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Sample records for elevated geogenic exposure

  1. Human biomonitoring of arsenic and antimony in case of an elevated geogenic exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Gebel, T W; Suchenwirth, R H; Bolten, C; Dunkelberg, H H

    1998-01-01

    Part of the northern Palatinate region in Germany is characterized by elevated levels of arsenic and antimony in the soil due to the presence of ore sources and former mining activities. In a biomonitoring study, 218 residents were investigated for a putative increased intake of these elements. Seventy-six nonexposed subjects in a rural region in south lower Saxony were chosen as the reference group. Urine and scalp hair samples were obtained as surrogates to determine the internal exposures to arsenic and antimony. The analyses were performed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry except for arsenic in urine, which was determined by the hydride technique. This method does not detect organoarsenicals from seafood, which are not toxicologically relevant. In the northern Palatinate subjects, slightly elevated arsenic contents in urine and scalp hair (presumably not hazardous) could be correlated with an increased arsenic content in the soil. On the other hand, the results did not show a correlation between the antimony contents in the soil of the housing area and those in urine and hair. Except for antimony in scalp hair, age tended to be associated with internal exposures to arsenic and antimony in both study groups. Consumption of seafood had a slight impact on the level of urinary arsenic, which is indicative of the presence of low quantities of inorganic arsenicals and dimethylarsinic acid in seafood. The arsenic and antimony contents in scalp hair were positively correlated with the 24-hr arsenic excretion in urine. However, antimony in scalp hair was not correlated with seafood consumption as was arsenic in scalp hair and in urine. This indicated the existence of unidentified common pathways of exposure contributing to the alimentary body burden. Short time peaks in the 24-hr excretion of arsenic in urine, which could not be assigned to a high consumption of seafood, were detected for six study participants. This suggests that additional factors

  2. Geogenic PM₁₀ exposure exacerbates responses to influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Holly D; Perks, Kara L; Zosky, Graeme R

    2015-11-15

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked epidemiologically to exacerbations of lung disease, including respiratory infections. We investigated the effects of geogenic (earth-derived) PM10 (PM<10 μm diameter) on the response to a respiratory viral infection. Geogenic dust was sampled from four communities in arid environments in Western Australia. Adult female BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to chronic doses of PM10 (10 μg/day for 10 days), and/or infected with influenza (A/Mem/1/71) virus. Inflammation (cells, IL-6, IFN-γ) was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage. Lung mechanics were measured using the forced oscillation technique. Geogenic PM10 induced lung inflammation (neutrophils, macrophages) with additive effects in mice also infected with influenza. PM10 also modified the influenza-induced IL-6 and IFN-γ responses. Geogenic PM10 increased airway resistance, and increased hysteresivity in those exposed to both insults. Viral titres were significantly higher after PM10 exposure. Iron concentration was inversely associated with IFN-γ and positively associated with viral titre and hysteresivity. Geogenic PM10 exposure increases inflammation, impairs lung function and increases viral load, exacerbating the response to respiratory viral infection. Iron in the particles may be a driver of these responses. This has important implications for respiratory health in communities exposed to high geogenic PM10, such as those in arid environments. PMID:26172594

  3. Oxidative stress and lung pathology following geogenic dust exposure.

    PubMed

    Leetham, M; DeWitt, J; Buck, B; Goossens, D; Teng, Y; Pollard, J; McLaurin, B; Gerads, R; Keil, D

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate markers of systemic oxidative stress and lung histopathology following subacute exposure to geogenic dust with varying heavy metal content collected from a natural setting prone to wind erosion and used heavily for off-road vehicle recreation. Adult female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to several concentrations of dust collected from seven different types of surfaces at the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area in Clark County, Nevada, designated here as CBN 1-7. Dust representing each of the seven surface types, with an average median diameter of 4.2 μm, was selected and administered via oropharyngeal aspiration to mice at concentrations from 0.01 to 100 mg of dust kg(-1) of body weight. Exposures were given four times spaced a week apart over a 28 day period to mimic a month of weekend exposures. Lung pathology was evaluated while plasma markers of oxidative stress included levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and total glutathione. Overall, results of these assays to evaluate markers of oxidative stress indicate that no single CBN surface type was able to consistently induce markers of systemic oxidative stress at a particular dose or in a dose-response manner. All surface types were able to induce some level of lung inflammation, typically at the highest exposure levels. These data suggest that dust from the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area may present a potential health risk, but additional studies are necessary to characterize the full extent of health risks to humans. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26922875

  4. Immunotoxicological and neurotoxicological profile of health effects following subacute exposure to geogenic dust from sand dunes at the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area, Las Vegas, NV.

    PubMed

    Keil, Deborah; Buck, Brenda; Goossens, Dirk; Teng, Yuanxin; Leetham, Mallory; Murphy, Lacey; Pollard, James; Eggers, Margaret; McLaurin, Brett; Gerads, Russell; DeWitt, Jamie

    2016-01-15

    Exposure to geogenic particulate matter (PM) comprised of mineral particles has been linked to human health effects. However, very little data exist on health effects associated with geogenic dust exposure in natural settings. Therefore, we characterized particulate matter size, metal chemistry, and health effects of dust collected from the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA), a popular off-road vehicle area located near Las Vegas, NV. Adult female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to several concentrations of mineral dust collected from active and vegetated sand dunes in NDRA. Dust samples (median diameter: 4.4 μm) were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline and delivered at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 100 mg dust/kg body weight by oropharyngeal aspiration. ICP-MS analyses of total dissolution of the dust resulted in aluminum (55,090 μg/g), vanadium (70 μg/g), chromium (33 μg/g), manganese (511 μg/g), iron (21,600 μg/g), cobalt (9.4 μg/g), copper (69 μg/g), zinc (79 μg/g), arsenic (62 μg/g), strontium (620 μg/g), cesium (13 μg/g), lead 25 μg/g) and uranium (4.7 μg/g). Arsenic was present only as As(V). Mice received four exposures, once/week over 28-days to mimic a month of weekend exposures. Descriptive and functional assays to assess immunotoxicity and neurotoxicity were performed 24 h after the final exposure. The primary observation was that 0.1 to 100 mg/kg of this sand dune derived dust dose-responsively reduced antigen-specific IgM antibody responses, suggesting that dust from this area of NDRA may present a potential health risk. PMID:26644169

  5. Health effects following subacute exposure to geogenic dusts from arsenic-rich sediment at the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area, Las Vegas, NV.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Jamie; Buck, Brenda; Goossens, Dirk; Hu, Qing; Chow, Rebecca; David, Winnie; Young, Sharon; Teng, Yuanxin; Leetham-Spencer, Mallory; Murphy, Lacey; Pollard, James; McLaurin, Brett; Gerads, Russell; Keil, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    Geogenic dust from arid environments is a possible inhalation hazard for humans, especially when using off-road vehicles that generate significant dust. This study focused on immunotoxicological and neurotoxicological effects following subacute exposure to geogenic dust generated from sediments in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area near Las Vegas, Nevada that are particularly high in arsenic; the naturally-occurring arsenic concentrations in these surficial sediments ranged from 4.8 to 346μg/g. Dust samples from sediments used in this study had a median diameter of 4.5μm and also were a complex mixture of naturally-occurring metals, including aluminum, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, strontium, cesium, lead, uranium, and arsenic. Adult female B6C3F1 mice exposed via oropharyngeal aspiration to 0.01 to 100mg dust/kg body weight, four times, a week apart, for 28days, were evaluated 24h after the last exposure. Peripheral eosinophils were increased at all concentrations, serum creatinine was dose responsively increased beginning at 1.0mg/kg/day, and blood urea nitrogen was decreased at 10 and 100mg/kg/day. Antigen-specific IgM responses and natural killer cell activity were dose-responsively suppressed at 0.1mg/kg/day and above. Splenic CD4+CD25+ T cells were decreased at 0.01, 0.1, 10, and 100mg/kg/day. Antibodies against MBP, NF-68, and GFAP were selectively reduced. A no observed adverse effect level of 0.01mg/kg/day and a lowest observed adverse effect level of 0.1mg/kg/day were determined from IgM responses and natural killer cell activity, indicating that exposure to this dust, under conditions similar to our design, could affect these responses. PMID:27221630

  6. Geogenic and anthropogenic impacts on indoor radon in the Techa River region.

    PubMed

    Yarmoshenko, I; Malinovsky, G; Vasilyev, A; Onischenko, A; Seleznev, A

    2016-11-15

    Indoor radon concentration was studied in the 14 settlements located near the Techa River, which was contaminated by radioactive wastes in 1950-s. Results of the radon survey were used for analysis of the relationship between the indoor radon and main geologic factors (Pre-Jurassic formations, Quaternary sediments and faults), local geogenic radon potential and anthropogenic factors. Main influencing factors explain 58% of the standard deviation of indoor radon concentration. Association of the air exchange influence over radon concentration with underlying geological media was related to different contributions of geogenic advective and diffusive radon entries. The properties of geological formation to transfer radon gas in interaction with the house can be considered within the radon geogenic potential concept. The study of the radon exposure of the Techa River population can be used to estimate the contribution of natural radon to the overall radiation exposure of the local population during the period of radioactive waste discharges. PMID:27474991

  7. Tobacco exposure, weight status, and elevated blood pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huntington-Moskos, Luz; Turner-Henson, Anne; Rice, Marti

    2014-08-01

    The pathogenesis of hypertension begins in youth. An estimated 4% of US adolescents have diagnosed hypertension and 17% have elevated blood pressures, predisposing them to hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. There is limited research on the clustering of CVD risk factors such as tobacco exposure and weight status that may be associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the relationships between total smoke exposure (TSE; cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke), waist circumference, and blood pressure in a sample of rural adolescents, ages 15-18. A convenience sample of 148 adolescents ages 15-18 was recruited from two rural high schools (88 female and 60 male, all Caucasian). Adolescents were assessed for tobacco exposure (self-report, salivary cotinine), weight status (body mass index, waist circumference), and blood pressure. Self-report measures of tobacco exposure included the Uptake Continuum and Peer and Family Smoking measure. Age, gender, waist circumference and salivary cotinine contributed to 35% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 18% in diastolic blood pressure. One-fourth (25%) of adolescent males and 11% of adolescent females had elevated systolic blood pressures. Approximately one-fifth of the sample (22%) had elevated salivary cotinine levels indicative of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. TSE and waist circumference were predictors of elevated blood pressure in adolescents. Public health measures need to address clusters of risk factors including blood pressure, tobacco exposure, and weight status among adolescents in order to reduce CVD. PMID:24519179

  8. A statistical evaluation of the influence of housing characteristics and geogenic radon potential on indoor radon concentrations in France.

