NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antonille, Scott R.; Miskey, Cherie L.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rohrbach, Scott O.; Aronstein, David L.; Bartoszyk, Andrew E.; Bowers, Charles W.; Cofie, Emmanuel; Collins, Nicholas R.; Comber, Brian J.; Eichhorn, William L.; Glasse, Alistair C.; Gracey, Renee; Hartig, George F.; Howard, Joseph M.; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Kirk, Jeffrey R.; Kubalak, David A.; Landsman, Wayne B.; Lindler, Don J.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Sabatke, Derek S.; Smith, Corbett T.; Smith, J. Scott; Sullivan, Joseph F.; Telfer, Randal C.; Plate, Maurice Te; Vila, M. Begona; Warner, Gerry D.; Wright, Raymond H.; Wright, David; Zhou, Julia; Zielinski, Thomas P.
2016-01-01
NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (40K). The JWST Observatory includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) that contains four science instruments (SI) and the fine guider. The SIs are mounted to a composite metering structure. The SI and guider units were integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a suite using the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator (OSIM). OSIM is a full field, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator. SI performance, including alignment and wave front error, were evaluated using OSIM. We describe test and analysis methods for optical performance verification of the ISIM Element, with an emphasis on the processes used to plan and execute the test. The complexity of ISIM and OSIM drove us to develop a software tool for test planning that allows for configuration control of observations, associated scripts, and management of hardware and software limits and constraints, as well as tools for rapid data evaluation, and flexible re-planning in response to the unexpected. As examples of our test and analysis approach, we discuss how factors such as the ground test thermal environment are compensated in alignment. We describe how these innovative methods for test planning and execution and post-test analysis were instrumental in the verification program for the ISIM element, with enough information to allow the reader to consider these innovations and lessons learned in this successful effort in their future testing for other programs.
Testing the Bergerhoff method to determine the bulk deposition loads of 49 elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thöni, Lotti; Krieg, Fritz; Siewers, Ulrich
The suitability of the simple and rather cheap Bergerhoff method for the determination of bulk deposition loads of 49 elements was tested. The method is suitable for the following elements: Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, In, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sn, Sr, Th, Ti, Tl, V, W, Y and Zn provided that for some of these elements one does not get total recovery with HNO 3-digestion. This, nevertheless, supplies sufficient information for most concerns. Analytical problems were encountered for the following elements: U and Te concentrations in our samples were close to the blanks; P and Ta were highly variable within the sampling areas; B, Hf and Zr leached out of the glass of the digestion vessels; Hg is highly volatile. Field studies at three background sites in Switzerland, two on the northern side of the Alps and one in the southern Alps, showed higher burdens of element emissions in the latter, partly because of higher precipitation, and partly because of higher concentrations in the dust. An anthropogenic influence can be inferred for Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Sb, Te, W and Zn and probably also for As, P, S (with associated Se) and Sn.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Resapu, Rajeswara Reddy
The most common approaches to determining mechanical material properties of materials are tension and compression tests. However, tension and compression testing cannot be implemented under certain loading conditions (immovable object, not enough space to hold object for testing, etc). Similarly, tensile and compression testing cannot be performed on certain types of materials (delicate, bulk, non-machinable, those that cannot be separated from a larger structure, etc). For such cases, other material testing methods need to be implemented. Indentation testing is one such method; this approach is often non-destructive and can be used to characterize regions that are not compatible with other testing methods. However, indentation testing typically leads to force-displacement data as opposed to the direct stress-strain data normally used for the mechanical characterization of materials; this data needs to be analyzed using a suitable approach to determine the associated material properties. As such, methods to establish material properties from force-displacement indentation data need to be identified. In this work, a finite element approach using parameter optimization is developed to determine the mechanical properties from the experimental indentation data. Polymers and tissues tend to have time-dependent mechanical behavior; this means that their mechanical response under load changes with time. This dissertation seeks to characterize the properties of these materials using indentation testing under the assumption that they are linear viscoelastic. An example of a material of interest is the polymer poly vinyl chloride (PVC) that is used as the insulation of some aircraft wiring. Changes in the mechanical properties of this material over years of service can indicate degradation and a potential hazard to continued use. To investigate the validity of using indentation testing to monitor polymer insulation degradation, PVC film and PVC-insulated aircraft wiring are
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Underwood, Steve; Lvovsky, Oleg
2007-01-01
The International Space Station (ISS has Qualification and Acceptance Environmental Test Requirements document, SSP 41172 that includes many environmental tests such as Thermal vacuum & Cycling, Depress/Repress, Sinusoidal, Random, and Acoustic Vibration, Pyro Shock, Acceleration, Humidity, Pressure, Electromatic Interference (EMI)/Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMCO), etc. This document also includes (13) leak test methods for Pressure Integrity Verification of the ISS Elements, Systems, and Components. These leak test methods are well known, however, the test procedure for specific leak test method shall be written and implemented paying attention to the important procedural steps/details that, if omitted or deviated, could impact the quality of the final product and affect the crew safety. Such procedural steps/details for different methods include, but not limited to: - Sequence of testing, f or example, pressurization and submersion steps for Method I (Immersion); - Stabilization of the mass spectrometer leak detector outputs fo r Method II (vacuum Chamber or Bell jar); - Proper data processing an d taking a conservative approach while making predictions for on-orbit leakage rate for Method III(Pressure Change); - Proper Calibration o f the mass spectrometer leak detector for all the tracer gas (mostly Helium) Methods such as Method V (Detector Probe), Method VI (Hood), Method VII (Tracer Probe), Method VIII(Accumulation); - Usage of visibl ility aides for Method I (Immersion), Method IV (Chemical Indicator), Method XII (Foam/Liquid Application), and Method XIII (Hydrostatic/Visual Inspection); While some methods could be used for the total leaka ge (either internal-to-external or external-to-internal) rate requirement verification (Vacuum Chamber, Pressure Decay, Hood, Accumulation), other methods shall be used only as a pass/fail test for individual joints (e.g., welds, fittings, and plugs) or for troubleshooting purposes (Chemical Indicator, Detector Probe
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TESTING THE PRESENCE OF SPECIFIC ATOMIC ELEMENTS IN A SUBSTANCE
Putman, J.L.
1960-01-26
Detection of specific atomic elements in a substance and particularly the applicability to well logging are discussed. The principal novelty resides in the determination of several of the auxiliary energy peaks in addition to the main energy peak of the gamma-ray energy spectrum of a substance and comparison of such peaks to the spectrum of the specific atomic element being tested for. thus resulting in identification of same. The invention facilitates the identification of specific elements even when in the presence of other elements having similar gamma energy spectra as to the main energy peaks.
Evaluation of Test Methods for Triaxially Braided Composites using a Meso-Scale Finite Element Model
Zhang, Chao
2015-10-01
The characterization of triaxially braided composite is complicate due to the nonuniformity of deformation within the unit cell as well as the possibility of the freeedge effect related to the large size of the unit cell. Extensive experimental investigation has been conducted to develop more accurate test approaches in characterizing the actual mechanical properties of the material we are studying. In this work, a meso-scale finite element model is utilized to simulate two complex specimens: notched tensile specimen and tube tensile specimen, which are designed to avoid the free-edge effect and free-edge effect induced premature edge damage. The full field strain data is predicted numerically and compared with experimental data obtained by Digit Image Correlation. The numerically predicted tensile strength values are compared with experimentally measured results. The discrepancy between numerically predicted and experimentally measured data, the capability of different test approaches are analyzed and discussed. The presented numerical model could serve as assistance to the evaluation of different test methods, and is especially useful in identifying potential local damage events.
Discrete Element Method (DEM) Application to The Cone Penetration Test Using COUPi Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulchitsky, A. V.; Johnson, J.; Wilkinson, A.; DeGennaro, A. J.; Duvoy, P.
2011-12-01
The cone penetration test (CPT) is a soil strength measurement method to determine the tip resistance and sleeve friction versus depth while pushing a cone into regolith with controlled slow quasi-static speed. This test can also be used as an excellent tool to validate the discrete element method (DEM) model by comparing tip resistance and sleeve friction from experiments to model results. DEM by nature requires significant computational resources even for a limited number of particles. Thus, it is important to find particle and ensemble parameters that produce valuable results within reasonable computation times. The Controllable Objects Unbounded Particles Interaction (COUPi) model is a general physical DEM code being developed to model machine/regolith interactions as part of a NASA Lunar Science Institute sponsored project on excavation and mobility modeling. In this work, we consider how different particle shape and size distributions defined in the DEM influence the cone tip and friction sleeve resistance in a CPT DEM simulation. The results are compared to experiments with cone penetration in JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant. The particle shapes include spherical particles, particles composed from the union of three spheres, and some simple polyhedra. This focus is driven by the soil mechanics rule of thumb that particle size and shape distributions are the two most significant factors affecting soil strength. In addition to the particle properties, the packing configuration of an ensemble strongly affects soil strength. Bulk density of the regolith is an important characteristic that significantly influences the tip resistance and sleeve friction (Figure 1). We discuss different approaches used to control granular density in the DEM, including how to obtain higher bulk densities, using numerical "shaking" techniques and varying the friction coefficient during computations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulchitsky, A. V.; Johnson, J.; Duvoy, P.; Wilkinson, A.; Creager, C. M.
2012-12-01
For in situ resource utilization on the Moon, asteroids, Mars, or other space body it is necessary to be able to simulate the interaction of mobile platforms and excavation machines with the regolith for engineering design, planning, and operations. For accurate simulations, tools designed to measure regolith properties will need to be deployed and interpreted. Two such tools are the penetrometer, used to measure a soil strength index as a function of depth, and the bevameter, used to characterize regolith surface properties of strength, friction and sinkage. The penetrometer interrogates regolith properties from the surface to a depth limited only by the capabilities of the instrument to penetrate the regolith while a bevameter interrogates only the upper few centimeters needed to describe a mobility platform's traction and sinkage. Interpretation of penetrometer and bevameter data can be difficult, especially on low gravity objects. We use the discrete element method (DEM) model to simulate the large regolith deformations and failures associated with the tests to determine regolith properties. The DEM simulates granular material behavior using large aggregates of distinct particles. Realistic physics of particle-particle interaction introduces many granular specific phenomena such as interlocking and force chain formation that cannot be represented using continuum methods. In this work, experiments using a cone penetrometer test (CPT) and bevameter on lunar simulants JSC-1A and GRC-1 were performed at NASA Glenn Research Center. These tests were used to validate the physics in the COUPi DEM model. COUPi is a general physical DEM code being developed to model machine/regolith interactions as part of a NASA Lunar Science Institute sponsored project on excavation and mobility modeling. The experimental results were used in this work to build an accurate model to simulate the lunar regolith. The CPT consists of driving an instrumented cone with opening angle of 60
Modelling The Bending Test Behaviour Of Carbon Fibre Reinforced SiC By Finite Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, S.; Koch, D.; Voggenreiter, H.
2012-07-01
Liquid silicon infiltrated carbon fibre reinforced SiC, has shown to be a high-potential material for thermal protection systems. The tensile and bending behaviour of the ceramic-matrix composite, C/C-SiC, were investigated in varying orientations relative to the 0/90° woven carbon fibres. The ratio of bending to tensile strength was about 1.7 to 2 depending on the loading direction. With the goal to understand this large difference finite element analyses (FEA) of the bending tests were performed. The different stress-strain behaviour of C/C-SiC under tensile and compression load were included in the FEA. Additionally the bending failure of the CMC-material was modelled by Cohesive Zone Elements (CZE) accounting for the directional tensile strength and Work of Fracture (WOF). The WOF was determined by Single Edge Notched Bending (SENB) tests. Comparable results from FEA and bending test were achieved. The presented approach could also be adapted for the design of C/C-SiC-components and structures.
The individual element test revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.
1991-01-01
The subject of the patch test for finite elements retains several unsettled aspects. In particular, the issue of one-element versus multielement tests needs clarification. Following a brief historical review, we present the individual element test (IET) of Bergan and Hanssen in an expanded context that encompasses several important classes of new elements. The relationship of the IET to the multielement forms A, B, and C of the patch test and to the single element test are clarified.
Method for detecting an element
Blackwood, Larry G.; Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.
2007-02-06
A method for detecting an element is disclosed and which includes the steps of providing a gamma-ray spectrum which depicts, at least in part, a test region having boundaries, and which has a small amount of the element to be detected; providing a calculation which detects the small amount of the element to be detected; and providing a moving window and performing the calculation within the moving window, and over a range of possible window boundaries within the test region to determine the location of the optimal test region within the gamma-ray spectrum.
Probabilistic boundary element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cruse, T. A.; Raveendra, S. T.
1989-01-01
The purpose of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) project is to develop structural analysis capabilities for the design analysis of advanced space propulsion system hardware. The boundary element method (BEM) is used as the basis of the Probabilistic Advanced Analysis Methods (PADAM) which is discussed. The probabilistic BEM code (PBEM) is used to obtain the structural response and sensitivity results to a set of random variables. As such, PBEM performs analogous to other structural analysis codes such as finite elements in the PSAM system. For linear problems, unlike the finite element method (FEM), the BEM governing equations are written at the boundary of the body only, thus, the method eliminates the need to model the volume of the body. However, for general body force problems, a direct condensation of the governing equations to the boundary of the body is not possible and therefore volume modeling is generally required.
Application of Finite Elements Method for Improvement of Acoustic Emission Testing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerasimov, S.; Sych, T.; Kuleshov, V.
2016-01-01
The paper deals with the acoustic emission sensor modeling by means of FEM system COSMOS/M. The following types of acoustic waves in the acoustic emission sensors are investigated: the longitudinal wave and transversal wave. As a material is used piezoelectric ceramics. The computed displacements are compared with physical model under consideration. The results of numerical and physical simulations of the processes of acoustic wave propagation in solebar of the freight-car truck are presented. The fields of dynamic displacements and stresses were calculated for improvement of acoustic emission testing method.
Test functions for three-dimensional control-volume mixed finite-element methods on irregular grids
Naff, R.L.; Russell, T.F.; Wilson, J.D.
2000-01-01
Numerical methods based on unstructured grids, with irregular cells, usually require discrete shape functions to approximate the distribution of quantities across cells. For control-volume mixed finite-element methods, vector shape functions are used to approximate the distribution of velocities across cells and vector test functions are used to minimize the error associated with the numerical approximation scheme. For a logically cubic mesh, the lowest-order shape functions are chosen in a natural way to conserve intercell fluxes that vary linearly in logical space. Vector test functions, while somewhat restricted by the mapping into the logical reference cube, admit a wider class of possibilities. Ideally, an error minimization procedure to select the test function from an acceptable class of candidates would be the best procedure. Lacking such a procedure, we first investigate the effect of possible test functions on the pressure distribution over the control volume; specifically, we look for test functions that allow for the elimination of intermediate pressures on cell faces. From these results, we select three forms for the test function for use in a control-volume mixed method code and subject them to an error analysis for different forms of grid irregularity; errors are reported in terms of the discrete L2 norm of the velocity error. Of these three forms, one appears to produce optimal results for most forms of grid irregularity.
Testing contamination risk assessment methods for toxic elements from mine waste sites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdaal, A.; Jordan, G.; Szilassi, P.; Kiss, J.; Detzky, G.
2012-04-01
Major incidents involving mine waste facilities and poor environmental management practices have left a legacy of thousands of contaminated sites like in the historic mining areas in the Carpathian Basin. Associated environmental risks have triggered the development of new EU environmental legislation to prevent and minimize the effects of such incidents. The Mine Waste Directive requires the risk-based inventory of all mine waste sites in Europe by May 2012. In order to address the mining problems a standard risk-based Pre-selection protocol has been developed by the EU Commission. This paper discusses the heavy metal contamination in acid mine drainage (AMD) for risk assessment (RA) along the Source-Pathway-Receptor chain using decision support methods which are intended to aid national and regional organizations in the inventory and assessment of potentially contaminated mine waste sites. Several recognized methods such as the European Environmental Agency (EEA) standard PRAMS model for soil contamination, US EPA-based AIMSS and Irish HMS-IRC models for RA of abandoned sites are reviewed, compared and tested for the mining waste environment. In total 145 ore mine waste sites have been selected for scientific testing using the EU Pre-selection protocol as a case study from Hungary. The proportion of uncertain to certain responses for a site and for the total number of sites may give an insight of specific and overall uncertainty in the data we use. The Pre-selection questions are efficiently linked to a GIS system as database inquiries using digital spatial data to directly generate answers. Key parameters such as distance to the nearest surface and ground water bodies, to settlements and protected areas are calculated and statistically evaluated using STATGRAPHICS® in order to calibrate the RA models. According to our scientific research results, of the 145 sites 11 sites are the most risky having foundation slope >20o, 57 sites are within distance <500m to the
FUEL ELEMENT FABRICATION METHOD
Hix, J.N.; Cooley, G.E.; Cunningham, J.E.
1960-05-31
A method is given for assembling and fabricating a fuel element comprising a plurality of spaced parallel fuel plates of a bowed configuration supported by and between a pair of transperse aluminum side plates. In this method, a brasing alloy is preplated on one surface of the aluminum side plates in the form of a cladding or layer-of uniform thickness. Grooves are then cut into the side plates through the alloy layer and into the base aluminum which results in the utilization of thinner aluminum side plates since a portion of the necessary groove depth is supplied by the brazing alloy.
The nature thickness pipe element testing method to validate the application of LBB conception
Vasilchenko, G.S.; Artemyev, V.I.; Merinov, G.N.
1997-04-01
To validate the application of leak before break analysis to the VVER-1000 reactor, a procedure for testing a large-scale specimen on electrohydraulic machinery was developed. Steel pipe with a circular weld and stainless cladding inside was manufactured and large-scale longitudinal cross-sections were cut. The remaining parts of the weld after cut out were used to determination standard tensile mechanical properties, critical temperature of brittlness and for manufacture of compact specimens. Experimental mechanical properties of the weld are summarized.
REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER
Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.
1963-01-15
This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oudni, Zehor; Féliachi, Mouloud; Mohellebi, Hassane
2014-06-01
This work is undertaken to study the reliability of eddy current nondestructive testing (ED-NDT) when the defect concerns a change of physical property of the material. So, an intrusive spectral stochastic finite element method (SSFEM) is developed in the case of 2D electromagnetic harmonic equation. The electrical conductivity is considered as random variable and is developed in series of Hermite polynomials. The developed model is validated from measurements on NDT device and is applied to the assessment of the reliability of failure in steam generator tubing of nuclear power plants. The exploitation of the model concerns the impedance calculation of the sensor and the assessment of the reliability of failure. The random defect geometry is also considered and results are given.
Domain decomposition methods for mortar finite elements
Widlund, O.
1996-12-31
In the last few years, domain decomposition methods, previously developed and tested for standard finite element methods and elliptic problems, have been extended and modified to work for mortar and other nonconforming finite element methods. A survey will be given of work carried out jointly with Yves Achdou, Mario Casarin, Maksymilian Dryja and Yvon Maday. Results on the p- and h-p-version finite elements will also be discussed.
Compact Fuel Element Environment Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.
2012-01-01
Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (I(sub sp)) and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average I(sub sp). Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) capable of high I(sub sp) thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3,000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high melting point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high-temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via noncontact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen for typical mission durations has been developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This Technical Memorandum details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.
Multi-element microelectropolishing method
Lee, P.J.
1994-10-11
A method is provided for microelectropolishing a transmission electron microscopy nonhomogeneous multi-element compound foil. The foil is electrolyzed at different polishing rates for different elements by rapidly cycling between different current densities. During a first portion of each cycle at a first voltage a first element electrolyzes at a higher current density than a second element such that the material of the first element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the second element and creates a solid surface film, and such that the solid surface film is removed at a faster rate than the first element leaves the anode foil. During a second portion of each cycle at a second voltage the second element electrolyzes at a higher current density than the first element, and the material of the second element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the first element and creates a solid surface film, and the solid surface film is removed at a slower rate than the second element leaves the foil. The solid surface film is built up during the second portion of the cycle, and removed during the first portion of the cycle. 10 figs.
Multi-element microelectropolishing method
Lee, Peter J.
1994-01-01
A method is provided for microelectropolishing a transmission electron microscopy nonhomogeneous multi-element compound foil. The foil is electrolyzed at different polishing rates for different elements by rapidly cycling between different current densities. During a first portion of each cycle at a first voltage a first element electrolyzes at a higher current density than a second element such that the material of the first element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the second element and creates a solid surface film, and such that the solid surface film is removed at a faster rate than the first element leaves the anode foil. During a second portion of each cycle at a second voltage the second element electrolyzes at a higher current density than the first element, and the material of the second element leaves the anode foil at a faster rate than the first element and creates a solid surface film, and the solid surface film is removed at a slower rate than the second element leaves the foil. The solid surface film is built up during the second portion of the cycle, and removed during the first portion of the cycle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernard, C. A.; Correia, J. P. M.; Bahlouli, N.; Ahzi, S.
2015-09-01
During the last decades, the part of polymeric materials considerably increased in automotive and packaging applications. However, their mechanical behaviour is difficult to predict due to a strong sensitivity to the strain rate and the temperature. Numerous theories and models were developed in order to understand and model their complex mechanical behaviour. The one proposed by Richeton et al. [Int. J. Solids Struct. 44, 7938 (2007)] seems particularly suitable since several material parameters possess a strain rate and temperature sensitivity. The aim of this study is to implement the proposed constitutive model in a commercial finite element software by writing a user material subroutine. The implementation of the model was verified on a compressive test. Next a normal impact test was simulated in order to validate the predictive capabilities of the model. A good agreement is found between the FE predictions and the experimental results taken from the literature.
Spectral analysis method for detecting an element
Blackwood, Larry G [Idaho Falls, ID; Edwards, Andrew J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jewell, James K [Idaho Falls, ID; Reber, Edward L [Idaho Falls, ID; Seabury, Edward H [Idaho Falls, ID
2008-02-12
A method for detecting an element is described and which includes the steps of providing a gamma-ray spectrum which has a region of interest which corresponds with a small amount of an element to be detected; providing nonparametric assumptions about a shape of the gamma-ray spectrum in the region of interest, and which would indicate the presence of the element to be detected; and applying a statistical test to the shape of the gamma-ray spectrum based upon the nonparametric assumptions to detect the small amount of the element to be detected.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Stephen W.; Seshadri, Banavara R.; Newman, John A.
2015-01-01
The experimental methods to determine near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate data are prescribed in ASTM standard E647. To produce near-threshold data at a constant stress ratio (R), the applied stress-intensity factor (K) is decreased as the crack grows based on a specified K-gradient. Consequently, as the fatigue crack growth rate threshold is approached and the crack tip opening displacement decreases, remote crack wake contact may occur due to the plastically deformed crack wake surfaces and shield the growing crack tip resulting in a reduced crack tip driving force and non-representative crack growth rate data. If such data are used to life a component, the evaluation could yield highly non-conservative predictions. Although this anomalous behavior has been shown to be affected by K-gradient, starting K level, residual stresses, environmental assisted cracking, specimen geometry, and material type, the specifications within the standard to avoid this effect are limited to a maximum fatigue crack growth rate and a suggestion for the K-gradient value. This paper provides parallel experimental and computational simulations for the K-decreasing method for two materials (an aluminum alloy, AA 2024-T3 and a titanium alloy, Ti 6-2-2-2-2) to aid in establishing clear understanding of appropriate testing requirements. These simulations investigate the effect of K-gradient, the maximum value of stress-intensity factor applied, and material type. A material independent term is developed to guide in the selection of appropriate test conditions for most engineering alloys. With the use of such a term, near-threshold fatigue crack growth rate tests can be performed at accelerated rates, near-threshold data can be acquired in days instead of weeks without having to establish testing criteria through trial and error, and these data can be acquired for most engineering materials, even those that are produced in relatively small product forms.
Discrete elements method of neutral particle transport
Mathews, K.A.
1983-01-01
A new discrete elements (L/sub N/) transport method is derived and compared to the discrete ordinates S/sub N/ method, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is more accurate than discrete ordinates and strongly ameliorates ray effects for the practical problems studied. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost effective, in terms of execution time with comparable storage to attain the same accuracy, for a one-dimensional test case using linear characteristic spatial quadrature. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, L/sub N/ is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution than S/sub N/, using step characteristic spatial quadrature. An analysis of the interaction of angular and spatial quadrature in xy-geometry indicates the desirability of using linear characteristic spatial quadrature with the L/sub N/ method.
Finite element analysis enhancement of cryogenic testing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thiem, Clare D.; Norton, Douglas A.
1991-12-01
Finite element analysis (FEA) of large space optics enhances cryogenic testing by providing an analytical method by which to ensure that a test article survives proposed testing. The analyses presented in this paper were concerned with determining the reliability of a half meter mirror in an environment where the exact environmental profile was unknown. FEA allows the interaction between the test object and the environment to be simulated to detect potential problems prior to actual testing. These analyses examined worse case scenerios related to cooling the mirror, its structural integrity for the proposed test environment, and deformation of the reflective surface. The FEA was conducted in-house on the System's Reliability Division's VAX 11-750 and Decstation 3100 using Engineering Mechanics Research Corporation's numerically integrated elements for systems analysis finite element software. The results of the analyses showed that it would take at least 48 hours to cool the mirror to its desired testing temperature. It was also determined that the proposed mirror mount would not cause critical concentrated thermal stresses that would fracture the mirror. FEA and actual measurements of the front reflective face were compared and good agreement between computer simulation and physical tests were seen. Space deployment of large optics requires lightweight mirrors which can perform under the harsh conditions of space. The physical characteristics of these mirrors must be well understood in order that their deployment and operation are successful. Evaluating design approaches by analytical simulation, like FEA, verifies the reliability and structural integrity of a space optic during design prior to prototyping and testing. Eliminating an optic's poor design early in its life saves money, materials, and human resources while ensuring performance.
Peridynamic Multiscale Finite Element Methods
Costa, Timothy; Bond, Stephen D.; Littlewood, David John; Moore, Stan Gerald
2015-12-01
The problem of computing quantum-accurate design-scale solutions to mechanics problems is rich with applications and serves as the background to modern multiscale science research. The prob- lem can be broken into component problems comprised of communicating across adjacent scales, which when strung together create a pipeline for information to travel from quantum scales to design scales. Traditionally, this involves connections between a) quantum electronic structure calculations and molecular dynamics and between b) molecular dynamics and local partial differ- ential equation models at the design scale. The second step, b), is particularly challenging since the appropriate scales of molecular dynamic and local partial differential equation models do not overlap. The peridynamic model for continuum mechanics provides an advantage in this endeavor, as the basic equations of peridynamics are valid at a wide range of scales limiting from the classical partial differential equation models valid at the design scale to the scale of molecular dynamics. In this work we focus on the development of multiscale finite element methods for the peridynamic model, in an effort to create a mathematically consistent channel for microscale information to travel from the upper limits of the molecular dynamics scale to the design scale. In particular, we first develop a Nonlocal Multiscale Finite Element Method which solves the peridynamic model at multiple scales to include microscale information at the coarse-scale. We then consider a method that solves a fine-scale peridynamic model to build element-support basis functions for a coarse- scale local partial differential equation model, called the Mixed Locality Multiscale Finite Element Method. Given decades of research and development into finite element codes for the local partial differential equation models of continuum mechanics there is a strong desire to couple local and nonlocal models to leverage the speed and state of the
Hybrid natural element method for viscoelasticity problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Yan-Kai; Ma, Yong-Qi; Dong, Yi; Feng, Wei
2015-01-01
A hybrid natural element method (HNEM) for two-dimensional viscoelasticity problems under the creep condition is proposed. The natural neighbor interpolation is used as the test function, and the discrete equation system of the HNEM for viscoelasticity problems is obtained using the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle. In contrast to the natural element method (NEM), the HNEM can directly obtain the nodal stresses, which have higher precisions than those obtained using the moving least-square (MLS) approximation. Some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and superiority of this HNEM. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (Grant No.13ZR1415900).
METHOD OF MAKING FUEL ELEMENTS
Bean, C.H.; Macherey, R.E.
1959-12-01
A method is described for fabricating fuel elements, particularly for enclosing a plate of metal with a second metal by inserting the plate into an aperture of a frame of a second plate, placing a sheet of the second metal on each of opposite faces of the assembled plate and frame, purging with an inert gas the air from the space within the frame and the sheets while sealing the seams between the frame and the sheets, exhausting the space, purging the space with air, re-exhausting the spaces, sealing the second aperture, and applying heat and pressure to bond the sheets, the plate, and the frame to one another.
de Freitas, Elisângela Perez; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Shimano, Antonio Carlos; da Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito; El-Warrak, Alexander Oliveira; Melchert, Alessandra
2016-03-01
With regard to the canine mandible, a mistaken concept of application is to assume that systemic plate-bone resistance is provided by the implant so that biomechanical position could be ignored. Because the alveolar border of the mandible is a tensile zone, the plate would ideally be positioned near this area while avoiding important structures. The aim of this study was to develop 2 bridging plates for the treatment of a segmental bone defect of the canine mandible using monocortical screws to avoid damage to the tooth roots and remaining neurovascular structures. Computed tomography images of the heads of 4 dogs (rottweiler, Doberman, boxer, and miniature poodle breeds) were used as models to develop the project. The images were reconstructed in 3-dimensional (3D) format. For each dog breed, 6 mandible prototypes were produced, each with a segmental bone defect in the right mandible. The mandibular reconstruction was performed with pure titanium bridging plate and locking screws. One plate model was developed for medium- and large-breed dogs and another for small-breed dogs. Mechanical testing showed the platemandible system resists the bite forces in all dog breeds. All safety factors were greater than I in the platemandible system for medium- and large-breed dogs and greater than 10 in the plate-mandible system for small-breed dogs. Thus, bridging plates designed with differentiated geometry and monocortical locking screws showed mechanical resistance to support simulated induced bone model defects and were able to support at least 5 times the value of bite force for each evaluated dog. PMID:27487652
Peach Bottom test element program. Final report
Saurwein, J.J.; Holzgraf, J.F.; MIller, C.M.; Myers, B.F.; Wallroth, C.F.
1982-11-01
Thirty-three test elements were irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of the testing program for advanced HTGRs. Extensive postirradiation examinations and evaluations of 21 of these irradiation experiments were performed. The test element irradiations were simulated using HTGR design codes and data. Calculated fuel burnups, power profiles, fast neutron fluences, and temperatures were verified via destructive burnup measurements, gamma scanning, and in-pile thermocouple readings corrected for decalibration effects. Analytical techniques were developed to improve the quality of temperature predictions through feedback of nuclear measurements into thermal calculations. Dimensional measurements, pressure burst tests, diametral compression tests, ring-cutting tests, strip-cutting tests, and four-point bend tests were performed to measure residual stress, strain, and strength distributions in H-327 graphite structures irradiated in the test elements.
Apparatus for testing high pressure injector elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Myers, William Neill (Inventor); Scott, Ewell M. (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael D. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
An apparatus for testing and evaluating the spray pattern of high pressure fuel injector elements for use in supplying fuel to combustion engines is presented. Prior art fuel injector elements were normally tested by use of low pressure apparatuses which did not provide a purge to prevent mist from obscuring the injector element or to prevent frosting of the view windows; could utilize only one fluid during each test; and had their viewing ports positioned one hundred eighty (180 deg) apart, thus preventing optimum use of laser diagnostics. The high pressure fluid injector test apparatus includes an upper hub, an upper weldment or housing, a first clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the upper hub to the upper weldment, a standoff assembly within the upper weldment, a pair of window housings having view glasses within the upper weldment, an injector block assembly and purge plate within the upper weldment for holding an injector element to be tested and evaluated, a lower weldment or housing, a second clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower weldment to the upper hub, a third clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower hub to the lower weldment, mechanisms for introducing fluid under high pressure for testing an injector element, and mechanisms for purging the apparatus to prevent frosting of view glasses within the window housings and to permit unobstructed viewing of the injector element.
Apparatus for testing high pressure injector elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myers, William Neill; Scott, Ewell M.; Forbes, John C.; Shadoan, Michael D.
1993-09-01
An apparatus for testing and evaluating the spray pattern of high pressure fuel injector elements for use in supplying fuel to combustion engines is presented. Prior art fuel injector elements were normally tested by use of low pressure apparatuses which did not provide a purge to prevent mist from obscuring the injector element or to prevent frosting of the view windows; could utilize only one fluid during each test; and had their viewing ports positioned one hundred eighty (180 deg) apart, thus preventing optimum use of laser diagnostics. The high pressure fluid injector test apparatus includes an upper hub, an upper weldment or housing, a first clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the upper hub to the upper weldment, a standoff assembly within the upper weldment, a pair of window housings having view glasses within the upper weldment, an injector block assembly and purge plate within the upper weldment for holding an injector element to be tested and evaluated, a lower weldment or housing, a second clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower weldment to the upper weldment, a lower hub, a third clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower hub to the lower weldment, mechanisms for introducing fluid under high pressure for testing an injector element, and mechanisms for purging the apparatus to prevent frosting of view glasses within the window housings and to permit unobstructed viewing of the injector element.
Apparatus for testing high pressure injector elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myers, William Neill; Scott, Ewell M.; Forbes, John C.; Shadoan, Michael D.
1995-05-01
An apparatus for testing and evaluating the spray pattern of high pressure fuel injector elements for use in supplying fuel to combustion engines is presented. Prior art fuel injector elements were normally tested by use of low pressure apparatuses which did not provide a purge to prevent mist from obscuring the injector element or to prevent frosting of the view windows; could utilize only one fluid during each test; and had their viewing ports positioned one hundred eighty (180 deg) apart, thus preventing optimum use of laser diagnostics. The high pressure fluid injector test apparatus includes an upper hub, an upper weldment or housing, a first clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the upper hub to the upper weldment, a standoff assembly within the upper weldment, a pair of window housings having view glasses within the upper weldment, an injector block assembly and purge plate within the upper weldment for holding an injector element to be tested and evaluated, a lower weldment or housing, a second clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower weldment to the upper hub, a third clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower hub to the lower weldment, mechanisms for introducing fluid under high pressure for testing an injector element, and mechanisms for purging the apparatus to prevent frosting of view glasses within the window housings and to permit unobstructed viewing of the injector element.
Apparatus for testing high pressure injector elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Myers, William Neill (Inventor); Scott, Ewell M. (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael D. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
An apparatus for testing and evaluating the spray pattern of high pressure fuel injector elements for use in supplying fuel to combustion engines is presented. Prior art fuel injector elements were normally tested by use of low pressure apparatuses which did not provide a purge to prevent mist from obscuring the injector element or to prevent frosting of the view windows; could utilize only one fluid during each test; and had their viewing ports positioned one hundred eighty (180 deg) apart, thus preventing optimum use of laser diagnostics. The high pressure fluid injector test apparatus includes an upper hub, an upper weldment or housing, a first clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the upper hub to the upper weldment, a standoff assembly within the upper weldment, a pair of window housings having view glasses within the upper weldment, an injector block assembly and purge plate within the upper weldment for holding an injector element to be tested and evaluated, a lower weldment or housing, a second clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower weldment to the upper weldment, a lower hub, a third clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower hub to the lower weldment, mechanisms for introducing fluid under high pressure for testing an injector element, and mechanisms for purging the apparatus to prevent frosting of view glasses within the window housings and to permit unobstructed viewing of the injector element.
Kim, Sang-Yul; Tanaka, Nobutoshi; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Tojo, Yasumasa
2005-06-01
Two new pre-treatment methods (water-washing/carbonation and carbonation/phosphate stabilization) of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator residues were evaluated by column leaching tests under aerobic conditions and anaerobic conditions (which were changed to aerobic conditions after 10 months). A mixture of bottom ash and fly ash (5:1 ratio) was pre-treated using each method. Shredded incombustible residues (SIR) were added to each ash preparation in proportions similar to the ratios present in landfills. For comparison, landfill wastes typical of Japan, namely, a mixture of bottom ash, chelating-pre-treated fly ash, and SIR, were also examined. Leachate samples were collected periodically and analysed over a 15-month period. When compared with chelating pretreatment, both water-washing/carbonation and carbonation/ phosphate stabilization reduced the leaching of Pb, Al, and Cu by about one to two orders of magnitude. Moreover, the initial concentrations of Ca and Pb in leachates from column of water-washing/carbonation were 56-57% and 84-96% less than those from the column of carbonation/phosphate stabilization. Therefore, water-washing/carbonation was considered to be a promising approach to obtain early waste stabilization and to reduce the release of heavy metals to near-negligible levels. The leaching behaviour of elements was also discussed. PMID:15988941
COMPLEX VARIABLE BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD: APPLICATIONS.
Hromadka, T.V., II; Yen, C.C.; Guymon, G.L.
1985-01-01
The complex variable boundary element method (CVBEM) is used to approximate several potential problems where analytical solutions are known. A modeling result produced from the CVBEM is a measure of relative error in matching the known boundary condition values of the problem. A CVBEM error-reduction algorithm is used to reduce the relative error of the approximation by adding nodal points in boundary regions where error is large. From the test problems, overall error is reduced significantly by utilizing the adaptive integration algorithm.
Discrete Element Modeling of Drop Tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yuannian; Tonon, Fulvio
2012-09-01
A discrete element code with impact model has been developed and calibrated to simulate the dynamic behavior of rock materials, with special regard to rock fragmentation upon impact during rock-fall analysis. The paper summarizes the discrete element code, the calibration algorithms developed to identify the model microparameters, and the impact model. Experimental work on drop tests is then used to validate the code on modeling impact fragmentation. It has been found that the developed discrete element code and impact model can reasonably simulate rock fragmentation in drop tests. The use of the discrete element code and impact model can provide good reference results in evaluating impact fragmentation in rock-fall analysis.
Finite element methods in numerical relativity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, P. J.
The finite element method is very successful in Newtonian fluid simulations, and can be extended to relativitstic fluid flows. This paper describes the general method, and then outlines some preliminary results for spherically symmetric geometries. The mixed finite element - finite difference scheme is introduced, and used for the description of spherically symmetric collapse. Baker's (Newtonian) shock modelling method and Miller's moving finite element method are also mentioned. Collapse in double-null coordinates requires non-constant time slicing, so the full finite element method in space and time is described.
PRECONCENTRATION METHODS FOR TRACE ELEMENT DETERMINATION
This research had several objectives. One was to review the literature to determine methods of trace element preconcentration that could be used realistically for sample preparation for trace element determinations in drinking, natural and/or effluent waters. Elements included in...
Adaptive Finite Element Methods in Geodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, R.; Davies, H.; Hassan, O.; Morgan, K.; Nithiarasu, P.
2006-12-01
repeated subdivision of nested icosahedrons. Unfortunately, the standard finite element method of obtaining higher resolution in local grids (such as the adaptive unstructured methods presented above) would throw away the regular grid and all the benefits of the current method. The use of an `adaptive multigrid' however, allows the incorporation of local high resolution grids nested within these efficient global models. Although in the early stages of development, this method appears promising, with initial tests suggesting it has the capability to maintain computational efficiency whilst improving solution accuracy and resolution where required.
Rolling-Element Fatigue Testing and Data Analysis - A Tutorial
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vlcek, Brian L.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.
2011-01-01
In order to rank bearing materials, lubricants and other design variables using rolling-element bench type fatigue testing of bearing components and full-scale rolling-element bearing tests, the investigator needs to be cognizant of the variables that affect rolling-element fatigue life and be able to maintain and control them within an acceptable experimental tolerance. Once these variables are controlled, the number of tests and the test conditions must be specified to assure reasonable statistical certainty of the final results. There is a reasonable correlation between the results from elemental test rigs with those results obtained with full-scale bearings. Using the statistical methods of W. Weibull and L. Johnson, the minimum number of tests required can be determined. This paper brings together and discusses the technical aspects of rolling-element fatigue testing and data analysis as well as making recommendations to assure quality and reliable testing of rolling-element specimens and full-scale rolling-element bearings.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gayman, W. H.
1974-01-01
Test method and apparatus determine fluid effective mass and damping in frequency range where effective mass may be considered as total mass less sum of slosh masses. Apparatus is designed so test tank and its mounting yoke are supported from structural test wall by series of flexures.
Davis Jr., L. A.; Brost, D. F.; Haskin, H. K.
1984-11-13
A method of testing a chemical for use in an enhanced recovery of oil from an earth formation includes obtaining a test core of an earth formation. The test core is cleaned and then subjected to a predetermined sequence of events similar to that which the reservoir has experienced. The test core is flooded with a chemical to be tested and the chemical is then driven from the test core with a drive liquid. The test core is irradiated with a beam of electromagnetic energy at a microwave frequency. An indication representative of the effectiveness of the chemical in the test core is derived in accordance with the electromagnetic energy that has passed through the test core.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seeber, F
1939-01-01
After a brief survey of the commonly used single-value test methods, the importance of the determination of the incipient knock for the octane number is discussed and improvements suggested for the knock testing in the CFR engine. The DVL supercharge test method with its superiority of direct determination of fuel knock in each single cylinder of an airplane engine without involving structural changes, is described and the advantages of a multiple-value method enumerated. A diagrammatic presentation of the knock characteristics is presented.
METHOD FOR MAKING FUEL ELEMENTS
Kates, L.W.; Campbell, R.W.; Heartel, R.H.W.
1960-08-01
A method is given for making zirconium-clad uranium wire. A tube of zirconium is closed with a zirconium plug, after which a chilled uranium core is inserted in the tube to rest against the plug. Additional plugs and cores are inserted alternately as desired. The assembly is then sheathed with iron, hot worked to the desired size, and the iron sheath removed.
Method of lightening radiation darkened optical elements
Reich, Frederich R.; Schwankoff, Albert R.
1980-01-01
A method of lightening a radiation-darkened optical element in wich visible optical energy or electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the range of from about 2000 to about 20,000 angstroms is directed into the radiation-darkened optical element; the method may be used to lighten radiation-darkened optical element in-situ during the use of the optical element to transmit data by electronically separating the optical energy from the optical output by frequency filtering, data cooling, or interlacing the optic energy between data intervals.
McAdams, Wm.A.; Foss, M.H.
1958-08-12
A method of testing containers for leaks is described, particularly the testing of containers or cans in which the uranium slugs for nuelear reactors are jacketed. This method involves the immersion of the can in water under l50 pounds of pressure, then removing, drying, and coating the can with anhydrous copper sulfate. Amy water absorbed by the can under pressure will exude and discolor the copper sulfate in the area about the leak.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.
1989-01-01
To overcome serious weaknesses in determining the performance of initiating devices, a novel 'ignitability test method', representing actual design interfaces and ignition materials, has been developed. Ignition device output consists of heat, light, gas an burning particles. Past research methods have evaluated these parameters individually. This paper describes the development and demonstration of an ignitability test method combining all these parameters, and the quantitative assessment of the ignition performance of two widely used percussion primers, the M42C1-PA101 and the M42C2-793. The ignition materials used for this evaluation were several powder, granule and pellet sizes of black powder and boron-potassium nitrate. This test method should be useful for performance evaluation of all initiator types, quality assurance, evaluation of ignition interfaces, and service life studies of initiators and ignition materials.
Standard environmental test methods
Schafer, D R
1983-12-01
This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.
A survey of mixed finite element methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brezzi, F.
1987-01-01
This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.
A multidimensional finite element method for CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pepper, Darrell W.; Humphrey, Joseph W.
1991-01-01
A finite element method is used to solve the equations of motion for 2- and 3-D fluid flow. The time-dependent equations are solved explicitly using quadrilateral (2-D) and hexahedral (3-D) elements, mass lumping, and reduced integration. A Petrov-Galerkin technique is applied to the advection terms. The method requires a minimum of computational storage, executes quickly, and is scalable for execution on computer systems ranging from PCs to supercomputers.
On Hybrid and mixed finite element methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pian, T. H. H.
1981-01-01
Three versions of the assumed stress hybrid model in finite element methods and the corresponding variational principles for the formulation are presented. Examples of rank deficiency for stiffness matrices by the hybrid stress model are given and their corresponding kinematic deformation modes are identified. A discussion of the derivation of general semi-Loof elements for plates and shells by the hybrid stress method is given. It is shown that the equilibrium model by Fraeijs de Veubeke can be derived by the approach of the hybrid stress model as a special case of semi-Loof elements.
The finite element method in thermomechanics
Hsu, T.
1986-01-01
Thermal stress analysis is critical in the design and operation of energy-efficient power plant components and engines as well as in nuclear and aerospace systems. The Finite Element Method in Thermomechanics attempts to embrace a wide range of topics in the nonlinear thermomechanical analysis. The book covers the basic principles of the finite element method: the formulations for the base thermomechanical analysis, including thermoelastic-plastic-creep stress analysis; the use of Fourier series for nonaxisymmetric loadings, and stress waves in solids in thermal environments; and the base finite element code called TEPSAC.
Enhancements to modal testing using finite elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jarvis, Brian
In calculating the natural frequencies and mode shapes from a finite element analysis, there are generally many more degrees of freedom than can be handled for the eigensolution. A reduction process is employed to reduce the number to a master set and chosen so that the modes of interest are well defined. By choosing those freedoms where the inertia terms are high or the stiffness terms are low then an automatic procedure for selecting the best freedoms can be defined. For modal testing, these master freedoms also indicate the best transducer locations for optimum low order mode identification. Having carried out the modal test, the mode shapes obtained can be forced onto the finite element model giving greatly enhanced results. By examining terms in all mode shapes from the finite element model in the frequency range of interest, the best reference or excitation position can be found. An example of the use of this technique to study the modal properties of an aero-engine compressor blade is given.
Introducing the Boundary Element Method with MATLAB
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ang, Keng-Cheng
2008-01-01
The boundary element method provides an excellent platform for learning and teaching a computational method for solving problems in physical and engineering science. However, it is often left out in many undergraduate courses as its implementation is deemed to be difficult. This is partly due to the perception that coding the method requires…
A multigrid solution method for mixed hybrid finite elements
Schmid, W.
1996-12-31
We consider the multigrid solution of linear equations arising within the discretization of elliptic second order boundary value problems of the form by mixed hybrid finite elements. Using the equivalence of mixed hybrid finite elements and non-conforming nodal finite elements, we construct a multigrid scheme for the corresponding non-conforming finite elements, and, by this equivalence, for the mixed hybrid finite elements, following guidelines from Arbogast/Chen. For a rectangular triangulation of the computational domain, this non-conforming schemes are the so-called nodal finite elements. We explicitly construct prolongation and restriction operators for this type of non-conforming finite elements. We discuss the use of plain multigrid and the multilevel-preconditioned cg-method and compare their efficiency in numerical tests.
