carried out at two different EB plants: one equipped with a LUE-8 linear electron accelerator of 7 MeV maximum energy used for cross-linking of cables and for medical device sterilization, and the other with a 10 MeV Rhodotron type TT 100 used for in-house sterilization.

  15. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: High-energy electron accelerators for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimov, Rustam A.

    2000-02-01

    The principle of operation and the design of main parts of high-energy industrial electron accelerators are described. Accelerators based on high-voltage dc rectifiers are very efficient, compact and characterized by a high degree of unification of their main units. In total, more than 70 accelerators have been manufactured at the G I Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, with over 20 of them for export.

  16. Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences

    PubMed Central

    NAKAJIMA, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker’s review article on “Laser Acceleration and its future” [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],1) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated. PMID:26062737

  17. Use of electronic health records can improve the health care industry's environmental footprint.

    PubMed

    Turley, Marianne; Porter, Catherine; Garrido, Terhilda; Gerwig, Kathy; Young, Scott; Radler, Linda; Shaber, Ruth

    2011-05-01

    Electronic health records have the potential to improve the environmental footprint of the health care industry. We estimate that Kaiser Permanente's electronic health record system, which covers 8.7 million beneficiaries, eliminated 1,000 tons of paper records and 68 tons of x-ray film, and that it has lowered gasoline consumption among patients who otherwise would have made trips to the doctor by at least three million gallons per year. However, the use of personal computers resulted in higher energy consumption and generated an additional 250 tons of waste. We conclude that electronic health records have a positive net effect on the environment, and that our model for evaluating their impact can be used to determine whether their use can improve communities' health. PMID:21555478

  18. Laser-driven electron beam and radiation sources for basic, medical and industrial sciences.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To date active research on laser-driven plasma-based accelerators have achieved great progress on production of high-energy, high-quality electron and photon beams in a compact scale. Such laser plasma accelerators have been envisaged bringing a wide range of applications in basic, medical and industrial sciences. Here inheriting the groundbreaker's review article on "Laser Acceleration and its future" [Toshiki Tajima, (2010)],(1)) we would like to review recent progress of producing such electron beams due to relativistic laser-plasma interactions followed by laser wakefield acceleration and lead to the scaling formulas that are useful to design laser plasma accelerators with controllability of beam energy and charge. Lastly specific examples of such laser-driven electron/photon beam sources are illustrated. PMID:26062737

  19. 1996 international conference on power electronics, drives and energy systems for industrial growth: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, S.S.; Roy, S.; Divan, D.; Doradla, S.R.; Murthy, B.V.

    1995-12-31

    This book contains Volume 1 of the proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems for Industrial Growth held January, 1996, in New Delhi. The topics of the papers include resonant and soft switching converters, induction motor drives, solar power generation, control aspects of power generation, PWM and DC/DC converters, field oriented control of AC machines, wind power generation, analysis of electrical machines, topology and control of power electronic converters, switched reluctance and permanent magnet motor drives, active filters and VAR compensation schemes, analysis and design of induction generators/motors, simulation of power electronics converters and drive, brushless and special electrical machines, UPS and battery energy storage systems.

  20. Multispectral elastic scanning lidar for industrial flare research: characterizing the electronic subsystem and application.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Facundes da Costa, Renata; Bedoya, Andrés Esteban; Guardani, Roberto; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Bastidas, Álvaro Efrain; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2014-12-15

    This work deals with the analysis of the electronic subsystem of a multiwavelength elastic scanning lidar. Several calibration tests are applied to the Cubatão scanning lidar placed at the industrial area of Cubatão in the State of São Paulo (Brazil), in order to improve the knowledge of its performing itself and to design protocols for correcting lidar signal for undesirable instrumental effects. In particular, the trigger delay is assessed by means of zero-bin and bin-shift tests for analog (AN) and photo-counting (PC) signals, respectively. Dark current test is also performed to detect potential range-dependency that could affect lidar products. All tests were performed at different spatial resolutions. These instrumental corrections were applied to a case study of data acquired for characterizing the optical and microphysical properties of particles in an industrial flare. To that aim, a graphical method based on the space defined by the extinction-related Angström exponent versus its spectral curvature is used to derive the contribution of fine aerosol to extinction and the size of the fine aerosols in the industrial flare, therefore revealing features of the processes occurring inside the flame. Our study demonstrates the potential of this new technique for the study and measurement of industrial emissions. PMID:25607056

  1. Assessing the effectiveness of electronic brainstorming in an industrial setting : experimental design document.

    SciTech Connect

    Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Davidson, George S.; Forsythe, James Chris

    2007-09-01

    An experiment is proposed which will compare the effectiveness of individual versus group brainstorming in addressing difficult, real world challenges. Previous research into electronic brainstorming has largely been limited to laboratory experiments using small groups of students answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The proposed experiment attempts to extend current findings to real-world employees and organization-relevant challenges. Our employees will brainstorm ideas over the course of several days, echoing the real-world scenario in an industrial setting. The methodology and hypotheses to be tested are presented along with two questions for the experimental brainstorming sessions. One question has been used in prior work and will allow calibration of the new results with existing work. The second question qualifies as a complicated, perhaps even wickedly hard, question, with relevance to modern management practices.

  2. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushimaru, Kenji

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter-driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries, microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices, were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading U.S. variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales.

  4. Research, Commercialization, & Workforce Development in the Polymer/Electronics Recycling Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Carl Irwin; Rakesh Gupta; Richard Turton; GangaRao Hota; Cyril Logar; Tom Ponzurick; Buddy Graham; Walter Alcorn; Jeff Tucker

    2006-02-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Recycling Center for End-of-Life Electronics (MARCEE) was set up in 1999 in response to a call from Congressman Alan Mollohan, who had a strong interest in this subject. A consortium was put together which included the Polymer Alliance Zone (PAZ) of West Virginia, West Virginia University (WVU), DN American and Ecolibrium. The consortium developed a set of objectives and task plans, which included both the research issues of setting up facilities to demanufacture End-of-Life Electronics (EoLE), the economics of the demanufacturing process, and the infrastructure development necessary for a sustainable recycling industry to be established in West Virginia. This report discusses the work of the MARCEE Project Consortium from November 1999 through March 2005. While the body of the report is distributed in hard-copy form the Appendices are being distributed on CD's.

  5. A Pilot Assessment of Occupational Health Hazards in the US Electronic Scrap Recycling Industry

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Diana M.; Gong, Wei; Page, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed a randomly selected sample of electronic scrap (e-scrap) recycling facilities nationwide to characterize work processes, exposures, and controls. Despite multiple attempts to contact 278 facilities, only 47 responded (17% response rate). Surveyed facilities reported recycling a wide variety of electronics. The most common recycling processes were manual dismantling and sorting. Other processes included shredding, crushing, and automated separation. Many facilities reported that they had health and safety programs in place. However, some facilities reported the use of compressed air for cleaning, a practice that can lead to increased employee dust exposures, and some facilities allowed food and drinks in the production areas, a practice that can lead to ingestion of contaminants. Although our results may not be generalizable to all US e-scrap recycling facilities, they are informative regarding health and safety programs in the industry. We concluded that e-scrap recycling has the potential for a wide variety of occupational exposures particularly because of the frequent use of manual processes. On-site evaluations of e-scrap recyclers are needed to determine if reported work processes, practices, and controls are effective and meet current standards and guidelines. Educating the e-scrap recycling industry about health and safety best practices, specifically related to safe handling of metal dust, would help protect employees. PMID:25738822

  6. A Pilot Assessment of Occupational Health Hazards in the US Electronic Scrap Recycling Industry.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Diana M; Gong, Wei; Page, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed a randomly selected sample of electronic scrap (e-scrap) recycling facilities nationwide to characterize work processes, exposures, and controls. Despite multiple attempts to contact 278 facilities, only 47 responded (17% response rate). Surveyed facilities reported recycling a wide variety of electronics. The most common recycling processes were manual dismantling and sorting. Other processes included shredding, crushing, and automated separation. Many facilities reported that they had health and safety programs in place. However, some facilities reported the use of compressed air for cleaning, a practice that can lead to increased employee dust exposures, and some facilities allowed food and drinks in the production areas, a practice that can lead to ingestion of contaminants. Although our results may not be generalizable to all US e-scrap recycling facilities, they are informative regarding health and safety programs in the industry. We concluded that e-scrap recycling has the potential for a wide variety of occupational exposures particularly because of the frequent use of manual processes. On-site evaluations of e-scrap recyclers are needed to determine if reported work processes, practices, and controls are effective and meet current standards and guidelines. Educating the e-scrap recycling industry about health and safety best practices, specifically related to safe handling of metal dust, would help protect employees. PMID:25738822

  7. Application of electron beam irradiation combined to conventional treatment to treat industrial effluents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, C. L.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Rela, P. R.; Oikawa, H.; Cherbakian, E. H.; Sena, H. C.; Abe, H.; Sciani, V.

    2000-03-01

    A preliminary study to combine electron beam irradiation process with biological treatment was carried out. Experiments were conducted using samples from a governmental wastewater treatment plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of destroying the refractory organic pollutants and to obtain a better performance of this plant. Samples from five different steps of WTP were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system with 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy doses. The main results showed a removal of 99% of all organic compound analysed in the industrial receiver unit (IRU) effluent and in the coarse bar screen (CBS) effluent with a 20 kGy dose, and for the medium bar screen (MBS) and primary sedimentation (PS) effluent a 10 kGy dose was sufficient. In the case of final effluent (FE), a dose of 5 kGy removed the remaining organic compounds and dyes present after biological treatment.

  8. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  9. 355nm DPSS UV laser micro-processing for the semiconductor and electronics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fei; Duan, Jun; Zeng, XiaoYan; Li, XiangYou

    2010-02-01

    During the last decade, diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) lasers have been gained wider application in semiconductor and electronics industry due to the advantages of high efficiency, low operating cost, good beam quality and flexibility as well as miniature size. Now, 355nm DPSS UV laser has increasingly been adopted in micro-processing application for both semiconductor and electronics industry where both micro-processing quality and precision of high-density, multilayer and multi-material components are in a strong demand. Our works on typical applications of 355nm DPSS UV laser micro-processing both semiconducting and electronic materials have been introduced in this paper, including drilling (200μm blind holes in 4-layer FPC), cutting (coverlay, CCL, FPC, 0.6mm silicon), and etching (ITO-glass). The effects of the processing parameters (pulse energy, frequency, peak power, scanning speed and focal plane position as well as processing modes) on the micro-processing quality and precision have been investigated and analyzed. By optimizing the processing parameters, the blind drilling depth to the second copper layer can be controlled accurately and the roughness Sq 1.33μm on the second copper surface can be achieved. A high quality and size precision (position precision 20μm) cutting edge without charring, burrs and micro-cracks as well as with very small heat affected zone (HAZ) can be also obtained. When etching function film, the etching width is less than 20 micron, and the etching speed is more than 500mm/s.

  10. Investigation of industrial-scale carbon dioxide reduction using pulsed electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, G. M.; Apruzese, J. P.; Petrova, Tz. B.; Wolford, M. F.

    2016-03-01

    Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas contributing to global warming. To help mitigate increasing CO2 concentrations, we investigate a method of carbon dioxide reduction using high-power electron beams, which can be used on an industrial scale. A series of experiments are conducted in which the reduction of CO2 is measured for different gas compositions and power deposition rates. An electron beam deposition model is applied to compute reduction rates of CO2 and energy cost for breaking a CO2 molecule in flue gas and pure carbon dioxide at atmospheric pressure. For flue gas consisting of 82% N2, 6% O2, and 12% CO2, the calculated energy cost is 85 eV per molecule. In order to dissociate 50% of the CO2 molecules, beam energy density deposition on the order of 20 J/cm3 is required. Electron beam irradiation of 12.6 liter gas volume containing 90% CO2 and 10% CH4 at beam energy density deposition of 4.2 J/cm3, accumulated over 43 shots in a 20 min interval, reduced the CO2 concentration to 78%. Analogous experiments with a gas mixture containing 11.5% CO2, 11.5% CH4, and balance of Ar, reduced the CO2 concentration to below 11% with energy deposition 0.71 J/cm3, accumulated over 10 shots in a 5 min interval. The experimental data and the theoretical predictions of CO2 reduction using pulsed electron beams are in agreement within the experimental error. Other techniques to enhance the removal of CO2 with pulsed electron beams are also explored, yielding new possible avenues of research.

  11. Quantitative determination of pulp and paper industry emissions and associated odor intensity in methyl mercaptan equivalent using electronic nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Sharvari; Jana, Arun; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Pandey, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    The obnoxious odors generated from pulp and paper industries have been the cause of nuisance since the instigation of these industries. The objective of the study was to develop a metal oxide sensor based electronic nose for rapid measurement of odorant concentration and associated odor intensity of major reduced sulfur compounds emitted from different sources of these pulp and paper mills. The gas samples collected from the surroundings of major source points of industry were exposed to sensor array of the electronic nose and the change in voltage was measured and taken to PC through data acquisition cards. The same sets of samples were also tested with gas chromatography. The results of electronic nose and GC-FPD were correlated using response surface methodology to know the odorant concentration. The model fed with unknown industrial samples had more than 95% prediction capability. To determine odor intensity by electronic nose firstly a collective index was generated using SVD based 2-norm method (e-nose index) proportional to the sensors response relative to reference gas, methyl mercaptan. Secondly the e-nose index was associated with human expert evaluations. The training of the electronic nose enabled it to predict odorant concentration found at the industrial site and associated odor intensity in methyl mercaptan equivalent. The overall results of the experiments carried out suggest the potential of electronic nose as a device for on or off line measurement of odorant concentration and odor intensity.