    PubMed

    Demoury, C; Ielsch, G; Hemon, D; Laurent, O; Laurier, D; Clavel, J; Guillevic, J

    2013-12-01

    Radon-222 is a radioactive natural gas produced by the decay of radium-226, known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure. Effective risk management needs to determine the areas in which the density of buildings with high radon levels is likely to be highest. Predicting radon exposure from the location and characteristics of a dwelling could also contribute to epidemiological studies. Beginning in the nineteen-eighties, a national radon survey consisting in more than 10,000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations was conducted in French dwellings by the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). Housing characteristics, which may influence radon accumulation in dwellings, were also collected. More recently, the IRSN generated a French geogenic radon potential map based on the interpretation of geological features. The present study analyzed the two datasets to investigate the factors influencing indoor radon concentrations using statistical modeling and to determine the optimum use of the information on geogenic radon potential that showed the best statistical association with indoor radon concentration. The results showed that the variables associated with indoor radon concentrations were geogenic radon potential, building material, year of construction, foundation type, building type and floor level. The model, which included the surrounding geogenic radon potential (i.e. the average geogenic radon potential within a disc of radius 20 km centered on the indoor radon measurement point) and variables describing house-specific factors and lifestyle explained about 20% of the overall variability of the logarithm of radon concentration. The surrounding geogenic radon potential was fairly closely associated with the local average indoor radon concentration. The prevalence of exposure to radon above specific thresholds and the average exposures to radon clearly increased with increasing classes of geogenic radon

  9. Geogenic Factors as Drivers of Microbial Community Diversity in Soils Overlying Polymetallic Deposits.

    PubMed

    Reith, Frank; Zammit, Carla M; Pohrib, Rebecca; Gregg, Adrienne L; Wakelin, Steven A

    2015-11-01

    This study shows that the geogenic factors landform, lithology, and underlying mineral deposits (expressed by elevated metal concentrations in overlying soils) are key drivers of microbial community diversity in naturally metal-rich Australian soils with different land uses, i.e., agriculture versus natural bushland. One hundred sixty-eight soil samples were obtained from two metal-rich provinces in Australia, i.e., the Fifield Au-Pt field (New South Wales) and the Hillside Cu-Au-U rare-earth-element (REE) deposit (South Australia). Soils were analyzed using three-domain multiplex terminal-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (M-TRFLP) and PhyloChip microarrays. Geogenic factors were determined using field-mapping techniques and analyses of >50 geochemical parameters. At Fifield, microbial communities differed significantly with geogenic factors and equally with land use (P < 0.05). At Hillside, communities in surface soils (0.03- to 0.2-m depth) differed significantly with landform and land use (P < 0.05). Communities in deeper soils (>0.2 m) differed significantly with lithology and mineral deposit (P < 0.05). Across both sites, elevated metal contents in soils overlying mineral deposits were selective for a range of bacterial taxa, most importantly Acidobacteria, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria. In conclusion, long-term geogenic factors can be just as important as land use in determining soil microbial community diversity. PMID:26341204

  10. Geogenic Factors as Drivers of Microbial Community Diversity in Soils Overlying Polymetallic Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Zammit, Carla M.; Pohrib, Rebecca; Gregg, Adrienne L.; Wakelin, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that the geogenic factors landform, lithology, and underlying mineral deposits (expressed by elevated metal concentrations in overlying soils) are key drivers of microbial community diversity in naturally metal-rich Australian soils with different land uses, i.e., agriculture versus natural bushland. One hundred sixty-eight soil samples were obtained from two metal-rich provinces in Australia, i.e., the Fifield Au-Pt field (New South Wales) and the Hillside Cu-Au-U rare-earth-element (REE) deposit (South Australia). Soils were analyzed using three-domain multiplex terminal-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (M-TRFLP) and PhyloChip microarrays. Geogenic factors were determined using field-mapping techniques and analyses of >50 geochemical parameters. At Fifield, microbial communities differed significantly with geogenic factors and equally with land use (P < 0.05). At Hillside, communities in surface soils (0.03- to 0.2-m depth) differed significantly with landform and land use (P < 0.05). Communities in deeper soils (>0.2 m) differed significantly with lithology and mineral deposit (P < 0.05). Across both sites, elevated metal contents in soils overlying mineral deposits were selective for a range of bacterial taxa, most importantly Acidobacteria, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria. In conclusion, long-term geogenic factors can be just as important as land use in determining soil microbial community diversity. PMID:26341204

  11. Oxidative stress causes coral bleaching during exposure to elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, M. P.

    1997-07-01

    Elevated temperatures and solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation have been implicated as recent causes for the loss of symbiotic algae (i.e., bleaching) in corals and other invertebrates with photoautotrophic symbionts. One hypothesized mechanism of coral bleaching involves the production of reduced oxygen intermediates, or toxic oxygen, in the dinoflagellate symbionts and host tissues that subsequently causes cellular damage and expulsion of symbionts. Measurements of photosynthesis in the Caribbean coral Agaricia tenuifolia, taken during temperature-induced stress and exposure to full solar radiation, showed a decrease in photosynthetic performance followed by bleaching. Exposure of corals to exogenous antioxidants that scavenge reactive oxygen species during temperature-induced stress improves maximum photosynthetic capacity to rates indistinguishable from corals measured at the ambient temperature of their site of collection. Additionally, these antioxidants prevent the coral from " bleaching " and affect the mechanism of symbiont loss from the coral host. These observations confirm a role for oxidative stress, whether caused by elevated temperatures or exposure to UV radiation, in the bleaching phenomenon.

  12. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Treble, R.G.; Thompson, T.S.; Morton, D.N.

    1998-04-01

    Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 {micro}mol/L, respectively. The father`s blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level. The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 {micro}mol/L, both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children. The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

  13. Geogenic fluoride and arsenic contamination in the groundwater environments in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Prosun; Lesafi, Fina; Filemon, Regina; Ligate, Fanuel; Ijumulana, Julian; Mtalo, Felix

    2016-04-01

    Adequate, safe and accessible drinking water is an important aspect to human health worldwide. Understanding this importance, the Tanzanian Government has initiated a number of programmes to ensure access to high quality water by the citizens. However, elevated concentration of geochemical pollutants in many drinking water sources pose a serious challenge to water suppliers and users in the country. Fluoride is a widespread drinking water contaminant of geogenic origin occuring in both surface- and groundwater around volcanic mountains and many parts within the East African Rift Valley in regions including Arusha (10 mg/L), Shinyanga (2.9 mg/L) and Singida (1.8 mg/L). An estimated 90% of the population living along the Rift Valley region are affected by dental or skeletal fluorosis and bone crippling because of long term exposure to very high levels of fluoride in drinking water sources. In the mining areas within Lake Victoria basin, groundwater wit elevated concentrations of arsenic has been discovered over an extended area. Most of these geochemical and naturally occurring drinking water pollutants are patchy with uncertainities in their spatial and temporal distribution patterns. The adverse health effects of skin disorder and cancer due to an elevated As concentration are reported from the North Mara gold and Geita mining areas in the Lake Victoria basin. About 30% of the water sources used for drinking in Tanzania exceed the WHO guideline values of fluoride (1.5 mg/L) and arsenic (10 μg/L). There is a scarcity of baseline information on the water quality data especially on geogenic contaminants in the groundwater and surface water as potable sources. This information is crucial in exploring sources of safe drinking water aquifers, associated human health risks of fluoride and arsenic pollution. using Laboratory based studies during the past two decades have shown promising results on the removal of fluoride and arsenic using locally available adsorbent

  14. Mapping the geogenic radon potential in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kemski, J; Siehl, A; Stegemann, R; Valdivia-Manchego, M

    2001-05-14

    Mapping the geogenic radon potential in Germany is a research project initiated by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Conservation and Reactor Safety. The project was aimed to develop a standard methodology for the estimation of a geogenic radon potential and to apply this method to map the region of Germany as an overview for planning purposes. The regionalisation results from a distance-weighted interpolation of the site-specific values of radon concentration in soil gas and in situ gas permeability of soils on a regular grid considering the corresponding geological units. The map of Germany in a scale of 1:2 million is based on the radon concentration in soil gas as an estimator of the geogenic radon potential assuming the 'worst case' of uniform highest permeability. The distribution is subdivided into categories of low (< 10 kBq/m3), medium (10-100 kBq/m3), increased (100-500 kBq/m3) and high (> 500 kBq/m3) radon concentration. High values occur especially in regions with granites and basement rocks of Paleozoic age, and are proven by measurements in 0.03% of the total area. Many of these regions are also known for their enhanced indoor values. The class with increased values takes a portion of 7.86% and likewise occurs mainly in regions with outcrops of folded and metamorphic basement, but also of some Meso- and Cenozoic sediments with increased uranium contents and/or higher emanation coefficients. For 67.3% of the country, the radon concentration is classified as 'medium', and an assignment to specific geological units cannot be made at the map scale considered. Low radon contents, where protective measures against radon are usually not considered, are found in the geologically rather homogeneous part of northern Germany with unconsolidated Cenozoic sediments, covering approximately 25% of the total country. It is of course not possible to predict the indoor radon concentration of single houses from these maps, because construction type and