Interpolation functions in the immersed boundary and finite element methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xingshi; Zhang, Lucy T.
2010-03-01
In this paper, we review the existing interpolation functions and introduce a finite element interpolation function to be used in the immersed boundary and finite element methods. This straightforward finite element interpolation function for unstructured grids enables us to obtain a sharper interface that yields more accurate interfacial solutions. The solution accuracy is compared with the existing interpolation functions such as the discretized Dirac delta function and the reproducing kernel interpolation function. The finite element shape function is easy to implement and it naturally satisfies the reproducing condition. They are interpolated through only one element layer instead of smearing to several elements. A pressure jump is clearly captured at the fluid-solid interface. Two example problems are studied and results are compared with other numerical methods. A convergence test is thoroughly conducted for the independent fluid and solid meshes in a fluid-structure interaction system. The required mesh size ratio between the fluid and solid domains is obtained.
Defining and testing a granular continuum element
Rycroft, Chris H.; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.
2007-12-03
Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of amesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discreteparticles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granularmaterials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealinginhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cagebreaking. Here, we analyze large-scale Discrete-Element Method (DEM)simulations of different granular flows and show that a "granularelement" can indeed be defined at the scale of dynamical correlations,roughly three to five particle diameters. Its rheology is rather subtle,combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-likedependence on strain. Our results confirm some aspects of classicalplasticity theory (e.g., coaxiality of stress and deformation rate),while contradicting others (i.e., incipient yield), and can guide thedevelopment of more realistic continuum models.
Method and apparatus for staking optical elements
Woods, Robert O.
1988-10-04
A method and apparatus for staking two optical elements together in order to retain their alignment is disclosed. The apparatus includes a removable adaptor made up of first and second adaptor bodies each having a lateral slot in their front and side faces. The adaptor also includes a system for releasably attaching each adaptor body to a respective optical element such that when the two optical elements are positioned relative to one another the adaptor bodies are adjacent and the lateral slots therein are aligned to form key slots. The adaptor includes keys which are adapted to fit into the key slots. A curable filler material is employed to retain the keys in the key slots and thereby join the first and second adaptor bodies to form the adaptor. Also disclosed is a method for staking together two optical elements employing the adaptor of the present invention.
Method and apparatus for staking optical elements
Woods, Robert O.
1988-01-01
A method and apparatus for staking two optical elements together in order to retain their alignment is disclosed. The apparatus includes a removable adaptor made up of first and second adaptor bodies each having a lateral slot in their front and side faces. The adaptor also includes a system for releasably attaching each adaptor body to a respective optical element such that when the two optical elements are positioned relative to one another the adaptor bodies are adjacent and the lateral slots therein are aligned to form key slots. The adaptor includes keys which are adapted to fit into the key slots. A curable filler material is employed to retain the keys in the key slots and thereby join the first and second adaptor bodies to form the adaptor. Also disclosed is a method for staking together two optical elements employing the adaptor of the present invention.
Discrete elements method of neutral particle transport. Doctoral thesis
Mathews, K.A.
1983-10-01
A new 'discrete elements' (LN) transport method is derived and compared to the discrete ordinates SN method, theoretically and by numerical experimentation. The discrete elements method is more accurate than discrete ordinates and strongly ameliorates ray effects for the practical problems studied. The discrete elements method is shown to be more cost effective in terms of execution time with comparable storage to attain the same accuracy, for a one-dimensional test case using linear characteristic spatial quadrature. In a two-dimensional test case, a vacuum duct in a shield, LN is more consistently convergent toward a Monte Carlo benchmark solution than SN, using step characteristic spatial quadrature. An analysis of the interaction of angular and spatial quadrature in xy-geometry indicates the desirability of using linear characteristic spatial quadrature with the LN method. The discrete elements method is based on discretizing the Boltzmann equation over a set of elements of angle. The zeroth and first angular moments of the directional flux, over each element, are estimated by numerical quadrature and yield a flux-weighted average streaming direction for the element. (Data for this estimation are fluxes in fixed directions calculated as in SN.)
Rolling element fatigue testing of gear materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nahm, A. H.
1978-01-01
Rolling element fatigue lives of eleven alloys were evaluated. The eleven alloys studied were three nitriding alloys (Super Nitralloy, Nitralloy 135, and Nitralloy N), four case carburizing alloys (AISI 9310, CBS 600, CBS 1000M and Vasco X-2), and four throughhardening alloys (Vasco Matrix II,AISI W-1, AISI S-2 and AISI O-2). Several different heat treatments and/or melting processes were studied on the three carburizing alloy steels. Metallurgical analyses were made before and after the RC rig tests. Test data were statistically analyzed using the Weibull distribution function. B-10 lives were compared versus VIM-VAR AISI M-50 and carburized VAR AISI 9310, as reference alloys.
Natural Elements Method for Free Surface Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darbani, M.; Ouahsine, A.; Villon, P.
2009-09-01
The Natural Element Method (NEM) is used to simulate a 2D shallow water flow in presence of free surface and a varying bathymetry. This meshless method used a fully Lagrangian formulation and natural neighbors, which remain a very striking problem related the boundary conditions. The method was succefully used to simulate dam-break flows by solving the fully nonlinear Shallow Water Equations (SWE) and by using an implicit scheme under a transient flow and the Coriolis effect.
Finite element methods in probabilistic mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Wing Kam; Mani, A.; Belytschko, Ted
1987-01-01
Probabilistic methods, synthesizing the power of finite element methods with second-order perturbation techniques, are formulated for linear and nonlinear problems. Random material, geometric properties and loads can be incorporated in these methods, in terms of their fundamental statistics. By construction, these methods are applicable when the scale of randomness is not too large and when the probabilistic density functions have decaying tails. By incorporating certain computational techniques, these methods are shown to be capable of handling large systems with many sources of uncertainties. Applications showing the effects of combined random fields and cyclic loading/stress reversal are studied and compared with Monte Carlo simulation results.
A general method to determine twinning elements
Zhang, Yudong; Li, Zongbin; Esling, Claude; Muller, Jacques; Zhao, Xiang; Zuo, Liang
2010-01-01
The fundamental theory of crystal twinning has been long established, leading to a significant advance in understanding the nature of this physical phenomenon. However, there remains a substantial gap between the elaborate theory and the practical determination of twinning elements. This paper proposes a direct and simple method – valid for any crystal structure and based on the minimum shear criterion – to calculate various twinning elements from the experimentally determined twinning plane for Type I twins or the twinning direction for Type II twins. Without additional efforts, it is generally applicable to identify and predict possible twinning modes occurring in a variety of crystalline solids. Therefore, the present method is a promising tool to characterize twinning elements, especially for those materials with complex crystal structure. PMID:22477779
An Efficient Vector Finite Element Method for Nonlinear Electromagnetic Modeling
Fisher, A C; White, D A; Rodrigue, G H
2006-06-27
We have developed a mixed Vector Finite Element Method (VFEM) for Maxwell's equations with a nonlinear polarization term. The method allows for discretization of complicated geometries with arbitrary order representations of the B and E fields. In this paper we will describe the method and a series of optimizations that significantly reduce the computational cost. Additionally, a series of test simulations will be presented to validate the method. Finally, a nonlinear waveguide mode mixing example is presented and discussed.
Battery element and method for making same
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clough, Thomas J. (Inventor); Pinsky, Naum (Inventor)
1989-01-01
In a method for producing a battery element useful as at least a positive plate in a lead-acid battery, the element comprising a fluid impervious, electrically conductive matrix having mutually opposing first and second surfaces and positive active electrode material associated with the first surface of the matrix, the improvement which comprises: conditioning the first surface to enhance the association of the positive active electrode material and the first surface; and applying and associating the positive active electrode material to the first surface.
Rolling element fatigue testing of gear materials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nahm, A. H.
1978-01-01
Rolling element fatigue lives of nine alloys were evaluated in Rolling Contact (RC) rigs. Test conditions included a Hertzian stress at 4,826 MPa (700 ksi), a rolling speed of 6.23 m/sec (245 in/sec.). Tests were run with a Type I oil (MIL-L-7808G) at room temperature. B-10 lives (10% failure rate) of alloys were compared versus reference alloys, VIM-VAR AISI M-50 and VAR AISI 9310. Six case carburizing alloys (AISI 9310, CBS600, CBS1000M, EX00014, Vasco X-2 and EX00053) and three through-hardening alloys (AISI M-50, VascoMax 350 and Vasco Matrix 2 evaluated, showed RCF performance inferior or equivalent to that of AISI 9310 and AISI M-50. It was also found that the effects of vacuum melting processes, different tempering temperatures, freezing cycle during heat treating, shot peening, gold plating and chrome plating employed in the present investigation did not significantly affect RCF life.
Field test of two 16-element fiber optic seismometer arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Fei; Wang, Xiaofei; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhu, Wanyu; Fu, Lixi; Zhang, Min
2015-08-01
Two 16-element fiber-optic seismometer arrays based on combined wavelength- and time domain multiplexing technology have been designed and investigated, followed by a field test, which is focused on the sensitivities of the sensors and correlation of the signal. The field test shows that the consistency of the sensitivities is pretty good, though the fluctuation of sensitivities at different frequencies should not be ignored. The method to calculate the correlation of two sensors is presented briefly and the results show an acceptable high level. The field test indicates that it's available to use the arrays in practical applications of micro-seismic.
An inverse problem by boundary element method
Tran-Cong, T.; Nguyen-Thien, T.; Graham, A.L.
1996-02-01
Boundary Element Methods (BEM) have been established as useful and powerful tools in a wide range of engineering applications, e.g. Brebbia et al. In this paper, we report a particular three dimensional implementation of a direct boundary integral equation (BIE) formulation and its application to numerical simulations of practical polymer processing operations. In particular, we will focus on the application of the present boundary element technology to simulate an inverse problem in plastics processing.by extrusion. The task is to design profile extrusion dies for plastics. The problem is highly non-linear due to material viscoelastic behaviours as well as unknown free surface conditions. As an example, the technique is shown to be effective in obtaining the die profiles corresponding to a square viscoelastic extrudate under different processing conditions. To further illustrate the capability of the method, examples of other non-trivial extrudate profiles and processing conditions are also given.
METHOD OF MAKING WIRE FUEL ELEMENTS
Zambrow, J.L.
1960-08-01
A method is given for making a nuclear reactor fuel element in the form of a uranium-bearing wire clad with zirconium. A uranium bar is enclosed in a zirconium sheath which is coated with an oxide of magnesium, beryllium, or zirconium. The sheathed bar is then placed in a steel tube and reduced to the desired diameter by swaging at 800 to 900 deg C, after which the steel and oxide are removed.
Mixed Finite Element Method for Melt Migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taicher, A. L.; Hesse, M. A.; Arbogast, T.
2012-12-01
Multi-phase flow arises during partial melting in the earth mantle, where the porosity is small and material has the characteristics of a compacting porous medium. The equations governing multi-phase flow have been specialized to partially molten materials by McKenzie and Fowler. Their model, also called a Darcy-Stokes system, is highly coupled and non-linear. Melt flow is governed by Darcy's Law while the high temperature, ductile creep of the solid matrix is modeled using viscous non-Newtonian Stokes rheology. In addition, the melt and solid pressures are related through a compaction relation. This nearly elliptic mechanical problem is then coupled with both solute transport and thermal evolution according to the enthalpy method developed by Katz. A suitable numerical method must solve the Darcy-Stokes problem in a manner compatible with the transport problem. Moreover, unlike most porous media problems, partially molten materials transition dynamically from non-porous solid to porous medium. Therefore, a numerical method must also carefully account for the limit of zero porosity. The Darcy-Stokes system for modeling partial melting in the mantle is a novel problem. As far as we know, there currently does not exist a finite element solution in the literature solving these coupled equations. The finite element framework provides support for additional analysis of error and convergence. Moreover, both mesh refinement and anisotropy are naturally incorporated into finite elements. In particular, the mixed finite element method presents a good candidate because it works in both limiting cases: Darcy and incompressible Stokes flow. Mixed methods also produce discretely conservative fluxes that are required for the transport problem to remains stable without violating conservation of mass. Based preliminary investigations in 1D and derived energy estimates, we present a mixed formulation for the Darcy-Stokes system. Next, using novel elements of lowest order and
Iterative methods for mixed finite element equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakazawa, S.; Nagtegaal, J. C.; Zienkiewicz, O. C.
1985-01-01
Iterative strategies for the solution of indefinite system of equations arising from the mixed finite element method are investigated in this paper with application to linear and nonlinear problems in solid and structural mechanics. The augmented Hu-Washizu form is derived, which is then utilized to construct a family of iterative algorithms using the displacement method as the preconditioner. Two types of iterative algorithms are implemented. Those are: constant metric iterations which does not involve the update of preconditioner; variable metric iterations, in which the inverse of the preconditioning matrix is updated. A series of numerical experiments is conducted to evaluate the numerical performance with application to linear and nonlinear model problems.
International Space Station Multi-Element Integrated Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Filler, Russell E.; Stone, Brock R. (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
The International Space Station offers a unique challenge for integrated testing since the entire station is not launched as an integrated vehicle. The ISS design evolved for over 10 years from the station Freedom program that was based on a "ship and shoot" approach. Ship and shoot assumed the program would accept the hardware for launch and integrate the vehicle on orbit without any ground element-to-element integrated testing. Element-to-Element powered-on integrated testing is needed to identify operational problems on the ground rather than once the hardware is on orbit. The industry is accustomed to testing an integrated vehicle and then verifying it is ready for its operational missions. These tests require ground element emulators to represent on-orbit elements. The ISS Multi-Element Integrated Tests (MEIT) are element-to-element integrated tests bringing together hardware representing several flights. The major purpose of these tests is: 1) Element-to-Element interface compatibility, 2) Systems end-to-end operability and functionality and 3) utilize on-orbit procedures with the crew and mission control center. Execution of these tests is critical since the hardware is available for only a limited period of time. Test configurations are defined which test specific interfaces or functionality. These tests develop operational confidence in the Element-to-Element interfaces and identify major problems on the ground to avoid on-orbit anomalies that could threaten mission success, element survivability or assembly activities. This paper addresses the MEIT process, configurations and lessons-learned from these tests.
Quantum algorithms and the finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montanaro, Ashley; Pallister, Sam
2016-03-01
The finite element method is used to approximately solve boundary value problems for differential equations. The method discretizes the parameter space and finds an approximate solution by solving a large system of linear equations. Here we investigate the extent to which the finite element method can be accelerated using an efficient quantum algorithm for solving linear equations. We consider the representative general question of approximately computing a linear functional of the solution to a boundary value problem and compare the quantum algorithm's theoretical performance with that of a standard classical algorithm—the conjugate gradient method. Prior work claimed that the quantum algorithm could be exponentially faster but did not determine the overall classical and quantum run times required to achieve a predetermined solution accuracy. Taking this into account, we find that the quantum algorithm can achieve a polynomial speedup, the extent of which grows with the dimension of the partial differential equation. In addition, we give evidence that no improvement of the quantum algorithm can lead to a superpolynomial speedup when the dimension is fixed and the solution satisfies certain smoothness properties.
Mixed Finite Element Methods for Melt Migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taicher, A. L.
2013-12-01
Multi-phase flow arises during partial melting in the earth mantle, where the porosity is small and material has the characteristics of a compacting porous medium. The equations governing multi-phase flow have been specialized to partially molten materials by McKenzie and Fowler. Their model, also called a Darcy-Stokes system, is highly coupled and non-linear. Melt flow is governed by Darcy's Law while the high temperature, ductile creep of the solid matrix is modeled using viscous non-Newtonian Stokes rheology. In addition, the melt and solid pressures are related through a compaction relation. This nearly elliptic mechanical problem is then coupled with both solute transport and thermal evolution according to the enthalpy method developed by Katz. A suitable numerical method must solve the Darcy-Stokes problem in a manner compatible with the transport problem. Moreover, unlike most porous media problems, partially molten materials transition dynamically from non-porous solid to porous medium so must carefully account for the limit of zero porosity. The Darcy-Stokes system for modeling partial melting in the mantle is a novel problem. As far as we know, there currently does not exist a finite element solution in the literature solving these coupled equations. In particular, the mixed finite element method presents a good candidate because it works in both limiting cases: Darcy and incompressible Stokes flow. We present a mixed formulation for the Darcy-Stokes system. Next, we present novel elements of lowest order and compatible with both Darcy and Stokes flow Finally, we present our 2D mixed FEM code result for solving Stokes and Darcy flow as well as the coupled Darcy-Stokes system the mid-ocean ridge or corner flow problem.
Effective beam method for element concentrations.
Tolhurst, Thomas; Barbi, Mauricio; Tokaryk, Tim
2015-03-01
There is a great diversity of research being conducted at synchrotron facilities around the world and a diverse set of beamlines to accommodate this research. Time is a precious commodity at synchrotron facilities; therefore, methods that can maximize the time spent collecting data are of value. At the same time the incident radiation spectrum, necessary for some research, may not be known on a given beamline. A preliminary presentation of a method applicable to X-ray fluorescence spectrocopic analyses that overcomes the lack of information about the incident beam spectrum that addresses both of these concerns is given here. The method is equally applicable for other X-ray sources so long as local conditions are considered. It relies on replacing the polychromatic spectrum in a standard fundamental parameters analysis with a set of effective monochromatic photon beams. A beam is associated with each element and can be described by an analytical function allowing extension to elements not included in the necessary calibration measurement(s). PMID:25723941
Convected element method for simulation of angiogenesis.
Pindera, Maciej Z; Ding, Hui; Chen, Zhijian
2008-10-01
We describe a novel Convected Element Method (CEM) for simulation of formation of functional blood vessels induced by tumor-generated growth factors in a process called angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is typically modeled by a convection-diffusion-reaction equation defined on a continuous domain. A difficulty arises when a continuum approach is used to represent the formation of discrete blood vessel structures. CEM solves this difficulty by using a hybrid continuous/discrete solution method allowing lattice-free tracking of blood vessel tips that trace out paths that subsequently are used to define compact vessel elements. In contrast to more conventional angiogenesis modeling, the new branches form evolving grids that are capable of simulating transport of biological and chemical factors such as nutrition and anti-angiogenic agents. The method is demonstrated on expository vessel growth and tumor response simulations for a selected set of conditions, and include effects of nutrient delivery and inhibition of vessel branching. Initial results show that CEM can predict qualitatively the development of biologically reasonable and fully functional vascular structures. Research is being carried out to generalize the approach which will allow quantitative predictions. PMID:18365201
Effective beam method for element concentrations
Tolhurst, Thomas; Barbi, Mauricio; Tokaryk, Tim
2015-01-01
There is a great diversity of research being conducted at synchrotron facilities around the world and a diverse set of beamlines to accommodate this research. Time is a precious commodity at synchrotron facilities; therefore, methods that can maximize the time spent collecting data are of value. At the same time the incident radiation spectrum, necessary for some research, may not be known on a given beamline. A preliminary presentation of a method applicable to X-ray fluorescence spectrocopic analyses that overcomes the lack of information about the incident beam spectrum that addresses both of these concerns is given here. The method is equally applicable for other X-ray sources so long as local conditions are considered. It relies on replacing the polychromatic spectrum in a standard fundamental parameters analysis with a set of effective monochromatic photon beams. A beam is associated with each element and can be described by an analytical function allowing extension to elements not included in the necessary calibration measurement(s). PMID:25723941
METHOD OF PREPARING A CERAMIC FUEL ELEMENT
Ross, W.T.; Bloomster, C.H.; Bardsley, R.E.
1963-09-01
A method is described for preparing a fuel element from -325 mesh PuO/ sub 2/ and -20 mesh UO/sub 2/, and the steps of screening --325 mesh UO/sub 2/ from the -20 mesh UO/sub 2/, mixing PuO/sub 2/ with the --325 mesh UO/sub 2/, blending this mixture with sufficient --20 mesh UO/sub 2/ to obtain the desired composition, introducing the blend into a metal tube, repeating the procedure until the tube is full, and vibrating the tube to compact the powder are included. (AEC)
Manzini, Gianmarco
2012-07-13
We develop and analyze a new family of virtual element methods on unstructured polygonal meshes for the diffusion problem in primal form, that use arbitrarily regular discrete spaces V{sub h} {contained_in} C{sup {alpha}} {element_of} N. The degrees of freedom are (a) solution and derivative values of various degree at suitable nodes and (b) solution moments inside polygons. The convergence of the method is proven theoretically and an optimal error estimate is derived. The connection with the Mimetic Finite Difference method is also discussed. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence rate that is expected from the theory.
Characterization of floating element balance for field panel testing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunsucker, J. Travis; Gardner, Harrison; Swain, Geoffrey
2015-11-01
Multiple experiments were performed to investigate and characterize the uncertainty and bias of a through-hull flush mounted floating element balance designed to measure the hydrodynamic drag forces of biofouling and marine coatings on 25 x 30 cm test panels. The instrument is located in a wet well on the aft portion of a 27' Chris Craft Commander. Testing occurs over a series of speeds ranging from a Froude number of 0.50-2.20 on calm days (force 3 or less) in waters along the central east coast of Florida. Recent modifications have been made to the instrumentation in an effort to improve the overall accuracy of the system. This study compares frictional drag measurements of the floating element balance to those obtained using the Clauser chart and Preston tube methods for a smooth surface. Boundary layer velocity profiles are examined to understand the nature of the flow over the testing section. Roughness function values for 60 and 220 grit sandpaper were calculated from data obtained using the floating element balance. These values were compared with previous work to examine the overall bias of the methodology. Repeat measurements for a smooth panel were analyzed to characterize the overall uncertainty in the system. This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research under grants N00014-10-1-0919 and N00014-11-1-0915.
Holographic optical elements: Fabrication and testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zech, R. G.; Shareck, M.; Ralston, L. M.
1974-01-01
The basic properties and use of holographic optical elements were investigated to design and construct wide-angle, Fourier-transform holographic optical systems for use in a Bragg-effect optical memory. The performance characteristics are described along with the construction of the holographic system.
Evaluation of modal testing methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, J.-C.
1984-01-01
Modal tests are playing an increasingly important role in structural dynamics efforts which are in need of analytical model verification or trouble shootings. In the meantime, the existing modal testing methods are undergoing great changes as well as new methods are being created. Although devoted advocates of each method can be found to argue the relative advantages and disadvantages, the general superiority, if any, of one or the other is not yet evident. The Galileo spacecraft, a realistic, complex structural system, will be used as a test article for performing modal tests by various methods. The results will be used to evaluate the relative merits of the various modal testing methods.
Elements configuration of the open lead test circuit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuzaki, Yumi; Ono, Akira
2016-07-01
In the field of electronics, small electronic devices are widely utilized because they are easy to carry. The devices have various functions by user's request. Therefore, the lead's pitch or the ball's pitch have been narrowed and high-density printed circuit board has been used in the devices. Use of the ICs which have narrow lead pitch makes normal connection difficult. When logic circuits in the devices are fabricated with the state-of-the-art technology, some faults have occurred more frequently. It can be divided into types of open faults and short faults. We have proposed a new test method using a test circuit in the past. This paper propose elements configuration of the test circuit.
Johns, I.B.; Newton, A.S.
1958-09-01
A method is described for detecting pin hole imperfections in coatings on uranium-metal objects. Such coated objects are contacted with a heated atmosphere of gaseous hydrogen and imperfections present in the coatings will allow the uranlum to react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride. Since uranium hydride is less dense than uranium metal it will swell, causing enlargement of the coating defeot and rendering it visible.
Peterson, D.W.; Sweet, J.N.; Burchett, S.N.; Hsia, A.
1996-12-31
The authors report the first measurements of in-situ flip-chip assembly mechanical stresses using a CMOS piezoresistive test chip repatterned with a fine pitch full area array. A special printed circuit board substrate was designed at Sandia and fabricated by the Hadco Corp. The flip-chip solder attach (FCA) and underfill was performed by a SEMATECH member company. The measured incremental stresses produced by the underfill are reported and discussed for several underfill materials used in this experiment. A FEM of a one-quarter section of the square assembly has been developed to compare with the measured as-assembled and underfill die surface stresses. The initial model utilized linear elastic constitutive models for the Si, solder, underfill, and PC board components. Detailed comparisons between theory and experiment are presented and discussed.
Material nonlinear analysis via mixed-iterative finite element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sutjahjo, Edhi; Chamis, Christos C.
1992-01-01
The performance of elastic-plastic mixed-iterative analysis is examined through a set of convergence studies. Membrane and bending behaviors are tested using 4-node quadrilateral finite elements. The membrane result is excellent, which indicates the implementation of elastic-plastic mixed-iterative analysis is appropriate. On the other hand, further research to improve bending performance of the method seems to be warranted.
Hybrid finite element and Brownian dynamics method for charged particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, Gary A.; Miao, Yinglong; Zhou, Shenggao; Li, Bo; McCammon, J. Andrew
2016-04-01
Diffusion is often the rate-determining step in many biological processes. Currently, the two main computational methods for studying diffusion are stochastic methods, such as Brownian dynamics, and continuum methods, such as the finite element method. A previous study introduced a new hybrid diffusion method that couples the strengths of each of these two methods, but was limited by the lack of interactions among the particles; the force on each particle had to be from an external field. This study further develops the method to allow charged particles. The method is derived for a general multidimensional system and is presented using a basic test case for a one-dimensional linear system with one charged species and a radially symmetric system with three charged species.
Creutz, E.C.; McAdams, Wm.A.; Foss, M.H.
1958-07-22
A method is described for detecting minute holes In fuel element jackets. The method comprises submerging the jacketed body in an atmosphere of a radioactive gas under pressure, the radioactive emanations from said gas being sufficientiy penetratIng to penetrate the jacket of the jacketed body. After the jacketed body is removed from the radtoactive gas atmosphere, it is exannined for the presence of emanations from radioactive gas which entered the jacketed body through the minute holes. In this manner, the detectton of radioactive emanations is a positive indication that the fuel element is not perfectly sealed.
Gravity field determination using boundary element methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klees, Roland
1993-09-01
The Boundary Element Method (BEM), a numerical technique for solving boundary integral equations, is introduced to determine the earth's gravity field. After a short survey on its main principles, we apply this method to the fixed gravimetric boundary value problem (BVP), i.e. the determination of the earth's gravitational potential from measurements of the intensity of the gravity field in points on the earth's surface. We show how to linearize this nonlinear BVP using an implicit function theorem and how to transform the linearized BVP into a boundary integral equation using the single layer representation. A Galerkin method is used to transform the boundary integral equation using the single layer representation. A Galerkin method is used to transform the boundary integral equation into a linear system of equations. We discuss the major problems of this approach for setting up and solving the linear system. The BVP is numerically solved for a bounded part of the earth's surface using a high resolution reference gravity model, measured gravity values of high density, and a 50 ṡ 50 m2 digital terrain model to describe the earth's surface. We obtain a gravity field resolution of 1 ṡ 1 km2 with an accuracy of the order 10-3 to 10-4 in about 1 CPU-hour on a Siemens/Fujitsu SIMD vector pipeline machine using highly sophisticated numerical integration techniques and fast equation solvers. We conclude that BEM is a powerful numerical tool for solving boundary value problems and may be an alternative to classical geodetic techniques.
Fuzzy stochastic elements method. Spectral approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sniady, Pawel; Mazur-Sniady, Krystyna; Sieniawska, Roza; Zukowski, Stanislaw
2013-05-01
We study a complex dynamic problem, which concerns a structure with uncertain parameters subjected to a stochastic excitation. Formulation of such a problem introduces fuzzy random variables for parameters of the structure and fuzzy stochastic processes for the load process. The uncertainty has two sources, namely the randomness of structural parameters such as geometry characteristics, material and damping properties, load process and imprecision of the theoretical model and incomplete information or uncertain data. All of these have a great influence on the response of the structure. By analyzing such problems we describe the random variability using the probability theory and the imprecision by use of fuzzy sets. Due to the fact that it is difficult to find an analytic expression for the inversion of the stochastic operator in the stochastic differential equation, a number of approximate methods have been proposed in the literature which can be connected to the finite element method. To evaluate the effects of excitation in the frequency domain we use the spectral density function. The spectral analysis is widely used in stochastic dynamics field of linear systems for stationary random excitation. The concept of the evolutionary spectral density is used in the case of non-stationary random excitation. We solve the considered problem using fuzzy stochastic finite element method. The solution is based on the idea of a fuzzy random frequency response vector for stationary input excitation and a transient fuzzy random frequency response vector for the fuzzy non-stationary one. We use the fuzzy random frequency response vector and the transient fuzzy random frequency response vector in the context of spectral analysis in order to determine the influence of structural uncertainty on the fuzzy random response of the structure. We study a linear system with random parameters subjected to two particular cases of stochastic excitation in a frequency domain. The first one
The finite element method for calculating the marine structural design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ion, A.; Ticu, I.
2015-11-01
The aim of this paper is to optimally design and dimension marine structures in order for them to fulfil both functional and safety requirements. A master level of structural mechanics is vital in order to check tests and analysis and to develop new structures. This study can improve the calculation and estimation of the effects of hydrodynamics and of other loads; movements, strains and internal forces in fixed and floating platforms and ships. The finite element method (FEM) ensures basic understanding of the finite element model as applied on static cases including beam and plate elements, experience with static analysis of marine structures like platforms and ships, along with the basic understanding of dynamic response of systems with one degree of freedom and simple continuous beams, and also how analysis models can be established for real structures by the use of generalized coordinates and superposition.
Iterative methods for elliptic finite element equations on general meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicolaides, R. A.; Choudhury, Shenaz
1986-01-01
Iterative methods for arbitrary mesh discretizations of elliptic partial differential equations are surveyed. The methods discussed are preconditioned conjugate gradients, algebraic multigrid, deflated conjugate gradients, an element-by-element techniques, and domain decomposition. Computational results are included.
Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo Elements for Space Station
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kappus, Kathy O.; Driskill, Timothy C.; Parks, Russel A.; Patterson, Alan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
From December 1996 to May 2001, the Modal and Control Dynamics Team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted modal tests on seven large elements of the International Space Station. Each of these elements has been or will be launched as a Space Shuttle payload for transport to the International Space Station (ISS). Like other Shuttle payloads, modal testing of these elements was required for verification of the finite element models used in coupled loads analyses for launch and landing. The seven modal tests included three modules - Node, Laboratory, and Airlock, and four truss segments - P6, P3/P4, S1/P1, and P5. Each element was installed and tested in the Shuttle Payload Modal Test Bed at MSFC. This unique facility can accommodate any Shuttle cargo element for modal test qualification. Flexure assemblies were utilized at each Shuttle-to-payload interface to simulate a constrained boundary in the load carrying degrees of freedom. For each element, multiple-input, multiple-output burst random modal testing was the primary approach with controlled input sine sweeps for linearity assessments. The accelerometer channel counts ranged from 252 channels to 1251 channels. An overview of these tests, as well as some lessons learned, will be provided in this paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung
1996-01-01
The I-D, quasi I-D and 2-D Euler solvers based on the method of space-time conservation element and solution element are used to simulate various flow phenomena including shock waves, Mach stem, contact surface, expansion waves, and their intersections and reflections. Seven test problems are solved to demonstrate the capability of this method for handling unsteady compressible flows in various configurations. Numerical results so obtained are compared with exact solutions and/or numerical solutions obtained by schemes based on other established computational techniques. Comparisons show that the present Euler solvers can generate highly accurate numerical solutions to complex flow problems in a straightforward manner without using any ad hoc techniques in the scheme.
Turbomachinery flow calculation on unstructured grids using finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koschel, W.; Vornberger, A.
An explicit finite-element scheme based on a two-step Taylor-Galerkin algorithm allows the solution of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids. Mesh generation methods for unstructured grids are described which lead to efficient flow calculations. Turbulent flow is calculated by using an algebraic turbulence model. To test the numerical accuracy, a laminar and turbulent flow over a flat plate and the supersonic flow in a corner has been calculated. For validation the method is applied to the simulation of the inviscid flow through a transonic turbine cascade and the viscous flow through a subsonic turbine cascade.
Unidirectional Fabric Drape Testing Method
Mei, Zaihuan; Yang, Jingzhi; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Hua
2015-01-01
In most cases, fabrics such as curtains, skirts, suit pants and so on are draped under their own gravity parallel to fabric plane while the gravity is perpendicular to fabric plane in traditional drape testing method. As a result, it does not conform to actual situation and the test data is not convincing enough. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a novel method which simulates the real mechanical conditions and ensures the gravity is parallel to the fabric plane. This method applied a low-cost Kinect Sensor device to capture the 3-dimensional (3D) drape profile, thus we obtained the drape degree parameters and aesthetic parameters by 3D reconstruction and image processing and analysis techniques. The experiment was conducted on our self-devised drape-testing instrument by choosing different kinds of weave structure fabrics as our testing samples and the results were compared with those of traditional method and subjective evaluation. Through regression and correlation analysis we found that this novel testing method was significantly correlated with the traditional and subjective evaluation method. We achieved a new, non-contact 3D measurement method for drape testing, namely unidirectional fabric drape testing method. This method is more suitable for evaluating drape behavior because it is more in line with actual mechanical conditions of draped fabrics and has a well consistency with the requirements of visual and aesthetic style of fabrics. PMID:26600387
Unidirectional Fabric Drape Testing Method.
Mei, Zaihuan; Shen, Wei; Wang, Yan; Yang, Jingzhi; Zhou, Ting; Zhou, Hua
2015-01-01
In most cases, fabrics such as curtains, skirts, suit pants and so on are draped under their own gravity parallel to fabric plane while the gravity is perpendicular to fabric plane in traditional drape testing method. As a result, it does not conform to actual situation and the test data is not convincing enough. To overcome this problem, this paper presents a novel method which simulates the real mechanical conditions and ensures the gravity is parallel to the fabric plane. This method applied a low-cost Kinect Sensor device to capture the 3-dimensional (3D) drape profile, thus we obtained the drape degree parameters and aesthetic parameters by 3D reconstruction and image processing and analysis techniques. The experiment was conducted on our self-devised drape-testing instrument by choosing different kinds of weave structure fabrics as our testing samples and the results were compared with those of traditional method and subjective evaluation. Through regression and correlation analysis we found that this novel testing method was significantly correlated with the traditional and subjective evaluation method. We achieved a new, non-contact 3D measurement method for drape testing, namely unidirectional fabric drape testing method. This method is more suitable for evaluating drape behavior because it is more in line with actual mechanical conditions of draped fabrics and has a well consistency with the requirements of visual and aesthetic style of fabrics. PMID:26600387
Method and system for processing optical elements using magnetorheological finishing
Menapace, Joseph Arthur; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene; Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A
2012-09-18
A method of finishing an optical element includes mounting the optical element in an optical mount having a plurality of fiducials overlapping with the optical element and obtaining a first metrology map for the optical element and the plurality of fiducials. The method also includes obtaining a second metrology map for the optical element without the plurality of fiducials, forming a difference map between the first metrology map and the second metrology map, and aligning the first metrology map and the second metrology map. The method further includes placing mathematical fiducials onto the second metrology map using the difference map to form a third metrology map and associating the third metrology map to the optical element. Moreover, the method includes mounting the optical element in the fixture in an MRF tool, positioning the optical element in the fixture; removing the plurality of fiducials, and finishing the optical element.
Progress in Developing Finite Element Models Replicating Flexural Graphite Testing
Robert Bratton
2010-06-01
This report documents the status of flexural strength evaluations from current ASTM procedures and of developing finite element models predicting the probability of failure. This work is covered under QLD REC-00030. Flexural testing procedures of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) assume a linear elastic material that has the same moduli for tension and compression. Contrary to this assumption, graphite is known to have different moduli for tension and compression. A finite element model was developed and demonstrated that accounts for the difference in moduli tension and compression. Brittle materials such as graphite exhibit significant scatter in tensile strength, so probabilistic design approaches must be used when designing components fabricated from brittle materials. ASTM procedures predicting probability of failure in ceramics were compared to methods from the current version of the ASME graphite core components rules predicting probability of failure. Using the ASTM procedures yields failure curves at lower applied forces than the ASME rules. A journal paper was published in the Journal of Nuclear Engineering and Design exploring the statistical models of fracture in graphite.
Diffractive optical element in materials testing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silvennoinen, Raimo V. J.; Peiponen, Kai-Erik
1998-09-01
The object of this paper is to present a sensor based on diffractive optics that can be applied for the materials testing. The present sensor, which is based on the use of a computer-generated hologram (CGH) exploits the holographic imagery. The CGH-sensor was introduced for inspection of surface roughness and flatness of metal surfaces. The results drawn out by the present sensor are observed to be in accordance with the experimental data. Together with the double exposure holographic interferometry (DEHI) and digital electronic speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) in elasticity inspection, the sensor was applied for the investigations of surface quality of opaque fragile materials, which are pharmaceutical compacts. The optical surface quality was observed to be related to the porosity of the pharmaceutical tablets. The CGH-sensor was also applied for investigations of optical quality of thin films as PLZT ceramics and coating of pharmaceutical compacts. The surfaces of PLZT samples showed fluctuations in optical curvature, and wedgeness for all the cases studied. For pharmaceutical compacts, the optical signals were observed to depend to a great extent on the optical constants of the coatings and the substrates, and in addition to the surface porosity under the coating.
Space reactor fuel element testing in upgraded TREAT
Todosow, M.; Bezler, P.; Ludewig, H.; Kato, W.Y.
1993-01-14
The testing of candidate fuel elements at prototypic operating conditions with respect to temperature, power density, hydrogen coolant flow rate, etc., a crucial component in the development and qualification of nuclear rocket engines based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), NERVA-derivative, and other concepts. Such testing may be performed at existing reactors, or at new facilities. A scoping study has been performed to assess the feasibility of testing PBR based fuel elements at the TREAT reactor. initial results suggest that full-scale PBR, elements could be tested at an average energy deposition of {approximately}60--80 MW-s/L in the current TREAT reactor. If the TREAT reactor was upgraded to include fuel elements with a higher temperature limit, average energy deposition of {approximately}100 MW/L may be achievable.
Space reactor fuel element testing in upgraded TREAT
Todosow, M.; Bezler, P.; Ludewig, H.; Kato, W.Y. )
1993-01-15
The testing of candidate fuel elements at prototypic operating conditions with respect to temperature, power density, hydrogen coolant flow rate, etc., is a crucial component in the development and qualification of nuclear rocket engines based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), NERVA-derivative, and other concepts. Such testing may be performed at existing reactors, or at new facilities. A scoping study has been performed to assess the feasibility of testing PBR based fuel elements at the TREAT reactor. Initial results suggests that full-scale PBR elements could be tested at an average energy deposition of [similar to]60--80 MW-s/L in the current TREAT reactor. If the TREAT reactor was upgraded to include fuel elements with a higher temperture limit, average energy deposition of [similar to]100 MW/L may be achievable.
Space reactor fuel element testing in upgraded TREAT
Todosow, M.; Bezler, P.; Ludewig, H.; Kato, W.Y.
1993-05-01
The testing of candidate fuel elements at prototypic operating conditions with respect to temperature, power density, hydrogen coolant flow rate, etc., a crucial component in the development and qualification of nuclear rocket engines based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), NERVA-derivative, and other concepts. Such testing may be performed at existing reactors, or at new facilities. A scoping study has been performed to assess the feasibility of testing PBR based fuel elements at the TREAT reactor. initial results suggest that full-scale PBR, elements could be tested at an average energy deposition of {approximately}60--80 MW-s/L in the current TREAT reactor. If the TREAT reactor was upgraded to include fuel elements with a higher temperature limit, average energy deposition of {approximately}100 MW/L may be achievable.
Test methods for textile composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minguet, Pierre J.; Fedro, Mark J.; Gunther, Christian K.
1994-01-01
Various test methods commonly used for measuring properties of tape laminate composites were evaluated to determine their suitability for the testing of textile composites. Three different types of textile composites were utilized in this investigation: two-dimensional (2-D) triaxial braids, stitched uniweave fabric, and three-dimensional (3-D) interlock woven fabric. Four 2-D braid architectures, five stitched laminates, and six 3-D woven architectures were tested. All preforms used AS4 fibers and were resin-transfer-molded with Shell RSL-1895 epoxy resin. Ten categories of material properties were investigated: tension, open-hole tension, compression, open-hole compression, in-plane shear, filled-hole tension, bolt bearing, interlaminar tension, interlaminar shear, and interlaminar fracture toughness. Different test methods and specimen sizes were considered for each category of test. Strength and stiffness properties obtained with each of these methods are documented in this report for all the material systems mentioned above.
FUEL ELEMENT AND METHOD OF PREPARATION
Kingston, W.E.
1961-04-25
A nuclear fuel element in the form of a wire is reported. A bar of uranium is enclosed in a thin layer of aluminum and the composite is sheathed in beryllium, zirconium, or stainnless steel. The sheathed article is then drawn to wire form, heated to alloy the aluminum with both uranium and sheath, and finally cold worked.
Simulating Space Capsule Water Landing with Explicit Finite Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, John T.; Lyle, Karen H.
2007-01-01
A study of using an explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element code for simulating the water landing of a space capsule was performed. The finite element model contains Lagrangian shell elements for the space capsule and Eulerian solid elements for the water and air. An Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) solver and a penalty coupling method were used for predicting the fluid and structure interaction forces. The space capsule was first assumed to be rigid, so the numerical results could be correlated with closed form solutions. The water and air meshes were continuously refined until the solution was converged. The converged maximum deceleration predicted is bounded by the classical von Karman and Wagner solutions and is considered to be an adequate solution. The refined water and air meshes were then used in the models for simulating the water landing of a capsule model that has a flexible bottom. For small pitch angle cases, the maximum deceleration from the flexible capsule model was found to be significantly greater than the maximum deceleration obtained from the corresponding rigid model. For large pitch angle cases, the difference between the maximum deceleration of the flexible model and that of its corresponding rigid model is smaller. Test data of Apollo space capsules with a flexible heat shield qualitatively support the findings presented in this paper.
Composite micromechanical modeling using the boundary element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, Robert K.; Hopkins, Dale A.
1993-01-01
The use of the boundary element method for analyzing composite micromechanical behavior is demonstrated. Stress-strain, heat conduction, and thermal expansion analyses are conducted using the boundary element computer code BEST-CMS, and the results obtained are compared to experimental observations, analytical calculations, and finite element analyses. For each of the analysis types, the boundary element results agree reasonably well with the results from the other methodologies, with explainable discrepancies. Overall, the boundary element method shows promise in providing an alternative method to analyze composite micromechanical behavior.
A Method for Connecting Dissimilar Finite Element Meshes in Three Dimensions
Dohrmann, C.R.; Heinstein, M.W.; Key, S.W.
1998-11-12
A method is presented for connecting dissimilar finite element meshes in three dimensions. The method combines the concept of master and slave surfaces with the uniform strain approach for surface, corrections finite elements- By modifyhg the are made to element formulations boundaries of elements on the slave such that first-order patch tests are passed. The method can be used to connect meshes which use different element types. In addition, master and slave surfaces can be designated independently of relative mesh resolutions. Example problems in three-dimensional linear elasticity are presented.
On Some Versions of the Element Agglomeration AMGe Method
Lashuk, I; Vassilevski, P
2007-08-09
The present paper deals with element-based AMG methods that target linear systems of equations coming from finite element discretizations of elliptic PDEs. The individual element information (element matrices and element topology) is the main input to construct the AMG hierarchy. We study a number of variants of the spectral agglomerate element based AMG method. The core of the algorithms relies on element agglomeration utilizing the element topology (built recursively from fine to coarse levels). The actual selection of the coarse degrees of freedom (dofs) is based on solving large number of local eigenvalue problems. Additionally, we investigate strategies for adaptive AMG as well as multigrid cycles that are more expensive than the V-cycle utilizing simple interpolation matrices and nested conjugate gradient (CG) based recursive calls between the levels. The presented algorithms are illustrated with an extensive set of experiments based on a matlab implementation of the methods.
Control system health test system and method
Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Baker, Thomas M.
2006-08-15
A method is provided for testing multiple elements of a work machine, including a control system, a component, a sub-component that is influenced by operations of the component, and a sensor that monitors a characteristic of the sub-component. In one embodiment, the method is performed by the control system and includes sending a command to the component to adjust a first parameter associated with an operation of the component. Also, the method includes detecting a sensor signal from the sensor reflecting a second parameter associated with a characteristic of the sub-component and determining whether the second parameter is acceptable based on the command. The control system may diagnose at least one of the elements of the work machine when the second parameter of the sub-component is not acceptable.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mei, Chuh; Pates, Carl S., III
1994-01-01
A coupled boundary element (BEM)-finite element (FEM) approach is presented to accurately model structure-acoustic interaction systems. The boundary element method is first applied to interior, two and three-dimensional acoustic domains with complex geometry configurations. Boundary element results are very accurate when compared with limited exact solutions. Structure-interaction problems are then analyzed with the coupled FEM-BEM method, where the finite element method models the structure and the boundary element method models the interior acoustic domain. The coupled analysis is compared with exact and experimental results for a simplistic model. Composite panels are analyzed and compared with isotropic results. The coupled method is then extended for random excitation. Random excitation results are compared with uncoupled results for isotropic and composite panels.
Application of the space-time conservation element and solution element method to shock-tube problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung
1994-01-01
An Euler solver based on the method of space-time conservation element and solution element is in this paper to simulate shock-tube flows involving shock waves, contact discontinuities, expansion waves and their intersections. Seven test problems are considered to examine the capability of this method. The numerical results, when compared with exact solutions and/or numerical solutions by other methods, indicate that the present method can accurately resolve strong shock and contact discontinuities without using any ad hoc techniques which are used only at the neighborhood of a discontinuity.
Transient analysis of 1D inhomogeneous media by dynamic inhomogeneous finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zailin; Wang, Yao; Hei, Baoping
2013-12-01
The dynamic inhomogeneous finite element method is studied for use in the transient analysis of onedimensional inhomogeneous media. The general formula of the inhomogeneous consistent mass matrix is established based on the shape function. In order to research the advantages of this method, it is compared with the general finite element method. A linear bar element is chosen for the discretization tests of material parameters with two fictitious distributions. And, a numerical example is solved to observe the differences in the results between these two methods. Some characteristics of the dynamic inhomogeneous finite element method that demonstrate its advantages are obtained through comparison with the general finite element method. It is found that the method can be used to solve elastic wave motion problems with a large element scale and a large number of iteration steps.