  12. Remotion of organic compounds of actual industrial effluents by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampa, M. H. O.; Duarte, C. L.; Rela, P. R.; Somessari, E. S. R.; Silveira, C. G.; Azevedo, A. L.

    1998-06-01

    Organic compounds has been a great problem of environmental pollution, the traditional methods are not effecient on removing these compounds and most of them are deposited to ambient and stay there for long time causing problems to the environment. Ionizing radiation has been used with success to destroy organic molecules. Actual industrial effluents were irradiated using IPEN's electron beam wastewater pilot plant to study organic compounds degradation. The samples were irradiated with and without air mixture by different doses. Irradiation treatment efficiency was evaluated by the Cromatography Gas Analyses of the samples before and after irradiation. The studied organic compounds were: phenol, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, benzene, toluene and xilene. A degradation superior to 80% was achieved for the majority of the compounds with air addition and 2kGy delivered dose condition. For the samples that were irradiated without air addition the degradation was higher.

  13. An analytical electron microscope study of airborne industrial particles in Sosnowiec, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Janeczek, Janusz

    The types and the relative amounts of airborne particles in the city of Sosnowiec (Poland) during 21-22 June, 1994 were identified by analytical electron microscope analyses. They are mostly aspherical angular Al-bearing silica particles (0.1-5.15 μm) and clusters thereof. Carbonaceous particles form sheets of soluble volatile-rich materials (0.3-33.9 μm) and rare soot. Numerous nanometer-sized Al-bearing silica grains and salt minerals are associated with the larger particles. They resulted from inefficient combustion of low-grade coals by the local industries whereby the silica particles are coal impurities that survived combustion. The total particle emission was constant during a 24 h period but silica shards dominated the nighttime emission while carbonaceous particles abounded during the daytime. This study showed that tropospheric particles in regions dominated by inefficient coal combustion are fundamentally different from typical coal fly ash spheres.

  14. Industrial Plant for Flue Gas Treatment with High Power Electron Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Tyminski, Bogdan; Zimek, Zbigniew; Pawelec, Andrzej; Licki, Janusz

    2003-08-26

    Fossil fuel combustion leads to acidic pollutants, like SO2, NOx, HCl emission. Different control technologies are proposed however, the most popular method is combination of wet FGD (flue gas desulfurization) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction). First, using lime or limestone slurry leads to SO2 capture, and gypsum is a product. The second process where ammonia is used as reagent and nitrogen oxides are reduced over catalyst surface to gaseous nitrogen removes NOx. New advanced method using electron accelerators for simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal has been developed in Japan, the USA, Germany and Poland. Both pollutants are removed with high efficiency and byproduct can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial plants have been already constructed. One in China and second in Poland, third one is under construction in Japan. Information on the Polish plant is presented in the paper. Plant has been constructed at Power Station Pomorzany, Szczecin (Dolna Odra Electropower Stations Group) and treats flue gases from two Benson boilers 60 MWe and 100 MWth each. Flow rate of the flue gas stream is equal to 270 000 Nm3/h. Four transformer accelerators, 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each were applied. With its 1.05 MW total beam power installed it is a biggest radiation facility over the world, nowadays. Description of the plant and results obtained has been presented in the paper.

  15. Industrial Plant for Flue Gas Treatment with High Power Electron Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Tyminski, Bogdan; Zimek, Zbigniew; Pawelec, Andrzej; Licki, Janusz

    2003-08-01

    Fossil fuel combustion leads to acidic pollutants, like SO2, NOx, HCl emission. Different control technologies are proposed however, the most popular method is combination of wet FGD (flue gas desulfurization) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction). First, using lime or limestone slurry leads to SO2 capture, and gypsum is a product. The second process where ammonia is used as reagent and nitrogen oxides are reduced over catalyst surface to gaseous nitrogen removes NOx. New advanced method using electron accelerators for simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal has been developed in Japan, the USA, Germany and Poland. Both pollutants are removed with high efficiency and byproduct can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial plants have been already constructed. One in China and second in Poland, third one is under construction in Japan. Information on the Polish plant is presented in the paper. Plant has been constructed at Power Station Pomorzany, Szczecin (Dolna Odra Electropower Stations Group) and treats flue gases from two Benson boilers 60 MWe and 100 MWth each. Flow rate of the flue gas stream is equal to 270 000 Nm3/h. Four transformer accelerators, 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each were applied. With its 1.05 MW total beam power installed it is a biggest radiation facility over the world, nowadays. Description of the plant and results obtained has been presented in the paper.

  16. 40 CFR Table I-2 to Subpart I - Examples of Fluorinated GHGs and Fluorinated Heat Transfer Fluids Used by the Electronics Industry

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fluorinated Heat Transfer Fluids Used by the Electronics Industry I Table I-2 to Subpart I Protection of... REPORTING Electronics Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. I, Table I-2 Table I-2 to Subpart I—Examples of Fluorinated GHGs and Fluorinated Heat Transfer Fluids Used by the Electronics Industry Product...

  17. Prosperity Games prototyping with the board of governors of the Electronic Industries Association, January 20--21, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bermann, M.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    Prosperity Games are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Prosperity Game conducted under the sponsorship of the Electronic Industries Association. Almost all of the players were from the electronics industry. The game explored policy changes that could enhance US competitiveness in the manufacturing of consumer electronics. Four teams simulated a presidentially appointed commission comprised of high-level representatives from government, industry, universities and national laboratories. A single team represented the foreign equivalent of this commission, formed to develop counter strategies for any changes in US policies. The deliberations and recommendations of these teams provide valuable insights as to the views of this industry concerning policy changes, foreign competition, and the development, delivery and commercialization of new technologies.

  18. 77 FR 75174 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Providing Submissions in Electronic Format-Summary Level Clinical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Providing Submissions in Electronic Format--Summary Level Clinical Site Data for CDER's Inspection Planning.'' The draft guidance is intended to assist applicants in the voluntary submission of a clinical dataset that describes and summarizes the characteristics and outcomes of......

  19. Recovery of valuable metals from electronic and galvanic industrial wastes by leaching and electrowinning.

    PubMed

    Vegliò, F; Quaresima, R; Fornari, P; Ubaldini, S

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper, a study on laboratory scale to perform a treatment for valuable metals recovery from electronic and galvanic industrial wastes, is reported. The characterisation of the waste, performed by XRD, SEM, EDX and chemical analysis, showed a high metals content in the sludge, such as Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, Sn, W. A leaching process, coupled by electrowinning, is then proposed in order to reduce the volume of the waste material and to recover selectively valuable metals, such as Cu and Ni. During the leaching step, carried out by using H(2)SO(4), several factors were investigated (acid concentration, temperature and time of treatment). The leached liquor has been successfully treated with an electrowinning process, to recover copper and nickel. The copper and nickel depositions, were performed in acid and alkaline conditions, respectively. The Faraday yield was of about 95%. The energy consumption was 2.13 and 4.43 kWh per kg of copper and nickel recovered, respectively. At the end of the process, about 94-99% of the initial content of Cu and Ni was recovered at the cathode. The experimental results obtained, showed the technical feasibility of the process. PMID:12737966

  20. Recovery of valuable metals from electronic and galvanic industrial wastes by leaching and electrowinning

    SciTech Connect

    Veglio, F.; Quaresima, R.; Fornari, P.; Ubaldini, S

    2003-07-01

    In the present paper, a study on laboratory scale to perform a treatment for valuable metals recovery from electronic and galvanic industrial wastes, is reported. The characterisation of the waste, performed by XRD, SEM, EDX and chemical analysis, showed a high metals content in the sludge, such as Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, Sn, W. A leaching process, coupled by electrowinning, is then proposed in order to reduce the volume of the waste material and to recover selectively valuable metals, such as Cu and Ni. During the leaching step, carried out by using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, several factors were investigated (acid concentration, temperature and time of treatment). The leached liquor has been successfully treated with an electrowinning process, to recover copper and nickel. The copper and nickel depositions, were performed in acid and alkaline conditions, respectively. The Faraday yield was of about 95%. The energy consumption was 2.13 and 4.43 kWh per kg of copper and nickel recovered, respectively. At the end of the process, about 94-99% of the initial content of Cu and Ni was recovered at the cathode. The experimental results obtained, showed the technical feasibility of the process.

  1. Monitoring deformations of industrial objects using optical-electronic autoreflection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyakhin, Igor A.; Kleshchenok, Maksim A.

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, optical-electronics measuring instruments for control the linear deformations in the monitoring industrial constructions (turbines, dams, booms, bases plates, walls, etc) are used effectively. Autocollimating and auto-reflecting schemes are two main basic of such systems. The autocollimating system has larger sensitive than auto reflecting ones. However, the auto reflecting system is more effective for using IR LED as a source and using CCD matrix as a photo-receiver. In addition, the auto-reflecting system has larger working distance than autocollimating system. The experimental test-bed of auto-reflecting system for alignment control was realized. Parameters of a system are the following: IR LED L2656-03 with power 9 mW as sources of radiation; the focal length of autocollimators objective is 250 mm, the matrix change couple devise as photo-receiver with dimension of pixel 2.2μm. The experimental error of this system is 0,007 mm on a working distance of 0.5 m and 0.06 mm on a distance of 8 m.

  2. A Secondary-Level Curriculum in Industrial Electronics and Robotics. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besancon, Francis E.

    A curriculum was developed to provide the electromechanical skills necessary to operate and repair industrial robots to students at the secondary and adult vocational levels. To determine requirements for entry-level positions in the robotics industry, manufacturers and employers of industrial robots were contacted. No particular entry-level…

  3. High-brightness electron beams for production of high intensity, coherent radiation for scientific and industrial applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.-J.

    1999-01-15

    Relativistic electron beams with high six-dimensional phase space densities, i.e., high-brightness beams, are the basis for efficient generation of intense and coherent radiation beams for advanced scientific and industrial applications. The remarkable progress in synchrotrons radiation facilities from the first generation to the current, third-generation capability illustrates this point. With the recent development of the high-brightness electron gun based on laser-driven rf photocathodes, linacs have become another important option for high-brightness electron beams. With linacs of about 100 MeV, megawatt-class infrared free-electron lasers can be designed for industrial applications such as power beaming. With linacs of about 10 GeV, 1-{angstrom} x-ray beams with brightness and time resolution exceeding by several orders of magnitude the current synchrotrons radiation sources can be generated based on self-amplified spontaneous emission. Scattering of a high-brightness electron beam by high power laser beams is emerging as a compact method of generating short-pulse, bright x-rays. In the high-energy frontier, photons of TeV quantum energy could be generated by scattering laser beams with TeV electron beams in future linear colliders.

  4. The IBA Rhodotron: an industrial high-voltage high-powered electron beam accelerator for polymers radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Lancker, Marc; Herer, Arnold; Cleland, Marshall R.; Jongen, Yves; Abs, Michel

    1999-05-01

    The Rhodotron is a high-voltage, high-power electron beam accelerator based on a design concept first proposed in 1989 by J. Pottier of the French Atomic Agency, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA). In December 1991, the Belgian particle accelerator manufacturer, Ion Beam Applications s.a. (IBA) entered into an exclusive agreement with the CEA to develop and industrialize the Rhodotron. Electron beams have long been used as the preferential method to cross-link a variety of polymers, either in their bulk state or in their final form. Used extensively in the wire and cable industry to toughen insulating jackets, electron beam-treated plastics can demonstrate improved tensile and impact strength, greater abrasion resistance, increased temperature resistance and dramatically improved fire retardation. Electron beams are used to selectively cross-link or degrade a wide range of polymers in resin pellets form. Electron beams are also used for rapid curing of advanced composites, for cross-linking of floor-heating and sanitary pipes and for cross-linking of formed plastic parts. Other applications include: in-house and contract medical device sterilization, food irradiation in both electron and X-ray modes, pulp processing, electron beam doping of semi-conductors, gemstone coloration and general irradiation research. IBA currently markets three models of the Rhodotron, all capable of 10 MeV and alternate beam energies from 3 MeV upwards. The Rhodotron models TT100, TT200 and TT300 are typically specified with guaranteed beam powers of 35, 80 and 150 kW, respectively. Founded in 1986, IBA, a spin-off of the Cyclotron Research Center at the University of Louvain (UCL) in Belgium, is a pioneer in accelerator design for industrial-scale production.

