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Sample records for element llatas meeldivalt

  1. It's elemental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Periodic Table of the elements will now have to be updated. An international team of researchers has added element 110 to the Earth's armory of elements. Though short-lived—of the order of microseconds, element 110 bottoms out the list as the heaviest known element on the planet. Scientists at the Heavy Ion Research Center in Darmstadt, Germany, made the 110-proton element by colliding a lead isotope with nickel atoms. The element, which is yet to be named, has an atomic mass of 269.

  2. Elemental health

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.

    1997-01-01

    Trace elements used in nutritional supplements and vitamins are discussed in the article. Relevant studies are briefly cited regarding the health effects of selenium, chromium, germanium, silicon, zinc, magnesium, silver, manganese, ruthenium, lithium, and vanadium. The toxicity and food sources are listed for some of the elements. A brief summary is also provided of the nutritional supplements market.

  3. Elemental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini; Saat, Rohaida Mohd.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a learning module integrating three disciplines--physics, chemistry, and biology--and based on four elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and silicon. Includes atomic model and silicon-based life activities. (YDS)

  4. Superheavy Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of creating elements with an atomic number of around 114. Describes the underlying physics responsible for the limited extent of the periodic table and enumerates problems that must be overcome in creating a superheavy nucleus. (GS)

  5. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Bean, R.W.

    1963-11-19

    A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)

  6. Element Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…

  7. Mercury, elemental

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mercury , elemental ; CASRN 7439 - 97 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  8. Superheavy Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, S.

    The nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell closure beyond 208Pb is at a proton number Z=114, 120, or 126 and at a neutron number N=172 or 184. The outstanding aim of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical `SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). Experimental methods have been developed which allowed for the identification of new elements at production rates of one atom per month. Using cold fusion reactions which are based on lead and bismuth targets, relatively neutron-deficient isotopes of the elements from 107 to 113 were synthesized at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany, and/or at RIKEN in Wako, Japan. In hot fusion reactions of 48Ca projectiles with actinide targets more neutron-rich isotopes of the elements from 112 to 116 and even 118 were produced at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. Recently, part of these data which represent the first identification of nuclei located on the predicted island of SHEs were confirmed in two independent experiments. The decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is α emission rather than fission. Decay properties as well as reaction cross-sections are compared with results of theoretical studies. Finally, plans are presented for the further development of the experimental set-up and the application of new techniques. At a higher sensitivity, the detailed exploration of the region of spherical SHEs will be in the center of interest of future experimental work. New data will certainly challenge theoretical studies on the mechanism of the synthesis, on the nuclear decay properties, and on the chemical behavior of these heaviest atoms at the limit of stability.

  9. Elemental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    He set out to prove that ocean sediments contain elevated levels of the rare element iridium because of the natural weathering of the continents. Instead, what Ariel Anbar found was new evidence that a meteorite may have had a role in the mass extinctions that marked the end of the Cretaceous era.By studying the geochemical properties of iridium, Anbar, a professor of earth and environmental sciences and chemistry at the University of Rochester, found that the residence time—a measure of the rate at which an element settles out of water into sediments—of iridium in ocean water is 2000 to 20,000 years. That finding suggests that a large deposit of iridium could have lingered in the world's oceans long enough to explain the thickness of the iridium-rich sediment layers at the K-T boundary.

  10. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-11-28

    A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)

  11. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Howard, R.C.; Bokros, J.C.

    1962-03-01

    A fueled matrlx eontnwinlng uncomblned carbon is deslgned for use in graphlte-moderated gas-cooled reactors designed for operatlon at temperatures (about 1500 deg F) at which conventional metallic cladding would ordlnarily undergo undesired carburization or physical degeneratlon. - The invention comprlses, broadly a fuel body containlng uncombined earbon, clad with a nickel alloy contalning over about 28 percent by' weight copper in the preferred embodlment. Thls element ls supporirted in the passageways in close tolerance with the walls of unclad graphite moderator materlal. (AEC)

  12. Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Anderson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Rolling element bearings are a precision, yet simple, machine element of great utility. A brief history of rolling element bearings is reviewed and the type of rolling element bearings, their geometry and kinematics, as well as the materials they are made from and the manufacturing processes they involve are described. Unloaded and unlubricated rolling element bearings, loaded but unlubricated rolling element bearings and loaded and lubricated rolling element bearings are considered. The recognition and understanding of elastohydrodynamic lubrication covered, represents one of the major development in rolling element bearings.

  13. Discrete Element Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  14. Elements of Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobker, Lee R.

    A film is the successful combination of two distinct groups of elements: (1) the technical elements by which the film is made (camera, lighting, sound and editing) and (2) the esthetic elements that transform the craft into an art. This book attempts to combine the study of these elements by providing technical information about the process of…

  15. Organic Elemental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, T. S.; Wang, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a literature review on methods used to analyze organic elements. Topic areas include methods for: (1) analyzing carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen; (2) analyzing oxygen, sulfur, and halogens; (3) analyzing other elements; (4) simultaneously determining several elements; and (5) determing trace elements. (JN)

  16. FUEL ELEMENT SUPPORT

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, W.L.

    1961-06-27

    The described cylindrical fuel element has longitudinally spaced sets of short longitudinal ribs circumferentially spaced from one another. The ribs support the fuel element in a coolant tube so that there is an annular space for coolant flow between the fuel element and the interior of the coolant tube. If the fuel element grows as a result of reactor operation, the circumferential distribution of the ribs maintains the uniformity of the annular space between the coolant tube and the fuel element, and the collapsibility of the ribs prevents the fuel element from becoming jammed in the coolant tube.

  17. Element-ary Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamp, Homer W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the historic development of the periodic table from the four-element theory to the Lavoisier's table. Presents a table listing the old and new names of chemicals and the Lavoisier's table of elements. Lists two references. (YP)

  18. Trace Elements and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  19. Organic Elemental Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, T. S.; Gutterson, Milton

    1980-01-01

    Reviews general developments in computerization and data processing of organic elemental analyses; carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen analyzers; procedures for determining oxygen, sulfur, and halogens, as well as other nometallic elements and organometallics. Selected papers on trace analysis of nonmetals and determination of metallic elements are…

  20. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Beaver, R.J.; Leitten, C.F. Jr.

    1962-04-17

    A boron-10 containing reactor control element wherein the boron-10 is dispersed in a matrix material is describeri. The concentration of boron-10 in the matrix varies transversely across the element from a minimum at the surface to a maximum at the center of the element, prior to exposure to neutrons. (AEC)

  1. Elemental Chemical Puzzlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Nicholas C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides nine short chemically based puzzles or problems extensible for use with students from middle school to college. Some of these will strengthen students' recognition of individual elements and element names. Others require students to focus on the salient properties of given chemical elements.

  2. The synthetic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.

  3. Cohesive Elements for Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.; Turon, Albert

    2007-01-01

    A cohesive element for shell analysis is presented. The element can be used to simulate the initiation and growth of delaminations between stacked, non-coincident layers of shell elements. The procedure to construct the element accounts for the thickness offset by applying the kinematic relations of shell deformation to transform the stiffness and internal force of a zero-thickness cohesive element such that interfacial continuity between the layers is enforced. The procedure is demonstrated by simulating the response and failure of the Mixed Mode Bending test and a skin-stiffener debond specimen. In addition, it is shown that stacks of shell elements can be used to create effective models to predict the inplane and delamination failure modes of thick components. The results indicate that simple shell models can retain many of the necessary predictive attributes of much more complex 3D models while providing the computational efficiency that is necessary for design.

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Newson, H.W.

    1960-09-13

    A novel composite neutronic reactor control element is offered. The element comprises a multiplicity of sections arranged in end-to-end relationship, each of the sections having a markedly different neutron-reactive characteristic. For example, a three-section control element could contain absorber, moderator, and fuel sections. By moving such an element longitudinally through a reactor core, reactivity is decreased by the absorber, increased slightly by the moderator, or increased substantially by the fuel. Thus, control over a wide reactivity range is provided.

  5. MOLDED SEALING ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Bradford, B.W.; Skinner, W.J.

    1959-03-24

    Molded sealing elements suitable for use under conditions involving exposure to uranium hexafluoride vapor are described. Such sealing elements are made by subjecting graphitic carbons to a preliminary treatment with uranium hexafluoride vapor, and then incorporating polytetrafluorethylene in them. The resulting composition has good wear resistant and frictional properties and is resistant to disintegration by uranium hexafluoride over long periods of exposure.

  6. Elemental Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

  7. Movies and Literary Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rodney D.

    Showing ten-minute movie clips can be an effective way to motivate students to read literature and to teach elements of fiction, namely plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. A clip from "And Then There Were None" may be used to teach various elements of plot, including conflict and the four types of conflict (man vs. man, man vs.…

  8. Automatic finite element generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    The design and implementation of a software system for generating finite elements and related computations are described. Exact symbolic computational techniques are employed to derive strain-displacement matrices and element stiffness matrices. Methods for dealing with the excessive growth of symbolic expressions are discussed. Automatic FORTRAN code generation is described with emphasis on improving the efficiency of the resultant code.

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Kesselring, K.A.; Seybolt, A.U.

    1958-12-01

    A reactor fuel element of the capillary tube type is described. The element consists of a thin walled tube, sealed at both ends, and having an interior coatlng of a fissionable material, such as uranium enriched in U-235. The tube wall is gas tight and is constructed of titanium, zirconium, or molybdenum.

  10. The ends of elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Brett F.; Burdette, Shawn C.

    2013-05-01

    When elements 117 and 118 are finally named, should these new members of the halogen and noble gas families receive names ending in -ium as IUPAC has suggested? Brett F. Thornton and Shawn C. Burdette look at the history of element suffixes and make the case for not following this recommendation.

  11. The Elements Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dkeidek, Iyad M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an educational game designed for first- or second-year high school students who have already studied themes related to the periodic table elements, such as their symbols, electronic configurations, properties, and uses. The game is designed to help students learn the symbols of the elements and their properties or uses in a fun, engaging…

  12. Trace element emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  13. Proceedings of transuranium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The identification of the first synthetic elements was established by chemical evidence. Conclusive proof of the synthesis of the first artificial element, technetium, was published in 1937 by Perrier and Segre. An essential aspect of their achievement was the prediction of the chemical properties of element 43, which had been missing from the periodic table and which was expected to have properties similar to those of manganese and rhenium. The discovery of other artificial elements, astatine and francium, was facilitated in 1939-1940 by the prediction of their chemical properties. A little more than 50 years ago, in the spring of 1940, Edwin McMillan and Philip Abelson synthesized element 93, neptunium, and confirmed its uniqueness by chemical means. On August 30, 1940, Glenn Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, and the late Joseph Kennedy began their neutron irradiations of uranium nitrate hexahydrate. A few months later they synthesized element 94, later named plutonium, by observing the alpha particles emitted from uranium oxide targets that had been bombarded with deuterons. Shortly thereafter they proved that is was the second transuranium element by establishing its unique oxidation-reduction behavior. The symposium honored the scientists and engineers whose vision and dedication led to the discovery of the transuranium elements and to the understanding of the influence of 5f electrons on their electronic structure and bonding. This volume represents a record of papers presented at the symposium.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, C.W.; Baumeister, E.B.

    1961-09-01

    A reactor fuel element utilizing fissionable fuel materials in plate form is described. This fuel element consists of bundles of fuel-bearing plates. The bundles are stacked inside of a tube which forms the shell of the fuel element. The plates each have longitudinal fins running parallel to the direction of coolant flow, and interspersed among and parallel to the fins are ribs which position the plates relative to each other and to the fuel element shell. The plate bundles are held together by thin bands or wires. The ex tended surface increases the heat transfer capabilities of a fuel element by a factor of 3 or more over those of a simple flat plate.

  15. Monolithic freeform element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiontke, Sven R.

    2015-09-01

    For 10 years there has been the asphere as one of the new products to be accepted by the market. All parts of the chain design, production and measurement needed to learn how to treat the asphere and what it is helpful for. The aspheric optical element now is established and accepted as an equal optical element between other as a fast growing part of all the optical elements. Now we are focusing onto the next new element with a lot of potential, the optical freeform surface. Manufacturing results will be shown for fully tolerance optic including manufacturing, setup and optics configurations including measurement setup. The element itself is a monolith consisting of several optical surfaces that have to be aligned properly to each other. The freeform surface is measured for surface form tolerance (irregularity, slope, Zernike, PV).

  16. Neutronic fuel element fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Korton, George

    2004-02-24

    This disclosure describes a method for metallurgically bonding a complete leak-tight enclosure to a matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant channels. Coolant tubes containing solid filler pins are disposed in the coolant channels. A leak-tight metal enclosure is then formed about the entire assembly of fuel matrix, coolant tubes and pins. The completely enclosed and sealed assembly is exposed to a high temperature and pressure gas environment to effect a metallurgical bond between all contacting surfaces therein. The ends of the assembly are then machined away to expose the pin ends which are chemically leached from the coolant tubes to leave the coolant tubes with internal coolant passageways. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It relates generally to fuel elements for neutronic reactors and more particularly to a method for providing a leak-tight metal enclosure for a high-performance matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant tubes. The planned utilization of nuclear energy in high-performance, compact-propulsion and mobile power-generation systems has necessitated the development of fuel elements capable of operating at high power densities. High power densities in turn require fuel elements having high thermal conductivities and good fuel retention capabilities at high temperatures. A metal clad fuel element containing a ceramic phase of fuel intimately mixed with and bonded to a continuous refractory metal matrix has been found to satisfy the above requirements. Metal coolant tubes penetrate the matrix to afford internal cooling to the fuel element while providing positive fuel retention and containment of fission products generated within the fuel matrix. Metal header plates are bonded to the coolant tubes at each end of the fuel element and a metal cladding or can completes the fuel-matrix enclosure

  17. Elements in biological AMS

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. {sup 14}C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth`s biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed.

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, W.F.; Tellefson, D.R.; Shimazaki, T.T.

    1962-04-10

    A plate type fuel element which is particularly useful for organic cooled reactors is described. Generally, the fuel element comprises a plurality of fissionable fuel bearing plates held in spaced relationship by a frame in which the plates are slidably mounted in grooves. Clearance is provided in the grooves to allow the plates to expand laterally. The plates may be rigidly interconnected but are floatingly supported at their ends within the frame to allow for longi-tudinal expansion. Thus, this fuel element is able to withstand large temperature differentials without great structural stresses. (AEC)

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Shackleford, M.H.

    1958-12-16

    A fuel element possessing good stability and heat conducting properties is described. The fuel element comprises an outer tube formed of material selected from the group consisting of stainhess steel, V, Ti. Mo. or Zr, a fuel tube concentrically fitting within the outer tube and containing an oxide of an isotope selected from the group consisting of U/sup 235/, U/sup 233/, and Pu/sup 239/, and a hollow, porous core concentrically fitting within the fuel tube and formed of an oxide of an element selected from the group consisting of Mg, Be, and Zr.

  20. Discovery of element 112

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, S.

    1996-12-31

    The new elements 110, 111, and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. Due to strong shell effects the dominant decay mode is not fission, but emission of alpha particles. Theoretical investigations predict that maximum shell effects should exist in nuclei near proton number 114 and neutron number 184. Measurements give hope that isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical Superheavy Elements could be produced by fusion reactions using {sup 118}Pb as target. systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that transfer of nucleons is the important process to initiate the fusion.

  1. Injector element characterization methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Characterization of liquid rocket engine injector elements is an important part of the development process for rocket engine combustion devices. Modern nonintrusive instrumentation for flow velocity and spray droplet size measurement, and automated, computer-controlled test facilities allow rapid, low-cost evaluation of injector element performance and behavior. Application of these methods in rocket engine development, paralleling their use in gas turbine engine development, will reduce rocket engine development cost and risk. The Alternate Turbopump (ATP) Hot Gas Systems (HGS) preburner injector elements were characterized using such methods, and the methodology and some of the results obtained will be shown.

  2. Multi-Element Airfoil System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); McKenney, Martin J. (Inventor); Atherley, Raymond D. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-element airfoil system includes an airfoil element having a leading edge region and a skin element coupled to the airfoil element. A slat deployment system is coupled to the slat and the skin element, and is capable of deploying and retracting the slat and the skin element. The skin element substantially fills the lateral gap formed between the slat and the airfoil element when the slat is deployed. The system further includes an uncoupling device and a sensor to remove the skin element from the gap based on a critical angle-of-attack of the airfoil element. The system can alternatively comprise a trailing edge flap, where a skin element substantially fills the lateral gap between the flap and the trailing edge region of the airfoil element. In each case, the skin element fills a gap between the airfoil element and the deployed flap or slat to reduce airframe noise.

  3. Rock in Its Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCluskey, Thomas

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the following musical elements of rock: rhythm, melody, harmony, and form. A impromptu analysis made at a session of the Youth Music Symposium, July 25, 1969. Remarks transcribed from tape. (Author/AP)

  4. COMPOSITE FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Hurford, W.J.; Gordon, R.B.; Johnson, W.A.

    1962-12-25

    A sandwich-type fuel element for a reactor is described. This fuel element has the shape of an elongated flat plate and includes a filler plate having a plurality of compartments therein in which the fuel material is located. The filler plate is clad on both sides with a thin cladding material which is secured to the filler plate only to completely enclose the fuel material in each compartment. (AEC)

  5. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-02-01

    These fuel elements are comprised of a homogeneous metallic uranium body completely enclosed and sealed in an aluminum cover. The uranium body and aluminum cover are bonded together by a layer of zinc located between them. The bonding layer serves to improve transfer of heat, provides an additional protection against corrosion of the uranium by the coolant, and also localizes any possible corrosion by preventing travel of corrosive material along the surface of the fuel element.

  6. Spectral Element Agglomerate AMGe

    SciTech Connect

    Chartier, T; Falgout, R; Henson, V E; Jones, J E; Vassilevski, P S; Manteuffel, T A; McCormick, S F; Ruge, J W

    2005-05-20

    The purpose of this note is to describe an algorithm resulting from the uniting of two ideas introduced and applied elsewhere. For many problems, AMG has always been difficult due to complexities whose natures are difficult to discern from the entries of matrix A alone. Element-based interpolation has been shown to be an effective method for some of these problems, but it requires access to the element matrices on all levels. One way to obtain these has been to perform element agglomeration to form coarse elements, but in complicated situations defining the coarse degrees of freedom (dofs) is not easy. The spectral approach to coarse dof selection is very attractive due to its elegance and simplicity. The algorithm presented here combines the robustness of element interpolation, the ease of coarsening by element agglomeration, and the simplicity of defining coarse dofs through the spectral approach. As demonstrated in the numerical results, the method does yield a reasonable solver for the problems described. It can, however, be an expensive method due to the number and cost of the local, small dense linear algebra problems; making it a generally competitive method remains an area for further research.

  7. New elements - approaching ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, S.

    1998-06-01

    The search for new elements is part of the broader field of investigations of nuclei at the limits of stability. In two series of experiments at SHIP, six new elements 0034-4885/61/6/002/img2 were synthesized via fusion reactions using 1n-deexcitation channels and lead or bismuth targets. The isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of 0034-4885/61/6/002/img3 correlations. Alpha decay, not fission, is the dominant decay mode. The collected decay data establish a means of comparison with theoretical data. This aids in the selection of appropriate models that describe the properties of known nuclei. Predictions based on these models are useful in the preparation of the next generation of experiments. Cross sections decrease by two orders of magnitude from bohrium (Z = 107) to element 112, for which a cross section of 1 pb was measured. The development of intense beam currents and sensitive detection methods is essential for the production and identification of still heavier elements and new isotopes of already known elements, as well as the measurement of small 0034-4885/61/6/002/img4-, 0034-4885/61/6/002/img5- and fission-branching ratios. An equally sensitive set-up is needed for the measurement of excitation functions at low cross sections. Based on our results, it is likely that the production of isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical superheavy elements (SHEs) could be achieved by fusion reactions using 0034-4885/61/6/002/img6 targets. Systematic studies of the reaction cross sections indicate that the transfer of nucleons is an important process for the initiation of fusion. The data allow for the fixing of a narrow energy window for the production of SHEs using 1n-emission channels. The likelihood of broadening the energy window by investigation of radiative capture reactions, use of neutron deficient projectile isotopes and use of actinide targets is discussed.

  8. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Zocher, Roy W.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element and a method of manufacturing the element. The fuel element is comprised of a metal primary container and a fuel pellet which is located inside it and which is often fragmented. The primary container is subjected to elevated pressure and temperature to deform the container such that the container conforms to the fuel pellet, that is, such that the container is in substantial contact with the surface of the pellet. This conformance eliminates clearances which permit rubbing together of fuel pellet fragments and rubbing of fuel pellet fragments against the container, thus reducing the amount of dust inside the fuel container and the amount of dust which may escape in the event of container breach. Also, as a result of the inventive method, fuel pellet fragments tend to adhere to one another to form a coherent non-fragmented mass; this reduces the tendency of a fragment to pierce the container in the event of impact.

  9. Probabilistic boundary element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Raveendra, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) project is to develop structural analysis capabilities for the design analysis of advanced space propulsion system hardware. The boundary element method (BEM) is used as the basis of the Probabilistic Advanced Analysis Methods (PADAM) which is discussed. The probabilistic BEM code (PBEM) is used to obtain the structural response and sensitivity results to a set of random variables. As such, PBEM performs analogous to other structural analysis codes such as finite elements in the PSAM system. For linear problems, unlike the finite element method (FEM), the BEM governing equations are written at the boundary of the body only, thus, the method eliminates the need to model the volume of the body. However, for general body force problems, a direct condensation of the governing equations to the boundary of the body is not possible and therefore volume modeling is generally required.

  10. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Hu, Zhicheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  11. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  12. Intelligent Elements for ISHM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of architecture models for implementing Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) capabilities. For example, approaches based on the OSA-CBM and OSA-EAI models, or specific architectures developed in response to local needs. NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has developed one such version of an extensible architecture in support of rocket engine testing that integrates a palette of functions in order to achieve an ISHM capability. Among the functional capabilities that are supported by the framework are: prognostic models, anomaly detection, a data base of supporting health information, root cause analysis, intelligent elements, and integrated awareness. This paper focuses on the role that intelligent elements can play in ISHM architectures. We define an intelligent element as a smart element with sufficient computing capacity to support anomaly detection or other algorithms in support of ISHM functions. A smart element has the capabilities of supporting networked implementations of IEEE 1451.x smart sensor and actuator protocols. The ISHM group at SSC has been actively developing intelligent elements in conjunction with several partners at other Centers, universities, and companies as part of our ISHM approach for better supporting rocket engine testing. We have developed several implementations. Among the key features for these intelligent sensors is support for IEEE 1451.1 and incorporation of a suite of algorithms for determination of sensor health. Regardless of the potential advantages that can be achieved using intelligent sensors, existing large-scale systems are still based on conventional sensors and data acquisition systems. In order to bring the benefits of intelligent sensors to these environments, we have also developed virtual implementations of intelligent sensors.

  13. FUEL ELEMENT CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Simnad, M.T.

    1961-08-15

    A method of preventing diffusible and volatile fission products from diffusing through a fuel element container and contaminating reactor coolant is described. More specifically, relatively volatile and diffusible fission products either are adsorbed by or react with magnesium fluoride or difluoride to form stable, less volatile, less diffusible forms. The magnesium fluoride or difluoride is disposed anywhere inwardly from the outer surface of the fuel element container in order to be contacted by the fission products before they reach and contaminate the reactor coolant. (AEC)

  14. CONSTRUCTION OF NUCLEAR FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Weems, S.J.

    1963-09-24

    >A rib arrangement and an end construction for nuclearfuel elements laid end to end in a coolant tube are described. The rib arrangement is such that each fuel element, when separated from other fuel elements, fits loosely in the coolant tube and so can easily be inserted or withdrawn from the tube. The end construction of the fuel elements is such that the fuel elements when assembled end to end are keyed against relative rotation, and the ribs of each fuel element cooperate with the ribs of the adjacent fuel elements to give the assembled fuel elements a tight fit with the coolant tube. (AEC)

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Stacy, J.T.

    1958-12-01

    A reactor fuel element having a core of molybdenum-uranium alloy jacketed in stainless steel is described. A barrier layer of tungsten, tantalum, molybdenum, columbium, or silver is interposed between the core and jacket to prevent formation of a low melting eutectic between uranium and the varlous alloy constituents of the stainless steel.

  16. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An analysis of 220 fully sequenced porcine BACs generated by the Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative (http://www.nisc.nih.gov/) revealed 27 distinct, novel porcine repetitive elements ranging in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. This set of fully sequenced BACs covers approximately 1% of...

  17. The Transuranium Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the unusual chemistry of the transuranium elements as well as their impact on the periodic table. Also considers the practical applications of transuranium isotopes, such as their use in nuclear fuel for the large-scale generation of electricity. (JN)

  18. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, Judith; Testori, Alessandro

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  19. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Sanz, M.C.; Scully, C.N.

    1961-06-27

    The patented fuel element is a hexagonal graphite body having an axial channel therethrough. The graphite is impregnated with uranium which is concentrated near the axial channel. Layers of tantalum nitride and tantalum carbide are disposed on the surface of the body confronting the channel.

  1. Heating element support clip

    DOEpatents

    Sawyer, W.C.

    1995-08-15

    An apparatus for supporting a heating element in a channel formed in a heater base is disclosed. A preferred embodiment includes a substantially U-shaped tantalum member. The U-shape is characterized by two substantially parallel portions of tantalum that each have an end connected to opposite ends of a base portion of tantalum. The parallel portions are each substantially perpendicular to the base portion and spaced apart a distance not larger than a width of the channel and not smaller than a width of a graphite heating element. The parallel portions each have a hole therein, and the centers of the holes define an axis that is substantially parallel to the base portion. An aluminum oxide ceramic retaining pin extends through the holes in the parallel portions and into a hole in a wall of the channel to retain the U-shaped member in the channel and to support the graphite heating element. The graphite heating element is confined by the parallel portions of tantalum, the base portion of tantalum, and the retaining pin. A tantalum tube surrounds the retaining pin between the parallel portions of tantalum. 6 figs.

  2. Heating element support clip

    DOEpatents

    Sawyer, William C.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for supporting a heating element in a channel formed in a heater base is disclosed. A preferred embodiment includes a substantially U-shaped tantalum member. The U-shape is characterized by two substantially parallel portions of tantalum that each have an end connected to opposite ends of a base portion of tantalum. The parallel portions are each substantially perpendicular to the base portion and spaced apart a distance not larger than a width of the channel and not smaller than a width of a graphite heating element. The parallel portions each have a hole therein, and the centers of the holes define an axis that is substantially parallel to the base portion. An aluminum oxide ceramic retaining pin extends through the holes in the parallel portions and into a hole in a wall of the channel to retain the U-shaped member in the channel and to support the graphite heating element. The graphite heating element is confined by the parallel portions of tantalum, the base portion of tantalum, and the retaining pin. A tantalum tube surrounds the retaining pin between the parallel portions of tantalum.

  3. Elemental Chem Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco Mariscal, Antonio Joaquin

    2008-01-01

    This educative material uses the symbols of 45 elements to spell the names of 32 types of laboratory equipment usually found in chemical labs. This teaching material has been divided into three puzzles according to the type of the laboratory equipment: (i) glassware as reaction vessels or containers; (ii) glassware for measuring, addition or…

  4. JACKETED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1958-12-01

    A fuel element is described for fast reactors comprised of a core of uranium metal containing material and a jacket around the core, the jacket consisting of from 2.5 to 15 percent of titanium, from 1 to 5 percent of niobium, and from 80 to 96.5 percent of vanadium.

  5. TABLE OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    2001-06-29

    For those chemical elements which have no stable nuclides with a terrestrial isotopic composition, the data on radioactive half-lives and relative atomic masses for the nuclides of interest and importance have been evaluated and the recommended values and uncertainties are listed.

  6. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-12-17

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  7. Nutrient element interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The management of overall tree physiological processes for optimization of either orchard yield or profitability is an annual challenge facing orchard managers. Optimization of chemical nutrient element concentrations within this context is often far more challenging than first appears. Tree or or...

  8. Abundances of light elements.

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, B E

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of abundances of light elements and their relevance to cosmological nucleosynthesis are briefly reviewed. The simplest model, based on standard cosmology and particle physics and assuming homogeneous baryon density at the relevant times, continues to stand up well. PMID:11607388

  9. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, J.; Testori, A.

    1999-10-12

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  10. CEDS Addresses: Rubric Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) Version 4 introduced a common data vocabulary for defining rubrics in a data system. The CEDS elements support digital representations of both holistic and analytic rubrics. This document shares examples of holistic and analytic project rubrics, available CEDS Connections, and a logical model showing the…

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Powell, R.W.; Fox, M.

    1959-11-24

    A nuclear fuel element comprising a plurality of nuclear fuel bearing strips is presented. The strips are folded along their longitudinal axes to an angle of about 60 deg and are secured at each end by ferrule to form an elongated assembly suitable for occupying a cylindrical coolant channel.

  12. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  13. Polynomial Beam Element Analysis Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-05-01

    pBEAM (Polynomial Beam Element Analysis Module) is a finite element code for beam-like structures. The methodology uses Euler? Bernoulli beam elements with 12 degrees of freedom (3 translation and 3 rotational at each end of the element).

  14. A direct element resequencing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, J. E.; Fulford, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Element by element frontal solution algorithms are utilized in many of the existing finite element codes. The overall computational efficiency of this type of procedure is directly related to the element data input sequence. Thus, it is important to have a pre-processor which will resequence these data so as to reduce the element wavefronts to be encountered in the solution algorithm. A direct element resequencing algorithm is detailed for reducing element wavefronts. It also generates computational by products that can be utilized in pre-front calculations and in various post-processors. Sample problems are presented and compared with other algorithms.