A Summary of the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Xiao-Yen J.
2015-01-01
The space-time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method for solving conservation laws is examined for its development motivation and design requirements. The characteristics of the resulting scheme are discussed. The discretization of the Euler equations is presented to show readers how to construct a scheme based on the CESE method. The differences and similarities between the CESE method and other traditional methods are discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the method are also addressed.
Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 1 20-Inch Hemisphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vassilakos, Gregory J.
2015-01-01
Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA simulations of water landing impacts. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. Phase 1 of the EWIT series featured water impact tests of a 20-inch hemisphere dropped from heights of 5 feet and 10 feet. The hemisphere was outfitted with an accelerometer and three pressure gages. The focus of this report is the correlation of analytical models against test data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seybert, A. F.; Wu, T. W.; Wu, X. F.
1994-01-01
This research report is presented in three parts. In the first part, acoustical analyses were performed on modes of vibration of the housing of a transmission of a gear test rig developed by NASA. The modes of vibration of the transmission housing were measured using experimental modal analysis. The boundary element method (BEM) was used to calculate the sound pressure and sound intensity on the surface of the housing and the radiation efficiency of each mode. The radiation efficiency of each of the transmission housing modes was then compared to theoretical results for a finite baffled plate. In the second part, analytical and experimental validation of methods to predict structural vibration and radiated noise are presented. A rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker was used as a vibrating structure. Combined finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM) models of the apparatus were used to predict the noise level radiated from the box. The FEM was used to predict the vibration, while the BEM was used to predict the sound intensity and total radiated sound power using surface vibration as the input data. Vibration predicted by the FEM model was validated by experimental modal analysis; noise predicted by the BEM was validated by measurements of sound intensity. Three types of results are presented for the total radiated sound power: sound power predicted by the BEM model using vibration data measured on the surface of the box; sound power predicted by the FEM/BEM model; and sound power measured by an acoustic intensity scan. In the third part, the structure used in part two was modified. A rib was attached to the top plate of the structure. The FEM and BEM were then used to predict structural vibration and radiated noise respectively. The predicted vibration and radiated noise were then validated through experimentation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung
1995-01-01
The existing 2-D alpha-mu scheme and alpha-epsilon scheme based on the method of space-time conservation element and solution element, which were constructed for solving the linear 2-D unsteady advection-diffusion equation and unsteady advection equation, respectively, are tested. Also, the alpha-epsilon scheme is modified to become the V-E scheme for solving the nonlinear 2-D inviscid Burgers equation. Numerical solutions of six test problems are presented in comparison with their exact solutions or numerical solutions obtained by traditional finite-difference or finite-element methods. It is demonstrated that the 2-D alpha-mu, alpha-epsilon, and nu-epsilon schemes can be used to obtain numerical results which are more accurate than those based on some of the traditional methods but without using any artificial tuning in the computation. Similar to the previous 1-D test problems, the high accuracy and simplicity features of the space-time conservation element and solution element method have been revealed again in the present 2-D test results.
Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine A.
1985-01-01
A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capdeville, Y.; Gung, Y.; Romanowicz, B.
2002-12-01
The spectral element method (SEM) has recently been adapted successfully for global spherical earth wave propagation applications. Its advantage is that it provides a way to compute exact seismograms in a 3D earth, without restrictions on the size or wavelength of lateral heterogeneity at any depth, and can handle diffraction and other interactions with major structural boundaries. Its disadvantage is that it is computationally heavy. In order to partly address this drawback, a coupled SEM/normal mode method was developed (Capdeville et al., 2000). This enables us to more efficiently compute bodywave seismograms to realistically short periods (10s or less). In particular, the coupled SEM/normal mode method is a powerful tool to test the validity of some analytical approximations that are currently used in global waveform tomography, and that are considerably faster computationally. Here, we focus on several approximations based on normal mode perturbation theory: the classical "path-average approximation" (PAVA) introduced by Woodhouse and Dziewonski (1984) and well suited for fundamental mode surface waves (1D sensitivity kernels); the non-linear asymptotic coupling theory (NACT), which introduces coupling between mode branches and 2D kernels in the vertical plane containing the source and the receiver (Li and Tanimoto, 1993; Li and Romanowicz, 1995); an extension of NACT which includes out of plane focusing terms computed asymptotically (e.g. Romanowicz, 1987) and introduces 3D kernels; we also consider first order perturbation theory without asymptotic approximations, such as developed for example by Dahlen et al. (2000). We present the results of comparisons of realistic seismograms for different models of heterogeneity, varying the strength and sharpness of the heterogeneity and its location in depth in the mantle. We discuss the consequences of different levels of approximations on our ability to resolve 3D heterogeneity in the earth's mantle.
Use of system identification techniques for improving airframe finite element models using test data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanagud, Sathya V.; Zhou, Weiyu; Craig, James I.; Weston, Neil J.
1993-01-01
A method for using system identification techniques to improve airframe finite element models using test data was developed and demonstrated. The method uses linear sensitivity matrices to relate changes in selected physical parameters to changes in the total system matrices. The values for these physical parameters were determined using constrained optimization with singular value decomposition. The method was confirmed using both simple and complex finite element models for which pseudo-experimental data was synthesized directly from the finite element model. The method was then applied to a real airframe model which incorporated all of the complexities and details of a large finite element model and for which extensive test data was available. The method was shown to work, and the differences between the identified model and the measured results were considered satisfactory.
Use of system identification techniques for improving airframe finite element models using test data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanagud, Sathya V.; Zhou, Weiyu; Craig, James I.; Weston, Neil J.
1991-01-01
A method for using system identification techniques to improve airframe finite element models using test data has been developed and demonstrated. The method uses linear sensitivity matrices to relate changes in selected physical parameters to changes in the total system matrices. The values for these physical parameters were determined using constrained optimization with singular value decomposition. The method was confirmed using both simple and complex finite element models for which pseudo-experimental data was synthesized directly from the finite element model. The method was then applied to a real airframe model which incorporated all of the complexities and details of a large finite element model and for which extensive test data was available. The method was shown to work, and the differences between the identified model and the measured results were considered satisfactory.
Finite-element methods for spatially resolved mesoscopic electron transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kramer, Stephan
2013-09-01
A finite-element method is presented for calculating the quantum conductance of mesoscopic two-dimensional electron devices of complex geometry attached to semi-infinite leads. For computational purposes, the leads must be cut off at some finite length. To avoid spurious, unphysical reflections, this is modeled by transparent boundary conditions. We introduce the Hardy space infinite-element technique from acoustic scattering as a way of setting up transparent boundary conditions for transport computations spanning the range from the quantum mechanical to the quasiclassical regime. These boundary conditions are exact even for wave packets and thus are especially useful in the limit of high energies with many excited modes. Yet, they possess a memory-friendly sparse matrix representation. In addition to unbounded domains, Hardy space elements allow us to truncate those parts of the computational domain which are irrelevant for the calculation of the transport properties. Thus, the computation can be done only on the region that is essential for a physically meaningful simulation of the scattering states. The benefits of the method are demonstrated by three examples. The convergence properties are tested on the transport through a quasi-one-dimensional quantum wire. It is shown that higher-order finite elements considerably improve current conservation and establish the correct phase shift between the real and the imaginary parts of the electron wave function. The Aharonov-Bohm effect demonstrates that characteristic features of quantum interference can be assessed. A simulation of electron magnetic focusing exemplifies the capability of the computational framework to study the crossover from quantum to quasiclassical behavior.
Ablative Thermal Response Analysis Using the Finite Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dec John A.; Braun, Robert D.
2009-01-01
A review of the classic techniques used to solve ablative thermal response problems is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of both the finite element and finite difference methods are described. As a first step in developing a three dimensional finite element based ablative thermal response capability, a one dimensional computer tool has been developed. The finite element method is used to discretize the governing differential equations and Galerkin's method of weighted residuals is used to derive the element equations. A code to code comparison between the current 1-D tool and the 1-D Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Response Program (FIAT) has been performed.
Thermionic Fuel Element performance: TFE Verification Program. Final test report
Not Available
1994-06-01
The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full power life of 7 years. A TFE was designed that met the reliability and lifetime requirements for a 2 MW(e) conceptual reactor design. Analysis showed that this TFE could be used over the range of 0.5 to 5 megawatts. This was used as the basis for designing components for test and evaluation. The demonstration of a 7-year component lifetime capability was through the combined use of analytical models and accelerated, confirmatory tests in a fast test reactor. Iterative testing was performed in which the results of one test series led to evolutionary improvements in the next test specimens. The TFE components underwent screening and initial development testing in ex-reactor tests. Several design and materials options were considered for each component. As screening tests permitted, down selection occurred to very specific designs and materials. In parallel with ex-reactor testing, and fast reactor component testing, components were integrated into a TFE and tested in the TRIGA test reactor at GA. Realtime testing of partial length TFEs was used to test support, alignment and interconnective TFE components, and to verify TFE performance in-reactor with integral cesium reservoirs. Realtime testing was also used to verify the relation between TFE performance and fueled emitter swelling, to test the durability of intercell insulation, to check temperature distributions, and to verify the adequacy over time of the fission gas venting channels. Predictions of TFE lifetime rested primarily on the accelerated component testing results, as correlated and extended to realtime by the use of analytical models.
Improved finite-element methods for rotorcraft structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinnant, Howard E.
1991-01-01
An overview of the research directed at improving finite-element methods for rotorcraft airframes is presented. The development of a modification to the finite element method which eliminates interelement discontinuities is covered. The following subject areas are discussed: geometric entities, interelement continuity, dependent rotational degrees of freedom, and adaptive numerical integration. This new methodology is being implemented as an anisotropic, curvilinear, p-version, beam, shell, and brick finite element program.
Multi-element probabilistic collocation method in high dimensions
Foo, Jasmine; Karniadakis, George Em
2010-03-01
We combine multi-element polynomial chaos with analysis of variance (ANOVA) functional decomposition to enhance the convergence rate of polynomial chaos in high dimensions and in problems with low stochastic regularity. Specifically, we employ the multi-element probabilistic collocation method MEPCM and so we refer to the new method as MEPCM-A. We investigate the dependence of the convergence of MEPCM-A on two decomposition parameters, the polynomial order {mu} and the effective dimension {nu}, with {nu}<
Adaptive Finite Element Methods for Continuum Damage Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Min, J. B.; Tworzydlo, W. W.; Xiques, K. E.
1995-01-01
The paper presents an application of adaptive finite element methods to the modeling of low-cycle continuum damage and life prediction of high-temperature components. The major objective is to provide automated and accurate modeling of damaged zones through adaptive mesh refinement and adaptive time-stepping methods. The damage modeling methodology is implemented in an usual way by embedding damage evolution in the transient nonlinear solution of elasto-viscoplastic deformation problems. This nonlinear boundary-value problem is discretized by adaptive finite element methods. The automated h-adaptive mesh refinements are driven by error indicators, based on selected principal variables in the problem (stresses, non-elastic strains, damage, etc.). In the time domain, adaptive time-stepping is used, combined with a predictor-corrector time marching algorithm. The time selection is controlled by required time accuracy. In order to take into account strong temperature dependency of material parameters, the nonlinear structural solution a coupled with thermal analyses (one-way coupling). Several test examples illustrate the importance and benefits of adaptive mesh refinements in accurate prediction of damage levels and failure time.
A new method for oxidation of gaseous, elemental mercury.
Livengood, C. D.; Mendelsohn, M. H.
1999-08-23
Elemental mercury (Hg) is difficult to remove from flue-gas streams using existing wet-scrubber technology, primarily because of its limited volubility in water. We have proposed and tested a concept for enhancing gaseous Hg{sup 0}removal in wet scrubber systems by altering the chemical form of the Hg{sup 0} to a water-soluble oxidized species. Recently, we have discovered a new method for injection of the oxidizing species that dramatically improves reactant utilization and at the same time gives significant nitric oxide (NO) oxidation as well. Our method uses a diluted oxidizing solution containing chloric acid and sodium chlorate (sold commercially as NOXSORB{trademark}). When this solution is injected into a gas stream containing Hg{sup 0} at about 300 F, we found that nearly 100% of the Hg{sup 0} was removed from the gas phase and was recovered in liquid samples from the test system. At the same time, approximately 80% of the added NO was also removed (oxidized). The effect of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) on this method was also investigated, and it appears to decrease slightly the amount of Hg oxidized. We are currently testing the effect of variations in oxidizing solution concentration, SO{sub 2} concentration, NO concentration, and reaction time (residence time).
Least-squares finite element methods for quantum chromodynamics
Ketelsen, Christian; Brannick, J; Manteuffel, T; Mccormick, S
2008-01-01
A significant amount of the computational time in large Monte Carlo simulations of lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is spent inverting the discrete Dirac operator. Unfortunately, traditional covariant finite difference discretizations of the Dirac operator present serious challenges for standard iterative methods. For interesting physical parameters, the discretized operator is large and ill-conditioned, and has random coefficients. More recently, adaptive algebraic multigrid (AMG) methods have been shown to be effective preconditioners for Wilson's discretization of the Dirac equation. This paper presents an alternate discretization of the Dirac operator based on least-squares finite elements. The discretization is systematically developed and physical properties of the resulting matrix system are discussed. Finally, numerical experiments are presented that demonstrate the effectiveness of adaptive smoothed aggregation ({alpha}SA ) multigrid as a preconditioner for the discrete field equations resulting from applying the proposed least-squares FE formulation to a simplified test problem, the 2d Schwinger model of quantum electrodynamics.
Solution-adaptive finite element method in computational fracture mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Min, J. B.; Bass, J. M.; Spradley, L. W.
1993-01-01
Some recent results obtained using solution-adaptive finite element method in linear elastic two-dimensional fracture mechanics problems are presented. The focus is on the basic issue of adaptive finite element method for validating the applications of new methodology to fracture mechanics problems by computing demonstration problems and comparing the stress intensity factors to analytical results.
Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston
2011-06-01
We develop a new formulation of the Control Volume Finite Element Method (CVFEM) with a multidimensional Scharfetter-Gummel (SG) upwinding for the drift-diffusion equations. The formulation uses standard nodal elements for the concentrations and expands the flux in terms of the lowest-order Nedelec H(curl; {Omega})-compatible finite element basis. The SG formula is applied to the edges of the elements to express the Nedelec element degree of freedom on this edge in terms of the nodal degrees of freedom associated with the endpoints of the edge. The resulting upwind flux incorporates the upwind effects from all edges and is defined at the interior of the element. This allows for accurate evaluation of integrals on the boundaries of the control volumes for arbitrary quadrilateral elements. The new formulation admits efficient implementation through a standard loop over the elements in the mesh followed by loops over the element nodes (associated with control volume fractions in the element) and element edges (associated with flux degrees of freedom). The quantities required for the SG formula can be precomputed and stored for each edge in the mesh for additional efficiency gains. For clarity the details are presented for two-dimensional quadrilateral grids. Extension to other element shapes and three dimensions is straightforward.
Method of holding optical elements without deformation during their fabrication
Hed, P. Paul
1997-01-01
An improved method for securing and removing an optical element to and from a blocking tool without causing deformation of the optical element. A lens tissue is placed on the top surface of the blocking tool. Dots of UV cement are applied to the lens tissue without any of the dots contacting each other. An optical element is placed on top of the blocking tool with the lens tissue sandwiched therebetween. The UV cement is then cured. After subsequent fabrication steps, the bonded blocking tool, lens tissue, and optical element are placed in a debonding solution to soften the UV cement. The optical element is then removed from the blocking tool.
Application of the Finite Element Method to Rotary Wing Aeroelasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Straub, F. K.; Friedmann, P. P.
1982-01-01
A finite element method for the spatial discretization of the dynamic equations of equilibrium governing rotary-wing aeroelastic problems is presented. Formulation of the finite element equations is based on weighted Galerkin residuals. This Galerkin finite element method reduces algebraic manipulative labor significantly, when compared to the application of the global Galerkin method in similar problems. The coupled flap-lag aeroelastic stability boundaries of hingeless helicopter rotor blades in hover are calculated. The linearized dynamic equations are reduced to the standard eigenvalue problem from which the aeroelastic stability boundaries are obtained. The convergence properties of the Galerkin finite element method are studied numerically by refining the discretization process. Results indicate that four or five elements suffice to capture the dynamics of the blade with the same accuracy as the global Galerkin method.
Modeling and Simulation of a Nuclear Fuel Element Test Section
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moran, Robert P.; Emrich, William
2011-01-01
"The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator" test section closely simulates the internal operating conditions of a thermal nuclear rocket. The purpose of testing is to determine the ideal fuel rod characteristics for optimum thermal heat transfer to their hydrogen cooling/working fluid while still maintaining fuel rod structural integrity. Working fluid exhaust temperatures of up to 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit can be encountered. The exhaust gas is rendered inert and massively reduced in temperature for analysis using a combination of water cooling channels and cool N2 gas injectors in the H2-N2 mixer portion of the test section. An extensive thermal fluid analysis was performed in support of the engineering design of the H2-N2 mixer in order to determine the maximum "mass flow rate"-"operating temperature" curve of the fuel elements hydrogen exhaust gas based on the test facilities available cooling N2 mass flow rate as the limiting factor.
Design and Testing of Prototypic Elements Containing Monolithic Fuel
N.E. Woolstenhulme; M.K. Meyer; D.M. Wachs
2011-10-01
The US fuel development team has performed numerous irradiation tests on small to medium sized specimens containing low enriched uranium fuel designs. The team is now focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum Base Monolithic Design and has entered the next generation of testing with the design and irradiation of prototypic elements which contain this fuel. The designs of fuel elements containing monolithic fuel, such as AFIP-7 (which is currently under irradiation) and RERTR-FE (which is currently under fabrication), are appropriate progressions relative to the technology life cycle. The culmination of this testing program will occur with the design, fabrication, and irradiation of demonstration products to include the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiments. Future plans show that design, fabrication, and testing activities will apply the rigor needed for a demonstration campaign.
METHOD OF PREPARING A FUEL ELEMENT
Noland, R.A.; Stone, C.C.
1959-09-01
A method is presented for joining sections of uranium rod which are clad in a corrosion-resistant material of higher melting point than uranium. The method includes the steps of preferentially- etching the uranium in the ends of the sections to be joined to depress the level of the uranium slighily below that of the cladding, bringing the ends to be joined together, applying axial pressure to the joint, and heli-arc welding the joint while rotating the joint, to fuse the cladding to a uniform depth of about 50% of the thickness of the cladding.
Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bradley, David E.; Mireles, Omar R.; Hickman, Robert R.
2011-01-01
Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse (Isp) and relatively high thrust in order to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Conventional, storable propellants produce average Isp. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTR) capable of high Isp thrust have been proposed. NTR employs heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements is limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements which employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. It is not necessary to include fissile material in test samples intended to explore high temperature hydrogen exposure of the structural support matrices. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact RF heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.
A simple discrete-element-model of Brazilian test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kundu, Sumanta; Stroisz, Anna; Pradhan, Srutarshi
2016-05-01
We present a statistical model which is able to capture some interesting features exhibited in the Brazilian test of rock samples. The model is based on elements which break irreversibly when the force experienced by the elements exceed their own load capacity. If an element breaks the load capacity of the neighboring elements are decreased by a certain amount, assuming weakening effect around the defected zone. From the model we numerically investigate the stress-strain behavior, the strength of the system, how it scales with the system size and also its fluctuation for both uniform and Weibull distribution of breaking thresholds in the system. To check the validity of our statistical model we perform few Brazilian tests on Sandstone and Chalk samples. The stress-strain curve from model results agree qualitatively well with the lab-test data. Also, the damage profile right at the point when the stress-strain curve reaches its maximum is seen to mimic the crack patterns observed in our Brazilian test experiments.
METHOD OF TESTING HERMETIC CONTAINERS
Borst, L.B.
1959-02-17
A method is presented for testing hermetic containers enclosing a material capable of chemically combining with a fluid at elevated temperatures. In accordance with the invention, the container to be tested is weighed together with the material therein. The container and its contents are then immersed in the fluid and heated to a temperature sufficiently high to cause a reaction to take place between the contents and the fluid and maintained under such conditions for a definite period of time. The container and its contents are then cooled and re-weighed. The rate of change in weight is determined and utilized as an index to determine the possibility of container failure.
Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.
1984-02-24
A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.
Equivariant preconditioners for boundary element methods
Tausch, J.
1994-12-31
In this paper the author proposes and discusses two preconditioners for boundary integral equations on domains which are nearly symmetric. The preconditioners under consideration are equivariant, that is, they commute with a group of permutation matrices. Numerical experiments demonstrate their efficiency for the GMRES method.
CFFF testing of ceramic elements for MHD generators
Lineberry, J.T.; Christiansen, P.J.
1994-12-31
In September 1992, the POC test LMF5-J was concluded at the CFFF in accordance with the objectives as set for the western coal POC test program. During this activity, a {open_quotes}piggyback{close_quotes} type test was conducted for the Busek Company in partial fulfillment of a DOE Phase II SBIR. A near prototypical design, generator module that was designed and constructed by the Busek Co. was installed in the LMF upstream test train of the CFFF for this test. The module incorporated AlN{sub 2} (ceramic) sidebar elements. The objective of the SBIR Phase II was to evaluate the integrity of this material subject to long duration operation under typical coal-fired MHD generator conditions. A summary of the LMF5-J test at the CFFF and activities and test results relevant to the SBIR Phase II related to the Busek SBIR project are provided.
Finite element and finite difference methods in electromagnetic scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morgan, Michael A.
Finite-difference and finite-element methods for the computational analysis of EM scattering phenomena are examined in chapters contributed by leading experts. Topics addressed include an FEM for composite scatterers, coupled finite- and boundary-element methods for EM scattering, absorbing boundary conditions for the direct solution PDEs arising in EM scattering problems, application of the control-region approximation to two-dimensional EM scattering, coupled potentials for EM fields in inhomogeneous media, the method of conforming boundary elements for transient electromagnetics, and the finite-difference time-domain method for numerical modeling of EM wave interactions with arbitrary structures. Extensive diagrams and graphs of typical results are provided.
Transforming Mean and Osculating Elements Using Numerical Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ely, Todd A.
2010-01-01
Mean element propagation of perturbed two body orbits has as its mathematical basis averaging theory of nonlinear dynamical systems. Averaged mean elements define the long-term evolution characteristics of an orbit. Using averaging theory, a near identity transformation can be found that transforms the mean elements back to the osculating elements that contain short period terms in addition to the secular and long period mean elements. The ability to perform the conversion is necessary so that orbit design conducted in mean elements can be converted back into osculating results. In the present work, this near identity transformation is found using the Fast Fourier Transform. An efficient method is found that is capable of recovering the osculating elements to first order
Transforming Mean and Osculating Elements Using Numerical Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ely, Todd A.
2015-03-01
Mean element propagation of perturbed two body orbits has as its mathematical basis the averaging theory of nonlinear dynamical systems. Mean elements define an orbit's long-term evolution characteristics consisting of both secular and long-period effects. Using averaging theory, a near-identity transformation can be found that transforms between the mean elements and their osculating counterparts that augment the mean elements with short period effects. The ability to perform the conversion is necessary so that orbit design conducted in either mean elements or osculating can be effectively converted between each element type. In the present work, the near-identity transformation is found using the Fast Fourier Transform. An efficient method is found that is capable of recovering the mean or osculating elements to first-order.
Special Test Methods for Batteries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gross, S.
1984-01-01
Various methods are described for measuring heat generation in primary and secondary batteries as well as the specific heat of batteries and cell thermal conductance. Problems associated with determining heat generation in large batteries are examined. Special attention is given to monitoring temperature gradients in nickel cadmium cells, the use of auxiliary electrodes for conducting tests on battery charge control, evaluating the linear sweep of current from charge to discharge, and determining zero current voltage. The fast transient behavior of batteries in the microsecond range, and the electrical conductance of nickel sinters in the thickness direction are also considered. Mechanical problems experienced in the vibration of Ni-Cd batteries and tests to simulate cyclic fatigue of the steel table connecting the plates to the comb are considered. Methods of defining the distribution of forces when cells are compressed during battery packaging are also explored.
Adaptive multiscale model reduction with Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Eric; Efendiev, Yalchin; Hou, Thomas Y.
2016-09-01
In this paper, we discuss a general multiscale model reduction framework based on multiscale finite element methods. We give a brief overview of related multiscale methods. Due to page limitations, the overview focuses on a few related methods and is not intended to be comprehensive. We present a general adaptive multiscale model reduction framework, the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method. Besides the method's basic outline, we discuss some important ingredients needed for the method's success. We also discuss several applications. The proposed method allows performing local model reduction in the presence of high contrast and no scale separation.
Single element injector cold flow testing for STME swirl coaxial injector element design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hulka, J.; Schneider, J. A.
1993-06-01
An oxidizer-swirled coaxial element injector is being investigated for application in the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). Single element cold flow experiments were conducted to provide characterization of the STME injector element for future analysis, design, and optimization. All tests were conducted to quiescent, ambient backpressure conditions. Spray angle, circumferential spray uniformity, dropsize, and dropsize distribution were measured in water-only and water/nitrogen flows. Rupe mixing efficiency was measured using water/sucrose solution flows with a large grid patternator for simple comparative evaluation of mixing. Factorial designs of experiment were used for statistical evaluation of injector geometrical design features and propellant flow conditions on mixing and atomization. Increasing the free swirl angle of the liquid oxidizer had the greatest influence on increasing the mixing efficiency. The addition of gas assistance had the most significant effect on reducing oxidizer droplet size parameters and increasing droplet size distribution. Increasing the oxidizer injection velocity had the greatest influence for reducing oxidizer droplet size parameters and increasing size distribution for non-gas assisted flows. Single element and multi-element subscale hot fire testing are recommended to verify optimized designs before committing to the STME design.
Single element injector cold flow testing for STME swirl coaxial injector element design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hulka, J.; Schneider, J. A.
1993-01-01
An oxidizer-swirled coaxial element injector is being investigated for application in the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). Single element cold flow experiments were conducted to provide characterization of the STME injector element for future analysis, design, and optimization. All tests were conducted to quiescent, ambient backpressure conditions. Spray angle, circumferential spray uniformity, dropsize, and dropsize distribution were measured in water-only and water/nitrogen flows. Rupe mixing efficiency was measured using water/sucrose solution flows with a large grid patternator for simple comparative evaluation of mixing. Factorial designs of experiment were used for statistical evaluation of injector geometrical design features and propellant flow conditions on mixing and atomization. Increasing the free swirl angle of the liquid oxidizer had the greatest influence on increasing the mixing efficiency. The addition of gas assistance had the most significant effect on reducing oxidizer droplet size parameters and increasing droplet size distribution. Increasing the oxidizer injection velocity had the greatest influence for reducing oxidizer droplet size parameters and increasing size distribution for non-gas assisted flows. Single element and multi-element subscale hot fire testing are recommended to verify optimized designs before committing to the STME design.
Bi-Directional Evolutionary Topology Optimization Using Element Replaceable Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, J. H.; Zhang, W. H.; Qiu, K. P.
2007-06-01
In the present paper, design problems of maximizing the structural stiffness or natural frequency are considered subject to the material volume constraint. A new element replaceable method (ERPM) is proposed for evolutionary topology optimization of structures. Compared with existing versions of evolutionary structural optimization methods, contributions are twofold. On the one hand, a new automatic element deletion/growth procedure is established. The deletion of a finite element means that a solid element is replaced with an orthotropic cellular microstructure (OCM) element. The growth of an element means that an OCM element is replaced with a solid element of full materials. In fact, both operations are interchangeable depending upon how the value of element sensitivity is with respect to the objective function. The OCM design strategy is beneficial in preventing artificial modes for dynamic problems. Besides, the iteration validity is greatly improved with the introduction of a check position (CP) technique. On the other hand, a new checkerboard control algorithm is proposed to work together with the above procedure. After the identification of local checkerboards and detailed structures over the entire design domain, the algorithm will fill or delete elements depending upon the prescribed threshold of sensitivity values. Numerical results show that the ERPM is efficient and a clear and valuable material pattern can be achieved for both static and dynamic problems.
Modeling of thin structures in eddy current testing with shell elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ospina, A.; Santandrea, L.; Le Bihan, Y.; Marchand, C.
2010-11-01
The modeling and design of eddy currents sensors for non-destructive testing applications, generally, requires numerical methods. Among these methods, the finite element method is one of the most used. Indeed, it presents a great capability to treat a large variety of configurations. However, in the study of eddy current testing problems, the existence of structures that have a geometrical dimension smaller than the others (thin air gaps, coatings...) will lead to difficulties related to the meshing process. The introduction of particular elements such as shell elements allows to simplify the modeling of these problems. In this paper, the shell elements are used in two different 2D axisymmetric formulations, the electric formulation a* and the magnetic formulation t-ϕ in order to simulate the behaviour of the electromagnetic fields. The results obtained with the two formulations are compared with analytical solutions.
Design Methods for Load-bearing Elements from Crosslaminated Timber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilguts, A.; Serdjuks, D.; Goremikins, V.
2015-11-01
Cross-laminated timber is an environmentally friendly material, which possesses a decreased level of anisotropy in comparison with the solid and glued timber. Cross-laminated timber could be used for load-bearing walls and slabs of multi-storey timber buildings as well as decking structures of pedestrian and road bridges. Design methods of cross-laminated timber elements subjected to bending and compression with bending were considered. The presented methods were experimentally validated and verified by FEM. Two cross-laminated timber slabs were tested at the action of static load. Pine wood was chosen as a board's material. Freely supported beam with the span equal to 1.9 m, which was loaded by the uniformly distributed load, was a design scheme of the considered plates. The width of the plates was equal to 1 m. The considered cross-laminated timber plates were analysed by FEM method. The comparison of stresses acting in the edge fibres of the plate and the maximum vertical displacements shows that both considered methods can be used for engineering calculations. The difference between the results obtained experimentally and analytically is within the limits from 2 to 31%. The difference in results obtained by effective strength and stiffness and transformed sections methods was not significant.
Global seismic waveform tomography based on the spectral element method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capdeville, Y.; Romanowicz, B.; Gung, Y.
2003-04-01
Because seismogram waveforms contain much more information on the earth structure than body wave time arrivals or surface wave phase velocities, inversion of complete time-domain seismograms should allow much better resolution in global tomography. In order to achieve this, accurate methods for the calculation of forward propagation of waves in a 3D earth need to be utilized, which presents theoretical as well as computational challenges. In the past 8 years, we have developed several global 3D S velocity models based on long period waveform data, and a normal mode asymptotic perturbation formalism (NACT, Li and Romanowicz, 1996). While this approach is relatively accessible from the computational point of view, it relies on the assumption of smooth heterogeneity in a single scattering framework. Recently, the introduction of the spectral element method (SEM) has been a major step forward in the computation of seismic waveforms in a global 3D earth with no restrictions on the size of heterogeneities (Chaljub, 2000). While this method is computationally heavy when the goal is to compute large numbers of seismograms down to typical body wave periods (1-10 sec), it is much more accessible when restricted to low frequencies (T>150sec). When coupled with normal modes (e.g. Capdeville et al., 2000), the numerical computation can be restricted to a spherical shell within which heterogeneity is considered, further reducing the computational time. Here, we present a tomographic method based on the non linear least square inversion of time domain seismograms using the coupled method of spectral elements and modal solution. SEM/modes are used for both the forward modeling and to compute partial derivatives. The parametrisation of the model is also based on the spectral element mesh, the "cubed sphere" (Sadourny, 1972), which leads to a 3D local polynomial parametrization. This parametrization, combined with the excellent earth coverage resulting from the full 3D theory used
Induction Heating Model of Cermet Fuel Element Environmental Test (CFEET)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gomez, Carlos F.; Bradley, D. E.; Cavender, D. P.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.; Trent, D.; Stewart, E.
2013-01-01
Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames. Nuclear Thermal Rockets (NTR) are capable of producing a high specific impulse by employing heat produced by a fission reactor to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K) and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited. The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements due to large thermal gradients; therefore, high-melting-point ceramics-metallic matrix composites (cermets) are one of the fuels under consideration as part of the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Advance Exploration System (AES) technology project at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The purpose of testing and analytical modeling is to determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures and obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials. The fission process and the resulting heating performance are well known and do not require that active fissile material to be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed; Compact Fuel Element Environmental Tester (CFEET), designed to heat fuel element samples via induction heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed at MSFC to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without utilizing fissile material. This paper details the analytical approach to help design and optimize the test bed using COMSOL Multiphysics for predicting thermal gradients induced by electromagnetic heating (Induction heating) and Thermal Desktop for radiation calculations.
Use of system identification techniques for improving airframe finite element models using test data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanagud, Sathya V.; Zhou, Weiyu; Craig, James I.; Weston, Neil J.
1991-01-01
A method for using system identification techniques to improve airframe finite element models was developed and demonstrated. The method uses linear sensitivity matrices to relate changes in selected physical parameters to changes in total system matrices. The values for these physical parameters were determined using constrained optimization with singular value decomposition. The method was confirmed using both simple and complex finite element models for which pseudo-experimental data was synthesized directly from the finite element model. The method was then applied to a real airframe model which incorporated all the complexities and details of a large finite element model and for which extensive test data was available. The method was shown to work, and the differences between the identified model and the measured results were considered satisfactory.
Three-dimensional Stress Analysis Using the Boundary Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, R. B.; Banerjee, P. K.
1984-01-01
The boundary element method is to be extended (as part of the NASA Inelastic Analysis Methods program) to the three-dimensional stress analysis of gas turbine engine hot section components. The analytical basis of the method (as developed in elasticity) is outlined, its numerical implementation is summarized, and the approaches to be followed in extending the method to include inelastic material response indicated.
METHOD OF PREPARING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR
Roake, W.E.; Evans, E.A.; Brite, D.W.
1960-06-21
A method of preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor is given in which an internally and externally cooled fuel element consisting of two coaxial tubes having a plurality of integral radial ribs extending between the tubes and containing a powdered fuel material is isostatically pressed to form external coolant channels and compact the powder simultaneously.
Modular Finite Element Methods Library Version: 1.0
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2010-06-22
MFEM is a general, modular library for finite element methods. It provides a variety of finite element spaces and bilinear/linear forms in 2D and 3D. MFEM also includes classes for dealing with various types of meshes and their refinement.
Low Cost Nuclear Thermal Rocket Cermet Fuel Element Environment Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bradley, D. E.; Mireles, O. R.; Hickman, R. R.
2011-01-01
Deep space missions with large payloads require high specific impulse and relatively high thrust to achieve mission goals in reasonable time frames.1,2 Conventional storable propellants produce average specific impulse. Nuclear thermal rockets capable of producing high specific impulse are proposed. Nuclear thermal rockets employ heat produced by fission reaction to heat and therefore accelerate hydrogen, which is then forced through a rocket nozzle providing thrust. Fuel element temperatures are very high (up to 3000 K), and hydrogen is highly reactive with most materials at high temperatures. Data covering the effects of high-temperature hydrogen exposure on fuel elements are limited.3 The primary concern is the mechanical failure of fuel elements that employ high-melting-point metals, ceramics, or a combination (cermet) as a structural matrix into which the nuclear fuel is distributed. The purpose of the testing is to obtain data to assess the properties of the non-nuclear support materials, as-fabricated, and determine their ability to survive and maintain thermal performance in a prototypical NTR reactor environment of exposure to hydrogen at very high temperatures. The fission process of the planned fissile material and the resulting heating performance is well known and does not therefore require that active fissile material be integrated in this testing. A small-scale test bed designed to heat fuel element samples via non-contact radio frequency heating and expose samples to hydrogen is being developed to assist in optimal material and manufacturing process selection without employing fissile material. This paper details the test bed design and results of testing conducted to date.
Method For Testing Properties Of Corrosive Lubricants
Ohi, James; De La Cruz, Jose L.; Lacey, Paul I.
2006-01-03
A method of testing corrosive lubricating media using a wear testing apparatus without a mechanical seal. The wear testing apparatus and methods are effective for testing volatile corrosive lubricating media under pressure and at high temperatures.
Holographic elements for modulation transfer function testing of detector arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ducharme, Alfred D.; Boreman, Glenn D.
1995-08-01
A holographic technique is presented that increases the flux-transfer efficiency of laser speckle generation by a factor of 100 over the integrating sphere method. This makes a wider range of low-power lasers usable for the speckle MTF test, method, and increases the number of wavelengths at which the test can be applied.
Generalized multiscale finite element method. Symmetric interior penalty coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Efendiev, Y.; Galvis, J.; Lazarov, R.; Moon, M.; Sarkis, M.
2013-12-01
Motivated by applications to numerical simulations of flows in highly heterogeneous porous media, we develop multiscale finite element methods for second order elliptic equations. We discuss a multiscale model reduction technique in the framework of the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. We propose two different finite element spaces on the coarse mesh. The first space is based on a local eigenvalue problem that uses an interior weighted L2-norm and a boundary weighted L2-norm for computing the “mass” matrix. The second choice is based on generation of a snapshot space and subsequent selection of a subspace of a reduced dimension. The approximation with these multiscale spaces is based on the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method framework. We investigate the stability and derive error estimates for the methods and further experimentally study their performance on a representative number of numerical examples.
Comparison of different precondtioners for nonsymmtric finite volume element methods
Mishev, I.D.
1996-12-31
We consider a few different preconditioners for the linear systems arising from the discretization of 3-D convection-diffusion problems with the finite volume element method. Their theoretical and computational convergence rates are compared and discussed.
Solution of Exterior Acoustic Problems by the Boundary Element Method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirkup, Stephen Martin
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The boundary element method is described and investigated, especially in respect of its application to exterior two -dimensional Laplace problems. Both empirical and algebraic analyses (including the effects of approximation of the boundary and boundary functions and the precision of the evaluation of the discrete forms) are developed. Methods for the automatic evaluation of the discrete forms of the Laplace and Helmholtz integral operators are reviewed and extended. Boundary element methods for the solution of exterior Helmholtz problems with general (but most importantly Neumann) boundary conditions are reviewed and some are explicitly stated using a new notation. Boundary element methods based on the boundary integral equations introduced by Brakhage & Werner/ Leis/ Panich/ Kussmaul (indirect) and Burton & Miller (direct) are given prime consideration and implemented for three -dimensional problems. The influence of the choice of weighting parameter on the performance of the methods is explored and further guidance is given. The application of boundary element methods and methods based on the Rayleigh integral to acoustic radiation problems are considered. Methods for speeding up their solution via the boundary element method are developed. Library subroutines for the solution of acoustic radiation problems are described and demonstrated. Computational techniques for the problem of predicting the noise produced by a running engine are reviewed and appraised. The application of the boundary element method to low-noise engine design and in the design of noise shields is considered. The boundary element method is applied to the Ricardo crankcase simulation rig, which is an engine -like structure. A comparison of predicted and measured sound power spectra is given.
Solution of exterior acoustic problems by the boundary element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirkup, Stephen Martin
The boundary element method is described and investigated, especially in respect of its application to exterior two-dimensional Laplace problems. Both empirical and algebraic analyses (including the effects of approximation of the boundary and boundary functions and the precision of the evaluation of the discrete forms) are developed. Methods for the automatic evaluation of the discrete forms of the Laplace and Helmholtz integral operators are reviewed and extended. Boundary element methods for the solution of exterior Helmholtz problems with general (but most importantly Neumann) boundary conditions are reviewed and some are explicitly stated using a new notation. Boundary element methods based on the boundary integral equations introduced by Brakhage and Werner/Leis/Panich/Kussmaul (indirect) and Burton and Miller (direct) are given prime consideration and implemented for three-dimensional problems. The influence of the choice of weighting parameter on the performance of the methods is explored and further guidance is given. The application of boundary element methods and methods based on the Rayleigh integral to acoustic radiation problems are considered. Methods for speeding up their solution via the boundary element method are developed. Library subroutines for the solution of acoustic radiation problems are described and demonstrated. Computational techniques for the problem of predicting the noise produced by a running engine are reviewed and appraised. The application of the boundary element method to low-noise engine design and in the design of noise shields is considered. The boundary element method is applied to the Ricardo crankcase simulation rig, which is an engine-like structure. A comparison of predicted and measured sound power spectra is given.
A finite element method for analysis of vibration induced by maglev trains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ju, S. H.; Ho, Y. S.; Leong, C. C.
2012-07-01
This paper developed a finite element method to perform the maglev train-bridge-soil interaction analysis with rail irregularities. An efficient proportional integral (PI) scheme with only a simple equation is used to control the force of the maglev wheel, which is modeled as a contact node moving along a number of target nodes. The moving maglev vehicles are modeled as a combination of spring-damper elements, lumped mass and rigid links. The Newmark method with the Newton-Raphson method is then used to solve the nonlinear dynamic equation. The major advantage is that all the proposed procedures are standard in the finite element method. The analytic solution of maglev vehicles passing a Timoshenko beam was used to validate the current finite element method with good agreements. Moreover, a very large-scale finite element analysis using the proposed scheme was also tested in this paper.
Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements
Nuzzo, Ralph G; Rogers, John A; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang, Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao
2013-05-14
The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.
Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements
Nuzzo, Ralph G; Rogers, John A; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang, Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao
2014-03-04
The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.
Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements
Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang, Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao
2009-11-24
The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.
Methods and devices for fabricating and assembling printable semiconductor elements
Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Menard, Etienne; Lee, Keon Jae; Khang, Dahl-Young; Sun, Yugang; Meitl, Matthew; Zhu, Zhengtao
2011-07-19
The invention provides methods and devices for fabricating printable semiconductor elements and assembling printable semiconductor elements onto substrate surfaces. Methods, devices and device components of the present invention are capable of generating a wide range of flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices and arrays of devices on substrates comprising polymeric materials. The present invention also provides stretchable semiconductor structures and stretchable electronic devices capable of good performance in stretched configurations.
Radiosity algorithms using higher order finite element methods
Troutman, R.; Max, N.
1993-08-01
Many of the current radiosity algorithms create a piecewise constant approximation to the actual radiosity. Through interpolation and extrapolation, a continuous solution is obtained. An accurate solution is found by increasing the number of patches which describe the scene. This has the effect of increasing the computation time as well as the memory requirements. By using techniques found in the finite element method, we can incorporate an interpolation function directly into our form factor computation. We can then use less elements to achieve a more accurate solution. Two algorithms, derived from the finite element method, are described and analyzed.
Finite Element Simulation of Diametral Strength Test of Hydroxyapatite
Ozturk, Fahrettin; Toros, Serkan; Evis, Zafer
2011-01-17
In this study, the diametral strength test of sintered hydroxyapatite was simulated by the finite element software, ABAQUS/Standard. Stress distributions on diametral test sample were determined. The effect of sintering temperature on stress distribution of hydroxyapatite was studied. It was concluded that high sintering temperatures did not reduce the stress on hydroxyapatite. It had a negative effect on stress distribution of hydroxyapatite after 1300 deg. C. In addition to the porosity, other factors (sintering temperature, presence of phases and the degree of crystallinity) affect the diametral strength of the hydroxyapatite.
Basis Functions With Divergence Constraints For The Finite Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinciuc, Christopher Michael
Maxwell's equations are a system of partial differential equations of vector fields. Imposing the constitutive relations for material properties yields equations for the curl and divergence of the electric and magnetic fields. The curl and divergence equations must be solved simultaneously, which is not the same as solving three separate scalar problems in each component of the vector field. This thesis describes a new method for solving partial differential equations of vector fields using the finite element method. New basis functions are used to solve the curl equation while allowing the divergence to be set as a constraint. The basis functions are defined on a mesh of bricks and the method is applicable for geometries that conform to a Cartesian coordinate system. The basis functions are a combination of cubic Hermite splines and second order Lagrange interpolation polynomials. The method yields a linearly independent set of constraints for the divergence, which is modelled to second order accuracy within each brick. Mesh refinement is accomplished by dividing selected bricks into 2 x 2 x 2 smaller bricks of equal size. The change in the node pattern at an interface where mesh refinement occurs necessitates a modified implementation of the divergence constraints as well as additional constraints for hanging nodes. The mesh can be refined to an arbitrary number of levels. The basis functions can exactly model the discontinuity in the normal component of the field at a planar interface. The method is modified to solve problems with singularities at material boundaries that form 90° edges and corners. The primary test problem of the new basis functions is to obtain the resonant frequencies and fields of three-dimensional cavities. The new basis functions can resolve physical solutions and non-physical, spurious modes. The eigenvalues obtained with the new method are in good agreement with exact solutions and experimental values in cases where they exist. There is
High performance N204/amine elements: Blowapart. [test, and analysis of single element injectors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawver, B. R.
1974-01-01
The work is reported which was conducted to define the mechanisms governing blowapart of hypergolic propellant through the design, fabrication, test, and analysis of single element injectors. Data were developed that show the parameters exhibiting a controlling influence over blowapart are the chamber pressure, orifice diameter, and propellant temperature. Mixing, popping (cyclic blowapart), low pressure separation, and high pressure separation were identified as modes of reactive impingement.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.
2016-01-01
This report documents the comparison of test measurements and predictive finite element analysis results for a hybrid wing body center section test article. The testing and analysis efforts were part of the Airframe Technology subproject within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. Test results include full field displacement measurements obtained from digital image correlation systems and discrete strain measurements obtained using both unidirectional and rosette resistive gauges. Most significant results are presented for the critical five load cases exercised during the test. Final test to failure after inflicting severe damage to the test article is also documented. Overall, good comparison between predicted and actual behavior of the test article is found.
Tensegrity finite element models of mechanical tests of individual cells.
Bursa, Jiri; Lebis, Radek; Holata, Jakub
2012-01-01
A three-dimensional finite element model of a vascular smooth muscle cell is based on models published recently; it comprehends elements representing cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus, and a complex tensegrity structure representing the cytoskeleton. In contrast to previous models of eucaryotic cells, this tensegrity structure consists of several parts. Its external and internal parts number 30 struts, 60 cables each, and their nodes are interconnected by 30 radial members; these parts represent cortical, nuclear and deep cytoskeletons, respectively. This arrangement enables us to simulate load transmission from the extracellular space to the nucleus or centrosome via membrane receptors (focal adhesions); the ability of the model was tested by simulation of some mechanical tests with isolated vascular smooth muscle cells. Although material properties of components defined on the basis of the mechanical tests are ambiguous, modelling of different types of tests has shown the ability of the model to simulate substantial global features of cell behaviour, e.g. "action at a distance effect" or the global load-deformation response of the cell under various types of loading. Based on computational simulations, the authors offer a hypothesis explaining the scatter of experimental results of indentation tests. PMID:22508025
Integrated force method versus displacement method for finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, S. N.; Berke, L.; Gallagher, R. H.