  15. The Concentration of Iron in Real-World Geogenic PM10 Is Associated with Increased Inflammation and Deficits in Lung Function in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zosky, Graeme R.; Iosifidis, Thomas; Perks, Kara; Ditcham, Will G. F.; Devadason, Sunalene G.; Siah, W. Shan; Devine, Brian; Maley, Fiona; Cook, Angus

    2014-01-01

    Background There are many communities around the world that are exposed to high levels of particulate matter <10 µm (PM10) of geogenic (earth derived) origin. Mineral dusts in the occupational setting are associated with poor lung health, however very little is known about the impact of heterogeneous community derived particles. We have preliminary evidence to suggest that the concentration of iron (Fe) may be associated with the lung inflammatory response to geogenic PM10. We aimed to determine which physico-chemical characteristics of community sampled geogenic PM10 are associated with adverse lung responses. Methods We collected geogenic PM10 from four towns in the arid regions of Western Australia. Adult female BALB/c mice were exposed to 100 µg of particles and assessed for inflammatory and lung function responses 6 hours, 24 hours and 7 days post-exposure. We assessed the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles and correlated these with lung outcomes in the mice using principal components analysis and multivariate linear regression. Results Geogenic particles induced an acute inflammatory response that peaked 6 hours post-exposure and a deficit in lung mechanics 7 days post-exposure. This deficit in lung mechanics was positively associated with the concentration of Fe and particle size variability and inversely associated with the concentration of Si. Conclusions The lung response to geogenic PM10 is complex and highly dependent on the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles. In particular, the concentration of Fe in the particles may be a key indicator of the potential population health consequences for inhaling geogenic PM10. PMID:24587402

  16. Geogenic arsenic in groundwaters in the western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisserand, Delphine; Pili, Eric; Hellmann, Roland; Boullier, Anne-Marie; Charlet, Laurent

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater arsenic (As) of geogenic origin in the western Alps is generally associated with aquifers in crystalline rock. The External Crystalline Massifs (ECM) are in particular noted for occurrences of elevated concentrations of As in groundwaters. The present study is based on As in groundwaters that have been measured in the ECM in both France and Switzerland. Arsenic-bearing sulfide minerals, such as pyrite, arsenian pyrite, and arsenopyrite, are the most likely sources of As leached within the crystalline ECM rocks. While it is not known how As concentrations vary with time at all of the reported water sources, we measured on a weekly basis the concentration of As at one thermal source over a period of one year and found the As concentrations to be variable; however, the cause of the variability is at present not understood. Even though many studies have applied δ34SSO4 as a tool for understanding As mobilization in the ECM, there is no consensus at present. Finally, we present some perspectives on the possible effects of climate change and anthropogenic activities on As mobility in the ECM. In particular, droughts have the potential to increase As concentrations in groundwaters.

  17. Statistical modeling of global geogenic arsenic contamination in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Amini, Manouchehr; Abbaspour, Karim C; Berg, Michael; Winkel, Lenny; Hug, Stephan J; Hoehn, Eduard; Yang, Hong; Johnson, C Annette

    2008-05-15

    Contamination of groundwaters with geogenic arsenic poses a major health risk to millions of people. Although the main geochemical mechanisms of arsenic mobilization are well understood, the worldwide scale of affected regions is still unknown. In this study we used a large database of measured arsenic concentration in groundwaters (around 20,000 data points) from around the world as well as digital maps of physical characteristics such as soil, geology, climate, and elevation to model probability maps of global arsenic contamination. A novel rule-based statistical procedure was used to combine the physical data and expert knowledge to delineate two process regions for arsenic mobilization: "reducing" and "high-pH/ oxidizing". Arsenic concentrations were modeled in each region using regression analysis and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inferencing followed by Latin hypercube sampling for uncertainty propagation to produce probability maps. The derived global arsenic models could benefit from more accurate geologic information and aquifer chemical/physical information. Using some proxy surface information, however, the models explained 77% of arsenic variation in reducing regions and 68% of arsenic variation in high-pH/oxidizing regions. The probability maps based on the above models correspond well with the known contaminated regions around the world and delineate new untested areas that have a high probability of arsenic contamination. Notable among these regions are South East and North West of China in Asia, Central Australia, New Zealand, Northern Afghanistan, and Northern Mali and Zambia in Africa. PMID:18546706

  18. Mapping geogenic radon potential by regression kriging.

    PubMed

    Pásztor, László; Szabó, Katalin Zsuzsanna; Szatmári, Gábor; Laborczi, Annamária; Horváth, Ákos

    2016-02-15

    Radon ((222)Rn) gas is produced in the radioactive decay chain of uranium ((238)U) which is an element that is naturally present in soils. Radon is transported mainly by diffusion and convection mechanisms through the soil depending mainly on the physical and meteorological parameters of the soil and can enter and accumulate in buildings. Health risks originating from indoor radon concentration can be attributed to natural factors and is characterized by geogenic radon potential (GRP). Identification of areas with high health risks require spatial modeling, that is, mapping of radon risk. In addition to geology and meteorology, physical soil properties play a significant role in the determination of GRP. In order to compile a reliable GRP map for a model area in Central-Hungary, spatial auxiliary information representing GRP forming environmental factors were taken into account to support the spatial inference of the locally measured GRP values. Since the number of measured sites was limited, efficient spatial prediction methodologies were searched for to construct a reliable map for a larger area. Regression kriging (RK) was applied for the interpolation using spatially exhaustive auxiliary data on soil, geology, topography, land use and climate. RK divides the spatial inference into two parts. Firstly, the deterministic component of the target variable is determined by a regression model. The residuals of the multiple linear regression analysis represent the spatially varying but dependent stochastic component, which are interpolated by kriging. The final map is the sum of the two component predictions. Overall accuracy of the map was tested by Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation. Furthermore the spatial reliability of the resultant map is also estimated by the calculation of the 90% prediction interval of the local prediction values. The applicability of the applied method as well as that of the map is discussed briefly. PMID:26706761

  19. Geogenic metal mobility in a coastal inlet impacted by cannery discharge, Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Beth; Capistrano, Christian; Lee, William

    2016-08-15

    Magdalena Bay is an important habitat for marine organisms, some of which have been the subject of metal bioaccumulation studies. Cannery waste is discharged into the bay providing a plausible source of contamination but this study finds that some metals occur geogenically. Bay sediments and rocks (n=59) were analyzed for total metals and clustered (HCA) into two distinct groups with PCA indicating concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn, and Ni influenced samples near ophiolite outcrops, which reported some metal concentrations exceeding averages in the crust by an order of magnitude (up to 4450ppm Cr and 1269ppm Ni). Metals at the cannery are rarely elevated above crustal averages except Zn (max. 160ppm), however, acid-extracted Zn was below recommended sediment quality guidelines in contrast to 80% of ophiolitic samples reporting Ni extractability exceeding such guidelines. This study raises awareness of geogenic metals when considering sources of contamination in marine environments. PMID:27251444

  20. The evolution of future geogenic matter fluxes due Enhanced Weathering: Results from the Antwerp Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Jens; Weiss, Andreas; Struyf, Eric; Schoelynck, Jonas; Meire, Patrick; Amann, Thorben

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the evolution of geogenic matter fluxes in soils due the application of rock products ontop of soils is relevant to evaluate alteration of soil solutions and saturation states of solutes. In the future the practice of applying rock products will continue and areas affected will likely spread (Hartmann et al., 2013). This trend will likely be fuelled by attempts to optimize carbon dioxide removal by increasing biomass production, soil organic carbon stocks, increase crop production or afforestation. All those efforts demand a certain amount of geogenic nutrients, which need to be replaced. To investigate the release patterns and the downward transport of an array of elements, and to study their fate as well as reaction processes, altered through this practice, a mesocosm experiment was established at Antwerp University. Extended results will be presented (c.f., Weiss et al., 2014) focusing on the release and transport of DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) and Mg (magnesium) in the soil column downwards after the application of 22 kg m-2 olivine powder. Elevated DIC and Mg concentrations are detected in case of olivine is applied to mesocosms with wheat and barley, if compared to the mesocsoms without plants, and without olivine. The change patterns in concentrations and fluxes will be discussed. Hartmann, J., et al. (2013) Enhanced chemical weathering as a geoengineering strategy to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide, supply nutrients, and mitigate ocean acidification. Reviews of Geophysics; 51(2), 113-149. doi: 10.1002/rog.20004 Weiss, A., et al. (2014) The overlooked compartment of the critical-zone-complex, considering the evolution of future geogenic matter fluxes: Agricultural topsoils. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 10, 339-342. doi:10.1016/j.proeps.2014.08.032

  1. Brief oral stimulation, but especially oral fat exposure, elevates serum triglycerides in humans.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D

    2009-02-01

    Oral exposure to dietary fat results in an early initial spike, followed by a prolonged elevation, of serum triglycerides in humans. The physiological and pathophysiological implications remain unknown. This study sought to determine the incidence of the effect, the required fat exposure duration, and its reliability. Thirty-four healthy adults participated in four to six response-driven trials held at least a week apart. They reported to the laboratory after an overnight fast, a catheter was placed in an antecubital vein, and a blood sample was obtained. Participants then ingested 50 g of safflower oil in capsules with 500 ml of water within 15 min to mimic a high fat meal but without oral fat exposure. Blood was collected 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 min after capsule ingestion with different forms (full fat, nonfat, none) and durations of oral fat exposures (10 s, 5 min, 20 min, and/or 2 h). A triglyceride response (increase of triglyceride >10 mg/dl within 30 min) was observed in 88.2%, 70.5%, and 50% of participants with full-fat, nonfat, and no oral exposure, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 75% with full-fat exposure but only 45.4% with nonfat exposure. Full-fat and nonfat exposures led to comparable significant elevations of triglyceride over no oral stimulation with 10-s exposures, but full fat led to a greater rise than nonfat with 20 min of exposure. These data indicate that nutritionally relevant oral fat exposures reliably elevate serum triglyceride concentrations in most people. PMID:19074638

  2. A National Assessment of Sea Level Rise Exposure Using Lidar Elevation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, B.; Kulp, S. A.; Tebaldi, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Third National Climate Assessment addressed sea level rise and aggravated coastal flood exposure in all regions, but was completed before high quality lidar-based elevation data became available throughout the entire coastal United States (excluding Alaska). Here we present what we believe to be the first full national assessment incorporating these data. The assessment includes tabulation of land less than 1-6 m above the local high tide line, and of a wide range of features sitting on that land, including total population, socially vulnerable population, housing, property value, road miles, power plants, schools, hospitals, and a wide range of other infrastructure and critical facilities, as well as EPA-listed facilities that are potential sources of contamination during floods or permanent inundation. Tabulations span from zip code to national levels. Notable patterns include the strong concentration of exposure across multiple scales, with a small number of states accounting for most of the total national exposure; and a small number of zip codes accounting for a large proportion of the exposure within many states. Additionally, different features show different exposure patterns; in one example, land and road miles have relatively high exposure but population and property have relatively low exposure in North Carolina. The assessment further places this exposure analysis in the context of localized sea level rise projections integrated with coastal flood risk.