  15. Finite Element Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-03-08

    MAPVAR-KD is designed to transfer solution results from one finite element mesh to another. MAPVAR-KD draws heavily from the structure and coding of MERLIN II, but it employs a new finite element data base, EXODUS II, and offers enhanced speed and new capabilities not available in MERLIN II. In keeping with the MERLIN II documentation, the computational algorithms used in MAPVAR-KD are described. User instructions are presented. Example problems are included to demonstrate the operationmore » of the code and the effects of various input options. MAPVAR-KD is a modification of MAPVAR in which the search algorithm was replaced by a kd-tree-based search for better performance on large problems.« less

  16. Production of transuranium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Wham, R.M.; Chattin, F.R.; Knauer, J.B.

    1993-12-31

    The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) has the programmatic responsibility for the Department of Energy`s Transuranium Element Program. Principle elements from the program are einsteinium, berkelium, and fermium. Targets containing curium oxide mixed with aluminum powder are fabricated by the REDC and irradiated in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor. Following an irradiation period of 6-12 months, targets are returned to the REDC for chemical processing. Processing operations consists of aluminum dejacketing in a caustic-nitrate solution, filtration, acid dissolution, solvent extraction, anion exchange, and finally a cation exchange to recover the actinides. The processing operations take place in heavily shielded hot cell facilities and all operations are carried out remotely. The chemistry for the separations has been well established over the 26-yr. operating life of the facility.

  17. Radiolabeled cellular blood elements

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.; Ezikowitz, M.D.; Hardeman, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains papers delivered by guest lectures and participants at the Advanced Study Institute's colloquium on Radiolabeled Cellular Blood Elements at Maratea, Italy on August 29, to September 9, 1982. The book includes chapters on basic cell physiology and critical reviews of data and experience in the preparation and use of radiolabeled cells, as well as reports on very recent developments, from a faculty that included experts on cell physiology in health and disease and on the technology of in vivo labeling.

  18. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  19. OXIDATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-02-17

    A method is reported for oxidizing neptunium or plutonium in the presence of cerous values without also oxidizing the cerous values. The method consists in treating an aqueous 1N nitric acid solution, containing such cerous values together with the trivalent transuranic elements, with a quantity of hydrogen peroxide stoichiometrically sufficient to oxidize the transuranic values to the hexavalent state, and digesting the solution at room temperature.

  20. The individual element test revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1991-01-01

    The subject of the patch test for finite elements retains several unsettled aspects. In particular, the issue of one-element versus multielement tests needs clarification. Following a brief historical review, we present the individual element test (IET) of Bergan and Hanssen in an expanded context that encompasses several important classes of new elements. The relationship of the IET to the multielement forms A, B, and C of the patch test and to the single element test are clarified.

  1. Trace element emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The predicting of inorganic transformations (major and minor components) during coal combustion has long been the focus of many research programs (Zygarlicke et al., 1992; Wilemski et al., 1992; Baxter, 1992). In the program described in this paper, the predictive techniques that have been applied to combustion are being modified to predict inorganic transformations under gasification conditions. Many of the current trace element predictive techniques are based on the assumption of equilibrium conditions and not on actual kinetically constrained transformations that occur during coal utilization. The approach used in this program is to combine inorganic transformation algorithms and the thermochemical equilibrium calculations (Ramanathan et al., 1989, 1991). These techniques will be developed to predict the particle-size and composition distribution of the resulting coal ash particulate, along with the state of the vapor species at selected conditions for major, minor, and trace constituents. Many of the computer models recently to predict the evolution of major developed and minor elements during coal gasification were made possible by the development on a highly quantitative analytical technique for coal analysis, CCSEM (Steadman et al., 1990). CCSEM provides a particle-size and composition distribution for the mineral contents of a particular coal for twelve major and minor elements. These raw CCSEM data are the primary input to the newest computer models of ash formation.

  2. New Aperture Partitioning Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, S.; Calef, B.; Williams, S.

    Postprocessing in an optical system can be aided by adding an optical element to partition the pupil into a number of segments. When imaging through the atmosphere, the recorded data are blurred by temperature-induced variations in the index of refraction along the line of sight. Using speckle imaging techniques developed in the astronomy community, this blurring can be corrected to some degree. The effectiveness of these techniques is diminished by redundant baselines in the pupil. Partitioning the pupil reduces the degree of baseline redundancy, and therefore improves the quality of images that can be obtained from the system. It is possible to implement the described approach on an optical system with a segmented primary mirror, but not very practical. This is because most optical systems do not have segmented primary mirrors, and those that do have relatively low bandwidth positioning of segments due to their large mass and inertia. It is much more practical to position an active aperture partitioning element at an aft optics pupil of the optical system. This paper describes the design, implementation and testing of a new aperture partitioning element that is completely reflective and reconfigurable. The device uses four independent, annular segments that can be positioned with a high degree of accuracy without impacting optical wavefront of each segment. This mirror has been produced and is currently deployed and working on the 3.6 m telescope.

  3. The transuranium elements: From neptunium and plutonium to element 112

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C. |

    1996-07-26

    Beginning in the 1930`s, both chemists and physicists became interested in synthesizing new artificial elements. The first transuranium element, Np, was synthesized in 1940. Over the past six decades, 20 transuranium elements have been produced. A review of the synthesis is given. The procedure of naming the heavy elements is also discussed. It appears feasible to produce elements 113 and 114. With the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator, it should be possible to reach the superheavy elements in the region of the spherical Z=114 shell, but with fewer neutrons than the N=184 spherical shell. 57 refs, 6 figs.

  4. Finite Element Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-05-07

    CONEX is a code for joining sequentially in time multiple exodusll database files which all represent the same base mesh topology and geometry. It is used to create a single results or restart file from multiple results or restart files which typically arise as the result of multiple restarted analyses. CONEX is used to postprocess the results from a series of finite element analyses. It can join sequentially the data from multiple results databases intomore » a single database which makes it easier to postprocess the results data.« less

  5. FUEL ELEMENT CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-08-01

    Fuel elements having a solid core of fissionable material encased in a cladding material are described. A conversion material is provided within the cladding to react with the fission products to form stable, relatively non- volatile compounds thereby minimizing the migration of the fission products into the coolant. The conversion material is preferably a metallic fluoride, such as lead difluoride, and may be in the form of a coating on the fuel core or interior of the cladding, or dispersed within the fuel core. (AEC)

  6. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Carl E.; Crouthamel, Carl E.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of oxygen gettering material on the inner surface of the cladding. The gettering material reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core thereby preventing the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is an improved method for coating the inner surface of the cladding with a layer of gettering material.

  7. FUEL ELEMENT FABRICATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Hix, J.N.; Cooley, G.E.; Cunningham, J.E.

    1960-05-31

    A method is given for assembling and fabricating a fuel element comprising a plurality of spaced parallel fuel plates of a bowed configuration supported by and between a pair of transperse aluminum side plates. In this method, a brasing alloy is preplated on one surface of the aluminum side plates in the form of a cladding or layer-of uniform thickness. Grooves are then cut into the side plates through the alloy layer and into the base aluminum which results in the utilization of thinner aluminum side plates since a portion of the necessary groove depth is supplied by the brazing alloy.

  8. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions. PMID:24777920

  9. Finite Element Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-06-26

    Exotxt is an analysis code that reads finite element results data stored in an exodusII file and generates a file in a structured text format. The text file can be edited or modified via a number of text formatting tools. Exotxt is used by analysis to translate data from the binary exodusII format into a structured text format which can then be edited or modified and then either translated back to exodusII format or tomore » another format.« less

  10. Ring-laser gyroscope system using dispersive element(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A ring-laser gyroscope system includes a ring-laser gyroscope (RLG) and at least one dispersive element optically coupled to the RLG's ring-shaped optical path. Each dispersive element has a resonant frequency that is approximately equal to the RLG's lasing frequency. A group index of refraction defined collectively by the dispersive element(s) has (i) a real portion that is greater than zero and less than one, and (ii) an imaginary portion that is less than zero.

  11. Element-by-element Solution Procedures for Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. J. R.; Winget, J. M.; Levit, I.

    1984-01-01

    Element-by-element approximate factorization procedures are proposed for solving the large finite element equation systems which arise in nonlinear structural mechanics. Architectural and data base advantages of the present algorithms over traditional direct elimination schemes are noted. Results of calculations suggest considerable potential for the methods described.

  12. The CEBAF Element Database

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore Larrieu, Christopher Slominski, Michele Joyce

    2011-03-01

    With the inauguration of the CEBAF Element Database (CED) in Fall 2010, Jefferson Lab computer scientists have taken a step toward the eventual goal of a model-driven accelerator. Once fully populated, the database will be the primary repository of information used for everything from generating lattice decks to booting control computers to building controls screens. A requirement influencing the CED design is that it provide access to not only present, but also future and past configurations of the accelerator. To accomplish this, an introspective database schema was designed that allows new elements, types, and properties to be defined on-the-fly with no changes to table structure. Used in conjunction with Oracle Workspace Manager, it allows users to query data from any time in the database history with the same tools used to query the present configuration. Users can also check-out workspaces to use as staging areas for upcoming machine configurations. All Access to the CED is through a well-documented Application Programming Interface (API) that is translated automatically from original C++ source code into native libraries for scripting languages such as perl, php, and TCL making access to the CED easy and ubiquitous.

  13. Trace element indiscrimination diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chusi; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Tang, Qingyan; Ripley, Edward M.

    2015-09-01

    We tested the accuracy of trace element discrimination diagrams for basalts using new datasets from two petrological databases, PetDB and GEOROC. Both binary and ternary diagrams using Zr, Ti, V, Y, Th, Hf, Nb, Ta, Sm, and Sc do a poor job of discriminating between basalts generated in various tectonic environments (continental flood basalt, mid-ocean ridge basalt, ocean island basalt, oceanic plateau basalt, back-arc basin basalt, and various types of arc basalt). The overlaps between the different types of basalt are too large for the confident application of such diagrams when used in the absence of geological and petrological constraints. None of the diagrams we tested can clearly discriminate between back-arc basin basalt and mid-ocean ridge basalt, between continental flood basalt and oceanic plateau basalt, and between different types of arc basalt (intra-oceanic, island and continental arcs). Only ocean island basalt and some mid-ocean ridge basalt are generally distinguishable in the diagrams, and even in this case, mantle-normalized trace element patterns offer a better solution for discriminating between the two types of basalt.

  14. Fundamental Atomtronic Circuit Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeffrey; McIlvain, Brian; Lobb, Christopher; Hill, Wendell T., III

    2012-06-01

    Recent experiments with neutral superfluid gases have shown that it is possible to create atomtronic circuits analogous to existing superconducting circuits. The goals of these experiments are to create complex systems such as Josephson junctions. In addition, there are theoretical models for active atomtronic components analogous to diodes, transistors and oscillators. In order for any of these devices to function, an understanding of the more fundamental atomtronic elements is needed. Here we describe the first experimental realization of these more fundamental elements. We have created an atomtronic capacitor that is discharged through a resistance and inductance. We will discuss a theoretical description of the system that allows us to determine values for the capacitance, resistance and inductance. The resistance is shown to be analogous to the Sharvin resistance, and the inductance analogous to kinetic inductance in electronics. This atomtronic circuit is implemented with a thermal sample of laser cooled rubidium atoms. The atoms are confined using what we call free-space atom chips, a novel optical dipole trap produced using a generalized phase-contrast imaging technique. We will also discuss progress toward implementing this atomtronic system in a degenerate Bose gas.

  15. Cohesive Zone Model User Element

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-04-17

    Cohesive Zone Model User Element (CZM UEL) is an implementation of a Cohesive Zone Model as an element for use in finite element simulations. CZM UEL computes a nodal force vector and stiffness matrix from a vector of nodal displacements. It is designed for structural analysts using finite element software to predict crack initiation, crack propagation, and the effect of a crack on the rest of a structure.

  16. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    DOEpatents

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  17. Multi-element microelectropolishing method

    DOEpatents

    Lee, P.J.

    1994-10-11

    A method is provided for microelectropolishing a transmission electron microscopy nonhomogeneous multi-element compound foil. The foil is electrolyzed at different polishing rates for different elements by rapidly cycling between different current densities. During a first portion of each cycle at a first voltage a first element electrolyzes at a higher current density than a second element such that the material of the first element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the second element and creates a solid surface film, and such that the solid surface film is removed at a faster rate than the first element leaves the anode foil. During a second portion of each cycle at a second voltage the second element electrolyzes at a higher current density than the first element, and the material of the second element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the first element and creates a solid surface film, and the solid surface film is removed at a slower rate than the second element leaves the foil. The solid surface film is built up during the second portion of the cycle, and removed during the first portion of the cycle. 10 figs.

  18. Multi-element microelectropolishing method

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    A method is provided for microelectropolishing a transmission electron microscopy nonhomogeneous multi-element compound foil. The foil is electrolyzed at different polishing rates for different elements by rapidly cycling between different current densities. During a first portion of each cycle at a first voltage a first element electrolyzes at a higher current density than a second element such that the material of the first element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the second element and creates a solid surface film, and such that the solid surface film is removed at a faster rate than the first element leaves the anode foil. During a second portion of each cycle at a second voltage the second element electrolyzes at a higher current density than the first element, and the material of the second element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the first element and creates a solid surface film, and the solid surface film is removed at a slower rate than the second element leaves the foil. The solid surface film is built up during the second portion of the cycle, and removed during the first portion of the cycle.

  19. Conversion of Osculating Orbital Elements to Mean Orbital Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Der, Gim J.; Danchick, Roy

    1996-01-01

    Orbit determination and ephemeris generation or prediction over relatively long elapsed times can be accomplished with mean elements. The most simple and efficient method for orbit determination, which is also known as epoch point conversion, performs the conversion of osculating elements to mean elements by iterative procedures. Previous epoch point conversion methods are restricted to shorter elapsed times with linear convergence. The new method presented in this paper calculates an analytic initial guess of the unknown mean elements from a first order theory of secular perturbations and computes a transition matrix with accurate numerical partials. It thereby eliminates the problem of an inaccurate initial guess and an identity transition matrix employed by previous methods. With a good initial guess of the unknown mean elements and an accurate transition matrix, converging osculating elements to mean elements can be accomplished over long elapsed times with quadratic convergence.

  20. The Moon: Biogenic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Chang, Sherwood

    1992-01-01

    The specific objectives of the organic chemical exploration of the Moon involve the search for molecules of possible biological or prebiological origin. Detailed knowledge of the amount, distribution, and exact structure of organic compounds present on the Moon is extremely important to our understanding of the origin and history of the Moon and to its relationship to the history of the Earth and solar system. Specifically, such knowledge is essential for determining whether life on the Moon exists, ever did exist, or could develop. In the absence of life or organic matter, it is still essential to determine the abundance, distribution, and origin of the biogenic elements (e.g., H, C, O, N, S, P) in order to understand how the planetary environment may have influenced the course of chemical evolution. The history and scope of this effort is presented.

  1. Probabilistic fracture finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Lua, Y. J.

    1991-01-01

    The Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics (PFM) is a promising method for estimating the fatigue life and inspection cycles for mechanical and structural components. The Probability Finite Element Method (PFEM), which is based on second moment analysis, has proved to be a promising, practical approach to handle problems with uncertainties. As the PFEM provides a powerful computational tool to determine first and second moment of random parameters, the second moment reliability method can be easily combined with PFEM to obtain measures of the reliability of the structural system. The method is also being applied to fatigue crack growth. Uncertainties in the material properties of advanced materials such as polycrystalline alloys, ceramics, and composites are commonly observed from experimental tests. This is mainly attributed to intrinsic microcracks, which are randomly distributed as a result of the applied load and the residual stress.

  2. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1980-04-29

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has an improved composite cladding comprised of a moderate purity metal barrier of zirconium metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of a zirconium alloy tube. The metal barrier forms a shield between the alloy tube and a core of nuclear fuel material enclosed in the composite cladding. There is a gap between the cladding and the core. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the composite cladding and has low neutron absorption characteristics. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the alloy tube from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  3. Lithium peroxide primary element

    SciTech Connect

    Winsel, A.

    1982-05-04

    In a galvanic primary element of the system Li/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, the aqueous cathode depolarizer H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is fixated as a polyurethane gel. It can thereby be controlled and caused to react with the anode metal in accordance with the current drain requirements. This is accomplished using a ram to press the gel toward a conductor which covers the lithium anode, which may take the form of a metal grid and/or a gas diffusion electrode. The oxygen which forms in the working layer through catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide creates a gas bubble when the current is interrupted or the ram is stopped, thereby interrupting the further supply of hydrogen peroxide to the catalyst.

  4. Nuclear fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Armijo, Joseph S.; Coffin, Jr., Louis F.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a composite cladding having a substrate and a metal barrier metallurgically bonded on the inside surface of the substrate so that the metal barrier forms a shield between the substrate and the nuclear fuel material held within the cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 30 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a low neutron absorption metal of substantially pure zirconium. The metal barrier serves as a preferential reaction site for gaseous impurities and fission products and protects the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate of the composite cladding is selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably is a zirconium alloy. Methods of manufacturing the composite cladding are also disclosed.

  5. Photoconductive circuit element reflectometer

    DOEpatents

    Rauscher, C.

    1987-12-07

    A photoconductive reflectometer for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a first photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short first laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test. Second PCEs are connected along the transmission line to sample the signals on the transmission line when excited into conductance by short second laser light pulses, spaced apart in time a determinable period from the first laser light pulses. Electronic filters connected to each of the second PCEs act as low-pass filters and remove parasitic interference from the sampled signals and output the sampled signals in the form of slowed-motion images of the signals on the transmission line. 4 figs.

  6. Photoconductive circuit element reflectometer

    DOEpatents

    Rauscher, Christen

    1990-01-01

    A photoconductive reflectometer for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a first photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short first laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test. Second PCEs are connected along the transmission line to sample the signals on the transmission line when excited into conductance by short second laser light pulses, spaced apart in time a variable period from the first laser light pulses. Electronic filters connected to each of the second PCEs act as low-pass filters and remove parasitic interference from the sampled signals and output the sampled signals in the form of slowed-motion images of the signals on the transmission line.

  7. RECONDITIONING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, H.L.

    1962-02-20

    A process is given for decanning fuel elements that consist of a uranium core, an intermediate section either of bronze, silicon, Al-Si, and uranium silicide layers or of lead, Al-Si, and uranium silicide layers around said core, and an aluminum can bonded to said intermediate section. The aluminum can is dissolved in a solution of sodium hydroxide (9 to 20 wt%) and sodium nitrate (35 to 12 wt %), and the layers of the intermediate section are dissolved in a boiling sodium hydroxide solution of a minimum concentration of 50 wt%. (AEC) A method of selectively reducing plutonium oxides and the rare earth oxides but not uranium oxides is described which comprises placing the oxides in a molten solvent of zinc or cadmium and then adding metallic uranium as a reducing agent. (AEC)

  8. The fantastic four.. elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsili, Antonella; D'Addezio, Giuliana; Rubbia, Giuliana; Ramieri, Caterina; Todaro, Riccardo; Scipilliti, Francesca; Tosto, Eleonora

    2015-04-01

    With a "Sunday between territory and music to 'National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology," October 12, 2014 the headquarters of INGV Roma kicked off the activities of the second edition of the Week of Planet Earth. The laboratory of scientific outreach and museum activities together with volunteers of the National Civil Service have organized the whole day dedicated to the dissemination of earth sciences, involving adults and children. Especially for primary school children a laboratory was made involving three amusing activities all aimed at inspiring respect for the Earth: a theatrical representation called "The Fantastic 4... elements", a behavioral game and a nursery rhyme reading. The theater as a means of communication of science is an innovative and creative way to introduce children to important scientific concepts. The use of this methodology and simple language favoring the emotional involvement of the child facilitating learning. The main character is a child, chosen to facilitate the identification of the spectators with the protagonist, that through a fantastic journey discovers the importance of the four elements of our planet: earth, fire, air and water. As a second step, volunteers involved children in reading a nursery rhyme "the ABC to become a Friend of the Earth" inviting them to protect and respect the environment and its resources. Finally, the behavioral game gave indications about behaviors to adopt to safeguard the planet. Volunteers introduced a billboard divided into two colors, green to indicate the right behaviors and red for the wrong ones. Each child, after reading a card with indication on the behavior to adopt, had to decide if they were correct or not with respect to the environment safeguard. After listening to the children's answer, the volunteer gave the correct explanation about the appropriate behavior to adopt. At the end of the activities, each child received a certificate as "a friend of Planet Earth".

  9. Discovery of the heaviest elements.

    PubMed

    Heßberger, Fritz P

    2013-02-25

    The search for new superheavy elements (SHEs) is at present one of the most exciting adventures in nuclear physics. Thanks to enhanced experimental techniques, the synthesis of elements Z=113 to 118 in reactions using (48)Ca projectiles and targets made of isotopes of the elements neptunium to californium has been claimed. Discovery of the elements Z=114 (named flerovium) and Z=116 (named livermorium) has been accepted by the IUPAC. The others are waiting. The situation for element 113 is particular; here claims on discovery come from groups from RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan and FLNR-JINR, Dubna, Russia. PMID:23335329

  10. Chemical characterization of element 112.

    PubMed

    Eichler, R; Aksenov, N V; Belozerov, A V; Bozhikov, G A; Chepigin, V I; Dmitriev, S N; Dressler, R; Gäggeler, H W; Gorshkov, V A; Haenssler, F; Itkis, M G; Laube, A; Lebedev, V Ya; Malyshev, O N; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Petrushkin, O V; Piguet, D; Rasmussen, P; Shishkin, S V; Shutov, A V; Svirikhin, A I; Tereshatov, E E; Vostokin, G K; Wegrzecki, M; Yeremin, A V

    2007-05-01

    The heaviest elements to have been chemically characterized are seaborgium (element 106), bohrium (element 107) and hassium (element 108). All three behave according to their respective positions in groups 6, 7 and 8 of the periodic table, which arranges elements according to their outermost electrons and hence their chemical properties. However, the chemical characterization results are not trivial: relativistic effects on the electronic structure of the heaviest elements can strongly influence chemical properties. The next heavy element targeted for chemical characterization is element 112; its closed-shell electronic structure with a filled outer s orbital suggests that it may be particularly susceptible to strong deviations from the chemical property trends expected within group 12. Indeed, first experiments concluded that element 112 does not behave like its lighter homologue mercury. However, the production and identification methods used cast doubt on the validity of this result. Here we report a more reliable chemical characterization of element 112, involving the production of two atoms of (283)112 through the alpha decay of the short-lived (287)114 (which itself forms in the nuclear fusion reaction of 48Ca with 242Pu) and the adsorption of the two atoms on a gold surface. By directly comparing the adsorption characteristics of (283)112 to that of mercury and the noble gas radon, we find that element 112 is very volatile and, unlike radon, reveals a metallic interaction with the gold surface. These adsorption characteristics establish element 112 as a typical element of group 12, and its successful production unambiguously establishes the approach to the island of stability of superheavy elements through 48Ca-induced nuclear fusion reactions with actinides. PMID:17476264

  11. Chemical characterization of element 112

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, R.; Aksenov, N. V.; Belozerov, A. V.; Bozhikov, G. A.; Chepigin, V. I.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Dressler, R.; Gäggeler, H. W.; Gorshkov, V. A.; Haenssler, F.; Itkis, M. G.; Laube, A.; Lebedev, V. Ya.; Malyshev, O. N.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Petrushkin, O. V.; Piguet, D.; Rasmussen, P.; Shishkin, S. V.; Shutov, A. V.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Tereshatov, E. E.; Vostokin, G. K.; Wegrzecki, M.; Yeremin, A. V.

    2007-05-01

    The heaviest elements to have been chemically characterized are seaborgium (element 106), bohrium (element 107) and hassium (element 108). All three behave according to their respective positions in groups 6, 7 and 8 of the periodic table, which arranges elements according to their outermost electrons and hence their chemical properties. However, the chemical characterization results are not trivial: relativistic effects on the electronic structure of the heaviest elements can strongly influence chemical properties. The next heavy element targeted for chemical characterization is element 112; its closed-shell electronic structure with a filled outer s orbital suggests that it may be particularly susceptible to strong deviations from the chemical property trends expected within group 12. Indeed, first experiments concluded that element 112 does not behave like its lighter homologue mercury. However, the production and identification methods used cast doubt on the validity of this result. Here we report a more reliable chemical characterization of element 112, involving the production of two atoms of 283112 through the alpha decay of the short-lived 287114 (which itself forms in the nuclear fusion reaction of 48Ca with 242Pu) and the adsorption of the two atoms on a gold surface. By directly comparing the adsorption characteristics of 283112 to that of mercury and the noble gas radon, we find that element 112 is very volatile and, unlike radon, reveals a metallic interaction with the gold surface. These adsorption characteristics establish element 112 as a typical element of group 12, and its successful production unambiguously establishes the approach to the island of stability of superheavy elements through 48Ca-induced nuclear fusion reactions with actinides.

  12. Slave finite elements: The temporal element approach to nonlinear analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gellin, S.

    1984-01-01

    A formulation method for finite elements in space and time incorporating nonlinear geometric and material behavior is presented. The method uses interpolation polynomials for approximating the behavior of various quantities over the element domain, and only explicit integration over space and time. While applications are general, the plate and shell elements that are currently being programmed are appropriate to model turbine blades, vanes, and combustor liners.

  13. Resistive hydrogen sensing element

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for providing a hydrogen sensing element with a more robust exposed metallization by application of a discontinuous or porous overlay to hold the metallization firmly on the substrate. An apparatus includes: a substantially inert, electrically-insulating substrate; a first Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and completely covered by a substantially hydrogen-impermeable layer so as to form a reference resistor on the substrate; a second Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and at least a partially accessible to a gas to be tested, so as to form a hydrogen-sensing resistor; a protective structure disposed upon at least a portion of the second Pd containing metallization and at least a portion of the substrate to improve the attachment of the second Pd containing metallization to the substrate while allowing the gas to contact said the second Pd containing metallization; and a resistance bridge circuit coupled to both the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The circuit determines the difference in electrical resistance between the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The hydrogen concentration in the gas may be determined. The systems and methods provide advantages because adhesion is improved without adversely effecting measurement speed or sensitivity.

  14. Elements of gas contracts

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, J.

    1995-12-01

    The gas marketing scene has taken on a new look from the days of the {open_quotes}Long Term{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Life of Lease{close_quotes} Contracts. In the past natural gas was of ten sold direct from the wellhead or a producer-owned facility to a pipeline company at a flat rate price and the only parties involved were producer or seller and buyer. Today, the parties involved in the marketing process might include a gathering entity to gather gas at a central point and provide gathering, compression and/or dehydration services; multiple pipeline companies for transportation; sales representatives or marketing brokers to negotiate a sale of the available gas on a monthly basis; and purchasers or end users. New terms have also been introduced in the process such as: {open_quotes}LDC{close_quotes} (local distribution company), {open_quotes}FERC Order 636{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Price Delivered-to-Pipeline{close_quotes} and the various {open_quotes}levels of Service{close_quotes} under Gas Sales and Purchase Agreements. Four common levels of service are: {open_quotes}Firm{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Baseload{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Swing{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Baseload/Operational{close_quotes}. It is evident that current marketing plans often require a separate contract for each service or commitment. Contract contents vary greatly, but most contain the following elements.

  15. COMPARTMENTED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Cain, F.M. Jr.

    1962-09-11

    A method of making a nuclear reactor fuel element of the elongated red type is given wherein the fissionable fuel material is enclosed within a tubular metal cladding. The method comprises coating the metal cladding tube on its inside wall with a brazing alloy, inserting groups of cylindrical pellets of fissionable fuel material into the tube with spacing members between adjacent groups of pellets, sealing the ends of the tubes to leave a void space therewithin, heating the tube and its contents to an elevated temperature to melt the brazing alloy and to expand the pellets to their maximum dimensions under predetermined operating conditions thereby automatically positioning the spacing members along the tube, and finally cooling the tube to room temperature whereby the spacing disks become permanently fixed at their edges in the brazing alloy and define a hermetically sealed compartment for each fl group of fuel pellets. Upon cooling, the pellets contract thus leaving a space to accommodate thermal expansion of the pellets when in use in a reactor. The spacing members also provide lateral support for the tubular cladding to prevent collapse thereof when subjected to a reactor environment. (AEC)

  16. Lubrication of Machine Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

  17. RF tuning element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, William R. (Inventor); Lubecke, Victor M. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A device for tuning a circuit includes a substrate, a transmission line on the substrate that includes first and second conductors coupled to a circuit to be tuned, and a movable short-circuit for varying the impedance the transmission line presents to the circuit to be tuned. The movable short-circuit includes a dielectric layer disposed atop the transmission line and a distributed shorting element in the form of a conductive member that is configured to be slid along at least a portion of the transmission line atop the dielectric layer. The conductive member is configured to span the first and second conductors of the transmission line and to define at least a first opening that spans the two conductors so that the conductive member includes first and second sections separated by the first opening. The first and second sections of the conductive member combine with the first and second conductors of the transmission line to form first and second low impedance sections of transmission line, and the opening combines with the first and second conductors of the transmission line and the dielectric layer to form a first high impedance section of transmission line intermediate the first and second low impedance sections. Each of the first low impedance section and the first high impedance section have a length along the transmission line of approximately one-quarter wavelength, thus providing a periodic variation of transmission line impedance. That enhances reflection of rf power.

  18. Vesta's Elemental Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Beck, A. W.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; McCoy, T. J.; McSween, H. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peplowski, P. N.; Raymond, C. A.; Reedy, R. C.; Russell, C. T.; Titus, T. N.; Toplis, M. J.; Yamashita, N.

    2014-01-01

    Many lines of evidence (e.g. common geochemistry, chronology, O-isotope trends, and the presence of different HED rock types in polymict breccias) indicate that the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites originated from a single parent body. Meteorite studies show that this protoplanet underwent igneous differentiation to form a metallic core, an ultramafic mantle, and a basaltic crust. A spectroscopic match between the HEDs and 4 Vesta along with a plausible mechanism for their transfer to Earth, perhaps as chips off V-type asteroids ejected from Vesta's southern impact basin, supports the consensus view that many of these achondritic meteorites are samples of Vesta's crust and upper mantle. The HED-Vesta connection was put to the test by the NASA Dawn mission, which spent a year in close proximity to Vesta. Measurements by Dawn's three instruments, redundant Framing Cameras (FC), a Visible-InfraRed (VIR) spectrometer, and a Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND), along with radio science have strengthened the link. Gravity measurements by Dawn are consistent with a differentiated, silicate body, with a dense Fe-rich core. The range of pyroxene compositions determined by VIR overlaps that of the howardites. Elemental abundances determined by nuclear spectroscopy are also consistent with HED-compositions. Observations by GRaND provided a new view of Vesta inaccessible by telescopic observations. Here, we summarize the results of Dawn's geochemical investigation of Vesta and their implications.