1991-01-01
A novel formulation termed the integrated force method (IFM) has been developed in recent years for analyzing structures. In this method all the internal forces are taken as independent variables, and the system equilibrium equations (EEs) are integrated with the global compatibility conditions (CCs) to form the governing set of equations. In IFM the CCs are obtained from the strain formulation of St. Venant, and no choices of redundant load systems have to be made, in constrast to the standard force method (SFM). This property of IFM allows the generation of the governing equation to be automated straightforwardly, as it is in the popular stiffness method (SM). In this report IFM and SM are compared relative to the structure of their respective equations, their conditioning, required solution methods, overall computational requirements, and convergence properties as these factors influence the accuracy of the results. Overall, this new version of the force method produces more accurate results than the stiffness method for comparable computational cost.
Integrated force method versus displacement method for finite element analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patnaik, Surya N.; Berke, Laszlo; Gallagher, Richard H.
1990-01-01
A novel formulation termed the integrated force method (IFM) has been developed in recent years for analyzing structures. In this method all the internal forces are taken as independent variables, and the system equilibrium equations (EE's) are integrated with the global compatibility conditions (CC's) to form the governing set of equations. In IFM the CC's are obtained from the strain formulation of St. Venant, and no choices of redundant load systems have to be made, in constrast to the standard force method (SFM). This property of IFM allows the generation of the governing equation to be automated straightforwardly, as it is in the popular stiffness method (SM). In this report IFM and SM are compared relative to the structure of their respective equations, their conditioning, required solution methods, overall computational requirements, and convergence properties as these factors influence the accuracy of the results. Overall, this new version of the force method produces more accurate results than the stiffness method for comparable computational cost.
Approximate method of designing a two-element airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abzalilov, D. F.; Mardanov, R. F.
2011-09-01
An approximate method is proposed for designing a two-element airfoil. The method is based on reducing an inverse boundary-value problem in a doubly connected domain to a problem in a singly connected domain located on a multisheet Riemann surface. The essence of the method is replacement of channels between the airfoil elements by channels of flow suction and blowing. The shape of these channels asymptotically tends to the annular shape of channels passing to infinity on the second sheet of the Riemann surface. The proposed method can be extended to designing multielement airfoils.
Finite element methods for nonlinear elastostatic problems in rubber elasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oden, J. T.; Becker, E. B.; Miller, T. H.; Endo, T.; Pires, E. B.
1983-01-01
A number of finite element methods for the analysis of nonlinear problems in rubber elasticity are outlined. Several different finite element schemes are discussed. These include the augmented Lagrangian method, continuation or incremental loading methods, and associated Riks-type methods which have the capability of incorporating limit point behavior and bifurcations. Algorithms for the analysis of limit point behavior and bifurcations are described and the results of several numerical experiments are presented. In addition, a brief survey of some recent work on modelling contact and friction in elasticity problems is given. These results pertain to the use of new nonlocal and nonlinear friction laws.
Coupling finite and boundary element methods for 2-D elasticity problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krishnamurthy, T.; Raju, I. S.; Sistla, R.
1993-01-01
A finite element-boundary element (FE-BE) coupling method for two-dimensional elasticity problems is developed based on a weighted residual variational method in which a portion of the domain of interest is modeled by FEs and the remainder of the region by BEs. The performance of the FE-BE coupling method is demonstrated via applications to a simple 'patch test' problem and three-crack problems. The method passed the patch tests for various modeling configurations and yielded accurate strain energy release rates for the crack problems studied.
Structural Element Testing in Support of the Design of the NASA Composite Crew Module
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kellas, Sotiris; Jackson, Wade C.; Thesken, John C.; Schleicher, Eric; Wagner, Perry; Kirsch, Michael T.
2012-01-01
In January 2007, the NASA Administrator and Associate Administrator for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate chartered the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to design, build, and test a full-scale Composite Crew Module (CCM). For the design and manufacturing of the CCM, the team adopted the building block approach where design and manufacturing risks were mitigated through manufacturing trials and structural testing at various levels of complexity. Following NASA's Structural Design Verification Requirements, a further objective was the verification of design analysis methods and the provision of design data for critical structural features. Test articles increasing in complexity from basic material characterization coupons through structural feature elements and large structural components, to full-scale structures were evaluated. This paper discusses only four elements tests three of which include joints and one that includes a tapering honeycomb core detail. For each test series included are specimen details, instrumentation, test results, a brief analysis description, test analysis correlation and conclusions.
Nonconforming mortar element methods: Application to spectral discretizations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maday, Yvon; Mavriplis, Cathy; Patera, Anthony
1988-01-01
Spectral element methods are p-type weighted residual techniques for partial differential equations that combine the generality of finite element methods with the accuracy of spectral methods. Presented here is a new nonconforming discretization which greatly improves the flexibility of the spectral element approach as regards automatic mesh generation and non-propagating local mesh refinement. The method is based on the introduction of an auxiliary mortar trace space, and constitutes a new approach to discretization-driven domain decomposition characterized by a clean decoupling of the local, structure-preserving residual evaluations and the transmission of boundary and continuity conditions. The flexibility of the mortar method is illustrated by several nonconforming adaptive Navier-Stokes calculations in complex geometry.
Application of the Spectral Element Method to Acoustic Radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doyle, James F.; Rizzi, Stephen A. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
This report summarizes research to develop a capability for analysis of interior noise in enclosed structures when acoustically excited by an external random source. Of particular interest was the application to the study of noise and vibration transmission in thin-walled structures as typified by aircraft fuselages. Three related topics are focused upon. The first concerns the development of a curved frame spectral element, the second shows how the spectral element method for wave propagation in folded plate structures is extended to problems involving curved segmented plates. These are of significance because by combining these curved spectral elements with previously presented flat spectral elements, the dynamic response of geometrically complex structures can be determined. The third topic shows how spectral elements, which incorporate the effect of fluid loading on the structure, are developed for analyzing acoustic radiation from dynamically loaded extended plates.
Method of holding optical elements without deformation during their fabrication
Hed, P.P.
1997-04-29
An improved method for securing and removing an optical element to and from a blocking tool without causing deformation of the optical element is disclosed. A lens tissue is placed on the top surface of the blocking tool. Dots of UV cement are applied to the lens tissue without any of the dots contacting each other. An optical element is placed on top of the blocking tool with the lens tissue sandwiched therebetween. The UV cement is then cured. After subsequent fabrication steps, the bonded blocking tool, lens tissue, and optical element are placed in a debonding solution to soften the UV cement. The optical element is then removed from the blocking tool. 16 figs.
The Method Effect in Communicative Testing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Canale, Michael
1981-01-01
A focus on test validity includes a consideration of the way a test measures that which it proposes to test; in other words, the validity of a test depends on method as well as content. This paper examines three areas of concern: (1) some features of communication that test method should reflect, (2) the main components of method, and (3) some…
Experimental validation of boundary element methods for noise prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seybert, A. F.; Oswald, Fred B.
1992-01-01
Experimental validation of methods to predict radiated noise is presented. A combined finite element and boundary element model was used to predict the vibration and noise of a rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker. The predicted noise was compared to sound power measured by the acoustic intensity method. Inaccuracies in the finite element model shifted the resonance frequencies by about 5 percent. The predicted and measured sound power levels agree within about 2.5 dB. In a second experiment, measured vibration data was used with a boundary element model to predict noise radiation from the top of an operating gearbox. The predicted and measured sound power for the gearbox agree within about 3 dB.
A finite element conjugate gradient FFT method for scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Jeffery D.; Ross, Dan; Jin, J.-M.; Chatterjee, A.; Volakis, John L.
1991-01-01
Validated results are presented for the new 3D body of revolution finite element boundary integral code. A Fourier series expansion of the vector electric and mangnetic fields is employed to reduce the dimensionality of the system, and the exact boundary condition is employed to terminate the finite element mesh. The mesh termination boundary is chosen such that is leads to convolutional boundary operatores of low O(n) memory demand. Improvements of this code are discussed along with the proposed formulation for a full 3D implementation of the finite element boundary integral method in conjunction with a conjugate gradiant fast Fourier transformation (CGFFT) solution.
49 CFR 383.133 - Test methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test methods. 383.133 Section 383.133... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Test methods. (a) All tests must be constructed in...) Knowledge tests: (1) States must use the FMCSA pre-approved pool of test questions to develop...
A weak Galerkin generalized multiscale finite element method
Mu, Lin; Wang, Junping; Ye, Xiu
2016-03-31
In this study, we propose a general framework for weak Galerkin generalized multiscale (WG-GMS) finite element method for the elliptic problems with rapidly oscillating or high contrast coefficients. This general WG-GMS method features in high order accuracy on general meshes and can work with multiscale basis derived by different numerical schemes. A special case is studied under this WG-GMS framework in which the multiscale basis functions are obtained by solving local problem with the weak Galerkin finite element method. Convergence analysis and numerical experiments are obtained for the special case.
Method and system for high power reflective optical elements
Demos, Stavros G.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Negres, Raluca A.
2013-03-12
A method of repairing damage in an optical element includes providing a laser system including at least one optical element having a coating layer having an incident light surface and directing a laser pulse from the laser system to impinge on the incident light surface. The method also includes sustaining damage to a portion of the incident light surface and melting the damaged portion of the incident light surface and a region adjacent to the damaged portion. The method further includes flowing material from the region adjacent the damaged portion to the damaged portion and solidifying the material in the damaged portion and the region adjacent to the damaged portion.
Mathematical aspects of finite element methods for incompressible viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gunzburger, M. D.
1986-01-01
Mathematical aspects of finite element methods are surveyed for incompressible viscous flows, concentrating on the steady primitive variable formulation. The discretization of a weak formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations are addressed, then the stability condition is considered, the satisfaction of which insures the stability of the approximation. Specific choices of finite element spaces for the velocity and pressure are then discussed. Finally, the connection between different weak formulations and a variety of boundary conditions is explored.
METHOD OF FORMING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR
Layer, E.H. Jr.; Peet, C.S.
1962-01-23
A method is given for preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor. The method includes the steps of sandblasting a body of uranium dioxide to roughen the surface thereof, depositing a thin layer of carbon thereon by thermal decomposition of methane, and cladding the uranium dioxide body with zirconium by gas pressure bonding. (AEC)
Aborode, Fatai Adigun; Raab, Andrea; Foster, Simon; Lombi, Enzo; Maher, William; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Joerg
2015-07-01
Three month old Thunbergia alata were exposed for 13 days to 10 μM selenite to determine the biotransformation of selenite in their roots. Selenium in formic acid extracts (80 ± 3%) was present as selenopeptides with Se-S bonds and selenium-PC complexes (selenocysteinyl-2-3-dihydroxypropionyl-glutathione, seleno-phytochelatin2, seleno-di-glutathione). An analytical method using HPLC-ICPMS to detect and quantify elemental selenium in roots of T. alata plants using sodium sulfite to quantitatively transform elemental selenium to selenosulfate was also developed. Elemental selenium was determined as 18 ± 4% of the total selenium in the roots which was equivalent to the selenium not extracted using formic acid extraction. The results are in an agreement with the XAS measurements of the exposed roots which showed no occurrence of selenite or selenate but a mixture of selenocysteine and elemental selenium. PMID:25747595
Application of the control volume mixed finite element method to a triangular discretization
Naff, R.L.
2012-01-01
A two-dimensional control volume mixed finite element method is applied to the elliptic equation. Discretization of the computational domain is based in triangular elements. Shape functions and test functions are formulated on the basis of an equilateral reference triangle with unit edges. A pressure support based on the linear interpolation of elemental edge pressures is used in this formulation. Comparisons are made between results from the standard mixed finite element method and this control volume mixed finite element method. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. ?? 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Application of the boundary element method to transient heat conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dargush, G. F.; Banerjee, P. K.
1991-01-01
An advanced boundary element method (BEM) is presented for the transient heat conduction analysis of engineering components. The numerical implementation necessarily includes higher-order conforming elements, self-adaptive integration and a multiregion capability. Planar, three-dimensional and axisymmetric analyses are all addressed with a consistent time-domain convolution approach, which completely eliminates the need for volume discretization for most practical analyses. The resulting general purpose algorithm establishes BEM as an attractive alternative to the more familiar finite difference and finite element methods for this class of problems. Several detailed numerical examples are included to emphasize the accuracy, stability and generality of the present BEM. Furthermore, a new efficient treatment is introduced for bodies with embedded holes. This development provides a powerful analytical tool for transient solutions of components, such as casting moulds and turbine blades, which are cumbersome to model when employing the conventional domain-based methods.
Finite element method for eigenvalue problems in electromagnetics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, Fred B.
1994-01-01
Finite element method (FEM) has been a very powerful tool to solve many complex problems in electromagnetics. The goal of the current research at the Langley Research Center is to develop a combined FEM/method of moments approach to three-dimensional scattering/radiation problem for objects with arbitrary shape and filled with complex materials. As a first step toward that goal, an exercise is taken to establish the power of FEM, through closed boundary problems. This paper demonstrates the developed of FEM tools for two- and three-dimensional eigenvalue problems in electromagnetics. In section 2, both the scalar and vector finite elements have been used for various waveguide problems to demonstrate the flexibility of FEM. In section 3, vector finite element method has been extended to three-dimensional eigenvalue problems.
PWSCC Assessment by Using Extended Finite Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Sung-Jun; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Suk
2015-12-01
The head penetration nozzle of control rod driving mechanism (CRDM) is known to be susceptible to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) due to the welding-induced residual stress. Especially, the J-groove dissimilar metal weld regions have received many attentions in the previous studies. However, even though several advanced techniques such as weight function and finite element alternating methods have been introduced to predict the occurrence of PWSCC, there are still difficulties in respect of applicability and efficiency. In this study, the extended finite element method (XFEM), which allows convenient crack element modeling by enriching degree of freedom (DOF) with special displacement function, was employed to evaluate structural integrity of the CRDM head penetration nozzle. The resulting stress intensity factors of surface cracks were verified for the reliability of proposed method through the comparison with those suggested in the American Society of Mechanical Engineering (ASME) code. The detailed results from the FE analyses are fully discussed in the manuscript.
Finite Element Method for Capturing Ultra-relativistic Shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, G. A.; Chung, T. J.
2003-01-01
While finite element methods are used extensively by researchers solving computational fluid dynamics in fields other than astrophysics, their use in astrophysical fluid simulations has been predominantly overlooked. Current simulations using other methods such as finite difference and finite volume (based on finite difference) have shown remarkable results, but these methods are limited by their fundamental properties in aspects that are important for simulations with complex geometries and widely varying spatial and temporal scale differences. We have explored the use of finite element methods for astrophysical fluids in order to establish the validity of using such methods in astrophysical environments. We present our numerical technique applied to solving ultra-relativistic (Lorentz Factor Gamma >> 1) shocks which are prevalent in astrophysical studies including relativistic jets and gamma-ray burst studies. We show our finite element formulation applied to simulations where the Lorentz factor ranges up to 2236 and demonstrate its stability in solving ultra-relativistic flows. Our numerical method is based on the Flowfield Dependent Variation (FDV) Method, unique in that numerical diffusion is derived from physical parameters rather than traditional artificial viscosity methods. Numerical instabilities account for most of the difficulties when capturing shocks in this regime. Our method results in stable solutions and accurate results as compared with other methods.
Nuclear fuel elements and method of making same
Schweitzer, Donald G.
1992-01-01
A nuclear fuel element for a high temperature gas nuclear reactor that has an average operating temperature in excess of 2000.degree. C., and a method of making such a fuel element. The fuel element is characterized by having fissionable fuel material localized and stabilized within pores of a carbon or graphite member by melting the fissionable material to cause it to chemically react with the carbon walls of the pores. The fissionable fuel material is further stabilized and localized within the pores of the graphite member by providing one or more coatings of pyrolytic carbon or diamond surrounding the porous graphite member so that each layer defines a successive barrier against migration of the fissionable fuel from the pores, and so that the outermost layer of pyrolytic carbon or diamond forms a barrier between the fissionable material and the moderating gases used in an associated high temperature gas reactor. The method of the invention provides for making such new elements either as generally spherically elements, or as flexible filaments, or as other relatively small-sized fuel elements that are particularly suited for use in high temperature gas reactors.
A stochastic method for computing hadronic matrix elements
Alexandrou, Constantia; Constantinou, Martha; Dinter, Simon; Drach, Vincent; Jansen, Karl; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Renner, Dru B.
2014-01-24
In this study, we present a stochastic method for the calculation of baryon 3-point functions which is an alternative to the typically used sequential method offering more versatility. We analyze the scaling of the error of the stochastically evaluated 3-point function with the lattice volume and find a favorable signal to noise ratio suggesting that the stochastic method can be extended to large volumes providing an efficient approach to compute hadronic matrix elements and form factors.
Stiffened plate bending analysis by the boundary element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernandes, G. R.; Venturini, W. S.
In this work, the plate bending formulation of the boundary element method (BEM) based on the Kirchhoff's hypothesis, is extended to the analysis of stiffened elements usually present in building floor structures. Particular integral representations are derived to take directly into account the interactions between the beams forming grid and surface elements. Equilibrium and compatibility conditions are automatically imposed by the integral equations, which treat this composite structure as a single body. Two possible procedures are shown for dealing with plate domain stiffened by beams. In the first, the beam element is considered as a stiffer region requiring therefore the discretization of two internal lines with two unknowns per node. In the second scheme, the number of degrees of freedom along the interface is reduced by two by assuming that the cross-section motion is defined by three independent components only.
Ferencz, R.M.
1988-10-01
Past work with element-by-element (EBE) preconditioned conjugate gradient iterative solution strategies has shown these techniques can be effective for large-scale, three-dimensional calculations in solid and structural mechanics. Significant gains over the profile storage direct solution method traditionally used in implicit finite element codes have been observed for a variety of real engineering analyses, especially in solid mechanics. Structural mechanics applications have proved less successful due to the ill-conditioned linear systems engendered by standard structural discretizations. This lack of robustness has recently motivated reconsideration of Lanczos-based algorithms as alternative iterative drivers. In this paper we compare the relative strengths of the conjugate gradient and Lanczos drivers when coupled with EBE preconditioning. The performance of the two methods is characterized, and compared with direct solution, using a model problem and a number of real engineering meshes. 26 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.
Adaptive finite-element method for diffraction gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Gang; Chen, Zhiming; Wu, Haijun
2005-06-01
A second-order finite-element adaptive strategy with error control for one-dimensional grating problems is developed. The unbounded computational domain is truncated to a bounded one by a perfectly-matched-layer (PML) technique. The PML parameters, such as the thickness of the layer and the medium properties, are determined through sharp a posteriori error estimates. The adaptive finite-element method is expected to increase significantly the accuracy and efficiency of the discretization as well as reduce the computation cost. Numerical experiments are included to illustrate the competitiveness of the proposed adaptive method.
Robust Hybrid Finite Element Methods for Antennas and Microwave Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gong, J.; Volakis, John L.
1996-01-01
One of the primary goals in this dissertation is concerned with the development of robust hybrid finite element-boundary integral (FE-BI) techniques for modeling and design of conformal antennas of arbitrary shape. Both the finite element and integral equation methods will be first overviewed in this chapter with an emphasis on recently developed hybrid FE-BI methodologies for antennas, microwave and millimeter wave applications. The structure of the dissertation is then outlined. We conclude the chapter with discussions of certain fundamental concepts and methods in electromagnetics, which are important to this study.
49 CFR 383.133 - Testing methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Testing methods. 383.133 Section 383.133... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Testing methods. (a) All tests shall be constructed in... must be at least as stringent as the Federal standards. (c) States shall determine specific methods...
49 CFR 383.133 - Test methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Test methods. 383.133 Section 383.133... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Test methods. (a) All tests must be constructed in... and provides to all State Driver Licensing Agencies. (2) The State method of generating...
49 CFR 383.133 - Test methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Test methods. 383.133 Section 383.133... STANDARDS; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Tests § 383.133 Test methods. (a) All tests must be constructed in... and provides to all State Driver Licensing Agencies. (2) The State method of generating...
Lubrication approximation in completed double layer boundary element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasseri, S.; Phan-Thien, N.; Fan, X.-J.
This paper reports on the results of the numerical simulation of the motion of solid spherical particles in shear Stokes flows. Using the completed double layer boundary element method (CDLBEM) via distributed computing under Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM), the effective viscosity of suspension has been calculated for a finite number of spheres in a cubic array, or in a random configuration. In the simulation presented here, the short range interactions via lubrication forces are also taken into account, via the range completer in the formulation, whenever the gap between two neighbouring particles is closer than a critical gap. The results for particles in a simple cubic array agree with the results of Nunan and Keller (1984) and Stoksian Dynamics of Brady etal. (1988). To evaluate the lubrication forces between particles in a random configuration, a critical gap of 0.2 of particle's radius is suggested and the results are tested against the experimental data of Thomas (1965) and empirical equation of Krieger-Dougherty (Krieger, 1972). Finally, the quasi-steady trajectories are obtained for time-varying configuration of 125 particles.
Finite-Element Analysis of a Mach-8 Flight Test Article Using Nonlinear Contact Elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richards, W. Lance
1997-01-01
A flight test article, called a glove, is required for a Mach-8 boundary-layer experiment to be conducted on a flight mission of the air-launched Pegasus(reg) space booster. The glove is required to provide a smooth, three-dimensional, structurally stable, aerodynamic surface and includes instrumentation to determine when and where boundary-layer transition occurs during the hypersonic flight trajectory. A restraint mechanism has been invented to attach the glove to the wing of the space booster. The restraint mechanism securely attaches the glove to the wing in directions normal to the wing/glove interface surface, but allows the glove to thermally expand and contract to alleviate stresses in directions parallel to the interface surface. A finite-element analysis has been performed using nonlinear contact elements to model the complex behavior of the sliding restraint mechanism. This paper provides an overview of the glove design and presents details of the analysis that were essential to demonstrate the flight worthiness of the wing-glove test article. Results show that all glove components are well within the allowable stress and deformation requirements to satisfy the objectives of the flight research experiment.
Parallel, adaptive finite element methods for conservation laws
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biswas, Rupak; Devine, Karen D.; Flaherty, Joseph E.
1994-01-01
We construct parallel finite element methods for the solution of hyperbolic conservation laws in one and two dimensions. Spatial discretization is performed by a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method using a basis of piecewise Legendre polynomials. Temporal discretization utilizes a Runge-Kutta method. Dissipative fluxes and projection limiting prevent oscillations near solution discontinuities. A posteriori estimates of spatial errors are obtained by a p-refinement technique using superconvergence at Radau points. The resulting method is of high order and may be parallelized efficiently on MIMD computers. We compare results using different limiting schemes and demonstrate parallel efficiency through computations on an NCUBE/2 hypercube. We also present results using adaptive h- and p-refinement to reduce the computational cost of the method.
Ultrasonic Method for Deployment Mechanism Bolt Element Preload Verification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Eric C.; Kim, Yong M.; Morris, Fred A.; Mitchell, Joel; Pan, Robert B.
2014-01-01
Deployment mechanisms play a pivotal role in mission success. These mechanisms often incorporate bolt elements for which a preload within a specified range is essential for proper operation. A common practice is to torque these bolt elements to a specified value during installation. The resulting preload, however, can vary significantly with applied torque for a number of reasons. The goal of this effort was to investigate ultrasonic methods as an alternative for bolt preload verification in such deployment mechanisms. A family of non-explosive release mechanisms widely used by satellite manufacturers was chosen for the work. A willing contractor permitted measurements on a sampling of bolt elements for these release mechanisms that were installed by a technician following a standard practice. A variation of approximately 50% (+/- 25%) in the resultant preloads was observed. An alternative ultrasonic method to set the preloads was then developed and calibration data was accumulated. The method was demonstrated on bolt elements installed in a fixture instrumented with a calibrated load cell and designed to mimic production practice. The ultrasonic method yielded results within +/- 3% of the load cell reading. The contractor has since adopted the alternative method for its future production. Introduction
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods. 63.547 Section 63.547... Hazardous Air Pollutants from Secondary Lead Smelting § 63.547 Test methods. (a) The following test methods...), and 63.545(e): (1) Method 1 shall be used to select the sampling port location and the number...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 63.547 Section 63.547... Hazardous Air Pollutants from Secondary Lead Smelting § 63.547 Test methods. (a) The following test methods...), and 63.545(e): (1) Method 1 shall be used to select the sampling port location and the number...
The OSU Hydro-Mechanical Fuel Test Facility: Standard Fuel Element Testing
Wade R. Marcum; Brian G. Woods; Ann Marie Phillips; Richard G. Ambrosek; James D. Wiest; Daniel M. Wachs
2001-10-01
Oregon State University (OSU) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) are currently collaborating on a test program which entails hydro-mechanical testing of a generic plate type fuel element, or standard fuel element (SFE), for the purpose of qualitatively demonstrating mechanical integrity of uranium-molybdenum monolithic plates as compared to that of uranium aluminum dispersion, and aluminum fuel plates due to hydraulic forces. This test program supports ongoing work conducted for/by the fuel development program and will take place at OSU in the Hydro-Mechanical Fuel Test Facility (HMFTF). Discussion of a preliminary test matrix, SFE design, measurement and instrumentation techniques, and facility description are detailed in this paper.
HyRAM Testing Strategy and Quality Design Elements.
Reynolds, John Thomas
2014-12-01
Strategy document and tentative schedule for testing of HyRAM, a software toolkit that integrates data and methods relevant to assessing the safety of hydrogen fueling and storage infrastructure. Because proposed and existing features in HyRAM that support testing are important factors in this discussion, relevant design considerations of HyRAM are also discussed. However, t his document does not cover all of HyRAM desig n, nor is the full HyRAM software development schedule included.
Electrical and Joule heating relationship investigation using Finite Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thangaraju, S. K.; Munisamy, K. M.
2015-09-01
The finite element method is vastly used in material strength analysis. The nature of the finite element solver, which solves the Fourier equation of stress and strain analysis, made it possible to apply for conduction heat transfer Fourier Equation. Similarly the Current and voltage equation is also liner Fourier equation. The nature of the governing equation makes it possible to numerical investigate the electrical joule heating phenomena in electronic component. This paper highlights the Finite Element Method (FEM) application onto semiconductor interconnects to determine the specific contact resistance (SCR). Metal and semiconductor interconnects is used as model. The result confirms the possibility and validity of FEM utilization to investigate the Joule heating due electrical resistance.
Review of correlation methods for evaluating finite element simulations of impact injury risk.
Wang, Qian; Gabler, Hampton C
2008-01-01
Finite element models have been used to understand human injury responses in various crash configurations. Most of the model validations were limited to qualitative descriptions. Quantitative analysis was needed for the validation of finite element models against experimental results. The purpose of this study is to compare the existing correlation techniques and to determine the best method to use for evaluating finite element simulations of impact injury risk in vehicle crashes. Five correlation methods in the literature were reviewed for systematic comparisons between simulations and tests. A full frontal impact test of a 1997 Geo Metro was simulated. The finite element model of a 1997 Geo Metro was obtained from NCAC finite element model archive. The acceleration and velocity responses of the vehicle seat were extracted from the simulation and compared to the test data. Evaluations of the validation methods were based on the analysis results compared to the suggested criteria. Performance of the different methods showed that the Comprehensive Error Factor method was the best overall correlation method, and therefore was recommended for assessing occupant injury potentials in vehicle accidents. PMID:19141927
Application of the Spectral Element Method to Interior Noise Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doyle, James F.
1998-01-01
The primary effort of this research project was focused the development of analytical methods for the accurate prediction of structural acoustic noise and response. Of particular interest was the development of curved frame and shell spectral elements for the efficient computational of structural response and of schemes to match this to the surrounding fluid.
METHOD OF PREPARING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR
Hauth, J.J.; Anicetti, R.J.
1962-12-01
A method is described for preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor. According to the patent uranium dioxide is compacted in a metal tabe by directlng intense sound waves at the tabe prior to tamp packing or vibration compaction of the powder. (AEC)
Spanwise variation of potential form drag. [finite element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clever, W. C.
1977-01-01
The finite element method is used to calculate the spanwise variation of potential form drag of a wing at subsonic and supersonic speeds using linearly varying panels. The wing may be of arbitrary planform and nonplanar provided the wing panels are parallel to the aircraft axis.
Wheat mill stream properties for discrete element method modeling
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A discrete phase approach based on individual wheat kernel characteristics is needed to overcome the limitations of previous statistical models and accurately predict the milling behavior of wheat. As a first step to develop a discrete element method (DEM) model for the wheat milling process, this s...
New Application of Finite Element Method to Seamount Magnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
HA, G.; Kim, S. S.; So, B. D.
2015-12-01
Geomagnetic method can be utilized in a wide range of applications, including investigation of small-scale near-surface targets and characterization of large-scale geologic structures. In particular, marine magnetic studies involve with various interpretation approaches to constrain geophysical information regarding the depth of a particular seamount, its size and shape, and the orientation and magnitude of its magnetization. The accuracy of the estimated information is normally governed by the quality and amount of available data and by the sophistication of the employed modeling techniques. Here we aim to advance geomagnetic modeling approaches using the interactive finite element solver, COMSOL Multiphysics, and improve the degree of detail that can be obtained from the measured magnetic field. First, we carried out benchmark tests by comparing the computed results using the analytic solutions for simple bodies. We built two types of synthetic models with rectangular and sphere shaped ore bodies having high intensity of magnetization and we changed magnetized direction in each calculation. Comparisons of FEM-based results with the analytic ones exhibited good agreement in general. Second, marine magnetic data obtained at seamounts can be very crucial to determine the age and location of seamount formation. Traditional magnetic methods often assume the uniformly magnetized seamounts to simplify computational efforts. However, the inner structures of seamounts constrained by seismic data show a clear distinction between the dense core and edifice layers. Here we divide the seamount into the dense core and edifice layers in a synthetic model, assign different magnetization direction and intensity to them, and optimize these parameters by minimizing differences between the observed and numerical computed data. These examined results will be valuable to understand seamount formation processes in detail. In addition, we discuss FEM-based magnetic models to mimic the
Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Parabolic Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaneko, Hideaki; Bey, Kim S.; Hou, Gene J. W.
2004-01-01
In this paper, we develop a time and its corresponding spatial discretization scheme, based upon the assumption of a certain weak singularity of parallel ut(t) parallel Lz(omega) = parallel ut parallel2, for the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for one-dimensional parabolic problems. Optimal convergence rates in both time and spatial variables are obtained. A discussion of automatic time-step control method is also included.
Acoustic scattering from ellipses by the modal element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kreider, Kevin L.; Baumeister, Kenneth J.
1995-01-01
The modal element method is used to study acoustic scattering from ellipses, which may be acoustically soft (absorbing) or hard (reflecting). Because exact solutions are available, the results provide a benchmark for algorithm performance for scattering from airfoils and similar shapes. Numerical results for scattering from rigid ellipses are presented for a wide variety of eccentricities at moderate frequencies. These results indicate that the method is practical.
[Whiplash injury analysis of cervical vertebra by finite element method].
Wang, Tao; Li, Zheng-Dong; Shao, Yu; Chen, Yi-Jiu
2015-02-01
Finite element method (FEM) is an effective mathematical method for stress analysis, and has been gradually applied in the study of biomechanics of human body structures. This paper reviews the construction, development, materials assignment and verification of FEM model of cervical vertebra, and it also states the research results of injury mechanism of whiplash injury and biomechanical response analysis of the cervical vertebra using FEM by researchers at home and abroad. PMID:26058135
Error response test system and method using test mask variable
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)
2006-01-01
An error response test system and method with increased functionality and improved performance is provided. The error response test system provides the ability to inject errors into the application under test to test the error response of the application under test in an automated and efficient manner. The error response system injects errors into the application through a test mask variable. The test mask variable is added to the application under test. During normal operation, the test mask variable is set to allow the application under test to operate normally. During testing, the error response test system can change the test mask variable to introduce an error into the application under test. The error response system can then monitor the application under test to determine whether the application has the correct response to the error.
Smoothing Methods for Estimating Test Score Distributions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kolen, Michael J.
1991-01-01
Estimation/smoothing methods that are flexible enough to fit a wide variety of test score distributions are reviewed: kernel method, strong true-score model-based method, and method that uses polynomial log-linear models. Applications of these methods include describing/comparing test score distributions, estimating norms, and estimating…
Myasthenia Gravis: Tests and Diagnostic Methods
... Affiliations Foundation Focus Newsletter E-Update Test & Diagnostic methods In addition to a complete medical and neurological ... How can I help? About MGFA Test & Diagnostic methods Treatment for MG FAQ's Upcoming Events Spring 2016 ...
Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for gradient plasticity.
Garikipati, Krishna.; Ostien, Jakob T.
2010-10-01
In this report we apply discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods to the equations of an incompatibility based formulation of gradient plasticity. The presentation is motivated with a brief overview of the description of dislocations within a crystal lattice. A tensor representing a measure of the incompatibility with the lattice is used in the formulation of a gradient plasticity model. This model is cast in a variational formulation, and discontinuous Galerkin machinery is employed to implement the formulation into a finite element code. Finally numerical examples of the model are shown.
A boundary element method for steady incompressible thermoviscous flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dargush, G. F.; Banerjee, P. K.
1991-01-01
A boundary element formulation is presented for moderate Reynolds number, steady, incompressible, thermoviscous flows. The governing integral equations are written exclusively in terms of velocities and temperatures, thus eliminating the need for the computation of any gradients. Furthermore, with the introduction of reference velocities and temperatures, volume modeling can often be confined to only a small portion of the problem domain, typically near obstacles or walls. The numerical implementation includes higher order elements, adaptive integration and multiregion capability. Both the integral formulation and implementation are discussed in detail. Several examples illustrate the high level of accuracy that is obtainable with the current method.
Unconstrained paving and plastering method for generating finite element meshes
Staten, Matthew L.; Owen, Steven J.; Blacker, Teddy D.; Kerr, Robert
2010-03-02
Computer software for and a method of generating a conformal all quadrilateral or hexahedral mesh comprising selecting an object with unmeshed boundaries and performing the following while unmeshed voids are larger than twice a desired element size and unrecognizable as either a midpoint subdividable or pave-and-sweepable polyhedra: selecting a front to advance; based on sizes of fronts and angles with adjacent fronts, determining which adjacent fronts should be advanced with the selected front; advancing the fronts; detecting proximities with other nearby fronts; resolving any found proximities; forming quadrilaterals or unconstrained columns of hexahedra where two layers cross; and establishing hexahedral elements where three layers cross.
Method and apparatus for diagnosing breached fuel elements
Gross, K.C.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Nomura, S.
1987-03-02
The invention provides an apparatus and method for diagnosing breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A detection system measures the activity of isotopes from the cover gas in the reactor. A data acquisition and processing system monitors the detection system and corrects for the effects of the cover-gas clean up system on the measured activity and further calculates the derivative curve of the corrected activity as a function of time. A plotting system graphs the derivative curve, which represents the instantaneous release rate of fission gas from a breached fuel element. 8 figs.
Method and apparatus for diagnosing breached fuel elements
Gross, Kenny C.; Lambert, John D. B.; Nomura, Shigeo
1988-01-01
The invention provides an apparatus and method for diagnosing breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A detection system measures the activity of isotopes from the cover-gas in the reactor. A data acquisition and processing system monitors the detection system and corrects for the effects of the cover-gas clean up system on the measured activity and further calculates the derivative cure of the corrected activity as a function of time. A plotting system graphs the derivative curve, which represents the instantaneous release rate of fission gas from a breached fuel element.
Neutron activation analysis; A sensitive test for trace elements
Hossain, T.Z. . Ward Lab.)
1992-01-01
This paper discusses neutron activation analysis (NAA), an extremely sensitive technique for determining the elemental constituents of an unknown specimen. Currently, there are some twenty-five moderate-power TRIGA reactors scattered across the United States (fourteen of them at universities), and one of their principal uses is for NAA. NAA is procedurally simple. A small amount of the material to be tested (typically between one and one hundred milligrams) is irradiated for a period that varies from a few minutes to several hours in a neutron flux of around 10{sup 12} neutrons per square centimeter per second. A tiny fraction of the nuclei present (about 10{sup {minus}8}) is transmuted by nuclear reactions into radioactive forms. Subsequently, the nuclei decay, and the energy and intensity of the gamma rays that they emit can be measured in a gamma-ray spectrometer.
Finite element analysis of the fiber twist test
Gaudette, F.; Ertuerk, T.; Robertson, S.
1995-10-01
Interface and torsional shear stresses in the fiber twist test (FTT) were computed using the ABAQUS finite element program. Interface stress singularities were compared with an elasticity solution for the torsion of a fiber embedded in an elastic half space. Single fiber composite systems having perfectly bonded interfaces and fiber/matrix shear modulus ratios of G{sub f}/G{sub m} = 1--3 were considered. The decay rates and depths of the interface shear stress {delta}{sub r{theta}} and the torsional shear stress {delta}{sub Z{theta}} in the fiber and matrix were evaluated for each G{sub f}/G{sub m} ratio.
High-order finite element methods for cardiac monodomain simulations.
Vincent, Kevin P; Gonzales, Matthew J; Gillette, Andrew K; Villongco, Christopher T; Pezzuto, Simone; Omens, Jeffrey H; Holst, Michael J; McCulloch, Andrew D
2015-01-01
Computational modeling of tissue-scale cardiac electrophysiology requires numerically converged solutions to avoid spurious artifacts. The steep gradients inherent to cardiac action potential propagation necessitate fine spatial scales and therefore a substantial computational burden. The use of high-order interpolation methods has previously been proposed for these simulations due to their theoretical convergence advantage. In this study, we compare the convergence behavior of linear Lagrange, cubic Hermite, and the newly proposed cubic Hermite-style serendipity interpolation methods for finite element simulations of the cardiac monodomain equation. The high-order methods reach converged solutions with fewer degrees of freedom and longer element edge lengths than traditional linear elements. Additionally, we propose a dimensionless number, the cell Thiele modulus, as a more useful metric for determining solution convergence than element size alone. Finally, we use the cell Thiele modulus to examine convergence criteria for obtaining clinically useful activation patterns for applications such as patient-specific modeling where the total activation time is known a priori. PMID:26300783
High-order finite element methods for cardiac monodomain simulations
Vincent, Kevin P.; Gonzales, Matthew J.; Gillette, Andrew K.; Villongco, Christopher T.; Pezzuto, Simone; Omens, Jeffrey H.; Holst, Michael J.; McCulloch, Andrew D.
2015-01-01
Computational modeling of tissue-scale cardiac electrophysiology requires numerically converged solutions to avoid spurious artifacts. The steep gradients inherent to cardiac action potential propagation necessitate fine spatial scales and therefore a substantial computational burden. The use of high-order interpolation methods has previously been proposed for these simulations due to their theoretical convergence advantage. In this study, we compare the convergence behavior of linear Lagrange, cubic Hermite, and the newly proposed cubic Hermite-style serendipity interpolation methods for finite element simulations of the cardiac monodomain equation. The high-order methods reach converged solutions with fewer degrees of freedom and longer element edge lengths than traditional linear elements. Additionally, we propose a dimensionless number, the cell Thiele modulus, as a more useful metric for determining solution convergence than element size alone. Finally, we use the cell Thiele modulus to examine convergence criteria for obtaining clinically useful activation patterns for applications such as patient-specific modeling where the total activation time is known a priori. PMID:26300783
30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...
30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...
30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...
30 CFR 27.31 - Testing methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing methods. 27.31 Section 27.31 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS METHANE-MONITORING SYSTEMS Test Requirements § 27.31 Testing methods. A...
Nye, Ben; Kulchitsky, Anton V; Johnson, Jerome B
2014-01-01
This paper describes a new method for representing concave polyhedral particles in a discrete element method as unions of convex dilated polyhedra. This method offers an efficient way to simulate systems with a large number of (generally concave) polyhedral particles. The method also allows spheres, capsules, and dilated triangles to be combined with polyhedra using the same approach. The computational efficiency of the method is tested in two different simulation setups using different efficiency metrics for seven particle types: spheres, clusters of three spheres, clusters of four spheres, tetrahedra, cubes, unions of two octahedra (concave), and a model of a computer tomography scan of a lunar simulant GRC-3 particle. It is shown that the computational efficiency of the simulations degrades much slower than the increase in complexity of the particles in the system. The efficiency of the method is based on the time coherence of the system, and an efficient and robust distance computation method between polyhedra as particles never intersect for dilated particles. PMID:26300584
Bare PCB test method based on AI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Aihua; Zhou, Huiyang; Wan, Nianhong; Qu, Liangsheng
1995-08-01
The shortcomings of conventional methods used for developing test sets on current automated printed circuit board (PCB) test machines consist of overlooking the information from CAD, historical test data, and the experts' knowledge. Thus, the generated test sets and proposed test sequence may be sub-optimal and inefficient. This paper presents a weighting bare PCB test method based on analysis and utilization of the CAD information. AI technique is applied for faults statistics and faults identification. Also, the generation of test sets and the planning of test procedure are discussed. A faster and more efficient test system is achieved.
40 CFR 63.1546 - Test methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Test methods. 63.1546 Section 63.1546... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting § 63.1546 Test methods. (a) The following procedure shall....1543(a)(1) through § 63.1543(a)(9) shall be determined according to the following test methods...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods. 63.465 Section 63.465... Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this...) of this section. (i) From tests conducted using EPA reference method 25d. (ii) By...
40 CFR 63.1546 - Test methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Test methods. 63.1546 Section 63.1546... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting § 63.1546 Test methods. (a) The following procedure shall....1543(a)(1) through § 63.1543(a)(9) shall be determined according to the following test methods...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content of gasoline shall be determined in accordance with test methods set forth in the appendices to this part....
Discrete Element Method Simulation of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Stress Wave Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Zhiping; Horie, Y.; Wang, Wenqiang
2002-07-01
A DEM(Discrete Element Method) simulation of nonlinear viscoelastic stress wave problems is carried out. The interaction forces among elements are described using a model in which neighbor elements are linked by a nonlinear spring and a certain number of Maxwell components in parallel. By making use of exponential relaxation moduli, it is shown that numerical computation of the convolution integral does not require storing and repeatedly calculating strain history, so that the computational cost is dramatically reduced. To validate the viscoelastic DM2 code1, stress wave propagation in a Maxwell rod with one end subjected to a constant stress loading is simulated. Results excellently fit those from the characteristics calculation. The code is then used to investigate the problem of meso-scale damage in a plastic-bonded explosive under shock loading. Results not only show "compression damage", but also reveal a complex damage evolution. They demonstrate a unique capability of DEM in modeling heterogeneous materials.
Discrete Element Method Simulation of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Stress Wave Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wenqiang; Tang, Zhiping; Horie, Y.
2002-07-01
A DEM(Discrete Element Method) simulation of nonlinear viscoelastic stress wave problems is carried out. The interaction forces among elements are described using a model in which neighbor elements are linked by a nonlinear spring and a certain number of Maxwell components in parallel. By making use of exponential relaxation moduli, it is shown that numerical computation of the convolution integral does not require storing and repeatedly calculating strain history, so that the computational cost is dramatically reduced. To validate the viscoelastic DM2 code[1], stress wave propagation in a Maxwell rod with one end subjected to a constant stress loading is simulated. Results excellently fit those from the characteristics calculation. The code is then used to investigate the problem of meso-scale damage in a plastic-bonded explosive under shock loading. Results not only show "compression damage", but also reveal a complex damage evolution. They demonstrate a unique capability of DEM in modeling heterogeneous materials.
Flow Applications of the Least Squares Finite Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Bo-Nan
1998-01-01
The main thrust of the effort has been towards the development, analysis and implementation of the least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) for fluid dynamics and electromagnetics applications. In the past year, there were four major accomplishments: 1) special treatments in computational fluid dynamics and computational electromagnetics, such as upwinding, numerical dissipation, staggered grid, non-equal order elements, operator splitting and preconditioning, edge elements, and vector potential are unnecessary; 2) the analysis of the LSFEM for most partial differential equations can be based on the bounded inverse theorem; 3) the finite difference and finite volume algorithms solve only two Maxwell equations and ignore the divergence equations; and 4) the first numerical simulation of three-dimensional Marangoni-Benard convection was performed using the LSFEM.
Preconditioned Mixed Spectral Element Methods for Elasticity and Stokes Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pavarino, Luca F.
1996-01-01
Preconditioned iterative methods for the indefinite systems obtained by discretizing the linear elasticity and Stokes problems with mixed spectral elements in three dimensions are introduced and analyzed. The resulting stiffness matrices have the structure of saddle point problems with a penalty term, which is associated with the Poisson ratio for elasticity problems or with stabilization techniques for Stokes problems. The main results of this paper show that the convergence rate of the resulting algorithms is independent of the penalty parameter, the number of spectral elements Nu and mildly dependent on the spectral degree eta via the inf-sup constant. The preconditioners proposed for the whole indefinite system are block-diagonal and block-triangular. Numerical experiments presented in the final section show that these algorithms are a practical and efficient strategy for the iterative solution of the indefinite problems arising from mixed spectral element discretizations of elliptic systems.
An implicit finite element method for discrete dynamic fracture
Jobie M. Gerken
1999-12-01
A method for modeling the discrete fracture of two-dimensional linear elastic structures with a distribution of small cracks subject to dynamic conditions has been developed. The foundation for this numerical model is a plane element formulated from the Hu-Washizu energy principle. The distribution of small cracks is incorporated into the numerical model by including a small crack at each element interface. The additional strain field in an element adjacent to this crack is treated as an externally applied strain field in the Hu-Washizu energy principle. The resulting stiffness matrix is that of a standard plane element. The resulting load vector is that of a standard plane element with an additional term that includes the externally applied strain field. Except for the crack strain field equations, all terms of the stiffness matrix and load vector are integrated symbolically in Maple V so that fully integrated plane stress and plane strain elements are constructed. The crack strain field equations are integrated numerically. The modeling of dynamic behavior of simple structures was demonstrated within acceptable engineering accuracy. In the model of axial and transverse vibration of a beam and the breathing mode of vibration of a thin ring, the dynamic characteristics were shown to be within expected limits. The models dominated by tensile forces (the axially loaded beam and the pressurized ring) were within 0.5% of the theoretical values while the shear dominated model (the transversely loaded beam) is within 5% of the calculated theoretical value. The constant strain field of the tensile problems can be modeled exactly by the numerical model. The numerical results should therefore, be exact. The discrepancies can be accounted for by errors in the calculation of frequency from the numerical results. The linear strain field of the transverse model must be modeled by a series of constant strain elements. This is an approximation to the true strain field, so some
Phased array antenna analysis using hybrid finite element methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McGrath, Daniel T.