  5. Effect of industrial by-products containing electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice cultivation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2009-10-01

    Three industrial by-products (fly ash, phosphogypsum and blast furnace slag), were evaluated for their potential re-use as soil amendments to reduce methane (CH(4)) emission resulting from rice cultivation. In laboratory incubations, CH(4) production rates from anoxic soil slurries were significantly reduced at amendment levels of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (wt wt(-1)), while observed CO(2) production rates were enhanced. The level of suppression in methane production was the highest for phosphogypsum, followed by blast slag and then fly ash. In the greenhouse experiment, CH(4) emission rates from the rice planted potted soils significantly decreased with the increasing levels (2-20 Mg ha(-1)) of the selected amendments applied, while rice yield simultaneously increased compared to the control treatment. At 10 Mg ha(-1) application level of the amendments, total seasonal CH(4) emissions were reduced by 20%, 27% and 25%, while rice grain yields were increased by 17%, 15% and 23% over the control with fly ash, phosphogypsum, and blast slag amendments, respectively. The suppression of CH(4) production rates as well as total seasonal CH(4) flux could be due to the increased concentrations of active iron, free iron, manganese oxides, and sulfate in the amended soil, which acted as electron acceptors and controlled methanogens' activity by limiting substrates availability. Among the amendments, blast furnace slag and fly ash contributed mainly to improve the soil nutrients balance and increased the soil pH level towards neutral point, but soil acidity was developed with phosphogypsum application. Conclusively, blast slag among the selected amendments would be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH(4) emissions as well as sustaining rice productivity. PMID:19560334

  6. Effect of industrial by-products containing electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice cultivation

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2009-10-15

    Three industrial by-products (fly ash, phosphogypsum and blast furnace slag), were evaluated for their potential re-use as soil amendments to reduce methane (CH{sub 4}) emission resulting from rice cultivation. In laboratory incubations, CH{sub 4} production rates from anoxic soil slurries were significantly reduced at amendment levels of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (wt wt{sup -1}), while observed CO{sub 2} production rates were enhanced. The level of suppression in methane production was the highest for phosphogypsum, followed by blast slag and then fly ash. In the greenhouse experiment, CH{sub 4} emission rates from the rice planted potted soils significantly decreased with the increasing levels (2-20 Mg ha{sup -1}) of the selected amendments applied, while rice yield simultaneously increased compared to the control treatment. At 10 Mg ha{sup -1} application level of the amendments, total seasonal CH{sub 4} emissions were reduced by 20%, 27% and 25%, while rice grain yields were increased by 17%, 15% and 23% over the control with fly ash, phosphogypsum, and blast slag amendments, respectively. The suppression of CH{sub 4} production rates as well as total seasonal CH{sub 4} flux could be due to the increased concentrations of active iron, free iron, manganese oxides, and sulfate in the amended soil, which acted as electron acceptors and controlled methanogens' activity by limiting substrates availability. Among the amendments, blast furnace slag and fly ash contributed mainly to improve the soil nutrients balance and increased the soil pH level towards neutral point, but soil acidity was developed with phosphogypsum application. Conclusively, blast slag among the selected amendments would be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH{sub 4} emissions as well as sustaining rice productivity.

  7. What Do Universities Really Owe Industry? The Case of Solid State Electronics at Stanford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecuyer, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    It is widely argued that, in the United States, the Department of Defense dictated the intellectual contours of academic science and engineering during the Cold War. However, in important ways, American science was also deeply influenced by industry. Between 1955 and 1985, Stanford University embraced three waves of industrial innovation in solid…

  8. Industrial Education. Electricity/Electronics Curriculum Guide, Phase II. Instructional Modules, Level III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo, Robert E.; Soffiotto, Nicholas S.

    Designed for students in the tenth grade, this electricity/electronics curriculum guide contains instructional modules for sixteen units of instruction: (1) orientation, (2) introduction to electricity/electronics, (3) electricity/electronics safety, (4) fundamental skills, (5) direct current circuits, (6) graphical illustrations, (7) circuit…

  9. Special electronic distance meter calibration for precise engineering surveying industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Jaroslav; Štroner, Martin; Urban, Rudolf

    2015-05-01

    All surveying instruments and their measurements suffer from some errors. To refine the measurement results, it is necessary to use procedures restricting influence of the instrument errors on the measured values or to implement numerical corrections. In precise engineering surveying industrial applications the accuracy of the distances usually realized on relatively short distance is a key parameter limiting the resulting accuracy of the determined values (coordinates, etc.). To determine the size of systematic and random errors of the measured distances were made test with the idea of the suppression of the random error by the averaging of the repeating measurement, and reducing systematic errors influence of by identifying their absolute size on the absolute baseline realized in geodetic laboratory at the Faculty of Civil Engineering CTU in Prague. The 16 concrete pillars with forced centerings were set up and the absolute distances between the points were determined with a standard deviation of 0.02 millimetre using a Leica Absolute Tracker AT401. For any distance measured by the calibrated instruments (up to the length of the testing baseline, i.e. 38.6 m) can now be determined the size of error correction of the distance meter in two ways: Firstly by the interpolation on the raw data, or secondly using correction function derived by previous FFT transformation usage. The quality of this calibration and correction procedure was tested on three instruments (Trimble S6 HP, Topcon GPT-7501, Trimble M3) experimentally using Leica Absolute Tracker AT401. By the correction procedure was the standard deviation of the measured distances reduced significantly to less than 0.6 mm. In case of Topcon GPT-7501 is the nominal standard deviation 2 mm, achieved (without corrections) 2.8 mm and after corrections 0.55 mm; in case of Trimble M3 is nominal standard deviation 3 mm, achieved (without corrections) 1.1 mm and after corrections 0.58 mm; and finally in case of Trimble

  10. Effects of different additives with assistance of microwave heating for heavy metal stabilization in electronic industry sludge.

    PubMed

    Jothiramalingam, R; Lo, Shang-Lien; Chen, Ching-lung

    2010-01-01

    Electronic industrial wastewater sludge in Taiwan is normally passed through an acid-extraction process to reclaim most of the copper ions, the remaining residue may still need to be treated by various stabilization technologies using suitable additives. Cement solidification is used as the common method to stabilize the industrial wastewater sludge in Taiwan. However, this method has the disadvantage of an increase in waste volume. In the present study selective additives such as sodium sulfide, barium manganate and different phase of alumina were tested as a possible alternate additive to stabilize the heavy metal ion in the treated solid waste sludge via microwave heating treatment. The effects of additive amount, power of microwave irradiation and reaction time have been studied. Heavy metal leaching capacity is determined by using standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test and elemental content in the leachate is analyzed by inductively coupled plasma analysis. Sodium sulfide is effectively stabilizing the leaching copper ion with high selectivity in the presence of microwave irradiation and finally stabilized in the form of copper sulfide, which is a significant reaction to stabilize the copper ion leaching in the waste sludge. Complete stabilization of heavy metal ion and copper ion content (<5mgL(-1)) in industrial sludge is achieved by heating the microwave treated barium manganate and alumina additives by adopting suitable reaction conditions. Hybrid microwave and conventional heating process with minor amount of additive providing the efficient heavy metal stabilization for treated electronic industry waste sludge. PMID:19945139

  11. Equipment for Beam Current and Electron Energy Monitoring During Industry Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.

    1997-05-01

    The electron beam irradiation sterilization is placed first among all types of medical items sterilization. The quality of sterilization is determined by value of dose, which is in one's turn determined by beam current, electron energy and beam scanning system parameters. Therefore this parameters have to be controlled during the irradiation process. The equipment for beam current and electron energy monitoring allows to control beam current, electron energy spectrum and nominal deflection of electron beam when scanning during the irradiation process each scanning period or, for example, each tenth period by request.

  12. [Occupational risk and its prophylaxis for female workers engaged in radio-electronic instrument industry].

    PubMed

    Frolova, N M

    2003-01-01

    Hygienic evaluation of work conditions and health state of women engaged into radioelectronic instrument-making industry helped to define occupational hazards determining occupational risk that includes criteria for reproductive disorders. PMID:14526602

  13. 40 CFR Table I-2 to Subpart I of... - Examples of Fluorinated GHGs and Fluorinated Heat Transfer Fluids Used by the Electronics Industry

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fluorinated Heat Transfer Fluids Used by the Electronics Industry I Table I-2 to Subpart I of Part 98... GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electronics Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. I, Table I-2 Table I-2 to Subpart I of Part 98—Examples of Fluorinated GHGs and Fluorinated Heat Transfer Fluids Used by the Electronics...

  14. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, M. C. F.; Romanelli, M. F.; Sena, H. C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Borrely, S. I.

    2004-09-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

  15. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... cantilever low wing, T-tail airplane with the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel engine and an increased..., Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC) System AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... design feature(s) associated with an electronic engine control (EEC), also known as a Full...

  16. 76 FR 72087 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    .... A47CE to include the new model DA- 40NG with the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 Aircraft Diesel Engine (ADE...-tail airplane with the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel engine and an increased maximum takeoff gross... Engine GmbH model E4 aircraft diesel engine. 1. Electronic Engine Control a. For electronic...

  17. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  18. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  19. 75 FR 63810 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; SICK, Inc. (Photo-Electronic Industrial Sensors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Federal Register (74 FR 59523, 11-18-2009) and the application has been processed pursuant to the FTZ Act... Sensors); Bloomington, MN Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... industrial sensor manufacturing and distribution facility of SICK, Inc., located in Bloomington,...

  20. Chameleons in Marketspace: Industry Transformation in the New Electronic Marketing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattinson, Hugh; Brown, Linden

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the new information infrastructure and its possible influences on marketing. Highlights include an alternative perspective of industrial economic history based on infrastructure development; the Internet and its positioning within the new information infrastructure; future possibilities and impacts on organizational structure; and…

  1. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE INCINERATION OF ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes experiments performed on a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator to investigate the emissions and operational behavior during the incineration of consumer electronics waste. These experiments were targeted at destroying the organic components of printed circuit ...

  2. Industrial use of the real time monitor for quality assurance in electron processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneeland, D. R.; Nablo, S. V.; Weiss, D. E.; Sinz, T. E.

    1999-07-01

    The performance of a three channel real time radiation monitor, installed on a 250 kV×0.3 m electron sterilizer used for controlled depth of sterilization of medical devices, is reported. The bremsstrahlung generated at the window plane is monitored with good spatial resolution at three locations across the beam, and provides information on the electron current density (dose rate) and the electron energy. Software has been developed for analysis and display of these data in real time so that the dose received by the product, and the energy at which it was treated can be displayed and recorded. The several geometries used for bremsstrahlung detection are discussed, and some calculated low energy distributions are shown. Typical data are presented from an eleven channel unit mounted on a 250 kV×1.6 m processor illustrating its use for process quality assurance. The use of Monitorad® for overall closed-loop processor control is reviewed.

  3. Industrial Education. Electricity/Electronics Curriculum Guide, Phase II. Instructional Modules, Level I (18 Week).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo, Robert E.; Soffiotto, Nicholas S.

    Designed for students in grades 7 and 8, this electricity/electronics curriculum guide contains instructional modules for twelve units of instruction: (1) orientation; (2) understanding electricity; (3) safety; (4) methods to generate electricity; (5) wiring tools and wire; (6) soldering; (7) magnetism and electromagnetism; (8) circuits, symbols,…

  4. Industrial Education. Electricity/Electronics Curriculum Guide, Phase II. Instructional Modules, Level I (9 Week).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo, Robert E.; Soffiotto, Nicholas S.

    Designed for students in grades 7 and 8, this electricity/electronics curriculum guide contains instructional modules for ten units of instruction (nine-week class): (1) orientation; (2) understanding electricity; (3) safety; (4) methods to generate electricity; (5) wiring tools and wire; (6) soldering; (7) magnetism and electromagnetism; (8)…

  5. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND STEP-BY-STEP SOLUTIONS OF THE…

  6. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, AND PROBLEMS. SOME OF THE LESSONS…

  7. Careers in Electricity-Electronics. Industrial Arts Series, Publication Number 10,012.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichs, Roy S., Comp.

    Career information concerning jobs in the electricity-electronics field is presented. Included is an overview of all positions of employment in the field, such as professional engineers, technicians, skilled craft workers, and semi-skilled workers. A description of their work, training requirements, and employment outlook is given. Information is…

  8. Electronic noses and tongues: Applications for the food and pharmaceutical industries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The electronic nose (enose) is designed to crudely mimic the human brain in that most contain sensors that non-selectively interact with odor molecules to produce some sort of signal that is then sent to a computer that uses multivariate statistics to determine patterns in the data. This pattern rec...

  9. 78 FR 57395 - Guidance for Industry on Electronic Source Data in Clinical Investigations; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... ``Electronic Source Data in Clinical Investigations.'' This document provides guidance to sponsors, contract... accurate and complete data. In the Federal Register of November 20, 2012 (77 FR 69632), FDA issued a draft... FR 76049)). Most of the comments sought clarification on the topics discussed in the guidance....

  10. Strengthening the University-Industry Relationship: A Case Study of the Electronics Department, TEI Crete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liodakis, George; Vardiambasis, Ioannis O.; Kartsonakis, Evangelos; Kaliakatsos, Ioannis A.