  19. Chemistry of the superheavy elements.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Matthias

    2015-03-13

    The quest for superheavy elements (SHEs) is driven by the desire to find and explore one of the extreme limits of existence of matter. These elements exist solely due to their nuclear shell stabilization. All 15 presently 'known' SHEs (11 are officially 'discovered' and named) up to element 118 are short-lived and are man-made atom-at-a-time in heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. They are identical to the transactinide elements located in the seventh period of the periodic table beginning with rutherfordium (element 104), dubnium (element 105) and seaborgium (element 106) in groups 4, 5 and 6, respectively. Their chemical properties are often surprising and unexpected from simple extrapolations. After hassium (element 108), chemistry has now reached copernicium (element 112) and flerovium (element 114). For the later ones, the focus is on questions of their metallic or possibly noble gas-like character originating from interplay of most pronounced relativistic effects and electron-shell effects. SHEs provide unique opportunities to get insights into the influence of strong relativistic effects on the atomic electrons and to probe 'relativistically' influenced chemical properties and the architecture of the periodic table at its farthest reach. In addition, they establish a test bench to challenge the validity and predictive power of modern fully relativistic quantum chemical models. PMID:25666065

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Stengel, F.G.

    1963-12-24

    A method of fabricating nuclear reactor fuel element assemblies having a plurality of longitudinally extending flat fuel elements in spaced parallel relation to each other to form channels is presented. One side of a flat side plate is held contiguous to the ends of the elements and a welding means is passed along the other side of the platertransverse to the direction of the longitudinal extension of the elements. The setting and speed of travel of the welding means is set to cause penetration of the side plate with welds at bridge the gap in each channel between adjacent fuel elements with a weld-through bubble of predetermined size. The fabrication of a high strength, dependable fuel element is provided, and the reduction of distortion and high production costs are facilitated by this method. (AEC)

  1. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Evans, T.C.; Beasley, E.G.

    1961-01-17

    A fuel element for neutronic reactors, particularly the gas-cooled type of reactor, is described. The element comprises a fuel-bearing plate rolled to form a cylinder having a spiral passageway passing from its periphery to its center. In operation a coolant is admitted to the passageway at the periphery of the element, is passed through the spiral passageway, and emerges into a central channel defined by the inner turn of the rolled plate. The advantage of the element is that the fully heated coolant (i.e., coolant emerging into the central channel) is separated and thus insulated from the periphery of the element, which may be in contact with a low-temperature moderator, by the intermediate turns of the spiral fuel element.

  2. Archaeal Extrachromosomal Genetic Elements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haina; Peng, Nan; Shah, Shiraz A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes, such as spindles, rods, filaments, spheres, head-tails, bottles, and droplets, and some of these new viruses have been classified into one order, 10 families, and 16 genera. Investigation of model archaeal viruses has yielded important insights into mechanisms underlining various steps in the viral life cycle, including infection, DNA replication and transcription, and virion egression. Many of these mechanisms are unprecedented for any known bacterial or eukaryal viruses. Studies of plasmids isolated from different archaeal hosts have also revealed a striking diversity in gene content and innovation in replication strategies. Highly divergent replication proteins are identified in both viral and plasmid genomes. Genomic studies of archaeal ECEs have revealed a modular sequence structure in which modules of DNA sequence are exchangeable within, as well as among, plasmid families and probably also between viruses and plasmids. In particular, it has been suggested that ECE-host interactions have shaped the coevolution of ECEs and their archaeal hosts. Furthermore, archaeal hosts have developed defense systems, including the innate restriction-modification (R-M) system and the adaptive CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) system, to restrict invasive plasmids and viruses. Together, these interactions permit a delicate balance between ECEs and their hosts, which is vitally important for maintaining an innovative gene reservoir carried by ECEs. In conclusion, while research on archaeal ECEs has just started to unravel the molecular biology of these genetic entities and their interactions with archaeal hosts, it is expected to accelerate in the next decade. PMID

  3. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-05-16

    A fuel element particularly adapted for use in nuclear reactors of high power density is offered. It has fissionable fuel pellet segments mounted in a tubular housing and defining a central passage in the fuel element. A burnable poison element extends through the central passage, which is designed to contain more poison material at the median portion than at the end portions thereby providing a more uniform hurnup and longer reactivity life.

  4. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Blainey, A.; Lloyd, H.

    1961-07-11

    A method of sheathing a tubular fuel element for a nuclear reactor is described. A low melting metal core member is centered in a die, a layer of a powdered sheathing substance is placed on the bottom of the die, the tubular fuel element is inserted in the die, the space between the tubular fuel element and the die walls and core member is filled with the same powdered sheathing substance, a layer of the same substance is placed over the fissile material, and the charge within the die is subjected to pressure in the direction of the axis of the fuel element at the sintering temperature of the protective substance.

  5. Element-by-element factorization algorithms for heat conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. J. R.; Winget, J. M.; Park, K. C.

    1983-01-01

    Element-by-element solution strategies are developed for transient heat conduction problems. Results of numerical tests indicate the effectiveness of the procedures proposed. The small database requirements and attractive architectural features of the algorithms suggest considerable potential for solving large scale problems.

  6. 15. VIEW OF DUMMY FUEL ELEMENT ON FUEL ELEMENT HOLDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF DUMMY FUEL ELEMENT ON FUEL ELEMENT HOLDER. SHOWS AIR FORCE MAN AT EDGE OF TANK. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-6176, TAKEN NOVEMBER 10, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Trace Elements in River Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.

    2003-12-01

    Trace elements are characterized by concentrations lower than 1 mg L-1 in natural waters. This means that trace elements are not considered when "total dissolved solids" are calculated in rivers, lakes, or groundwaters, because their combined mass is not significant compared to the sum of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H4SiO4, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3-. Therefore, most of the elements, except about ten of them, occur at trace levels in natural waters. Being trace elements in natural waters does not necessarily qualify them as trace elements in rocks. For example, aluminum, iron, and titanium are major elements in rocks, but they occur as trace elements in waters, due to their low mobility at the Earth's surface. Conversely, trace elements in rocks such as chlorine and carbon are major elements in waters.The geochemistry of trace elements in river waters, like that of groundwater and seawater, is receiving increasing attention. This growing interest is clearly triggered by the technical advances made in the determination of concentrations at lower levels in water. In particular, the development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has considerably improved our knowledge of trace-element levels in waters since the early 1990s. ICP-MS provides the capability of determining trace elements having isotopes of interest for geochemical dating or tracing, even where their dissolved concentrations are extremely low.The determination of trace elements in natural waters is motivated by a number of issues. Although rare, trace elements in natural systems can play a major role in hydrosystems. This is particularly evident for toxic elements such as aluminum, whose concentrations are related to the abundance of fish in rivers. Many trace elements have been exploited from natural accumulation sites and used over thousands of years by human activities. Trace elements are therefore highly sensitive indexes of human impact from local to global scale. Pollution

  8. Lubrication of rolling element bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a broad survey of the lubrication of rolling-element bearings. Emphasis is on the critical design aspects related to speed, temperature, and ambient pressure environment. Types of lubrication including grease, jets, mist, wick, and through-the-race are discussed. The paper covers the historical development, present state of technology, and the future problems of rolling-element bearing lubrication.

  9. The Search for Heavy Elements

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

  10. Element composition of Sargassum thunbergii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiao-Jun; Hou, Xiao-Lin; Sun, Biao; Fan, Xiao; Han, Li-Jun

    1998-06-01

    Results of neutron activation analysis (NAA) of Sargassum thumbergii samples collected from the Qingdao Taipingjiao coast on March 20, 1996 showed that (1) Sargassum thunbergii can to some extent accumulate potassium and calcium (the accumulation coefficient was 10); (2) it can accumulate almost all trace elements, especially iron, managanese and zinc; (3) it can accumulate strontium, aluminium thorium, and rare earth elements.

  11. The Search for Heavy Elements

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-17

    The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

  12. Radioactive elements in stellar atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Gopka, Vira; Yushchenko, Alexander; Goriely, Stephane; Shavrina, Angelina; Kang, Young Woon

    2006-07-12

    The identification of lines of radioactive elements (Tc, Pm and elements with 83

  13. Second order tensor finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oden, J. Tinsley; Fly, J.; Berry, C.; Tworzydlo, W.; Vadaketh, S.; Bass, J.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a research and software development effort are presented for the finite element modeling of the static and dynamic behavior of anisotropic materials, with emphasis on single crystal alloys. Various versions of two dimensional and three dimensional hybrid finite elements were implemented and compared with displacement-based elements. Both static and dynamic cases are considered. The hybrid elements developed in the project were incorporated into the SPAR finite element code. In an extension of the first phase of the project, optimization of experimental tests for anisotropic materials was addressed. In particular, the problem of calculating material properties from tensile tests and of calculating stresses from strain measurements were considered. For both cases, numerical procedures and software for the optimization of strain gauge and material axes orientation were developed.

  14. Trace elements in coal ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    In this fact sheet, the form, distribution, and behavior of trace elements of environmental interest in samples of coal fly ash were investigated in response to concerns about element mobility in the event of an ash spill. The study includes laboratory-based leaching experiments to examine the behavior of trace elements, such as arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr), in response to key environmental factors including redox conditions (degree of oxygenation), which are known to vary with depth within coal ash impoundments and in natural ecosystems. The experiments show that As dissolves from samples of coal fly ash into simulated freshwater under both oxic (highly oxygenated) and anoxic (poorly oxygenated) conditions, whereas dissolved Cr concentrations are very redox dependent. This U.S. Geological Survey research helps define the distribution of elements such as As in coal ash and shows that element mobility can vary considerably under different conditions expected in the environment.

  15. Finite element computational fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.

  16. Method for detecting an element

    DOEpatents

    Blackwood, Larry G.; Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.

    2007-02-06

    A method for detecting an element is disclosed and which includes the steps of providing a gamma-ray spectrum which depicts, at least in part, a test region having boundaries, and which has a small amount of the element to be detected; providing a calculation which detects the small amount of the element to be detected; and providing a moving window and performing the calculation within the moving window, and over a range of possible window boundaries within the test region to determine the location of the optimal test region within the gamma-ray spectrum.

  17. Matrix Elements for Hylleraas CI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Frank E.

    The limitation to at most a single interelectron distance in individual configurations of a Hylleraas-type multiconfiguration wave function restricts significantly the types of integrals occurring in matrix elements for energy calculations, but even then if the formulation is not handled efficiently the angular parts of these integrals escalate to create expressions of great complexity. This presentation reviews ways in which the angular-momentum calculus can be employed to systematize and simplify the matrix element formulas, particularly those for the kinetic-energy matrix elements.

  18. Alu elements: know the SINEs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Alu elements are primate-specific repeats and comprise 11% of the human genome. They have wide-ranging influences on gene expression. Their contribution to genome evolution, gene regulation and disease is reviewed. PMID:22204421

  19. In situ trace element microanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    The use of particle-track-radiography and X-ray- fluorescence techniques in the in situ measurement of trace (less than 1000 ppm) elements in single mineral phases of polished sections is surveyed, and examples of their application to ordinary, carbonaceous and enstatite chondrites are provided. Radiographic methods surveyed include fission-track radiography (for U, Th, and Pu-244), alpha radiography using nuclear reactions (for Li and B), alpha autoradiography (for Bi and Pb), and beta autoradiography (for several elements in synthetic or biological samples). Two X-ray-fluorescence methods are compared: (1) photon-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and (2) the potential use of synchrotron radiation. The latter is shown to allow much greater sensitivity than current PIXE technology and a much broader range of elements than particle-track radiography: the ppm analysis of 10-micron grains for all elements heavier than Na. These advantages are seen as balancing the high cost of accelerator use.

  20. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Dickson, J.J.

    1963-09-24

    A method is described whereby fuel tubes or pins are cut, loaded with fuel pellets and a heat transfer medium, sealed at each end with slotted fittings, and assembled into a rectangular tube bundle to form a fuel element. The tubes comprising the fuel element are laterally connected between their ends by clips and tabs to form a linear group of spaced parallel tubes, which receive their vertical support by resting on a grid. The advantages of this method are that it permits elimination of structural material (e.g., fuel-element cans) within the reactor core, and removal of at least one fuel pin from an element and replacement thereof so that a burnable poison may be utilized during the core lifetime. (AEC)

  1. Probabilistic Finite Element: Variational Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belytschko, T.; Liu, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of this research is to provide techniques which are cost-effective and enable the engineer to evaluate the effect of uncertainties in complex finite element models. Embedding the probabilistic aspects in a variational formulation is a natural approach. In addition, a variational approach to probabilistic finite elements enables it to be incorporated within standard finite element methodologies. Therefore, once the procedures are developed, they can easily be adapted to existing general purpose programs. Furthermore, the variational basis for these methods enables them to be adapted to a wide variety of structural elements and to provide a consistent basis for incorporating probabilistic features in many aspects of the structural problem. Tasks concluded include the theoretical development of probabilistic variational equations for structural dynamics, the development of efficient numerical algorithms for probabilistic sensitivity displacement and stress analysis, and integration of methodologies into a pilot computer code.

  2. Optical element for photographic radiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, M.J.

    1984-02-21

    An optical element for filtering infrared light for use in a radiometer is disclosed wherein at least one metalorganic infrared absorbing dye is at least partially dissolved homogeniously throughout a molded optical plastic.

  3. Sensing Device with Whisker Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Mitra J. (Inventor); Solomon, Joseph H. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A sensing device includes an elongated whisker element having a flexible cantilever region and a base region where a change in moment or curvature is generated by bending of the cantilever region when it contacts an object. One or more sensor elements cooperatively associated with the whisker element provide one or more output signals that is/are representative of two orthogonal components of change in moment or curvature at the whisker base region to permit determination of object distance, fluid velocity profile, or object contour (shape) with accounting for lateral slip of the whisker element and frictional characteristics of the object. Multiple sensing devices can be arranged in arrays in a manner to sense object contour without or with adjustment for lateral slip.

  4. Sensing device with whisker elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Mitra J. (Inventor); Solomon, Joseph H. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A sensing device includes an elongated whisker element having a flexible cantilever region and a base region where a change in moment or curvature is generated by bending of the cantilever region when it contacts an object. One or more sensor elements cooperatively associated with the whisker element provide one or more output signals that is/are representative of two orthogonal components of change in moment or curvature at the whisker base region to permit determination of object distance, fluid velocity profile, or object contour (shape) with accounting for lateral slip of the whisker element and frictional characteristics of the object. Multiple sensing devices can be arranged in arrays in a manner to sense object contour without or with adjustment for lateral slip.

  5. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.G.; Jette, E.R.

    1963-05-01

    A fuel element for a nuclear reactor is described that consists of a jacket containing a unitary core of fissionable material and a filling of a metal of the group consisting of sodium and sodium-potassium alloys. (AEC)

  6. Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Elmer James

    1988-01-01

    Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

  7. Elemental ABAREX -- a user's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.

    1999-05-26

    ELEMENTAL ABAREX is an extended version of the spherical optical-statistical model code ABAREX, designed for the interpretation of neutron interactions with elemental targets consisting of up to ten isotopes. The contributions from each of the isotopes of the element are explicitly dealt with, and combined for comparison with the elemental observables. Calculations and statistical fitting of experimental data are considered. The code is written in FORTRAN-77 and arranged for use on the IBM-compatible personal computer (PC), but it should operate effectively on a number of other systems, particularly VAX/VMS and IBM work stations. Effort is taken to make the code user friendly. With this document a reasonably skilled individual should become fluent with the use of the code in a brief period of time.

  8. Environmental research on actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)

  9. How Certain Trace Elements Behave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Ralph A.

    1979-01-01

    Fluorine, selenium, tin, and arsenic are among the trace elements occurring in the environment which are considered. Emphasis is given to developing a qualitative survey of the extent and kinds of metal transformations and their resultant effects. (CS)

  10. A Rainbow of Martian Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph or spectrum taken by the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the variety of elements present in the soil at the rover's landing site. In agreement with past missions to Mars, iron and silicon make up the majority of the martian soil. Sulfur and chlorine were also observed as expected. Trace elements detected for the first time include zinc and nickel. These latter observations demonstrate the power of the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to pick up the signatures of elements too faint to be seen before. The alpha particle X-ray spectrometer uses alpha particles and X-rays to measure the presence and abundance of all major rock-forming elements except hydrogen.

  11. Toward automatic finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kela, Ajay; Perucchio, Renato; Voelcker, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    Two problems must be solved if the finite element method is to become a reliable and affordable blackbox engineering tool. Finite element meshes must be generated automatically from computer aided design databases and mesh analysis must be made self-adaptive. The experimental system described solves both problems in 2-D through spatial and analytical substructuring techniques that are now being extended into 3-D.

  12. Updating finite element dynamic models using an element-by-element sensitivity methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Charbel; Hemez, Francois M.

    1993-09-01

    A sensitivity-based methodology for improving the finite element model of a given structure using test modal data and a few sensors is presented. The proposed method searches for both the location and sources of the mass and stiffness errors and does not interfere with the theory behind the finite element model while correcting these errors. The updating algorithm is derived from the unconstrained minimization of the squared L sub 2 norms of the modal dynamic residuals via an iterative two-step staggered procedure. At each iteration, the measured mode shapes are first expanded assuming that the model is error free, then the model parameters are corrected assuming that the expanded mode shapes are exact. The numerical algorithm is implemented in an element-by-element fashion and is capable of 'zooming' on the detected error locations. Several simulation examples which demonstate the potential of the proposed methodology are discussed.

  13. ANSYS duplicate finite-element checker routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, R.

    1995-01-01

    An ANSYS finite-element code routine to check for duplicated elements within the volume of a three-dimensional (3D) finite-element mesh was developed. The routine developed is used for checking floating elements within a mesh, identically duplicated elements, and intersecting elements with a common face. A space shuttle main engine alternate turbopump development high pressure oxidizer turbopump finite-element model check using the developed subroutine is discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided for duplicate element checking of 3D finite-element models.

  14. Overcoming element erosion limitations within Lagrangian finite element codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignjevic, Rade; Hughes, Kevin; Walker, Andrew; Taylor, Emma A.

    2001-10-01

    Lagrangian finite element methods have been used extensively in the past to study the non-linear transient behaviour of materials, ranging from crash test of cars to simulating bird strikes on planes.... However, as this type of space discretization does not allow for motion of the material through the mesh when modelling extremely large deformations, the mesh becomes highly distorted. This paper describes some limitations and applicability of this type of analysis for high velocity impacts. A method for dealing with this problem is by the erosion of elements is proposed where the main issue is the deformation of element failure strains. Results were compared with empirical perforation results and were found to be in good agreement. The results were then used to simulate high velocity impacts upon a multi-layered aluminium target, in order to predict a ballistic limit curve. LS-DYNA3D was used as the FE solver for all simulations. Meshes were generated with Truegrid.

  15. New Perspectives on the Essential Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieden, Earl

    1985-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive overview of the 19 essential trace elements, examining: the concept of essentiality; evolution of these elements; possible future essential elements; the lanthanides and actinides; how essential trace elements work; the metalloenzymes; the nonmetals; iodine and the thyroid hormones; and antagonism among these elements. (JN)

  16. Eukaryotic transposable elements as mutagenic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, M.E. . Banbury Center); McDonald, J.F. ); Weinstein, I.B. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on eukaryotic transposable elements as mutagenic agents. Topics covered include: overview of prokaryotic transposable elements, mutational effects of transposable element insertions, inducers/regulators of transposable element expression and transposition, genomic stress and environmental effects, and inducers/regulators of retroviral element expression.

  17. Finite element modeling of piezoelectric elements with complex electrode configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradies, R.; Schläpfer, B.

    2009-02-01

    It is well known that the material properties of piezoelectric materials strongly depend on the state of polarization of the individual element. While an unpolarized material exhibits mechanically isotropic material properties in the absence of global piezoelectric capabilities, the piezoelectric material properties become transversally isotropic with respect to the polarization direction after polarization. Therefore, for evaluating piezoelectric elements the material properties, including the coupling between the mechanical and the electromechanical behavior, should be addressed correctly. This is of special importance for the micromechanical description of piezoelectric elements with interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). The best known representatives of this group are active fiber composites (AFCs), macro fiber composites (MFCs) and the radial field diaphragm (RFD), respectively. While the material properties are available for a piezoelectric wafer with a homogeneous polarization perpendicular to its plane as postulated in the so-called uniform field model (UFM), the same information is missing for piezoelectric elements with more complex electrode configurations like the above-mentioned ones with IDEs. This is due to the inhomogeneous field distribution which does not automatically allow for the correct assignment of the material, i.e. orientation and property. A variation of the material orientation as well as the material properties can be accomplished by including the polarization process of the piezoelectric transducer in the finite element (FE) simulation prior to the actual load case to be investigated. A corresponding procedure is presented which automatically assigns the piezoelectric material properties, e.g. elasticity matrix, permittivity, and charge vector, for finite element models (FEMs) describing piezoelectric transducers according to the electric field distribution (field orientation and strength) in the structure. A corresponding code has been

  18. Brain trace elements and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbrecht, Geert; Maenhaut, Willy; Reuck, Jacques De

    1999-04-01

    Degenerative mechanisms involved in the aging process of the brain are to a certain extent counteracted by repair mechanisms. In both degenerative and recovery processes, trace elements are involved. The present study focused on the role of two minor (i.e., K and Ca) and six trace elements (i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb) in the aging process. The elements were determined by PIXE in cerebral cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar cortex of 18 postmortem human brains, from persons without a history of neurologic or psychiatric disease who deceased between the age of 7 and 79. This age range allowed us to study the relationship between elemental concentrations and age. The most prominent findings were a concentration decrease for K and Rb and a concentration increase for the elements Ca, Fe, Zn and Se. The study supports recent findings that Ca and Fe are involved in brain degenerative processes initiated by oxygen free radicals, whereas Zn and Se are involved in immunological reactions counteracting the aging process.

  19. Relativistic Dipole Matrix Element Zeros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajohn, L. A.; Pratt, R. H.

    2002-05-01

    There is a special class of relativistic high energy dipole matrix element zeros (RZ), whose positions with respect to photon energy ω , only depend on the bound state l quantum number according to ω^0=mc^2/(l_b+1) (independent of primary quantum number n, nuclear charge Z, central potential V and dipole retardation). These RZ only occur in (n,l_b,j_b)arrow (ɛ , l_b+1,j_b) transitions such as ns_1/2arrow ɛ p_1/2; np_3/2arrow ɛ d_3/2: nd_5/2arrow ɛ f_5/2 etc. The nonrelativistic limit of these matrix elements can be established explicitly in the Coulomb case. Within the general matrix element formalism (such as that in [1]); when |κ | is substituted for γ in analytic expressions for matrix elements, the zeros remain, but ω^0 now becomes dependent on n and Z. When the reduction to nonrelativistic form is completed by application of the low energy approximation ω mc^2 mc^2, the zeros disappear. This nonzero behavior was noted in nonrelativistic dipole Coulomb matrix elements by Fano and Cooper [2] and later proven by Oh and Pratt[3]. (J. H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 40), 3054 (1989 (U. Fano and J. W. Cooper, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40), 441 (1968). (D. Oh and R. H. Pratt, Phys. Rev. A 34), 2486 (1986); 37, 1524 (1988); 45, 1583 (1992).

  20. The NESSUS finite element code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, J. B.; Nagiegaal, J. C.; Nakazawa, S.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this development is to provide a new analysis tool which integrates the structural modeling versatility of a modern finite element code with the latest advances in the area of probabilistic modeling and structural reliability. Version 2.0 of the NESSUS finite element code was released last February, and is currently being exercised on a set of problems which are representative of typical Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) applications. NESSUS 2.0 allows linear elastostatic and eigenvalue analysis of structures with uncertain geometry, material properties and boundary conditions, which are subjected to a random mechanical and thermal loading environment. The NESSUS finite element code is a key component in a broader software system consisting of five major modules. NESSUS/EXPERT is an expert system under development at Southwest Research Institute, with the objective of centralizing all component-specific knowledge useful for conducting probabilistic analysis of typical Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) components. NESSUS/FEM contains the finite element code used for the structural analysis and parameter sensitivity evaluation of these components. The task of parametrizing a finite element mesh in terms of the random variables present is facilitated with the use of the probabilistic data preprocessor in NESSUS/PRE. An external database file is used for managing the bulk of the data generated by NESSUS/FEM.

  1. Elemental composition of leukocyte subfractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Admans, L. L.; Spyrou, N. M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary investigation was to determine the elemental concentration of various subfractions of leukocytes in a normal subject. Little work has been published on the elemental composition of these subfractions. First, a reliable technique for separation of these subfractions had to be established so that it could be applied to the determination of elemental concentrations in leukocyte subfractions from patients undergoing heart bypass surgery. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) utilising short irradiation and counting was the technique employed. Various washing media were examined during the separation of the leukocyte subfractions, for contamination of these small samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclearcytes (PMN). Early results showed Mg and Se were present in these subfractions. Possibilities for further work are also discussed.

  2. An Overview of Climatic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Johnson, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    This Technical Publication (TP) addresses some climatic elements with emphasis on atmospheric composition, including gas radiative characteristics. Solar radiation is discussed with considerable information on the mathematical and statistical formulae. On a worldwide basis, temperature and precipitation for the globe are discussed along with interaction in drought. Also included is the simultaneous interaction with winds, humidity, and solar radiation. Volcanology gets minimum treatment. The oceans and seas are treated in chart form along with the interrelationship of oceanic currents and El Nino and La Nina, and ENSO phenomena. Upper air circulations are discussed. Various cloud formations up to 85-95 km altitude are described. Information on tornadoes and hurricanes is also included. One section is devoted to the climate physical-chemical elements. A short discussion is given on the importance for the quality of data and/or information in descriptions of the climate. This TP presents only an overview or survey of these and other various climatic elements.

  3. Finite elements: Theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwoyer, D. L. (Editor); Hussaini, M. Y. (Editor); Voigt, R. G. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in FEM techniques and applications are discussed in reviews and reports presented at the ICASE/LaRC workshop held in Hampton, VA in July 1986. Topics addressed include FEM approaches for partial differential equations, mixed FEMs, singular FEMs, FEMs for hyperbolic systems, iterative methods for elliptic finite-element equations on general meshes, mathematical aspects of FEMS for incompressible viscous flows, and gradient weighted moving finite elements in two dimensions. Consideration is given to adaptive flux-corrected FEM transport techniques for CFD, mixed and singular finite elements and the field BEM, p and h-p versions of the FEM, transient analysis methods in computational dynamics, and FEMs for integrated flow/thermal/structural analysis.

  4. An external drag measuring element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringel, Mordechai; Levin, Daniel; Seginer, Arnan

    The accurate measurement of the axial-force component acting on small wind-tunnel models has traditionally made use of integral string balances, which eliminated many accuracy problems, such as friction and hysteresis, but also introduced interactions between the various force and moment sensing elements due to nonlinear elastic phenomena. The reduction of these interactions usually calls for complicated designs, expensive manufacturing, hard-to-handle calibration processes, and cumbersome data reduction programs. An approach is presented that is based on an external axial-force-measuring element and avoids the ill-conditioned design problems of integral balances. Other difficulties that are encountered, such as friction, misalignment, and relative motion between metric elements are considered, and their solution is examined. Calibration and test results show that the new approach duplicates and surpasses the results of much more complicated and expensive integral balances.

  5. Elements of Mathematics, Book 8: Elements of Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exner, Robert; And Others

    One of 12 books developed for use with the core material (Book O) of the Elements of Mathematics Program, this text covers material well beyond the scope of the usual secondary mathematics sequences. These materials are designed for highly motivated students with strong verbal abilities; mathematical theories and ideas are developed through…

  6. Gas and humidity sensing element

    SciTech Connect

    Komine, Y.; Sawada, T.

    1984-06-26

    A gas and humidity sensing element in a single integral structure made of a base plate of apatite ceramics, on which a particular metal oxide such as tin oxide, zinc oxide, or composite oxide of titanium and niobium is provided. The sensing element has a function of sensing gas and humidity with outstanding sensitivity to bad smell gas and alcoholic gas, in which the humidity is sensed and measured by variations in electrical resistance of the apatite ceramic base plate and the bad smell gas such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, etc. is sensed and measured by variations in electrical resistance of the metal oxide.

  7. Status of transuranium element production

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the production, storage, and distribution center for the heavy-element research program of the US Department of Energy since 1966. During the past four years, annual production rates of transcurium elements have been relatively stable, averaging 34 mg of /sup 249/Bk, 369 mg of /sup 252/Cf, 1.4 mg of /sup 253/Es, and 0.7 pg of /sup 257/Fm. The extensive provisions for changing and modifying equipment have allowed continual updating of the plant to include new concepts in chemical processes and equipment design. 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Spent graphite fuel element processing

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, N.D.; Olsen, C.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Department of Energy currently sponsors two programs to demonstrate the processing of spent graphite fuel elements. General Atomic in San Diego operates a cold pilot plant to demonstrate the processing of both US and German high-temperature reactor fuel. Exxon Nuclear Idaho Company is demonstrating the processing of spent graphite fuel elements from Rover reactors operated for the Nuclear Rocket Propulsion Program. This work is done at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, where a hot facility is being constructed to complete processing of the Rover fuel. This paper focuses on the graphite combustion process common to both programs.