1993-06-01
This research in computational electromagnetics developed a new method for predicting the near-field mutual coupling effects in phased array antennas, using the finite element method (FEM) in combination with integral equations. Accurate feed modeling is accomplished by enforcing continuity between the FEM solution and an arbitrary number of wave guide models across a ground plane aperture. A periodic integral equation is imposed above the antenna's physical structure in order to enforce the radiation condition and to confine the analysis to an array unit cell. The electric field is expanded in terms of vector finite elements, and Galerkin's method is used to write the problem as a matrix equation. A general-purpose computer code was developed and validated by comparing its results to published data for several array types. Its versatility was demonstrated with predictions of the scanning properties of arrays of printed dipoles and printed flared notches.
Comparison of Test and Finite Element Analysis for Two Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Tests
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Annett, Martin S.; Horta,Lucas G.
2011-01-01
Finite element analyses have been performed for two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of a composite deployable energy absorber under combined flight loads. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish the baseline loads. The use of an energy absorbing device reduced the impact acceleration levels by a factor of three. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to analytical results. Details of the full-scale crash tests and development of the system-integrated finite element model are briefly described along with direct comparisons of acceleration magnitudes and durations for the first full-scale crash test. Because load levels were significantly different between tests, models developed for the purposes of predicting the overall system response with external energy absorbers were not adequate under more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. Relative error comparisons were inadequate to guide model calibration. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used for the second full-scale crash test. The calibrated parameter set reduced 2-norm prediction error by 51% but did not improve impact shape orthogonality.
New analytical methods for determining trace elements in coal
Dale, L.S.; Riley, K.W.
1996-12-31
New and improved analytical methods, based on modem spectroscopic techniques, have been developed to provide more reliable data on the levels of environmentally significant elements in Australian bituminous thermal coals. Arsenic, selenium and antimony are determined using hydride generation atomic absorption or fluorescence spectrometry, applied to an Eschka fusion of the raw coal. Boron is determined on the same digest using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES). ICPAES is also used to determine beryllium, chromium, cobalt, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead and zinc, after fusion of a low temperature ash with lithium borate. Other elements of concern including cadmium, uranium and thorium are analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on a mixed acid digest of a low temperature ash. This technique was also suitable for determining elements analyzed by the ICPAES. Improved methods for chlorine and fluorine have also been developed. Details of the methods will be given and results of validation trials discussed on some of the methods which are anticipated to be designated Australian standard methods.
Experimental Optimization Methods for Multi-Element Airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Landman, Drew; Britcher, Colin P.
1996-01-01
A modern three element airfoil model with a remotely activated flap was used to investigate optimum flap testing position using an automated optimization algorithm in wind tunnel tests. Detailed results for lift coefficient versus flap vertical and horizontal position are presented for two angles of attack: 8 and 14 degrees. An on-line first order optimizer is demonstrated which automatically seeks the optimum lift as a function of flap position. Future work with off-line optimization techniques is introduced and aerodynamic hysteresis effects due to flap movement with flow on are discussed.
Finite Elements Analysis of a Composite Semi-Span Test Article With and Without Discrete Damage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Jegley, Dawn C. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
AS&M Inc. performed finite element analysis, with and without discrete damage, of a composite semi-span test article that represents the Boeing 220-passenger transport aircraft composite semi-span test article. A NASTRAN bulk data file and drawings of the test mount fixtures and semi-span components were utilized to generate the baseline finite element model. In this model, the stringer blades are represented by shell elements, and the stringer flanges are combined with the skin. Numerous modeling modifications and discrete source damage scenarios were applied to the test article model throughout the course of the study. This report details the analysis method and results obtained from the composite semi-span study. Analyses were carried out for three load cases: Braked Roll, LOG Down-Bending and 2.5G Up-Bending. These analyses included linear and nonlinear static response, as well as linear and nonlinear buckling response. Results are presented in the form of stress and strain plots. factors of safety for failed elements, buckling loads and modes, deflection prediction tables and plots, and strainage prediction tables and plots. The collected results are presented within this report for comparison to test results.
40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) or measure the concentration of HCl (and Cl2 for hydrochloric acid regeneration plants) in gases... to the initial test or tests. (c) Establishment of hydrochloric acid regeneration plant...
40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) or measure the concentration of HCl (and Cl2 for hydrochloric acid regeneration plants) in gases... to the initial test or tests. (c) Establishment of hydrochloric acid regeneration plant...
Electrokinetic remediation prefield test methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor)
2000-01-01
Methods for determining the parameters critical in designing an electrokinetic soil remediation process including electrode well spacing, operating current/voltage, electroosmotic flow rate, electrode well wall design, and amount of buffering or neutralizing solution needed in the electrode wells at operating conditions are disclosed These methods are preferably performed prior to initiating a full scale electrokinetic remediation process in order to obtain efficient remediation of the contaminants.
Petrov-galerkin finite element method for solving the neutron transport equation
Greenbaum, A.; Ferguson, J.M.
1986-05-01
A finite element using different trial and test spaces in introduced for solving the neutron transport equation in spherical geometry. It is shown that the widely used discrete ordinates method can also be thought of as such a finite element technique, in which integrals appearing in the difference equations are replaced by one-point Gauss quadrature formulas (midpoint rule). Comparison of accuracy between the new method and the discrete ordinates method is discussed, and numerical examples are given to illustrate the greater accuracy of the new technique.
CFD Methods and Tools for Multi-Element Airfoil Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, Stuart E.; George, Michael W. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
This lecture will discuss the computational tools currently available for high-lift multi-element airfoil analysis. It will present an overview of a number of different numerical approaches, their current capabilities, short-comings, and computational costs. The lecture will be limited to viscous methods, including inviscid/boundary layer coupling methods, and incompressible and compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methods. Both structured and unstructured grid generation approaches will be presented. Two different structured grid procedures are outlined, one which uses multi-block patched grids, the other uses overset chimera grids. Turbulence and transition modeling will be discussed.
Analysis of Waveguide Junction Discontinuities Using Finite Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deshpande, Manohar D.
1997-01-01
A Finite Element Method (FEM) is presented to determine reflection and transmission coefficients of rectangular waveguide junction discontinuities. An H-plane discontinuity, an E-plane ridge discontinuity, and a step discontinuity in a concentric rectangular waveguide junction are analyzed using the FEM procedure. Also, reflection and transmission coefficients due to presence of a gap between two sections of a rectangular waveguide are determined using the FEM. The numerical results obtained by the present method are in excellent agreement with the earlier published results. The numerical results obtained by the FEM are compared with the numerical results obtained using the Mode Matching Method (MMM) and also with the measured data.
Dual Formulations of Mixed Finite Element Methods with Applications
Gillette, Andrew; Bajaj, Chandrajit
2011-01-01
Mixed finite element methods solve a PDE using two or more variables. The theory of Discrete Exterior Calculus explains why the degrees of freedom associated to the different variables should be stored on both primal and dual domain meshes with a discrete Hodge star used to transfer information between the meshes. We show through analysis and examples that the choice of discrete Hodge star is essential to the numerical stability of the method. Additionally, we define interpolation functions and discrete Hodge stars on dual meshes which can be used to create previously unconsidered mixed methods. Examples from magnetostatics and Darcy flow are examined in detail. PMID:21984841
Efficient finite element method for grating profile reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ruming; Sun, Jiguang
2015-12-01
This paper concerns the reconstruction of grating profiles from scattering data. The inverse problem is formulated as an optimization problem with a regularization term. We devise an efficient finite element method (FEM) and employ a quasi-Newton method to solve it. For the direct problems, the FEM stiff and mass matrices are assembled once at the beginning of the numerical procedure. Then only minor changes are made to the mass matrix at each iteration, which significantly saves the computation cost. Numerical examples show that the method is effective and robust.
Implicit extrapolation methods for multilevel finite element computations
Jung, M.; Ruede, U.
1994-12-31
The finite element package FEMGP has been developed to solve elliptic and parabolic problems arising in the computation of magnetic and thermomechanical fields. FEMGP implements various methods for the construction of hierarchical finite element meshes, a variety of efficient multilevel solvers, including multigrid and preconditioned conjugate gradient iterations, as well as pre- and post-processing software. Within FEMGP, multigrid {tau}-extrapolation can be employed to improve the finite element solution iteratively to higher order. This algorithm is based on an implicit extrapolation, so that the algorithm differs from a regular multigrid algorithm only by a slightly modified computation of the residuals on the finest mesh. Another advantage of this technique is, that in contrast to explicit extrapolation methods, it does not rely on the existence of global error expansions, and therefore neither requires uniform meshes nor global regularity assumptions. In the paper the authors will analyse the {tau}-extrapolation algorithm and present experimental results in the context of the FEMGP package. Furthermore, the {tau}-extrapolation results will be compared to higher order finite element solutions.
Method for critical current testing
Siddall, M.B.; Smathers, D.B.
1989-03-01
Superconducting critical current testing software was developed with four important features not feasible with analog test equipment. First, quasi-steady-state sample current conditions are achieved by incrementing sample current, followed by holding some milliseconds until the transient voltage decays before voltage sampling. Then the self-field correction from a helically wound sample is computed and subtracted from each sampled field reading. A copper wire inductively wound shunt which is used for quench protection has a constant measured resistance from which the shunt leakage current is computed and subtracted from the sample current by measuring the shunt voltage after each sample current reading. Finally, the critical current is recomputed from a least squares curve fit to the power law: E=A*In when the correlation coefficient for the fit is high enough to ensure a better result than the raw datum. Comparison with NBS Standard Reference Material (NbTi) and current round robin Nb/sub 3/Sn testing is examined.
Bacterial mutagenicity assays: test methods.
Gatehouse, David
2012-01-01
The most widely used assays for detecting chemically induced gene mutations are those employing bacteria. The plate incorporation assay using various Salmonella typhimurium LT2 and E. coli WP2 strains is a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay specifically designed to detect a wide range of chemical substances capable of causing DNA damage leading to gene mutations. The test is used worldwide as an initial screen to determine the mutagenic potential of new chemicals and drugs.The test uses several strains of S. typhimurium which carry different mutations in various genes of the histidine operon, and E. coli which carry the same AT base pair at the critical mutation site within the trpE gene. These mutations act as hot spots for mutagens that cause DNA damage via different mechanisms. When these auxotrophic bacterial strains are grown on a minimal media agar plates containing a trace of the required amino-acid (histidine or tryptophan), only those bacteria that revert to amino-acid independence (His(+) or Tryp(+)) will grow to form visible colonies. The number of spontaneously induced revertant colonies per plate is relatively constant. However, when a mutagen is added to the plate, the number of revertant colonies per plate is increased, usually in a dose-related manner.This chapter provides detailed procedures for performing the test in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9-mix), including advice on specific assay variations and any technical problems. PMID:22147566
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test methods. 58.644 Section 58.644 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.644 Test methods. (a) Microbiological. Microbiological determinations shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods. 58.644 Section 58.644 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.644 Test methods. (a) Microbiological. Microbiological determinations shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larsen, James M.; Allison, John E.
This book contains chapters on fracture mechanics parameters for small fatigue cracks, monitoring small-crack growth by the replication method, measurement of small cracks by photomicroscopy (experiments and analysis), and experimental mechanics of microcracks. Other topics discussed are the real-time measurement of small-crack-opening behavior using an interferometric strain/displacement gage; direct current electrical potential measurement of the growth of small cracks; an ultrasonic method for the measurement of the size and opening behavior of small fatigue cracks; and the simulation of short crack and other low closure loading conditions, utilizing constant K(max) Delta-K-decreasing fatigue crack growth procedures.
Representation of bioelectric current sources using Whitney elements in the finite element method.
Tanzer, I Oğuz; Järvenpää, Seppo; Nenonen, Jukka; Somersalo, Erkki
2005-07-01
Bioelectric current sources of magneto- and electroencephalograms (MEG, EEG) are usually modelled with discrete delta-function type current dipoles, despite the fact that the currents in the brain are naturally continuous throughout the neuronal tissue. In this study, we represent bioelectric current sources in terms of Whitney-type elements in the finite element method (FEM) using a tetrahedral mesh. The aim is to study how well the Whitney elements can reproduce the potential and magnetic field patterns generated by a point current dipole in a homogeneous conducting sphere. The electric potential is solved for a unit sphere model with isotropic conductivity and magnetic fields are calculated for points located on a cap outside the sphere. The computed potential and magnetic field are compared with analytical solutions for a current dipole. Relative difference measures between the FEM and analytical solutions are less than 1%, suggesting that Whitney elements as bioelectric current sources are able to produce the same potential and magnetic field patterns as the point dipole sources. PMID:15972978
Representation of bioelectric current sources using Whitney elements in the finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oguz Tanzer, I.; Järvenpää, Seppo; Nenonen, Jukka; Somersalo, Erkki
2005-07-01
Bioelectric current sources of magneto- and electroencephalograms (MEG, EEG) are usually modelled with discrete delta-function type current dipoles, despite the fact that the currents in the brain are naturally continuous throughout the neuronal tissue. In this study, we represent bioelectric current sources in terms of Whitney-type elements in the finite element method (FEM) using a tetrahedral mesh. The aim is to study how well the Whitney elements can reproduce the potential and magnetic field patterns generated by a point current dipole in a homogeneous conducting sphere. The electric potential is solved for a unit sphere model with isotropic conductivity and magnetic fields are calculated for points located on a cap outside the sphere. The computed potential and magnetic field are compared with analytical solutions for a current dipole. Relative difference measures between the FEM and analytical solutions are less than 1%, suggesting that Whitney elements as bioelectric current sources are able to produce the same potential and magnetic field patterns as the point dipole sources.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ransom, Jonathan B.
2002-01-01
A multifunctional interface method with capabilities for variable-fidelity modeling and multiple method analysis is presented. The methodology provides an effective capability by which domains with diverse idealizations can be modeled independently to exploit the advantages of one approach over another. The multifunctional method is used to couple independently discretized subdomains, and it is used to couple the finite element and the finite difference methods. The method is based on a weighted residual variational method and is presented for two-dimensional scalar-field problems. A verification test problem and a benchmark application are presented, and the computational implications are discussed.
Hybrid natural element method for large deformation elastoplasticity problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Yong-Qi; Zhou, Yan-Kai
2015-03-01
We present the hybrid natural element method (HNEM) for two-dimensional elastoplastic large deformation problems. Sibson interpolation is adopted to construct the shape functions of nodal incremental displacements and incremental stresses. The incremental form of Hellinger-Reissner variational principle for elastoplastic large deformation problems is deduced to obtain the equation system. The total Lagrangian formulation is used to describe the discrete equation system. Compared with the natural element method (NEM), the HNEM has higher computational precision and efficiency in solving elastoplastic large deformation problems. Some numerical examples are selected to demonstrate the advantage of the HNEM for large deformation elastoplasticity problems. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 13ZR1415900).
Method for measuring recovery of catalytic elements from fuel cells
Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail
2011-03-08
A method is provided for measuring the concentration of a catalytic clement in a fuel cell powder. The method includes depositing on a porous substrate at least one layer of a powder mixture comprising the fuel cell powder and an internal standard material, ablating a sample of the powder mixture using a laser, and vaporizing the sample using an inductively coupled plasma. A normalized concentration of catalytic element in the sample is determined by quantifying the intensity of a first signal correlated to the amount of catalytic element in the sample, quantifying the intensity of a second signal correlated to the amount of internal standard material in the sample, and using a ratio of the first signal intensity to the second signal intensity to cancel out the effects of sample size.
Adaptive meshless local maximum-entropy finite element method for convection-diffusion problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, C. T.; Young, D. L.; Hong, H. K.
2014-01-01
In this paper, a meshless local maximum-entropy finite element method (LME-FEM) is proposed to solve 1D Poisson equation and steady state convection-diffusion problems at various Peclet numbers in both 1D and 2D. By using local maximum-entropy (LME) approximation scheme to construct the element shape functions in the formulation of finite element method (FEM), additional nodes can be introduced within element without any mesh refinement to increase the accuracy of numerical approximation of unknown function, which procedure is similar to conventional p-refinement but without increasing the element connectivity to avoid the high conditioning matrix. The resulted LME-FEM preserves several significant characteristics of conventional FEM such as Kronecker-delta property on element vertices, partition of unity of shape function and exact reproduction of constant and linear functions. Furthermore, according to the essential properties of LME approximation scheme, nodes can be introduced in an arbitrary way and the continuity of the shape function along element edge is kept at the same time. No transition element is needed to connect elements of different orders. The property of arbitrary local refinement makes LME-FEM be a numerical method that can adaptively solve the numerical solutions of various problems where troublesome local mesh refinement is in general necessary to obtain reasonable solutions. Several numerical examples with dramatically varying solutions are presented to test the capability of the current method. The numerical results show that LME-FEM can obtain much better and stable solutions than conventional FEM with linear element.
Least-squares finite element method for fluid dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Bo-Nan; Povinelli, Louis A.
1989-01-01
An overview is given of new developments of the least squares finite element method (LSFEM) in fluid dynamics. Special emphasis is placed on the universality of LSFEM; the symmetry and positiveness of the algebraic systems obtained from LSFEM; the accommodation of LSFEM to equal order interpolations for incompressible viscous flows; and the natural numerical dissipation of LSFEM for convective transport problems and high speed compressible flows. The performance of LSFEM is illustrated by numerical examples.
Method for detection of antibodies for metallic elements
Barrick, C.W.; Clarke, S.M.; Nordin, C.W.
1993-11-30
An apparatus and method for detecting antibodies specific to non-protein antigens. The apparatus is an immunological plate containing a plurality of plastic projections coated with a non-protein material. Assays utilizing the plate are capable of stabilizing the non-protein antigens with detection levels for antibodies specific to the antigens on a nanogram level. A screening assay with the apparatus allows for early detection of exposure to non-protein materials. Specifically metallic elements are detected. 10 figures.
Method for detection of antibodies for metallic elements
Barrick, Charles W.; Clarke, Sara M.; Nordin, Carl W.
1993-11-30
An apparatus and method for detecting antibodies specific to non-protein antigens. The apparatus is an immunological plate containing a plurality of plastic projections coated with a non-protein material. Assays utilizing the plate are capable of stabilizing the non-protein antigens with detection levels for antibodies specific to the antigens on a nanogram level. A screening assay with the apparatus allows for early detection of exposure to non-protein materials. Specifically metallic elements are detected.
Application of Finite Element Method to Analyze Inflatable Waveguide Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deshpande, M. D.
1998-01-01
A Finite Element Method (FEM) is presented to determine propagation characteristics of deformed inflatable rectangular waveguide. Various deformations that might be present in an inflatable waveguide are analyzed using the FEM. The FEM procedure and the code developed here are so general that they can be used for any other deformations that are not considered in this report. The code is validated by applying the present code to rectangular waveguide without any deformations and comparing the numerical results with earlier published results.
The finite element method: Is weighted volume integration essential?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narasimhan, T. N.
In developing finite element equations for steady state and transient diffusion-type processes, weighted volume integration is generally assumed to be an intrinsic requirement. It is shown that such finite element equations can be developed directly and with ease on the basis of the elementary notion of a surface integral. Although weighted volume integration is mathematically correct, the algebraic equations stemming from it are no more informative than those derived directly on the basis of a surface integral. An interesting upshot is that the derivation based on surface integration does not require knowledge of a partial differential equation but yet is logically rigorous. It is commonly stated that weighted volume integration of the differential equation helps one carry out analyses of errors, convergence and existence, and therefore, weighted volume integration is preferable. It is suggested that because the direct derivation is logically consistent, numerical solutions emanating from it must be testable for accuracy and internal consistency in ways that the style of which may differ from the classical procedures of error- and convergence-analysis. In addition to simplifying the teaching of the finite element method, the thoughts presented in this paper may lead to establishing the finite element method independently in its own right, rather than it being a surrogate of the differential equation. The purpose of this paper is not to espouse any one particular way of formulating the finite element equations. Rather, it is one of introspection. The desire is to critically examine our traditional way of doing things and inquire whether alternate approaches may reveal to us new and interesting insights.
Treatment of domain integrals in boundary element methods
Nintcheu Fata, Sylvain
2012-01-01
A systematic and rigorous technique to calculate domain integrals without a volume-fitted mesh has been developed and validated in the context of a boundary element approximation. In the proposed approach, a domain integral involving a continuous or weakly-singular integrand is first converted into a surface integral by means of straight-path integrals that intersect the underlying domain. Then, the resulting surface integral is carried out either via analytic integration over boundary elements or by use of standard quadrature rules. This domain-to-boundary integral transformation is derived from an extension of the fundamental theorem of calculus to higher dimension, and the divergence theorem. In establishing the method, it is shown that the higher-dimensional version of the first fundamental theorem of calculus corresponds to the well-known Poincare lemma. The proposed technique can be employed to evaluate integrals defined over simply- or multiply-connected domains with Lipschitz boundaries which are embedded in an Euclidean space of arbitrary but finite dimension. Combined with the singular treatment of surface integrals that is widely available in the literature, this approach can also be utilized to effectively deal with boundary-value problems involving non-homogeneous source terms by way of a collocation or a Galerkin boundary integral equation method using only the prescribed surface discretization. Sample problems associated with the three-dimensional Poisson equation and featuring the Newton potential are successfully solved by a constant element collocation method to validate this study.
Parallel 3D Mortar Element Method for Adaptive Nonconforming Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feng, Huiyu; Mavriplis, Catherine; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biswas, Rupak
2004-01-01
High order methods are frequently used in computational simulation for their high accuracy. An efficient way to avoid unnecessary computation in smooth regions of the solution is to use adaptive meshes which employ fine grids only in areas where they are needed. Nonconforming spectral elements allow the grid to be flexibly adjusted to satisfy the computational accuracy requirements. The method is suitable for computational simulations of unsteady problems with very disparate length scales or unsteady moving features, such as heat transfer, fluid dynamics or flame combustion. In this work, we select the Mark Element Method (MEM) to handle the non-conforming interfaces between elements. A new technique is introduced to efficiently implement MEM in 3-D nonconforming meshes. By introducing an "intermediate mortar", the proposed method decomposes the projection between 3-D elements and mortars into two steps. In each step, projection matrices derived in 2-D are used. The two-step method avoids explicitly forming/deriving large projection matrices for 3-D meshes, and also helps to simplify the implementation. This new technique can be used for both h- and p-type adaptation. This method is applied to an unsteady 3-D moving heat source problem. With our new MEM implementation, mesh adaptation is able to efficiently refine the grid near the heat source and coarsen the grid once the heat source passes. The savings in computational work resulting from the dynamic mesh adaptation is demonstrated by the reduction of the the number of elements used and CPU time spent. MEM and mesh adaptation, respectively, bring irregularity and dynamics to the computer memory access pattern. Hence, they provide a good way to gauge the performance of computer systems when running scientific applications whose memory access patterns are irregular and unpredictable. We select a 3-D moving heat source problem as the Unstructured Adaptive (UA) grid benchmark, a new component of the NAS Parallel
Ignitability test method and apparatus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Bailey, James W. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor)
1991-01-01
An apparatus for testing ignitability of an initiator includes a body having a central cavity, an initiator holder for holding the initiator over the central cavity of the body, an ignition material holder disposed in the central cavity of the body and having a cavity facing the initiator holder which receives a measured quantity of ignition material to be ignited by the initiator. It contains a chamber in communication with the cavity of the ignition material and the central cavity of the body, and a measuring system for analyzing pressure characteristics generated by ignition of the ignition material by the initiator. The measuring system includes at least one transducer coupled with an oscillograph for recording pressure traces generated by ignition.
30 CFR 36.41 - Testing methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing methods. 36.41 Section 36.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Requirements § 36.41 Testing methods. Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment submitted...
30 CFR 36.41 - Testing methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing methods. 36.41 Section 36.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Requirements § 36.41 Testing methods. Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment submitted...
30 CFR 36.41 - Testing methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Testing methods. 36.41 Section 36.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Requirements § 36.41 Testing methods. Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment submitted...
30 CFR 36.41 - Testing methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing methods. 36.41 Section 36.41 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Requirements § 36.41 Testing methods. Mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment submitted...
A mixed-grid finite element method with PML absorbing boundary conditions for seismic wave modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Shaolin; Li, Xiaofan; Wang, Wenshuai; Liu, Youshan
2014-10-01
We have developed a mixed-grid finite element method (MGFEM) to simulate seismic wave propagation in 2D structurally complex media. This method divides the physical domain into two subdomains. One subdomain covering the major part of the physical domain is divided by regular quadrilateral elements, while the other subdomain uses triangular elements to correctly fit a rugged free surface topography. The local stiffness matrix of any quadrilateral element is identical and matrix-vector production is calculated using an element-by-element technique, which avoids assembling a huge global stiffness matrix. As only a few triangular elements exist in the subdomain containing the rugged free surface topography, the memory requirements for storing the assembled subdomain global stiffness matrix are significantly reduced. To eliminate artificial boundary reflections, the MGFEM is also implemented to solve the system equations of PML absorbing boundary conditions (PML ABC). The accuracy and efficiency of the MGFEM is tested in numerical experiments by comparing it with conventional methods, and numerical comparisons also indicate its tremendous ability to describe rugged surfaces.
Modal element method for scattering of sound by absorbing bodies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.
1992-01-01
The modal element method for acoustic scattering from 2-D body is presented. The body may be acoustically soft (absorbing) or hard (reflecting). The infinite computational region is divided into two subdomains - the bounded finite element domain, which is characterized by complicated geometry and/or variable material properties, and the surrounding unbounded homogeneous domain. The acoustic pressure field is represented approximately in the finite element domain by a finite element solution, and is represented analytically by an eigenfunction expansion in the homogeneous domain. The two solutions are coupled by the continuity of pressure and velocity across the interface between the two subdomains. Also, for hard bodies, a compact modal ring grid system is introduced for which computing requirements are drastically reduced. Analysis for 2-D scattering from solid and coated (acoustically treated) bodies is presented, and several simple numerical examples are discussed. In addition, criteria are presented for determining the number of modes to accurately resolve the scattered pressure field from a solid cylinder as a function of the frequency of the incoming wave and the radius of the cylinder.
Assessing Mantle Models with the Spectral-Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tromp, J.; Komatitsch, D.; Ritsema, J.; Allen, R.
2001-12-01
We have developed and implemented a spectral-element method (SEM) to simulate seismic wave propagation throughout the entire globe. Our SEM incorporates the effects of fluid-solid boundaries, attenuation, anisotropy, the oceans, rotation, self-gravitation and 3-D mantle and crustal heterogeneity. The method is implemented on a massively parallel PC cluster computer using message-passing software (MPI). The effects of crustal thickness, anisotropy, and attenuation on surface waves are quite dramatic. Self-gravitation and, in particular, the presence of a water layer slow the Rayleigh wave down. For spherically symmetric Earth models the SEM is in excellent agreement with normal-mode synthetics at periods greater than 20~seconds. We use the SEM to assess the quality of mantle model S20RTS, developed by Ritsema and colleagues, and Iceland model ICEMAN, developed by Allen and colleagues. The effects of 3-D heterogeneity can be spectacular. For example, along oceanic paths from Fiji-Tonga to Western North America or Japan the Rayleigh wave arrives more than a minute earlier than in PREM, and the Love wave exhibits very little dispersion, unlike in PREM. These effects are largely due to the fact that the oceanic crust is much thinner than in PREM. For a set of well-recorded earthquakes we use the SEM to determine how well model S20RTS fits the travel-time data. Because the SEM synthetics are essentially exact at periods greater than 20~seconds, this facilitates a difficult test for a 3-D model. For Iceland we are investigating whether or not a narrow plume can explain the differential travel-time data used to constrain the model. The width of the plume is so small that standard ray theory may be inadequate for waves with periods greater than 20~seconds. Due to finite-frequency effects, a ray that `misses' the plume can still be significantly affected by its presence. The question is whether a thin plume, which is preferred in geodynamic models, can explain the data as
Evaluation of damage models by finite element prediction of fracture in cylindrical tensile test.
Eom, Jaegun; Kim, Mincheol; Lee, Seongwon; Ryu, Hoyeun; Joun, Mansoo
2014-10-01
In this research, tensile tests of cylindrical specimens of a mild steel are predicted via the finite element method, with emphasis on the fracture predictions of various damage models. An analytical model is introduced for this purpose. An iterative material identification procedure is used to obtain the flow stress, making it possible to exactly predict a tensile test up to the fracture point, in the engineering sense. A node-splitting technique is used to generate the cracks on the damaged elements. The damage models of McClintock, Rice-Tracey, Cockcroft-Latham, Freudenthal, Brozzo et al. and Oyane et al. are evaluated by comparing their predictions from the tensile test perspective. PMID:25942914
Concrete containment tests: Phase 2, Structural elements with liner plates: Interim report
Hanson, N.W.; Roller, J.J.; Schultz, D.M.; Julien, J.T.; Weinmann, T.L.
1987-08-01
The tests described in this report are part of Phase 2 of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) program. The overall objective of the EPRI program is to provide a test-verified analytical method of estimating capacities of concrete reactor containment buildings under internal overpressurization from postulated degraded core accidents. The Phase 2 testing included seven large-scale specimens representing structural elements from reinforced and prestressed concrete reactor containment buildings. Six of the seven test specimens were square wall elements. Of these six specimens, four were used for biaxial tension tests to determine strength, deformation, and leak-rate characteristics of full-scale wall elements representing prestressed concrete containment design. The remaining two square wall elements were used for thermal buckling tests to determine whether buckling of the steel liner plate would occur between anchorages when subjected to a sudden extreme temperature differential. The last of the seven test specimens for Phase 2 represented the region where the wall and the basemat intersect in a prestressed concrete containment building. A multi-directional loading scheme was used to produce high bending moments and shear in the wall/basemat junction region. The objective of this test was to determine if there is potential for liner plate tearing in the junction region. Results presented include observed behavior and extensive measurements of deformations and strains as a function of applied load. The data are being used to confirm analytical models for predicting strength and deformation of containment structures in a separate parallel analytical investigation sponsored by EPRI.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, T.; Raju, I. S.
2002-01-01
A coupled finite element (FE) method and meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method for analyzing two-dimensional potential problems is presented in this paper. The analysis domain is subdivided into two regions, a finite element (FE) region and a meshless (MM) region. A single weighted residual form is written for the entire domain. Independent trial and test functions are assumed in the FE and MM regions. A transition region is created between the two regions. The transition region blends the trial and test functions of the FE and MM regions. The trial function blending is achieved using a technique similar to the 'Coons patch' method that is widely used in computer-aided geometric design. The test function blending is achieved by using either FE or MM test functions on the nodes in the transition element. The technique was evaluated by applying the coupled method to two potential problems governed by the Poisson equation. The coupled method passed all the patch test problems and gave accurate solutions for the problems studied.
Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Method Being Developed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Sin-Chung; Himansu, Ananda; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Loh, Ching-Yuen; Wang, Xiao-Yen; Yu, Sheng-Tao
1999-01-01
The engineering research and design requirements of today pose great computer-simulation challenges to engineers and scientists who are called on to analyze phenomena in continuum mechanics. The future will bring even more daunting challenges, when increasingly complex phenomena must be analyzed with increased accuracy. Traditionally used numerical simulation methods have evolved to their present state by repeated incremental extensions to broaden their scope. They are reaching the limits of their applicability and will need to be radically revised, at the very least, to meet future simulation challenges. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, researchers have been developing a new numerical framework for solving conservation laws in continuum mechanics, namely, the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Method, or the CE/SE method. This method has been built from fundamentals and is not a modification of any previously existing method. It has been designed with generality, simplicity, robustness, and accuracy as cornerstones. The CE/SE method has thus far been applied in the fields of computational fluid dynamics, computational aeroacoustics, and computational electromagnetics. Computer programs based on the CE/SE method have been developed for calculating flows in one, two, and three spatial dimensions. Results have been obtained for numerous problems and phenomena, including various shock-tube problems, ZND detonation waves, an implosion and explosion problem, shocks over a forward-facing step, a blast wave discharging from a nozzle, various acoustic waves, and shock/acoustic-wave interactions. The method can clearly resolve shock/acoustic-wave interactions, wherein the difference of the magnitude between the acoustic wave and shock could be up to six orders. In two-dimensional flows, the reflected shock is as crisp as the leading shock. CE/SE schemes are currently being used for advanced applications to jet and fan noise prediction and to chemically
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung
1999-01-01
Test problems are used to examine the performance of several one-dimensional numerical schemes based on the space-time conservation and solution element (CE/SE) method. Investigated in this paper are the CE/SE schemes constructed previously for solving the linear unsteady advection-diffusion equation and the schemes derived here for solving the nonlinear viscous and inviscid Burgers equations. In comparison with the numerical solutions obtained using several traditional finite-difference schemes with similar accuracy, the CE/SE solutions display much lower numerical dissipation and dispersion errors.
Scientific use of the finite element method in Orthodontics
Knop, Luegya; Gandini, Luiz Gonzaga; Shintcovsk, Ricardo Lima; Gandini, Marcia Regina Elisa Aparecida Schiavon
2015-01-01
INTRODUCTION: The finite element method (FEM) is an engineering resource applied to calculate the stress and deformation of complex structures, and has been widely used in orthodontic research. With the advantage of being a non-invasive and accurate method that provides quantitative and detailed data on the physiological reactions possible to occur in tissues, applying the FEM can anticipate the visualization of these tissue responses through the observation of areas of stress created from applied orthodontic mechanics. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing and discussing the stages of the finite element method application and its applicability in Orthodontics. RESULTS: FEM is able to evaluate the stress distribution at the interface between periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, and the shifting trend in various types of tooth movement when using different types of orthodontic devices. Therefore, it is necessary to know specific software for this purpose. CONCLUSIONS: FEM is an important experimental method to answer questions about tooth movement, overcoming the disadvantages of other experimental methods. PMID:25992996
Development of a nuclear test strategy for Test Program Element II
Deis, G.A.; Hsu, P.Y.; Liebenthal, J.L.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Schmunk, R.E.; Uldrich, E.D.; Wadkins, R.P.; Watts, K.D.
1982-03-01
As part of Phase O in Test Program Element II of the Office of Fusion Energy's First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program, a test strategy has been developed to address the blanket/shield's (B/S's) thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical data needs, which were identified in an earlier task through the use of nuclear and supporting nonnuclear testing. In Phase I, which extends through 1984, this strategy emphasizes the development of pre-design information and the nonnuclear supporting tests. After Phase I, nuclear testing will be emphasized, and B/S design-verification testing will become more important. The proposed program will investigate a solid-breeder-blanket concept via nuclear testing. This program can begin in Phase I with nonnuclear support tests, and can progress to integrated nuclear testing soon after the completion of Phase I. The program's approximate cost and schedule are presented. In addition, other possible areas of study for Phase I, and strategies for the use of nuclear and nonnuclear facilities after Phase I are outlined.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test methods. 63.465 Section 63.465... Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this... Reference Method 307 in appendix A of this part. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 63.465 Section 63.465... Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this... Reference Method 307 in appendix A of this part. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test methods. 63.465 Section 63.465... Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this... Reference Method 307 in appendix A of this part. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test methods. 63.465 Section 63.465... Halogenated Solvent Cleaning § 63.465 Test methods. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) and (g) of this... Reference Method 307 in appendix A of this part. (b) Except as provided in paragraph (g) of this section...
40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) Establishment of hydrochloric acid regeneration plant operating parameters. (1) During the performance test for hydrochloric acid regeneration plants, the owner or operator shall establish site-specific operating...
40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants § 63.1161 Performance testing and test methods. (a...) Establishment of hydrochloric acid regeneration plant operating parameters. (1) During the performance test for hydrochloric acid regeneration plants, the owner or operator shall establish site-specific operating...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor)
1988-01-01
A set of addressable test structures, each of which uses addressing schemes to access individual elements of the structure in a matrix, is used to test the quality of a wafer before integrated circuits produced thereon are diced, packaged and subjected to final testing. The electrical characteristic of each element is checked and compared to the electrical characteristic of all other like elements in the matrix. The effectiveness of the addressable test matrix is in readily analyzing the electrical characteristics of the test elements and in providing diagnostic information.
Crystal level simulations using Eulerian finite element methods
Becker, R; Barton, N R; Benson, D J
2004-02-06
Over the last several years, significant progress has been made in the use of crystal level material models in simulations of forming operations. However, in Lagrangian finite element approaches simulation capabilities are limited in many cases by mesh distortion associated with deformation heterogeneity. Contexts in which such large distortions arise include: bulk deformation to strains approaching or exceeding unity, especially in highly anisotropic or multiphase materials; shear band formation and intersection of shear bands; and indentation with sharp indenters. Investigators have in the past used Eulerian finite element methods with material response determined from crystal aggregates to study steady state forming processes. However, Eulerian and Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element methods have not been widely utilized for simulation of transient deformation processes at the crystal level. The advection schemes used in Eulerian and ALE codes control mesh distortion and allow for simulation of much larger total deformations. We will discuss material state representation issues related to advection and will present results from ALE simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, X.; Scovazzi, G.
2016-06-01
We present a monolithic arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element method for computing highly transient flows with strong shocks. We use a variational multiscale (VMS) approach to stabilize a piecewise-linear Galerkin formulation of the equations of compressible flows, and an entropy artificial viscosity to capture strong solution discontinuities. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of VMS methods for highly transient shock flows, an area of research for which the VMS literature is extremely scarce. In addition, the proposed monolithic ALE method is an alternative to the more commonly used Lagrangian+remap methods, in which, at each time step, a Lagrangian computation is followed by mesh smoothing and remap (conservative solution interpolation). Lagrangian+remap methods are the methods of choice in shock hydrodynamics computations because they provide nearly optimal mesh resolution in proximity of shock fronts. However, Lagrangian+remap methods are not well suited for imposing inflow and outflow boundary conditions. These issues offer an additional motivation for the proposed approach, in which we first perform the mesh motion, and then the flow computations using the monolithic ALE framework. The proposed method is second-order accurate and stable, as demonstrated by extensive numerical examples in two and three space dimensions.
A weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, Dewey H.; Bless, Robert R.
1989-01-01
A temporal finite element method based on a mixed form of the Hamiltonian weak principle is developed for dynamics and optimal control problems. The mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle contains both displacements and momenta as primary variables that are expanded in terms of nodal values and simple polynomial shape functions. Unlike other forms of Hamilton's principle, however, time derivatives of the momenta and displacements do not appear therein; instead, only the virtual momenta and virtual displacements are differentiated with respect to time. Based on the duality that is observed to exist between the mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle and variational principles governing classical optimal control problems, a temporal finite element formulation of the latter can be developed in a rather straightforward manner. Several well-known problems in dynamics and optimal control are illustrated. The example dynamics problem involves a time-marching problem. As optimal control examples, elementary trajectory optimization problems are treated.
Spectral finite-element methods for parametric constrained optimization problems.
Anitescu, M.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2009-01-01
We present a method to approximate the solution mapping of parametric constrained optimization problems. The approximation, which is of the spectral finite element type, is represented as a linear combination of orthogonal polynomials. Its coefficients are determined by solving an appropriate finite-dimensional constrained optimization problem. We show that, under certain conditions, the latter problem is solvable because it is feasible for a sufficiently large degree of the polynomial approximation and has an objective function with bounded level sets. In addition, the solutions of the finite-dimensional problems converge for an increasing degree of the polynomials considered, provided that the solutions exhibit a sufficiently large and uniform degree of smoothness. Our approach solves, in the case of optimization problems with uncertain parameters, the most computationally intensive part of stochastic finite-element approaches. We demonstrate that our framework is applicable to parametric eigenvalue problems.
Discrete Element Method Simulations of Ice Floe Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calantoni, J.; Bateman, S. P.; Shi, F.; Orzech, M.; Veeramony, J.
2014-12-01
Ice floes were modeled using LIGGGHTS, an open source discrete element method (DEM) software, where individual elements were bonded together to make floes. The bonds were allowed to break with a critical stress calibrated to existing laboratory measurements for the compressive, tensile, and flexural strength of ice floes. The DEM allows for heterogeneous shape and size distributions of the ice floes to evolve over time. We simulated the interaction between sea ice and ocean waves in the marginal ice zone using a coupled wave-ice system. The waves were modeled with NHWAVE, a non-hydrostatic wave model that predicts instantaneous surface elevation and the three-dimensional flow field. The ice floes and waves were coupled through buoyancy and drag forces. Preliminary comparisons with field and laboratory measurements for coupled simulations will be presented.
A weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, Dewey H.; Bless, Robert R.
1990-01-01
A temporal finite element method based on a mixed form of the Hamiltonian weak principle is developed for dynamics and optimal control problems. The mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle contains both displacements and momenta as primary variables that are expanded in terms of nodal values and simple polynomial shape functions. Unlike other forms of Hamilton's principle, however, time derivatives of the momenta and displacements do not appear therein; instead, only the virtual momenta and virtual displacements are differentiated with respect to time. Based on the duality that is observed to exist between the mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle and variational principles governing classical optimal control problems, a temporal finite element formulation of the latter can be developed in a rather straightforward manner. Several well-known problems in dynamics and optimal control are illustrated. The example dynamics problem involves a time-marching problem. As optimal control examples, elementary trajectory optimization problems are treated.
Weak Hamiltonian finite element method for optimal control problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodges, Dewey H.; Bless, Robert R.
1991-01-01
A temporal finite element method based on a mixed form of the Hamiltonian weak principle is developed for dynamics and optimal control problems. The mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle contains both displacements and momenta as primary variables that are expanded in terms of nodal values and simple polynomial shape functions. Unlike other forms of Hamilton's principle, however, time derivatives of the momenta and displacements do not appear therein; instead, only the virtual momenta and virtual displacements are differentiated with respect to time. Based on the duality that is observed to exist between the mixed form of Hamilton's weak principle and variational principles governing classical optimal control problems, a temporal finite element formulation of the latter can be developed in a rather straightforward manner. Several well-known problems in dynamics and optimal control are illustrated. The example dynamics problem involves a time-marching problem. As optimal control examples, elementary trajectory optimization problems are treated.
Immersed finite element method and its applications to biological systems
Liu, Wing Kam; Liu, Yaling; Farrell, David; Zhang, Lucy; Wang, X. Sheldon; Fukui, Yoshio; Patankar, Neelesh; Zhang, Yongjie; Bajaj, Chandrajit; Lee, Junghoon; Hong, Juhee; Chen, Xinyu; Hsu, Huayi
2009-01-01
This paper summarizes the newly developed immersed finite element method (IFEM) and its applications to the modeling of biological systems. This work was inspired by the pioneering work of Professor T.J.R. Hughes in solving fluid–structure interaction problems. In IFEM, a Lagrangian solid mesh moves on top of a background Eulerian fluid mesh which spans the entire computational domain. Hence, mesh generation is greatly simplified. Moreover, both fluid and solid domains are modeled with the finite element method and the continuity between the fluid and solid subdomains is enforced via the interpolation of the velocities and the distribution of the forces with the reproducing Kernel particle method (RKPM) delta function. The proposed method is used to study the fluid–structure interaction problems encountered in human cardiovascular systems. Currently, the heart modeling is being constructed and the deployment process of an angioplasty stent has been simulated. Some preliminary results on monocyte and platelet deposition are presented. Blood rheology, in particular, the shear-rate dependent de-aggregation of red blood cell (RBC) clusters and the transport of deformable cells, are modeled. Furthermore, IFEM is combined with electrokinetics to study the mechanisms of nano/bio filament assembly for the understanding of cell motility. PMID:20200602
Architecting the Finite Element Method Pipeline for the GPU.
Fu, Zhisong; Lewis, T James; Kirby, Robert M; Whitaker, Ross T
2014-02-01
The finite element method (FEM) is a widely employed numerical technique for approximating the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) in various science and engineering applications. Many of these applications benefit from fast execution of the FEM pipeline. One way to accelerate the FEM pipeline is by exploiting advances in modern computational hardware, such as the many-core streaming processors like the graphical processing unit (GPU). In this paper, we present the algorithms and data-structures necessary to move the entire FEM pipeline to the GPU. First we propose an efficient GPU-based algorithm to generate local element information and to assemble the global linear system associated with the FEM discretization of an elliptic PDE. To solve the corresponding linear system efficiently on the GPU, we implement a conjugate gradient method preconditioned with a geometry-informed algebraic multi-grid (AMG) method preconditioner. We propose a new fine-grained parallelism strategy, a corresponding multigrid cycling stage and efficient data mapping to the many-core architecture of GPU. Comparison of our on-GPU assembly versus a traditional serial implementation on the CPU achieves up to an 87 × speedup. Focusing on the linear system solver alone, we achieve a speedup of up to 51 × versus use of a comparable state-of-the-art serial CPU linear system solver. Furthermore, the method compares favorably with other GPU-based, sparse, linear solvers. PMID:25202164
Immersed finite element method and its applications to biological systems.
Liu, Wing Kam; Liu, Yaling; Farrell, David; Zhang, Lucy; Wang, X Sheldon; Fukui, Yoshio; Patankar, Neelesh; Zhang, Yongjie; Bajaj, Chandrajit; Lee, Junghoon; Hong, Juhee; Chen, Xinyu; Hsu, Huayi
2006-02-15
This paper summarizes the newly developed immersed finite element method (IFEM) and its applications to the modeling of biological systems. This work was inspired by the pioneering work of Professor T.J.R. Hughes in solving fluid-structure interaction problems. In IFEM, a Lagrangian solid mesh moves on top of a background Eulerian fluid mesh which spans the entire computational domain. Hence, mesh generation is greatly simplified. Moreover, both fluid and solid domains are modeled with the finite element method and the continuity between the fluid and solid subdomains is enforced via the interpolation of the velocities and the distribution of the forces with the reproducing Kernel particle method (RKPM) delta function. The proposed method is used to study the fluid-structure interaction problems encountered in human cardiovascular systems. Currently, the heart modeling is being constructed and the deployment process of an angioplasty stent has been simulated. Some preliminary results on monocyte and platelet deposition are presented. Blood rheology, in particular, the shear-rate dependent de-aggregation of red blood cell (RBC) clusters and the transport of deformable cells, are modeled. Furthermore, IFEM is combined with electrokinetics to study the mechanisms of nano/bio filament assembly for the understanding of cell motility. PMID:20200602
The mixed finite element multigrid method for stokes equations.