  3. Comparative performance of geopolymers made with metakaolin and fly ash after exposure to elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Daniel L.Y.; Sanjayan, Jay G. Sagoe-Crentsil, Kwesi

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of elevated temperatures on geopolymers manufactured using metakaolin and fly ash of various mixture proportions. Both types of geopolymers (metakaolin and fly ash) were synthesized with sodium silicate and potassium hydroxide solutions. The strength of the fly ash-based geopolymer increased after exposure to elevated temperatures (800 deg. C). However, the strength of the corresponding metakaolin-based geopolymer decreased after similar exposure. Both types of geopolymers were subjected to thermogravimetric, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry tests. The paper concludes that the fly ash-based geopolymers have large numbers of small pores which facilitate the escape of moisture when heated, thus causing minimal damage to the geopolymer matrix. On the other hand, metakaolin geopolymers do not possess such pore distribution structures. The strength increase in fly ash geopolymers is also partly attributed to the sintering reactions of un-reacted fly ash particles.

  4. Geogenic sources of local arsenic enrichment in groundwater from northwestern Thuringia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abratis, Michael; Viereck, Lothar

    2014-05-01

    Aqueous fluids migrating in the Earth's crust interact with the host rocks and partially take up their geochemical signatures. Mineralization and sometimes geogenic contamination of the groundwater may be the consequence: The aquifer systems of the Lower Triassic Buntsandstein Formation, an important source of drinking water in north-western Thuringia, and the Rotliegend Formation are locally affected by elevated arsenic concentrations. Data from water wells locally show arsenic concentrations above the limit value for drinking water (10 μg/L). The regional distribution as well as lack of secondary vein mineralizations or anthropogenic sources within this area point to a geogenic stratibound source of arsenic. The average concentration of the toxic, carcinogenic trace element arsenic in rocks of Phanerozoic rocks in Germany range from 5 to 12 μg/g for different lithologies, being generally higher in Variscan rocks. However, it can be several times enriched in certain sedimentary lithologies such as pelites and even more so in coal beds. In our present study we investigate all sequences of the Buntsandstein and Rotliegend Formation with their different lithologies in order to identify the relevant carriers of arsenic. Geochemical analyses on samples from selected drill cores and outcrops show arsenic of >50 μg/g especially in carbonaceous sediment sections as well as in primarily gray-green lacustrine clay stones. Elevated arsenic concentrations seem to be related to lithofacies of lacustrine origin in the Buntsandstein and carbonaceous sediment sections in the Rotliegend. Aim of the current study is now to identify the appropriate synsedimentary mineral phases that incorporate arsenic and to identify the processes and conditions under which arsenic is mobilized from these phases and transferred into the groundwater.

  5. Uranium in groundwater--Fertilizers versus geogenic sources.

    PubMed

    Liesch, Tanja; Hinrichsen, Sören; Goldscheider, Nico

    2015-12-01

    Due to its radiological and toxicological properties even at low concentration levels, uranium is increasingly recognized as relevant contaminant in drinking water from aquifers. Uranium originates from different sources, including natural or geogenic, mining and industrial activities, and fertilizers in agriculture. The goal of this study was to obtain insights into the origin of uranium in groundwater while differentiating between geogenic sources and fertilizers. A literature review concerning the sources and geochemical processes affecting the occurrence and distribution of uranium in the lithosphere, pedosphere and hydrosphere provided the background for the evaluation of data on uranium in groundwater at regional scale. The state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, was selected for this study, because of its hydrogeological and land-use diversity, and for reasons of data availability. Uranium and other parameters from N=1935 groundwater monitoring sites were analyzed statistically and geospatially. Results show that (i) 1.6% of all water samples exceed the German legal limit for drinking water (10 μg/L); (ii) The range and spatial distribution of uranium and occasional peak values seem to be related to geogenic sources; (iii) There is a clear relation between agricultural land-use and low-level uranium concentrations, indicating that fertilizers generate a measurable but low background of uranium in groundwater. PMID:26170113

  6. Elevated bulk-silica exposures and evidence for multiple aqueous alteration episodes in Nili Fossae, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Elena S.; Bandfield, Joshua L.

    2016-09-01

    The Nili Fossae region of Mars contains some of the most mineralogically diverse bedrock on the planet. Previous studies have established three main stratigraphic units in the region: a phyllosilicate-bearing basement rock, a variably altered olivine-rich basalt, and a capping rock. Here, we present evidence for the localized alteration of the northeast Nili Fossae capping unit, previously considered to be unaltered. Both near-infrared and thermal-infrared spectral datasets were analyzed, including the application of a method for determining the relative abundance of bulk-silica (SiO2) over surfaces using thermal emission imaging system (THEMIS) images. Elevated bulk-silica exposures are present on surfaces previously defined as unaltered capping rock. Given the lack of spectral evidence for phyllosilicate, hydrated silica, or quartz phases coincident with the newly detected exposures-the elevated bulk-silica may have formed under a number of aqueous scenarios, including as a product of the carbonation of the underlying olivine-rich basalt under moderate water: rock scenarios and temperatures. Regardless of formation mechanism, the detection of elevated bulk-silica exposures in the Nili Fossae capping unit extends the history of aqueous activity in the region to include all three of the main stratigraphic units.

  7. Parental exposure to elevated pCO2 influences the reproductive success of copepods

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Gemma; Lindeque, Penelope; Flynn, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Substantial variations are reported for egg production and hatching rates of copepods exposed to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations (pCO2). One possible explanation, as found in other marine taxa, is that prior parental exposure to elevated pCO2 (and/or decreased pH) affects reproductive performance. Previous studies have adopted two distinct approaches, either (1) expose male and female copepoda to the test pCO2/pH scenarios, or (2) solely expose egg-laying females to the tests. Although the former approach is more realistic, the majority of studies have used the latter approach. Here, we investigated the variation in egg production and hatching success of Acartia tonsa between these two experimental designs, across five different pCO2 concentrations (385–6000 µatm pCO2). In addition, to determine the effect of pCO2 on the hatching success with no prior parental exposure, eggs produced and fertilized under ambient conditions were also exposed to these pCO2 scenarios. Significant variations were found between experimental designs, with approach (1) resulting in higher impacts; here >20% difference was seen in hatching success between experiments at 1000 µatm pCO2 scenarios (2100 year scenario), and >85% at 6000 µatm pCO2. This study highlights the potential to misrepresent the reproductive response of a species to elevated pCO2 dependent on parental exposure. PMID:25221371

  8. Characteristics of ocular temperature elevations after exposure to quasi- and millimeter waves (18-40 GHz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Masami; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Sasaki, Kensuke; Wake, Kanako; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Kamimura, Yoshitsugu; Hirata, Akimasa; Sasaki, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate changes in ocular temperature in rabbit eyes exposed to different frequencies (18 to 40 GHz) of quasi-millimeter waves, and millimeter waves (MMW). Pigmented rabbits were anesthetized with both general and topical anesthesia, and thermometer probes (0.5 mm in diameter) were inserted into their cornea (stroma), lens (nucleus) and vitreous (center of vitreous). The eyes were exposed unilaterally to 200 mW/cm2 by horn antenna for 3 min at 18, 22 and 26.5 GHz using a K band exposure system or 26.5, 35 and 40 GHz using a Ka band exposure system. Changes in temperature of the cornea, lens and vitreous were measured with a fluoroptic thermometer. Since the ocular temperatures after exposure to 26.5 GHz generated by the K band and Ka band systems were similar, we assumed that experimental data from these 2 exposure systems were comparable. The highest ocular temperature was induced by 40 GHz MMW, followed by 35 GHz. The 26.5 and 22 GHz corneal temperatures were almost the same. The lowest temperature was recorded at 18 GHz. The elevation in ocular temperature in response to exposure to 200 mW/cm2 MMW is dependent on MMW frequency. MMW exposure induced heat is conveyed not only to the cornea but also the crystalline lens.

  9. Chemical and mechanical stability of sodium sulfate activated slag after exposure to elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Rashad, A.M.; Bai, Y.; Basheer, P.A.M.; Collier, N.C.; Milestone, N.B.

    2012-02-15

    The chemical and mechanical stability of slag activated with two different concentrations of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) after exposure to elevated temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 Degree-Sign C with an increment of 200 Degree-Sign C has been examined. Compressive strengths and pH of the hardened pastes before and after the exposure were determined. The various decomposition phases formed were identified using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} activated slag has a better resistance to the degradation caused by exposure to elevated temperature up to 600 Degree-Sign C than Portland cement system as its relative strengths are superior. The finer slag and higher Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration gave better temperature resistance. Whilst the pH of the hardened pastes decreased with an increase in temperature, it still maintained a sufficiently high pH for the protection of reinforcing bar against corrosion.