  9. Documentary Elements in Early Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Richard A.

    Focusing on documentary elements, this study examines the film content and film techniques of 681 motion pictures produced in the United States prior to 1904. Analysis of films by type, subject matter, and trends in subject matter shows that one-third of the early films are documentary in type and three-fourths of the films use subject matter of a…

  10. Ares First Stage Element Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiller, Bruce K.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation summarizes the status of the various elements of the first stage of the Ares I vehicle. It includes views of the first stage in relation to the complete Ares rocket, details of the first stage, upgrades for the Ares, the Avionics system, and the thrust oscillation system. There are also pictures from the testing.

  11. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Matthew, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared trace element detection system including an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined.

  12. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  13. Transposable elements for insect transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The germ-line of more than 35 species from five orders of insects have been genetically transformed, using vectors derived from Class II transposable elements. Initially the P and hobo vector systems developed for D. melanogaster were not applicable to other species, but four transposons found in ot...

  14. Kinematic support using elastic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geirsson, Arni; Debra, Daniel B.

    1988-01-01

    The design of kinematic supports using elastic elements is reviewed. The two standard methods (cone, Vee and flat and three Vees) are presented and a design example involving a machine tool metrology bench is given. Design goals included thousandfold strain attenuation in the bench relative to the base when the base strains due to temperature variations and shifting loads. Space applications are also considered.

  15. Fast acting multiple element valve

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Jefferson Y. S.; Wada, James M.

    1991-01-01

    A plurality of slide valve elements having plural axial-spaced annular parts and an internal slide are inserted into a bulkhead in a fluid conduit from a downstream side of the bulkhead, locked in place by a bayonet coupling and set screw, and project through the bulkhead into the upstream conduit. Pneumatic lines connecting the slide valve element actuator to pilot valves are brought out the throat of the valve element to the downstream side. Pilot valves are radially spaced around the exterior of the valve to permit the pneumatic lines to be made identical, thereby to minimize adverse timing tolerances in operation due to pressure variations. Ring manifolds surround the valve adjacent respective pilot valve arrangements to further reduce adverse timing tolerances due to pressure variations, the manifolds being directly connected to the respective pilot valves. Position sensors are provided the valve element slides to signal the precise time at which a slide reaches or passes through a particular point in its stroke to initiate a calibrated timing function.

  16. Quadrilateral finite element mesh coarsening

    SciTech Connect

    Staten, Matthew L; Dewey, Mark W; Benzley, Steven E

    2012-10-16

    Techniques for coarsening a quadrilateral mesh are described. These techniques include identifying a coarsening region within the quadrilateral mesh to be coarsened. Quadrilateral elements along a path through the coarsening region are removed. Node pairs along opposite sides of the path are identified. The node pairs along the path are then merged to collapse the path.

  17. Element material experiment by EFFU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Yoshihiro; Ichikawa, Masaaki; Takei, Mitsuru; Torii, Yoshihiro; Ota, Kazuo

    1995-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of JAPAN (NASDA) is planning to perform Element Material Exposure Experiment using Exposed Facility Flyer Unit (EFFU). Several materials which will be used on JEM (Japanese Experiment Module for the space station) will be exposed. Space environment monitoring is also planned in this experiment. Several ground based tests are now being performed and getting useful data.

  18. Structural Truss Elements and Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyer, Steve; Griffis, Kurt; Shackelford, Ray

    2005-01-01

    In the field of construction, most structures are supported by several groups of truss systems working together synergistically. A "truss" is a group of centered and balanced elements combined to carry a common load (Warner, 2003). Trusses provide strength against loads and forces within a structure. Though a complex field of study, structural…

  19. Extrachromosomal genetic elements in Micrococcus.

    PubMed

    Dib, Julián Rafael; Liebl, Wolfgang; Wagenknecht, Martin; Farías, María Eugenia; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2013-01-01

    Micrococci are Gram-positive G + C-rich, nonmotile, nonspore-forming actinomycetous bacteria. Micrococcus comprises ten members, with Micrococcus luteus being the type species. Representatives of the genus play important roles in the biodegradation of xenobiotics, bioremediation processes, production of biotechnologically important enzymes or bioactive compounds, as test strains in biological assays for lysozyme and antibiotics, and as infective agents in immunocompromised humans. The first description of plasmids dates back approximately 28 years, when several extrachromosomal elements ranging in size from 1.5 to 30.2 kb were found in Micrococcus luteus. Up to the present, a number of circular plasmids conferring antibiotic resistance, the ability to degrade aromatic compounds, and osmotolerance are known, as well as cryptic elements with unidentified functions. Here, we review the Micrococcus extrachromosomal traits reported thus far including phages and the only quite recently described large linear extrachromosomal genetic elements, termed linear plasmids, which range in size from 75 kb (pJD12) to 110 kb (pLMA1) and which confer putative advantageous capabilities, such as antibiotic or heavy metal resistances (inferred from sequence analyses and curing experiments). The role of the extrachromosomal elements for the frequently proven ecological and biotechnological versatility of the genus will be addressed as well as their potential for the development and use as genetic tools. PMID:23138713

  20. New elements produced at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Sigurd

    1998-12-01

    In two series of experiments at SHIP, six new elements (Z=107-112) were synthesized via fusion reactions using lead or bismuth targets and 1n-deexcitation channels. The isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of α-α correlations. Not fission, but alpha decay is the dominant decay mode. Cross-sections decrease by two orders of magnitude from bohrium (Z=107) to element 112, for which a cross-section of 1 pb was measured. Based on our results, it is likely that the production of isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical SuperHeavy Elements (SHE) could be achieved by fusion reactions using 208Pb targets. Systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that the transfer of nucleons is an important process for the initiation of fusion. The data allow for the fixing of a narrow energy window for the production of SHE using 1n-emission channels. The likelihood of broadening the energy window by investigation of radiative capture reactions, use of neutron deficient projectile isotopes and use of actinide targets is discussed.

  1. New elements produced at GSI

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, Sigurd

    1998-12-21

    In two series of experiments at SHIP, six new elements (Z=107-112) were synthesized via fusion reactions using lead or bismuth targets and 1n-deexcitation channels. The isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of {alpha}-{alpha} correlations. Not fission, but alpha decay is the dominant decay mode. Cross-sections decrease by two orders of magnitude from bohrium (Z=107) to element 112, for which a cross-section of 1 pb was measured. Based on our results, it is likely that the production of isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical SuperHeavy Elements (SHE) could be achieved by fusion reactions using {sup 208}Pb targets. Systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that the transfer of nucleons is an important process for the initiation of fusion. The data allow for the fixing of a narrow energy window for the production of SHE using 1n-emission channels. The likelihood of broadening the energy window by investigation of radiative capture reactions, use of neutron deficient projectile isotopes and use of actinide targets is discussed.

  2. Compact Fuel Element Environment Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (I(sub sp)) and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average I(sub sp). Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) capable of high I(sub sp) thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3,000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high melting point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high-temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via noncontact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen for typical mission durations has been developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This Technical Memorandum details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.

  3. High performance rolling element bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bursey, Jr., Roger W. (Inventor); Olinger, Jr., John B. (Inventor); Owen, Samuel S. (Inventor); Poole, William E. (Inventor); Haluck, David A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A high performance rolling element bearing (5) which is particularly suitable for use in a cryogenically cooled environment, comprises a composite cage (45) formed from glass fibers disposed in a solid lubricant matrix of a fluorocarbon polymer. The cage includes inserts (50) formed from a mixture of a soft metal and a solid lubricant such as a fluorocarbon polymer.

  4. Superheavy Elements - Achievements and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, Dieter

    2009-03-04

    The search for superheavy elements (SHE) has yielded exciting results for both the 'cold fusion' approach with reactions employing Pb and Bi targets and the ''hot fusion'' reactions with {sup 48}Ca beams on actinide targets. The most recent activities at GSI were the successful production of a more neutron rich isotope of element 112 in the reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U confirming earlier result from FLNR, and the attempt to synthesize an isotope with Z 120 in the reaction {sup 64}Ni+{sup 238}U. Apart from the synthesis of new elements, advanced nuclear structure studies for heavy and super heavy elements promise a detailed insight in the properties of nuclear matter under the extreme conditions of high Z and A. The means are evaporation residue(ER)-{alpha}-{alpha} and -{alpha}-{gamma} coincidence techniques applied after separation of the reaction products from the beam. Recent examples of interesting physics to be discovered in this region of the chart of nuclides are the investigation of K-isomers observed for {sup 252,254}No and indicated for {sup 270}Ds. Fast chemistry and precision mass measurements deliver in addition valuable information on the fundamental properties of the SHE.

  5. Turbulence Detection and Mitigation Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rod

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on turbulence detection and mitigation technologies in weather accident prevention. The topics include: 1) Organization; 2) Scope of Turbulence Effort; 3) Background; 4) Turbulence Detection and Mitigation Program Metrics; 5) Approach; 6) Turbulence Team Relationships; 7) WBS Structure; 8) Deliverables; 9) TDAM Changes; 10) FY-01 Results/Accomplishments; 11) Out-year Plans; and 12) Element Status.

  6. Single element laser beam shaper

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Shukui; Michelle D. Shinn

    2005-09-13

    A single lens laser beam shaper for converting laser beams from any spatial profile to a flat-top or uniform spatial profile. The laser beam shaper includes a lens having two aspheric surfaces. The beam shaper significantly simplifies the overall structure in comparison with conventional 2-element systems and therefore provides great ease in alignment and reduction of cost.

  7. Advanced optical document security elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škereš, Marek; Svoboda, Jakub; Possolt, Martin; Květoš, Milan; Fiala, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Synthetic diffractive structures represent an important tool in the optical document security. Their macroscopic visual behavior is based on properties of a very fine micro-structure which cannot be copied using common copying techniques. The visual effects can be easily observed by a common observer without any special inspection tools. However, when a high level of security is needed, additional features are often included based on an optical encryption of information. In this paper, a novel encryption technique is presented, which is based on utilizing the plastic holographic foil as a waveguide and special diffractive structures as coupling elements. When an in-coupling area is illuminated with a defined light beam, the light is coupled into the waveguide and travels to an out-coupling part. The encrypted information is encoded either in the shape of the out-coupling area or it can be formed from an out-coupling hologram in free space above the element. Both laser and normal white light sources can be used for reading the information. The coupling areas can be mixed with diffractive micro-structures forming visual effects and can be invisible during a normal observation of the hologram. The couplers can be realized using the technology fully compatible with the standard process for mastering and replication of the security elements. Several extensions of the described idea of waveguide cryptograms are also included. Finally, a set of real samples of the security elements is presented, which were realized using an advanced matrix laser lithography technique.

  8. Phytoremediation of Soil Trace Elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes research progress in development of phytoremediation technologies. Some soils have become contaminated by trace elements enough to kill plants, inhibit soil organisms, and/or threaten wildlife, humans or the environment. Traditional remediation by dig and haul methods are v...

  9. Discovery of the transfermium elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, R. C.; Greenwood, N. N.; Hrynkiewicz, A. Z.; Jeannin, Y. P.; Lefort, M.; Sakai, M.; Ulehla, I.; Wapstra, A. H.; Wilkinson, D. H.

    In 1985 IUPAP and IUPAC decided to establish a Transfermium Working Group to consider questions of priority in the discovery of elements with nuclear charge number Z>;100. The membership of the Group was determined by the Unions in 1987. The Group met seven times for approximately one week each, three of the meetings being in the Laboratories of chief concern namely those at Berkeley, Darmstadt and Dubna. The work of the Group was carried out in two phases. Phase (i), the establishment of criteria that must be satisfied for the discovery of an element to be recognized, did not concern itself with individual cases or with priorities; it was carried out in close consultation with the Laboratories. The report on Phase (i), Part I of the present paper, was accepted by IUPAP and by IUPAC in 1990 and published separately (Pure and Appl. Chem. 63 (1991)879-886). The report on Phase (ii), the judgemental phase of the work of the Group, was accepted by the IUPAP Council in Madrid, Sept. 1991, and approved for publication by the IUPAC Bureau in Hamburg, Aug. 1991 and forms Parts II and III of the present paper. It completes the work of the Group by applying the criteria of Part I on an element-by-element basis; it considers and analyzes all the pertinent literature and discusses in chronological and critical detail those papers considered important for the building up of confidence that each element had been put in evidence. This delineation of discovery profiles results, in some cases, in a sharing of the credit for discovery.

  10. Boundary element and finite element coupling for aeroacoustics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balin, Nolwenn; Casenave, Fabien; Dubois, François; Duceau, Eric; Duprey, Stefan; Terrasse, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    We consider the scattering of acoustic perturbations in the presence of a flow. We suppose that the space can be split into a zone where the flow is uniform and a zone where the flow is potential. In the first zone, we apply a Prandtl-Glauert transformation to recover the Helmholtz equation. The well-known setting of boundary element method for the Helmholtz equation is available. In the second zone, the flow quantities are space dependent, we have to consider a local resolution, namely the finite element method. Herein, we carry out the coupling of these two methods and present various applications and validation test cases. The source term is given through the decomposition of an incident acoustic field on a section of the computational domain's boundary. Validations against analytic, another numerical method and measurements on different test cases are presented.

  11. Superheavy-element spectroscopy: Correlations along element 115 decay chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, D.; Forsberg, U.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Golubev, P.; Fahlander, C.

    2016-05-01

    Following a brief summary of the region of the heaviest atomic nuclei yet created in the laboratory, data on more than hundred α-decay chains associated with the production of element 115 are combined to investigate time and energy correlations along the observed decay chains. Several of these are analysed using a new method for statistical assessments of lifetimes in sets of decay chains.

  12. The Transuranium Elements - Present Status: Nobel Lecture

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1951-12-12

    The discovery of the transuranium elements and the work done on them up to the present time are reviewed. The properties of these elements, their relationship to other elements, their place in the periodic table, and the possibility of production and identification of other transuranium elements are discussed briefly.

  13. Low cost, lightweight fuel cell elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    New fuel cell elements for use in liquid feed fuel cells are provided. The elements including biplates and endplates are low in cost, light in weight, and allow high efficiency operation. Electrically conductive elements are also a part of the fuel cell elements.

  14. 47 CFR 13.203 - Examination elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examination elements. 13.203 Section 13.203... Examination elements. (a) A written examination (written Element) must prove that the examinee possesses the... commercial radio operator license. For each Element, the Commission shall establish through public notices...

  15. 47 CFR 13.203 - Examination elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Examination elements. 13.203 Section 13.203... Examination elements. (a) A written examination (written Element) must prove that the examinee possesses the... commercial radio operator license. For each Element, the Commission shall establish through public notices...

  16. 47 CFR 13.203 - Examination elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Examination elements. 13.203 Section 13.203... Examination elements. (a) A written examination (written Element) must prove that the examinee possesses the... commercial radio operator license. For each Element, the Commission shall establish through public notices...

  17. 47 CFR 13.203 - Examination elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examination elements. 13.203 Section 13.203... Examination elements. (a) A written examination (written Element) must prove that the examinee possesses the... commercial radio operator license. For each Element, the Commission shall establish through public notices...

  18. 49 CFR 563.7 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Data elements. 563.7 Section 563.7 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.7 Data elements. (a) Data elements required for all vehicles. Each vehicle equipped with an EDR must record all of the data elements listed in Table I,...

  19. 49 CFR 563.7 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Data elements. 563.7 Section 563.7 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.7 Data elements. (a) Data elements required for all vehicles. Each vehicle equipped with an EDR must record all of the data elements listed in Table I,...

  20. 49 CFR 563.7 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Data elements. 563.7 Section 563.7 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.7 Data elements. (a) Data elements required for all vehicles. Each vehicle equipped with an EDR must record all of the data elements listed in Table I,...

  1. 47 CFR 13.203 - Examination elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination elements. 13.203 Section 13.203... Examination elements. (a) A written examination (written Element) must prove that the examinee possesses the... commercial radio operator license. For each Element, the Commission shall establish through public notices...

  2. 49 CFR 563.7 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data elements. 563.7 Section 563.7 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.7 Data elements. (a) Data elements required for all vehicles. Each vehicle equipped with an EDR must record all of the data elements listed in Table I,...

  3. Superheavy element flerovium (element 114) is a volatile metal.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Alexander; Gates, Jacklyn M; Türler, Andreas; Schädel, Matthias; Düllmann, Christoph E; Ackermann, Dieter; Andersson, Lise-Lotte; Block, Michael; Brüchle, Willy; Dvorak, Jan; Eberhardt, Klaus; Essel, Hans G; Even, Julia; Forsberg, Ulrika; Gorshkov, Alexander; Graeger, Reimar; Gregorich, Kenneth E; Hartmann, Willi; Herzberg, Rolf-Dietmar; Hessberger, Fritz P; Hild, Daniel; Hübner, Annett; Jäger, Egon; Khuyagbaatar, Jadambaa; Kindler, Birgit; Kratz, Jens V; Krier, Jörg; Kurz, Nikolaus; Lommel, Bettina; Niewisch, Lorenz J; Nitsche, Heino; Omtvedt, Jon Petter; Parr, Edward; Qin, Zhi; Rudolph, Dirk; Runke, Jörg; Schausten, Brigitta; Schimpf, Erwin; Semchenkov, Andrey; Steiner, Jutta; Thörle-Pospiech, Petra; Uusitalo, Juha; Wegrzecki, Maciej; Wiehl, Norbert

    2014-02-01

    The electron shell structure of superheavy elements, i.e., elements with atomic number Z ≥ 104, is influenced by strong relativistic effects caused by the high Z. Early atomic calculations on element 112 (copernicium, Cn) and element 114 (flerovium, Fl) having closed and quasi-closed electron shell configurations of 6d(10)7s(2) and 6d(10)7s(2)7p1/2(2), respectively, predicted them to be noble-gas-like due to very strong relativistic effects on the 7s and 7p1/2 valence orbitals. Recent fully relativistic calculations studying Cn and Fl in different environments suggest them to be less reactive compared to their lighter homologues in the groups, but still exhibiting a metallic character. Experimental gas-solid chromatography studies on Cn have, indeed, revealed a metal-metal bond formation with Au. In contrast to this, for Fl, the formation of a weak bond upon physisorption on a Au surface was inferred from first experiments. Here, we report on a gas-solid chromatography study of the adsorption of Fl on a Au surface. Fl was produced in the nuclear fusion reaction (244)Pu((48)Ca, 3-4n)(288,289)Fl and was isolated in-flight from the primary (48)Ca beam in a physical recoil separator. The adsorption behavior of Fl, its nuclear α-decay product Cn, their lighter homologues in groups 14 and 12, i.e., Pb and Hg, and the noble gas Rn were studied simultaneously by isothermal gas chromatography and thermochromatography. Two Fl atoms were detected. They adsorbed on a Au surface at room temperature in the first, isothermal part, but not as readily as Pb and Hg. The observed adsorption behavior of Fl points to a higher inertness compared to its nearest homologue in the group, Pb. However, the measured lower limit for the adsorption enthalpy of Fl on a Au surface points to the formation of a metal-metal bond of Fl with Au. Fl is the least reactive element in the group, but still a metal. PMID:24456007

  4. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-11-21

    A fuel element is designed which is particularly adapted for reactors of high power density used to generate steam for the production of electricity. The fuel element consists of inner and outer concentric tubes forming an annular chamber within which is contained fissionable fuel pellet segments, wedge members interposed between the fuel segments, and a spring which, acting with wedge members, urges said fuel pellets radially into contact against the inner surface of the outer tube. The wedge members may be a fertile material convertible into fissionable fuel material by absorbing neutrons emitted from the fissionable fuel pellet segments. The costly grinding of cylindrical fuel pellets to close tolerances for snug engagement is reduced because the need to finish the exact size is eliminated. (AEC)

  5. The Origin of the Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Edward

    2012-11-20

    The world around us is made of atoms. Did you ever wonder where these atoms came from? How was the gold in our jewelry, the carbon in our bodies, and the iron in our cars made? In this lecture, we will trace the origin of a gold atom from the Big Bang to the present day, and beyond. You will learn how the elements were forged in the nuclear furnaces inside stars, and how, when they die, these massive stars spread the elements into space. You will learn about the origin of the building blocks of matter in the Big Bang, and we will speculate on the future of the atoms around us today.

  6. The Origin of the Elements

    ScienceCinema

    Murphy, Edward

    2014-08-06

    The world around us is made of atoms. Did you ever wonder where these atoms came from? How was the gold in our jewelry, the carbon in our bodies, and the iron in our cars made? In this lecture, we will trace the origin of a gold atom from the Big Bang to the present day, and beyond. You will learn how the elements were forged in the nuclear furnaces inside stars, and how, when they die, these massive stars spread the elements into space. You will learn about the origin of the building blocks of matter in the Big Bang, and we will speculate on the future of the atoms around us today.

  7. Composite oxygen ion transport element

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Jack C.; Besecker, Charles J.; Chen, Hancun; Robinson, Earil T.

    2007-06-12

    A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

  8. Heavy Elements and Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Norris, Ryan P.

    2009-02-01

    We report on progress in the analysis of high-resolution near-IR spectra of α Orionis (M2 Iab) and other cool, luminous stars. Using synthetic spectrum techniques, we search for atomic absorption lines in the stellar spectra and evaluate the available line parameter data for use in our abundance analyses. Our study concentrates on the post iron-group elements copper through zirconium as a means of investigating the slow neutron-capture process of nucleosynthesis in massive stars and the mechanisms that transport recently processed material up into the photospheric region. We discuss problems with the atomic data and model atmospheres that need to be addressed before theoretically derived elemental abundances from pre-supernova nucleosynthesis calculations can be tested by comparison with abundances determined from observations of cool, massive stars.

  9. Surface energies of elemental crystals.

    PubMed

    Tran, Richard; Xu, Zihan; Radhakrishnan, Balachandran; Winston, Donald; Sun, Wenhao; Persson, Kristin A; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-01-01

    The surface energy is a fundamental property of the different facets of a crystal that is crucial to the understanding of various phenomena like surface segregation, roughening, catalytic activity, and the crystal's equilibrium shape. Such surface phenomena are especially important at the nanoscale, where the large surface area to volume ratios lead to properties that are significantly different from the bulk. In this work, we present the largest database of calculated surface energies for elemental crystals to date. This database contains the surface energies of more than 100 polymorphs of about 70 elements, up to a maximum Miller index of two and three for non-cubic and cubic crystals, respectively. Well-known reconstruction schemes are also accounted for. The database is systematically improvable and has been rigorously validated against previous experimental and computational data where available. We will describe the methodology used in constructing the database, and how it can be accessed for further studies and design of materials. PMID:27622853

  10. Self supporting heat transfer element

    DOEpatents

    Story, Grosvenor Cook; Baldonado, Ray Orico

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides an improved internal heat exchange element arranged so as to traverse the inside diameter of a container vessel such that it makes good mechanical contact with the interior wall of that vessel. The mechanical element is fabricated from a material having a coefficient of thermal conductivity above about 0.8 W cm.sup.-1.degree. K.sup.-1 and is designed to function as a simple spring member when that member has been cooled to reduce its diameter to just below that of a cylindrical container or vessel into which it is placed and then allowed to warm to room temperature. A particularly important application of this invention is directed to a providing a simple compartmented storage container for accommodating a hydrogen absorbing alloy.

  11. Heavy Elements and Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Norris, Ryan P.

    2008-01-01

    We report on progress in the analysis of high-resolution near-IR spectra of alpha Orionis (M2 Iab) and other cool, luminous stars. Using synthetic spectrum techniques, we search for atomic absorption lines in the stellar spectra and evaluate the available line parameter data for use in our abundance analyses. Our study concentrates on the post iron-group elements copper through zirconium as a means of investigating the slow neutron-capture process of nucleosynthesis in massive stars and the mechanisms that transport recently processed material up into the photospheric region. We discuss problems with the atomic data and model atmospheres that need to be addressed before theoretically derived elemental abundances from pre-supernova nucleosynthesis calculations can be tested by comparison with abundances determined from observations of cool, massive stars.

  12. Ballast water sediment elemental analysis.

    PubMed

    Maglić, Lovro; Zec, Damir; Frančić, Vlado

    2016-02-15

    Sediment samples from the ballast water tanks of ships calling at the port of Rijeka in the Northern Adriatic were analysed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) using caesium, argon and oxygen ion beams. The research was carried out in order to determine the sediment composition and relative abundance of the dominant elements. The results indicate that the sediment samples mostly consisted of compounds that originated from the deterioration of tank plates, tank coating residues and ballast operations such as clay, silt, sand and organic materials. No significant heavy metals or highly toxic elements were found. The research revealed some advantages and significant drawbacks of using XPS and SIMS for the routine analysis of sediment composition as a decision supporting tool for ballast water and sediment management. PMID:26763315

  13. Element of an inductive coupler

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2006-08-15

    An element for an inductive coupler in a downhole component comprises magnetically conductive material, which is disposed in a recess in annular housing. The magnetically conductive material forms a generally circular trough. The circular trough comprises an outer generally U-shaped surface, an inner generally U-shaped surface, and two generally planar surfaces joining the inner and outer surfaces. The element further comprises pressure relief grooves in at least one of the surfaces of the circular trough. The pressure relief grooves may be scored lines. Preferably the pressure relief grooves are parallel to the magnetic field generated by the magnetically conductive material. The magnetically conductive material is selected from the group consisting of soft iron, ferrite, a nickel iron alloy, a silicon iron alloy, a cobalt iron alloy, and a mu-metal. Preferably, the annular housing is a metal ring.

  14. Elements of Bayesian experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Sivia, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    We consider some elements of the Bayesian approach that are important for optimal experimental design. While the underlying principles used are very general, and are explained in detail in a recent tutorial text, they are applied here to the specific case of characterising the inferential value of different resolution peakshapes. This particular issue was considered earlier by Silver, Sivia and Pynn (1989, 1990a, 1990b), and the following presentation confirms and extends the conclusions of their analysis.

  15. Photoconductive circuit element pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Rauscher, Christen

    1989-01-01

    A pulse generator for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test.

  16. Radiation effects in nanoelectronic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gromov, D. V.; Elesin, V. V.; Petrov, G. V.; Bobrinetskii, I. I.; Nevolin, V. K.

    2010-12-15

    Radiation defects induced in planar nanosized structures by steady and pulsed ionizing radiation have been analyzed. Characteristics of test samples with a planar nanosized structure fabricated by deposition of an ultrathin titanium film onto a semi-insulating GaAs substrate and of field-effect transistor structures based on bundles of carbon nanotubes have been studied. Physical mechanisms responsible for the radiation-induced changes in characteristics of the nanoelectronic elements under consideration have been established.

  17. Ares I Upper Stage Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chojnacki, Kent

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the elements that make up the Ares I launch vehicle, with particular attention devoted to the upper stage of the vehicle. The upper stage elememnts, a lunar mission profile, and the upper stage objectives are reviewed. The work that Marshall Space Flight Center is doing is highlighted: work on the full scale welding process, the vertical milling machining, and the thermal protection system.

  18. Triangular Element For Analyzing Elasticity Of Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. Wayne; Lung, S. F.; Gupta, K. K.

    1991-01-01

    Flat triangular element developed for use in finite-element analyses of stress and strain in laminated plates made of such materials as plywood or advanced fiber/epoxy composite materials. Has multiple layers, each of which can have different isotropic or orthotropic elastic properties. Many such elements used in finite-element mesh to calculate stiffness of plate. Formulation of element straight-forward, and calculation of its stiffness matrix simple and fast.

  19. A collection of edge-based elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Leo C.; Volakis, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Edge-based elements have proved useful in solving electromagnetic problems since they are nondivergent. Previous authors have presented several two and three dimensional elements. Herein, we present four types of elements which are suitable for modeling several types of three dimensional geometries. Distorted brick and triangular prism elements are given in cartesian coordinates as well as the specialized cylindrical shell and pie-shaped prism elements which are suitable for problems best described in polar cylindrical coordinates.

  20. Peridynamic Multiscale Finite Element Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Timothy; Bond, Stephen D.; Littlewood, David John; Moore, Stan Gerald

    2015-12-01

    The problem of computing quantum-accurate design-scale solutions to mechanics problems is rich with applications and serves as the background to modern multiscale science research. The prob- lem can be broken into component problems comprised of communicating across adjacent scales, which when strung together create a pipeline for information to travel from quantum scales to design scales. Traditionally, this involves connections between a) quantum electronic structure calculations and molecular dynamics and between b) molecular dynamics and local partial differ- ential equation models at the design scale. The second step, b), is particularly challenging since the appropriate scales of molecular dynamic and local partial differential equation models do not overlap. The peridynamic model for continuum mechanics provides an advantage in this endeavor, as the basic equations of peridynamics are valid at a wide range of scales limiting from the classical partial differential equation models valid at the design scale to the scale of molecular dynamics. In this work we focus on the development of multiscale finite element methods for the peridynamic model, in an effort to create a mathematically consistent channel for microscale information to travel from the upper limits of the molecular dynamics scale to the design scale. In particular, we first develop a Nonlocal Multiscale Finite Element Method which solves the peridynamic model at multiple scales to include microscale information at the coarse-scale. We then consider a method that solves a fine-scale peridynamic model to build element-support basis functions for a coarse- scale local partial differential equation model, called the Mixed Locality Multiscale Finite Element Method. Given decades of research and development into finite element codes for the local partial differential equation models of continuum mechanics there is a strong desire to couple local and nonlocal models to leverage the speed and state of the

  1. Element-by-element and implicit-explicit finite element formulations for computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tezduyar, T. E.; Liou, J.

    1988-01-01

    Preconditioner algorithms to reduce the computational effort in FEM analyses of large-scale fluid-dynamics problems are presented. A general model problem is constructed on the basis of the convection-diffusion equation and the two-dimensional vorticity/stream-function formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations; this problem is then analyzed using element-by-element, implicit-explicit, and adaptive implicit-explicit approximation schemes. Numerical results for the two-dimensional advection and rigid-body rotation of a cosine hill, flow past a circular cylinder, and driven cavity flow are presented in extensive graphs and shown to be in good agreement with those obtained using implicit methods.