Muzhinji, K; Shateyi, S; Motsa, S S
2015-01-01
The stable finite element discretization of the Stokes problem produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear algebraic equations. A variety of iterative solvers have been proposed for such systems in an attempt to construct efficient, fast, and robust solution techniques. This paper investigates one of such iterative solvers, the geometric multigrid solver, to find the approximate solution of the indefinite systems. The main ingredient of the multigrid method is the choice of an appropriate smoothing strategy. This study considers the application of different smoothers and compares their effects in the overall performance of the multigrid solver. We study the multigrid method with the following smoothers: distributed Gauss Seidel, inexact Uzawa, preconditioned MINRES, and Braess-Sarazin type smoothers. A comparative study of the smoothers shows that the Braess-Sarazin smoothers enhance good performance of the multigrid method. We study the problem in a two-dimensional domain using stable Hood-Taylor Q2-Q1 pair of finite rectangular elements. We also give the main theoretical convergence results. We present the numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the multigrid method and confirm the theoretical results. PMID:25945361
Architecting the Finite Element Method Pipeline for the GPU
Fu, Zhisong; Lewis, T. James; Kirby, Robert M.
2014-01-01
The finite element method (FEM) is a widely employed numerical technique for approximating the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) in various science and engineering applications. Many of these applications benefit from fast execution of the FEM pipeline. One way to accelerate the FEM pipeline is by exploiting advances in modern computational hardware, such as the many-core streaming processors like the graphical processing unit (GPU). In this paper, we present the algorithms and data-structures necessary to move the entire FEM pipeline to the GPU. First we propose an efficient GPU-based algorithm to generate local element information and to assemble the global linear system associated with the FEM discretization of an elliptic PDE. To solve the corresponding linear system efficiently on the GPU, we implement a conjugate gradient method preconditioned with a geometry-informed algebraic multi-grid (AMG) method preconditioner. We propose a new fine-grained parallelism strategy, a corresponding multigrid cycling stage and efficient data mapping to the many-core architecture of GPU. Comparison of our on-GPU assembly versus a traditional serial implementation on the CPU achieves up to an 87 × speedup. Focusing on the linear system solver alone, we achieve a speedup of up to 51 × versus use of a comparable state-of-the-art serial CPU linear system solver. Furthermore, the method compares favorably with other GPU-based, sparse, linear solvers. PMID:25202164
The Mixed Finite Element Multigrid Method for Stokes Equations
Muzhinji, K.; Shateyi, S.; Motsa, S. S.
2015-01-01
The stable finite element discretization of the Stokes problem produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear algebraic equations. A variety of iterative solvers have been proposed for such systems in an attempt to construct efficient, fast, and robust solution techniques. This paper investigates one of such iterative solvers, the geometric multigrid solver, to find the approximate solution of the indefinite systems. The main ingredient of the multigrid method is the choice of an appropriate smoothing strategy. This study considers the application of different smoothers and compares their effects in the overall performance of the multigrid solver. We study the multigrid method with the following smoothers: distributed Gauss Seidel, inexact Uzawa, preconditioned MINRES, and Braess-Sarazin type smoothers. A comparative study of the smoothers shows that the Braess-Sarazin smoothers enhance good performance of the multigrid method. We study the problem in a two-dimensional domain using stable Hood-Taylor Q2-Q1 pair of finite rectangular elements. We also give the main theoretical convergence results. We present the numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the multigrid method and confirm the theoretical results. PMID:25945361
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seybert, A. F.; Wu, X. F.; Oswald, Fred B.
1992-01-01
Analytical and experimental validation of methods to predict structural vibration and radiated noise are presented. A rectangular box excited by a mechanical shaker was used as a vibrating structure. Combined finite element method (FEM) and boundary element method (BEM) models of the apparatus were used to predict the noise radiated from the box. The FEM was used to predict the vibration, and the surface vibration was used as input to the BEM to predict the sound intensity and sound power. Vibration predicted by the FEM model was validated by experimental modal analysis. Noise predicted by the BEM was validated by sound intensity measurements. Three types of results are presented for the total radiated sound power: (1) sound power predicted by the BEM modeling using vibration data measured on the surface of the box; (2) sound power predicted by the FEM/BEM model; and (3) sound power measured by a sound intensity scan. The sound power predicted from the BEM model using measured vibration data yields an excellent prediction of radiated noise. The sound power predicted by the combined FEM/BEM model also gives a good prediction of radiated noise except for a shift of the natural frequencies that are due to limitations in the FEM model.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...
State of the art in the determination of trace elements in seawater: a worldwide proficiency test.
Dehouck, Pieter; Cordeiro, Fernando; Snell, James; de la Calle, Beatriz
2016-05-01
This manuscript presents the results of the International Measurement Evaluation Programme 40 (IMEP-40) study, a proficiency test (PT) which was organised to assess the worldwide performance of laboratories for the determination of trace elements in seawater. This PT supports the implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which aims at achieving a long-term high level protection of the aquatic environment, covering lakes, ground water and coastal waters. Forty-six participants reported results. The test item was seawater containing the trace elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn. The trace elements in the test item were present in very low concentrations to mimic natural levels. The results of the participants were rated with z and zeta (ζ) scores in accordance with ISO 13528 and ISO 17043. The standard deviation for proficiency assessment, σ̂, was set at 25% of the respective assigned values for the 12 measured elements based on previous experience with similar PTs. The low levels of the trace elements combined with the high salt concentration of the seawater made the measurements challenging. Many laboratories were unable to detect or quantify the elements and reported "lower than X" values. The percentage of satisfactory performances (expressed as z scores) ranged from 41% (Cr, Fe) to 86% (Mo). The PT study showed that the use of proper standard methods, like ISO 17294-2, and sensitive techniques, like inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), contributed to performing well in this PT round. PMID:26886745
Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method applied to the 1-D spherical neutron transport equation
Machorro, Eric . E-mail: machorro@amath.washington.edu
2007-04-10
Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods are used to estimate solutions to the non-scattering 1-D spherical neutron transport equation. Various trial and test spaces are compared in the context of a few sample problems whose exact solution is known. Certain trial spaces avoid unphysical behaviors that seem to plague other methods. Comparisons with diamond differencing and simple corner-balancing are presented to highlight these improvements.
Partition of the contact force network obtained in discrete element simulations of element tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Xin; O'Sullivan, Catherine; Hanley, Kevin J.; Kwok, Chung-Yee
2016-01-01
The transmission of stress within a granular material composed of rigid spheres is explored using the discrete element method. The contribution of contacts to both deviatoric stress and structural anisotropy is investigated. The influences of five factors are considered: inter-particle friction coefficient, loading regime, packing density, contact model, and boundary conditions. The data generated indicate that using the above-average normal contact force criterion to decompose the contact force network into two subsets with distinct contributions to stress transmission and structural anisotropy is not robust. The characteristic normal contact forces marking the transition from negative to positive contribution to the overall deviatoric stress and structural anisotropy are not unique values but vary during shearing. Once the critical state is attained (i.e., once shearing continues at a constant deviator stress and solid fraction), the characteristic normal contact force remains approximately constant and this critical state characteristic normal force is observed to decrease with increasing inter-particle friction. The characteristic normal contact force considering the contribution to deviatoric stress has a power-law relationship with the mean effective stress at the critical state.
Finite element analysis and fracture resistance testing of a new intraradicular post
YAMAMOTO, Eron Toshio Colauto; PAGANI, Clovis; da SILVA, Eduardo Galera; NORITOMI, Pedro Yoshito; UEHARA, André Yugou; KEMMOKU, Daniel Takanori
2012-01-01
Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate a prefabricated intraradicular threaded pure titanium post, designed and developed at the São José dos Campos School of Dentistry - UNESP, Brazil. This new post was designed to minimize stresses observed with prefabricated post systems and to improve cost-benefits. Material and methods Fracture resistance testing of the post/core/root complex, fracture analysis by microscopy and stress analysis by the finite element method were used for post evaluation. The following four prefabricated metal post systems were analyzed: group 1, experimental post; group 2, modification of the experimental post; group 3, Flexi Post, and group 4, Para Post. For the analysis of fracture resistance, 40 bovine teeth were randomly assigned to the four groups (n=10) and used for the fabrication of test specimens simulating the situation in the mouth. The test specimens were subjected to compressive strength testing until fracture in an EMIC universal testing machine. After fracture of the test specimens, their roots were sectioned and analyzed by microscopy. For the finite element method, specimens of the fracture resistance test were simulated by computer modeling to determine the stress distribution pattern in the post systems studied. Results The fracture test presented the following averages and standard deviation: G1 (45.63±8.77), G2 (49.98±7.08), G3 (43.84±5.52), G4 (47.61±7.23). Stress was homogenously distributed along the body of the intraradicular post in group 1, whereas high stress concentrations in certain regions were observed in the other groups. These stress concentrations in the body of the post induced the same stress concentration in root dentin. Conclusions The experimental post (original and modified versions) presented similar fracture resistance and better results in the stress analysis when compared with the commercial post systems tested (08/2008-PA/CEP). PMID:23032204
Numerical Analysis of a Finite Element/Volume Penalty Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maury, Bertrand
The penalty method makes it possible to incorporate a large class of constraints in general purpose Finite Element solvers like freeFEM++. We present here some contributions to the numerical analysis of this method. We propose an abstract framework for this approach, together with some general error estimates based on the discretization parameter ɛ and the space discretization parameter h. As this work is motivated by the possibility to handle constraints like rigid motion for fluid-particle flows, we shall pay a special attention to a model problem of this kind, where the constraint is prescribed over a subdomain. We show how the abstract estimate can be applied to this situation, in the case where a non-body-fitted mesh is used. In addition, we describe how this method provides an approximation of the Lagrange multiplier associated to the constraint.
Pipe crack identification based on finite element method of second generation wavelets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Junjie; He, Yumin; Chen, Xuefeng; Zhai, Zhi; Wang, Youming; He, Zhengjia
2010-02-01
In this paper, a new method is presented to identify crack location and size, which is based on stress intensity factor suitable for pipe structure and finite element method of second generation wavelets (SGW-FEM). Pipe structure is dispersed into a series of nested thin-walled pipes. By making use of stress intensity factor of the thin-walled pipe, a new calculation method of crack equivalent stiffness is proposed to solve the stress intensity factor of the pipe structure. On this basis, finite element method of second generation wavelets is used to establish the dynamic model of cracked pipe. Then we combine forward problem with inverse problem in order to establish quantitative identification method of the crack based on frequency change, which provides a non-destructive testing technology with vibration for the pipe structure. The efficiency of the proposed method is verified by experiments.
Structural optimization of thin shells using finite element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gotsis, Pascal K.
1992-01-01
The objective of the present work was the structural optimization of thin shell structures that are subjected to stress and displacement constraints. In order to accomplish this, the structural optimization computer program DESAP1 was modified and improved. In the static analysis part of the DESAP1 computer program the torsional spring elements, which are used to analyze thin, shallow shell structures, were eliminated by modifying the membrane stiffness matrix of the triangular elements in the local coordinate system and adding a fictitious rotational stiffness matrix. This simplified the DESAP1 program input, improved the accuracy of the analysis, and saved computation time. In the optimization part of the DESAP1 program the stress ratio formula, which redesigns the thickness of each finite element of the structure, was solved by an analytical method. This scheme replaced the iterative solution that was previously used in the DESAP1 program, thus increasing the accuracy and speed of the design. The modified program was used to design a thin, cylindrical shell structure with optimum weight, and the results are reported in this paper.
Accurate optical CD profiler based on specialized finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrero, Jesus; Perçin, Gökhan
2012-03-01
As the semiconductor industry is moving to very low-k1 patterning solutions, the metrology problems facing process engineers are becoming much more complex. Choosing the right optical critical dimension (OCD) metrology technique is essential for bridging the metrology gap and achieving the required manufacturing volume throughput. The critical dimension scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM) measurement is usually distorted by the high aspect ratio of the photoresist and hard mask layers. CD-SEM measurements cease to correlate with complex three-dimensional profiles, such as the cases for double patterning and FinFETs, thus necessitating sophisticated, accurate and fast computational methods to bridge the gap. In this work, a suite of computational methods that complement advanced OCD equipment, and enabling them to operate at higher accuracies, are developed. In this article, a novel method for accurately modeling OCD profiles is presented. A finite element formulation in primal form is used to discretize the equations. The implementation uses specialized finite element spaces to solve Maxwell equations in two dimensions.
Fluorescence photon migration by the boundary element method
Fedele, Francesco; Eppstein, Margaret J. . E-mail: maggie.eppstein@uvm.edu; Laible, Jeffrey P.; Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.
2005-11-20
The use of the boundary element method (BEM) is explored as an alternative to the finite element method (FEM) solution methodology for the elliptic equations used to model the generation and transport of fluorescent light in highly scattering media, without the need for an internal volume mesh. The method is appropriate for domains where it is reasonable to assume the fluorescent properties are regionally homogeneous, such as when using highly specific molecularly targeted fluorescent contrast agents in biological tissues. In comparison to analytical results on a homogeneous sphere, BEM predictions of complex emission fluence are shown to be more accurate and stable than those of the FEM. Emission fluence predictions made with the BEM using a 708-node mesh, with roughly double the inter-node spacing of boundary nodes as in a 6956-node FEM mesh, match experimental frequency-domain fluorescence emission measurements acquired on a 1087 cm{sup 3} breast-mimicking phantom at least as well as those of the FEM, but require only 1/8 to 1/2 the computation time.
Seakeeping with the semi-Lagrangian particle finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadukandi, Prashanth; Servan-Camas, Borja; Becker, Pablo Agustín; Garcia-Espinosa, Julio
2016-07-01
The application of the semi-Lagrangian particle finite element method (SL-PFEM) for the seakeeping simulation of the wave adaptive modular vehicle under spray generating conditions is presented. The time integration of the Lagrangian advection is done using the explicit integration of the velocity and acceleration along the streamlines (X-IVAS). Despite the suitability of the SL-PFEM for the considered seakeeping application, small time steps were needed in the X-IVAS scheme to control the solution accuracy. A preliminary proposal to overcome this limitation of the X-IVAS scheme for seakeeping simulations is presented.
Modeling of coal stockpiles using a finite elements method
Ozdeniz, A.H.; Sensogut, C.
2008-07-01
In the case of coal stockpiles finding suitable environmental conditions, spontaneous combustion phenomenon will be unavoidable. In this study, an industrial-sized stockpile having a shape of triangle prism was constituted in a coal stockyard of Western Lignite Corporation (WLC), Turkey. The parameters of time, humidity and temperature of air, atmospheric pressure, velocity and direction of wind values that are effective on coal stockpile were measured in a continuous manner. These experimental works were transferred into a computer media in order to obtain similar outcomes by carrying out 2-dimensional analysis of the stockpile with Finite Elements Method (FEM). The performed experimental studies and obtained results were then compared.
A Review of Discrete Element Method Research on Particulate Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmood, A. A.; Elektorowicz, M.
2016-07-01
This paper summarizes research done using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) and explores new trends in its use on Particulate systems. The rationale for using DEM versus the traditional continuum-based approach is explained first. Then, DEM application is explored in terms of geotechnical engineering and mining engineering materials, since particulate media are mostly associated with these two disciplines. It is concluded that no research to date had addressed the issue of using the DEM to model the strength and weathering characteristics of peaty soil-slag-Portland cement-fly ash combinations.
Methods for removing transuranic elements from waste solutions
Slater, S.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Connor, C.; Sedlet, J.; Srinivasan, B.; Vandegrift, G.F.
1994-11-01
This report outlines a treatment scheme for separating and concentrating the transuranic (TRU) elements present in aqueous waste solutions stored at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The treatment method selected is carrier precipitation. Potential carriers will be evaluated in future laboratory work, beginning with ferric hydroxide and magnetite. The process will result in a supernatant with alpha activity low enough that it can be treated in the existing evaporator/concentrator at ANL. The separated TRU waste will be packaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.
An analytically enriched finite element method for cohesive crack modeling.
Cox, James V.
2010-04-01
Meaningful computational investigations of many solid mechanics problems require accurate characterization of material behavior through failure. A recent approach to fracture modeling has combined the partition of unity finite element method (PUFEM) with cohesive zone models. Extension of the PUFEM to address crack propagation is often referred to as the extended finite element method (XFEM). In the PUFEM, the displacement field is enriched to improve the local approximation. Most XFEM studies have used simplified enrichment functions (e.g., generalized Heaviside functions) to represent the strong discontinuity but have lacked an analytical basis to represent the displacement gradients in the vicinity of the cohesive crack. As such, the mesh had to be sufficiently fine for the FEM basis functions to capture these gradients.In this study enrichment functions based upon two analytical investigations of the cohesive crack problem are examined. These functions have the potential of representing displacement gradients in the vicinity of the cohesive crack with a relatively coarse mesh and allow the crack to incrementally advance across each element. Key aspects of the corresponding numerical formulation are summarized. Analysis results for simple model problems are presented to evaluate if quasi-static crack propagation can be accurately followed with the proposed formulation. A standard finite element solution with interface elements is used to provide the accurate reference solution, so the model problems are limited to a straight, mode I crack in plane stress. Except for the cohesive zone, the material model for the problems is homogenous, isotropic linear elasticity. The effects of mesh refinement, mesh orientation, and enrichment schemes that enrich a larger region around the cohesive crack are considered in the study. Propagation of the cohesive zone tip and crack tip, time variation of the cohesive zone length, and crack profiles are presented. The analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hooper, Russell; Toose, Matthijs; Macosko, Christopher W.; Derby, Jeffrey J.
2001-12-01
A modified boundary element method (BEM) and the DEVSS-G finite element method (FEM) are applied to model the deformation of a polymeric drop suspended in another fluid subjected to start-up uniaxial extensional flow. The effects of viscoelasticity, via the Oldroyd-B differential model, are considered for the drop phase using both FEM and BEM and for both the drop and matrix phases using FEM. Where possible, results are compared with the linear deformation theory. Consistent predictions are obtained among the BEM, FEM, and linear theory for purely Newtonian systems and between FEM and linear theory for fully viscoelastic systems. FEM and BEM predictions for viscoelastic drops in a Newtonian matrix agree very well at short times but differ at longer times, with worst agreement occurring as critical flow strength is approached. This suggests that the dominant computational advantages held by the BEM over the FEM for this and similar problems may diminish or even disappear when the issue of accuracy is appropriately considered. Fully viscoelastic problems, which are only feasible using the FEM formulation, shed new insight on the role of viscoelasticity of the matrix fluid in drop deformation. Copyright
FEMSECT: An inverse section model based on the finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Losch, M.; Sidorenko, D.; Beszczynska-MöLler, A.
2005-12-01
A new inverse model is presented for the analysis of hydrographic section data in conjunction with velocity measurements. The model offers advantages over commonly applied interpolation techniques because it combines data and physical assumptions such as geostrophic balance in the framework of a finite element discretization. Specifically, a quadratic objective function of model-data misfits is minimized to give estimates of transports together with formal error estimates. The finite element method allows the accurate representation of highly irregular bottom topography and ensures consistent interpolation of model variables to measurement points. The model is called Finite Element Method Section model (FEMSECT). FEMSECT also gives improved flexibility and performance over standard box models by allowing dynamic adjustment of the model variables temperature and salinity. Idealized test cases illustrate that the finite element methods solve the thermal wind equations far more accurately than standard finite difference methods, especially in the presence of steep topography. For a more realistic test, FEMSECT is applied to hydrographic conductivity-temperature-depth section data and moored instrument current meter measurements from an array in the Fram Strait. Transport estimates by FEMSECT prove to be more robust and less sensitive to the spatial data resolution than estimates by a conventional interpolation method that only uses information from moored instruments. FEMSECT is available as a highly portable Matlab code and can be run on an ordinary desktop computer.
A high-order element-based Galerkin Method for the global shallow water equations.
Nair, Ramachandran D.; Tufo, Henry M.; Levy, Michael Nathan
2010-08-01
The shallow water equations are used as a test for many atmospheric models because the solution mimics the horizontal aspects of atmospheric dynamics while the simplicity of the equations make them useful for numerical experiments. This study describes a high-order element-based Galerkin method for the global shallow water equations using absolute vorticity, divergence, and fluid depth (atmospheric thickness) as the prognostic variables, while the wind field is a diagnostic variable that can be calculated from the stream function and velocity potential (the Laplacians of which are the vorticity and divergence, respectively). The numerical method employed to solve the shallow water system is based on the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods. The discontinuous Galerkin method, which is inherently conservative, is used to solve the equations governing two conservative variables - absolute vorticity and atmospheric thickness (mass). The spectral element method is used to solve the divergence equation and the Poisson equations for the velocity potential and the stream function. Time integration is done with an explicit strong stability-preserving second-order Runge-Kutta scheme and the wind field is updated directly from the vorticity and divergence at each stage, and the computational domain is the cubed sphere. A stable steady-state test is run and convergence results are provided, showing that the method is high-order accurate. Additionally, two tests without analytic solutions are run with comparable results to previous high-resolution runs found in the literature.
Updating the Finite Element Model of the Aerostructures Test Wing Using Ground Vibration Test Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lung, Shun-Fat; Pak, Chan-Gi
2009-01-01
Improved and/or accelerated decision making is a crucial step during flutter certification processes. Unfortunately, most finite element structural dynamics models have uncertainties associated with model validity. Tuning the finite element model using measured data to minimize the model uncertainties is a challenging task in the area of structural dynamics. The model tuning process requires not only satisfactory correlations between analytical and experimental results, but also the retention of the mass and stiffness properties of the structures. Minimizing the difference between analytical and experimental results is a type of optimization problem. By utilizing the multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization (MDAO) tool in order to optimize the objective function and constraints; the mass properties, the natural frequencies, and the mode shapes can be matched to the target data to retain the mass matrix orthogonality. This approach has been applied to minimize the model uncertainties for the structural dynamics model of the aerostructures test wing (ATW), which was designed and tested at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California). This study has shown that natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes from the updated finite element model have excellent agreement with corresponding measured data.
Updating the Finite Element Model of the Aerostructures Test Wing using Ground Vibration Test Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lung, Shun-fat; Pak, Chan-gi
2009-01-01
Improved and/or accelerated decision making is a crucial step during flutter certification processes. Unfortunately, most finite element structural dynamics models have uncertainties associated with model validity. Tuning the finite element model using measured data to minimize the model uncertainties is a challenging task in the area of structural dynamics. The model tuning process requires not only satisfactory correlations between analytical and experimental results, but also the retention of the mass and stiffness properties of the structures. Minimizing the difference between analytical and experimental results is a type of optimization problem. By utilizing the multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization (MDAO) tool in order to optimize the objective function and constraints; the mass properties, the natural frequencies, and the mode shapes can be matched to the target data to retain the mass matrix orthogonality. This approach has been applied to minimize the model uncertainties for the structural dynamics model of the Aerostructures Test Wing (ATW), which was designed and tested at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) (Edwards, California). This study has shown that natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes from the updated finite element model have excellent agreement with corresponding measured data.
Time Triggered Ethernet System Testing Means and Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smithgall, William Todd (Inventor); Hall, Brendan (Inventor); Varadarajan, Srivatsan (Inventor)
2014-01-01
Methods and apparatus are provided for evaluating the performance of a Time Triggered Ethernet (TTE) system employing Time Triggered (TT) communication. A real TTE system under test (SUT) having real input elements communicating using TT messages with output elements via one or more first TTE switches during a first time interval schedule established for the SUT. A simulation system is also provided having input simulators that communicate using TT messages via one or more second TTE switches with the same output elements during a second time interval schedule established for the simulation system. The first and second time interval schedules are off-set slightly so that messages from the input simulators, when present, arrive at the output elements prior to messages from the analogous real inputs, thereby having priority over messages from the real inputs and causing the system to operate based on the simulated inputs when present.
Relation between finite element methods and nodal methods in transport theory
Walters, W.F.
1985-01-01
This paper examines the relationship between nodal methods and finite-element methods for solving the discrete-ordinates form of the transport equation in x-y geometry. Specifically, we will examine the relation of three finite-element schemes to the linear-linear (LL) and linear-nodal (LN) nodal schemes. The three finite-element schemes are the linear-continuous-diamond-difference (DD) scheme, the linear-discontinuous (LD) scheme, and the quadratic-discontinuous (QD) scheme. A brief derivation of the (LL) and (LN) nodal schemes is given in the third section of this paper. The approximations that cause the LL scheme to reduce to the DD, LD, and QD schemes are then indicated. An extremely simple method of deriving the finite-element schemes is then introduced.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test methods. 1213.4 Section 1213.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see §...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test methods. 1513.4 Section 1513.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1513.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on...
PE Metrics: Background, Testing Theory, and Methods
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhu, Weimo; Rink, Judy; Placek, Judith H.; Graber, Kim C.; Fox, Connie; Fisette, Jennifer L.; Dyson, Ben; Park, Youngsik; Avery, Marybell; Franck, Marian; Raynes, De
2011-01-01
New testing theories, concepts, and psychometric methods (e.g., item response theory, test equating, and item bank) developed during the past several decades have many advantages over previous theories and methods. In spite of their introduction to the field, they have not been fully accepted by physical educators. Further, the manner in which…
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test methods. 80.3 Section 80.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES General Provisions § 80.3 Test methods. The lead and phosphorus content...
Survey of fracture toughness test methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, W. F., Jr.; Jones, M. H.; Srawley, J. E.
1968-01-01
Comprehensive survey presents current methods of fracture toughness testing that are based on linear elastic fracture mechanics. General principles of the basic two dimensional crack stress field model are discussed in relation to real three dimensional specimens. Methods of test instrumentation and procedure are described.
Methods for Scaling Icing Test Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, David N.
1995-01-01
This report presents the results of tests at NASA Lewis to evaluate several methods to establish suitable alternative test conditions when the test facility limits the model size or operating conditions. The first method was proposed by Olsen. It can be applied when full-size models are tested and all the desired test conditions except liquid-water content can be obtained in the facility. The other two methods discussed are: a modification of the French scaling law and the AEDC scaling method. Icing tests were made with cylinders at both reference and scaled conditions representing mixed and glaze ice in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Reference and scale ice shapes were compared to evaluate each method. The Olsen method was tested with liquid-water content varying from 1.3 to .8 g/m(exp3). Over this range, ice shapes produced using the Olsen method were unchanged. The modified French and AEDC methods produced scaled ice shapes which approximated the reference shapes when model size was reduced to half the reference size for the glaze-ice cases tested.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods. 59.207 Section 59.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products § 59.207 Test methods. Each manufacturer or...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test methods. 1213.4 Section 1213.4... STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1213.3(a)(6... opening in the bed structure below the lower edge of the uppermost member of the guardrail and above...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test methods. 1513.4 Section 1513.4... REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1513.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on the... structure below the lower edge of the uppermost member of the guardrail and above the underside of the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods. 1513.4 Section 1513.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1513.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods. 1213.4 Section 1213.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see §...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test methods. 1513.4 Section 1513.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1513.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test methods. 1213.4 Section 1213.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see §...
Methods of Testing Thermal Insulation and Associated Test Apparatus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
The system and method for testing thermal insulation uses a cryostatic insulation tester having a vacuum chamber and a cold mass including a test chamber and upper and lower guard chambers adjacent thereto. The thermal insulation is positioned within the vacuum chamber and adjacent the cold mass. Cryogenic liquid is supplied to the test chamber, upper guard and lower guard to create a first gas layer in an upper portion of the lower guard chamber and a second gas layer in an upper portion of the test chamber. Temperature are sensed within the vacuum chamber to test the thermal insulation.
Absorbing Software Testing into the Scrum Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuomikoski, Janne; Tervonen, Ilkka
In this paper we study, how to absorb software testing into the Scrum method. We conducted the research as an action research during the years 2007-2008 with three iterations. The result showed that testing can and even should be absorbed to the Scrum method. The testing team was merged into the Scrum teams. The teams can now deliver better working software in a shorter time, because testing keeps track of the progress of the development. Also the team spirit is higher, because the Scrum team members are committed to the same goal. The biggest change from test manager’s point of view was the organized Product Owner Team. Test manager don’t have testing team anymore, and in the future all the testing tasks have to be assigned through the Product Backlog.
Toxicity test method development in southeast Asia
McPherson, C.A.
1995-12-31
Use of aquatic toxicity tests is relatively new in southeast Asia. As part of the ASEAN-Canada Cooperative Programme on Marine Science -- Phase 2, which includes development of marine environmental criteria, a need for tropical toxicity data was identified. A step-wise approach was used for test method development (simple, acute tests and easily measured endpoints first, then more complex short-term chronic methods), for test specific selection (using species found throughout the region first, and then considering species with narrower geographic distribution), and for integration of quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) practices into all laboratory activities. Development of test protocols specifically for tropical species included acute and chronic toxicity tests with marine fish, invertebrates and algae. Criteria for test species selection will be reviewed. Method development was based on procedures and endpoints already widely used in North America and Europe (e.g., 96-h LC50 with fish), but adapted for use with tropical species. For example, a bivalve larval development test can use the same endpoints but the duration is only 24 hours. Test method development included research on culture and holding procedures, determination of test conditions (e.g., duration, test containers), and identification of appropriate endpoints. Acute tests with fish and invertebrates were developed first. The next step was development of short-term chronic tests to measure phytoplankton growth, bivalve and echinoderm embryo or larval development, and larval fish growth. The number of species and types of tests was increased in a staged approach, as laboratories became better equipped and personnel gained practical experience. In most cases, method development coincided with training workshops to introduce the principles of toxicity testing.
A new simple multidomain fast multipole boundary element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, S.; Liu, Y. J.
2016-09-01
A simple multidomain fast multipole boundary element method (BEM) for solving potential problems is presented in this paper, which can be applied to solve a true multidomain problem or a large-scale single domain problem using the domain decomposition technique. In this multidomain BEM, the coefficient matrix is formed simply by assembling the coefficient matrices of each subdomain and the interface conditions between subdomains without eliminating any unknown variables on the interfaces. Compared with other conventional multidomain BEM approaches, this new approach is more efficient with the fast multipole method, regardless how the subdomains are connected. Instead of solving the linear system of equations directly, the entire coefficient matrix is partitioned and decomposed using Schur complement in this new approach. Numerical results show that the new multidomain fast multipole BEM uses fewer iterations in most cases with the iterative equation solver and less CPU time than the traditional fast multipole BEM in solving large-scale BEM models. A large-scale fuel cell model with more than 6 million elements was solved successfully on a cluster within 3 h using the new multidomain fast multipole BEM.
A new simple multidomain fast multipole boundary element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, S.; Liu, Y. J.
2016-06-01
A simple multidomain fast multipole boundary element method (BEM) for solving potential problems is presented in this paper, which can be applied to solve a true multidomain problem or a large-scale single domain problem using the domain decomposition technique. In this multidomain BEM, the coefficient matrix is formed simply by assembling the coefficient matrices of each subdomain and the interface conditions between subdomains without eliminating any unknown variables on the interfaces. Compared with other conventional multidomain BEM approaches, this new approach is more efficient with the fast multipole method, regardless how the subdomains are connected. Instead of solving the linear system of equations directly, the entire coefficient matrix is partitioned and decomposed using Schur complement in this new approach. Numerical results show that the new multidomain fast multipole BEM uses fewer iterations in most cases with the iterative equation solver and less CPU time than the traditional fast multipole BEM in solving large-scale BEM models. A large-scale fuel cell model with more than 6 million elements was solved successfully on a cluster within 3 h using the new multidomain fast multipole BEM.
Spectral Element Method for the Simulation of Unsteady Compressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diosady, Laslo Tibor; Murman, Scott M.
2013-01-01
This work uses a discontinuous-Galerkin spectral-element method (DGSEM) to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations [1{3]. The inviscid ux is computed using the approximate Riemann solver of Roe [4]. The viscous fluxes are computed using the second form of Bassi and Rebay (BR2) [5] in a manner consistent with the spectral-element approximation. The method of lines with the classical 4th-order explicit Runge-Kutta scheme is used for time integration. Results for polynomial orders up to p = 15 (16th order) are presented. The code is parallelized using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The computations presented in this work are performed using the Sandy Bridge nodes of the NASA Pleiades supercomputer at NASA Ames Research Center. Each Sandy Bridge node consists of 2 eight-core Intel Xeon E5-2670 processors with a clock speed of 2.6Ghz and 2GB per core memory. On a Sandy Bridge node the Tau Benchmark [6] runs in a time of 7.6s.
A finite element conjugate gradient FFT method for scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Jeffery D.; Zapp, John; Hsa, Chang-Yu; Volakis, John L.
1990-01-01
An extension of a two dimensional formulation is presented for a three dimensional body of revolution. With the introduction of a Fourier expansion of the vector electric and magnetic fields, a coupled two dimensional system is generated and solved via the finite element method. An exact boundary condition is employed to terminate the mesh and the fast fourier transformation (FFT) is used to evaluate the boundary integrals for low O(n) memory demand when an iterative solution algorithm is used. By virtue of the finite element method, the algorithm is applicable to structures of arbitrary material composition. Several improvements to the two dimensional algorithm are also described. These include: (1) modifications for terminating the mesh at circular boundaries without distorting the convolutionality of the boundary integrals; (2) the development of nonproprietary mesh generation routines for two dimensional applications; (3) the development of preprocessors for interfacing SDRC IDEAS with the main algorithm; and (4) the development of post-processing algorithms based on the public domain package GRAFIC to generate two and three dimensional gray level and color field maps.
Discussion of the finite element method in optical diffraction tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lobera, Julia; Coupland, Jeremy
2006-04-01
In Optical Diffraction Tomography (ODT) the refractive index is reconstructed from images with different illuminating wavefronts. In most cases the Born approximation is assumed, although this limits the applicability of the technique to weak-scattering problems. In this work we examine the scattering problem from first principles beginning from the Helmholtz equation that governs scalar diffraction and wave propagation. We demonstrate the use of the Born approximation and show typical errors when it is applied in practice. Solution of the Helmholtz equation using a Finite Element Method (FEM) with an appropriate Absorbing Boundary Condition (ABC) is described, and a non-linear optimization technique, the Conjugate Gradient Method (CGM), previously proposed for microwave imaging, is applied to the inverse problem.
Nonlinear analysis of structures. [within framework of finite element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Armen, H., Jr.; Levine, H.; Pifko, A.; Levy, A.
1974-01-01
The development of nonlinear analysis techniques within the framework of the finite-element method is reported. Although the emphasis is concerned with those nonlinearities associated with material behavior, a general treatment of geometric nonlinearity, alone or in combination with plasticity is included, and applications presented for a class of problems categorized as axisymmetric shells of revolution. The scope of the nonlinear analysis capabilities includes: (1) a membrane stress analysis, (2) bending and membrane stress analysis, (3) analysis of thick and thin axisymmetric bodies of revolution, (4) a general three dimensional analysis, and (5) analysis of laminated composites. Applications of the methods are made to a number of sample structures. Correlation with available analytic or experimental data range from good to excellent.
HIFU Induced Heating Modelling by Using the Finite Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez, R.; Vera, A.; Leija, L.
High intensity focused ultrasound is a thermal therapy method used to treat malignant tumors and other medical conditions. Focused ultrasound concentrates acoustic energy at a focal zone. There, temperature rises rapidly over 56 °C to provoke tissue necrosis. Device performance depends on its fabrication placing computational modeling as a powerful tool to anticipate experimentation results. Finite element method allows modeling of multiphysics systems. Therefore, induced heating was modeled considering the acoustic field produced by a concave radiator excited with electric potentials from 5 V to 20 V. Nonlinear propagation was neglected and a linear response between the acoustic fields and pressure distribution was obtained. Finally, the results showed that acoustic propagation and heating models should be improved and validated with experimental measurements.
Boundary element method approach to magnetostatic wave problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yashiro, K.; Ohkawa, S.; Miyazaki, M.
1985-03-01
In this paper, the technique for application of the boundary element method (BEM) to analysis of magnetostatic waves (MSWs) is established. To show the availability of the technique, two types of waveguides for the MSW are studied; one is a waveguide constituting a YIG slab shielded with metal plates and the other is a waveguide consisting of an unshielded YIG slab. With the former structure the results obtained by the present technique are compared with the analytical solutions, and with the latter the BEM is compared with Marcatili's approximate method since there is no analytical solution in this case. Those comparisons are performed successfully for both cases. The paper concludes that the BEM is useful and effective for analysis of a wide range of MSW problems.
40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance testing and test methods. 63.1161 Section 63.1161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards...
Steady and Unsteady Nozzle Simulations Using the Conservation Element and Solution Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedlander, David Joshua; Wang, Xiao-Yen J.
2014-01-01
This paper presents results from computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of a three-stream plug nozzle. Time-accurate, Euler, quasi-1D and 2D-axisymmetric simulations were performed as part of an effort to provide a CFD-based approach to modeling nozzle dynamics. The CFD code used for the simulations is based on the space-time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method. Steady-state results were validated using the Wind-US code and a code utilizing the MacCormack method while the unsteady results were partially validated via an aeroacoustic benchmark problem. The CESE steady-state flow field solutions showed excellent agreement with solutions derived from the other methods and codes while preliminary unsteady results for the three-stream plug nozzle are also shown. Additionally, a study was performed to explore the sensitivity of gross thrust computations to the control surface definition. The results showed that most of the sensitivity while computing the gross thrust is attributed to the control surface stencil resolution and choice of stencil end points and not to the control surface definition itself.Finally, comparisons between the quasi-1D and 2D-axisymetric solutions were performed in order to gain insight on whether a quasi-1D solution can capture the steady and unsteady nozzle phenomena without the cost of a 2D-axisymmetric simulation. Initial results show that while the quasi-1D solutions are similar to the 2D-axisymmetric solutions, the inability of the quasi-1D simulations to predict two dimensional phenomena limits its accuracy.
Weak Galerkin finite element methods for Darcy flow: Anisotropy and heterogeneity
Lin, Guang; Liu, Jiangguo; Mu, Lin; Ye, Xiu
2014-10-11
This paper presents a family of weak Galerkin finite element methods (WGFEMs) for Darcy flow computation. The WGFEMs are new numerical methods that rely on the novel concept of discrete weak gradients. The WGFEMs solve for pressure unknowns both in element interiors and on the mesh skeleton. The numerical velocity is then obtained from the discrete weak gradient of the numerical pressure. The new methods are quite different than many existing numerical methods in that they are locally conservative by design, the resulting discrete linear systems are symmetric and positive-definite, and there is no need for tuning problem-dependent penalty factors. We test the WGFEMs on benchmark problems to demonstrate the strong potential of these new methods in handling strong anisotropy and heterogeneity in Darcy flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howland, G. R.; Durno, J. A.; Twomey, W. J.
1990-01-01
Sikorsky Aircraft, together with the other major helicopter airframe manufacturers, is engaged in a study to improve the use of finite element analysis to predict the dynamic behavior of helicopter airframes, under a rotorcraft structural dynamics program called DAMVIBS (Design Analysis Methods for VIBrationS), sponsored by the NASA-Langley. The test plan and test results are presented for a shake test of the UH-60A BLACK HAWK helicopter. A comparison is also presented of test results with results obtained from analysis using a NASTRAN finite element model.
Kells, John; Dollbaum, Charles M
2009-01-01
Saliva is an excellent medium for the measurement of the biologically active fraction of steroid hormones in the bloodstream because it is a natural ultrafiltrate of blood, and steroids not bound by carrier proteins in the blood freely diffuse into saliva. The baseline measurement of hormone levels in saliva provides an accurate assessment and can be used to identify or monitor a number of clinical conditions, including climacteric changes in perimenopausal or postmenopausal women, adrenal disorders such as Addison's disease or Cushing's disease, and androgen deficiency in men and women, the age-related decrease of hormones such as testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone can also be assessed and monitored. When compared with serum testing, saliva testing offers several advantages. Saliva collection is simple, noninvasive, stress free, painless, and safe for the patient and practitioner. The collection time for saliva testing is more controllable than that for serum testing. The transport of saliva samples for assessment can be accomplished inexpensively via the U.S. Postal Service because hormones are stable in saliva for three weeks at room temperature, and the cost of that testing is covered by many insurance plans. In this first of a two-part series, we discuss the clinical use and basic elements of saliva testing and provide guidelines for postreatment interpretation by compounding pharmacists. PMID:23966517
Senapati, Rajeev; Zhang Jianmei
2010-02-22
Advanced ceramic materials have been extensively applied in aerospace, automobile and other industries. However, the reliability of the advanced ceramics is a major concern because of the brittle nature of the materials. In this paper, combination of nondestructive testing and numerical modeling Discrete Element Method is proposed to identify the fracture origin in ceramics. The nondestructive testing--laser scattering technology is first performed on the ceramic components to reveal the machining-induced damage such as cracks and the material-inherent flaws such as voids, then followed by the four point bending test. Discrete Element software package PFC{sup 2D} is used to simulate the four point bending test and try to identify where the fractures start. The numerical representation of the ceramic materials is done by generating a densely packed particle system using the specimen genesis procedure and then applying the suitable microparameters to the particle system. Simulation of four point bending test is performed on materials having no defects, materials having manufacturing-induced defects like cracks, and materials having material-inherent flaws like voids. The initiation and propagation of defects is modeled and the mean contact force on the loading ball is also plotted. The simulation prediction results are well in accordance with the nondestructive testing results.
A finite element method for solving the shallow water equations on the sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comblen, Richard; Legrand, Sébastien; Deleersnijder, Eric; Legat, Vincent
Within the framework of ocean general circulation modeling, the present paper describes an efficient way to discretize partial differential equations on curved surfaces by means of the finite element method on triangular meshes. Our approach benefits from the inherent flexibility of the finite element method. The key idea consists in a dialog between a local coordinate system defined for each element in which integration takes place, and a nodal coordinate system in which all local contributions related to a vectorial degree of freedom are assembled. Since each element of the mesh and each degree of freedom are treated in the same way, the so-called pole singularity issue is fully circumvented. Applied to the shallow water equations expressed in primitive variables, this new approach has been validated against the standard test set defined by [Williamson, D.L., Drake, J.B., Hack, J.J., Jakob, R., Swarztrauber, P.N., 1992. A standard test set for numerical approximations to the shallow water equations in spherical geometry. Journal of Computational Physics 102, 211-224]. Optimal rates of convergence for the P1NC-P1 finite element pair are obtained, for both global and local quantities of interest. Finally, the approach can be extended to three-dimensional thin-layer flows in a straightforward manner.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bailey, Teresa S.
In this dissertation we discuss the development, implementation, analysis and testing of the Piecewise Linear Discontinuous Finite Element Method (PWLD) applied to the particle transport equation in two-dimensional cylindrical (RZ) and three-dimensional Cartesian (XYZ) geometries. We have designed this method to be applicable to radiative-transfer problems in radiation-hydrodynamics systems for arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral meshes. For RZ geometry, we have implemented this method in the Capsaicin radiative-transfer code being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In XYZ geometry, we have implemented the method in the Parallel Deterministic Transport code being developed at Texas A&M University. We discuss the importance of the thick diffusion limit for radiative-transfer problems, and perform a thick diffusion-limit analysis on our discretized system for both geometries. This analysis predicts that the PWLD method will perform well in this limit for many problems of physical interest with arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral cells. Finally, we run a series of test problems to determine some useful properties of the method and verify the results of our thick diffusion limit analysis. Finally, we test our method on a variety of test problems and show that it compares favorably to existing methods. With these test problems, we also show that our method performs well in the thick diffusion limit as predicted by our analysis. Based on PWLD's solid finite-element foundation, the desirable properties it shows under analysis, and the excellent performance it demonstrates on test problems even with highly distorted spatial grids, we conclude that it is an excellent candidate for radiative-transfer problems that need a robust method that performs well in thick diffusive problems or on distorted grids.
Theory/test correlation of helicopter rotor blade element airloads in the blade stall regime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bobo, C. J.
1972-01-01
The effects of stall on a rotor blade element in a three-dimensional rotating environment was investigated. The model rotor test provided blade element airloads and local boundary layer flow characteristics at the three-quarter blade radius position for a wide range of rotor operating conditions. A description of the test program and the test results are presented.
Ground test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements
Allen, G.C.; Beck, D.F.; Harmon, C.D.; Shipers, L.R.
1992-08-01
Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and design issues of a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. 2 refs.
Method and apparatus for testing a forward-moving strand
Ducommun, Joel; Vulliens, Philippe
1980-01-01
In a method for testing a continuously forward-moving strand a light beam which passes along a plane that extends approximately perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the strand is introduced into the strand. The brightness value is measured on a place of the strand exterior which is distal from the light incidence place by means of at least one photoelectronic element disposed directly on the strand exterior and the measured result is evaluated in a gating circuit which is electrically connected to the photoelectronic element.
An explicit Lagrangian finite element method for free-surface weakly compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cremonesi, Massimiliano; Meduri, Simone; Perego, Umberto; Frangi, Attilio
2016-07-01
In the present work, an explicit finite element approach to the solution of the Lagrangian formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations for weakly compressible fluids or fluid-like materials is investigated. The introduction of a small amount of compressibility is shown to allow for the formulation of a fast and robust explicit solver based on a particle finite element method. Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Bingham laws are considered. A barotropic equation of state completes the model relating pressure and density fields. The approach has been validated through comparison with experimental tests and numerical simulations of free surface fluid problems involving water and water-soil mixtures.
Fatigue Testing of Wing Beam by the Resonance Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bleakney, William M
1938-01-01
Preliminary fatigue tests on two aluminum-alloy wing-beam specimens subjected to reversed axial loading are described. The motion used consists in incorporating one or two reciprocating motors in a resonance system of which the specimen is the spring element. A description is given of the reciprocating motors, and of the method of assembling and adjusting the vibrating system. The results indicate that the method is well adapted to fatigue tests of not only uniform wing beams but also wing beams with asymmetrical local reinforcements.