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Electronics of the Technological Educational Institute of Crete (DoE/TEI Crete) enjoys good approval ratings from the market and its graduates have a high rate of employability. However, survey data collected over the last ten years from graduates and from the enterprises in which they have been employed, or have carried out…

  11. Industry and Occupation in the Electronic Health Record: An Investigation of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Industry and Occupation Computerized Coding System

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Inclusion of information about a patient’s work, industry, and occupation, in the electronic health record (EHR) could facilitate occupational health surveillance, better health outcomes, prevention activities, and identification of workers’ compensation cases. The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has developed an autocoding system for “industry” and “occupation” based on 1990 Bureau of Census codes; its effectiveness requires evaluation in conjunction with promoting the mandatory addition of these variables to the EHR. Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate the intercoder reliability of NIOSH’s Industry and Occupation Computerized Coding System (NIOCCS) when applied to data collected in a community survey conducted under the Affordable Care Act; to determine the proportion of records that are autocoded using NIOCCS. Methods Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) codes are used by several federal agencies in databases that capture demographic, employment, and health information to harmonize variables related to work activities among these data sources. There are 359 industry and occupation responses that were hand coded by 2 investigators, who came to a consensus on every code. The same variables were autocoded using NIOCCS at the high and moderate criteria level. Results Kappa was .84 for agreement between hand coders and between the hand coder consensus code versus NIOCCS high confidence level codes for the first 2 digits of the SOC code. For 4 digits, NIOCCS coding versus investigator coding ranged from kappa=.56 to .70. In this study, NIOCCS was able to achieve production rates (ie, to autocode) 31%-36% of entered variables at the “high confidence” level and 49%-58% at the “medium confidence” level. Autocoding (production) rates are somewhat lower than those reported by NIOSH. Agreement between manually coded and autocoded data are “substantial” at the 2-digit level, but only

  12. Electronic noses and tongues: applications for the food and pharmaceutical industries.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Bai, Jinhe; Plotto, Anne; Dea, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The electronic nose (e-nose) is designed to crudely mimic the mammalian nose in that most contain sensors that non-selectively interact with odor molecules to produce some sort of signal that is then sent to a computer that uses multivariate statistics to determine patterns in the data. This pattern recognition is used to determine that one sample is similar or different from another based on headspace volatiles. There are different types of e-nose sensors including organic polymers, metal oxides, quartz crystal microbalance and even gas-chromatography (GC) or combined with mass spectroscopy (MS) can be used in a non-selective manner using chemical mass or patterns from a short GC column as an e-nose or "Z" nose. The electronic tongue reacts similarly to non-volatile compounds in a liquid. This review will concentrate on applications of e-nose and e-tongue technology for edible products and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:22163873

  13. 1 MeV, 10 kW DC electron accelerator for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, B.; Acharya, S.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Bakhtsingh, R. I.; Rajan, R.; Sharma, D. K.; Dewangan, S.; Sharma, V.; Patel, R.; Tiwari, R.; Benarjee, S.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    Several modern applications of radiation processing like medical sterilization, rubber vulcanization, polymerization, cross-linking and pollution control from thermal power stations etc. require D.C. electron accelerators of energy ranging from a few hundred keVs to few MeVs and power from a few kilowatts to hundreds of kilowatts. To match these requirements, a 3 MeV, 30 kW DC electron linac has been developed at BARC, Mumbai and current operational experience of 1 MeV, 10 kW beam power will be described in this paper. The LINAC composed mainly of Electron Gun, Accelerating Tubes, Magnets, High Voltage source and provides 10 kW beam power at the Ti beam window stably after the scanning section. The control of the LINAC is fully automated. Here Beam Optics study is carried out to reach the preferential parameters of Accelerating as well as optical elements. Beam trials have been conducted to find out the suitable operation parameters of the system.

  14. Low Reynolds turbulence model CFD simulation for complex electronic system: an industrial point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannuzzi, M.

    2014-07-01

    In electronic systems the presence of bluff bodies, sharp corners and bends are the cause of flow separation and large recirculation bubbles. Since the recirculation vortices develop they encapsulate the heat from an electronic component becoming one of the major contributors of malfunction. Going in depth in this, some numerical simulations of conjugate heat transfer for a heat wall-mounted cube have been performed using the commercial CFD code scSTREAM V11 by Software Cradle Co, Ltd. It is well known that the reliability of CFD analysis depends heavily on the turbulent model employed together with the wall functions implemented. The three low- Reynolds k - epsilon turbulent models developed by Abe-Nagano-Kondoh have been validated against experimental data consisting mainly of velocity profiles and surface temperature distributions provided in literature. The performed validation shows a satisfactory agreement between the measured and simulated data. The turbulent model chosen is then used for the CFD simulation of a complex electronic system.

  15. Management status of end-of-life vehicles and development strategies of used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Ming

    2012-11-01

    Recycling companies play a leading role in the system of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in China. Automotive manufacturers in China are rarely involved in recycling ELVs, and they seldom provide dismantling information for recycling companies. In addition, no professional shredding plant is available. The used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China has yet to take shape because of the lack of supporting technology and profitable models. Given the rapid growth of the vehicle population and electronic control units in automotives in China, the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry requires immediate development. This paper analyses the current recycling system of ELVs in China and introduces the automotive product recycling technology roadmap as well as the recycling industry development goals. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of the current used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China are analysed comprehensively based on the 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' (SWOT) method. The results of the analysis indicate that this recycling industry responds well to all the factors and has good opportunities for development. Based on the analysis, new development strategies for the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in accordance with the actual conditions of China are presented. PMID:22843351

  16. A ban on use of lead-bearing solders: Implications for the electronics industry

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.; Yost, F.G.

    1992-04-01

    This white paper addresses the issue of banning lead from solders used in electronics manufacturing. The current efforts by legislative bodies and regulatory agencies to curtail the use of lead in manufactured goods, including solders, are described. In response to a ban on lead or the imposition of a tax which makes lead uneconomical for use in solder alloys, alternative technologies including lead-free solders and conductive epoxies are presented. The recommendation is made that both users and producers of solder materials join together as partners in a consortium to address this issue in a timely and cost-effective manner.

  17. Electronic Noses and Tongues: Applications for the Food and Pharmaceutical Industries

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Elizabeth A.; Bai, Jinhe; Plotto, Anne; Dea, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The electronic nose (e-nose) is designed to crudely mimic the mammalian nose in that most contain sensors that non-selectively interact with odor molecules to produce some sort of signal that is then sent to a computer that uses multivariate statistics to determine patterns in the data. This pattern recognition is used to determine that one sample is similar or different from another based on headspace volatiles. There are different types of e-nose sensors including organic polymers, metal oxides, quartz crystal microbalance and even gas-chromatography (GC) or combined with mass spectroscopy (MS) can be used in a non-selective manner using chemical mass or patterns from a short GC column as an e-nose or “Z” nose. The electronic tongue reacts similarly to non-volatile compounds in a liquid. This review will concentrate on applications of e-nose and e-tongue technology for edible products and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:22163873

  18. Electron beam accelerators—trends in radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parejo Calvo, Wilson A.; Duarte, Celina L.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Manzoli, Jose E.; Geraldo, Aurea Beatriz C.; Kodama, Yasko; Silva, Leonardo Gondim A.; Pino, Eddy S.; Somessari, Elizabeth S. R.; Silveira, Carlos G.; Rela, Paulo R.

    2012-08-01

    The radiation processing technology for industrial and environmental applications has been developed and used worldwide. In Latin America and the Caribbean and particularly in Brazil there are 24 and 16 industrial electron beam accelerators (EBA) respectively with energy from 200 keV to 10 MeV, operating in private companies and governmental institutions to enhance the physical and chemical properties of materials. However, there are more than 1500 high-current electron beam accelerators in commercial use throughout the world. The major needs and end-use markets for these electron beam (EB) units are R and D, wire and electric cables, heat shrinkable tubes and films, PE foams, tires, components, semiconductors and multilayer packaging films. Nowadays, the emerging opportunities in Latin America and the Caribbean are paints, adhesives and coatings cure in order to eliminate VOCs and for less energy use than thermal process; disinfestations of seeds; and films and multilayer packaging irradiation. For low-energy EBA (from 150 keV to 300 keV). For mid-energy EBA (from 300 keV to 5 MeV), they are flue gas treatment (SO2 and NOX removal); composite and nanocomposite materials; biodegradable composites based on biorenewable resources; human tissue sterilization; carbon and silicon carbide fibers irradiation; irradiated grafting ion-exchange membranes for fuel cells application; electrocatalysts nanoparticles production; and natural polymers irradiation and biodegradable blends production. For high-energy EBA (from 5 MeV to 10 MeV), they are sterilization of medical, pharmaceutical and biological products; gemstone enhancement; treatment of industrial and domestic effluents and sludge; preservation and disinfestations of foods and agricultural products; soil disinfestations; lignocellulosic material irradiation as a pretreatment to produce ethanol biofuel; decontamination of pesticide packing; solid residues remediation; organic compounds removal from wastewater; and

  19. Introduction of new industry standards for cardiac implantable electronic devices: balancing benefits and unexpected risks

    PubMed Central

    Sticherling, Christian; Burri, Haran

    2012-01-01

    The DF-4 connector is a novel industry standard for the connection of a defibrillator lead to the generator. It aims at reducing the bulk created by two or three pins at the proximal end of the defibrillator lead and its corresponding ports at the header of the device. Having only one connection port between the lead and the device reduces the material in the pocket, the risk of lead-to-port mismatch, may lower the risk of lead abrasion, and probably makes the implantation procedure a little easier since only one set screw is required. However, all these conceived benefits are related to convenience rather than to a medical need. After the recent experiences with the possible negative clinical impact of ‘minor’ changes like simply downsizing a defibrillator lead, a word of caution is warranted. The lead is the weakest part of the defibrillator system, complex in design and undergoing constant stress through movement. It is very hard to predict which issues may evolve over time with the changes in lead design. Does the perceived benefit really outweigh an unpredictable risk in a sensitive medical product like a defibrillator? This article tries to address the possible issues of the new spring contacts instead of set screws, the proximity of the low- and high-voltage connections as well as the inability of adding a pace/sense or an additional shock lead without a special adaptor, and advocates a measured speed in the introduction of this technology. PMID:22389420

  20. Introduction of new industry standards for cardiac implantable electronic devices: balancing benefits and unexpected risks.

    PubMed

    Sticherling, Christian; Burri, Haran

    2012-08-01

    The DF-4 connector is a novel industry standard for the connection of a defibrillator lead to the generator. It aims at reducing the bulk created by two or three pins at the proximal end of the defibrillator lead and its corresponding ports at the header of the device. Having only one connection port between the lead and the device reduces the material in the pocket, the risk of lead-to-port mismatch, may lower the risk of lead abrasion, and probably makes the implantation procedure a little easier since only one set screw is required. However, all these conceived benefits are related to convenience rather than to a medical need. After the recent experiences with the possible negative clinical impact of 'minor' changes like simply downsizing a defibrillator lead, a word of caution is warranted. The lead is the weakest part of the defibrillator system, complex in design and undergoing constant stress through movement. It is very hard to predict which issues may evolve over time with the changes in lead design. Does the perceived benefit really outweigh an unpredictable risk in a sensitive medical product like a defibrillator? This article tries to address the possible issues of the new spring contacts instead of set screws, the proximity of the low- and high-voltage connections as well as the inability of adding a pace/sense or an additional shock lead without a special adaptor, and advocates a measured speed in the introduction of this technology. PMID:22389420

  1. Improving enzymatic hydrolysis of industrial hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Soo-Jeong; Sung, Yong Joo

    2008-09-01

    The electron beam irradiation was applied as a pretreatment of the enzymatic hydrolysis of hemp biomass with doses of 150, 300 and 450 kGy. The higher irradiation dose resulted in the more extraction with hot-water extraction or 1% sodium hydroxide solution extraction. The higher solubility of the treated sample was originated from the chains scission during irradiation, which was indirectly demonstrated by the increase of carbonyl groups as shown in diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) spectra. The changes in the micro-structure of hemp resulted in the better response to enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial cellulases (Celluclast 1.5L and Novozym 342). The improvement in enzymatic hydrolysis by the irradiation was more evident in the hydrolysis of the xylan than in that of the cellulose.

  2. Applications of free electron lasers and synchrotrons in industry and research

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, William A.

    2013-04-19

    Synchrotron radiation sources have had a profound effect on both science and technology from their beginnings decades ago as parasitic operations on accelerators for high energy physics. Now the general area of photon science has opened up new experimental techniques which have become the mainstay tools of materials science, surface physics, protein crystallography, and nanotechnology. With the promise of ultra-bright beams from the latest generation of storage rings and free electron lasers with full coherence, the tools of photon science promise to open a new area of mesoscale science and technology as well as prove to be a disruptive wildcard in the search for sustainable energy technologies. This review will survey a range of applications and explore in greater depth the potential applications to EUV lithography and to technologies for solar energy.

  3. Characteristics of a contract electron beam and bremsstrahlung (X-ray) irradiation facility of Radia industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehisa, Masaaki; Saito, Toshio; Takahashi, Thoru; Sato, Yoshishige; Sato, Toshio

    1993-07-01

    A contract electron beam(EB) and bremsstrahlung(X-ray) facility with use of NHV 5 MeV, 30 mA Cock-Croft Walton machine is operational for EB since April 1991, and X-ray commercial irradiation was started in 1992 summer. The facility is consisted of the EB machine, bremsstrahlung target, chain and roller conveyor, and automatic turnover machine for dual sided irradiation. The operation of the system is fully controlled by LAN of personal computers for client's order, EB characteristics, beam current control proportional to the conveyor speed, turnover of product in processing mid point, and output of processing record to clients. The control and recording systems avoid human errors. This paper mainly discusses X-ray processing.

  4. The application of Sunna dosimeter film for process control at industrial gamma- and electron beam irradiation facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, A.; Baranyai, M.; Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Corda, U.; Miller, S.; Murphy, M.; O'Doherty, J.

    2004-09-01

    The Sunna dosimeter was introduced for dose determination in the dose range of 50-300 kGy by measuring optically stimulated luminescence. The usefulness of the dosimeter film has already been shown in food irradiation for routine process control. The aim of the present study was to check the performance of the Sunna dosimeter film for process control in radiation sterilization under industrial processing conditions, i.e. at high activity gamma irradiators and at high energy electron beam facilities. To ensure similar irradiation conditions during calibration and routine irradiation "in-plant calibration" was performed by irradiating the Sunna dosimeters together with ethanol-monochlorobenzene transfer standard and alanine reference standard dosimeters. The Sunna dosimeters were then irradiated together with the routine dosimeter of the actual plant during regular production runs and the absorbed doses measured by the different dosimeters agreed within ±2%(1 σ).

  5. Meeting the expectation of industry: an integrated approach for the teaching of mechanics and electronics to design students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Guy A.; Southee, Darren J.; Page, Tom

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines the traditional engineering-based provision delivered to Product Design and Technology (B.Sc.) undergraduates at the Loughborough Design School and questions its relevancy against the increasing expectations of industry. The paper reviews final-year design projects to understand the level of transference of engineering-based knowledge into design practice and highlights areas of opportunity for improved teaching and learning. The paper discusses the development and implementation of an integrated approach to the teaching of Mechanics and Electronics to formalise and reinforce the key learning process of transference within the design context. The paper concludes with observations from the delivery of this integrated teaching and offers insights from student and academic perspectives for the further improvement of engineering-based teaching and learning.