  10. Reduction of the elevator illusion from continued hypergravity exposure and visual error-corrective feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R. B.; Cohen, M. M.; DeRoshia, C. W.

    1996-01-01

    Ten subjects served as their own controls in two conditions of continuous, centrifugally produced hypergravity (+2 Gz) and a 1-G control condition. Before and after exposure, open-loop measures were obtained of (1) motor control, (2) visual localization, and (3) hand-eye coordination. During exposure in the visual feedback/hypergravity condition, subjects received terminal visual error-corrective feedback from their target pointing, and in the no-visual feedback/hypergravity condition they pointed open loop. As expected, the motor control measures for both experimental conditions revealed very short lived underreaching (the muscle-loading effect) at the outset of hypergravity and an equally transient negative aftereffect on returning to 1 G. The substantial (approximately 17 degrees) initial elevator illusion experienced in both hypergravity conditions declined over the course of the exposure period, whether or not visual feedback was provided. This effect was tentatively attributed to habituation of the otoliths. Visual feedback produced a smaller additional decrement and a postexposure negative after-effect, possible evidence for visual recalibration. Surprisingly, the target-pointing error made during hypergravity in the no-visual-feedback condition was substantially less than that predicted by subjects' elevator illusion. This finding calls into question the neural outflow model as a complete explanation of this illusion.

  11. Reduction of the elevator illusion from continued hypergravity exposure and visual error-corrective feedback.

    PubMed

    Welch, R B; Cohen, M M; DeRoshia, C W

    1996-01-01

    Ten subjects served as their own controls in two conditions of continuous, centrifugally produced hypergravity (+2 Gz) and a 1-G control condition. Before and after exposure, open-loop measures were obtained of (1) motor control, (2) visual localization, and (3) hand-eye coordination. During exposure in the visual feedback/hypergravity condition, subjects received terminal visual error-corrective feedback from their target pointing, and in the no-visual feedback/hypergravity condition they pointed open loop. As expected, the motor control measures for both experimental conditions revealed very short lived underreaching (the muscle-loading effect) at the outset of hypergravity and an equally transient negative aftereffect on returning to 1 G. The substantial (approximately 17 degrees) initial elevator illusion experienced in both hypergravity conditions declined over the course of the exposure period, whether or not visual feedback was provided. This effect was tentatively attributed to habituation of the otoliths. Visual feedback produced a smaller additional decrement and a postexposure negative after-effect, possible evidence for visual recalibration. Surprisingly, the target-pointing error made during hypergravity in the no-visual-feedback condition was substantially less than that predicted by subjects' elevator illusion. This finding calls into question the neural outflow model as a complete explanation of this illusion. PMID:8668516

  12. FDTD computation of temperature elevation in the elderly for far-field RF exposures.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Tomoki; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2014-03-01

    Core temperature elevation and perspiration in younger and older adults is investigated for plane-wave exposure at whole-body averaged specific absorption rate of 0.4 W kg(-1). Numeric Japanese male model is considered together with a thermoregulatory response formula proposed in the authors' previous study. The frequencies considered were at 65 MHz and 2 GHz where the total power absorption in humans becomes maximal for the allowable power density prescribed in the international guidelines. From the computational results used here, the core temperature elevation in the older adult model was larger than that in the younger one at both frequencies. The reason for this difference is attributable to the difference of sweating, which is originated from the difference in the threshold activating the sweating and the decline in sweating in the legs. PMID:24141693

  13. Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide elevates circulating glucose in maternal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, L.J.; Goeden, H.; Roth, S.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Although the lethal effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) has long been known, the results of exposure to low levels of H{sub 2}S have not been well documented. Rat dams and pups were exposed to low levels of H{sub 2}S (less than or equal to 75 ppm) from d 1 of gestation until d 21 postpartum and analyzed for changes in circulating enzymatic activity and metabolites. Blood glucose was significantly elevated in maternal blood on d 21 postpartum at all exposure levels. This increase in glucose was accompanied by a possible decrease in serum triglyceride in the pups and in the dams on d 21 postpartum. There was no evidence of alterations in serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, or serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase.

  14. Mercury stable isotopes in seabird eggs reflect a gradient from terrestrial geogenic to oceanic mercury reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Day, Rusty D; Roseneau, David G; Berail, Sylvain; Hobson, Keith A; Donard, Olivier F X; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Pugh, Rebecca S; Moors, Amanda J; Long, Stephen E; Becker, Paul R

    2012-05-15

    Elevated mercury concentrations ([Hg]) were found in Alaskan murre (Uria spp.) eggs from the coastal embayment of Norton Sound relative to insular colonies in the northern Bering Sea-Bering Strait region. Stable isotopes of Hg, carbon, and nitrogen were measured in the eggs to investigate the source of this enrichment. Lower δ(13)C values in Norton Sound eggs (-23.3‰ to -20.0‰) relative to eggs from more oceanic colonies (-20.9‰ to -18.7‰) indicated that a significant terrestrial carbon source was associated with the elevated [Hg] in Norton Sound, implicating the Yukon River and smaller Seward Peninsula watersheds as the likely Hg source. The increasing [Hg] gradient extending inshore was accompanied by strong decreasing gradients of δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg in eggs, indicating lower degrees of mass-dependent (MDF) and mass-independent Hg fractionation (MIF) (respectively) in the Norton Sound food web. Negative or zero MDF and MIF signatures are typical of geological Hg sources, which suggests murres in Norton Sound integrated Hg from a more recent geological origin that has experienced a relatively limited extent of aquatic fractionation relative to more oceanic colonies. The association of low δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg with elevated [Hg] and terrestrial δ(13)C values suggested that Hg stable isotopes in murre eggs effectively differentiated terrestrial/geogenic Hg sources from oceanic reservoirs. PMID:22519440

  15. Compilation of geogenic radon potential map of Pest County, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, K. Zs.; Pásztor, L.; Horváth, Á.; Bakacsi, Zs.; Szabó, J.; Szabó, Cs.

    2010-05-01

    222Rn and its effect on the human health have recently received major importance in environmental studies. This natural radioactive gas accounts for about 9% of lung cancer death and about 2% of all deaths from cancer in Europe due to indoor radon concentrations. It moves into the buildings from the natural decay chain of uranium in soils, rocks and building materials. Radon mapping regionalizes the average hazard from radon in a selected area as a radon risk map. Two major methods (concerning the applied radon data) have been used for mapping. One uses indoor radon data whereas the other is based on soil gas radon data. The outputs of the second approach are the geogenic radon potential maps. The principal objective of our work is to take the first step in geogenic radon mapping in Hungary. Soil samples collected in Pest County (Central Region of Hungary) in the frame of a countrywide soil survey (Soil Information and Monitoring System) were studied to have empirical information of the potential radon risk. As the first two steps radium concentration of soil samples, collected at 43 locations sampling soil profiles by genetic horizons from the surface level down to 60-150 cm, were determined using HPGe gamma-spectroscopy technique, as well as measurement of radon exhalation on the soil samples were carried out applying closed radon accumulation chamber coupled with RAD7 radon monitor detector. From these data the exhalation coefficient was calculated, which shows how many percent of the produced radon can come out from the sample. This rate strongly depends on the depth: at circa 100 cm a drastic decrease have been noticed, which is explained by the change in soil texture. The major source of indoor radon is the soil gas radon concentration (Barnet et al., 2005). We estimated this value from the measured radon exhalation and calculated soil porosity and density. The soil gas radon concentration values were categorized after Kemski et al. (2001) and then the

  16. Exposures to environmental phenols in Southern California firefighters and findings of elevated urinary benzophenone-3 levels.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Jed M; Gavin, Qi; Anderson, Meredith; Hoover, Sara; Alvaran, Josephine; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Fenster, Laura; Wu, Nerissa T; Krowech, Gail; Plummer, Laurel; Israel, Leslie; Das, Rupali; She, Jianwen

    2016-03-01

    Firefighters are at increased risk for exposure to toxic chemicals compared to the general population, but few studies of this occupational group have included biomonitoring. We measured selected phenolic chemicals in urine collected from 101 Southern California firefighters. The analytes included bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, benzophenone-3 (BP-3), and parabens, which are common ingredients in a range of consumer products. BP-3, BPA, triclosan, and methyl paraben were detected in almost all study subjects (94-100%). The BP-3 geometric mean for firefighters was approximately five times higher than for a comparable National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) subgroup. Demographic and exposure data were collected from medical records and via a questionnaire, and covariates were examined to assess associations with BP-3 levels. BP-3 levels were elevated across all firefighter age groups, with the highest levels observed in the 35 to 39year old group. Body fat percentage had a significant inverse association with BP-3 concentrations. Our results indicate pervasive exposure to BP-3, BPA, triclosan, and methyl paraben in this population of firefighters, consistent with studies of other populations. Further research is needed to investigate possible explanations for the higher observed BP-3 levels, such as occupational or California-specific exposures. PMID:26821331

  17. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena--Wisconsin, 2014.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-11-20

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation. PMID:26583915

  18. Major geogenic factors controlling geographical clustering of urolithiasis in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yijun; Deng, Yamin; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-11-15