  2. Calculation of binary phase diagrams between the actinide elements, rare earth elements, and transition metal elements

    SciTech Connect

    Selle, J E

    1992-06-26

    Attempts were made to apply the Kaufman method of calculating binary phase diagrams to the calculation of binary phase diagrams between the rare earths, actinides, and the refractory transition metals. Difficulties were encountered in applying the method to the rare earths and actinides, and modifications were necessary to provide accurate representation of known diagrams. To calculate the interaction parameters for rare earth-rare earth diagrams, it was necessary to use the atomic volumes for each of the phases: liquid, body-centered cubic, hexagonal close-packed, and face-centered cubic. Determination of the atomic volumes of each of these phases for each element is discussed in detail. In some cases, empirical means were necessary. Results are presented on the calculation of rare earth-rare earth, rare earth-actinide, and actinide-actinide diagrams. For rare earth-refractory transition metal diagrams and actinide-refractory transition metal diagrams, empirical means were required to develop values for the enthalpy of vaporization for rare earth elements and values for the constant (C) required when intermediate phases are present. Results of using the values determined for each element are presented.

  3. Implicit Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Himansu, Ananda; Wang, Xiao-Yen

    1999-01-01

    Artificial numerical dissipation is in important issue in large Reynolds number computations. In such computations, the artificial dissipation inherent in traditional numerical schemes can overwhelm the physical dissipation and yield inaccurate results on meshes of practical size. In the present work, the space-time conservation element and solution element method is used to construct new and accurate implicit numerical schemes such that artificial numerical dissipation will not overwhelm physical dissipation. Specifically, these schemes have the property that numerical dissipation vanishes when the physical viscosity goes to zero. These new schemes therefore accurately model the physical dissipation even when it is extremely small. The new schemes presented are two highly accurate implicit solvers for a convection-diffusion equation. The two schemes become identical in the pure convection case, and in the pure diffusion case. The implicit schemes are applicable over the whole Reynolds number range, from purely diffusive equations to convection-dominated equations with very small viscosity. The stability and consistency of the schemes are analysed, and some numerical results are presented. It is shown that, in the inviscid case, the new schemes become explicit and their amplification factors are identical to those of the Leapfrog scheme. On the other hand, in the pure diffusion case, their principal amplification factor becomes the amplification factor of the Crank-Nicolson scheme.

  4. 7 CFR 29.2601 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2601 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  5. 7 CFR 29.6081 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.6081 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2351 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2351 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3586 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3586 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  8. 7 CFR 29.1101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.1101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  9. 7 CFR 29.1101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.1101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3586 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3586 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2601 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2601 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.1101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  13. 7 CFR 29.6081 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.6081 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2351 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2351 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2351 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2351 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2601 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2601 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  20. 7 CFR 29.6081 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.6081 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.1101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3586 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3586 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  3. 7 CFR 29.6081 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.6081 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2601 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2601 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  6. 7 CFR 29.1101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.1101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2351 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2351 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3586 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3586 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  9. 7 CFR 29.6081 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.6081 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2351 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2351 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3101 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3101 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2601 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2601 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3586 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.3586 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. These standardized words or terms are used to describe...

  14. Trace Elements and Chemotherapy Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihui; Yang, Weiping; Long, Gang; Wei, Changyuan

    2016-10-01

    Trace elements might be associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the efficacy of chemotherapy against HCC. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the association between trace elements and efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with HCC. Cancer, cancer-adjacent, and cancer-free tissues were collected intraoperatively from 55 patients with HCC between January 2001 and April 2004 at the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University in Guangxi (China), a high HCC incidence area in the world. Trace element levels were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In vitro sensitivity of cancer cells to five chemotherapeutic drugs (5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, cisplatin, carboplatin, and mitomycin) was tested using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in cancer cells from 32 patients. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium levels had the same gradient distribution in different liver tissues: cancer < cancer-adjacent < cancer-free tissues. Copper levels of cancer tissues were negatively correlated with body weight (r = -0.278, P = 0.027), while manganese and selenium levels were negatively correlated with age (r = -0.297, P = 0.015; r = -0.285, P = 0.018, respectively). Simple correlation analyses revealed that the carboplatin sensitivity was negatively correlated with selenium levels of cancer tissues, while doxorubicin sensitivity was negatively correlated with manganese levels (r = -0.497, P = 0.004). Partial correlation analyses showed that doxorubicin sensitivity only was negatively correlated with manganese levels (r = -0.450, P = 0.014). These results suggest that the selenium and manganese content in primary HCC tissues could influence the response of the HCC cells to carboplatin and doxorubicin. These preliminary results provide a basis for future studies. PMID:26961293

  15. The New Element Americium (Atomic Number 95)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, G.T.; James, R.A.; Morgan, L.O.

    1948-01-01

    Several isotopes of the new element 95 have been produced and their radiations characterized. The chemical properties of this tripositive element are similar to those of the typical tripositive lanthanide rare-earth elements. Element 95 is different from the latter in the degree and rate of formation of certain compounds of the complex ion type, which makes possible the separation of element 95 from the lanthanide rare-earths. The name americium (after the Americas) and the symbol Am are suggested for the element on the basis of its position as the sixth member of the actinide rare-earth series, analogous to europium, Eu, of the lanthanide series.

  16. The Behavior of Chemical Elements in Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, Carlos; Jaschek, Mercedes

    1995-06-01

    Part I. Quantitative Description of Each of 80 Chemical Elements; Part II: 1. Behaviour of molecules in stars; 2. Groups of elements; 3. Chromospheres and coronas; Part III: 1. Terminology of spectral lines; 2. Selection of stars; 3. Line identification; 4. Equivalent widths; 5. Abundances; 6. Afterthoughts; Part IV: 1. Periodic Table; 2. Elements in alphabetical order of names; 3. Elements in alphabetical order of formula; 4. Elements ordered by atomic number; 5. Abundances of chemical elements; 6. Spectral type and surface gravity as a function of luminosity class. 7. Effective temperature; References; Index.

  17. The Behavior of Chemical Elements in Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaschek, Carlos; Jaschek, Mercedes

    2009-03-01

    Part I. Quantitative Description of Each of 80 Chemical Elements; Part II: 1. Behaviour of molecules in stars; 2. Groups of elements; 3. Chromospheres and coronas; Part III: 1. Terminology of spectral lines; 2. Selection of stars; 3. Line identification; 4. Equivalent widths; 5. Abundances; 6. Afterthoughts; Part IV: 1. Periodic Table; 2. Elements in alphabetical order of names; 3. Elements in alphabetical order of formula; 4. Elements ordered by atomic number; 5. Abundances of chemical elements; 6. Spectral type and surface gravity as a function of luminosity class. 7. Effective temperature; References; Index.

  18. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Campana, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180.degree. rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements.

  19. Essential Grid Workflow Monitoring Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Daniel K.; Jackson, Keith R.; Konerding, David E.; Lee,Jason R.; Tierney, Brian L.

    2005-07-01

    Troubleshooting Grid workflows is difficult. A typicalworkflow involves a large number of components networks, middleware,hosts, etc. that can fail. Even when monitoring data from all thesecomponents is accessible, it is hard to tell whether failures andanomalies in these components are related toa given workflow. For theGrid to be truly usable, much of this uncertainty must be elim- inated.We propose two new Grid monitoring elements, Grid workflow identifiersand consistent component lifecycle events, that will make Gridtroubleshooting easier, and thus make Grids more usable, by simplifyingthe correlation of Grid monitoring data with a particular Gridworkflow.

  20. Element abundances of classical novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrea, J.; Drechsel, H.; Starrfield, S.

    1994-11-01

    Physical conditions and element abundances in the optically thin shells of 11 classical novae with outbursts between 1978 and 1989 were determined from an analysis of UV and optical spectra obtained during the nebular stage. Eight novae were studied on the basis of new optical and UV spectra. The accuracy of the element abundances depends on whether or not simultaneous UV spectra were available to determine individual ionization stage dependent gas temperatures. Generally, slightly higher than solar abundances of helium and pronounced overabundances of the heavier elements were found. QU Vul turned out to be an ONeMg nova, while the other objects belong to the class of CO novae. The nature of V2214 Oph could not be completely clarified. The novae V1668 Cyg (1978), V693 CrA (1981), and V1370 Aql (1982), for which published element abundances exist, were reanalyzed to check the consistency of our spectral analysis approach. Satisfactory agreement of the results was found. Photoionization calculations were carried out for PW Vul using the code of Aldrovandi, Pequignot, and Stasinska. A synthetic spectrum was generated for the parameters derived from the analysis of the UV and optical spectra, which is in very good agreement with the observations. The spectral analysis technique was then applied to the model spectrum and reproduced the model parameters well. Electron temperatures for the C(2+) and C(3+) ions between 7 500 and 12,000 K and for N(4+) betwen 12,000 and 16,000 K were derived. For PW Vul these temperatures remained relatively constant over several months. The decline in density of the ejected shells with time could be investigated for V842 Cen, QV Vul, V977 Sco, and V443 Sct, and was found to deviate from the relation Ne proportional to t-2 for free expansion of a shell in a different way for each object. A possible explanation may be the complex density structure of the shells. This suspicion is supported by high resolution spectra (ESO 3.6m telescope

  1. Dual-Element Tunneling Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.; Rockstad, Howard K.; Reynolds, Joseph K.

    1994-01-01

    Improved micromachined tunneling accelerometer contains two deflecting transducer elements: One an elastically supported proof mass having relatively low resonant frequency; other cantilever tunneling transducer that tracks displacement of proof mass and has relatively high resonant frequency ({sup a} 10 kHz). Deflection voltage generated by circuit like described in "Wideband Feedback Circuit for Tunneling Sensor" (NPO-18866). Accelerometers of this type suited for underwater acoustic measurements, detecting vibrations associated with malfunctions in vehicles, detecting seismic signals, monitoring and controlling vibrations in structures, and other applications.

  2. Minor elements in Marjalahti olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, G.

    1984-06-01

    Precise microprobe determinations of minor elements in olivine from Marjalahti show averages of 0.0267 percent CaO; 0.0211 percent Cr2O3; less than 0.0045 percent TiO2; 0.288 percent MnO; and 30 ppm Ni. The calcium is as high as in some terrestrial plutonic olivines (e.g. Stillwater) but lower than in terrestrial nodule (high-temperature mantle?) olivines, consistent with very slow cooling to low temperatures. The chromium is discrepant with some earlier determinations, and possibly chromium is zoned in most pallasitic olivines. The Ti, Mn, and Ni data are consistent with previous determinations.

  3. Microgyroscope with integrated vibratory element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Rodger, Damien C. (Inventor); Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A microgyroscope having a suspended vertical post uses the Coriolis force to detect the rotation rate. The microgyroscope consists of a single vertical post which is the rotation rate sensing element. The vertical post is formed from the same silicon wafers as the rest of the microgyroscope. A first portion of the vertical post and the clover-leaf structure are made from a first silicon wafer. A second portion of the vertical post and the baseplate are made from a second silicon wafer. The two portions are then bonded together to from the clover-leaf gyroscope with an integrated post structure.

  4. The Plasmodium Export Element Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Hiss, Jan Alexander; Przyborski, Jude Marek; Schwarte, Florian; Lingelbach, Klaus; Schneider, Gisbert

    2008-01-01

    We performed a bioinformatical analysis of protein export elements (PEXEL) in the putative proteome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. A protein family-specific conservation of physicochemical residue profiles was found for PEXEL-flanking sequence regions. We demonstrate that the family members can be clustered based on the flanking regions only and display characteristic hydrophobicity patterns. This raises the possibility that the flanking regions may contain additional information for a family-specific role of PEXEL. We further show that signal peptide cleavage results in a positional alignment of PEXEL from both proteins with, and without, a signal peptide. PMID:18253504

  5. The Plasmodium export element revisited.

    PubMed

    Hiss, Jan Alexander; Przyborski, Jude Marek; Schwarte, Florian; Lingelbach, Klaus; Schneider, Gisbert

    2008-01-01

    We performed a bioinformatical analysis of protein export elements (PEXEL) in the putative proteome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. A protein family-specific conservation of physicochemical residue profiles was found for PEXEL-flanking sequence regions. We demonstrate that the family members can be clustered based on the flanking regions only and display characteristic hydrophobicity patterns. This raises the possibility that the flanking regions may contain additional information for a family-specific role of PEXEL. We further show that signal peptide cleavage results in a positional alignment of PEXEL from both proteins with, and without, a signal peptide. PMID:18253504

  6. METHOD OF MAKING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Bean, C.H.; Macherey, R.E.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for fabricating fuel elements, particularly for enclosing a plate of metal with a second metal by inserting the plate into an aperture of a frame of a second plate, placing a sheet of the second metal on each of opposite faces of the assembled plate and frame, purging with an inert gas the air from the space within the frame and the sheets while sealing the seams between the frame and the sheets, exhausting the space, purging the space with air, re-exhausting the spaces, sealing the second aperture, and applying heat and pressure to bond the sheets, the plate, and the frame to one another.

  7. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising high density ceramic fissionable material enclosed in a tubular cladding of corrosion-resistant material is described. The fissionable material is in the form of segments of a tube which have cooperating tapered interfaces which produce outward radial displacement when the segments are urged axially together. A resilient means is provided within the tubular housing to constantly urge the fuel segments axially. This design maintains the fuel material in tight contacting engagement against the inner surface of the outer cladding tube to eliminate any gap therebetween which may be caused by differential thermal expansion between the fuel material and the material of the tube.

  8. Generic element processor (application to nonlinear analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Gary

    1989-01-01

    The focus here is on one aspect of the Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM) Testbed: finite element technology. The approach involves a Generic Element Processor: a command-driven, database-oriented software shell that facilitates introduction of new elements into the testbed. This shell features an element-independent corotational capability that upgrades linear elements to geometrically nonlinear analysis, and corrects the rigid-body errors that plague many contemporary plate and shell elements. Specific elements that have been implemented in the Testbed via this mechanism include the Assumed Natural-Coordinate Strain (ANS) shell elements, developed with Professor K. C. Park (University of Colorado, Boulder), a new class of curved hybrid shell elements, developed by Dr. David Kang of LPARL (formerly a student of Professor T. Pian), other shell and solid hybrid elements developed by NASA personnel, and recently a repackaged version of the workhorse shell element used in the traditional STAGS nonlinear shell analysis code. The presentation covers: (1) user and developer interfaces to the generic element processor, (2) an explanation of the built-in corotational option, (3) a description of some of the shell-elements currently implemented, and (4) application to sample nonlinear shell postbuckling problems.

  9. Scarcity of rare earth elements.

    PubMed

    de Boer, M A; Lammertsma, K

    2013-11-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are important for green and a large variety of high-tech technologies and are, therefore, in high demand. As a result, supply with REEs is likely to be disrupted (the degree of depends on the REE) in the near future. The 17 REEs are divided into heavy and light REEs. Other critical elements besides REEs, identified by the European Commission, are also becoming less easily available. Although there is no deficiency in the earth's crust of rare earth oxides, the economic accessibility is limited. The increased demand for REEs, the decreasing export from China, and geopolitical concerns on availability contributed to the (re)opening of mines in Australia and the USA and other mines are slow to follow. As a result, short supply of particularly terbium, dysprosium, praseodymium, and neodymium is expected to be problematic for at least the short term, also because they cannot be substituted. Recycling REEs from electronic waste would be a solution, but so far there are hardly any established REE recycling methods. Decreasing the dependency on REEs, for example, by identifying possible replacements or increasing their efficient use, represents another possibility. PMID:24009098

  10. Fuel elements of thermionic converters

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, R.L.; Gontar, A.S.; Nelidov, M.V.; Nikolaev, Yu.V.; Schulepov, L.N.

    1997-01-01

    Work on thermionic nuclear power systems has been performed in Russia within the framework of the TOPAZ reactor program since the early 1960s. In the TOPAZ in-core thermionic convertor reactor design, the fuel element`s cladding is also the thermionic convertor`s emitter. Deformation of the emitter can lead to short-circuiting and is the primary cause of premature TRC failure. Such deformation can be the result of fuel swelling, thermocycling, or increased unilateral pressure on the emitter due to the release of gaseous fission products. Much of the work on TRCs has concentrated on preventing or mitigating emitter deformation by improving the following materials and structures: nuclear fuel; emitter materials; electrical insulators; moderator and reflector materials; and gas-exhaust device. In addition, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of experimental techniques that accurately mimic operational conditions and toward the creation of analytical and numerical models that allow operational conditions and behavior to be predicted without the expense and time demands of in-pile tests. New and modified materials and structures for the cores of thermionic NPSs and new fabrication processes for the materials have ensured the possibility of creating thermionic NPSs for a wide range of powers, from tens to several hundreds of kilowatts, with life spans of 5 to 10 years.

  11. Elemental Abundances in NGC 3516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. J.; Kraemer, S. B.; Mushotzky, R. F.; George, I. M.; Gabel, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present Reflection Grating Spectrometer data from an XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516, taken while the continuum source was in an extremely low flux state. This observation offers a rare opportunity for a detailed study of emission from a Seyfert 1 galaxy as these are usually dominated by high nuclear continuum levels and heavy absorption. The spectrum shows numerous narrow emission lines (FWHM approximately less than 1300 kilometers per second) in the 0.3 - 2 keV range, including the H-like lines of C, N, and O and the He-like lines of N, O and Ne. The emission-line ratios and the narrow width of the radiative recombination continuum of CVI indicate that the gas is photoionized and of fairly low temperature (kT approximately less than 0.01 keV). The availability of emission lines from different elements for two iso-electronic sequences allows us to constrain the element abundances. These data show that the N lines are far stronger than would be expected from gas of solar abundances. Based on our photoionization models we find that nitrogen is overabundant in the central regions of the galaxy, compared to carbon, oxygen and neon by at least a factor of 2.5. We suggest that this is the result of secondary production of nitrogen in intermediate mass stars, and indicative of the history of star formation in NGC 3516.

  12. Characterization of electrodeposited elemental boron

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashish; Anthonysamy, S. Ananthasivan, K.; Ranganathan, R.; Mittal, Vinit; Narasimhan, S.V.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2008-07-15

    Elemental boron was produced through electrowinning from potassium fluoroborate dissolved in a mixture of molten potassium fluoride and potassium chloride. The characteristics of the electrodeposited boron (raw boron) as well as the water and acid-leached product (processed boron) were studied. The chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size of the boron powders were investigated. The morphology of the deposits was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical state of the matrix, as well as the impurity phases present in them, was established using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In order to interpret and understand the results obtained, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out. The gas-phase corrosion in the head space as well as the chemistry behind the leaching process were interpreted using this analysis. The ease of oxidation of these powders in air was investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA) coupled with thermogravimetry (TG). From the results obtained in this study it was established that elemental boron powder with a purity of 95-99% could be produced using a high temperature molten salt electrowinning process. The major impurities were found to be oxygen, carbon, iron and nickel.

  13. Mars Surface Tunnel Element Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Mary, Natalie; Howe, A. Scott; Jeffries, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    How Mars surface crews get into their ascent vehicle has profound implications for Mars surface architecture. To meet planetary protection protocols, the architecture has get Intravehicular Activity (IVA)-suited crew into a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) without having to step outside into the Mars environment. Pushing EVA suit don/doff and EVA operations to an element that remains on the surface also helps to minimize MAV cabin volume, which in turn can reduce MAV cabin mass. Because the MAV will require at least seven kilograms of propellant to ascend each kilogram of cabin mass, minimal MAV mass is desired. For architectures involving more than one surface element-such as an ascent vehicle and a pressurized rover or surface habitat-a retractable tunnel is an attractive solution. Beyond addressing the immediate MAV access issue, a reusable tunnel may be useful for other surface applications once its primary mission is complete. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) team is studying the optimal balance between surface tunnel functionality, mass, and stowed volume as part of the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC). The "Minimum Functional Tunnel" is a conceptual design that performs a single function. Having established this baseline configuration, the next step is to trade design options, evaluate other applications, and explore alternative solutions.

  14. Magnetite fractionation of "chalcophile" elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrogenes, J. A.; Jenner, F. E.; Arculus, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Submarine-quenched glasses provide the clearest record of magmatic evolution available, especially with respect to potentially volatile elements and compounds. A comprehensive suite of arc- and backarc glasses recovered during several research voyages in the SW Pacific are being analysed by a number of research teams in an effort to document genesis and fractionation processes involved in the evolution of subduction- related magma systems. As part of these studies, a suite of basalt to dacite composition glasses recovered from the arc-like Pacmanus Site in the Manus Backarc Basin have been examined in detail. Sun et al. (2004) found trends of increasing enrichments of Re, Cu, and Au with SiO2 in the range from 50 to 60 wt% SiO2. From this stage of magmatic evolution, marked depletions in all these elements are observed in glasses of higher SiO2 contents. The reasons for this trend have been unclear, although a mechanism involving the cessation of olivine and initiation of magnetite saturation was proposed by Sun et al. Our analysis of a larger suite of glasses from the Manus Basin has now confirmed these trends, and found the same behaviour for Zn and Mn. Similarly, analysis of a suite of basalt to dacite glasses recovered from the arc-like Valu Fa Ridge in the Lau Backarc Basin has produced trends for these elements very similar to those of the Pacmanus location. LA-ICP-MS analysis of microphenocrysts in these glasses has shown that magnetite is highly enriched in Re relative to the coexisting melt (Kd up to 7.8 for Re). Magnetite/melt partition coefficients for Re, Mn and Yb can be used to precisely model the liquid line of descent during magnetite (plus clinopyroxene and plagioclase) fractionation using Re vs. Mn/Yb. The variation of Pt abundances with SiO2 for both these suites contrasts with other nominally chalcophile trace elements in showing rapid early depletion from the most Mg-rich basalt through to more SiO2-rich compositions, with no maximum at 60 wt

  15. Infinite Possibilities for the Finite Element.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Bruce A.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the uses of finite element methods in solving problems of heat transfer, fluid flow, etc. Suggests that engineers should know the general concepts and be able to apply the principles of finite element methods. (Author/WB)

  16. THEORETICAL BASIS FOR MODELING ELEMENT CYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biophysical basis for modeling element cycling is described. The scheme consists of element cycles, organisms necessary to completely catalyze all the component reactions, and higher organisms as structurally complex systems and as subsystems of more complex ecosystems, all to ...

  17. Queuing register uses fluid logic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Queuing register /a multistage bit-shifting device/ uses a series of pure fluid elements to perform the required logic operations. The register has several stages of three-state pure fluid elements combined with two-input NOR gates.

  18. Finite element analysis of flexible, rotating blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, Oliver G.

    1987-01-01

    A reference guide that can be used when using the finite element method to approximate the static and dynamic behavior of flexible, rotating blades is given. Important parameters such as twist, sweep, camber, co-planar shell elements, centrifugal loads, and inertia properties are studied. Comparisons are made between NASTRAN elements through published benchmark tests. The main purpose is to summarize blade modeling strategies and to document capabilities and limitations (for flexible, rotating blades) of various NASTRAN elements.

  19. Stacked Switchable Element and Diode Combination

    DOEpatents

    Branz, H. M.; Wang, Q.

    2006-06-27

    A device (10) comprises a semiconductor diode (12) and a switchable element (14) positioned in stacked adjacent relationship so that the semiconductor diode (12) and the switchable element (14) are electrically connected in series with one another. The switchable element (14) is switchable from a low-conductance state to a high-conductance state in response to the application of a forming voltage to the switchable element (14).

  20. Stacked switchable element and diode combination

    DOEpatents

    Branz, Howard M.; Wang, Qi

    2006-06-27

    A device (10) comprises a semiconductor diode (12) and a switchable element (14) positioned in stacked adjacent relationship so that the semiconductor diode (12) and the switchable element (14) are electrically connected in series with one another. The switchable element (14) is switchable from a low-conductance state to a high-conductance state in response to the application of a forming voltage to the switchable element (14).

  1. Downhole Elemental Analysis with LIBS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreschini, Paolo; Zacny, Kris; Rickman, Doug

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a novel instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars, as well as a variety of terrestrial applications. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. LIBS functions by focusing a high energy laser on a material inducing a plasma consisting of a small fraction of the material under analysis. Optical emission from the plasma, analyzed by a spectrometer, can be used to determine elemental composition. A triangulation sensor located in the sensor head determines the distance of the sensor from the borehole wall. An actuator modifies the position of the sensor accordingly, in order to compensate for changes due to the profile of the borehole walls. This is necessary because LIBS measurements are negatively affected by changes in the relative position of the focus of the laser with respect to the position of the sample (commonly referred to as the "lens to sample distance"). Profiling the borehole is done by adjusting the position of the sensor with a

  2. Downhole elemental analysis with LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreschini, P.; Zacny, K.; Rickman, D.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we discuss a novel instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized LIBS analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars, as well as a variety of terrestrial applications. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. LIBS functions by focusing a high energy laser on a material inducing a plasma consisting of a small fraction of the material under analysis. Optical emission from the plasma, analyzed by a spectrometer, can be used to determine elemental composition. A triangulation sensor located in the sensor head determines the distance of the sensor from the borehole wall. An actuator modifies the position of the sensor accordingly, in order to compensate for changes due to the profile of the borehole walls. This is necessary because LIBS measurements are negatively affected by changes in the relative position of the focus of the laser with respect to the position of the sample (commonly referred to as the "lens to sample distance"). Profiling the borehole is done by adjusting the position of the sensor with a vertical stage; a second actuator at the

  3. CRISPR Screens to Discover Functional Noncoding Elements.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jason B; Sanjana, Neville E

    2016-09-01

    A major challenge in genomics is to identify functional elements in the noncoding genome. Recently, pooled clustered regularly interspersed palindromic repeat (CRISPR) mutagenesis screens of noncoding regions have emerged as a novel method for finding elements that impact gene expression and phenotype/disease-relevant biological processes. Here we review and compare different approaches for high-throughput dissection of noncoding elements. PMID:27423542

  4. Elements of Regolith Simulant's Cost Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    The cost of lunar regolith simulants is much higher than many users anticipate. After all, it is nothing more than broken rock. This class will discuss the elements which make up the cost structure for simulants. It will also consider which elements can be avoided under certain circumstances and which elements might be altered by the application of additional research and development.

  5. Element Cycles: An Environmental Chemistry Board Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pippins, Tracy; Anderson, Cody M.; Poindexter, Eric F.; Sultemeier, S. Whitney; Schultz, Linda D.

    2011-01-01

    "Element Cycles" is an activity designed to reinforce correlation of essential elements and their different forms in the ecosystem. Students are assigned essential elements to research as homework, then share results, and construct game boards with four ecosphere sections: geosphere (earth), hydrosphere (water), atmosphere (air), and biosphere…

  6. PRECONCENTRATION METHODS FOR TRACE ELEMENT DETERMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research had several objectives. One was to review the literature to determine methods of trace element preconcentration that could be used realistically for sample preparation for trace element determinations in drinking, natural and/or effluent waters. Elements included in...

  7. Orbital element distributions in the Oort cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafin, R. A.

    Orbital-element distributions are studied for comets moving on admissible orbits in the Oort cloud and for some functions that depend on the orbital elements. Also found is the probability that an arbitrarily chosen admissible orbit belongs to the set of orbital elements and the distribution of circular velocities in the cloud.

  8. Assignment Of Finite Elements To Parallel Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Moktar A.; Flower, Jon W.; Otto, Steve W.

    1990-01-01

    Elements assigned approximately optimally to subdomains. Mapping algorithm based on simulated-annealing concept used to minimize approximate time required to perform finite-element computation on hypercube computer or other network of parallel data processors. Mapping algorithm needed when shape of domain complicated or otherwise not obvious what allocation of elements to subdomains minimizes cost of computation.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1375 - Iron, elemental.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron, elemental. 184.1375 Section 184.1375 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1375 Iron, elemental. (a) Iron, elemental (CAS Reg. No. 7439-89-6) is metallic iron obtained by any of the following processes: reduced iron, electrolytic iron,...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1375 - Iron, elemental.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron, elemental. 184.1375 Section 184.1375 Food... GRAS § 184.1375 Iron, elemental. (a) Iron, elemental (CAS Reg. No. 7439-89-6) is metallic iron obtained by any of the following processes: reduced iron, electrolytic iron, and carbonyl iron. (1)...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1375 - Iron, elemental.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron, elemental. 184.1375 Section 184.1375 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1375 Iron, elemental. (a) Iron, elemental (CAS Reg. No. 7439-89-6) is metallic iron obtained by any of the following processes: reduced iron, electrolytic iron,...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1375 - Iron, elemental.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron, elemental. 184.1375 Section 184.1375 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1375 Iron, elemental. (a) Iron, elemental (CAS Reg. No. 7439-89-6) is metallic iron obtained by any of the following processes: reduced iron, electrolytic iron, and...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1375 - Iron, elemental.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron, elemental. 184.1375 Section 184.1375 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1375 Iron, elemental. (a) Iron, elemental (CAS Reg. No. 7439-89-6) is metallic iron obtained by any of the following processes: reduced iron, electrolytic iron,...

  14. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit... operator license grant: Elements 2 and 3. (2) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period...

  15. 36 CFR 230.35 - FLEP elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false FLEP elements. 230.35 Section... FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.35 FLEP elements. (a) States may use FLEP funds... through the following elements: (1) Development and implementation of educational programs; (2)...

  16. 19 CFR 149.3 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Data elements. 149.3 Section 149.3 Customs Duties... (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.3 Data elements. (a) Shipments intended to be entered into the... provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, the following elements must be provided for each good...

  17. 47 CFR 97.503 - Element standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Element standards. 97.503 Section 97.503... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.503 Element standards. A written examination must be such as... question set as follows: (a) Element 2: 35 questions concerning the privileges of a Technician...

  18. 36 CFR 230.35 - FLEP elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false FLEP elements. 230.35 Section... FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.35 FLEP elements. (a) States may use FLEP funds... through the following elements: (1) Development and implementation of educational programs; (2)...

  19. 47 CFR 97.503 - Element standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Element standards. 97.503 Section 97.503... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.503 Element standards. A written examination must be such as... question set as follows: (a) Element 2: 35 questions concerning the privileges of a Technician...

  20. 49 CFR 236.576 - Roadway element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Roadway element. 236.576 Section 236.576..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Roadway § 236.576 Roadway element. Roadway elements, except track circuits, including those for test purposes, shall be gaged monthly for height...