  6. Development of an XUV-IR free-electron laser user facility for scientific research and industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Newnam, B.E.; Warren, R.W.; Conradson, S.D.; Goldstein, J.C.; McVey, B.D.; Schmitt, M.J.; Elliott, C.J.; Burns, M.J.; Carlsten, B.E.; Chan, K.C.; Johnson, W.J.; Wang, T.S.; Sheffield, R.L.; Meier, K.L.; Olsher, R.H.; Scott, M.L.; Griggs, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos has designed and proposes to establish an XUV-IR free- electron laser (FEL) user facility for scientific research and industrial applications based on coherent radiation ranging from soft x-rays as short as 1 nm to far-infrared wavelengths as long as 100 {mu}m. As the next-generation light source beyond low-emittance storage rings with undulator insertion devices, this proposed national FEL user facility should make available to researchers broadly tunable, picosecond-pulse, coherent radiation with 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 7} greater spectral flux and brightness. The facility design is based on two series of FEL oscillators including one regenerative amplifier. The primary series of seven FEL oscillators, driven by a single, 1-GeV rf linac, spans the short-wavelength range from 1 to 600 nm. A second 60-MeV rf linac, synchronized with the first, drives a series of three Vis/IR FEL oscillators to cover the 0. 5 to 100-{mu}m range. This paper presents the motivation for such a facility arising from its inherently high power per unit bandwidth and its potential use for an array of scientific and industrial applications, describes the facility design, output parameters, and user laboratories, makes comparisons with synchrotron radiation sources, and summarizes recent technical progress that supports the technical feasibility. 80 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Characterization of leaf-level particulate matter for an industrial city using electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Sgrigna, G; Baldacchini, C; Esposito, R; Calandrelli, R; Tiwary, A; Calfapietra, C

    2016-04-01

    This study reports application of monitoring and characterization protocol for particulate matter (PM) deposited on tree leaves, using Quercus ilex as a case study species. The study area is located in the industrial city of Terni in central Italy, with high PM concentrations. Four trees were selected as representative of distinct pollution environments based on their proximity to a steel factory and a street. Wash off from leaves onto cellulose filters were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inferring the associations between particle sizes, chemical composition, and sampling location. Modeling of particle size distributions showed a tri-modal fingerprint, with the three modes centered at 0.6 (factory related), 1.2 (urban background), and 2.6μm (traffic related). Chemical detection identified 23 elements abundant in the PM samples. Principal component analysis recognized iron and copper as source-specific PM markers, attributed mainly to industrial and heavy traffic pollution respectively. Upscaling these results on leaf area basis provided a useful indicator for strategic evaluation of harmful PM pollutants using tree leaves. PMID:26802337

  8. Optical electronic measuring systems and laser technologies for scientific and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri V.; Bazin, Vladimir S.; Finogenov, Leonid V.; Makarov, Sergei N.; Verkhogliad, Alexander G.

    2006-11-01

    The novel results of the R and D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the optical measuring technologies, as well as laser technologies for solving actual problems are presented. The metrological characterization of a perspective Fresnel method for high precision measuring the dimensions of objects is investigated. An optoelectronic noncontact method using diffractive optical element (DOE) for the 3D inspection of article holes is presented. A structured light method and system testing results for noncontact inspection of wire wear and its defects for train electro-supply network are discussed. For permanent noncontact bearing position inspection of oil-drilling platforms on Sakhalin coast, Russia) under extreme temperatures (+/- 40°C) we have developed optical-electronic method and system SAKHALIN. Multifunctional laser technological system LSP-2000 equipped by two Nd-YAG lasers was developed for cutting, welding and surface micro profiling with ablation process (working range of 3 x 3 x 0.6 m 3, positioning error less than 10 μm). Safety of Russian nuclear reactors takes 100 % noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of all parts of fuel assemblies, including grid spacers. Results of development and testing the specialized high productive laser measuring machine, based on structured illumination, for 3D inspection of grid spacers with micron resolution are presented. For safety increasing of Russian railways TDI SIE has developed and produced automatic laser diagnostic system COMPLEX for inspection of geometric parameters of wagon wheel pairs for running train (speed up to 60 km/hr.), which is used successfully on Russian railways.

  9. LDRD final report for improving human effectiveness for extreme-scale problem solving : assessing the effectiveness of electronic brainstorming in an industrial setting.

    SciTech Connect

    Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Davidson, George S.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2008-09-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming in order to address difficult, real world challenges. While industrial reliance on electronic communications has become ubiquitous, empirical and theoretical understanding of the bounds of its effectiveness have been limited. Previous research using short-term, laboratory experiments have engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The present experiment extends current findings beyond the laboratory to larger groups of real-world employees addressing organization-relevant challenges over the course of four days. Employees and contractors at a national security laboratory participated, either in a group setting or individually, in an electronic brainstorm to pose solutions to a 'wickedly' difficult problem. The data demonstrate that (for this design) individuals perform at least as well as groups in producing quantity of electronic ideas, regardless of brainstorming duration. However, when judged with respect to quality along three dimensions (originality, feasibility, and effectiveness), the individuals significantly (p<0.05) out-performed the group working together. When idea quality is used as the benchmark of success, these data indicate that work-relevant challenges are better solved by aggregating electronic individual responses, rather than electronically convening a group. This research suggests that industrial reliance upon electronic problem solving groups should be tempered, and large nominal groups might be the more appropriate vehicle for solving wicked corporate issues.

  10. Marketing Violent Entertainment to Children: A One-Year Follow-Up Review of Industry Practices in the Motion Picture, Music Recording and Electronic Game Industries. A Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC.

    In a report issued in September 2000, the Federal Trade Commission reported that the motion picture, music recording, and electronic game segments of the entertainment industry intentionally promoted products to children that warranted parent cautions. This report responds to the request of the Senate Commerce Committee by focusing on advertising…

  11. Marketing Violent Entertainment to Children: A Twenty-One Month Follow-Up Review of Industry Practices in the Motion Picture, Music Recording and Electronic Game Industries. A Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC.

    In a report issued in September 2000, the Federal Trade Commission contended that the motion picture, music recording, and electronic game industries had engaged in widespread marketing of violent movies, music, and games to children inconsistent with their own parental advisories and undermining parents attempts to make informed decisions about…

  12. Users’ acceptance and attitude in regarding electronic medical record at central polyclinic of oil industry in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Nahid; Shahin, Arash; Jahanbakhsh, Maryam; Mokhtari, Habibollah; Rafiei, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Simultaneous with the rapid changes in the technology and information systems, hospitals interest in using them. One of the most common systems in hospitals is electronic medical record (EMR) whose one of uses is providing better health care quality via health information technology. Prior to its use, attempts should be put to identifying factors affecting the acceptance, attitude and utilizing of this technology. The current article aimed to study the effective factors of EMR acceptance by technology acceptance model (TAM) at central polyclinic of Oil Industry in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This was a practical, descriptive and regression study. The population research were all EMR users at polyclinic of Oil Industry in 2012 and its sampling was simple random with 62 users. The tool of data collection was a research-made questionnaire based on TAM. The validity of questionnaire has been assigned through the strategy of content validity and health information technology experts’ views and its reliability by test-retest. Findings: The system users have positive attitude toward using EMR (56.6%). Also, users are not very satisfied with effective external (38.14%) and behavioral factors (47.8%) upon using the system. Perceived ease-of-use (PEU) and perceived usefulness (PU) were at a good level. Conclusion: Lack of relative satisfaction with using of EMR derives from factors such as appearance, screen, data and information quality and terminology. In this study, it is suggested to improve the system and the efficiency of the users through software’ external factors development. So that PEU and users’ attitude to be changed and moved in positive manner. PMID:24524089

  13. Industrial Arts Education Competency Catalogs for Basic Technical Drawing, Engineering Drawing, Architectural Drawing, Electricity and Electronics, Energy and Power, Graphic Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA. Dept. of Industrial Arts Education.

    Six competency catalogs of tasks for industrial arts programs are presented. These include catalogs in Architectural Drawing, Basic Technical Drawing, Electricity and Electronics, Energy and Power, Engineering Drawing, and Graphic Communications. The purpose of each catalog is to establish a basis for program content selection and criterion levels…

  14. Predictors of Protean Career and the Moderating Role of Career Strategies among Professionals in Malaysian Electrical and Electronics (E & E) Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Siew Chin; Mohd Rasdi, Roziah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of individually related variables and the moderating role of career strategies on protean career among professionals in Malaysian Electrical & Electronics (E & E) industry. Design/methodology/approach: Research data were gathered from a sample of 306 of professional employees in…

  15. Extending the potential of x-ray free-electron lasers to industrial applications—an initiatory attempt at coherent diffractive imaging on car-related nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Rikiya; Yamashige, Hisao; Miura, Masahide; Kimura, Takashi; Joti, Yasumasa; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Kuramoto, Mayumi; Yu, Jian; Khakurel, Krishna; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Nishino, Yoshinori

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) open up new pathways for contributing to industrial research-and-development activities. In this article, we describe our initiatory attempt at using the SPring-8 Ångström compact free-electron laser (SACLA) for industrial applications. The attempt was conducted by the authors through the industry-academia partnership program initiated by RIKEN, aimed at examining the potential of XFELs for the analysis of car-related nanomaterials. Using the infrastructures developed at SACLA, we performed single-shot coherent diffractive imaging experiments on automotive exhaust catalysts and succeeded in obtaining the reconstructed images. This effort has paved the way for the future use of XFELs in the research-and-development activity of automotive exhaust catalysts.

  16. Electronic Fingerprinting for Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Veritec's VeriSystem is a complete identification and tracking system for component traceability, improved manufacturing and processing, and automated shop floor applications. The system includes the Vericode Symbol, a more accurate and versatile alternative to the traditional bar code, that is scanned by charge coupled device (CCD) cameras. The system was developed by Veritec, Rockwell International and Marshall Space Flight Center to identify and track Space Shuttle parts.

  17. Effects of industrial noise on circumpulpar dentin - a field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cavacas, Maria Alzira; Tavares, Vitor; Oliveira, Maria João; Oliveira, Pedro; Sezinando, Ana; Martins dos Santos, José

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to Industrial Noise (IN), rich in Low Frequency Noise (LFN), causes systemic fibrotic transformation and sustained stress. Dental wear, significantly increased with exposure to LFN, affects the teeth particularly through the circumpulpar dentin. Our goal is to understand the consequences of IN exposure on the circumpulpar dentin of Wistar rats. 10 Wistar rats were exposed to IN for 4 months, according to an occupationally simulated time schedule and 10 animals were used as age-matched controls. The first and the second upper and lower molars of each animal were processed for observation by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was performed. In exposed animals FESEM showed a 2.0 to 6.0 μm-dense mineral band between dentin and the pulp with no regular continuity with the tubules. This structure had a few tubules where the odontoblasts processes could be observed embedded within the band and collagen fibers were trapped inside. EDS analysis revealed that it was hydroxyapatite similar to dentin, with a higher carbon content. FESEM results show that the band may be tertiary reparative dentin formed by odontoblast-like cells, but the increased amount of carbon (EDS) could mean that it is sclerotic dentin. IN should be acknowledge as a strong stimulus, able to cause an injury to odontoblasts and to the formation of reparative tertiary dentin, in a process that may accelerate the aging of the teeth, either by direct impact of acoustic pressure pulsations or by increased stress and dental wear. PMID:24294356

  18. ASTM E 1559 method for measuring material outgassing/deposition kinetics has applications to aerospace, electronics, and semiconductor industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, J. W.; Glassford, A. P. M.; Steakley, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials has published a new standard test method for characterizing time and temperature-dependence of material outgassing kinetics and the deposition kinetics of outgassed species on surfaces at various temperatures. This new ASTM standard, E 1559(1), uses the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) collection measurement approach. The test method was originally developed under a program sponsored by the United States Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) to create a standard test method for obtaining outgassing and deposition kinetics data for spacecraft materials. Standardization by ASTM recognizes that the method has applications beyond aerospace. In particular, the method will provide data of use to the electronics, semiconductor, and high vacuum industries. In ASTM E 1559 the material sample is held in vacuum in a temperature-controlled effusion cell, while its outgassing flux impinges on several QCM's which view the orifice of the effusion cell. Sample isothermal total mass loss (TML) is measured as a function of time from the mass collected on one of the QCM's which is cooled by liquid nitrogen, and the view factor from this QCM to the cell. The amount of outgassed volatile condensable material (VCM) on surfaces at higher temperatures is measured as a function of time during the isothermal outgassing test by controlling the temperatures of the remaining QCM's to selected values. The VCM on surfaces at temperatures in between those of the collector QCM's is determined at the end of the isothermal test by heating the QCM's at a controlled rate and measuring the mass loss from the end of the QCM's as a function of time and temperature. This reevaporation of the deposit collected on the QCM's is referred to as QCM thermogravimetric analysis. Isothermal outgassing and deposition rates can be determined by differentiating the isothermal TML and VCM data, respectively, while the evaporation rates of the species can be obtained as a

  19. International Seminar on Laser and Opto-Electronic Technology in Industry: State-of-the-Art Review, Xiamen, People's Republic of China, June 25-28, 1986, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Jingtang; Pryputniewicz, Ryszard J.

    Various papers on the state of the art in laser and optoelectronic technology in industry are presented. Individual topics addressed include: wavelength compensation for holographic optical element, optoelectronic techniques for measurement and inspection, new optical measurement methods in Western Europe, applications of coherent optics at ISL, imaging techniques for gas turbine development, the Rolls-Royce experience with industrial holography, panoramic holocamera for tube and borehole inspection, optical characterization of electronic materials, optical strain measurement of rotating components, quantitative interpretation of holograms and specklegrams, laser speckle technique for hydraulic structural model test, study of holospeckle interferometry, common path shearing fringe scanning interferometer, and laser interferometry applied to nondestructive testing of tires.