    The prevalence of urolithiasis is increasing across the world and exhibits a distinctive characteristic of geographical distribution. Geographical clustering and major geogenic factors for urolithiasis prevalence in China were investigated. High risks of urolithiasis are found in southern China clustered in coastal provinces such as Fujian and Zhejiang and karst regions such as Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hunan, and Hubei. The predominant urinary stone composition is a mixture of calcium oxalate and phosphate. We found that the spatial distribution of phosphate-type stones is closely related to that of phosphate ore deposits and carbonate rocks. Hot or warm climate and seasons increase the risk of lithogenesis through high average air temperature. Water and soil environment influence the quality and composition of drinking water and food, thus affecting stone formation in the urinary system. In particular, the increase of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio (in meq) in drinking water might be the main factor. Besides, the high content of calcium in local plants grown on karst soils and the intake of high oxalate food might contribute to the high prevalence in South China. This study indicates that urolithiasis could be endemic, with geogenic factors playing critical roles in urolithiasis etiology. PMID:27496076

  19. The timing of embryonic exposure to elevated temperature alters stress endocrinology in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Mast, Andrew D; Luu, Thuyvan H; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-02-01

    Patterns of glucocorticoid (GC) release in response to stimuli vary both among individuals and within individuals across their lifetime. While much work has focused on how the prenatal steroid environment can affect GC release, relatively little is known about how environmental parameters, such as incubation temperature affect GCs. We tested the hypothesis that variation and timing of elevated incubation temperature within the thermoneutral zone can alter the pattern of GC release. We incubated domestic chicken eggs (Gallus domesticus) at the optimal incubation temperature (37.5 °C) or at a slightly higher temperature (+1.1 °C) either early, late, or throughout incubation. At three weeks post-hatch, all birds were (i) exposed to a capture-restraint stress to measure stress-induced GC release (naïve). Three days following the naïve stressor, birds were (ii) exposed to a heat challenge, which was followed the next day by a second capture-restraint stress (post-heat challenge). Regardless of treatment, birds had similar patterns of GC release following the naïve stress series. However, during the post-heat challenge stress series, birds incubated at optimal temperatures increased their peak GC release. In contrast, birds exposed to slightly elevated temperatures for any period of development failed to increase peak GC release, and their specific response varied with timing of exposure to the elevated incubation temperature. Our results demonstrate that subtle variation in the embryonic environment, such as elevated incubation temperature within the thermoneutral zone, can impact the pattern of GC release of offspring. Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these changes and the relationship between fitness and environmentally-altered phenotypes. PMID:25623149

  20. Chemical and anatomical changes in Liquidambar styraciflua L. xylem after long term exposure to elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keonhee; Labbé, Nicole; Warren, Jeffrey M; Elder, Thomas; Rials, Timothy G

    2015-03-01

    The anatomical and chemical characteristics of sweetgum were studied after 11 years of elevated CO2 (544 ppm, ambient at 391 ppm) exposure. Anatomically, branch xylem cells were larger for elevated CO2 trees, and the cell wall thickness was thinner. Chemically, elevated CO2 exposure did not impact the structural components of the stem wood, but non-structural components were significantly affected. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to detect differences between the CO2 treatments by considering numerous structural and chemical variables, as well as tree size, and data from previously published sources (i.e., root biomass, production and turnover). The PCA results indicated a clear separation between trees exposed to ambient and elevated CO2 conditions. Correlation loadings plots of the PCA revealed that stem structural components, ash, Ca, Mg, total phenolics, root biomass, production and turnover were the major responses that contribute to the separation between the elevated and ambient CO2 treated trees. PMID:25603157

  1. Spermatogenic capacity in fertile men with elevated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, MS; Halling, J; Weihe, P; Jensen, TK; Grandjean, P; Nielsen, F; Jørgensen, N

    2015-01-01

    Background Endocrine disrupting industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are suspected to adversely affect male reproductive functions. Objectives The Faroe Islands community exhibits an unusually wide range of exposures to dietary contaminants, and in this setting we examined the possible association between PCB exposure and semen quality and reproductive hormones in fertile Faroese men. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional study include 266 proven fertile men residing in the Faroe Islands. PCB levels and hormone profiles were measured in serum samples taken at the clinical examination that included semen quality parameters. Results A significant positive association was seen between serum-PCB and the testosterone/estradiol ratio (p=0.04). In the unadjusted analyses, elevated PCB exposure was associated with increased serum concentrations of SHBG (p=0.01) and FSH (p=0.05). We found no association between the serum PCB concentration and the semen quality variables. Conclusion In this population of highly exposed fertile men, the current serum-PCB concentration was associated with higher androgen/estrogen ratio. Further studies are needed to establish the findings and further document PCB-associated hormonal effects, any time windows of increased susceptibility, and the role of PCB in sub-fecundity. PMID:25766940

  2. Exposure Of NIF Relevant Polymeric Samples To Deuterium-Tritium Gas At Elevated Temperature And Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ebey, P S; Dole, J M; Nobile, A; Schoonover, J R; Burmann, J; Cook, B; Letts, S; Sanchez, J; Nikroo, A

    2005-06-24

    The purpose of the experiments described in this paper was to expose samples of polymeric materials to a mixture of deuterium-tritium (DT) gas at elevated temperature and pressure to investigate the effects (i.e. damage) on the materials. The materials and exposure parameters were chosen with to be relevant to proposed uses of similar materials in inertial fusion ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Two types of samples were exposed and tested. The first type consisted of 10 4-lead ribbon cables of fine manganin wire insulated with polyimide. Wires of this type are proposed for use in thermal shimming of hohlraums and the goal of this experiment was to measure the change in electrical resistance of the insulation due to tritium exposure. The second type of sample consisted of 20 planar polymer samples that may be used as ignition capsule materials. The exposure was at 34.5 GPa (5010 psia) and 70 C for 48 hours. The change in electrical resistance of the wire insulation will be presented. The results for capsule materials will be presented in a separate paper in this issue.

  3. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and Agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria) as Indicators of Geogenic Contamination of Flysch Soils in Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Čurlík, Ján; Kolesár, Martin; Ďurža, Ondrej; Hiller, Edgar

    2016-04-01

    Contents of potentially toxic elements Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, V, Cu, and Mo were determined in common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria) to show their usefulness as bioindicators of geogenic soil pollution. Both plants were collected on geochemically anomalous soils developed on flysch sedimentary rocks (Paleogene) of Eastern Slovakia, which also are composed of weathered detritus of some ultramafic rocks. Generally, contents of the investigated association of potentially toxic elements are highly increased in these "serpentine"-like soils. Elevated concentrations were detected in both shoots and roots of the plants. The highest values, which exceed world average values for plants, were observed for Ni content. They ranged from 1.7 to 16.3 mg kg(-1) in dandelion and from 1.6 to 22.6 mg kg(-1) in agrimony. Essential elements, such as Mo, Cu, and Mn, were the most concentrated in plants, whereas Co, V, and Cr were the least concentrated. Although the bioindication value of the common dandelion for anthropogenic soil pollution is well known, it is not mentioned for agrimony in literature, and no data exist to indicate the geogenic pollution for both plants. Dandelion and agrimony are widely used as herbal drugs; therefore, our intention also was to point out another fact, namely, possible high uptake of potentially toxic elements by herbal plants growing on similar soils. PMID:26254898

  4. Chronic estrogen exposure maintains elevated levels of progesterone receptor mRNA in guinea pig hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, D A; Millhorn, D E

    1991-05-01

    We performed in situ hybridization on hypothalamic sections from ovariectomized guinea pig using a cocktail of three 35S-labeled oligonucleotides complementary to mammalian progesterone receptor (PR) cDNA. PR mRNA was readily detected in hypothalamic neurons from guinea pigs pretreated with 17 beta-estradiol benzoate (E2B), but not from animals which did not receive supplemental E2B. The distribution of PR mRNA-containing cells corresponded well with previous localizations of PR in guinea pig. In contrast to earlier reports of E2B regulation of PR mRNA in rat hypothalamus, however, we found that PR mRNA remained elevated during chronic exposure to E2B (up to 10 days) in guinea pig. PMID:2072827

  5. Bioaccessibility and Speciation of Potential Toxicants in Some Geogenic Sources of Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morman, S. A.; Wolf, R. E.; Plumlee, G.; Reynolds, R. L.

    2008-12-01

    The correlation of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and increased morbidity and mortality was established in the 1970's. Research focused on elucidating mechanisms of action (i.e. particle size, composition, and biodurability), has generally examined anthropogenic sources such as solid or liquid combustion byproducts of fossil fuels, byproducts from the smelting of metal ores, and commercial/industrial mineral dusts (asbestos, crystalline silica. metal dusts). While many studies exist on agricultural exposures to inorganic dust, far fewer have examined health issues related to particulate matter contributions from rural, non-agricultural dusts or other geogenic sources. Geogenic PM (produced by natural processes such as volcanic ash, volcanic fog (vog), dusts from dry lakes or glacial deposits, smoke and windborne ash from wildfires, and dusts containing various soil pathogens) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources by processes that are modified or enhanced by human activities such as dusts from lakebeds dried by human removal of water, dusts produced from areas that have undergone desertification as a result of human practices etc.) are increasingly recognized as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Surface sediment on some dry lake beds may contribute significant amounts of mineral dusts to the atmospheric load. For example, Owens Lake (a dry lake in southern California) has been a major source of PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometers) dust in the United States. Dusts from dry and drying saline lakes may contain high concentrations of metals, such as arsenic, with known human health toxicity. Wildfires, consuming over nine million acres in 2007, also contribute significant amounts of particulate matter in addition to their other hazards. Designed to estimate the bioaccessibility of metals in soils, dusts and other environmental materials by measuring the reactivity of the

  6. Effects of multigenerational exposure to elevated temperature on reproduction, oxidative stress, and Cu toxicity in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eunhye; Samanta, Palas; Yoo, Jisu; Jung, Jinho