  1. 36 CFR 230.35 - FLEP elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false FLEP elements. 230.35 Section... FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.35 FLEP elements. (a) States may use FLEP funds... through the following elements: (1) Development and implementation of educational programs; (2)...

  2. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit... operator license grant: Elements 2 and 3. (2) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period...

  3. 47 CFR 97.503 - Element standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Element standards. 97.503 Section 97.503... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.503 Element standards. A written examination must be such as... question set as follows: (a) Element 2: 35 questions concerning the privileges of a Technician...

  4. 49 CFR 236.576 - Roadway element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Roadway element. 236.576 Section 236.576..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Roadway § 236.576 Roadway element. Roadway elements, except track circuits, including those for test purposes, shall be gaged monthly for height...

  5. 47 CFR 97.503 - Element standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Element standards. 97.503 Section 97.503... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.503 Element standards. A written examination must be such as... question set as follows: (a) Element 2: 35 questions concerning the privileges of a Technician...

  6. 19 CFR 149.3 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Data elements. 149.3 Section 149.3 Customs Duties... (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.3 Data elements. (a) Shipments intended to be entered into the... provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, the following elements must be provided for each good...

  7. 47 CFR 97.503 - Element standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Element standards. 97.503 Section 97.503... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.503 Element standards. A written examination must be such as... question set as follows: (a) Element 2: 35 questions concerning the privileges of a Technician...

  8. 19 CFR 149.3 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Data elements. 149.3 Section 149.3 Customs Duties... (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.3 Data elements. (a) Shipments intended to be entered into the... provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, the following elements must be provided for each good...

  9. When We Review the Elements of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Teachers can help students become more fluent and confident in creating their own art, as well as being consciously aware of the art elements--line, color, shape/form, texture, space and value--when they view the art of others. In this article, the author reviews and defines the characteristics of each element separately, basic elements that are…

  10. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit... operator license grant: Elements 2 and 3. (2) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period...

  11. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit... Not applicable Elements 3 and 4. (2) Advanced; General; or Technician granted before March 21,...

  12. 36 CFR 230.35 - FLEP elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false FLEP elements. 230.35 Section... FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.35 FLEP elements. (a) States may use FLEP funds... through the following elements: (1) Development and implementation of educational programs; (2)...

  13. 49 CFR 236.576 - Roadway element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Roadway element. 236.576 Section 236.576..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Roadway § 236.576 Roadway element. Roadway elements, except track circuits, including those for test purposes, shall be gaged monthly for height...

  14. 19 CFR 149.3 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Data elements. 149.3 Section 149.3 Customs Duties... (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.3 Data elements. (a) Shipments intended to be entered into the... provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, the following elements must be provided for each good...

  15. 19 CFR 149.3 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Data elements. 149.3 Section 149.3 Customs Duties... (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.3 Data elements. (a) Shipments intended to be entered into the... provided for in paragraph (b) of this section, the following elements must be provided for each good...

  16. 49 CFR 563.7 - Data elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Data elements. 563.7 Section 563.7 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.7 Data elements. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 47486, Aug. 5, 2011. (a) Data elements required for all vehicles. Each vehicle equipped with...

  17. 49 CFR 236.576 - Roadway element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Roadway element. 236.576 Section 236.576..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Roadway § 236.576 Roadway element. Roadway elements, except track circuits, including those for test purposes, shall be gaged monthly for height...

  18. 36 CFR 230.35 - FLEP elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false FLEP elements. 230.35 Section... FORESTRY ASSISTANCE Forest Land Enhancement Program § 230.35 FLEP elements. (a) States may use FLEP funds... through the following elements: (1) Development and implementation of educational programs; (2)...

  19. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit... operator license grant: Elements 2 and 3. (2) An unexpired (or expired but within the grace period...

  20. 49 CFR 236.576 - Roadway element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Roadway element. 236.576 Section 236.576..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Roadway § 236.576 Roadway element. Roadway elements, except track circuits, including those for test purposes, shall be gaged monthly for height...

  1. Nutrient metal elements in plants.

    PubMed

    DalCorso, Giovanni; Manara, Anna; Piasentin, Silvia; Furini, Antonella

    2014-10-01

    Plants need many different metal elements for growth, development and reproduction, which must be mobilized from the soil matrix and absorbed by the roots as metal ions. Once taken up by the roots, metal ions are allocated to different parts of the plant by the vascular tissues. Metals are naturally present in the soil, but human activities, ranging from mining and agriculture to sewage processing and heavy industry, have increased the amount of metal pollution in the environment. Plants are challenged by environmental metal ion concentrations that fluctuate from low to high toxic levels, and have therefore evolved mechanisms to cope with such phenomena. In this review, we focus on recent data that provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of metal absorption and transport by plants, also considering the effect of metal deficiency and toxicity. We also highlight the positive effects of some non-essential metals on plant fitness. PMID:25144607

  2. Logical elements in living cells.

    PubMed

    Kremen, A

    1984-11-01

    Recognition processes with enhanced accuracy (as performed by structures like enzymes or ribosomes) are investigated using elementary ideas of statistical mechanics and related concepts of thermodynamics. The analysis starts from a formal definition of recognition and provides a correspondence with appropriate physical properties of the macromolecular logical elements. Transitions of the recognizing system between different modifications are a necessary feature of a more exacting recognition process. Rearrangement steps provide the process with higher accuracy by performing two physical operations: (1) rearranging the phase space of the system so that the "correct" states be better separated from the "wrong" states and the probability of occupation of the "correct" states be enhanced, (2) directing the process toward the more favourable modifications thus formed. Both operations are related to changes in the physical properties of the recognizing system. These changes can be expressed as differences of macromolecular Gibbs energy levels; if ligand binding or release participate in a step, directivity of the step depends also on the actual chemical potentials of the ligands in solution. The two operations just mentioned resemble two basic operations known to be necessary in electronic digital networks: directivity of control and signal standardization. An analysis of the entire reaction catalysed by a macromolecular logical element takes into account the requirements imposed by the logical functions as well as the need that the chemical potential of the product be not restricted to very low values. To satisfy these conditions, the reaction must be supported by a so-called non-specific reaction, usually implemented by the cleavage reaction of a nucleoside triphosphate. PMID:6513567

  3. Mars Surface Tunnel Element Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    How crews get into or out of their ascent vehicle has profound implications for Mars surface architecture. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) hatches and Airlocks have the benefit of relatively low mass and high Technology Readiness Level (TRL), but waste consumables with a volume depressurization for every ingress/egress. Perhaps the biggest drawback to EVA hatches or Airlocks is that they make it difficult to keep Martian dust from being tracked back into the ascent vehicle, in violation of planetary protection protocols. Suit ports offer the promise of dust mitigation by keeping dusty suits outside the cabin, but require significant cabin real estate, are relatively high mass, and current operational concepts still require an EVA hatch to get the suits outside for the first EVA, and back inside after the final EVA. This is primarily because current designs don't provide enough structural support to protect the suits from ascent/descent loads or potential thruster plume impingement. For architectures involving more than one surface element-such as an ascent vehicle and a rover or surface habitat-a retractable tunnel is an attractive option. By pushing spacesuit don/doff and EVA operations to an element that remains on the surface, ascended vehicle mass and dust can be minimized. What's more, retractable tunnels provide operational flexibility by allowing surface assets to be re-configured or built up over time. Retractable tunnel functional requirements and design concepts being developed as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) work will add a new ingress/egress option to the surface architecture trade space.

  4. Chemical characterization of bohrium (element 107)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, R.; Brüchle, W.; Dressler, R.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eichler, B.; Gäggeler, H. W.; Gregorich, K. E.; Hoffman, D. C.; Hübener, S.; Jost, D. T.; Kirbach, U. W.; Laue, C. A.; Lavanchy, V. M.; Nitsche, H.; Patin, J. B.; Piguet, D.; Schädel, M.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Strellis, D. A.; Taut, S.; Tobler, L.; Tsyganov, Y. S.; Türler, A.; Vahle, A.; WiIk, P. A.; Yakushev, A. B.

    2000-09-01

    The arrangement of the chemical elements in the periodic table highlights resemblances in chemical properties, which reflect the elements' electronic structure. For the heaviest elements, however, deviations in the periodicity of chemical properties are expected: electrons in orbitals with a high probability density near the nucleus are accelerated by the large nuclear charges to relativistic velocities, which increase their binding energies and cause orbital contraction. This leads to more efficient screening of the nuclear charge and corresponding destabilization of the outer d and f orbitals: it is these changes that can give rise to unexpected chemical properties. The synthesis of increasingly heavy elements, now including that of elements 114, 116 and 118, allows the investigation of this effect, provided sufficiently long-lived isotopes for chemical characterization are available. In the case of elements 104 and 105, for example, relativistic effects interrupt characteristic trends in the chemical properties of the elements constituting the corresponding columns of the periodic table, whereas element 106 behaves in accordance with the expected periodicity. Here we report the chemical separation and characterization of six atoms of element 107 (bohrium, Bh), in the form of its oxychloride. We find that this compound is less volatile than the oxychlorides of the lighter elements of group VII, thus confirming relativistic calculations that predict the behaviour of bohrium, like that of element 106, to coincide with that expected on the basis of its position in the periodic table.

  5. Chemical characterization of bohrium (element 107)

    PubMed

    Eichler; Bruchle; Dressler; Dullmann; Eichler; Gaggeler; Gregorich; Hoffman; Hubener; Jost; Kirbach; Laue; Lavanchy; Nitsche; Patin; Piguet; Schadel; Shaughnessy; Strellis; Taut; Tobler; Tsyganov; Turler; Vahle; Wilk; Yakushev

    2000-09-01

    The arrangement of the chemical elements in the periodic table highlights resemblances in chemical properties, which reflect the elements' electronic structure. For the heaviest elements, however, deviations in the periodicity of chemical properties are expected: electrons in orbitals with a high probability density near the nucleus are accelerated by the large nuclear charges to relativistic velocities, which increase their binding energies and cause orbital contraction. This leads to more efficient screening of the nuclear charge and corresponding destabilization of the outer d and f orbitals: it is these changes that can give rise to unexpected chemical properties. The synthesis of increasingly heavy elements, now including that of elements 114, 116 and 118, allows the investigation of this effect, provided sufficiently long-lived isotopes for chemical characterization are available. In the case of elements 104 and 105, for example, relativistic effects interrupt characteristic trends in the chemical properties of the elements constituting the corresponding columns of the periodic table, whereas element 106 behaves in accordance with the expected periodicity. Here we report the chemical separation and characterization of six atoms of element 107 (bohrium, Bh), in the form of its oxychloride. We find that this compound is less volatile than the oxychlorides of the lighter elements of group VII, thus confirming relativistic calculations that predict the behaviour of bohrium, like that of element 106, to coincide with that expected on the basis of its position in the periodic table. PMID:10993071

  6. A photoelastic element for piezooptic strain gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulish, A. G.; Zagubisalo, P. S.

    2015-07-01

    Photoelastic and mechanical properties of a novel photoelastic element for piezooptic transducers used to measure the deformation (stress) are studied. The photoelastic element is fabricated from a plate of fused quartz and has the shape of a cross with the side surfaces having a constant and/or variable radius of curvature. The results of numerical modeling of the elastic stress in the bulk of the photoelastic element under operating loads show that its shape produces (at equal operating forces) a higher stress concentration in the relevant region of the photoelastic element than rectangular or circular shapes. The results of numerical modeling of the structural performance of this photoelastic element allow one to determine the optimum balance between the increase in the photoelastic element efficiency and the variation of the damage threshold that results from altering the shape of the element.

  7. Triangular spectral elements for incompressible fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, C.; Vanrosendale, John

    1993-01-01

    We discuss the use of triangular elements in the spectral element method for direct simulation of incompressible flow. Triangles provide much greater geometric flexibility than quadrilateral elements and are better conditioned and more accurate when small angles arise. We employ a family of tensor product algorithms for triangles, allowing triangular elements to be handled with comparable arithmetic complexity to quadrilateral elements. The triangular discretizations are applied and validated on the Poisson equation. These discretizations are then applied to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a laminar channel flow solution is given. These new triangular spectral elements can be combined with standard quadrilateral elements, yielding a general and flexible high order method for complex geometries in two dimensions.

  8. Data transmission element for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael

    2006-01-31

    A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

  9. Heavy-element fission barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Peter; Sierk, Arnold J.; Ichikawa, Takatoshi; Iwamoto, Akira; Bengtsson, Ragnar; Uhrenholt, Henrik; Angstromberg, Sven

    2009-06-15

    We present calculations of fission properties for heavy elements. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic finite-range liquid-drop model with a 2002 parameter set. For each nucleus we have calculated the potential energy in three different shape parametrizations: (1) for 5 009 325 different shapes in a five-dimensional deformation space given by the three-quadratic-surface parametrization, (2) for 10 850 different shapes in a three-dimensional deformation space spanned by {epsilon}{sub 2}, {epsilon}{sub 4}, and {gamma} in the Nilsson perturbed-spheroid parametrization, supplemented by a densely spaced grid in {epsilon}{sub 2}, {epsilon}{sub 3}, {epsilon}{sub 4}, and {epsilon}{sub 6} for axially symmetric deformations in the neighborhood of the ground state, and (3) an axially symmetric multipole expansion of the shape of the nuclear surface using {beta}{sub 2}, {beta}{sub 3}, {beta}{sub 4}, and {beta}{sub 6} for intermediate deformations. For a fissioning system, it is always possible to define uniquely one saddle or fission threshold on the optimum trajectory between the ground state and separated fission fragments. We present such calculated barrier heights for 1585 nuclei from Z=78 to Z=125. Traditionally, actinide barriers have been characterized in terms of a ''double-humped'' structure. Following this custom we present calculated energies of the first peak, second minimum, and second peak in the barrier for 135 actinide nuclei from Th to Es. However, for some of these nuclei which exhibit a more complex barrier structure, there is no unique way to extract a double-humped structure from the calculations. We give examples of such more complex structures, in particular the structure of the outer barrier region near {sup 232}Th and the occurrence of multiple fission modes. Because our complete results are too extensive to present in a paper of this type, our aim here is limited: (1) to fully present our model and the methods for determining the

  10. Evolution of P transposable elements: sequences of Drosophila nebulosa P elements.

    PubMed Central

    Lansman, R A; Shade, R O; Grigliatti, T A; Brock, H W

    1987-01-01

    P elements have been cloned and sequenced from Drosophila nebulosa. Their sequences have diverged less than 6% from P elements of Drosophila melanogaster. However D. nebulosa P elements have nucleotide changes that close all four open reading frames found in the D. melanogaster P element. Microinjection experiments show that D. nebulosa P elements cannot provide transposase function for D. melanogaster P elements, nor are D. nebulosa P elements mobilized by the transposase provided by a D. melanogaster P factor. Three D. nebulosa P elements appear to have integrated into the same position of a complex, centromeric repeated sequence. Comparison of nucleotide sequences suggests that D. nebulosa P elements have diverged upon different pathways from a common ancestor that was 99% homologous to the P elements of D. melanogaster. PMID:2819880

  11. Probabilistic finite element analysis of a craniofacial finite element model.

    PubMed

    Berthaume, Michael A; Dechow, Paul C; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Ross, Callum F; Strait, David S; Wang, Qian; Grosse, Ian R

    2012-05-01

    We employed a probabilistic finite element analysis (FEA) method to determine how variability in material property values affects stress and strain values in a finite model of a Macaca fascicularis cranium. The material behavior of cortical bone varied in three ways: isotropic homogeneous, isotropic non-homogeneous, and orthotropic non-homogeneous. The material behavior of the trabecular bone and teeth was always treated as isotropic and homogeneous. All material property values for the cranium were randomized with a Gaussian distribution with either coefficients of variation (CVs) of 0.2 or with CVs calculated from empirical data. Latin hypercube sampling was used to determine the values of the material properties used in the finite element models. In total, four hundred and twenty six separate deterministic FE simulations were executed. We tested four hypotheses in this study: (1) uncertainty in material property values will have an insignificant effect on high stresses and a significant effect on high strains for homogeneous isotropic models; (2) the effect of variability in material property values on the stress state will increase as non-homogeneity and anisotropy increase; (3) variation in the in vivo shear strain values reported by Strait et al. (2005) and Ross et al. (2011) is not only due to variations in muscle forces and cranial morphology, but also due to variation in material property values; (4) the assumption of a uniform coefficient of variation for the material property values will result in the same trend in how moderate-to-high stresses and moderate-to-high strains vary with respect to the degree of non-homogeneity and anisotropy as the trend found when the coefficients of variation for material property values are calculated from empirical data. Our results supported the first three hypotheses and falsified the fourth. When material properties were varied with a constant CV, as non-homogeneity and anisotropy increased the level of variability in

  12. Efficiency analysis of betavoltaic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachenko, A. V.; Shkrebtii, A. I.; Korkishko, R. M.; Kostylyov, V. P.; Kulish, M. R.; Sokolovskyi, I. O.

    2015-09-01

    The conversion of energy of electrons produced by a radioactive β-source into electricity in a Si and SiC p-n junctions is modeled. The features of the generation function that describes the electron-hole pair production by an electron flux and the emergence of a "dead layer" are discussed. The collection efficiency Q that describes the rate of electron-hole pair production by incident beta particles, is calculated taking into account the presence of the dead layer. It is shown that in the case of high-grade Si p-n junctions, the collection efficiency of electron-hole pairs created by a high-energy electrons flux (such as, e.g., Pm-147 beta flux) is close or equal to unity in a wide range of electron energies. For SiC p-n junctions, Q is near unity only for electrons with relatively low energies of about 5 keV (produced, e.g., by a tritium source) and decreases rapidly with further increase of electron energy. The conditions, under which the influence of the dead layer on the collection efficiency is negligible, are determined. The open-circuit voltage is calculated for realistic values of the minority carriers' diffusion coefficients and lifetimes in Si and SiC p-n junctions, irradiated by a high-energy electrons flux. Our calculations allow to estimate the attainable efficiency of betavoltaic elements.

  13. FEBio: finite elements for biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Maas, Steve A; Ellis, Benjamin J; Ateshian, Gerard A; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    In the field of computational biomechanics, investigators have primarily used commercial software that is neither geared toward biological applications nor sufficiently flexible to follow the latest developments in the field. This lack of a tailored software environment has hampered research progress, as well as dissemination of models and results. To address these issues, we developed the FEBio software suite (http://mrl.sci.utah.edu/software/febio), a nonlinear implicit finite element (FE) framework, designed specifically for analysis in computational solid biomechanics. This paper provides an overview of the theoretical basis of FEBio and its main features. FEBio offers modeling scenarios, constitutive models, and boundary conditions, which are relevant to numerous applications in biomechanics. The open-source FEBio software is written in C++, with particular attention to scalar and parallel performance on modern computer architectures. Software verification is a large part of the development and maintenance of FEBio, and to demonstrate the general approach, the description and results of several problems from the FEBio Verification Suite are presented and compared to analytical solutions or results from other established and verified FE codes. An additional simulation is described that illustrates the application of FEBio to a research problem in biomechanics. Together with the pre- and postprocessing software PREVIEW and POSTVIEW, FEBio provides a tailored solution for research and development in computational biomechanics. PMID:22482660

  14. Finite element coiled cochlea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isailovic, Velibor; Nikolic, Milica; Milosevic, Zarko; Saveljic, Igor; Nikolic, Dalibor; Radovic, Milos; Filipović, Nenad

    2015-12-01

    Cochlea is important part of the hearing system, and thanks to special structure converts external sound waves into neural impulses which go to the brain. Shape of the cochlea is like snail, so geometry of the cochlea model is complex. The simplified cochlea coiled model was developed using finite element method inside SIFEM FP7 project. Software application is created on the way that user can prescribe set of the parameters for spiral cochlea, as well as material properties and boundary conditions to the model. Several mathematical models were tested. The acoustic wave equation for describing fluid in the cochlea chambers - scala vestibuli and scala timpani, and Newtonian dynamics for describing vibrations of the basilar membrane are used. The mechanical behavior of the coiled cochlea was analyzed and the third chamber, scala media, was not modeled because it does not have a significant impact on the mechanical vibrations of the basilar membrane. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental measurements. Future work is needed for more realistic geometry model. Coiled model of the cochlea was created and results are compared with initial simplified coiled model of the cochlea.

  15. Interstitial Functionalization in elemental Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Boris; Fohtung, Edwin

    Societies in the 21st century will face many challenges. Materials science and materials design will be essential to address and master some if not all of these challenges. Semiconductors are among the most important technological material classes. Properties such as electrical transport are strongly affected by defects and a central goal continues to be the reduction of defect densities as much as possible in these compounds. Here we present results of interstitial Fe doping in elemental Si using first-principles DFT calculations. The preliminary results show that Fe will only occupy octahedral interstitial sites. The analysis of the electronic structure shows that the compounds are ferromagnetic and that a bandgap opens as interstitial Fe concentrations decrease, with a possible intermittent semi-metallic phase. The formation energy for interstitial Fe is unfavorable, as expected, by ~1.5 eV but becomes favorable as the chemical potential of Fe increases. Therefore, we expect that biasing the system with an external electrical field will lead to the formation of these materials. Thus, our results show that interstitial defects can be beneficial for the design of functionalities that differ significantly from those of the host material.

  16. Functional metamirrors using bianisotropic elements.

    PubMed

    Asadchy, V S; Ra'di, Y; Vehmas, J; Tretyakov, S A

    2015-03-01

    Conventional mirrors obey the simple reflection law that a plane wave is reflected as a plane wave, at the same angle. To engineer spatial distributions of fields reflected from a mirror, one can either shape the reflector or position some phase-correcting elements on top of a mirror surface. Here we show, both theoretically and experimentally, that full-power reflection with general control over the reflected wave phase is possible with a single-layer array of deeply subwavelength inclusions. These proposed artificial surfaces, metamirrors, provide various functions of shaped or nonuniform reflectors without utilizing any mirror. This can be achieved only if the forward and backward scattering of the inclusions in the array can be engineered independently, and we prove that it is possible using electrically and magnetically polarizable inclusions. The proposed subwavelength inclusions possess desired reflecting properties at the operational frequency band, while at other frequencies the array is practically transparent. The metamirror concept leads to a variety of applications over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, such as optically transparent focusing antennas for satellites, multifrequency reflector antennas for radio astronomy, low-profile conformal antennas for telecommunications, and nanoreflectarray antennas for integrated optics. PMID:25793826

  17. Designing Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, James D., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Bearing Analysis Tool (BAT) is a computer program for designing rolling-element bearings for cryogenic turbomachines. BAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI) that guides the entry of data to develop mathematical models of bearings. The GUI breaks model data into logical subsets that are entered through logic-driven input screens. The software generates a threedimensional graphical model of a bearing as the data are entered. Most dataentry errors become immediately obvious in the graphical model. BAT provides for storage of all the data on a shaft/bearing system, enabling the creation of a library of proven designs. Data from the library can be transferred to subsequent projects by use of simple cut-and-paste routines. BAT includes a library of temperature- dependent cryogenic bearing-material properties for use in the mathematical models. BAT implements algorithms that (1) enable the user to select combinations of design and/or operating-condition parameters, and then (2) automatically optimize the design by performing trade studies over all of the parameter combinations. This feature enables optimization over a large trade space in a fraction of the time taken when using prior bearingmodel software.

  18. Chromosome rearrangements and transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Lonnig, Wolf-Ekkehard; Saedler, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    There has been limited corroboration to date for McClintock's vision of gene regulation by transposable elements (TEs), although her proposition on the origin of species by TE-induced complex chromosome reorganizations in combination with gene mutations, i.e., the involvement of both factors in relatively sudden formations of species in many plant and animal genera, has been more promising. Moreover, resolution is in sight for several seemingly contradictory phenomena such as the endless reshuffling of chromosome structures and gene sequences versus synteny and the constancy of living fossils (or stasis in general). Recent wide-ranging investigations have confirmed and enlarged the number of earlier cases of TE target site selection (hot spots for TE integration), implying preestablished rather than accidental chromosome rearrangements for nonhomologous recombination of host DNA. The possibility of a partly predetermined generation of biodiversity and new species is discussed. The views of several leading transposon experts on the rather abrupt origin of new species have not been synthesized into the macroevolutionary theory of the punctuated equilibrium school of paleontology inferred from thoroughly consistent features of the fossil record. PMID:12429698

  19. Transfer reactions with heavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    Transfer reactions for several transuranium elements are studied. (/sup 248/Cm, /sup 249/Bk, /sup 249/CF, /sup 254/Es), /sup 16,18/O, /sup 20,22/Ne, and /sup 40,48/Ca projectiles are used. The production of neutron-rich heavy actinides is enhanced by the use of neutron-rich projectiles /sup 18/O and /sup 22/Ne. The maxima of the isotopic distributions occur at only 2 to 3 mass numbers larger for /sup 48/Ca than for /sup 40/Ca reactions with /sup 248/Cm. The cross sections decrease rapidly with the number of nucleons transferred. The use of neutron-rich targets favors the production of neutron-rich isotopes. ''Cold'' heavy targets are produced. Comparisons with simple calculations of the product excitation energies assuming binary transfers indicate that the maxima of the isotopic distributions occur at the lightest product isotope for which the energy exceeds the reaction barrier. The cross sections for transfer of the same nucleon clusters appear to be comparable for a wide variety of systems. 23 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Functional Metamirrors Using Bianisotropic Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadchy, V. S.; Ra'di, Y.; Vehmas, J.; Tretyakov, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    Conventional mirrors obey the simple reflection law that a plane wave is reflected as a plane wave, at the same angle. To engineer spatial distributions of fields reflected from a mirror, one can either shape the reflector or position some phase-correcting elements on top of a mirror surface. Here we show, both theoretically and experimentally, that full-power reflection with general control over the reflected wave phase is possible with a single-layer array of deeply subwavelength inclusions. These proposed artificial surfaces, metamirrors, provide various functions of shaped or nonuniform reflectors without utilizing any mirror. This can be achieved only if the forward and backward scattering of the inclusions in the array can be engineered independently, and we prove that it is possible using electrically and magnetically polarizable inclusions. The proposed subwavelength inclusions possess desired reflecting properties at the operational frequency band, while at other frequencies the array is practically transparent. The metamirror concept leads to a variety of applications over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, such as optically transparent focusing antennas for satellites, multifrequency reflector antennas for radio astronomy, low-profile conformal antennas for telecommunications, and nanoreflectarray antennas for integrated optics.

  1. Functions over RDF Language Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schandl, Bernhard

    RDF data are usually accessed using one of two methods: either, graphs are rendered in forms perceivable by human users (e.g., in tabular or in graphical form), which are difficult to handle for large data sets. Alternatively, query languages like SPARQL provide means to express information needs in structured form; hence they are targeted towards developers and experts. Inspired by the concept of spreadsheet tools, where users can perform relatively complex calculations by splitting formulas and values across multiple cells, we have investigated mechanisms that allow us to access RDF graphs in a more intuitive and manageable, yet formally grounded manner. In this paper, we make three contributions towards this direction. First, we present RDFunctions, an algebra that consists of mappings between sets of RDF language elements (URIs, blank nodes, and literals) under consideration of the triples contained in a background graph. Second, we define a syntax for expressing RDFunctions, which can be edited, parsed and evaluated. Third, we discuss Tripcel, an implementation of RDFunctions using a spreadsheet metaphor. Using this tool, users can easily edit and execute function expressions and perform analysis tasks on the data stored in an RDF graph.

  2. Dynamic heater for display elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehmlow, Brian P.; Bishop, Gary D.; Steffensmeier, Martin J.; Sampica, James D.; Skarohlid, Mark C.

    1997-07-01

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) deliver optimal performance when the entire display surface is isothermal and at a controllable temperature. This condition creates uniform electro-optical properties within the liquid crystal layer. This paper describes a dynamic, multicontact heater system that actively compensates for uneven heat loads, thereby creating the desired isothermal condition. The heater system includes a uniform resistive sheet, with multiple electrical contacts around the perimeter. A switch network connects each heater contact to a power supply, ground potential, or a high impedance. A microprocessor monitors the display temperature, and detects non-uniformity, and selectively applies heat to cold areas of the display. The dynamic heater system employs a variety of heating patterns to create the desired isothermal condition.Heating patterns vary in duration, power applied, and location on the display face. The microprocessor control loop can also detect and isolate faulty drive elements, and compensate for non- uniformity in the heater itself. The heater prevents stress- induced delaminations, mechanical distortions, and stress- induced birefringence in optical components. Test results indicate that a dynamic heater can be beneficial in the thermal design of LCD products.

  3. Mars Surface Tunnel Element Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Jefferies, Sharon; Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert; Mary, Natalie; Watson, Judith; Lewis, Ruthan

    2016-01-01

    When the first human visitors on Mars prepare to return to Earth, they will have to comply with stringent planetary protection requirements. Apollo Program experience warns that opening an EVA hatch directly to the surface will bring dust into the ascent vehicle. To prevent inadvertent return of potential Martian contaminants to Earth, careful consideration must be given to the way in which crew ingress their Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). For architectures involving more than one surface element-such as an ascent vehicle and a pressurized rover or surface habitat-a retractable tunnel that eliminates extravehicular activity (EVA) ingress is an attractive solution. Beyond addressing the immediate MAV access issue, a reusable tunnel may be useful for other surface applications, such as rover to habitat transfer, once its primary mission is complete. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) team is studying the optimal balance between surface tunnel functionality, mass, and stowed volume as part of the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC). The study team began by identifying the minimum set of functional requirements needed for the tunnel to perform its primary mission, as this would presumably be the simplest design, with the lowest mass and volume. This Minimum Functional Tunnel then becomes a baseline against which various tunnel design concepts and potential alternatives can be traded, and aids in assessing the mass penalty of increased functionality. Preliminary analysis indicates that the mass of a single-mission tunnel is about 237 kg, not including mass growth allowance.