  20. Monitoring Air Pollution In and Around the Premises of Industrial Parks Using Two Types of Electronic Nose and Gas Chromatography-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jen Yu; Ling, Yong Chien, Sr.

    2004-03-31

    Two types of electronic nose and GC-MS were used to monitor air pollution in the premises of seven industrial parks. Real-time analysis of air at the sites was performed using portable electronic noses. Air samples were analyzed from the up and down stream direction along the wind flow to investigate the effect or distribution of the pollutants on the surrounding environment. The advantage of multisensors in spatially resolved sensing for direct multicomponent analysis was explored to minimize tedious sample preparation procedure. Electronic nose could give characteristic odor fingerprints, which were correlated with the pollutants analyzed using GC-MS providing detailed diagnostic information such as the presence of hydrocarbons, halocarbons, phenols, nitrogenous benzenes, sulfur compounds, lipid-derived compounds, polysiloxanes, etc. Subsequent principal component analysis helped in identifying the source of pollutants. The applicability of the electronic nose was demonstrated confirming it to be a simple and rapid screening method for identifying the pollutant source.

  1. Energy Efficient Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (o-HAPs) from Industrial Waste Streams by Direct Electron Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Testoni, A. L.

    2011-10-19

    This research program investigated and quantified the capability of direct electron beam destruction of volatile organic compounds and organic hazardous air pollutants in model industrial waste streams and calculated the energy savings that would be realized by the widespread adoption of the technology over traditional pollution control methods. Specifically, this research determined the quantity of electron beam dose required to remove 19 of the most important non-halogenated air pollutants from waste streams and constructed a technical and economic model for the implementation of the technology in key industries including petroleum refining, organic & solvent chemical production, food & beverage production, and forest & paper products manufacturing. Energy savings of 75 - 90% and green house gas reductions of 66 - 95% were calculated for the target market segments.

  2. Using Consumer Electronics and Apps in Industrial Environments - Development of a Framework for Dynamic Feature Deployment and Extension by Using Apps on Field Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Mathias

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a preliminary insight regarding the current work in the field of mobile interaction in industrial environments by using established interaction technologies and metaphors from the consumer goods industry. The major objective is the development and implementation of a holistic app-framework, which enables dynamic feature deployment and extension by using mobile apps on industrial field devices. As a result, field device functionalities can be updated and adapted effectively in accordance with well-known appconcepts from consumer electronics to comply with the urgent requirements of more flexible and changeable factory systems of the future. In addition, a much more user-friendly and utilizable interaction with field devices can be realized. Proprietary software solutions and device-stationary user interfaces can be overcome and replaced by uniform, cross-vendor solutions

  3. When Email and Mentoring Unite: The Implementation of a Nationwide Electronic Mentoring Program--MentorNet, the National Electronic Industrial Mentoring Network for Women in Engineering and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Single, Peg Boyle; Muller, Carol B.

    Electronic mentoring (e-mentoring) programs are providing unprecedented opportunities for establishing mentoring relationships. E-mentoring is the merger of mentoring with electronic communications and links mentors with proteges independent of geography or scheduling constraints. In this case study, the authors apply a model of structured…

  4. Electronics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, Charlotte

    This document presents results of research conducted by industry representatives regarding tasks performed by electronic technicians and line manufacturing electro-mechanical technicians in Arizona electronics industries. Based on this research, a competency-based curriculum was developed for training entry-level electronics technicians. Twelve…

  5. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  6. Improving human effectiveness for extreme-scale problem solving : final report (assessing the effectiveness of electronic brainstorming in an industrial setting).

    SciTech Connect

    Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Bauer, Travis L.; Davidson, George S.; Forsythe, James Chris; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2007-09-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming in order to address difficult, real world challenges. While industrial reliance on electronic communications has become ubiquitous, empirical and theoretical understanding of the bounds of its effectiveness have been limited. Previous research using short-term, laboratory experiments have engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The current experiment extends current findings beyond the laboratory to larger groups of real-world employees addressing organization-relevant challenges over the course of four days. Findings are twofold. First, the data demonstrate that (for this design) individuals perform at least as well as groups in producing quantity of electronic ideas, regardless of brainstorming duration. However, when judged with respect to quality along three dimensions (originality, feasibility, and effectiveness), the individuals significantly (p<0.05) out performed the group working together. The theoretical and applied (e.g., cost effectiveness) implications of this finding are discussed. Second, the current experiment yielded several viable solutions to the wickedly difficult problem that was posed.

  7. 77 FR 9945 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Providing Submissions in Electronic Format-Standardized Study Data...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061... refers submitters to FDA's Study Data Standards Resource Web page at http://www.fda.gov/ForIndustry/Data... regulations. II. Comments Interested persons may submit to the Division of Dockets Management (see...

  8. Meeting the Expectation of Industry: An Integrated Approach for the Teaching of Mechanics and Electronics to Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Guy A.; Southee, Darren J.; Page, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional engineering-based provision delivered to Product Design and Technology (B.Sc.) undergraduates at the Loughborough Design School and questions its relevancy against the increasing expectations of industry. The paper reviews final-year design projects to understand the level of transference of engineering-based…

  9. Opportunities for electronic health record data to support business functions in the pharmaceutical industry--a case study from Pfizer, Inc.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daijin; Labkoff, Steven; Holliday, Samuel H

    2008-01-01

    The Pfizer Healthcare Informatics team conducted a series of guided interviews with 35 Pfizer senior leaders to elicit their understanding, desires, and expectations of how Electronic Health Records (EHR) might be used in the pharmaceutical industry today and/or in the future. The interviews yielded fourteen use case categories comprising 42 specific use cases. The highest priority use cases were "Drug Safety & Surveillance," "Clinical Trial Recruitment," and "Support Regulatory Approval." Fifteen EHR companies were surveyed to assess their functionality against the specified use cases. Self-reported responses from the EHR companies were highest for "Virtual Phase IV Trials" and "Document Management for Clinical Trials." This research identifies preliminary opportunities for EHR products to provide aggregate, blinded data to address the interests of the pharmaceutical industry. However, further collaboration between the stakeholders will be necessary to ensure the full realization of the opportunities for data re-use. PMID:18579836

  10. The IMPELA TM 10 MeV, 50 kW electron linac: launching an industrial accelerator product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirling, Andrew J.

    1991-05-01

    In the previous conferences there has been no shortage of ideas, experiments and prototypes for industrial accelerators. Indeed, physicists propose new ideas at a rate faster than industry can get irradiators to the market. Certainly, the basic physics design must be sound, but this is a far from sufficient condition for an accelerator to succeed. Good physics design is needed to provide a good combination of electrical efficiency and useable power within the scan width. It may, however, be counterproductive if high performance compromises inherent reliability. From the engineering discipline is required an engineered control interface, an engineered product control and dosimetry system and traceable quality assurance. Just as important, the industrial client seeks an irradiator that is built quickly, and will be supported over a long service life (10-20 years). It is also necessary to assist the client in facility design, licencing and process verification. Providing these additional functions is a challenge for the business champions which equals what the technical champions face in obtaining full beam power.

  11. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  12. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND…

  13. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  14. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS STUDY GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES,…

  15. The Policy Implications of a Regional Case Study: Skills Shortages and Provision in the Welsh Automotive and Electronics Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockrill, Antje

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 22 automotive/electronics small businesses in Wales were compared with a 1996 survey. Results show that government initiatives such as Modern Apprenticeships had limited impact on small businesses. Barriers to training such as time, cost, and motivation also appeared, suggesting that mere availability of training programs does not…

  16. The development of an electronic system to continually monitor, indicate and control, 'belt slippage' in industrial friction 'V' belt drive transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. E.

    2012-05-01

    Belts have been used for centuries as a mechanism to transfer power from some form of drive system to a variety of load systems. Within industry today, many designs of belts but particularly friction, trapezoidal shaped 'V' belts are used and generally transfer power generated by electrical motors to numerous forms of driven load systems. It is suggested that belt systems, through their simplicity are sadly neglected by maintenance functions and generally are left unattended until high degrees of 'belt slippage' through loss of friction or 'belt breakage' provokes maintenance attention. These circumstances are most often identified through the reduced or loss of manufacturing production or the occurrence of catastrophic circumstances such as fire caused through excessive friction/ high belt slippage conditions. Obviously, these situations incur financial losses to companies and in some cases the near loss of the company's main manufacturing plant. Consequently, a satisfactory, viable solution is currently sought by industry to improve on current labour intensive maintenance practices. This paper will present an account of the development of an industrially robust, accurate and repeatable electronic system which continually monitors and indicates the degree of 'slippage' in a 'V' belt drive transmission system and in the circumstance of belt breakage or high belt slippage will enable and control the switching off the drive motor.

  17. NO x and PAHs removal from industrial flue gas by using electron beam technology with alcohol addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Sun, Yong-Xia; Licki, J.; Bułka, S.; Kubica, K.; Zimek, Z.

    2003-06-01

    The removal of NO x and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from flue gas was investigated, as a preliminary test, with alcohol addition by using electron beam irradiation in EPS Kawęczyn. The experimental conditions were the followings: flue gas flow rate 5000 nm 3/h; humidity 4-5%; inlet concentrations of SO 2 and NO x, which were emitted from power station, were 192 and 106 ppm, respectively; ammonia addition was 2.75 m 3/h; alcohol addition was 600 l/h. It was found that below 6 kGy applied doses the NO x removal efficiency increased by 10% in the presence of alcohol as compared to the absence of alcohol; on the other hand, the NO x removal efficiency decreased at doses higher than 10 kGy. In order to understand the behavior of these aromatic hydrocarbons under electron irradiation, unirradiated samples (i.e. as emitted from the coal combustion process, called inlet) and irradiated samples (called outlet) were collected by using a condense bottle connected with an XAD-2 adsorbent and an active carbon adsorbent and were then analyzed by a GC-MS. It was found that using 8 kGy absorbed dose the concentration of aromatic hydrocarbons of small aromatic rings (<3, except acenaphthylene) were reduced, but the concentration of these hydrocarbons of large aromatic rings (⩾4) were increased. A possible mechanism is proposed.

  18. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Ma; Rudolf Addink; Sehun Yun; Jinping Cheng; Wenhua Wang; Kurunthachalam Kannan

    2009-10-01

    In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust, soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale electronic wastes (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18,500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-80,0000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89,600-14,3000 pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of {Sigma}PBDD/Fs and {Sigma}PBDEs (r = 0.769, p < 0.01) and between SPBDD/Fs and the previously reported SPCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.805, p < 0.01). The estimated daily human intakes of TEQs contributed by PBDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposures in e-waste recycling facilities were higher than the intakes of TEQs contributed by PCDD/Fs, calculated in our previous study. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Electronic materials high-T(sub c) superconductivity polymers and composites structural materials surface science and catalysts industry participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The fifth year of the Center for Advanced Materials was marked primarily by the significant scientific accomplishments of the research programs. The Electronics Materials program continued its work on the growth and characterization of gallium arsenide crystals, and the development of theories to understand the nature and distribution of defects in the crystals. The High Tc Superconductivity Program continued to make significant contributions to the field in theoretical and experimental work on both bulk materials and thin films and devices. The Ceramic Processing group developed a new technique for cladding YBCO superconductors for high current applications in work with the Electric Power Research Institute. The Polymers and Composites program published a number of important studies involving atomistic simulations of polymer surfaces with excellent correlations to experimental results. The new Enzymatic Synthesis of Materials project produced its first fluorinated polymers and successfully began engineering enzymes designed for materials synthesis. The structural Materials Program continued work on novel alloys, development of processing methods for advanced ceramics, and characterization of mechanical properties of these materials, including the newly documented characterization of cyclic fatigue crack propagation behavior in toughened ceramics. Finally, the Surface Science and Catalysis program made significant contributions to the understanding of microporous catalysts and the nature of surface structures and interface compounds.

  20. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated human exposures for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from electronic waste recycling facilities and a chemical industrial complex in Eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Kannan, K.; Cheng, J.; Horii, Y.; Wu, Q.; Wang, W.