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of temperature (20 and 25°C) on reproduction, oxidative stress, and copper (Cu) toxicity in Daphnia magna across three generations (F0, F1, and F2). Exposing D. magna to elevated temperature significantly decreased the number of offspring per female per day, the time to first brood, and body length compared to exposure to the optimal temperature (p<0.05). In addition, elevated temperature induced a significantly higher production of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation (p<0.05). These findings suggest that D. magna likely responded to thermal stress by investing more energy into defense mechanisms, rather than growth and reproduction. In addition, oxidative stress at the elevated temperature gradually increased with each generation, possibly owing to the reduced fitness of the offspring. Exposing D. magna to 25°C (EC50=34±3µgL(-1)) substantially increased the median effective concentration of Cu in all generations compared to exposure to 20°C (EC50=25±3µgL(-1)), indicating a decrease in acute toxicity at elevated temperature. However, elevated temperature significantly increased the oxidative stress induced by a sublethal concentration of Cu (10µgL(-1)). The interaction between elevated temperature and Cu exposure appears to be synergistic; however, this needs to be confirmed using multiple generations in a long-term experiment. PMID:27376351

  7. Geogenic lead isotope signatures from meat products in Great Britain: Potential for use in food authentication and supply chain traceability.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jane A; Pashley, Vanessa; Richards, Gemma J; Brereton, Nicola; Knowles, Toby G

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents lead (Pb) isotope data from samples of farm livestock raised in three areas of Britain that have elevated natural Pb levels: Central Wales, the Mendips and the Derbyshire Peak District. This study highlights three important observations; that the Pb found in modern British meat from these three areas is geogenic and shows no clear evidence of modern tetraethyl anthropogenic Pb contribution; that the generally excellent match between the biological samples and the ore field data, particularly for the Mendip and Welsh data, suggests that this technique might be used to provenance biological products to specific ore sites, under favourable conditions; and that modern systems reflect the same process of biosphere averaging that is analogous to cultural focusing in human archaeological studies that is the process of biological averaging leading to an homogenised isotope signature with increasing Pb concentration. PMID:26282777

  8. Exposure to fipronil elevates systolic blood pressure and disturbs related biomarkers in plasma of rats.

    PubMed

    Chaguri, Joao Leandro; Godinho, Antonio Francisco; Horta, Daniel França; Gonçalves-Rizzi, Victor Hugo; Possomato-Vieira, Jose Sergio; Nascimento, Regina Aparecida; Dias-Junior, Carlos Alan

    2016-03-01

    Recent reports show that fipronil affects non-target organisms, including environmental species populations and potentially humans. We aimed to examine if fipronil exposure affects the systolic blood pressure and related biomarkers. Thus, fipronil was orally administered to rats (30 mg/kg/day) during 15 days (Fipronil group) or physiological solution (Control group). While fipronil increased significantly the systolic blood pressure (158±13 mmHg), no significant changes were observed in Control group (127±3 mmHg). Significantly, higher levels of fipronil in plasma were observed in Fipronil group (0.46±0.09 μg/mL versus 0.17±0.11 μg/mL in Control group). Fipronil group showed lower weight gain compared with Control group. While fipronil resulted in higher concentrations of endothelin-1, reduced antioxidant capacity and lower levels of circulating matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites compared to Control group, no alteration was observed in serum biomarkers of renal and hepatic/biliary functional abilities. Therefore, this study suggests that fipronil causes hypertension and endothelin-1 plays a key role. Also, these findings suggest that reductions of both MMP-2 and NO may contribute with the elevation of systolic blood pressure observed with fipronil. PMID:26773360

  9. Greater ecosystem carbon in the Mojave Desert after ten years exposure to elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, R. D.; Koyama, A.; Sonderegger, D. L.; Charlet, T. N.; Newingham, B. A.; Fenstermaker, L. F.; Harlow, B.; Jin, V. L.; Ogle, K.; Smith, S. D.; Nowak, R. S.

    2014-05-01

    Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas inducing climate change. Increased global CO2 emissions, estimated at 8.4 Pg C yr-1 at present, have accelerated from 1% yr-1 during 1990-1999 to 2.5% yr-1 during 2000-2009 (ref. ). The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems is the greatest unknown in the global C budget because the actual magnitude, location and causes of terrestrial sinks are uncertain; estimates of terrestrial C uptake, therefore, are often based on the residuals between direct measurements of the atmospheric sink and well-constrained models of ocean uptake of CO2 (ref. ). Here we report significant terrestrial C accumulation caused by CO2 enhancement to net ecosystem productivity in an intact, undisturbed arid ecosystem following ten years of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2. Results provide direct evidence that CO2 fertilization substantially increases ecosystem C storage and that arid ecosystems are significant, previously unrecognized, sinks for atmospheric CO2 that must be accounted for in efforts to constrain terrestrial and global C cycles.

  10. Geogenic methane emissions in central and eastern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baciu, Calin; Ionescu, Artur; Pop, Cristian; Etiope, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: methane, greenhouse gases, geogenic emissions, Romania Relatively often, the hydrocarbon reservoirs are not completely sealed, thus permitting the channeling to the surface of various amounts of gas, mainly consisting of methane and homologues. When important volumes of gas are released, features as mud volcanoes and everlasting fires may occur. When the gas amount is low, the degassing can be revealed by instrumental means only. The gas seeps may be useful as indicators in the hydrocarbon exploration, but may be also hazardous when gas is accumulating in closed spaces. Additionally, the geogenic methane degassing represents an important contribution to the atmospheric budget of greenhouse gases. Romania is one of the European important hydrocarbon producers, with oil and gas deposits in different geologic and tectonic contexts. As well, the frequency of gas emitting features and seepage areas is high. Some relevant hydrocarbon-prone areas from Romania, namely the Neogene Transylvanian Basin, the Carpathian Foredeep, and the Moldavian Platform, are comparatively analysed within the current work from the point of view of methane emissions. The Carpathian Foredeep hosts the most impressive mud volcanoes and everlasting fires in Romania, classified among the biggest in Europe. The degassing area also extends in the Carpathian Flysch zone. The Transylvanian Basin hosts numerous gas-bearing structures, mainly of biogenic origin. With some exceptions, the methane-emitting features are small, releasing relatively low amounts of gas. A relatively high number of seeps have been described on the Moldavian Platform, although no commercial hydrocarbon reservoirs have been identified. The seeps are small, and they are releasing low amounts of methane. However, it is important to notice that the investigated zone partly corresponds to an area of interest for shale gas, related to the deep-seated Silurian shales. For all mentioned areas, the main geochemical

  11. Anthropogenic and geogenic impacts on arsenic bioaccessibility in UK topsoils.

    PubMed

    Appleton, J D; Cave, M R; Wragg, J

    2012-10-01

    Predictive linear regression (LR) modelling between bioaccessible arsenic (B-As) and a range of total elemental compositions and soil properties was executed in order to assess the potential for developing a national B-As dataset for the UK. LR indicates that total arsenic (As) is the only highly significant independent variable for estimating B-As in urban areas where it explains 75-92% of the variance. The broad compatibility of the London, Glasgow and Swansea regression models suggests that application of these models to estimate bioaccessible As in UK soils impacted by diffuse anthropogenic urban contamination and non-ferrous metal processing should be relatively accurate. In areas dominated by Jurassic ironstones and associated clays and limestones, total As, P and pH are significant, accounting for 53, 14 and 5%, respectively, of the B-As variance. Models based on total As as the sole predictor in the combined Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary ironstones datasets explain about 40% of the B-As variance. The median As bioaccessible fraction (%As-BAF) is 19 to 28% in the anthropogenic contamination impacted urban domains, but much lower (5-9%) in geogenic terrains dominated by ironstones. Results of this study can be used as part of a lines of evidence approach to localised risk assessment but should not be used to replace bioaccessibility testing at individual sites where local conditions may vary considerably from the broad overview presented in this study. PMID:22842593

  12. Chemical and anatomical changes in Liquidambar styraciflua L. xylem after long term exposure to elevated CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Keonhee; Labbé, Nicole; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Elder, Thomas; Rials, Timothy G.

    2015-01-17

    The anatomical and chemical characteristics of sweetgum were studied after 11 years of elevated CO2 (544 ppm, ambient at 391 ppm) exposure. Anatomically, branch xylem cells were larger for elevated CO2 trees, and the cell wall thickness was thinner. Chemically, elevated CO2 exposure did not impact the structural components of the stem wood, but non-structural components were significantly affected. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to detect differences between the CO2 treatments by considering numerous structural and chemical variables, as well as tree size, and data from previously published sources (for example, root biomass, production and turnover). The PCA results indicated a clear separation between trees exposed to ambient and elevated CO2 conditions. Lastly, correlation loadings plots of the PCA revealed that stem structural components, ash, Ca, Mg, total phenolics, root biomass, production and turnover were the major responses that contribute to the separation between the elevated and ambient CO2 treated trees.

  13. Chemical and anatomical changes in Liquidambar styraciflua L. xylem after long term exposure to elevated CO2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, Keonhee; Labbé, Nicole; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Elder, Thomas; Rials, Timothy G.

    2015-01-17

    The anatomical and chemical characteristics of sweetgum were studied after 11 years of elevated CO2 (544 ppm, ambient at 391 ppm) exposure. Anatomically, branch xylem cells were larger for elevated CO2 trees, and the cell wall thickness was thinner. Chemically, elevated CO2 exposure did not impact the structural components of the stem wood, but non-structural components were significantly affected. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to detect differences between the CO2 treatments by considering numerous structural and chemical variables, as well as tree size, and data from previously published sources (for example, root biomass, production and turnover). The PCA resultsmore » indicated a clear separation between trees exposed to ambient and elevated CO2 conditions. Lastly, correlation loadings plots of the PCA revealed that stem structural components, ash, Ca, Mg, total phenolics, root biomass, production and turnover were the major responses that contribute to the separation between the elevated and ambient CO2 treated trees.« less

  14. Effects of Long-Term Thermal Exposure on Commercially Pure Titanium Grade 2 Elevated-Temperature Tensile Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated-temperature tensile testing of commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) Grade 2 was conducted for as-received commercially produced sheet and following thermal exposure at 550 and 650 K (531 and 711 F) for times up to 5000 h. The tensile testing revealed some statistical differences between the 11 thermal treatments, but most thermal treatments were statistically equivalent. Previous data from room temperature tensile testing was combined with the new data to allow regression and development of mathematical models relating tensile properties to temperature and thermal exposure. The results indicate that thermal exposure temperature has a very small effect, whereas the thermal exposure duration has no statistically significant effects on the tensile properties. These results indicate that CP Ti Grade 2 will be thermally stable and suitable for long-duration space missions.