A multi-patch nonsingular isogeometric boundary element method using trimmed elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yingjun; Benson, David J.; Nagy, Attila P.
2015-07-01
One of the major goals of isogeometric analysis is direct design-to-analysis, i.e., using computer-aided design (CAD) files for analysis without the need for mesh generation. One of the primary obstacles to achieving this goal is CAD models are based on surfaces, and not volumes. The boundary element method (BEM) circumvents this difficulty by directly working with the surfaces. The standard basis functions in CAD are trimmed nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS). NURBS patches are the tensor product of one-dimensional NURBS, making the construction of arbitrary surfaces difficult. Trimmed NURBS use curves to trim away regions of the patch to obtain the desired shape. By coupling trimmed NURBS with a nonsingular BEM, the formulation proposed here comes close achieving the goal of direct design to analysis. Example calculations demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy.
Testing variance components by two jackknife methods
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The jacknife method, a resampling technique, has been widely used for statistical tests for years. The pseudo value based jacknife method (defined as pseudo jackknife method) is commonly used to reduce the bias for an estimate; however, sometimes it could result in large variaion for an estmimate a...
System and Method for Finite Element Simulation of Helicopter Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McFarland, R. E. (Inventor); Dulsenberg, Ken (Inventor)
1999-01-01
The present invention provides a turbulence model that has been developed for blade-element helicopter simulation. This model uses an innovative temporal and geometrical distribution algorithm that preserves the statistical characteristics of the turbulence spectra over the rotor disc, while providing velocity components in real time to each of five blade-element stations along each of four blades. for a total of twenty blade-element stations. The simulator system includes a software implementation of flight dynamics that adheres to the guidelines for turbulence set forth in military specifications. One of the features of the present simulator system is that it applies simulated turbulence to the rotor blades of the helicopter, rather than to its center of gravity. The simulator system accurately models the rotor penetration into a gust field. It includes time correlation between the front and rear of the main rotor, as well as between the side forces felt at the center of gravity and at the tail rotor. It also includes features for added realism, such as patchy turbulence and vertical gusts in to which the rotor disc penetrates. These features are realized by a unique real time implementation of the turbulence filters. The new simulator system uses two arrays one on either side of the main rotor to record the turbulence field and to produce time-correlation from the front to the rear of the rotor disc. The use of Gaussian Interpolation between the two arrays maintains the statistical properties of the turbulence across the rotor disc. The present simulator system and method may be used in future and existing real-time helicopter simulations with minimal increase in computational workload.
SAS molecular tests Salmonella detection kit. Performance tested method 021202.
Bapanpally, Chandra; Montier, Laura; Khan, Shah; Kasra, Akif; Brunelle, Sharon L
2014-01-01
The SAS Molecular tests Salmonella Detection method, a Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification method, performed as well as or better than the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety Inspection Service Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference methods for ground beef, beef trim, ground turkey, chicken carcass rinses, bagged mixed lettuce, and fresh spinach. The ground beef (30% fat, 25 g test portion), poultry matrixes and leafy greens were validated in a 6-7 h enrichment, and ground beef (30% fat, 375 g composite test portion) and beef trim (375 g composite test portion) were validated in a 16-20 h enrichment. The method performance for meat and leafy green matrixes was shown to be acceptable under conditions of co-enrichment with Escherichia coli 0157. Thus, after a short 6-7 h co-enrichment step, ground beef, beef trim, lettuce, and spinach can be tested for both Salmonella and E. coli O157. Inclusivity and exclusivity testing revealed no false negatives and no false positives among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 30 non-Salmonella species examined. The method was shown to be robust when enrichment time, DNA extract hold time, and DNA volume were varied. PMID:25051629
Method and apparatus for testing microfilaments
Schleitweiler, Patrick M.; Merten, Jr., Charles W.
1995-08-01
A method and apparatus are disclosed for testing tensile strength of microfilaments. Fibers as small as 0.001 inch in diameter and 0.04 inches in length have been tested, although the method and apparatus of the invention are capable of testing fibers of smaller diameter and length. The invention utilizes a method wherein one or both ends of a microfilament is gripped using resin which is softened sufficiently to accept an end of the microfilament and then allowed to harden. The invention also employs the use of a translation stage capable of controlled three-dimensional movement suited to facilitating gripping of the microfilament.
Method and apparatus for testing microfilaments
Schleitweiler, P.M.; Merten, C.W. Jr.
1995-08-01
A method and apparatus are disclosed for testing tensile strength of microfilaments. Fibers as small as 0.001 inch in diameter and 0.04 inches in length have been tested, although the method and apparatus of the invention are capable of testing fibers of smaller diameter and length. The invention utilizes a method wherein one or both ends of a microfilament is gripped using resin which is softened sufficiently to accept an end of the microfilament and then allowed to harden. The invention also employs the use of a translation stage capable of controlled three-dimensional movement suited to facilitating gripping of the microfilament. 2 figs.
Nitsche Extended Finite Element Methods for Earthquake Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coon, Ethan T.
Modeling earthquakes and geologically short-time-scale events on fault networks is a difficult problem with important implications for human safety and design. These problems demonstrate a. rich physical behavior, in which distributed loading localizes both spatially and temporally into earthquakes on fault systems. This localization is governed by two aspects: friction and fault geometry. Computationally, these problems provide a stern challenge for modelers --- static and dynamic equations must be solved on domains with discontinuities on complex fault systems, and frictional boundary conditions must be applied on these discontinuities. The most difficult aspect of modeling physics on complicated domains is the mesh. Most numerical methods involve meshing the geometry; nodes are placed on the discontinuities, and edges are chosen to coincide with faults. The resulting mesh is highly unstructured, making the derivation of finite difference discretizations difficult. Therefore, most models use the finite element method. Standard finite element methods place requirements on the mesh for the sake of stability, accuracy, and efficiency. The formation of a mesh which both conforms to fault geometry and satisfies these requirements is an open problem, especially for three dimensional, physically realistic fault. geometries. In addition, if the fault system evolves over the course of a dynamic simulation (i.e. in the case of growing cracks or breaking new faults), the geometry must he re-meshed at each time step. This can be expensive computationally. The fault-conforming approach is undesirable when complicated meshes are required, and impossible to implement when the geometry is evolving. Therefore, meshless and hybrid finite element methods that handle discontinuities without placing them on element boundaries are a desirable and natural way to discretize these problems. Several such methods are being actively developed for use in engineering mechanics involving crack
Simulation and Flight Test Capability for Testing Prototype Sense and Avoid System Elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howell, Charles T.; Stock, Todd M.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Wehner, Paul J.
2012-01-01
NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and The MITRE Corporation (MITRE) have developed, and successfully demonstrated, an integrated simulation-to-flight capability for evaluating sense and avoid (SAA) system elements. This integrated capability consists of a MITRE developed fast-time computer simulation for evaluating SAA algorithms, and a NASA LaRC surrogate unmanned aircraft system (UAS) equipped to support hardware and software in-the-loop evaluation of SAA system elements (e.g., algorithms, sensors, architecture, communications, autonomous systems), concepts, and procedures. The fast-time computer simulation subjects algorithms to simulated flight encounters/ conditions and generates a fitness report that records strengths, weaknesses, and overall performance. Reviewed algorithms (and their fitness report) are then transferred to NASA LaRC where additional (joint) airworthiness evaluations are performed on the candidate SAA system-element configurations, concepts, and/or procedures of interest; software and hardware components are integrated into the Surrogate UAS research systems; and flight safety and mission planning activities are completed. Onboard the Surrogate UAS, candidate SAA system element configurations, concepts, and/or procedures are subjected to flight evaluations and in-flight performance is monitored. The Surrogate UAS, which can be controlled remotely via generic Ground Station uplink or automatically via onboard systems, operates with a NASA Safety Pilot/Pilot in Command onboard to permit safe operations in mixed airspace with manned aircraft. An end-to-end demonstration of a typical application of the capability was performed in non-exclusionary airspace in October 2011; additional research, development, flight testing, and evaluation efforts using this integrated capability are planned throughout fiscal year 2012 and 2013.
[Seed quality test methods of Paeonia suffruticosa].
Cao, Ya-Yue; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Liu, Li; Wang, Chang-Lin
2014-11-01
In order to optimize the testing methods for Paeonia suffruticosa seed quality, and provide basis for establishing seed testing rules and seed quality standard of P. suffruticosa. The seed quality of P. suffruticosa from different producing areas was measured based on the related seed testing regulations. The seed testing methods for quality items of P. suffruticosa was established preliminarily. The samples weight of P. suffruticosa was at least 7 000 g for purity analysis and was at least 700 g for test. The phenotypic observation and size measurement were used for authenticity testing. The 1 000-seed weight was determined by 100-seed method, and the water content was carried out by low temperature drying method (10 hours). After soaking in distilled water for 24 h, the seeds was treated with different temperature stratifications of day and night (25 degrees C/20 degrees C, day/night) in the dark for 60 d. After soaking in the liquor of GA3 300 mg x L(-1) for 24 h, the P. suffruticos seeds were cultured in wet sand at 15 degrees C for 12-60 days for germination testing. Seed viability was tested by TlC method. PMID:25775790
A fictitious domain approach for the Stokes problem based on the extended finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Court, Sébastien; Fournié, Michel; Lozinski, Alexei
2014-01-01
In the present work, we propose to extend to the Stokes problem a fictitious domain approach inspired by eXtended Finite Element Method and studied for Poisson problem in [Renard]. The method allows computations in domains whose boundaries do not match. A mixed finite element method is used for fluid flow. The interface between the fluid and the structure is localized by a level-set function. Dirichlet boundary conditions are taken into account using Lagrange multiplier. A stabilization term is introduced to improve the approximation of the normal trace of the Cauchy stress tensor at the interface and avoid the inf-sup condition between the spaces for velocity and the Lagrange multiplier. Convergence analysis is given and several numerical tests are performed to illustrate the capabilities of the method.
NOTE: Solving the ECG forward problem by means of a meshless finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Z. S.; Zhu, S. A.; He, Bin
2007-07-01
The conventional numerical computational techniques such as the finite element method (FEM) and the boundary element method (BEM) require laborious and time-consuming model meshing. The new meshless FEM only uses the boundary description and the node distribution and no meshing of the model is required. This paper presents the fundamentals and implementation of meshless FEM and the meshless FEM method is adapted to solve the electrocardiography (ECG) forward problem. The method is evaluated on a single-layer torso model, in which the analytical solution exists, and tested in a realistic geometry homogeneous torso model, with satisfactory results being obtained. The present results suggest that the meshless FEM may provide an alternative for ECG forward solutions.
Tests of Low-Concentration-Ratio Photovoltaic Elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mills, M. W.; Backovsky, Z. F.
1985-01-01
Report describes performance measurements on elements of low-concentrationratio solar arrays (LCRSA's) employing silicon and gallium arsenide photovoltaic cells. Measurements intended to verify predictions of performance based on mathematical models. Measured and predicted values found to agree closely for both normal and off-normal pointing of array toward Sun.
Large-eddy simulation using the finite element method
McCallen, R.C.; Gresho, P.M.; Leone, J.M. Jr.; Kollmann, W.
1993-10-01
In a large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flows, the large-scale motion is calculated explicitly (i.e., approximated with semi-empirical relations). Typically, finite difference or spectral numerical schemes are used to generate an LES; the use of finite element methods (FEM) has been far less prominent. In this study, we demonstrate that FEM in combination with LES provides a viable tool for the study of turbulent, separating channel flows, specifically the flow over a two-dimensional backward-facing step. The combination of these methodologies brings together the advantages of each: LES provides a high degree of accuracy with a minimum of empiricism for turbulence modeling and FEM provides a robust way to simulate flow in very complex domains of practical interest. Such a combination should prove very valuable to the engineering community.
Finite element method application for turbulent and transitional flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sváček, Petr
2016-03-01
This paper is interested in numerical simulations of the interaction of the fluid flow with an airfoil. Particularly, the problem of the turbulent flow around the airfoil with elastic support is considered. The main attention is paid to the numerical approximation of the flow problem using the finite element approximations. The laminar - turbulence transition of the flow on the surface airfoil is considered. The chois of the transition model is discussed. The transition model based on the two equation k-ω turbulence model is used. The structure motion is described with the aid of two degrees of freedom. The motion of the computational domain is treated with the aid of the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method. Numerical results are shown.
A posteriori pointwise error estimates for the boundary element method
Paulino, G.H.; Gray, L.J.; Zarikian, V.
1995-01-01
This report presents a new approach for a posteriori pointwise error estimation in the boundary element method. The estimator relies upon the evaluation of hypersingular integral equations, and is therefore intrinsic to the boundary integral equation approach. This property allows some theoretical justification by mathematically correlating the exact and estimated errors. A methodology is developed for approximating the error on the boundary as well as in the interior of the domain. In the interior, error estimates for both the function and its derivatives (e.g. potential and interior gradients for potential problems, displacements and stresses for elasticity problems) are presented. Extensive computational experiments have been performed for the two dimensional Laplace equation on interior domains, employing Dirichlet and mixed boundary conditions. The results indicate that the error estimates successfully track the form of the exact error curve. Moreover, a reasonable estimate of the magnitude of the actual error is also obtained.
Large-scale computation of incompressible viscous flow by least-squares finite element method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jiang, Bo-Nan; Lin, T. L.; Povinelli, Louis A.
1993-01-01
The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) based on the velocity-pressure-vorticity formulation is applied to large-scale/three-dimensional steady incompressible Navier-Stokes problems. This method can accommodate equal-order interpolations and results in symmetric, positive definite algebraic system which can be solved effectively by simple iterative methods. The first-order velocity-Bernoulli function-vorticity formulation for incompressible viscous flows is also tested. For three-dimensional cases, an additional compatibility equation, i.e., the divergence of the vorticity vector should be zero, is included to make the first-order system elliptic. The simple substitution of the Newton's method is employed to linearize the partial differential equations, the LSFEM is used to obtain discretized equations, and the system of algebraic equations is solved using the Jacobi preconditioned conjugate gradient method which avoids formation of either element or global matrices (matrix-free) to achieve high efficiency. To show the validity of this scheme for large-scale computation, we give numerical results for 2D driven cavity problem at Re = 10000 with 408 x 400 bilinear elements. The flow in a 3D cavity is calculated at Re = 100, 400, and 1,000 with 50 x 50 x 50 trilinear elements. The Taylor-Goertler-like vortices are observed for Re = 1,000.
Structural Anomaly Detection Using Fiber Optic Sensors and Inverse Finite Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Tessler, Alex; Moore, Jason P.; Cooper, Eric G.; Spangler, Jan. L.
2005-01-01
NASA Langley Research Center is investigating a variety of techniques for mitigating aircraft accidents due to structural component failure. One technique under consideration combines distributed fiber optic strain sensing with an inverse finite element method for detecting and characterizing structural anomalies anomalies that may provide early indication of airframe structure degradation. The technique identifies structural anomalies that result in observable changes in localized strain but do not impact the overall surface shape. Surface shape information is provided by an Inverse Finite Element Method that computes full-field displacements and internal loads using strain data from in-situ fiberoptic sensors. This paper describes a prototype of such a system and reports results from a series of laboratory tests conducted on a test coupon subjected to increasing levels of damage.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vazquez, Sixto L.; Tessler, Alexander; Quach, Cuong C.; Cooper, Eric G.; Parks, Jeffrey; Spangler, Jan L.
2005-01-01
In an effort to mitigate accidents due to system and component failure, NASA s Aviation Safety has partnered with industry, academia, and other governmental organizations to develop real-time, on-board monitoring capabilities and system performance models for early detection of airframe structure degradation. NASA Langley is investigating a structural health monitoring capability that uses a distributed fiber optic strain system and an inverse finite element method for measuring and modeling structural deformations. This report describes the constituent systems that enable this structural monitoring function and discusses results from laboratory tests using the fiber strain sensor system and the inverse finite element method to demonstrate structural deformation estimation on an instrumented test article
Method of Bonding Optical Elements with Near-Zero Displacement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, David; McClelland, Ryan; Byron, Glenn; Evans, Tyler
2012-01-01
The International X-ray Project seeks to build an x-ray telescope using thousands of pieces of thin and flexible glass mirror segments. Each mirror segment must be bonded into a housing in nearly perfect optical alignment without distortion. Forces greater than 0.001 Newton, or displacements greater than 0.5 m of the glass, cause unacceptable optical distortion. All known epoxies shrink as they cure. Even the epoxies with the least amount of shrinkage (<0.01%) cause unacceptable optical distortion and misalignment by pulling the mirror segments towards the housing as it cures. A related problem is that the shrinkage is not consistent or predictable so that it cannot be accounted for in the setup (i.e., if all of the bonds shrunk an equal amount, there would be no problem). A method has been developed that allows two components to be joined with epoxy in such a way that reduces the displacement caused by epoxy shrinking as it cures to less than 200 nm. The method involves using ultraviolet-cured epoxy with a displacement sensor and a nanoactuator in a control loop. The epoxy is cured by short-duration exposures to UV light. In between each exposure, the nano-actuator zeroes out the displacement caused by epoxy shrinkage and thermal expansion. After a few exposures, the epoxy has cured sufficiently to prevent further displacement of the two components. Bonding of optical elements has been done for many years, but most optics are thick and rigid elements that resist micro-Newton-level forces without causing distortion. When bonding thin glass optics such as the 0.40-mm thick IXO X-ray mirrors, forces in the micro- and milli-Newton levels cause unacceptable optical figure error. This innovation can now repeatedly and reliably bond a thin glass mirror to a metal housing with less than 0.2 m of displacement (<200 nm). This is an enabling technology that allows the installation of virtually stress-free, undistorted thin optics onto structures. This innovation is
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jara-Almonte, J.; Mitchell, L. D.
1988-01-01
The paper covers two distinct parts: theory and application. The goal of this work was the reduction of model size with an increase in eigenvalue/vector accuracy. This method is ideal for the condensation of large truss- or beam-type structures. The theoretical approach involves the conversion of a continuum transfer matrix beam element into an 'Exact' dynamic stiffness element. This formulation is implemented in a finite element environment. This results in the need to solve a transcendental eigenvalue problem. Once the eigenvalue is determined the eigenvectors can be reconstructed with any desired spatial precision. No discretization limitations are imposed on the reconstruction. The results of such a combined finite element and transfer matrix formulation is a much smaller FEM eigenvalue problem. This formulation has the ability to extract higher eigenvalues as easily and as accurately as lower eigenvalues. Moreover, one can extract many more eigenvalues/vectors from the model than the number of degrees of freedom in the FEM formulation. Typically, the number of eigenvalues accurately extractable via the 'Exact' element method are at least 8 times the number of degrees of freedom. In contrast, the FEM usually extracts one accurate (within 5 percent) eigenvalue for each 3-4 degrees of freedom. The 'Exact' element results in a 20-30 improvement in the number of accurately extractable eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
Criticality Safety Evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor U-Mo Demonstration Elements
Leland M. Montierth
2010-12-01
The Reduced Enrichment Research Test Reactors (RERTR) fuel development program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic RERTR fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. Two RERTR-Full Size Demonstration fuel elements based on the ATR-Reduced YA elements (all but one plate fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The two fuel elements will be irradiated in alternating cycles such that only one element is loaded in the reactor at a time. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements (all plates fueled) from which controls have been derived. This criticality safety evaluation (CSE) documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the Demonstration fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and shows that the Demonstration elements are bound by the Standard HEU ATR elements and existing HEU ATR element controls are applicable to the Demonstration elements.
Numerical performance of projection methods in finite element consolidation models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambolati, Giuseppe; Pini, Giorgio; Ferronato, Massimiliano
2001-12-01
Projection, or conjugate gradient like, methods are becoming increasingly popular for the efficient solution of large sparse sets of unsymmetric indefinite equations arising from the numerical integration of (initial) boundary value problems. One such problem is soil consolidation coupling a flow and a structural model, typically solved by finite elements (FE) in space and a marching scheme in time (e.g. the Crank-Nicolson scheme). The attraction of a projection method stems from a number of factors, including the ease of implementation, the requirement of limited core memory and the low computational cost if a cheap and effective matrix preconditioner is available. In the present paper, biconjugate gradient stabilized (Bi- CGSTAB) is used to solve FE consolidation equations in 2-D and 3-D settings with variable time integration steps. Three different nodal orderings are selected along with the preconditioner ILUT based on incomplete triangular factorization and variable fill-in. The overall cost of the solver is made up of the preconditioning cost plus the cost to converge which is in turn related to the number of iterations and the elementary operations required by each iteration. The results show that nodal ordering affects the perfor mance of Bi-CGSTAB. For normally conditioned consolidation problems Bi-CGSTAB with the best ILUT preconditioner may converge in a number of iterations up to two order of magnitude smaller than the size of the FE model and proves an accurate, cost-effective and robust alternative to direct methods.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test methods. 1213.4 Section 1213.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ENTRAPMENT HAZARDS IN BUNK BEDS § 1213.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1213.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on the bed, place the wedge...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test methods. 1513.4 Section 1513.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.4 Test methods. (a) Guardrails (see § 1513.3(a)(6)). With no mattress on the bed, place the wedge block shown in Figure...
Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.
1981-12-01
This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available.
A Lagrange-Galerkin hp-Finite Element Method for a 3D Nonhydrostatic Ocean Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galán del Sastre, Pedro; Bermejo, Rodolfo
2016-03-01
We introduce in this paper a Lagrange-Galerkin hp-finite element method to calculate the numerical solution of a nonhydrostatic ocean model. The Lagrange-Galerkin method yields a Stokes-like problem the solution of which is computed by a second-order rotational splitting scheme that separates the calculation of the velocity and pressure, the latter is decomposed into hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic components. We have tested the method in flows where the nonhydrostatic effects are important. The results are very encouraging.
Well formation test-treat-test apparatus and method
Hallmark, B.J.
1982-07-20
This patent discloses apparatus and method for testing, then treating, then testing the same sealed off region of earth formation within a well bore. A sealing pad arrangement carried by the well tool to seal the test region to permit flow of formation fluid from the region is employed. A fluid sample taking arrangement in the tool is adapted to receive a fluid sample through the sealing pad from the test region and a pressure detector is connected to sense and indicate the build up of pressure from the fluid sample. A treating mechanism in the tool injects a treating fluid into said sealed test region of earth formation. A second fluid sample is taken through the sealing pad while the build up of pressure from the second fluid sample is indicated.
Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector
Apresyan, A.; Los, S.; Pena, C.; Presutti, F.; Ronzhin, A.; Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S.
2016-05-07
One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. As a result, a method for measuring themore » arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.« less
Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apresyan, A.; Los, S.; Pena, C.; Presutti, F.; Ronzhin, A.; Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S.
2016-08-01
One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. A method for measuring the arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.
Dohrmann, C.R.; Heinstein, M.W.; Jung, J.; Key, S.W.
1999-01-01
This report documents a collection of papers on a family of uniform strain tetrahedral finite elements and their connection to different element types. Also included in the report are two papers which address the general problem of connecting dissimilar meshes in two and three dimensions. Much of the work presented here was motivated by the development of the tetrahedral element described in the report "A Suitable Low-Order, Eight-Node Tetrahedral Finite Element For Solids," by S. W. Key {ital et al.}, SAND98-0756, March 1998. Two basic issues addressed by the papers are: (1) the performance of alternative tetrahedral elements with uniform strain and enhanced uniform strain formulations, and (2) the proper connection of tetrahedral and other element types when two meshes are "tied" together to represent a single continuous domain.
ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chemical and Engineering News, 1973
1973-01-01
The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)
Alternative Test Methods for Electronic Parts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Plante, Jeannette
2004-01-01
It is common practice within NASA to test electronic parts at the manufacturing lot level to demonstrate, statistically, that parts from the lot tested will not fail in service using generic application conditions. The test methods and the generic application conditions used have been developed over the years through cooperation between NASA, DoD, and industry in order to establish a common set of standard practices. These common practices, found in MIL-STD-883, MIL-STD-750, military part specifications, EEE-INST-002, and other guidelines are preferred because they are considered to be effective and repeatable and their results are usually straightforward to interpret. These practices can sometimes be unavailable to some NASA projects due to special application conditions that must be addressed, such as schedule constraints, cost constraints, logistical constraints, or advances in the technology that make the historical standards an inappropriate choice for establishing part performance and reliability. Alternate methods have begun to emerge and to be used by NASA programs to test parts individually or as part of a system, especially when standard lot tests cannot be applied. Four alternate screening methods will be discussed in this paper: Highly accelerated life test (HALT), forward voltage drop tests for evaluating wire-bond integrity, burn-in options during or after highly accelerated stress test (HAST), and board-level qualification.
Upper bound shakedown analysis with the nodal natural element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Shutao; Liu, Yinghua; Wang, Dongdong; Wang, Kai; Yu, Suyuan
2014-11-01
In this paper, a novel numerical solution procedure is developed for the upper bound shakedown analysis of elastic-perfectly plastic structures. The nodal natural element method (nodal-NEM) combines the advantages of the NEM and the stabilized conforming nodal integration scheme, and is used to discretize the established mathematical programming formulation of upper bound shakedown analysis based on Koiter's theorem. In this formulation, the displacement field is approximated by using the Sibson interpolation and the difficulty caused by the time integration is solved by König's technique. Meanwhile, the nonlinear and non-differentiable characteristic of objective function is overcome by distinguishing non-plastic areas from plastic areas and modifying associated constraint conditions and goal function at each iteration step. Finally, the objective function subjected to several equality constraints is linearized and the upper bound shakedown load multiplier is obtained. This direct iterative process can ensure the shakedown load to monotonically converge to the upper bound of true solution. Several typical numerical examples confirm the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.
Matrix element method for high performance computing platforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grasseau, G.; Chamont, D.; Beaudette, F.; Bianchini, L.; Davignon, O.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Strebler, T.
2015-12-01
Lot of efforts have been devoted by ATLAS and CMS teams to improve the quality of LHC events analysis with the Matrix Element Method (MEM). Up to now, very few implementations try to face up the huge computing resources required by this method. We propose here a highly parallel version, combining MPI and OpenCL, which makes the MEM exploitation reachable for the whole CMS datasets with a moderate cost. In the article, we describe the status of two software projects under development, one focused on physics and one focused on computing. We also showcase their preliminary performance obtained with classical multi-core processors, CUDA accelerators and MIC co-processors. This let us extrapolate that with the help of 6 high-end accelerators, we should be able to reprocess the whole LHC run 1 within 10 days, and that we have a satisfying metric for the upcoming run 2. The future work will consist in finalizing a single merged system including all the physics and all the parallelism infrastructure, thus optimizing implementation for best hardware platforms.
A Successive Selection Method for finite element model updating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gou, Baiyong; Zhang, Weijie; Lu, Qiuhai; Wang, Bo
2016-03-01
Finite Element (FE) model can be updated effectively and efficiently by using the Response Surface Method (RSM). However, it often involves performance trade-offs such as high computational cost for better accuracy or loss of efficiency for lots of design parameter updates. This paper proposes a Successive Selection Method (SSM), which is based on the linear Response Surface (RS) function and orthogonal design. SSM rewrites the linear RS function into a number of linear equations to adjust the Design of Experiment (DOE) after every FE calculation. SSM aims to interpret the implicit information provided by the FE analysis, to locate the Design of Experiment (DOE) points more quickly and accurately, and thereby to alleviate the computational burden. This paper introduces the SSM and its application, describes the solution steps of point selection for DOE in detail, and analyzes SSM's high efficiency and accuracy in the FE model updating. A numerical example of a simply supported beam and a practical example of a vehicle brake disc show that the SSM can provide higher speed and precision in FE model updating for engineering problems than traditional RSM.
Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods.
IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C; van den Heuvel, Edwin R
2015-01-01
This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion and the bacterial density cannot be estimated separately, not even in a multiple dilution experiment. Only the product can be estimated, changing the interpretation of the most probable number estimator. The asymptotic power of the likelihood ratio statistic for comparing an alternative method with the compendial method, is optimal for a single dilution experiment. The bacterial density should either be close to two CFUs per test unit or equal to zero, depending on differences in the model parameters between the two test methods. The proposed strategy for method validation is to use these two dilutions and test for differences in the two model parameters, addressing the validation parameters specificity and accuracy. Robustness of these two parameters might still be required, but all other validation parameters can be omitted. A confidence interval-based approach for the ratio of the detection proportions for the two methods is recommended, since it is most informative and close to the power of the likelihood ratio test. PMID:25412584
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coy, J. J.; Chao, C. H. C.
1981-01-01
A method of selecting grid size for the finite element analysis of gear tooth deflection is presented. The method is based on a finite element study of two cylinders in line contact, where the criterion for establishing element size was that there be agreement with the classical Hertzian solution for deflection. The results are applied to calculate deflection for the gear specimen used in the NASA spur gear test rig. Comparisons are made between the present results and the results of two other methods of calculation. The results have application in design of gear tooth profile modifications to reduce noise and dynamic loads.
Thermal Insulation Testing Method and Apparatus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D. (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A test apparatus and method of its use for evaluating various performance aspects of a test specimen is disclosed. A chamber within a housing contains a cold mass tank with a contact surface in contact with a first surface of a test specimen. The first surface of the test specimen is spaced from the second surface of the test specimen by a thickness. The second surface of the test specimen is maintained at a a constant temperature by a liquid disposed within the cold mass tank. A boil-off flow rate of the gas is monitored and provided to a processor along with the temperature of the first and second surfaces of the test specimen. The processor calculates thermal insulation values of the test specimen including comparative values for heat flux and apparent thermal conductivity k-value). The test specimen may be placed in any vacuum pressure level ranging from about 0.01 millitorr to 1,000,000 millitorr with different residual gases as desired. The test specimen may be placed under a mechanical load with the cold mass tank and another factors may be imposed upon the test specimen so as to simulate the actual use conditions.
Thermal insulation testing method and apparatus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D. (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A test apparatus and method of its use for evaluating various performance aspects of a test specimen is disclosed. A chamber within a housing contains a cold mass tank with a contact surface in contact with a first surface of a test specimen. The first surface of the test specimen is spaced from the second surface of the test specimen by a thickness. The second surface of the test specimen is maintained at a desired warm temperature. The first surface is maintained at a constant temperature by a liquid disposed within the cold mass tank. A boil-off flow rate of the gas is monitored and provided to a processor along with the temperature of the first and second surfaces of the test specimen. The processor calculates thermal insulation values of the test specimen including comparative values for heat flux and apparent thermal conductivity (k-value). The test specimen may be placed in any vacuum pressure level ranging from about 0.01 millitorr to 1,000,000 millitorr with different residual gases as desired. The test specimen may be placed under a mechanical load with the cold mass tank and another factors may be imposed upon the test specimen so as to simulate the actual use conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abushaikha, Ahmad S.; Blunt, Martin J.; Gosselin, Olivier R.; Pain, Christopher C.; Jackson, Matthew D.
2015-10-01
We present a new control volume finite element method that improves the modelling of multi-phase fluid flow in highly heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, called the Interface Control Volume Finite Element (ICVFE) method. The method drastically decreases the smearing effects in other CVFE methods, while being mass conservative and numerically consistent. The pressure is computed at the interfaces of elements, and the control volumes are constructed around them, instead of at the elements' vertices. This assures that a control volume straddles, at most, two elements, which decreases the fluid smearing between neighbouring elements when large variations in their material properties are present. Lowest order Raviart-Thomas vectorial basis functions are used for the pressure calculation and first-order Courant basis functions are used to compute fluxes. The method is a combination of Mixed Hybrid Finite Element (MHFE) and CVFE methods. Its accuracy and convergence are tested using three dimensional tetrahedron elements to represent heterogeneous reservoirs. Our new approach is shown to be more accurate than current CVFE methods.
Formal methods for test case generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rushby, John (Inventor); De Moura, Leonardo Mendonga (Inventor); Hamon, Gregoire (Inventor)
2011-01-01
The invention relates to the use of model checkers to generate efficient test sets for hardware and software systems. The method provides for extending existing tests to reach new coverage targets; searching *to* some or all of the uncovered targets in parallel; searching in parallel *from* some or all of the states reached in previous tests; and slicing the model relative to the current set of coverage targets. The invention provides efficient test case generation and test set formation. Deep regions of the state space can be reached within allotted time and memory. The approach has been applied to use of the model checkers of SRI's SAL system and to model-based designs developed in Stateflow. Stateflow models achieving complete state and transition coverage in a single test case are reported.
Research of carbon composite material for nonlinear finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jung Ho; Garg, Mohit; Kim, Ji Hoon
2011-11-01
Works on the absorption of collision energy in the structural members are carried out widely with various material and cross-sections. And, with ever increasing safety concerns, they are presently applied in various fields including railroad trains, air crafts and automobiles. In addition to this, problem of lighting structural members became important subject by control of exhaust gas emission, fuel economy and energy efficiency. CFRP(Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) usually is applying the two primary structural members because of different result each design parameter as like stacking thickness, stacking angle, moisture absorption ect. We have to secure the data for applying primary structural members. But it always happens to test design parameters each for securing the data. So, it has much more money and time. We can reduce the money and the time, if can ensure the CFRP material properties each design parameters. In this study, we experiment the coupon test each tension, compression and shear using CFRP prepreg sheet and simulate non-linear analyze at the sources - test result, Caron longitudinal modulus and matrix poisson's ratio using GENOAMQC is specialized at Composite analysis. And then we predict the result that specimen manufacture changing stacking angle and experiment in such a way of test method using GENOA-MCQ.
Research of carbon composite material for nonlinear finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jung Ho; Garg, Mohit; Kim, Ji Hoon
2012-04-01
Works on the absorption of collision energy in the structural members are carried out widely with various material and cross-sections. And, with ever increasing safety concerns, they are presently applied in various fields including railroad trains, air crafts and automobiles. In addition to this, problem of lighting structural members became important subject by control of exhaust gas emission, fuel economy and energy efficiency. CFRP(Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics) usually is applying the two primary structural members because of different result each design parameter as like stacking thickness, stacking angle, moisture absorption ect. We have to secure the data for applying primary structural members. But it always happens to test design parameters each for securing the data. So, it has much more money and time. We can reduce the money and the time, if can ensure the CFRP material properties each design parameters. In this study, we experiment the coupon test each tension, compression and shear using CFRP prepreg sheet and simulate non-linear analyze at the sources - test result, Caron longitudinal modulus and matrix poisson's ratio using GENOAMQC is specialized at Composite analysis. And then we predict the result that specimen manufacture changing stacking angle and experiment in such a way of test method using GENOA-MCQ.
Computation of Sound Propagation by Boundary Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guo, Yueping
2005-01-01
This report documents the development of a Boundary Element Method (BEM) code for the computation of sound propagation in uniform mean flows. The basic formulation and implementation follow the standard BEM methodology; the convective wave equation and the boundary conditions on the surfaces of the bodies in the flow are formulated into an integral equation and the method of collocation is used to discretize this equation into a matrix equation to be solved numerically. New features discussed here include the formulation of the additional terms due to the effects of the mean flow and the treatment of the numerical singularities in the implementation by the method of collocation. The effects of mean flows introduce terms in the integral equation that contain the gradients of the unknown, which is undesirable if the gradients are treated as additional unknowns, greatly increasing the sizes of the matrix equation, or if numerical differentiation is used to approximate the gradients, introducing numerical error in the computation. It is shown that these terms can be reformulated in terms of the unknown itself, making the integral equation very similar to the case without mean flows and simple for numerical implementation. To avoid asymptotic analysis in the treatment of numerical singularities in the method of collocation, as is conventionally done, we perform the surface integrations in the integral equation by using sub-triangles so that the field point never coincide with the evaluation points on the surfaces. This simplifies the formulation and greatly facilitates the implementation. To validate the method and the code, three canonic problems are studied. They are respectively the sound scattering by a sphere, the sound reflection by a plate in uniform mean flows and the sound propagation over a hump of irregular shape in uniform flows. The first two have analytical solutions and the third is solved by the method of Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA), all of which
Method of determining lanthanidies in a transition element host
De Kalb, Edward L.; Fassel, Velmer A.
1976-02-03
A phosphor composition contains a lanthanide activator element within a host matrix having a transition element as a major component. The host matrix is composed of certain rare earth phosphates or vanadates such as YPO.sub.4 with a portion of the rare earth replaced with one or more of the transition elements. On X-ray or other electromagnetic excitation, trace lanthanide impurities or additives within the phosphor are spectrometrically determined from their characteristic luminescence.
[Comparison of spatial interpolation methods for daily meteorological elements].
Jiang, Xiao-Jian; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Huang, Fen; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Cao, Wei-Xing; Zhu, Yan
2010-03-01
A comparative study was made to evaluate the methods of inverse distance weighting (IDW), co-kriging (CK), and thin plate spline (TPS) in interpolating the average meteorological elements (including maximum air temperature, minimum air temperature, sunshine hours, and precipitation) of the 15th day per month from the 1951-2005 comprehensive observation data of 559 meteorological stations in China. The results showed that the RMSEs for the maximum and minimum air temperature in a year interpolated by TPS were the smallest (1.02 degrees C and 1.12 degrees C, respectively), and the R2 between the observed and predicted values were the highest (0.9916 and 0.9913, respectively), compared with those interpolated by IDW and CK. In four seasons, the smallest RMSEs for the maximum and minimum air temperature interpolated by TPS were observed in autumn (0.83 degrees C) and summer (0.86 degrees C), respectively, and the R2 between the observed and predicted values interpolated by TPS were higher in autumn than in other seasons. The RMSEs for the sunshine hours and precipitation in a year interpolated by TPS were the smallest (0.59 h and 1.01 mm, respectively), and the R2 between the observed and predicted values were the highest (0.9118 and 0.8135, respectively), compared with those interpolated by IDW and CK. In four seasons, the RMSE for the sunshine hours in winter interpolated by TPS was the smallest (0.49 h), and the R2 between the observed and predicted sunshine hours was the smallest (0.9293). The RMSE for the precipitation in winter interpolated by TPS was the smallest (0.33 mm), while the RMSE for the precipitation in summer interpolated by IDW was the smallest (2.01 mm). The R2 between the observed and predicted precipitation in winter interpolated by CK was the highest (0.8781). It was suggested that TPS could be the optimal spatial interpolation method in interpolating and rasterizing the daily meteorological elements in China. PMID:20560317
Non-conforming finite element methods for transmission eigenvalue problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yidu; Han, Jiayu; Bi, Hai
2016-08-01
The transmission eigenvalue problem is an important and challenging topic arising in the inverse scattering theory. In this paper, for the Helmholtz transmission eigenvalue problem, we give a weak formulation which is a nonselfadjoint linear eigenvalue problem. Based on the weak formulation, we first discuss the non-conforming finite element approximation, and prove the error estimates of the discrete eigenvalues obtained by the Adini element, Morley-Zienkiewicz element, modified-Zienkiewicz element et. al. And we report some numerical examples to validate the efficiency of our approach for solving transmission eigenvalue problem.
Standard Test Methods for Textile Composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Masters, John E.; Portanova, Marc A.
1996-01-01
Standard testing methods for composite laminates reinforced with continuous networks of braided, woven, or stitched fibers have been evaluated. The microstructure of these textile' composite materials differs significantly from that of tape laminates. Consequently, specimen dimensions and loading methods developed for tape type composites may not be applicable to textile composites. To this end, a series of evaluations were made comparing testing practices currently used in the composite industry. Information was gathered from a variety of sources and analyzed to establish a series of recommended test methods for textile composites. The current practices established for laminated composite materials by ASTM and the MIL-HDBK-17 Committee were considered. This document provides recommended test methods for determining both in-plane and out-of-plane properties. Specifically, test methods are suggested for: unnotched tension and compression; open and filled hole tension; open hole compression; bolt bearing; and interlaminar tension. A detailed description of the material architectures evaluated is also provided, as is a recommended instrumentation practice.
Damping of rotating beams with particle dampers: Discrete element method analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Els, D. N. J.
2013-06-01
The performance of particle dampers (PDs) under centrifugal loads was investigated. A test bench consisting of a rotating cantilever beam with a particle damper at the tip was developed (D. N. J. Els, AIAA Journal 49, 2228-2238 (2011)). Equal mass containers with different depths, filled with a range of uniform-sized steel ball bearings, were used as particle dampers. The experiments were duplicated numerically with a discrete element method (DEM) model, calibrated against the experimental data. The DEM model of the rotating beam with a PD at the tip captured the performance of the PD very well over a wide range of tests with different configurations and rotation velocities.
GHARAKHANI,ADRIN; WOLFE,WALTER P.
1999-10-01
the collocation points. Unfortunately, the development of elements with C{sup 1} continuity for the potential jumps is quite complicated in 3-D. To this end, the application of Galerkin ''smoothing'' to the boundary integral equations removes the singularity at the collocation points; thus allowing the use of C{sup o} elements and potential jump distributions [4]. Successful implementations of the Galerkin Boundary Element Method to 2-D conduction [4] and elastostatic [5] problems have been reported in the literature. Thus far, the singularity removal algorithms have been based on a posterior and mathematically complex reasoning, which have required Taylor series expansion and limit processes. The application of these strategies to 3-D is expected to be significantly more complicated. In this report, we develop the formulation for a ''Regularized'' Galerkin Boundary Element Method (RGBEM). The regularization procedure involves simple manipulations using vector calculus to reduce the singularity of the hypersingular boundary integral equation by two orders for C{sup o} elements. For the case of linear potential jump distributions over plane triangles the regularized integral is simplified considerably to a double surface integral of the Green function. This is the case implemented and tested in this report. Using the example problem of flow normal to a square flat plate, the linear RGBEM predictions are demonstrated here to be more accurate, to converge faster, and to be significantly less spiked than the solutions obtained by the vortex loop method.
Harris, John; Sullivan, Daniel; Oakley, Madeleine
2008-01-01
Static movement aftereffects (MAEs) were measured after adaptation to vertical square-wave luminance gratings drifting horizontally within a central window in a surrounding stationary vertical grating. The relationship between the stationary test grating and the surround was manipulated by varying the alignment of the stationary stripes in the window and those in the surround, and the type of outline separating the window and the surround [no outline, black outline (invisible on black stripes), and red outline (visible throughout its length)]. Offsetting the stripes in the window significantly increased both the duration and ratings of the strength of MAEs. Manipulating the outline had no significant effect on either measure of MAE strength. In a second experiment, in which the stationary test fields alone were presented, participants judged how segregated the test field appeared from its surround. In contrast to the MAE measures, outline as well as offset contributed to judged segregation. In a third experiment, in which test-stripe offset was systematically manipulated, segregation ratings rose with offset. However, MAE strength was greater at medium than at either small or large (180 degrees phase shift) offsets. The effects of these manipulations on the MAE are interpreted in terms of a spatial mechanism which integrates motion signals along collinear contours of the test field and surround, and so causes a reduction of motion contrast at the edges of the test field. PMID:18773724
Development of test methods for textile composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Masters, John E.; Ifju, Peter G.; Fedro, Mark J.
1993-01-01
NASA's Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) Program was initiated in 1990 with the purpose of developing less costly composite aircraft structures. A number of innovative materials and processes were evaluated as a part of this effort. Chief among them are composite materials reinforced with textile preforms. These new forms of composite materials bring with them potential testing problems. Methods currently in practice were developed over the years for composite materials made from prepreg tape or simple 2-D woven fabrics. A wide variety of 2-D and 3-D braided, woven, stitched, and knit preforms were suggested for application in the ACT program. The applicability of existing test methods to the wide range of emerging materials bears investigation. The overriding concern is that the values measured are accurate representations of the true material response. The ultimate objective of this work is to establish a set of test methods to evaluate the textile composites developed for the ACT Program.
A top quark mass measurement using a matrix element method
Linacre, Jacob Thomas
2009-01-01
A measurement of the mass of the top quark is presented, using top-antitop pair (t$\\bar{t}$) candidate events for the lepton+jets decay channel. The measurement makes use of Tevatron p$\\bar{p}$ collision data at centre-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV, collected at the CDF detector. The top quark mass is measured by employing an unbinned maximum likelihood method where the event probability density functions are calculated using signal (t$\\bar{t}$) and background (W+jets) matrix elements, as well as a set of parameterised jet-to-parton mapping functions. The likelihood function is maximised with respect to the top quark mass, the fraction of signal events, and a correction to the jet energy scale (JES) of the calorimeter jets. The simultaneous measurement of the JES correction (Δ_{JES}) provides an in situ jet energy calibration based on the known mass of the hadronically decaying W boson. Using 578 lepton+jets candidate events corresponding to 3.2 fb ^{-1} of integrated luminosity, the top quark mass is measured to be m_{t} = 172.4± 1.4 (stat+Δ_{JES}) ±1.3 (syst) GeV=c^{2}, one of the most precise single measurements to date.
Nonlinear stress analysis of titanium implants by finite element method.
Nagasawa, Sakae; Hayano, Keigo; Niino, Tooru; Yamakura, Kazunori; Yoshida, Takamitsu; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Terashima, Nobuyosi; Tamura, Kaoru; Ito, Michio; Yagasaki, Hiroshi; Kubota, Osamu; Yoshimura, Masayuki
2008-07-01
With use of dental implants on the rise, there is also a tandem increase in the number of implant fracture reports. To the end of investigating the stress occurring in implants, elasticity and plasticity analyses were performed using the finite element method. The following results were obtained: (1) With one-piece type of implants of 3.3 mm diameter, elasticity analysis showed that after applying 500 N in a 45-degree direction, stress exceeding 500 MPa which is the proof stress of grade 4 pure titanium - occurred. This suggested the possibility of fatigue destruction due to abnormal occlusal force, such as during bruxism. (2) With two-piece type of implants that can tolerate vertical loading of 5,000 N, plasticity analysis suggested the possibility of screw area fracture after applying 500 N in a 45-degree direction. (3) On the combined use of an abutment and a fixture from different manufacturers, fracture destruction of even Ti-6Al-4V, which has a high degree of strength, was predicted. PMID:18833779
Multiscale modeling of carbon nanotube materials with distinct element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostanin, Igor Aleksandrovich
Mesoscale simulation techniques are becoming increasingly important due to the interest in complex mechanical problems involving nanoscale structures and materials. This work is devoted to the development of a novel mesoscopic modeling technique based on an extension of the distinct element method and its application to the problem of mechanical modeling of carbon nanotube materials. Starting from an atomistic description, the important interactions between segments of the tubes are encapsulated into two types of contact models. The nanomechanics of intratube bonds is characterized by the parallel bond contact model. Intertube interactions are accounted for by an anisotropic vdW contact model. Energy dissipation is formulated in a top-down manner, based on the macroscopic mechanical properties of carbon nanotube materials. The developed model is applied to the analysis of various mesoscopic structures and materials - self-folded nanotube configurations, nanotube bundles and ropes, nanotube papers and films. The results of mesoscopic simulations not only are in good agreement with experimental observations, but they also provide interesting insights on the roles of effects of morphology, vdW adhesion and registry, cross-linking and energy dissipation on the nanomechanics of carbon nanotube based materials.