    2008-11-15

    Electronic shredder waste and dust from e-waste facilities, and leaves and surface soil collected in the vicinity of a large scale e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, Eastern China, were analyzed for total dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) including 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. We also determined PCDD/Fs in surface agricultural soils from several provinces in China for comparison with soils from e-waste facilities. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were high in all of the matrices analyzed and ranged from 30.9 to 11,400 pg/g for shredder waste, 3460 to 9820 pg/g dry weight for leaves, 2560 to 148,000 pg/g dry weight for workshop-floor dust, and 854 to 10200 pg/g dry weight for soils. We also analyzed surface soils from a chemical industrial complex (a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) in Shanghai. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs in surface soil from the chemical industrial complex were lower than the concentrations found in soils from e-waste recycling plants, but higher than the concentrations found in agricultural soils. Agricultural soils from six cities in China contained low levels of total PCDD/Fs. Profiles of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in soils from e-waste facilities in Taizhou differed from the profiles found in agricultural soils. The estimated daily intakes of TEQs of PCDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposure were 2 orders of magnitude higher in people at e-waste recycling facilities than in people at the chemical industrial site, implying greater health risk for humans from dioxin exposures at e-waste recycling facilities. The calculated TEQ exposures for e-waste workers from dust and soil ingestion alone were 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the exposures from soils in reference locations. 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. FinalReport for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects:"High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications"

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Ian

    2009-09-01

    The DOE-supported IPP (Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention) Project, IPP-0110, and its accompanying 'add-on project' IPP-0110A, entitled 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications' was a collaborative project involving the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as the U.S. DOE lab; the US surface modification company, Phygen, Inc., as the US private company involved; and the High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Siberia, Russia, as the NIS Institute involved. Regular scientific research progress meetings were held to which personnel came from all participating partners. The meetings were held mostly at the Phygen facilities in Minneapolis, Minnesota (with Phygen as host) with meetings also held at Tomsk, Russia (HCEI as host), and at Berkeley, California (LBNL as host) In this way, good exposure of all researchers to the various different laboratories involved was attained. This report contains the Final Reports (final deliverables) from the Russian Institute, HCEI. The first part is that for IPP-0110A (the 'main part' of the overall project) and the second part is that for the add-on project IPP-0110A. These reports are detailed, and contain all aspects of all the research carried out. The project was successful in that all deliverables as specified in the proposals were successfully developed, tested, and delivered to Phygen. All of the plasma hardware was designed, made and tested at HCEI, and the performance was excellent. Some of the machine and performance parameters were certainly of 'world class'. The goals and requirements of the IPP Project were well satisfied. I would like to express my gratitude to the DOE IPP program for support of this project throughout its entire duration, and for the unparalleled opportunity thereby provided for all of the diverse participants in the project to join in this collaborative research. The

  2. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, FREE ELECTRON LASER, APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY, ETC.: X-ray beam hardening correction for measuring density in linear accelerator industrial computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ri-Feng; Wang, Jue; Chen, Wei-Min

    2009-07-01

    Due to X-ray attenuation being approximately proportional to material density, it is possible to measure the inner density through Industrial Computed Tomography (ICT) images accurately. In practice, however, a number of factors including the non-linear effects of beam hardening and diffuse scattered radiation complicate the quantitative measurement of density variations in materials. This paper is based on the linearization method of beam hardening correction, and uses polynomial fitting coefficient which is obtained by the curvature of iron polychromatic beam data to fit other materials. Through theoretical deduction, the paper proves that the density measure error is less than 2% if using pre-filters to make the spectrum of linear accelerator range mainly 0.3 MeV to 3 MeV. Experiment had been set up at an ICT system with a 9 MeV electron linear accelerator. The result is satisfactory. This technique makes the beam hardening correction easy and simple, and it is valuable for measuring the ICT density and making use of the CT images to recognize materials.

  3. Marketing Violent Entertainment to Children: A Review of Self-Regulation and Industry Practices in the Motion Picture, Music Recording & Electronic Game Industries [with] Appendices A-K. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC.

    In June of 1999, President Clinton empowered the Federal Trade Commission to study whether movie, music recording, and computer and video game industries were advertising products with violent content to youngsters. Specifically he raised two questions: Do these industries promote products they themselves acknowledge warrant parental caution in…

  4. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  5. Aircraft, Missile, and Spacecraft; Office Machine and Computer; Electronics; and Motor Vehicle and Equipment Manufacturing Industries. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on occupations in various manufacturing industries, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include occupations in…

  6. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    A general overview of the industrial garnet industry is provided. About 20 percent of global industrial garnet production takes place in the U.S. During 2000, an estimated 300 kt of industrial garnets were produced worldwide. The U.S. is the world's largest consumer of industrial garnet, consuming 56.9 kt in 2000.

  7. What Extent Are Current New York State High School Electronics Programs Preparing Students with the Competencies Necessary for Employment in the Electronics Field Based on Industrial Demands in the Greater Rochester Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Earl Dwight

    Since there are no clearly defined set of priorities on which to base a program of study in secondary school electronics, this study determined to what extent New York State high school electronics programs are preparing students with the technical competencies, knowledge, and equipment orientation necessary for employment in the electronics field…

  8. Marketing Violent Entertainment to Children: A Six-Month Follow-Up Review of Industry Practices in the Motion Picture, Music Recording & Electronic Game Industries. A Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC.

    In September 2000, the Federal Trade Commission issued a report on marketing violent entertainment to children. The Commission found that all three segments of the entertainment industry intentionally promoted products to children that warranted parental cautions. This report provides a look at the advertising practices to see if the industries…

  9. New Books for Industrial Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Shop, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The most recent book releases in the field of industrial-technical education are listed alphabetically under: automotive/power mechanics; building trades; drafting; electricity/electronics; graphic arts, industrial arts, vocational, technical and career education; industrial mathematics; machine shop/metalworking; metrics; radio/television;…

  10. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Statistics on the production, consumption, cost, trade, and government stockpile of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are provided. The outlook for the industrial diamond market is also considered.

  11. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  12. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  13. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. A review of the state of the global industrial diamond industry in 1999 is presented. World consumption of industrial diamond has increased annually in recent years, with an estimated 500 million carats valued between $650 million and $800 million consumed in 1999. In 1999, the U.S. was the world's largest market for industrial diamond and was also one of the world's main producers; the others were Ireland, Russia, and South Africa. Uses of industrial diamonds are discussed, and prices of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are reported.

  14. Automation of industrial bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, W; DaPra, E; Schneider, K

    2000-01-01

    The dramatic development of new electronic devices within the last 25 years has had a substantial influence on the control and automation of industrial bioprocesses. Within this short period of time the method of controlling industrial bioprocesses has changed completely. In this paper, the authors will use a practical approach focusing on the industrial applications of automation systems. From the early attempts to use computers for the automation of biotechnological processes up to the modern process automation systems some milestones are highlighted. Special attention is given to the influence of Standards and Guidelines on the development of automation systems. PMID:11092132

  15. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. Supply and demand data for industrial diamond are provided. Topics discussed are consumption, prices, imports and exports, government stockpiles, and the outlook for 2004.

  16. Industrial bronchitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000072.htm Industrial bronchitis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Industrial bronchitis is swelling (inflammation) of the large airways ...

  17. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Estimated 2011 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2011, natural industrial diamonds were produced in more than 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 13 countries. About 98 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. China is the world's leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by Russia and the United States.

  18. Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demain, Arnold L.; Solomon, Nadine A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the field of industrial microbiology, providing historical backgrounds of scientific discoveries in the field and descriptions of industrially important microorganisms. Applied research in industry is also detailed, with mention of gene amplification, DNA recombination, pharmaceutical approaches, and detoxification and…

  19. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.44 billion carats in 2010. Natural industrial diamond deposits have been found in more than 35 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries.

  20. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was 630 million carats. Natural industrial diamond deposits were found in more than 35 countries. Synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries. More than 81% of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States.

  1. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change from an industry perspective over the 2008-2018 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment in which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  2. The Effects of Paper-Based Portfolios and Weblog-Based Electronic Portfolios on Limited English Proficiency Students in Writing for Service Industry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanchid, Raveewan; Charoensuk, Valaikorn

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of the use of paper-based and weblog-based electronic portfolios on the writing achievement of limited English proficiency students, to survey the students' attitudes towards the use of the portfolio assessment, and to compare the viewpoints of the students in the control and experimental…

  3. An Industry Redefined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2007-01-01

    Activities in 2006 pointed to strategic shifts in library automation. The dynamics of the business environment changed rapidly from a fragmented industry to a highly consolidated one. Though the integrated library system (ILS) continues to represent the largest portion of revenue, products that deal with electronic content and deliver better…

  4. Industrial Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This handbook contains a competency-based curriculum for teaching industrial education in Alaska. Competencies are listed for the following areas: employability, auto maintenance, building maintenance, commercial fishing, communications, construction, drafting, electronics, energy and power, forestry and logging, graphics, high technology,…

  5. Industrial Ceramics: Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The expanding use of ceramic products in today's world can be seen in the areas of communications, construction, aerospace, textiles, metallurgy, atomic energy, and electronics. The demands of science have brought ceramics from an art to an industry using mass production and automated processes which requires the services of great numbers as the…

  6. Industrial tracer application in People's Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Maoyi, S.

    1988-01-01

    A number of important applications of radioisotopes and their compounds used as tracers in petroleum industry, metallurgical industry, mechanical industry, chemical industry, electronic industry, hydrology and water conservancy in China are introduced in this paper. The tracer technique applied to entomology is also mentioned. The industrial tracer applications are successful and beneficial in People's Republic of China from the examples given.

  7. Industrial Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASTRAN is an offshoot of the computer-design technique used in construction of airplanes and spacecraft. [n this technique engineers create a mathematical model of the aeronautical or space vehicle and "fly" it on the ground by means of computer simulation. The technique enables them to study performance and structural behavior of a number of different designs before settling on the final configuration and proceeding with construction. From this base of aerospace experience, NASA-Goddard developed the NASTRAN general purpose computer program, which offers an exceptionally wide range of analytic capability with regard to structures. NASTRAN has been applied to autos, trucks, railroad cars, ships, nuclear power reactors, steam turbines, bridges, and office buildings. NASA-Langley provides program maintenance services regarded as vital by many NASTRAN users. NASTRAN is essentially a predictive tool. It takes an electronic look at a computerire$.dedgn and reports how the structure will react under a great many different conditions. It can, for example, note areas where high stress levels will occur-potential failure points that need strengthening. Conversely, it can identify over-designed areas where weight and material might be saved safely. NASTRAN can tell how pipes stand up under strong fluid flow, how metals are affected by high temperatures, how a building will fare in an earthquake or how powerful winds will cause a bridge to oscillate. NASTRAN analysis is quick and inexpensive. It minimizes trial-and-error in the design process and makes possible better, safe, lighter structures affording large-scale savings in development time and materials. Some examples of the broad utility NASTRAN is finding among industrial firms are shown on these pages.

  8. Industrial Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  9. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

  10. “I Felt Like the Angel of Death”: Role Conflicts and Moral Distress Among Allied Professionals Employed by the US Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Industry

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Paul S.; Ottenberg, Abigale L.; Hayes, David L.; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To identify themes associated with role conflicts and moral distress experienced by cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) industry–employed allied professionals (IEAPs) in the clinical setting. Methods Focus groups were used to elicit perspectives from IEAPs who had deactivated a CIED. Results Seventeen IEAPs (5 women) reported increased clinical presence and work-related role conflicts and moral distress along several themes: 1) relationships with patients, 2) relationships with clinicians, 3) role ambiguity, 4) customer service to clinicians, and 5) CIED deactivation. Patients often misperceived IEAPs as physicians or nurses. Many physicians expected IEAPs to perform clinical duties. Customer service obligations exacerbated IEAP role conflicts and moral distress because of dual agency. IEAPs commonly received and carried out requests to deactivate CIEDs; doing so, however, generated considerable distress—particularly deactivations of pacemakers in pacemaker-dependent patients. Several described themselves as “angels of death.” IEAPs had recommendations for mitigating role conflicts and moral distress, including improving the deactivation process. Conclusions IEAPs experienced role conflicts and moral distress regarding their activities in the clinical setting and customer service obligations. Health care institutions should develop and enforce clear boundaries between IEAPs and clinicians in the clinical setting. Clinicians and IEAPs should adhere to these boundaries. PMID:21861198

  11. Energy saver for industrial lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arline, J.; Lapalme, J.; Warren, C.

    1980-01-01

    Electronic controller switches lights on or off in response to amount of sunlight available. Is application in offices and industrial installations where electrical energy is wasted by using artificial light in sunlit areas. Device utilizes electronic monitor that varies artificial lighting according to amount of sunlight in given area.

  12. Industrial ecology.

    PubMed

    Patel, C K

    1992-02-01

    Industrial ecology addresses issues that will impact future production, use, and disposal technologies; proper use of the concept should reduce significantly the resources devoted to potential remediation in the future. This cradle-to-reincarnation production philosophy includes industrial processes that are environmentally sound and products that are environmentally safe during use and economically recyclable after use without adverse impact on the environment or on the net cost to society. This will require an industry-university-government round table to set the strategy and agenda for progress. PMID:11607254

  13. Industrial graphene metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyle, Jennifer Reiber; Ozkan, Cengiz S.; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2012-06-01

    Graphene is an allotrope of carbon whose structure is based on one-atom-thick planar sheets of carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. Its unique electrical and optical properties raised worldwide interest towards the design and fabrication of future electronic and optical devices with unmatched performance. At the moment, extensive efforts are underway to evaluate the reliability and performance of a number of such devices. With the recent advances in synthesizing large-area graphene sheets, engineers have begun investigating viable methodologies for conducting graphene metrology and quality control at industrial scales to understand a variety of reliability issues including defects, patternability, electrical, and physical properties. This review summarizes the current state of industrial graphene metrology and provides an overview of graphene metrology techniques. In addition, a recently developed large-area graphene metrology technique based on fluorescence quenching is introduced. For each metrology technique, the industrial metrics it measures are identified - layer thickness, edge structure, defects, Fermi level, and thermal conductivity - and a detailed description is provided as to how the measurements are performed. Additionally, the potential advantages of each technique for industrial use are identified, including throughput, scalability, sensitivity to substrate/environment, and on their demonstrated ability to achieve quantified results. The recently developed fluorescence-quenching metrology technique is shown to meet all the necessary criteria for industrial applications, rendering it the first industry-ready graphene metrology technique.

  14. INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document contains: federal legislation, NRDC consent degree, regulations, the research program, and the different treatments used for petrochemistry, pesticides, inorganic chemicals, batteries, metal finishing, iron and steel, electric power, textiles and leather industries.

  15. Experience Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laslett, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The author, a tertiary chemistry teacher, spent a period of six weeks in a research project with an industrial firm. Describes his experience, the benefits and insight he gained from such an exchange. (GA)

  16. Fermentation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    This article reviews current literature on the fermentation industry. The reuse, recycling and recovery of by-products previously discarded as waste are mentioned, including a Swedish brewery that hopes to reduce discharge of pollutants and the production of single cell protein from a variety of fermentation wastes. The treatment of wastes to produce food substitutes and fertilizers is mentioned together with treatment methods used in distilleries, wineries and in the pharmaceutical industry. (87 References)

  17. Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokberg, Ole J.