  4. Transuranium elements: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1995-06-01

    In this illustrative Account the authors shall concentrate on four of these elements, chosen for their current interest or pivotal role. The story of plutonium is one of the most dramatic in the history of science, and today, plutonium is at the focus of an extraordinary dilemma. Mendelevium (element 101) has played a pivotal role in blazing the trail for the discovery of the heaviest elements on the basis of {open_quotes}one atom at a time{close_quotes} production. Seaborgium (element 106) was recently named in my honor by the discoverers and may be the last element, at least for some time, for which it will be possible to determine many chemical properties. And element 110 represents recent evidence, after a lapse of 10 years, for the discovery of a chemical element. Recent (1994) recommendations of the IUPAC Commission on the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry for the renaming of elements 104-108 have met with widespread rejection. The author is using the names proposed by the acknowledged discoverers (elements 106-109) or, in the case of the disputed elements 104 and 105, the most logical names. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Visualization of higher order finite elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Crawford, Richard H.; Khardekar, Rahul Vinay

    2004-04-01

    Finite element meshes are used to approximate the solution to some differential equation when no exact solution exists. A finite element mesh consists of many small (but finite, not infinitesimal or differential) regions of space that partition the problem domain, {Omega}. Each region, or element, or cell has an associated polynomial map, {Phi}, that converts the coordinates of any point, x = ( x y z ), in the element into another value, f(x), that is an approximate solution to the differential equation, as in Figure 1(a). This representation works quite well for axis-aligned regions of space, but when there are curved boundaries on the problem domain, {Omega}, it becomes algorithmically much more difficult to define {Phi} in terms of x. Rather, we define an archetypal element in a new coordinate space, r = ( r s t ), which has a simple, axis-aligned boundary (see Figure 1(b)) and place two maps onto our archetypal element:

  6. Evolutionary inheritance of elemental stoichiometry in phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Quigg, Antonietta; Irwin, Andrew J.; Finkel, Zoe V.

    2011-01-01

    The elemental composition of phytoplankton is a fusion of the evolutionary history of the host and plastid, resulting in differences in genetic constraints and selection pressures associated with environmental conditions. The evolutionary inheritance hypothesis predicts similarities in elemental composition within related taxonomic lineages of phytoplankton. To test this hypothesis, we measured the elemental composition (C, N, P, S, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Cd and Mo) of 14 phytoplankton species and combined these with published data from 15 more species from both marine and freshwater environments grown under nutrient-replete conditions. The largest differences in the elemental profiles of the species distinguish between the prokaryotic Cyanophyta and primary endosymbiotic events that resulted in the green and red plastid lineages. Smaller differences in trace element stoichiometry within the red and green plastid lineages are consistent with changes in trace elemental stoichiometry owing to the processes associated with secondary endosymbioses and inheritance by descent with modification. PMID:20826483

  7. Isotopic compositions of the elements, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.; De Laeter, J. R.; De Bievre, P.; Hidaka, H.; Peiser, H.S.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Taylor, P.D.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry completed its last review of the isotopic compositions of the elements as determined by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry in 2001. That review involved a critical evaluation of the published literature, element by element, and forms the basis of the table of the isotopic compositions of the elements (TICE) presented here. For each element, TICE includes evaluated data from the "best measurement" of the isotope abundances in a single sample, along with a set of representative isotope abundances and uncertainties that accommodate known variations in normal terrestrial materials. The representative isotope abundances and uncertainties generally are consistent with the standard atomic weight of the element A r(E) and its uncertainty U[Ar(E)] recommended by CAWIA in 2001. ?? 2005 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Thermally conductive porous element-based recuperators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du, Jian Hua (Inventor); Chow, Louis C (Inventor); Lin, Yeong-Ren (Inventor); Wu, Wei (Inventor); Kapat, Jayanta (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A heat exchanger includes at least one hot fluid flow channel comprising a first plurality of open cell porous elements having first gaps there between for flowing a hot fluid in a flow direction and at least one cold fluid flow channel comprising a second plurality of open cell porous elements having second gaps therebetween for flowing a cold fluid in a countercurrent flow direction relative to the flow direction. The thermal conductivity of the porous elements is at least 10 W/mK. A separation member is interposed between the hot and cold flow channels for isolating flow paths associated these flow channels. The first and second plurality of porous elements at least partially overlap one another to form a plurality of heat transfer pairs which transfer heat from respective ones of the first porous elements to respective ones of the second porous elements through the separation member.

  9. The elements of life and medicines.

    PubMed

    Chellan, Prinessa; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-03-13

    Which elements are essential for human life? Here we make an element-by-element journey through the periodic table and attempt to assess whether elements are essential or not, and if they are, whether there is a relevant code for them in the human genome. There are many difficulties such as the human biochemistry of several so-called essential elements is not well understood, and it is not clear how we should classify elements that are involved in the destruction of invading microorganisms, or elements which are essential for microorganisms with which we live in symbiosis. In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry. Today, the biological periodic table is in a position somewhat similar to Mendeleev's chemical periodic table of 1869: there are gaps and we need to do more research to fill them. The periodic table also offers potential for novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents, based on not only essential elements, but also non-essential elements, and on radionuclides. Although the potential for inorganic chemistry in medicine was realized more than 2000 years ago, this area of research is still in its infancy. Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism. Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed. PMID:25666066

  10. Refining quadrilateral and brick element meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Schneiders, R.; Debye, J.

    1995-12-31

    We consider the problem of refining unstructured quadrilateral and brick element meshes. We present an algorithm which is a generalization of an algorithm developed by Cheng et. al. for structured quadrilateral element meshes. The problem is solved for the two-dimensional case. Concerning three dimensions we present a solution for some special cases and a general solution that introduces tetrahedral and pyramidal transition elements.

  11. Benchmarking the QUAD4/TRIA3 element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-09-01

    The QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements are the primary plate/shell elements in NASTRAN. These elements enable the user to analyze thin plate/shell structures for membrane, bending and shear phenomena. They are also very new elements in the NASTRAN library. These elements are extremely versatile and constitute a substantially enhanced analysis capability in NASTRAN. However, with the versatility comes the burden of understanding a myriad of modeling implications and their effect on accuracy and analysis quality. The validity of many aspects of these elements were established through a series of benchmark problem results and comparison with those available in the literature and obtained from other programs like MSC/NASTRAN and CSAR/NASTRAN. Never-the-less such a comparison is never complete because of the new and creative use of these elements in complex modeling situations. One of the important features of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements is the offset capability which allows the midsurface of the plate to be noncoincident with the surface of the grid points. None of the previous elements, with the exception of bar (beam), has this capability. The offset capability played a crucial role in the design of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements. It allowed modeling layered composites, laminated plates and sandwich plates with the metal and composite face sheets. Even though the basic implementation of the offset capability is found to be sound in the previous applications, there is some uncertainty in relatively simple applications. The main purpose of this paper is to test the integrity of the offset capability and provide guidelines for its effective use. For the purpose of simplicity, references in this paper to the QUAD4 element will also include the TRIA3 element.

  12. Two-Element Transducer for Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroissette, D. H.; Heyser, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Separation of transmitting and receiving units improves probing of deep tissue. Ultrasonic transducer has dual elements to increase depth at which sonic images are made of biological tissue. Transducer uses separate transmitting and receiving elements, and frequency response of receiving element independently designed to accommodate attenuation of higher frequencies by tissue. New transducer intended for pulse-echo ultrasonic systems in which reflected sound pulses reveal features in tissue.

  13. Benchmarking the QUAD4/TRIA3 element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-01-01

    The QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements are the primary plate/shell elements in NASTRAN. These elements enable the user to analyze thin plate/shell structures for membrane, bending and shear phenomena. They are also very new elements in the NASTRAN library. These elements are extremely versatile and constitute a substantially enhanced analysis capability in NASTRAN. However, with the versatility comes the burden of understanding a myriad of modeling implications and their effect on accuracy and analysis quality. The validity of many aspects of these elements were established through a series of benchmark problem results and comparison with those available in the literature and obtained from other programs like MSC/NASTRAN and CSAR/NASTRAN. Never-the-less such a comparison is never complete because of the new and creative use of these elements in complex modeling situations. One of the important features of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements is the offset capability which allows the midsurface of the plate to be noncoincident with the surface of the grid points. None of the previous elements, with the exception of bar (beam), has this capability. The offset capability played a crucial role in the design of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements. It allowed modeling layered composites, laminated plates and sandwich plates with the metal and composite face sheets. Even though the basic implementation of the offset capability is found to be sound in the previous applications, there is some uncertainty in relatively simple applications. The main purpose of this paper is to test the integrity of the offset capability and provide guidelines for its effective use. For the purpose of simplicity, references in this paper to the QUAD4 element will also include the TRIA3 element.

  14. The elements of life and medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chellan, Prinessa; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Which elements are essential for human life? Here we make an element-by-element journey through the periodic table and attempt to assess whether elements are essential or not, and if they are, whether there is a relevant code for them in the human genome. There are many difficulties such as the human biochemistry of several so-called essential elements is not well understood, and it is not clear how we should classify elements that are involved in the destruction of invading microorganisms, or elements which are essential for microorganisms with which we live in symbiosis. In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry. Today, the biological periodic table is in a position somewhat similar to Mendeleev's chemical periodic table of 1869: there are gaps and we need to do more research to fill them. The periodic table also offers potential for novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents, based on not only essential elements, but also non-essential elements, and on radionuclides. Although the potential for inorganic chemistry in medicine was realized more than 2000 years ago, this area of research is still in its infancy. Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism. Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed. PMID:25666066

  15. Domain decomposition methods for mortar finite elements

    SciTech Connect

    Widlund, O.

    1996-12-31

    In the last few years, domain decomposition methods, previously developed and tested for standard finite element methods and elliptic problems, have been extended and modified to work for mortar and other nonconforming finite element methods. A survey will be given of work carried out jointly with Yves Achdou, Mario Casarin, Maksymilian Dryja and Yvon Maday. Results on the p- and h-p-version finite elements will also be discussed.

  16. Rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Rubinstein, Herbert J.; Clark, Philip M.; Gilcrest, James D.

    1978-06-20

    A rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed fuel elements. The enclosures are fixed at the lower ends thereof to a base. Pockets are formed between confronting walls of adjacent enclosures for receiving high absorption neutron absorbers, such as Boral, cadmium, borated stainless steel and the like for the closer spacing of spent fuel elements.

  17. Revised Nomenclature for Transposable Genetic Elements

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Adam P.; Chandler, Michael; Courvalin, Patrice; Guédon, Gérard; Mullany, Peter; Pembroke, Tony; Rood, Julian I.; Smith, C. Jeffery; Summers, Anne O.; Tsuda, Masataka; Berg, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Transposable DNA elements occur naturally in the genomes of nearly all species of prokaryotes. A proposal for a uniform transposable element nomenclature was published prominently in the 1970s but is not, at present, available online even in abstract form, and many of the newly discovered elements have been named without reference to it. We propose here an updated version of the original nomenclature system for all of the various types of prokaryotic, autonomous, transposable elements excluding insertion sequences, for which a nomenclature system already exists. The use of this inclusive and sequential Tn numbering system for transposable elements described here recognizes the ease of interspecies spread of individual elements, and allows for the naming of mosaic elements containing segments from two or more previously described types of transposons or plasmids. It will guard against a future necessity to rename elements following changes in bacterial nomenclature which occurs constantly with our increased understanding of bacterial phylogenies and taxonomic groupings. It also takes into account the increasing importance of metagenomic sequencing projects and the continued identification of new mobile elements from unknown hosts. PMID:18778731

  18. Finite element methods in numerical relativity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P. J.

    The finite element method is very successful in Newtonian fluid simulations, and can be extended to relativitstic fluid flows. This paper describes the general method, and then outlines some preliminary results for spherically symmetric geometries. The mixed finite element - finite difference scheme is introduced, and used for the description of spherically symmetric collapse. Baker's (Newtonian) shock modelling method and Miller's moving finite element method are also mentioned. Collapse in double-null coordinates requires non-constant time slicing, so the full finite element method in space and time is described.

  19. The New Element Berkelium (Atomic Number 97)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, G. T.; Thompson, S. G.; Ghiorso, A.

    1950-04-26

    An isotope of the element with atomic number 97 has been discovered as a product of the helium-ion bombardment of americium. The name berkelium, symbol Bk, is proposed for element 97. The chemical separation of element 97 from the target material and other reaction products was made by combinations of precipitation and ion exchange adsorption methods making use of its anticipated (III) and (IV) oxidation states and its position as a member of the actinide transition series. The distinctive chemical properties made use of in its separation and the equally distinctive decay properties of the particular isotope constitute the principal evidence for the new element.

  20. Method of lightening radiation darkened optical elements

    DOEpatents

    Reich, Frederich R.; Schwankoff, Albert R.

    1980-01-01

    A method of lightening a radiation-darkened optical element in wich visible optical energy or electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the range of from about 2000 to about 20,000 angstroms is directed into the radiation-darkened optical element; the method may be used to lighten radiation-darkened optical element in-situ during the use of the optical element to transmit data by electronically separating the optical energy from the optical output by frequency filtering, data cooling, or interlacing the optic energy between data intervals.

  1. Two position optical element actuator device

    DOEpatents

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a two position optical element actuator device utilizing a powered means to hold an actuation arm, to which an optical element is attached, in a first position. A non-powered means drives the actuation arm to a second position, when the powered means ceases to receive power. The optical element may be a electromagnetic (EM) radiation or particle source, an instrument, or EM radiation or particle transmissive, reflective or absorptive elements. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition the actuation arm from the first to second position.

  2. Bi-stable optical element actuator device

    DOEpatents

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a bistable optical element actuator device utilizing a powered means to move an actuation arm, to which an optical element is attached, between two stable positions. A non-powered means holds the actuation arm in either of the two stable positions. The optical element may be a electromagnetic (EM) radiation or particle source, an instrument, or EM radiation or particle transmissive reflective or absorptive elements. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition the actuation arm between the two stable positions.

  3. Trace Elements in Ovaries: Measurement and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Ceko, Melanie J; O'Leary, Sean; Harris, Hugh H; Hummitzsch, Katja; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, research in the field of trace element biology and human and animal health has largely depended on epidemiological methods to demonstrate involvement in biological processes. These studies were typically followed by trace element supplementation trials or attempts at identification of the biochemical pathways involved. With the discovery of biological molecules that contain the trace elements, such as matrix metalloproteinases containing zinc (Zn), cytochrome P450 enzymes containing iron (Fe), and selenoproteins containing selenium (Se), much of the current research focuses on these molecules, and, hence, only indirectly on trace elements themselves. This review focuses largely on two synchrotron-based x-ray techniques: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence imaging that can be used to identify the in situ speciation and distribution of trace elements in tissues, using our recent studies of bovine ovaries, where the distribution of Fe, Se, Zn, and bromine were determined. It also discusses the value of other techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, used to garner information about the concentrations and elemental state of the trace elements. These applications to measure trace elemental distributions in bovine ovaries at high resolutions provide new insights into possible roles for trace elements in the ovary. PMID:26864198

  4. Low impedance printed circuit radiating element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahm, James K. (Inventor); Frankievich, Robert H. (Inventor); Martinko, John D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A printed circuit radiating element comprises a geometrically symmetric planar area of a conducting material separated from a ground plane by a dielectric medium. The driving point of the radiating element is at the base of a notch in one side thereof so that the driving impedance is reduced from that obtained when the element is driven at its edge. Symmetrically disposed on opposite sides of an axis of symmetry of the element along which the driving point lies are two notches which restore the electrical symmetry of the radiating element thereby to suppress higher order modes. The suppression of these higher order modes results in a radiation pattern with minimal cross-polarized energy in the principal planes and high port-to-port isolation which could not be achieved with an asymmetrical element. Two driving points may be employed with the radiating element to produce a dual linearly polarized antenna and a reactive combiner or hybrid may be employed to obtain circularly-polarized radiations. The shape of the radiating element may be square, rectangular or circular, for example, in accordance with the desired characteristics. A plurality of radiating elements may be interconnected via appropriate transmission paths to form an antenna array.

  5. All-spin nanomagnetic state elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Young, Ian A.

    2013-08-01

    We propose an all-spin state element using spin currents and nanomagnets to enable all-spin state machines for digital computing. We demonstrate via numerical simulations the operation of the state element, a critical building block for synchronous, sequential logic computation. The numerical models encompass Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert nanomagnet dynamics with stochastic models and vector spin-transport in metallic magnetic and non-magnetic channels. Combined with all-spin combinatorial logic, the state elements can enable synchronous and asynchronous computing elements.

  6. Separation of transuranium elements from irradiated targets

    SciTech Connect

    Wham, R.M.; Benker, D.E.; Felker, L.K.; Chattin, F.R.

    1993-12-31

    Aluminum targets containing curium/americium oxide are irradiated to produce the transcurium actinides einsteinium, fermium, berkelium, and californium. Recovery of recycle curium/americium and the transcurium elements involves several chemical processing steps to selectively recover those elements and remove fission products. Chemical processing steps developed at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) include aluminum dejacketing, solvent extraction to remove bulk impurities, solvent extraction to remove plutonium, anion exchange to partition curium and transcurium elements from the rare earths, and a second anion exchange cycle to separate americium/curium from the transcurium elements.

  7. Investigation of uses of holographic optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zech, R. G.; Latta, J. N.

    1973-01-01

    The data represent a thorough study of the aberrations and imaging properties of holographic optical elements. Principle studies include (1) the indepth experimental investigation of single holographic optical elements, (2) the verification of the accuracy of the theoretical computer-based description of hologram behavior, (3) the computer-generation of interferograms that are characteristic of a prescribed aberrated imaging condition, (4) the experimental verification of wavelength optimization, (5) the experimental determination of the space bandwidth product of single holographic optical elements as a function of bending and field angle, and (6) the first experimental study of the aberration properties of holographic optical elements constructed in very thick (750 microns) recording media.

  8. Development of an orthotropic hole element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. V.; Markham, J. W.; Kelley, J. W.; Kathiresan, K.

    1981-01-01

    A finite element was developed which adequately represents the state of stress in the region around a circular hole in orthotropic material experiencing reasonably general loading. This was achieved with a complementary virtual work formulation of the stiffness and stress matrices for a square element with center circular hole. The assumed stress state provides zero shearing stress on the hole boundary, so the element is suitable for problems involving load transfer without friction. The element has been implemented in the NASTRAN computer program, and sample problem results are presented.

  9. Spectral analysis method for detecting an element

    DOEpatents

    Blackwood, Larry G [Idaho Falls, ID; Edwards, Andrew J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jewell, James K [Idaho Falls, ID; Reber, Edward L [Idaho Falls, ID; Seabury, Edward H [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-02-12

    A method for detecting an element is described and which includes the steps of providing a gamma-ray spectrum which has a region of interest which corresponds with a small amount of an element to be detected; providing nonparametric assumptions about a shape of the gamma-ray spectrum in the region of interest, and which would indicate the presence of the element to be detected; and applying a statistical test to the shape of the gamma-ray spectrum based upon the nonparametric assumptions to detect the small amount of the element to be detected.

  10. Low exchange element for nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Brogli, Rudolf H.; Shamasunder, Bangalore I.; Seth, Shivaji S.

    1985-01-01

    A flow exchange element is presented which lowers temperature gradients in fuel elements and reduces maximum local temperature within high temperature gas-cooled reactors. The flow exchange element is inserted within a column of fuel elements where it serves to redirect coolant flow. Coolant which has been flowing in a hotter region of the column is redirected to a cooler region, and coolant which has been flowing in the cooler region of the column is redirected to the hotter region. The safety, efficiency, and longevity of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor is thereby enhanced.

  11. EDITORIAL: King of the elements? King of the elements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Throughout the history of science, carbon-based research has played a defining role in the development of a range of fundamental and technological fields. It was used in Avagadro's definition of the mole in the early 18th century, it provides the 'backbone' of molecules in organic compounds, and in the environmental debate currently raging in the press and international government discussions, the 'carbon footprint' has become the metric of our species' impact on our planet. Also in nanotechnology, with the discovery of various wonder materials, carbon is once again asserting its claim as king of the elements. Until the 1980s the only known forms of carbon were diamond, graphite and amorphous carbon, as in soot or charcoal. In 1985 Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley reported the existence of fullerenes, spherical structures comprising hexagonal carbon rings [1], work for which they won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1996 [2]. The discovery of fullerenes was followed in 1991 by Sumio Ijima with the discovery of rolled graphite sheets, the carbon nanotube [3]. The discovery of these novel carbon nanostructures inspired researchers in a range of fields, largely as a result of the extraordinary capacity for investigations of these structures to reveal ever more intriguing properties. One of the fascinating properties attributed to carbon nanotubes is their phenomenal strength, with a Young's modulus of single walled carbon nanotubes approaching a terapascal [4]. Ingenious methods of harnessing this strength have since been developed, including bucky paper, a term used to refer to a mat of randomly self-entangled carbon nanotubes. Steven Crannford and Markus Buehler have recently reported a novel computational technique for probing the mechanical properties of these structures and show that the Young's modulus of bucky paper can be tuned by manipulation of the carbon nanotube type and density [5]. The electrical properties of carbon nanotubes, which depend

  12. Graphics for Finite-Element Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, E. A.; Sawyer, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    ELPLOT program is a passive computer graphics system that could be utilized for display of models and responses of general finite-element analyses. Program includes: Wide range of view-orientation selections, number of alternative data-input formats, extensive family of finite-element types, and capabilities for both static and dynamic-response displays.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10068 - Elemental mercury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of gases or liquids. Motor vehicle has the meaning found at 40 CFR 85.1703. Natural gas manometer... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Elemental mercury. 721.10068 Section... Substances § 721.10068 Elemental mercury. (a) Barometer means an instrument used in various applications...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10068 - Elemental mercury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applications to measure the flow rate of liquids or gases. Motor vehicle has the meaning found at 40 CFR 85... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Elemental mercury. 721.10068 Section... Substances § 721.10068 Elemental mercury. (a) Definitions. The definitions in § 721.3 apply to this...

  15. Weak matrix elements for CP violation.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.; Gupta, R.; Christ, N.; Fleming, G. T.; Kilcup, G.; Liu, G.; Mawhinney, R.; Sharpe, S.; Wu, L.; Bhattacharya, T.

    2001-01-01

    We present preliminary results of matrix elements of four fermion operators relevant to the determination of e and E ' / E using staggered fermions. To calculate the matrix elements relevant to CP violation in Kaon decays it is important to use a lattice formulation which preserves (some) chiral symmetry.

  16. Unit 1104: An Outline of Grammatical Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    The purposes of this 11th-grade unit on language are to survey the most important grammatical elements of the English sentence and to synthesize grammatical principles previously learned in grades 7-10 of the curriculum. The unit moves from discussions of the simplest grammatical elements to the more complex: Bound and free morphemes are defined,…

  17. Are Some Elements More Equal than Others?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Ronald L.

    2005-01-01

    Squeezing of elements 57-71 and 89-103 into one box each something like footnotes is done. A periodic chart is needed that does not treat the f elements as mere footnotes, partly because some like Uranium are quite important.

  18. The Elements Go to the Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taarea, Dina; Thomas, Nicholas C.

    2010-01-01

    The names of many common elements have found their way into the titles of feature films: gold, silver, iron, copper, and lead, for example, appear in hundreds of movie titles. Surprisingly, perhaps, more than two dozen other elements, including iodine, cadmium, zinc, calcium, argon, chlorine, and others, have also been used in film titles. In this…

  19. Trace Element Analysis of Biological Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veillon, Claude

    1986-01-01

    Reviews background of atomic absorption spectrometry techniques. Discusses problems encountered and precautions to be taken in determining trace elements in the parts-per-billion concentration range and below. Concentrates on determining chromium in biological samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption. Considers other elements, matrices, and…

  20. SORPTION OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY BY ACTIVATED CARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mechanisms and rate of elemental mercury (HgO) capture by activated carbons have been studied using a bench-scale apparatus. Three types of activated carbons, two of which are thermally activated (PC-100 and FGD) and one with elemental sulfur (S) impregnated in it (HGR), were...

  1. Education Data Elements Dictionary, Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, James A., Ed.; Jackson, Linda M., Ed.

    The Education Data Elements Dictionary (EDED) is divided into six main subject categories and related higher educational data elements are defined and described under each area and sequenced alphabetically. In instances where compound phraseology is appropriate, the key word has been utilized to determine its placing in the alphabetical sequence.…

  2. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements.

  3. Thermodynamic Data For 50 Chemical Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford; Reno, Martin A.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents data on thermo-dynamic properties of 50 chemical elements, isotope (deuterium) of one of elements, and electron gas, all in standard reference states. Data tabulated as functions of temperature; also given in form of least-squares-fit coefficients of two functional forms for heat capacities at constant pressure in standard states, with constants of integration for enthalpy and entropy.

  4. Damper mechanism for nuclear reactor control elements

    DOEpatents

    Taft, William Elwood

    1976-01-01

    A damper mechanism which provides a nuclear reactor control element decelerating function at the end of the scram stroke. The total damping function is produced by the combination of two assemblies, which operate in sequence. First, a tapered dashram assembly decelerates the control element to a lower velocity, after which a spring hydraulic damper assembly takes over to complete the final damping.

  5. Fiberglass honeycomb elements formed quickly and cheaply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    Cookie cutter device initiates production of identical, double-contoured fiber glass elements used as shock absorbers. Three-bladed edges convert triangular honeycomb elements into hexagonal shapes which are then stamped to desired length by concave and convex dies. Sandpaper smoothing completes the process.

  6. 42 CFR 56.603 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... set forth in the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 56.603 Section 56.603 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Programs § 56.603 Project elements. A project for operating...

  7. 42 CFR 56.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 56.403 Section 56.403 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Entities § 56.403 Project elements. A project for the... § 56.303 of this part, Provided, That the project will not be required to meet the requirements...

  8. 42 CFR 51c.504 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.504 Section 51c.504 Public... SERVICES Acquisition and Modernization of Existing Buildings § 51c.504 Project elements. (a) General requirements. A grantee which has received a grant under section 330 of the Act for a project which...

  9. 42 CFR 51c.303 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... those set forth in the most recent CSA Proverty Income Guidelines (45 CFR 1060.2) and for no discount to... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.303 Section 51c.303 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Centers § 51c.303 Project elements. A community...

  10. 42 CFR 56.703 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 56.703 Section 56.703 Public... SERVICES Grants for Technical Assistance § 56.703 Project elements. A project for the provision of.... (c) Where the project will provide training to the staff of a center or entity in management or...

  11. 42 CFR 51c.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.403 Section 51c.403 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Projects § 51c.403 Project elements. A project for the operation of a community health project supported under this subpart must: (a) Meet all of the...

  12. 42 CFR 136.105 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... excepted from application of 45 CFR 74.15 by section 103(c) of Pub. L. 93-638. (f) Provide services at a... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 136.105 Section 136.105 Public... Facilities and Services § 136.105 Project elements. A project supported under this subpart must: (a)...

  13. 42 CFR 56.503 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 56.503 Section 56.503 Public... SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Programs § 56.503 Project elements. A project... families within the project's catchment area in the calendar year in which the grant is made and the...

  14. 42 CFR 51c.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.203 Section 51c.203 Public... SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Community Health Centers § 51c.203 Project elements. A project... community health center and the gradual assumption of operational status of the project so that the...

  15. 42 CFR 56.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 56.203 Section 56.203 Public... SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Centers § 56.203 Project elements. A project for... gradual assumption of operational status of the project so that the project will, in the judgment of...

  16. 42 CFR 56.303 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees for service... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project elements. 56.303 Section 56.303 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.303 Project elements. A migrant health...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10068 - Elemental mercury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Substances § 721.10068 Elemental mercury. (a) Definitions. The definitions in § 721.3 apply to this section. In addition, the following definition applies: Motor vehicle has the meaning found at 40 CFR 85.1703... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elemental mercury. 721.10068...

  18. Lubrication of rolling-element bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The lubrication of rolling element bearings is surveyed. Emphasis is on the critical design aspects related to speed, temperature, and ambient pressure environment. Types of lubrication including grease, jets, mist, wick, and through the race are discussed. The historical development, present state of technology, and the future problems of rolling element bearing lubrication are discussed.

  19. SPINK, A Thin Elements Spin Tracking Code

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio, Alfredo U.

    2009-08-04

    Spink is a spin tracking code for spin polarized particles. The code tracks both trajectories in 3D and spin. It works using thick element modeling from MAD and thin element modeling based on the BMT equation to track spin. The code is written in Fortran and typically runs on a Linux platform, either sequentially or MPI-parallel.

  20. The New Element Curium (Atomic Number 96)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, G. T.; James, R. A.; Ghiorso, A.

    1948-01-01

    Two isotopes of the element with atomic number 96 have been produced by the helium-ion bombardment of plutonium. The name curium, symbol Cm, is proposed for element 96. The chemical experiments indicate that the most stable oxidation state of curium is the III state.

  1. Three Elements of Self-Authorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes three distinct yet interrelated elements of self-authorship: trusting the internal voice, building an internal foundation, and securing internal commitments. These elements, which emerged from longitudinal interviews with adults in their 30s, offer insights into the complexity and cyclical nature of self-authorship as well…

  2. Octupole correlations in the heavy elements

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of octupole correlations on the nuclear structure of the heavy elements are discussed. The cluster model description of the heavy elements is analyzed. The relevance of 2/sup 6/-pole deformation and fast El transitions to an octupole model is considered. 30 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Harry V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

  4. The Superheavy Elements and Anti-Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Anastasovski, Petar K.

    2004-02-04

    The essence of any propulsion concept is to overcome gravity. Anti-gravity is a natural means to achieve this. Thus, the technology to pursue anti-gravity, by using superheavy elements, may provide a new propulsion paradigm. The theory of superluminal relativity provides a hypothesis for existence of elements with atomic number up to Z = 145, some of which may possess anti-gravity properties. Analysis results show that curved space-time exists demonstrating both gravitic and anti-gravitic properties not only around nuclei but inside the nuclei as well. Two groups of elements (Z < 64 and 63 < Z <145) exist that demonstrate these capabilities. The nuclei of the first group of elements have the masses with only the property of gravity. The nuclei of the elements of the second group have the masses with both properties: gravity and anti-gravity in two different ranges of curved space-time around the nuclei.. The hypothetical element with Z = 145 is the unique among all elements whose nucleus has only anti-gravity property. It is proposed that this element be named Hawking, in honour of Stephen W. Hawking.