Finite Frequency Upper Mantle Tomography Using the Spectral Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lekic, V.; Romanowicz, B.
2007-12-01
In the past quarter century, global tomography based on ray theory and first-order perturbation methods has imaged long-wavelength velocity heterogeneities of the Earth's mantle. While these models have contributed significantly to our understanding of mantle circulation, the development of higher resolution images of the Earth's interior holds tremendous promise for understanding the nature of the observed heterogeneities. This endeavor confronts us with two challenges. First, it requires extracting a far greater amount of information from the available seismograms than is generally used. Second, the approximate techniques upon which global tomographers have traditionally relied become inadequate when dealing with short-wavelength heterogeneity. We have developed a novel hybrid approach to long-period waveform tomography in which forward-modeling is performed using the Coupled Spectral Element Method (CSEM: Capdeville et al., 2003), which can accurately model seismic wave propagation in a 3D earth with both short and long wavelength structure, while in the inversion step, the sensitivity kernels are calculated using an approximate, non-linear normal mode summation approach (NACT: Li and Romanowicz, 1995). Our dataset consists of complete 3-component time domain seismograms filtered at periods greater than 80 s for 100 earthquakes observed at well over 100 stations of the IRIS/GSN, GEOSCOPE, GEOFON and various regional broadband networks. Modeling is performed in an iterative fashion, and convergence is achieved as long as the sign of the sensitivity kernels is correct. A further advantage of this hybrid approach is that it allows us - for the first time in global tomography - to accurately account for the effects of crustal structure on the observed seismograms. We illustrate these effects and the consequences of common assumptions such as linear crustal corrections. We present a preliminary model of velocity and radial anisotropy variations in the upper 800 km of
Calculation by the finite element method of 3-D turbulent flow in a centrifugal pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Combes, J. F.
1992-02-01
In order to solve industrial flow problems in complex geometries, a finite element code, N3S, was developed. It allows the computation of a wide variety of 2-D or 3-D unsteady incompressible flows, by solving the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations together with a k-epsilon turbulence model. Some recent developments of this code concern turbomachinery flows, where one has to take into account periodic boundary conditions, as well as Coriolis and centrifugal forces. The numerical treatment is based on a fractional step method: at each time step, an advection step is solved successively by means of a characteristic method; a diffusion step for the scalar terms; and finally, a Generalized Stokes Problem by using a preconditioned Uzawa algorithm. The space discretization uses a standard Galerkin finite element method with a mixed formulation for the velocity and pressure. An application is presented of this code to the flow inside a centrifugal pump which was extensively tested on several air and water test rigs, and for which many quasi-3-D or Euler calculations were reported. The present N3S calculation is made on a finite element mesh comprising about 28000 tetrahedrons and 43000 nodes.
Integrating Formal Methods and Testing 2002
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cukic, Bojan
2002-01-01
Traditionally, qualitative program verification methodologies and program testing are studied in separate research communities. None of them alone is powerful and practical enough to provide sufficient confidence in ultra-high reliability assessment when used exclusively. Significant advances can be made by accounting not only tho formal verification and program testing. but also the impact of many other standard V&V techniques, in a unified software reliability assessment framework. The first year of this research resulted in the statistical framework that, given the assumptions on the success of the qualitative V&V and QA procedures, significantly reduces the amount of testing needed to confidently assess reliability at so-called high and ultra-high levels (10-4 or higher). The coming years shall address the methodologies to realistically estimate the impacts of various V&V techniques to system reliability and include the impact of operational risk to reliability assessment. Combine formal correctness verification, process and product metrics, and other standard qualitative software assurance methods with statistical testing with the aim of gaining higher confidence in software reliability assessment for high-assurance applications. B) Quantify the impact of these methods on software reliability. C) Demonstrate that accounting for the effectiveness of these methods reduces the number of tests needed to attain certain confidence level. D) Quantify and justify the reliability estimate for systems developed using various methods.
Transport Test Problems for Hybrid Methods Development
Shaver, Mark W.; Miller, Erin A.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Benjamin S.
2011-12-28
This report presents 9 test problems to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations for the ADVANTG code at ORNL. These test cases can be used for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, as well as for guiding the development of variance reduction methods. Cases are drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for cases which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22.
Global mantle waveform tomography using the Spectral Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanowicz, B. A.; French, S.; Masson, Y.; Jiménez-Pérez, H.
2015-12-01
In the past 20 years, we developed several generations of global mantle shear velocity models based entirely on time domain waveform inversion. This implies computations of synthetics in 3D earth models. Initially, the method of choice relied on normal mode perturbation theory, within which we built the framework of our inversion methodology. The latter includes, among others, windowing of waveforms to bring out contribution of weak amplitude phases, (e,g, Sdiff), and a fast converging quasi-Newton inversion with an approximate Hessian calculated using non-linear asymptotic coupling theory (NACT, Li and Romanowicz, 1995). Recently, the Spectral Element Method (SEM) was introduced in global seismology as a powerful numerical method to compute the seismic wavefield accurately in arbitrary 3D models (Komatitsch and Vilotte, 1998; Komatitsch and Tromp, 2002). Implementing the numerical SEM synthetics was straightforward, albeit with significantly increased cost of computation. In order to advance mantle imaging at the global scale, we introduced computational efficiencies, such as (1) substituting a fine layered crustal model by an equivalent, smooth, "homogeneized" crust designed to fit a global surface wave dispersion dataset, (2) continuing quasi-Newton inversion using NACT rather than adjoints, which involved the development of an efficient matrix assembly method (French et al., 2015), and (3) stepping progressively from long to short periods. The resulting models (Lekic and Romanowicz, 2011; French et al., 2013; French and Romanowicz, 2014), in particular, confirm the presence of deep mantle plumes beneath many major hotspots (French and Romanowicz, 2015). We discuss the choice of inverse approach, and illustrate the stability of our global models, in view of the use of NACT kernels, with respect to the choice of the starting model. Global inversion remains a challenge as higher resolution implies reaching higher frequencies to capture more of the scattered
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leahy, Wayne; Hanham, José; Sweller, John
2015-01-01
The testing effect occurs when learners who are tested rather than relearning material perform better on a final test than those who relearn. Based on cognitive load theory, it was predicted that the testing effect may not be obtained when the material being learned is high in element interactivity. Three experiments investigated conditions of the…
Mixed-RKDG Finite Element Methods for the 2-D Hydrodynamic Model for Semiconductor Device Simulation
Chen, Zhangxin; Cockburn, Bernardo; Jerome, Joseph W.; Shu, Chi-Wang
1995-01-01
In this paper we introduce a new method for numerically solving the equations of the hydrodynamic model for semiconductor devices in two space dimensions. The method combines a standard mixed finite element method, used to obtain directly an approximation to the electric field, with the so-called Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method, originally devised for numerically solving multi-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, which is applied here to the convective part of the equations. Numerical simulations showing the performance of the new method are displayed, and the results compared with those obtained by using Essentially Nonoscillatory (ENO) finite difference schemes. Frommore » the perspective of device modeling, these methods are robust, since they are capable of encompassing broad parameter ranges, including those for which shock formation is possible. The simulations presented here are for Gallium Arsenide at room temperature, but we have tested them much more generally with considerable success.« less
An implementation analysis of the linear discontinuous finite element method
Becker, T. L.
2013-07-01
This paper provides an implementation analysis of the linear discontinuous finite element method (LD-FEM) that spans the space of (l, x, y, z). A practical implementation of LD includes 1) selecting a computationally efficient algorithm to solve the 4 x 4 matrix system Ax = b that describes the angular flux in a mesh element, and 2) choosing how to store the data used to construct the matrix A and the vector b to either reduce memory consumption or increase computational speed. To analyze the first of these, three algorithms were selected to solve the 4 x 4 matrix equation: Cramer's rule, a streamlined implementation of Gaussian elimination, and LAPACK's Gaussian elimination subroutine dgesv. The results indicate that Cramer's rule and the streamlined Gaussian elimination algorithm perform nearly equivalently and outperform LAPACK's implementation of Gaussian elimination by a factor of 2. To analyze the second implementation detail, three formulations of the discretized LD-FEM equations were provided for implementation in a transport solver: 1) a low-memory formulation, which relies heavily on 'on-the-fly' calculations and less on the storage of pre-computed data, 2) a high-memory formulation, which pre-computes much of the data used to construct A and b, and 3) a reduced-memory formulation, which lies between the low - and high-memory formulations. These three formulations were assessed in the Jaguar transport solver based on relative memory footprint and computational speed for increasing mesh size and quadrature order. The results indicated that the memory savings of the low-memory formulation were not sufficient to warrant its implementation. The high-memory formulation resulted in a significant speed advantage over the reduced-memory option (10-50%), but also resulted in a proportional increase in memory consumption (5-45%) for increasing quadrature order and mesh count; therefore, the practitioner should weigh the system memory constraints against any
GPU-accelerated indirect boundary element method for voxel model analyses with fast multipole method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamada, Shoji
2011-05-01
An indirect boundary element method (BEM) that uses the fast multipole method (FMM) was accelerated using graphics processing units (GPUs) to reduce the time required to calculate a three-dimensional electrostatic field. The BEM is designed to handle cubic voxel models and is specialized to consider square voxel walls as boundary surface elements. The FMM handles the interactions among the surface charge elements and directly outputs surface integrals of the fields over each individual element. The CPU code was originally developed for field analysis in human voxel models derived from anatomical images. FMM processes are programmed using the NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) with double-precision floating-point arithmetic on the basis of a shared pseudocode template. The electric field induced by DC-current application between two electrodes is calculated for two models with 499,629 (model 1) and 1,458,813 (model 2) surface elements. The calculation times were measured with a four-GPU configuration (two NVIDIA GTX295 cards) with four CPU cores (an Intel Core i7-975 processor). The times required by a linear system solver are 31 s and 186 s for models 1 and 2, respectively. The speed-up ratios of the FMM range from 5.9 to 8.2 for model 1 and from 5.0 to 5.6 for model 2. The calculation speed for element-interaction in this BEM analysis was comparable to that of particle-interaction using FMM on a GPU.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Élie-Dit-Cosaque, Xavier J.-G.; Gakwaya, Augustin; Naceur, Hakim
2015-01-01
A smoothed finite element method formulation for the resultant eight-node solid-shell element is presented in this paper for geometrical linear analysis. The smoothing process is successfully performed on the element mid-surface to deal with the membrane and bending effects of the stiffness matrix. The strain smoothing process allows replacing the Cartesian derivatives of shape functions by the product of shape functions with normal vectors to the element mid-surface boundaries. The present formulation remains competitive when compared to the classical finite element formulations since no inverse of the Jacobian matrix is calculated. The three dimensional resultant shell theory allows the element kinematics to be defined only with the displacement degrees of freedom. The assumed natural strain method is used not only to eliminate the transverse shear locking problem encountered in thin-walled structures, but also to reduce trapezoidal effects. The efficiency of the present element is presented and compared with that of standard solid-shell elements through various benchmark problems including some with highly distorted meshes.
Finite element method formulation in polar coordinates for transient heat conduction problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duda, Piotr
2016-04-01
The aim of this paper is the formulation of the finite element method in polar coordinates to solve transient heat conduction problems. It is hard to find in the literature a formulation of the finite element method (FEM) in polar or cylindrical coordinates for the solution of heat transfer problems. This document shows how to apply the most often used boundary conditions. The global equation system is solved by the Crank-Nicolson method. The proposed algorithm is verified in three numerical tests. In the first example, the obtained transient temperature distribution is compared with the temperature obtained from the presented analytical solution. In the second numerical example, the variable boundary condition is assumed. In the last numerical example the component with the shape different than cylindrical is used. All examples show that the introduction of the polar coordinate system gives better results than in the Cartesian coordinate system. The finite element method formulation in polar coordinates is valuable since it provides a higher accuracy of the calculations without compacting the mesh in cylindrical or similar to tubular components. The proposed method can be applied for circular elements such as boiler drums, outlet headers, flux tubes. This algorithm can be useful during the solution of inverse problems, which do not allow for high density grid. This method can calculate the temperature distribution in the bodies of different properties in the circumferential and the radial direction. The presented algorithm can be developed for other coordinate systems. The examples demonstrate a good accuracy and stability of the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gherlone, Marco; Cerracchio, Priscilla; Mattone, Massimiliano; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander
2014-04-01
Shape sensing, i.e., reconstruction of the displacement field of a structure from surface-measured strains, has relevant implications for the monitoring, control and actuation of smart structures. The inverse finite element method (iFEM) is a shape-sensing methodology shown to be fast, accurate and robust. This paper aims to demonstrate that the recently presented iFEM for beam and frame structures is reliable when experimentally measured strains are used as input data. The theoretical framework of the methodology is first reviewed. Timoshenko beam theory is adopted, including stretching, bending, transverse shear and torsion deformation modes. The variational statement and its discretization with C0-continuous inverse elements are briefly recalled. The three-dimensional displacement field of the beam structure is reconstructed under the condition that least-squares compatibility is guaranteed between the measured strains and those interpolated within the inverse elements. The experimental setup is then described. A thin-walled cantilevered beam is subjected to different static and dynamic loads. Measured surface strains are used as input data for shape sensing at first with a single inverse element. For the same test cases, convergence is also investigated using an increasing number of inverse elements. The iFEM-recovered deflections and twist rotations are then compared with those measured experimentally. The accuracy, convergence and robustness of the iFEM with respect to unavoidable measurement errors, due to strain sensor locations, measurement systems and geometry imperfections, are demonstrated for both static and dynamic loadings.
Three dimensional finite element methods: Their role in the design of DC accelerator systems
Podaru, Nicolae C.; Gottdang, A.; Mous, D. J. W.
2013-04-19
High Voltage Engineering has designed, built and tested a 2 MV dual irradiation system that will be applied for radiation damage studies and ion beam material modification. The system consists of two independent accelerators which support simultaneous proton and electron irradiation (energy range 100 keV - 2 MeV) of target sizes of up to 300 Multiplication-Sign 300 mm{sup 2}. Three dimensional finite element methods were used in the design of various parts of the system. The electrostatic solver was used to quantify essential parameters of the solid-state power supply generating the DC high voltage. The magnetostatic solver and ray tracing were used to optimize the electron/ion beam transport. Close agreement between design and measurements of the accelerator characteristics as well as beam performance indicate the usefulness of three dimensional finite element methods during accelerator system design.
Three dimensional finite element methods: Their role in the design of DC accelerator systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podaru, Nicolae C.; Gottdang, A.; Mous, D. J. W.
2013-04-01
High Voltage Engineering has designed, built and tested a 2 MV dual irradiation system that will be applied for radiation damage studies and ion beam material modification. The system consists of two independent accelerators which support simultaneous proton and electron irradiation (energy range 100 keV - 2 MeV) of target sizes of up to 300 × 300 mm2. Three dimensional finite element methods were used in the design of various parts of the system. The electrostatic solver was used to quantify essential parameters of the solid-state power supply generating the DC high voltage. The magnetostatic solver and ray tracing were used to optimize the electron/ion beam transport. Close agreement between design and measurements of the accelerator characteristics as well as beam performance indicate the usefulness of three dimensional finite element methods during accelerator system design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, A.; Steward, D. R.
2013-12-01
It is computationally advantageous when modeling large scale regional domains to be able to partition the domain into smaller, more mathematically tractable pieces. A convenient unit of discretization is a rectangle, for which separation of variable solutions exist. We apply the Analytic Element Method to develop a solution by covering the domain with such rectangular elements and then applying continuity conditions across adjacent rectangles to satisfy conservation of energy and mass. The resulting model is tested against a benchmark solution provided by the method of images to verify the accuracy of the solution. Results are presented for regional modeling of the High Plains Aquifer in southwestern Kansas, to illustrate the capacity of the model to perform regional modeling while still capturing the local detail of well-on-well interactions.
Hierarchical flux-based thermal-structural finite element analysis method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polesky, Sandra P.
1992-01-01
A hierarchical flux-based finite element method is developed for both a one and two dimensional thermal structural analyses. Derivation of the finite element equations is presented. The resulting finite element matrices associated with the flux based formulation are evaluated in a closed form. The hierarchical finite elements include additional degrees of freedom in the approximation of the element variable distributions by the use of nodeless variables. The nodeless variables offer increased solution accuracy without the need for defining actual nodes and rediscretizing the finite element model. Thermal and structural responses are obtained from a conventional linear finite element method and exact solutions. Results show that the hierarchical flux-based method can provide improved thermal and structural solution accuracy with fewer elements when compared to results for the conventional linear element method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcleod, M. G.; Means, J. D.
1977-01-01
Tests performed to prove the critical elements of the triaxial digital fluxgate magnetometer design were described. A method for improving the linearity of the analog to digital converter portion of the instrument was studied in detail. A sawtooth waveform was added to the signal being measured before the A/D conversion, and averaging the digital readings over one cycle of the sawtooth. It was intended to reduce bit error nonlinearities present in the A/D converter which could be expected to be as much as 16 gamma if not reduced. No such nonlinearities were detected in the output of the instrument which included the feature designed to reduce these nonlinearities. However, a small scale nonlinearity of plus or minus 2 gamma with a 64 gamma repetition rate was observed in the unit tested. A design improvement intended to eliminate this small scale nonlinearity was examined.
Methods to Test Visual Attention Online
Yung, Amanda; Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Dale, Gillian; Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C. Shawn
2015-01-01
Online data collection methods have particular appeal to behavioral scientists because they offer the promise of much larger and much more representative data samples than can typically be collected on college campuses. However, before such methods can be widely adopted, a number of technological challenges must be overcome – in particular in experiments where tight control over stimulus properties is necessary. Here we present methods for collecting performance data on two tests of visual attention. Both tests require control over the visual angle of the stimuli (which in turn requires knowledge of the viewing distance, monitor size, screen resolution, etc.) and the timing of the stimuli (as the tests involve either briefly flashed stimuli or stimuli that move at specific rates). Data collected on these tests from over 1700 online participants were consistent with data collected in laboratory-based versions of the exact same tests. These results suggest that with proper care, timing/stimulus size dependent tasks can be deployed in web-based settings. PMID:25741746
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-06-03
...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing a revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 2.3, ``Quality Verification for Plate-Type Uranium-Aluminum Fuel Elements for Use in Research and Test Reactors.'' This guide describes a method that the staff of the NRC considers acceptable for complying with the Commission's regulations concerning establishing and executing a quality assurance......
IMPROVED TEST METHODS FOR ELECTRONIC AIR CLEANERS
The objective of this project was to develop a fractional filtration efficiency test protocol for residential electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) that avoids the limitations of the ASHRAE 52.2 method. Specifically, the objectives were to a) determine the change in efficiency that ...
Method for non-destructive testing
Akers, Douglas W.
2011-08-30
Non-destructive testing method may include providing a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is exposed to photons. The source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen being exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. Annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen are detected.
NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE
Brooks, H.
1960-04-26
A description is given for a fuel element comprising a body of uranium metal or an uranium compound dispersed in a matrix material made from magnesium, calcium, or barium and a stainless steel jacket enclosing the body.
Residual-driven online generalized multiscale finite element methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Eric T.; Efendiev, Yalchin; Leung, Wing Tat
2015-12-01
The construction of local reduced-order models via multiscale basis functions has been an area of active research. In this paper, we propose online multiscale basis functions which are constructed using the offline space and the current residual. Online multiscale basis functions are constructed adaptively in some selected regions based on our error indicators. We derive an error estimator which shows that one needs to have an offline space with certain properties to guarantee that additional online multiscale basis function will decrease the error. This error decrease is independent of physical parameters, such as the contrast and multiple scales in the problem. The offline spaces are constructed using Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods (GMsFEM). We show that if one chooses a sufficient number of offline basis functions, one can guarantee that additional online multiscale basis functions will reduce the error independent of contrast. We note that the construction of online basis functions is motivated by the fact that the offline space construction does not take into account distant effects. Using the residual information, we can incorporate the distant information provided the offline approximation satisfies certain properties. In the paper, theoretical and numerical results are presented. Our numerical results show that if the offline space is sufficiently large (in terms of the dimension) such that the coarse space contains all multiscale spectral basis functions that correspond to small eigenvalues, then the error reduction by adding online multiscale basis function is independent of the contrast. We discuss various ways computing online multiscale basis functions which include a use of small dimensional offline spaces.
The linear separability problem: some testing methods.
Elizondo, D
2006-03-01
The notion of linear separability is used widely in machine learning research. Learning algorithms that use this concept to learn include neural networks (single layer perceptron and recursive deterministic perceptron), and kernel machines (support vector machines). This paper presents an overview of several of the methods for testing linear separability between two classes. The methods are divided into four groups: Those based on linear programming, those based on computational geometry, one based on neural networks, and one based on quadratic programming. The Fisher linear discriminant method is also presented. A section on the quantification of the complexity of classification problems is included. PMID:16566462
An Imbricate Finite Element Method (I-FEM) using full, reduced, and smoothed integration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cazes, Fabien; Meschke, Günther
2013-11-01
A method to design finite elements that imbricate with each other while being assembled, denoted as imbricate finite element method, is proposed to improve the smoothness and the accuracy of the approximation based upon low order elements. Although these imbricate elements rely on triangular meshes, the approximation stems from the shape functions of bilinear quadrilateral elements. These elements satisfy the standard requirements of the finite element method: continuity, delta function property, and partition of unity. The convergence of the proposed approximation is investigated by means of two numerical benchmark problems comparing three different schemes for the numerical integration including a cell-based smoothed FEM based on a quadratic shape of the elements edges. The method is compared to related existing methods.
NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS AND METHOD OF PREPARATION
Kingston, W.E.; Kopelman, B.; Hausner, H.H.
1963-07-01
A fuel element consisting of uranium nitride and uranium carbide in the form of discrete particles in a solid coherent matrix of a metal such as steel, beryllium, uranium, or zirconium and clad with a metal such as steel, aluminum, zirconium, or beryllium is described. The element is made by mixing powdered uranium nitride and uranium carbide with powdered matrix metal, then compacting and sintering the mixture. (AEC)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maasha, Rumaasha; Towner, Robert L.
2012-01-01
High-fidelity Finite Element Models (FEMs) were developed to support a recent test program at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The FEMs correspond to test articles used for a series of acoustic tests. Modal survey tests were used to validate the FEMs for five acoustic tests (a bare panel and four different mass-loaded panel configurations). An additional modal survey test was performed on the empty test fixture (orthogrid panel mounting fixture, between the reverb and anechoic chambers). Modal survey tests were used to test-validate the dynamic characteristics of FEMs used for acoustic test excitation. Modal survey testing and subsequent model correlation has validated the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the FEMs. The modal survey test results provide a basis for the analysis models used for acoustic loading response test and analysis comparisons
Extension of spline wavelets element method to membrane vibration analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, C. W.; Chen, W.-H.
1996-05-01
The B-spline wavelets element technique developed by Chen and Wu (1995a) is extended to the membrane vibration analysis. The tensor product of the finite splines and spline wavelets expansions in different resolutions is applied in the development of a curved quadrilateral element. Unlike the process of direct wavelets adding in the previous work, the elemental displacement field represented by the coefficients of wavelets expansions is transformed into edges and internal modes via elemental geometric conditions and “two-scale relations”. The “multiple stages two-scale sequence” of quadratic B-spline function is provided to accelerate the sequential transformations between different resolution levels of wavelets. The hierarchical property of wavelets basis approximation is also reserved in this extension. For membrane vibration problems where variations lack regularity at certain lower vibration modes, the present element can still effectively provide accurate results through a multi-level solving procedure. Some numerical examples are studied to demonstrate the proposed element.
Valuing Asian options using the finite element method and duality techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foufas, Georgios; Larson, Mats G.
2008-12-01
The main objective of this paper is to develop an adaptive finite element method for computation of the values, and different sensitivity measures, of the Asian option with both fixed and floating strike. The pricing is based on Black-Scholes PDE-model and a method developed by Vecer where the resulting PDEs are of parabolic type in one spatial dimension and can be applied to both continuous and discrete Asian options. We propose using an adaptive finite element method which is based on a posteriori estimates of the error in desired quantities, which we derive using duality techniques. The a posteriori error estimates are tested and verified, and are used to calculate optimal meshes for each type of option. The use of adapted meshes gives superior accuracy and performance with less degrees of freedom than using uniform meshes. The suggested adaptive finite element method is stable, gives fast and accurate results, and can be applied to other types of options as well.
Rolling Element Bearing Diagnostics in Run-To Lifetime Testing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, T.; Ribadeneira, X.; Billington, S.; Kurfess, T.
2001-09-01
Bearing failure is one of the foremost causes of breakdown in rotating machinery. Such failures can be catastrophic and can result in costly downtime. To date, most research has studied crack propagation resulting from artificial or 'seeded' damage. This damage has been induced in bearings by: scratching the surface, introducing debris into the lubricant or machined with an electrical discharge. The work presented here involves running new undamaged ball and roller bearings through to failure. Traditional vibration metrics such as: root mean square, peak value, kurtosis and crest factor are recorded through the test duration from accelerometers and acoustic emission sensors.
A 3D finite element ALE method using an approximate Riemann solution
Chiravalle, V. P.; Morgan, N. R.
2016-08-09
Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian finite volume methods that solve a multidimensional Riemann-like problem at the cell center in a staggered grid hydrodynamic (SGH) arrangement have been proposed. This research proposes a new 3D finite element arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian SGH method that incorporates a multidimensional Riemann-like problem. Here, two different Riemann jump relations are investigated. A new limiting method that greatly improves the accuracy of the SGH method on isentropic flows is investigated. A remap method that improves upon a well-known mesh relaxation and remapping technique in order to ensure total energy conservation during the remap is also presented. Numerical details and test problemmore » results are presented.« less
Static Aeroelastic Analysis of Transonic Wind Tunnel Models Using Finite Element Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hooker, John R.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Valla, Robert
1997-01-01
A computational method for accurately predicting the static aeroelastic deformations of typical transonic transport wind tunnel models is described. The method utilizes a finite element method (FEM) for predicting the deformations. Extensive calibration/validation of this method was carried out using a novel wind-off wind tunnel model static loading experiment and wind-on optical wing twist measurements obtained during a recent wind tunnel test in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at NASA LaRC. Further validations were carried out using a Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solver to calculate wing pressure distributions about several aeroelastically deformed wings and comparing these predictions with NTF experimental data. Results from this aeroelastic deformation method are in good overall agreement with experimentally measured values. Including the predicted deformations significantly improves the correlation between CFD predicted and experimentally measured wing & pressures.
Spectral element method-based parabolic equation for EM-scattering problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Zi; Fan, Zhen-Hong; Chen, Ru-Shan
2016-01-01
The traditional parabolic equation (PE) method is based on the finite difference (FD) scheme. However, the scattering object cannot be well approximated for complex geometries. As a result, a large number of meshes are needed to discretize the complex scattering objects. In this paper, the spectral element method is introduced to better approximate the complex geometry in each transverse plane, while the FD scheme is used along the paraxial direction. This proposed algorithm begins with expanding the reduced scattered fields with the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre polynomials and testing them by the Galerkin's method in each transverse plane. Then, the calculation can be taken plane by plane along the paraxial direction. Numerical results demonstrate that the accuracy can be improved by the proposed method with larger meshes when compared with the traditional PE method.
The multi-element probabilistic collocation method (ME-PCM): Error analysis and applications
Foo, Jasmine; Wan Xiaoliang; Karniadakis, George Em
2008-11-20
Stochastic spectral methods are numerical techniques for approximating solutions to partial differential equations with random parameters. In this work, we present and examine the multi-element probabilistic collocation method (ME-PCM), which is a generalized form of the probabilistic collocation method. In the ME-PCM, the parametric space is discretized and a collocation/cubature grid is prescribed on each element. Both full and sparse tensor product grids based on Gauss and Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature rules are considered. We prove analytically and observe in numerical tests that as the parameter space mesh is refined, the convergence rate of the solution depends on the quadrature rule of each element only through its degree of exactness. In addition, the L{sup 2} error of the tensor product interpolant is examined and an adaptivity algorithm is provided. Numerical examples demonstrating adaptive ME-PCM are shown, including low-regularity problems and long-time integration. We test the ME-PCM on two-dimensional Navier-Stokes examples and a stochastic diffusion problem with various random input distributions and up to 50 dimensions. While the convergence rate of ME-PCM deteriorates in 50 dimensions, the error in the mean and variance is two orders of magnitude lower than the error obtained with the Monte Carlo method using only a small number of samples (e.g., 100). The computational cost of ME-PCM is found to be favorable when compared to the cost of other methods including stochastic Galerkin, Monte Carlo and quasi-random sequence methods.
``Retests'': A better method of test corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McManus, Jeff
2011-02-01
Physics instructors at all levels employ a variety of techniques to encourage students to reflect on and correct mistakes made on quizzes, unit tests, or exams. A thorough analysis of several methods was recently published in these pages that compared several variations of quiz corrections in college courses. One common method is to have students rewrite the solutions to the questions or problems that they missed, with the goal of earning some part of the missed points. While this method is helpful for some students, it often discourages students with already decent grades to reflect on their work. I use a method called "retesting" with my AP® Physics C students that I learned from my high school geometry teacher, Bill Kramer. I feel his clever method offers significant advantages over more traditional approaches.
A finite element method for the computation of transonic flow past airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eberle, A.
1980-01-01
A finite element method for the computation of the transonic flow with shocks past airfoils is presented using the artificial viscosity concept for the local supersonic regime. Generally, the classic element types do not meet the accuracy requirements of advanced numerical aerodynamics requiring special attention to the choice of an appropriate element. A series of computed pressure distributions exhibits the usefulness of the method.
Julien, J.T.; Schultz, D.M.; Weinmann, T.L.
1984-11-01
Understanding the structural behavior of nuclear reactor containment buildings under extreme internal pressures can lead to more realistic estimates of risk from severe core accidents. This study provides test data on the behavior, under biaxial tensile loads, of large-scale segments of a containment building with reinforced and prestressed concrete designs.
[Study of the elements determination method in animal fur by microwave digestion ICP-AES].
Hou, Tian-ping; Wang, Song-jun; Cao, Lin; Chang, Ping; Hou, Yue
2008-08-01
Considering the complex matrix of the sample, the animal fur is carried on to the sample pretreatment method studies specially. The microwave closed system has its unique merit: The microwave radiation has the very strong penetrability and the rapid in-depth heating function. After absorbing microwave the sample and the molecules of reactant may carry on the reaction in short time. But the microwave power is very weak, reaction consumes much time, the resolution is also incomplete. Besides the output excessively is high dispels in the pot the reagent differential pressure to increase the test solution to produce the storm rapidly to boil. As a result of those flaws, the minute step microwave heating digestion method is used to digest test specimen after treated by the acid pickling over night. In the experiment, the specialized microwave reactor is replaced by civil microwave; the microwave heating technology is adopted. According to the different characteristics of reagents, different allocated proportion and the test solution volume of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid and the water are tested separately. Meanwhile, in order to optimize the experimental condition, the different response power and respond time is also studied. At last, the experimental condition is determined: HNO3-H2O2-HCl-H2O acid system is chose(four reagent allocated proportions are 8:1:1:5); test specimen is heated up 10 minutes when the output is 150 W and 5 minutes when the output is 360 W continuously; carries on the test specimen airtight resolution processing animal fur by the sample. To guarantee the standard solution system is consistent with the biological sample substrate, the artificial simulation biology sample substrate is used to match law configuration standard solution; the ration the substrate element calcium is added. To eliminate disturbance of the sample complex substrate, the substrate match law, which reduces the substrate element disturbance is used
Fire testing: A review of past, current and future methods
White, G.C.; Shirvill, L.C.
1995-12-31
The philosophy and current methods of fire testing elements of construction and the associated fire protection systems are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to offshore structures and the fire hazards associated with offshore operations. Fire testing is only one aspect in the attempt to ensure that the effects of fires are understood and that effective fire protection systems are developed. The historical development of fire tests is discussed, ending with the furnace test which follows the hydrocarbon temperature versus time curve. The limitations of these tests are discussed, in particular when they are applied to offshore fire scenarios where they are not representative of the potential fire loading and conditions identified for typical platforms. The identification of the jet fire as a common fire scenario on offshore platforms, together with the criticisms made by Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster, has driven the development of more realistic fire tests. Two such tests are now available and are described in the paper. Also discussed is the development of a smaller scale test that has formed the basis of the recently issued Interim Jet Fire Test Procedure, produced by a working group comprising the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE); the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD); Lloyd`s Register; the UK Offshore Operator`s Association (UKOOA); the Norwegian Fire Research Laboratory (SINTEF NBL); the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI); Shell Research Ltd.; and British Gas Research and Technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourcier, R. J.; Follstaedt, D. M.; Dugger, M. T.; Myers, S. M.
1991-07-01
The influence of ion implantation on the mechanical properties of metal alloys has been examined using a variety of experimental and numerical techniques. Ultralow load indentation testing and finite element modeling has been used for the aluminum/oxygen to extract fundamental mechanical properties. Aluminum implanted with 20 at.% O exhibits extraordinary strength, as high as 3300 MPa. The degree of strengthening expected for this Al(O) alloy on the basis of the observed microstructure of fine (1.5-3.5 nm) oxide precipitates was estimated using several micromechanical models, and the results agree with our experimental findings. Pin-on-disk tribological characterization of aluminum implanted with 10 at.% oxygen revealed that the ion-beam treatment reduced the average friction coefficient from greater than 1.0 (for pure Al) to approximately 0.25 (for Al(O)). Large-amplitude stick-slip oscillations, which occur within the first two cycles for pure aluminum, were postponed to 30-50 cycles for the ion-implanted material. Two stainless steels which have been amorphized by implantation, 304 implanted with C and 440C implanted with Ti + C, show measurable hardening with implantation, of the order of 40 and 15%, respectively. In addition, nanoindentation within pin-on-disk wear tracks on 440C reveals that the mechanical state of the extensively deformed implanted layer is apparently unchanged from its initial state.
Domain decomposition methods for nonconforming finite element spaces of Lagrange-type
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cowsar, Lawrence C.
1993-01-01
In this article, we consider the application of three popular domain decomposition methods to Lagrange-type nonconforming finite element discretizations of scalar, self-adjoint, second order elliptic equations. The additive Schwarz method of Dryja and Widlund, the vertex space method of Smith, and the balancing method of Mandel applied to nonconforming elements are shown to converge at a rate no worse than their applications to the standard conforming piecewise linear Galerkin discretization. Essentially, the theory for the nonconforming elements is inherited from the existing theory for the conforming elements with only modest modification by constructing an isomorphism between the nonconforming finite element space and a space of continuous piecewise linear functions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gong, Jian; Volakis, John L.; Nurnberger, Michael W.
1995-01-01
This semi-annual report describes progress up to mid-January 1995. The report contains five sections all dealing with the modeling of spiral and patch antennas recessed in metallic platforms. Of significance is the development of decomposition schemes which separate the different regions of the antenna volume. Substantial effort was devoted to improving the feed model in the context of the finite element method (FEM). Finally, an innovative scheme for truncating finite element meshes is presented.
Modeling rammed earth wall using discrete element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bui, T.-T.; Bui, Q.-B.; Limam, A.; Morel, J.-C.
2016-03-01
Rammed earth is attracting renewed interest throughout the world thanks to its "green" characteristics in the context of sustainable development. Several research studies have thus recently been carried out to investigate this material. Some of them attempted to simulate the rammed earth's mechanical behavior by using analytical or numerical models. Most of these studies assumed that there was a perfect cohesion at the interface between earthen layers. This hypothesis proved to be acceptable for the case of vertical loading, but it could be questionable for horizontal loading. To address this problem, discrete element modeling seems to be relevant to simulate a rammed earth wall. To our knowledge, no research has been conducted thus far using discrete element modeling to study a rammed earth wall. This paper presents an assessment of the discrete element modeling's robustness for rammed earth walls. Firstly, a brief description of the discrete element modeling is presented. Then the parameters necessary for discrete element modeling of the material law of the earthen layers and their interfaces law following the Mohr-Coulomb model with a tension cut-off and post-peak softening were given. The relevance of the model and the material parameters were assessed by comparing them with experimental results from the literature. The results showed that, in the case of vertical loading, interfaces did not have an important effect. In the case of diagonal loading, model with interfaces produced better results. Interface characteristics can vary from 85 to 100% of the corresponding earthen layer's characteristics.
System and method for reproducibly mounting an optical element
Eisenbies, Stephen; Haney, Steven
2005-05-31
The present invention provides a two-piece apparatus for holding and aligning the MEMS deformable mirror. The two-piece apparatus comprises a holding plate for fixedly holding an adaptive optics element in an overall optical system and a base spatially fixed with respect to the optical system and adapted for mounting and containing the holding plate. The invention further relates to a means for configuring the holding plate through adjustments to each of a number of off-set pads touching each of three orthogonal plane surfaces on the base, wherein through the adjustments the orientation of the holding plate, and the adaptive optics element attached thereto, can be aligned with respect to the optical system with six degrees of freedom when aligning the plane surface of the optical element. The mounting system thus described also enables an operator to repeatedly remove and restore the adaptive element in the optical system without the need to realign the system once that element has been aligned.
Hodge, S.C.; Minicucci, J.M.
1997-11-01
A test program was undertaken to demonstrate the ability of elastic-plastic finite element methods to predict dynamic inelastic response for simple structural members. Cantilever and fixed-beam specimens were tested to levels that produced plastic straining in the range of 2.0% and to 3.0% and permanent sets. Acceleration, strain, and displacement data were recorded for use in analytical correlation. Correlation analyses were performed using the ABAQUS finite element code. Results of the correlation show that current elastic-plastic analysis techniques accurately capture dynamic inelastic response (displacement, acceleration) due to rapidly applied dynamic loading. Peak elastic and inelastic surface strains are accurately predicted. To accurately capture inelastic straining near connections, a solid model, including fillet welds, is necessary. The hardening models currently available in the ABAQUS code (isotropic, kinematic) do not accurately capture inelastic strain reversals caused by specimen rebound. Analyses performed consistently underpredicted the peak strain level of the first inelastic reversal and the rebound deflection and overpredicted the permanent set of structures experiencing inelastic rebound. Based on these findings, an improved hardening model is being implemented in the ABAQUS code by the developers. The intent of this model upgrade is to improve the ability of the program to capture inelastic strain reversals and to predict permanent sets.
A nodal triangle-based spectral element method for the shallow water equations on the sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giraldo, F. X.; Warburton, T.
2005-07-01
A nodal triangle-based spectral element (SE) method for the shallow water equations on the sphere is presented. The original SE method uses quadrilateral elements and high-order nodal Lagrange polynomials, constructed from a tensor-product of the Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto points. In this work, we construct the high-order Lagrange polynomials directly on the triangle using nodal sets obtained from the electrostatics principle [J.S. Hesthaven, From electrostatics to almost optimal nodal sets for polynomial interpolation in a simplex, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis 35 (1998) 655-676] and Fekete points [M.A. Taylor, B.A. Wingate, R.E. Vincent, An algorithm for computing Fekete points in the triangle, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis 38 (2000) 1707-1720]. These points have good approximation properties and far better Lebesgue constants than any other nodal set derived for the triangle. By employing triangular elements as the basic building-blocks of the SE method and the Cartesian coordinate form of the equations, we can use any grid imaginable including adaptive unstructured grids. Results for six test cases are presented to confirm the accuracy and stability of the method. The results show that the triangle-based SE method yields the expected exponential convergence and that it can be more accurate than the quadrilateral-based SE method even while using 30-60% fewer grid points especially when adaptive grids are used to align the grid with the flow direction. However, at the moment, the quadrilateral-based SE method is twice as fast as the triangle-based SE method because the latter does not yield a diagonal mass matrix.
Methods and instruments for materials testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hansma, Paul (Inventor); Drake, Barney (Inventor); Rehn, Douglas (Inventor); Adams, Jonathan (Inventor); Lulejian, Jason (Inventor)
2011-01-01
Methods and instruments for characterizing a material, such as the properties of bone in a living human subject, using a test probe constructed for insertion into the material and a reference probe aligned with the test probe in a housing. The housing is hand held or placed so that the reference probe contacts the surface of the material under pressure applied either by hand or by the weight of the housing. The test probe is inserted into the material to indent the material while maintaining the reference probe substantially under the hand pressure or weight of the housing allowing evaluation of a property of the material related to indentation of the material by the probe. Force can be generated by a voice coil in a magnet structure to the end of which the test probe is connected and supported in the magnet structure by a flexure, opposing flexures, a linear translation stage, or a linear bearing. Optionally, a measurement unit containing the test probe and reference probe is connected to a base unit with a wireless connection, allowing in the field material testing.
High temperature pressurized high frequency testing rig and test method
De La Cruz, Jose; Lacey, Paul
2003-04-15
An apparatus is described which permits the lubricity of fuel compositions at or near temperatures and pressures experienced by compression ignition fuel injector components during operation in a running engine. The apparatus consists of means to apply a measured force between two surfaces and oscillate them at high frequency while wetted with a sample of the fuel composition heated to an operator selected temperature. Provision is made to permit operation at or near the flash point of the fuel compositions. Additionally a method of using the subject apparatus to simulate ASTM Testing Method D6079 is disclosed, said method involving using the disclosed apparatus to contact the faces of prepared workpieces under a measured load, sealing the workface contact point into the disclosed apparatus while immersing said contact point between said workfaces in a lubricating media to be tested, pressurizing and heating the chamber and thereby the fluid and workfaces therewithin, using the disclosed apparatus to impart a differential linear motion between the workpieces at their contact point until a measurable scar is imparted to at least one workpiece workface, and then evaluating the workface scar.
Using Response Surface Methods to Correlate the Modal Test of an Inflatable Test Article
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, Anju
2013-01-01
This paper presents a practical application of response surface methods (RSM) to correlate a finite element model of a structural modal test. The test article is a quasi-cylindrical inflatable structure which primarily consists of a fabric weave, with an internal bladder and metallic bulkheads on either end. To mitigate model size, the fabric weave was simplified by representing it with shell elements. The task at hand is to represent the material behavior of the weave. The success of the model correlation is measured by comparing the four major modal frequencies of the analysis model to the four major modal frequencies of the test article. Given that only individual strap material properties were provided and material properties of the overall weave were not available, defining the material properties of the finite element model became very complex. First it was necessary to determine which material properties (modulus of elasticity in the hoop and longitudinal directions, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, etc.) affected the modal frequencies. Then a Latin Hypercube of the parameter space was created to form an efficiently distributed finite case set. Each case was then analyzed with the results input into RSM. In the resulting response surface it was possible to see how each material parameter affected the modal frequencies of the analysis model. If the modal frequencies of the analysis model and its corresponding parameters match the test with acceptable accuracy, it can be said that the model correlation is successful.
Progress on hybrid finite element methods for scattering by bodies of revolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Jeffery D.; Volakis, John L.
1992-01-01
Progress on the development and implementation of hybrid finite element methods for scattering by bodies of revolution are described. It was found that earlier finite element-boundary integral formulations suffered from convergence difficulties when applied to large and thin bodies of revolution. An alternative implementation is described where the finite element method is terminated with an absorbing termination boundary. In addition, an alternative finite element-boundary integral implementation is discussed for improving the convergence of the original code.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fahrenthold, Eric P.; Shivarama, Ravishankar
2004-01-01
The hybrid particle-finite element method of Fahrenthold and Horban, developed for the simulation of hypervelocity impact problems, has been extended to include new formulations of the particle-element kinematics, additional constitutive models, and an improved numerical implementation. The extended formulation has been validated in three dimensional simulations of published impact experiments. The test cases demonstrate good agreement with experiment, good parallel speedup, and numerical convergence of the simulation results.
Explosive materials equivalency, test methods and evaluation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koger, D. M.; Mcintyre, F. L.
1980-01-01
Attention is given to concepts of explosive equivalency of energetic materials based on specific airblast parameters. A description is provided of a wide bandwidth high accuracy instrumentation system which has been used extensively in obtaining pressure time profiles of energetic materials. The object of the considered test method is to determine the maximum output from the detonation of explosive materials in terms of airblast overpressure and positive impulse. The measured pressure and impulse values are compared with known characteristics of hemispherical TNT data to determine the equivalency of the test material in relation to TNT. An investigation shows that meaningful comparisons between various explosives and a standard reference material such as TNT should be based upon the same parameters. The tests should be conducted under the same conditions.
Regolith simulant preparation methods for hardware testing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gouache, Thibault P.; Brunskill, Christopher; Scott, Gregory P.; Gao, Yang; Coste, Pierre; Gourinat, Yves
2010-12-01
To qualify hardware for space flight, great care is taken to replicate the environment encountered in space. Emphasis is focused on presenting the hardware with the most extreme conditions it might encounter during its mission lifetime. The same care should be taken when regolith simulants are prepared to test space system performance. Indeed, the manner a granular material is prepared can have a very high influence on its mechanical properties and on the performance of the system interacting with it. Three regolith simulant preparation methods have been tested and are presented here (rain, pour, vibrate). They should enable researchers and hardware developers to test their prototypes in controlled and repeatable conditions. The pour and vibrate techniques are robust but only allow reaching a given relative density. The rain technique allows reaching a variety of relative densities but can be less robust if manually controlled.
Characterization methods for ultrasonic test systems
Busse, L.J.; Becker, F.L.; Bowey, R.E.; Doctor, S.R.; Gribble, R.P.; Posakony, G.J.
1982-07-01
Methods for the characterization of ultrasonic transducers (search units) and instruments are presented. The instrument system is considered as three separate components consisting of a transducer, a receiver-display, and a pulser. The operation of each component is assessed independently. The methods presented were chosen because they provide the greatest amount of information about component operation and were not chosen based upon such conditions as cost, ease of operation, field implementation, etc. The results of evaluating a number of commercially available ultrasonic test instruments are presented.