    1988-01-01

    The basic principles of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) are described, stressing its close similarity to hologram interferometry. The technique's applications for vibration and deformation testing within industrial and medical research are outlined. Future developments are discussed.

  18. Printed circuit board industry.

    PubMed

    LaDou, Joseph

    2006-05-01

    The printed circuit board is the platform upon which microelectronic components such as semiconductor chips and capacitors are mounted. It provides the electrical interconnections between components and is found in virtually all electronics products. Once considered low technology, the printed circuit board is evolving into a high-technology product. Printed circuit board manufacturing is highly complicated, requiring large equipment investments and over 50 process steps. Many of the high-speed, miniaturized printed circuit boards are now manufactured in cleanrooms with the same health and safety problems posed by other microelectronics manufacturing. Asia produces three-fourths of the world's printed circuit boards. In Asian countries, glycol ethers are the major solvents used in the printed circuit board industry. Large quantities of hazardous chemicals such as formaldehyde, dimethylformamide, and lead are used by the printed circuit board industry. For decades, chemically intensive and often sloppy manufacturing processes exposed tens of thousands of workers to a large number of chemicals that are now known to be reproductive toxicants and carcinogens. The printed circuit board industry has exposed workers to high doses of toxic metals, solvents, acids, and photolithographic chemicals. Only recently has there been any serious effort to diminish the quantity of lead distributed worldwide by the printed circuit board industry. Billions of electronics products have been discarded in every region of the world. This paper summarizes recent regulatory and enforcement efforts. PMID:16580876

  19. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  20. International Competitiveness in Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This assessment continues the Office of Technology Assessment's (OTA) exploration of the meaning of industrial policy in the United States context, while also examining the industrial policies of several U.S. economic rivals. The major focus is on electronics, an area which virtually defines "high technology" of the 1980's. The assessment sets the…

  1. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    World production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 648 million carats in 2006, with 79 percent of the production coming from Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa, and the U.S. U.S. consumption was was an estimated 602 million carats, imports were over 391 million carats, and exports were about 83 million carats. About 87 percent of the industrial diamonds market uses synthetic diamonds, which are expected to become less expensive as technology improves and competition from low-cost producers increases.

  2. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, US production of crude garnet concentrate for industrial use was 28.4 kt valued at $3.05 million. Refined garnet material sold or used was 30.4 kt valued at $10 million. For the year, the US was one of the world's leading consumers of industrial garnet. Domestic values for crude concentrates for different applications ranged from about $53 to $120/t. In the short term, excess production capacity, combined with suppliers that vary in quality, grain size and mineral type, will keep prices down.

  3. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  4. Industrial Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasor, Leslie; Brooks, Valerie

    These eight modules for an industrial orientation class were developed by a project to design an interdisciplinary program of basic skills training for disadvantaged students in a Construction Technology Program (see Note). The Drafting module overviews drafting career opportunities, job markets, salaries, educational requirements, and basic…

  5. Fermentation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Industrial Microorganisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phaff, Herman J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes industrially important yeasts, molds, bacteria, and actinomycetes. Discussed in detail are microbial products, such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, enzymes, and capsular polysaccharides. Traces the historical background of human cell culture, mentioning recombinant DNA research and hybridization of normal mammalian cells…

  7. Industry briefs

    SciTech Connect

    1990-11-01

    Recent nuclear industry briefs are presented. These briefs include: President Bush signs Radiation Victim Compensation Act; Japan Nuclear Fuel Completes construction of Rokkasho Enrichment Plant; Japanese vapor laser achieves 5% enrichment; US to cooperate with Hungary and Czechoslovakia on nuclear power; Soviet Union may reopen nuclear station in Armenia; despite earthquake concerns; and Japan`s Kashiwazak; Kaviwa - 2 begins commercial operation.

  8. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet's angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  9. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet’s angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  10. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Garnet has been used as a gemstone since the Bronze Age. However, garnet's angular fractures, relatively high hardness and specific gravity, chemical inertness, and nontoxicity make it ideal for many industrial applications. It is also free of crystalline silica and can be recycled.

  11. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, U.S. production of crude garnet concentrate for industrial use was estimated to be 56.5 kt (62,300 st), valued at about $8.85 million. This was a 10-percent decrease in quantity compared with 2008 production. Refined garnet material sold or used was 28 kt (31,000 st) valued at $7.96 million.

  12. Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Grace Industries, Inc.'s Electronic Nose is a vapor and gas detector, deriving from NASA's electronic circuitry, capable for sensing the presence of accelerants several days after a fire. The device is powered by rechargeable battery and no special training needed to operate. If an accelerant is present, device will emit a beeping sound and trigger a flashing light; the faster the beep rate, the more volatile the accelerant. Its sensitivity can also detect minute traces of accelerants. Unit saves investigators of fire causes time and expense by providing speedy detection of physical evidence for use in court. Device is also useful for detecting hazardous fumes, locating and detecting gas leaks in refineries and on oil drilling rigs.

  13. ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TONDOW, MURRAY

    EDUCATION HAS BEEN SLOW IN FULLY UTILIZING ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT (EDP). EDUCATOR CONFIDENCE IN THE EDP HAS GROWN, HOWEVER, AS A RESULT OF THE SUCCESS OF ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING IN SCIENCE, INDUSTRY, AND OTHER PROFESSIONS. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOLID STATE TRANSISTORIZED COMPUTERS HAS MADE POWERFUL DESK-SIZE COMPUTERS A REALITY AND…

  14. Functional organic materials for electronics industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibayama, K.; Ono, H.

    1982-01-01

    Topics closely related with organic, high molecular weight material synthesis are discussed. These are related to applications such as display, recording, sensors, semiconductors, and I.C. correlation. New materials are also discussed. General principles of individual application are not included. Materials discussed include color, electrochromic, thermal recording, organic photoconductors for electrophotography, and photochromic materials.

  15. Industry perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuqua, Don; Hannemann, Tim; Iacobellis, Sam F.; Young, A. Thomas

    This discussion addresses the question of whether or not the space industry will take up the slack in the aerospace industry that is created by budget cuts in defense. Armed forces' research has provided an invaluable base for national technological and engineering resources for aerospace companies. It is noted that the space program should maximize the country's advances in national, scientific, and technical capabilities. It is also noted that NASA has done well in a most complicated business, but that Congress has failed to make a firm commitment to NASA's plans outlined in Vision 21 (based on the Augustine report) as evidenced by the Congressional reactions to NASA's budget requests. International cooperation and competition are discussed as well as the need for a political concensus on the direction of the space program in the U.S.

  16. Industrial alliances

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K.V.

    1993-09-13

    The United States is emerging from the Cold War era into an exciting, but challenging future. Improving the economic competitiveness of our Nation is essential both for improving the quality of life in the United States and maintaining a strong national security. The research and technical skills used to maintain a leading edge in defense and energy now should be used to help meet the challenge of maintaining, regaining, and establishing US leadership in industrial technologies. Companies recognize that success in the world marketplace depends on products that are at the leading edge of technology, with competitive cost, quality, and performance. Los Alamos National Laboratory and its Industrial Partnership Center (IPC) has the strategic goal to make a strong contribution to the nation`s economic competitiveness by leveraging the government`s investment at the Laboratory: personnel, infrastructure, and technological expertise.

  17. Industrial radiointroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliuev, V. V.; Leonov, B. I.; Gusev, E. A.

    The operating principles and design of various types of radiointroscopes used in industry for fault inspection are described, together with the sources of penetrating radiation, radiooptic image converters, and image amplifiers. The theory of image formation by a radiointroscope and mathematical models of the image formation are discussed. Consideration is given to the design of radioscope television systems, and their optical characteristics, resolving power, signal/noise characteristics, contrast sensitivity, and the transmission band of the communication channel.

  18. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    World production of industrial garnet was about 326 kt in 2006, with the U.S. producing about 11 percent of this total. U.S. consumption, imports, and exports were estimated at 74.3 kt, 52.3 kt, and 13.2 kt, respectively. The most important exporters are Australia, China, and India. Although demand is expected to rise over the next 5 years, prices are expected to remain low in the short term.

  19. Industrial concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    Physics in industry is worth reporting, but deciding what counts can be a challenge "If a man can make a better mousetrap than his neighbour...the world will make a beaten path to his door." That quotation, which was apparently inspired by a comment that the American essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson made during a lecture in 1871, has long been used to illustrate the power of invention and innovation. While the lowly mousetrap may hardly seem the pinnacle of technology in today's world of iPhones and Blu-ray DVDs, an effective tool to kill mice was certainly a desirable object in Emerson's day (p52).

  20. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wanli; Fabbri, Jason D.; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2012-04-10

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  1. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Wanli; Fabbri, Jason D.; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Hussain, Zahid; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2013-10-29

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  2. Space industrialization opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernigan, C. M. (Editor); Pentecost, E. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The current status of efforts to develop commercial space projects is surveyed, with a focus on US programs, in reviews and reports presented at the Second Symposium on Space Industrialization held in Huntsville in February 1984. Areas explored include policy, legal, and economic aspects; communications; materials processing; earth-resources observation; and the role of space carriers and a space station. Also included in the volume are 132 brief descriptions of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Program Tasks as of December 1984. These tasks cover the fields electronics materials; solidification of metals, alloys, and composites; fields and transport phenomena; biotechnology; glass and ceramics; combustion science; and experimental technology.

  3. New Technology Industries. Skills Task Force Research Paper 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Chris

    This paper provides an overview of the growth of new technology industries in Great Britain and the skills needed for these industries. The industries are advanced materials, biotechnology, and opto-electronics. The report profiles the current status, expected growth, and skills needed for each of these industry sectors. It also points out the…

  4. Industry Training: Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Freeland, Brett

    Research on Australian organizations in five industry sectors--building and construction, food processing, electronics manufacturing, retailing, and finance and banking--has identified these three key drivers of enterprise training: workplace change, quality assurance, and new technology. Operation of the training drivers is moderated by a range…

  5. 5 CFR 532.313 - Private sector industries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... telecommunications. 517911 Telecommunications resellers. Electronics Specialized Industry 3341 Computer and.... 42343 Computer and computer peripheral equipment and software merchant wholesalers. Guided Missiles Specialized Industry 332912 Fluid power valve and hose fitting manufacturing. 3341 Computer and...

  6. Career Directions--Electronics Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Electronics technicians (ETs) work with electronics engineers to set up and maintain complicated electronics equipment that many of today's businesses rely on. The field is varied. An ET might service the industrial controls on a factory floor. Or repair missile control systems for the government. Or an ET could specialize in cars and trucks,…

  7. Industry Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is responsible for the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project, a sub-element task of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project of the NASA Aviation System Capacity Program (ASC). The AC/ATM Project is developing new communications technologies and tools that will improve throughput in the U.S. Air Traffic Control System. The goal of the AC/ATM Project is to enable a communications infrastructure providing the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize benefits of the future mature Free-Flight environment. The capabilities and scope of communications technologies needed to accomplish this goal depend on characteristics of the future Free-Flight environment. There are many operational concepts being proposed for a future ATM system to enable user flexibility and efficiency. GRC s focus is on developing new technologies and techniques to support the digital communication of information involving airborne and ground-based users. However, the technologies and techniques must be integrated with the systems and services that industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are developing. Thus, GRC needs to monitor and provide input to the various industry and FAA organizations and committees that are specifying new systems and services. Adoption of technologies by the FAA is partially dependent on acceptance of the technology by the aviation community. The commercial aviation community in particular would like to adopt technologies that can be used throughout the world. As a result, the adoption of common or at least compatible technologies by European countries is a key factor in getting commitments to those technologies by the US aviation community. GRC desires to keep informed of European activities that relate to aviation communication technologies, particularly those that are being supported by Eurocontrol.

  8. Physics and Industrial Arts: A Working Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dale E.

    The physics-industrial arts partnership is a program developed to strengthen high school students' theoretical and practical knowledge within the general areas of physics. It is designed for two groups of students--science students enrolled in physics classes and industrial students enrolled in woods, metals, auto mechanics, or electronics. The…

  9. Economic Aspects of the Chemical Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleske, Joseph V.

    Within the formal disciplines of science at traditional universities, through the years, chemistry has grown to have a unique status because of its close correspondence with an industry and with a branch of engineering—the chemical industry and chemical engineering. There is no biology industry, but aspects of biology have closely related disciplines such as fish raising and other aquaculture, animal cloning and other facets of agriculture, ethical drugs of pharmaceutical manufacture, genomics, water quality and conservation, and the like. Although there is no physics industry, there are power generation, electricity, computers, optics, magnetic media, and electronics that exist as industries. However, in the case of chemistry, there is a named industry. This unusual correspondence no doubt came about because in the chemical industry one makes things from raw materials—chemicals—and the science, manufacture, and use of chemicals grew up together during the past century or so.

  10. R and D intensities in US industries

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.M.; Skumatz, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    Data are presented on the R and D intensities in US industries, defined to represent R and D expenditures as percentages of sales. Both company-funded and total (including federal funding) intensities are examined. The variations of the R and D intensities among industries and over time are also described. Qualitative discussions are provided on some probable causes underlying the inter-industry and temporal variations of the intensities. At the industry level, the intensity information was used to categorize the individual industries into five groups: high, above-average, average, below-average, and low intensity. Data on individual firms were also examined for the aerospace, automotive, chemical, computer and office equipment, and electronics and semiconductor industries. Although other data sources were also consulted, the study relies primarily upon two published data sources: National Science Foundation's Research and Development in Industry series and Business Week's R and D Scoreboard.