  5. Sputter metalization of Wolter type optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledger, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical task showed that the coating thickness distribution for both internal and external optical elements coated using either electron beam or sputter sources can be made uniform and will not affect the surface figure of coated elements. Also, sputtered samples of nickel, molybdenum, iridium and ruthenium deposited onto both hot and cold substrates showed excellent adhesion.

  6. Steels For Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1988-01-01

    Bearing lives increased by attention to details of processing and applications. NASA technical memorandum discusses selection of steels for long-life rolling-element bearings. After brief review of advances in manufacturing, report discusses effect of cleanliness of bearing material on fatigue in rolling element. Also discusses fracture toughnesses of through-hardened and case-hardened materials.

  7. COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SUMMARY: TRACE ELEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes trace element measurements made at several coal gasification facilities. Most of the measurements were made as part of EPA's source testing and evaluation program on low- and medium-Btu gasification. The behavior of trace elements is discussed in light of th...

  8. Finite element analysis of helicopter structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Application of the finite element analysis is now being expanded to three dimensional analysis of mechanical components. Examples are presented for airframe, mechanical components, and composite structure calculations. Data are detailed on the increase of model size, computer usage, and the effect on reducing stress analysis costs. Future applications for use of finite element analysis for helicopter structures are projected.

  9. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL-BREEDER FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1962-08-14

    A fuel-breeder fuel element was developed for a nuclear reactor wherein discrete particles of fissionable material are dispersed in a matrix of fertile breeder material. The fuel element combines the advantages of a dispersion type and a breeder-type. (AEC)

  10. Microstrip antenna arrays with parasitic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kai-Fong

    1996-01-01

    This research was concerned with using parasitic elements to improve the bandwidth, gain and axial ratio characteristics of microstrip antennas and arrays. Significant improvements in these characteristics were obtained using stacked and coplanar parasitic elements. Details of the results are described in a total of 16 journal and 17 conference papers. These are listed in Section four of this report.

  11. Finite-Element Composite-Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Finite Element Composite Analysis Program, FECAP, special-purpose finite-element program for analyzing behavior of composite material with microcomputer. Procedure leads to set of linear simultaneous equations relating unknown nodal displacement to applied loads. Written in HP BASIC 3.0.

  12. 3-D Finite Element Code Postprocessor

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-07-15

    TAURUS is an interactive post-processing application supporting visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids. TAURUS provides the ability to display deformed geometries and contours or fringes of a large number of derived results on meshes consisting of beam, plate, shell, and solid type finite elements. Time history plotting is also available.

  13. Phyto (in)stabilization of elements.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Donna L; Otte, Marinus L; Hopkins, David G

    2011-01-01

    The effects of plants (corn, soybean, and sunflower) and fertilizer on mobility of more than 60 elements were assessed in a greenhouse experiment. Unplanted columns with the same soil served as controls. Half the columns received fertilizer and all columns were watered at the same rate. At the end of the experiment, the columns were watered to mimic a rainstorm event such that water drained from the bases of the columns, which was collected and analyzed for element content. Soil from between the roots of the plants was also collected and the water-extractable fraction determined. It was expected that (1) more mobile elements, as measured by water extraction, would be leached from the soils at a higher rate compared to less mobile elements, (2) plants would immobilize most elements, but that some would be immobilized, and (3) that this would depend on plant species. The results led to the following conclusions: plants cause metal mobility to vary over a wide range for a specific soil and do mobilize some elements (e.g., Th) while immobilizing others (e.g., U). The effects depended on plant species for some elements. Water-extractable fractions of elements do not predict mobility. PMID:22046750

  14. Solar cycle variation of network magnetic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. X.; Jin, C. L.

    With the unique database from Michelson Doppler Imager aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in an interval embodying solar cycle 23, the cyclic behavior of solar small-scale magnetic elements is studied. More than 13 million solar network magnetic elements are selected, and the following results are discussed. (1) With increasing flux per element, the number variation of the network elements shows a three-fold scenario: no-correlation, anti-correlation, and correlation with sunspots, respectively. The anti-correlated elements cover flux range of (2.9 - 32.0)× 10^{18} Mx, and occupy 77.2% of total network elements. (2) The latitude distribution of the correlated elements follows the sunspot butterfly diagram in the solar cycle but has wider latitude distribution than sunspots. Furthermore, the anti-correlated elements also show much broad latitude distribution, but a moderate migration toward equator during the solar maximum which was clearly out of phase with sunspots. These results shed new light in understanding anti-correlated variations of small-scale solar activity, e.g., X-ray coronal bright points, and the origin of the Sun's small-scale magnetism.

  15. 42 CFR 136.105 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... excepted from application of 45 CFR 74.15 by section 103(c) of Pub. L. 93-638. (f) Provide services at a... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 136.105 Section 136.105 Public... Facilities and Services § 136.105 Project elements. A project supported under this subpart must: (a)...

  16. 42 CFR 51c.504 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.504 Section 51c.504 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Acquisition and Modernization of Existing Buildings § 51c.504 Project elements. (a)...

  17. 49 CFR 236.744 - Element, roadway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Element, roadway. 236.744 Section 236.744 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Element, roadway. That portion of the roadway apparatus of automatic train stop, train control, or...

  18. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... § 10.420 Message elements. A WEA Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time (with...

  19. 42 CFR 56.603 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... set forth in the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 56.603 Section 56.603 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Programs § 56.603 Project elements. A project for operating...

  20. 42 CFR 56.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 56.203 Section 56.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Centers § 56.203 Project elements. A project...

  1. 42 CFR 51c.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.203 Section 51c.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Community Health Centers § 51c.203 Project elements. A...

  2. 49 CFR 236.744 - Element, roadway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Element, roadway. 236.744 Section 236.744 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Element, roadway. That portion of the roadway apparatus of automatic train stop, train control, or...

  3. 16 CFR 314.4 - Elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements. 314.4 Section 314.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.4 Elements. In order to develop, implement, and maintain your...

  4. 42 CFR 51c.504 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.504 Section 51c.504 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Acquisition and Modernization of Existing Buildings § 51c.504 Project elements. (a)...

  5. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... § 10.420 Message elements. A WEA Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time (with...

  6. 16 CFR 314.4 - Elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements. 314.4 Section 314.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.4 Elements. In order to develop, implement, and maintain your...

  7. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time...

  8. DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM-CONTAINING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Horn, F.L.

    1961-12-12

    Uranium is recovered from spent uranium fuel elements containing or clad with zirconium. These fuel elements are placed in an anhydrous solution of hydrogen fluoride and nitrogen dioxide. Within this system uranium forms a soluble complex and zirconium forms an insoluble complex. The uranium can then be separated, treated, and removed from solution as uranium hexafluoride. (AEC)

  9. 42 CFR 56.603 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... set forth in the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 56.603 Section 56.603 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Programs § 56.603 Project elements. A project for operating...

  10. 14 CFR 271.6 - Profit element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Profit element. 271.6 Section 271.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... element. The reasonable return for a carrier for providing essential air service at an eligible...

  11. 42 CFR 51c.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.403 Section 51c.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Projects § 51c.403 Project elements. A project for...

  12. 42 CFR 56.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 56.203 Section 56.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Centers § 56.203 Project elements. A project...

  13. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time...

  14. 49 CFR 236.744 - Element, roadway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Element, roadway. 236.744 Section 236.744 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Element, roadway. That portion of the roadway apparatus of automatic train stop, train control, or...

  15. 14 CFR 271.6 - Profit element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Profit element. 271.6 Section 271.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... element. The reasonable return for a carrier for providing essential air service at an eligible...

  16. 42 CFR 51c.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.403 Section 51c.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Projects § 51c.403 Project elements. A project for...

  17. 14 CFR 271.6 - Profit element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Profit element. 271.6 Section 271.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... element. The reasonable return for a carrier for providing essential air service at an eligible...

  18. 42 CFR 56.303 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees for service... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 56.303 Section 56.303 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.303 Project elements. A migrant health...

  19. 42 CFR 51c.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.403 Section 51c.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Projects § 51c.403 Project elements. A project for...

  20. 42 CFR 51c.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.203 Section 51c.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Community Health Centers § 51c.203 Project elements. A...

  1. 42 CFR 51c.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.203 Section 51c.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Community Health Centers § 51c.203 Project elements. A...

  2. 16 CFR 314.4 - Elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements. 314.4 Section 314.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.4 Elements. In order to develop, implement, and maintain your...

  3. 14 CFR 25 - Traffic and Capacity Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting part 241, section 25, see the List of CFR Sections... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Traffic and Capacity Elements Section 25... Traffic Reporting Requirements Section 25 Traffic and Capacity Elements General Instructions. (a)...

  4. 42 CFR 51c.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.403 Section 51c.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Community Health Projects § 51c.403 Project elements. A project for...

  5. 49 CFR 236.744 - Element, roadway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Element, roadway. 236.744 Section 236.744 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Element, roadway. That portion of the roadway apparatus of automatic train stop, train control, or...

  6. 42 CFR 56.503 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 56.503 Section 56.503 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Programs § 56.503 Project elements. A...

  7. 16 CFR 314.4 - Elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements. 314.4 Section 314.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.4 Elements. In order to develop, implement, and maintain your...

  8. Elements of Inclusion: Findings from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Education has set the target of 100% of New Zealand schools to be "mostly" inclusive by 2014. But what are the essential elements of inclusion? This paper explores essential core elements that allow inclusion to flourish. Based on an extensive time in the field as part of a year-long doctoral research project, these…

  9. 14 CFR 24 - Profit and Loss Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Register citations affecting part 241 section 24, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Profit and Loss Elements Section 24 Section... Financial Reporting Requirements Section 24 Profit and Loss Elements Schedule P-1.1—Statement of...

  10. 42 CFR 56.603 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... set forth in the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 56.603 Section 56.603 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Programs § 56.603 Project elements. A project for operating...

  11. 42 CFR 56.703 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 56.703 Section 56.703 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Technical Assistance § 56.703 Project elements. A project for the provision...

  12. Evaluation of Nonverbal Elements in Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunzel, Martin; Binterova, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This article comments on mathematics textbooks for lower secondary schools. Authors do not focus on texts in the books but on the nonverbal elements instead. A possible system of categories which enables mapping and classifying of such elements is suggested in this article. As a result of that, it is possible to evaluate and compare the textbooks…

  13. 42 CFR 56.503 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 56.503 Section 56.503 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Programs § 56.503 Project elements. A...

  14. 42 CFR 56.503 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 56.503 Section 56.503 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Programs § 56.503 Project elements. A...

  15. 14 CFR 271.6 - Profit element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Profit element. 271.6 Section 271.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... element. The reasonable return for a carrier for providing essential air service at an eligible...

  16. 42 CFR 56.703 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 56.703 Section 56.703 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Technical Assistance § 56.703 Project elements. A project for the provision...

  17. 42 CFR 56.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 56.403 Section 56.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Entities § 56.403 Project elements. A project for...

  18. 42 CFR 51c.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.203 Section 51c.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Community Health Centers § 51c.203 Project elements. A...

  19. 14 CFR 271.6 - Profit element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Profit element. 271.6 Section 271.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... element. The reasonable return for a carrier for providing essential air service at an eligible...

  20. 42 CFR 56.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 56.403 Section 56.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Entities § 56.403 Project elements. A project for...

  1. 42 CFR 56.303 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees for service... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 56.303 Section 56.303 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.303 Project elements. A migrant health...

  2. 42 CFR 51c.504 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.504 Section 51c.504 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Acquisition and Modernization of Existing Buildings § 51c.504 Project elements. (a)...

  3. 42 CFR 51c.504 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 51c.504 Section 51c.504 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES Acquisition and Modernization of Existing Buildings § 51c.504 Project elements. (a)...

  4. 42 CFR 136.105 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... excepted from application of 45 CFR 74.15 by section 103(c) of Pub. L. 93-638. (f) Provide services at a... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 136.105 Section 136.105 Public... Facilities and Services § 136.105 Project elements. A project supported under this subpart must: (a)...

  5. 42 CFR 136.105 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... excepted from application of 45 CFR 74.15 by section 103(c) of Pub. L. 93-638. (f) Provide services at a... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 136.105 Section 136.105 Public... Facilities and Services § 136.105 Project elements. A project supported under this subpart must: (a)...

  6. 42 CFR 56.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 56.203 Section 56.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Centers § 56.203 Project elements. A project...

  7. 42 CFR 56.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 56.403 Section 56.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Entities § 56.403 Project elements. A project for...

  8. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time...

  9. 42 CFR 56.203 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 56.203 Section 56.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Centers § 56.203 Project elements. A project...

  10. 49 CFR 236.744 - Element, roadway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Element, roadway. 236.744 Section 236.744 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Element, roadway. That portion of the roadway apparatus of automatic train stop, train control, or...

  11. 42 CFR 56.703 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 56.703 Section 56.703 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Technical Assistance § 56.703 Project elements. A project for the provision...

  12. 42 CFR 56.603 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... set forth in the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Project elements. 56.603 Section 56.603 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Programs § 56.603 Project elements. A project for operating...

  13. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  14. 16 CFR 314.4 - Elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements. 314.4 Section 314.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.4 Elements. In order to develop, implement, and maintain your...

  15. 42 CFR 56.503 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 56.503 Section 56.503 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Planning and Developing Migrant Health Programs § 56.503 Project elements. A...

  16. 42 CFR 136.105 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... excepted from application of 45 CFR 74.15 by section 103(c) of Pub. L. 93-638. (f) Provide services at a... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 136.105 Section 136.105 Public... Facilities and Services § 136.105 Project elements. A project supported under this subpart must: (a)...

  17. 42 CFR 56.703 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 56.703 Section 56.703 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Technical Assistance § 56.703 Project elements. A project for the provision...

  18. 42 CFR 56.403 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Project elements. 56.403 Section 56.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Entities § 56.403 Project elements. A project for...

  19. 42 CFR 56.303 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees for service... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Project elements. 56.303 Section 56.303 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.303 Project elements. A migrant health...

  20. 42 CFR 56.303 - Project elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the most recent CSA Poverty Income Guidelines (42 CFR 1060.2) (except that nominal fees for service... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Project elements. 56.303 Section 56.303 Public... SERVICES Grants for Operating Migrant Health Centers § 56.303 Project elements. A migrant health...

  1. Nutrient elements in large Chinese estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing

    1996-07-01

    Based on comprehensive observations since 1983, this study summarizes major features of nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon) in large Chinese river/estuary systems. Elevated nutrient element levels were observed in Chinese rivers, when compared to large and less disturbed aquatic systems (e.g. the Amazon, Zaire and Orinoco). Data from this study are similar to those obtained from the polluted and/or eutrophic rivers in Europe and North America (e.g. the Rhóne and Loire). Nutrient elements may have either conservative or active distributions, or both, in the mixing zone, depending on the element and the estuary. For example, non-conservative behaviors were observed in the upper estuary, where nutrient elements may be remobilized due to the strong desorption and variations of the fresh water end-member, but conservative distributions were found afterwards in the lower estuary. Outside the riverine effluent plumes, nutrient elements may be depleted in surface waters relative to elevated bioproduction, whereas the regeneration with respect to decomposition of organic material and/or nitrification/denitrification offshore, may sustain high levels of nutrient elements in near-bottom waters. Laboratory experiment data generally compares well with field observations. The high fluxes and area] yields of nutrient elements from large Chinese rivers, indicate the extensive use of chemical fertilizers and domestic waste drainage over watersheds in China.

  2. The Superheavy Elements and Anti-Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasovski, Petar K.

    2004-02-01

    The essence of any propulsion concept is to overcome gravity. Anti-gravity is a natural means to achieve this. Thus, the technology to pursue anti-gravity, by using superheavy elements, may provide a new propulsion paradigm. The theory of superluminal relativity provides a hypothesis for existence of elements with atomic number up to Z = 145, some of which may possess anti-gravity properties. Analysis results show that curved space-time exists demonstrating both gravitic and anti-gravitic properties not only around nuclei but inside the nuclei as well. Two groups of elements (Z < 64 and 63 < Z <145) exist that demonstrate these capabilities. The nuclei of the first group of elements have the masses with only the property of gravity. The nuclei of the elements of the second group have the masses with both properties: gravity and anti-gravity in two different ranges of curved space-time around the nuclei.. The hypothetical element with Z = 145 is the unique among all elements whose nucleus has only anti-gravity property. It is proposed that this element be named Hawking, in honour of Stephen W. Hawking.

  3. Transposable elements as catalysts for chromosome rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbo; Yu, Chuanhe; Krishnaswamy, Lakshminarasimhan; Peterson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Barbara McClintock first showed that transposable elements in maize can induce major chromosomal rearrangements, including duplications, deletions, inversions, and translocations. More recently, researchers have made significant progress in elucidating the mechanisms by which transposons can induce genome rearrangements. For the Ac/Ds transposable element system, rearrangements are generated when the termini of different elements are used as substrates for transposition. The resulting alternative transposition reaction directly generates a variety of rearrangements. The size and type of rearrangements produced depend on the location and orientation of transposon insertion. A single locus containing a pair of alternative transposition-competent elements can produce a virtually unlimited number of genome rearrangements. With a basic understanding of the mechanisms involved, researchers are beginning to utilize both naturally occurring and in vitro-generated configurations of transposable elements in order to manipulate chromosome structure. PMID:21181539

  4. Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; Parker, R.

    2014-01-01

    Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding to two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.

  5. Elemental composition of two cumulate rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Naeem, A.; Almohandis, A.A.

    1983-04-01

    Two cumulate rock samples K-185, K-250 from the Kapalagulu intrusion, W. Tanzania, were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), wet chemical and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques. Major element oxides were determined by XRF and wet chemical methods, while the concentration of trace elements were measured by NAA, using high resolution Ge(Li) detector, minicomputer-based data acquisition system and off-line computer. The percentage of major oxides and sixteen trace elements have been reported. It has been found that Cr, Ni, and Co are highly concentrated in K-250 while Sc, and most of the major elements are more concentrated in K-185. The variation of major and trace elements in these two samples have been discussed.

  6. An Improved Linear Tetrahedral Element for Plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Puso, M

    2005-04-25

    A stabilized, nodally integrated linear tetrahedral is formulated and analyzed. It is well known that linear tetrahedral elements perform poorly in problems with plasticity, nearly incompressible materials, and acute bending. For a variety of reasons, linear tetrahedral elements are preferable to quadratic tetrahedral elements in most nonlinear problems. Whereas, mixed methods work well for linear hexahedral elements, they don't for linear tetrahedrals. On the other hand, automatic mesh generation is typically not feasible for building many 3D hexahedral meshes. A stabilized, nodally integrated linear tetrahedral is developed and shown to perform very well in problems with plasticity, nearly incompressible materials and acute bending. Furthermore, the formulation is analytically and numerically shown to be stable and optimally convergent. The element is demonstrated to perform well in several standard linear and nonlinear benchmarks.

  7. Finding Good Elements for Focused Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Carolyn J.; Crouch, Donald B.; Bapat, Salil; Mehta, Sarika; Paranjape, Darshan

    This paper describes the integration of our methodology for the dynamic retrieval of XML elements [2] with traditional article retrieval to facilitate the Focused and the Relevant-in-Context Tasks of the INEX 2008 Ad Hoc Track. The particular problems that arise for dynamic element retrieval in working with text containing both tagged and untagged elements have been solved [3]. The current challenge involves utilizing its ability to produce a rank-ordered list of elements in the context of focused retrieval. Our system is based on the Vector Space Model [8]; basic functions are performed using the Smart experimental retrieval system [7]. Experimental results are reported for the Focused, Relevant-in-Context, and Best-in-Context Tasks of both the 2007 and 2008 INEX Ad Hoc Tracks. These results indicate that the goal of our 2008 investigations—namely, finding good focused elements in the context of the Wikipedia collection-has been achieved.

  8. Verification of Orthogrid Finite Element Modeling Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steeve, B. E.

    1996-01-01

    The stress analysis of orthogrid structures, specifically with I-beam sections, is regularly performed using finite elements. Various modeling techniques are often used to simplify the modeling process but still adequately capture the actual hardware behavior. The accuracy of such 'Oshort cutso' is sometimes in question. This report compares three modeling techniques to actual test results from a loaded orthogrid panel. The finite element models include a beam, shell, and mixed beam and shell element model. Results show that the shell element model performs the best, but that the simpler beam and beam and shell element models provide reasonable to conservative results for a stress analysis. When deflection and stiffness is critical, it is important to capture the effect of the orthogrid nodes in the model.

  9. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    SciTech Connect

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed.

  10. Element 74, the Wolfram Versus Tungsten Controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Holden,N.E.

    2008-08-11

    Two and a quarter centuries ago, a heavy mineral ore was found which was thought to contain a new chemical element called heavy stone (or tungsten in Swedish). A few years later, the metal was separated from its oxide and the new element (Z=74) was called wolfram. Over the years since that time, both the names wolfram and tungsten were attached to this element in various countries. Sixty years ago, IUPAC chose wolfram as the official name for the element. A few years later, under pressure from the press in the USA, the alternative name tungsten was also allowed by IUPAC. Now the original, official name 'wolfram' has been deleted by IUPAC as one of the two alternate names for the element. The history of this controversy is described here.

  11. TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSES OF URANIUM MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Beals, D; Charles Shick, C

    2008-06-09

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed an analytical method to measure many trace elements in a variety of uranium materials at the high part-per-billion (ppb) to low part-per-million (ppm) levels using matrix removal and analysis by quadrapole ICP-MS. Over 35 elements were measured in uranium oxides, acetate, ore and metal. Replicate analyses of samples did provide precise results however none of the materials was certified for trace element content thus no measure of the accuracy could be made. The DOE New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) does provide a Certified Reference Material (CRM) that has provisional values for a series of trace elements. The NBL CRM were purchased and analyzed to determine the accuracy of the method for the analysis of trace elements in uranium oxide. These results are presented and discussed in the following paper.

  12. Element abundance ratios in stellar population modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    I review the implementation of the effects from varying chemical element abundance ratios in stellar population modelling, focusing on α- and Fe-peak elements. A brief overview of the development of such models over the past 30 years is provided, starting with early work on the identification of relevant absorption features in the spectra of early-type galaxies in the 1980s leading to the most recent developments of the past years. Recent highlights include the adoption of new flux calibrated libraries, the inclusion of a wide range of chemical elements, the calculation of error estimates on the model, and the consideration of element variation effects on full spectra. The calibration of such models with globular clusters and some key results on the element ratios measured in early-type galaxies are presented.

  13. Writing analytic element programs in Python.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Mark; Kelson, Victor A

    2009-01-01

    The analytic element method is a mesh-free approach for modeling ground water flow at both the local and the regional scale. With the advent of the Python object-oriented programming language, it has become relatively easy to write analytic element programs. In this article, an introduction is given of the basic principles of the analytic element method and of the Python programming language. A simple, yet flexible, object-oriented design is presented for analytic element codes using multiple inheritance. New types of analytic elements may be added without the need for any changes in the existing part of the code. The presented code may be used to model flow to wells (with either a specified discharge or drawdown) and streams (with a specified head). The code may be extended by any hydrogeologist with a healthy appetite for writing computer code to solve more complicated ground water flow problems. PMID:19473273

  14. Graphical evaluation of relativistic matrix elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, K. N.

    1978-01-01

    A graphical representation of angular momentum was used to evaluate relativistic matrix elements between antisymmetrized states of many particle configurations having any number of open shells. The antisymmetrized matrix element was expanded as a sum of semisymmetrized matrix elements. The diagram representing a semisymmetrized matrix element was composed of four diagram blocks; the bra block, the ket block, the spectator block, and the interaction block. The first three blocks indicate the couplings of the two interacting configurations while the last depends on the interaction and is the replaceable component. Interaction blocks for relativistic operators and commonly used potentials were summarized in ready to use forms. A simple step by step procedure was prescribed generally for calculating antisymmetrized matrix elements of one and two particle operators.

  15. Interface elements for heat transfer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, W. E.

    1984-08-01

    Interface elements are desirable in finite element heat transfer analyses in situations where dissimilar meshes are to be joined or where contact resistances occur between various parts of a body. In stress codes, such elements are often termed master/slave. A general algorithm for interface elements will be described. The algorithm allows development of interface elements for both two- and three-dimensional applications. Surfaces in contact are automatically determined so that a minimum of input data is required. In addition, the algorithm allows for compatibility in thermal stress calculations with mechanical codes which have sliding interface capabilities. Implementation of the algorithm into the TACO codes will be discussed and examples will be given.

  16. Hierarchical tapered bar elements undergoing axial deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganesan, N.; Thampi, S. K.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described to model the dynamics of tapered axial bars of various cross sections based on the well-known Craig/Bampton component mode synthesis technique. This element is formed in terms of the static constraint modes and interface restrained normal modes. This is in contrast with the finite elements as implemented in NASTRAN where the interface restrained normal modes are neglected. These normal modes are in terms of Bessel functions. Restoration of a few of these modes leads to higher accuracy with fewer generalized coordinates. The proposed models are hierarchical so that all lower order element matrices are embedded in higher order element matrices. The advantages of this formulation compared to standard NASTRAN truss element formulation are demonstrated through simple numerical examples.

  17. Capture of flanking DNA by a P element in Drosophila melanogaster: Creation of a transposable element

    SciTech Connect

    Tsubota, Stuart, I.; Huong Dangvu )

    1991-02-01

    A 6.1-kilobase nsertion into the rudimentary (r) gene was cloned and partially sequenced. The insertion consists of a 703-base-pair (bp) P element next to a 5.4-kilobase single-copy sequence. The normal positon of the single-copy sequence is near the tip of the X chromosome. Upon insertion into the r gene, this chimeric element generated an 8-bp target-site duplication, characteristic of P elements. At the non-P-element end of the insertion, the first 8 bp are identical to the first 8 bp of the inverted terminal repeats of the P element. Thus, this element has inverted terminal repeats of 8 bp. This large element can excise from the r gene under conditions of hybrid dysgenesis, which indicates that it behaves like a normal P element. These data support the conclusion that a normally stable single-copy sequence has now become unstable and duplicated within the genome.

  18. EDITORIAL: King of the elements? King of the elements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Throughout the history of science, carbon-based research has played a defining role in the development of a range of fundamental and technological fields. It was used in Avagadro's definition of the mole in the early 18th century, it provides the 'backbone' of molecules in organic compounds, and in the environmental debate currently raging in the press and international government discussions, the 'carbon footprint' has become the metric of our species' impact on our planet. Also in nanotechnology, with the discovery of various wonder materials, carbon is once again asserting its claim as king of the elements. Until the 1980s the only known forms of carbon were diamond, graphite and amorphous carbon, as in soot or charcoal. In 1985 Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley reported the existence of fullerenes, spherical structures comprising hexagonal carbon rings [1], work for which they won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1996 [2]. The discovery of fullerenes was followed in 1991 by Sumio Ijima with the discovery of rolled graphite sheets, the carbon nanotube [3]. The discovery of these novel carbon nanostructures inspired researchers in a range of fields, largely as a result of the extraordinary capacity for investigations of these structures to reveal ever more intriguing properties. One of the fascinating properties attributed to carbon nanotubes is their phenomenal strength, with a Young's modulus of single walled carbon nanotubes approaching a terapascal [4]. Ingenious methods of harnessing this strength have since been developed, including bucky paper, a term used to refer to a mat of randomly self-entangled carbon nanotubes. Steven Crannford and Markus Buehler have recently reported a novel computational technique for probing the mechanical properties of these structures and show that the Young's modulus of bucky paper can be tuned by manipulation of the carbon nanotube type and density [5]. The electrical properties of carbon nanotubes, which depend

  19. Control volume finite element method with multidimensional edge element Scharfetter-Gummel upwinding. Part 1, formulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2011-06-01

    We develop a new formulation of the Control Volume Finite Element Method (CVFEM) with a multidimensional Scharfetter-Gummel (SG) upwinding for the drift-diffusion equations. The formulation uses standard nodal elements for the concentrations and expands the flux in terms of the lowest-order Nedelec H(curl; {Omega})-compatible finite element basis. The SG formula is applied to the edges of the elements to express the Nedelec element degree of freedom on this edge in terms of the nodal degrees of freedom associated with the endpoints of the edge. The resulting upwind flux incorporates the upwind effects from all edges and is defined at the interior of the element. This allows for accurate evaluation of integrals on the boundaries of the control volumes for arbitrary quadrilateral elements. The new formulation admits efficient implementation through a standard loop over the elements in the mesh followed by loops over the element nodes (associated with control volume fractions in the element) and element edges (associated with flux degrees of freedom). The quantities required for the SG formula can be precomputed and stored for each edge in the mesh for additional efficiency gains. For clarity the details are presented for two-dimensional quadrilateral grids. Extension to other element shapes and three dimensions is straightforward.

  20. Stabilized tetrahedral elements for crystal plasticity finite element analysis overcoming volumetric locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jiahao; Shahba, Ahmad; Ghosh, Somnath

    2016-05-01

    Image-based CPFE modeling involves computer generation of virtual polycrystalline microstructures from experimental data, followed by discretization into finite element meshes. Discretization is commonly accomplished using three-dimensional four-node tetrahedral or TET4 elements, which conform to the complex geometries. It has been commonly observed that TET4 elements suffer from severe volumetric locking when simulating deformation of incompressible or nearly incompressible materials. This paper develops and examines three locking-free stabilized finite element formulations in the context of crystal plasticity finite element analysis. They include a node-based uniform strain (NUS) element, a locally integrated B-bar (LIB) based element and a F-bar patch (FP) based element. All three formulations are based on the partitioning of TET4 element meshes and integrating over patches to obtain favorable incompressibility constraint ratios without adding large degrees of freedom. The results show that NUS formulation introduces unstable spurious energy modes, while the LIB and FP elements stabilize the solutions and are preferred for reliable CPFE analysis. The FP element is found to be computationally efficient over the LIB element.