  15. Elevated oxidative stress in skin of B6C3F1 mice affects dermal exposure to metal working fluid.

    PubMed

    Shvedova, A A; Kisin, E; Kisin, J; Castranova, V; Kommineni, C

    2000-09-01

    Metal working fluids (MWFs) are widely used in industry for metal cutting, drilling, shaping, lubricating, and milling. Potential for dermal exposure to MWFs exists for a large number of men and women via aerosols and splashing during the machining operations. It has been reported earlier that occupational exposure to MWFs causes allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Previously, we showed that dermal exposure of female and male B6C3F1 mice to 5% MWFs for 3 months resulted in accumulation of mast cells and elevation of histamine in the skin. Topical exposure to MWF also resulted in elevated oxidative stress in the liver of both sexes and the testes in males. The goal of this study was to evaluate the interaction between oxidative stress in the skin and topical application of MWF. Oxidative stress in skin ofB6C3F1 mice of both sexes was generated by intradermal injection ofthe hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) -producing enzyme, glucose oxidase with polyethylene glycol (GOD+PEG). In mice given GOD+PEG, topical treatment with MWF (200 microl, 30%, for 1, 3, or 7 days) resulted in a mixed inflammatory cell response, accumulation of peroxidative products, and reduction of GSH content in the skin. Such changes were not observed with MWF treatment alone. These data indicate that oxidative stress can enhance dermal inflammation caused by occupational exposure to MWF. PMID:11693944

  16. FDTD analysis of body-core temperature elevation in children and adults for whole-body exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2008-09-01

    The temperature elevations in anatomically based human phantoms of an adult and a 3-year-old child were calculated for radio-frequency whole-body exposure. Thermoregulation in children, however, has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we developed a computational thermal model of a child that is reasonable for simulating body-core temperature elevation. Comparison of measured and simulated temperatures revealed thermoregulation in children to be similar to that of adults. Based on this finding, we calculated the body-core temperature elevation in a 3-year-old child and an adult for plane-wave exposure at the basic restriction in the international guidelines. The body-core temperature elevation in the 3-year-old child phantom was 0.03 °C at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 0.08 W kg-1, which was 35% smaller than in the adult female. This difference is attributed to the child's higher body surface area-to-mass ratio.

  17. Provenance of geogenic arsenic in the Goose River basin, Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidle, W.; Wotten, B.; Murphy, E.

    2001-11-01

    Occurrences of arsenic (As) are sporadic in drinking water from many wells in mid-coastal Maine. This is particularly the case where water supplies are pumped from fractured igneous and metamorphic bedrock. Although health risk-based As contamination levels are lowered, it is likely that the provenance of trace As concentrations will need to be scrutinized. Approximately 33% of wells sampled in the Goose River ground-watershed had at least one occurrence of 10 µg l-1 As. Geologic mapping in combination with the rock petrology and mineral chemistry were important in deciphering probable local source areas for arsenic. Median whole rock As is greater than 39 mg kg-1 in the Bucksport Formation and anatectic granitoids of the Waldoboro Pluton Complex. 34S isotopic composition of arsenian pyrites indicate that local areas of anomalous arsenic-bearing, transported soils are not the source of trace As in groundwater, but, instead, the As is derived from oxidation processes in the fractured bedrock along the western margin of the ground-watershed. In groundwater, the As3+/As5+ ratios ranged from 0.01 to 4.45 and were inconsistent spatially and temporally. Although it is probable that the stability field in most groundwater supplies is HAsO4 2-, arsenic speciation is not necessarily an aid to predicting transport. Instead an isotopic evaluation of associated groundwater SO4 2- clearly indicates a consistent correlation of elevated As with enriched δ34SSO4. The δ34SSO4 ranges of +4.05 to +4.61‰ may be characteristic of local oxidation in the fractured groundwater flow systems. Potential areas of geogenic As transport may be predictable.

  18. Geogenic Sources Strongly Contribute to the Mackenzie River Delta's Methane Emissions Derived From Airborne Flux Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohnert, K.; Serafimovich, A.; Metzger, S.; Hartmann, J.; Sachs, T.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic permafrost-associated wetlands and thawing permafrost emit the greenhouse gas methane (CH4), either as a product of recent microbial activity in the active layer or taliks, or from deeper geogenic sources where pathways through the permafrost exist. Current emission estimates vary strongly between different models and there is still disagreement between bottom-up estimates from local field studies and top-down estimates from atmospheric measurements. We use airborne flux data from two campaigns in the Mackenzie River Delta, Canada, in July 2012 and 2013 to directly quantify permafrost CH4 emissions on the regional scale, to analyse the regional pattern of CH4 fluxes and to estimate the contribution of geogenic emissions to the overall CH4 budget of the delta. CH4 fluxes were calculated with a time-frequency resolved version of the eddy covariance technique, resulting in a gridded 100 m x 100 m resolution flux map within the footprints of the flight tracks. We distinguish geogenic gas seeps from biogenic sources by their strength and show that they contribute strongly to the annual CH4 budget of the delta. Our study provides the first estimate of annual CH4 release from the Mackenzie River Delta and the adjacent coastal plain. We show that one percent of the covered area contains the strongest geogenic seeps which contribute disproportionately to the annual emission estimate. Our results show that geogenic CH4 emissions might need more attention, especially in areas where permafrost is vulnerable to thawing sufficiently to create pathways for geogenic gas migration. The presented map can be used as a baseline for future CH4 flux studies in the Mackenzie River Delta.

  19. Chromium(VI) generation in vadose zone soils and alluvial sediments of the southwestern Sacramento Valley, California: a potential source of geogenic Cr(VI) to groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater that exceed the World Health Organization’s maximum contaminant level for drinking water (50 μg L−1) occur in several locations globally. The major mechanism for mobilization of this Cr(VI) at these sites is the weathering of Cr(III) from ultramafic rocks and its subsequent oxidation on Mn oxides. This process may be occurring in the southern Sacramento Valley of California where Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater can approach or exceed 50 μg L−1. To characterize Cr geochemistry in the area, samples from several soil auger cores (approximately 4 m deep) and drill cores (approximately 25 m deep) were analyzed for total concentrations of 44 major, minor and trace elements, Cr associated with labile Mn and Fe oxides, and Cr(VI). Total concentrations of Cr in these samples ranged from 140 to 2220 mg per kg soil. Between 9 and 70 mg per kg soil was released by selective extractions that target Fe oxides, but essentially no Cr was associated with the abundant reactive Mn oxides (up to ~1000 mg hydroxylamine-reducible Mn per kg soil was present). Both borehole magnetic susceptibility surveys performed at some of the drill core sites and relative differences between Cr released in a 4-acid digestion versus total Cr (lithium metaborate fusion digestion) suggest that the majority of total Cr in the samples is present in refractory chromite minerals transported from ultramafic exposures in the Coast Range Mountains. Chromium(VI) in the samples studied ranged from 0 to 42 μg kg−1, representing a minute fraction of total Cr. Chromium(VI) content was typically below detection in surface soils (top 10 cm) where soil organic matter was high, and increased with increasing depth in the soil auger cores as organic matter decreased. Maximum concentrations of Cr(VI) were up to 3 times greater in the deeper drill core samples than the shallow auger cores. Although Cr(VI) in these vadose zone soils and sediments was only a

  20. Anthropogenic and geogenic Cd, Hg, Pb and Se sources of contamination in a brackish aquifer below agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrocicco, Micòl; Colombani, Nicolò; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Faccini, Barbara; Ferretti, Giacomo; Coltorti, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    three times lower than the synthetic urea on yearly basis. In general Cd, Hg, Pb and Se concentrations were found lower in sandy sediments, since usually these elements concentrate in the clay fraction. Hg, Pb and Se groundwater concentrations generally increased with the ionic strength of the solution witnessing a geogenic origin, while Cd groundwater concentrations were not clearly related to saline groundwater. Most probably, the latter was released both by fertilizers and by sediments during shifts between oxic and reducing conditions. In addition, the elevated soil organic carbon induced reducing conditions throughout the saturated aquifer profile (usually below the tile drains), which further promoted Hg, Pb and Se dissolution. The combined use of high-resolution sediment profiles, seasonal groundwater sampling and end-member analyses seems to be a promising procedure to distinguish between anthropogenic inorganic contaminants input and geogenic contribution in reclaimed deltaic environments.

  1. Wood properties of Populus and Betula in long-term exposure to elevated CO₂ and O₃.

    PubMed

    Kostiainen, Katri; Saranpää, Pekka; Lundqvist, Sven-Olof; Kubiske, Mark E; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2014-06-01

    We studied the interactive effects of elevated concentrations of CO2 and O3 on radial growth and wood properties of four trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) saplings. The material for the study was collected from the Aspen FACE (free-air CO2 enrichment) experiment in Rhinelander (WI, USA). Trees had been exposed to four treatments [control, elevated CO2 (560 ppm), elevated O3 (1.5 times ambient) and combined CO2 + O3 ] during growing seasons 1998-2008. Most treatment responses were observed in the early phase of experiment. Our results show that the CO2- and O3-exposed aspen trees displayed a differential balance between efficiency and safety of water transport. Under elevated CO2, radial growth was enhanced and the trees had fewer but hydraulically more efficient larger diameter vessels. In contrast, elevated O3 decreased radial growth and the diameters of vessels and fibres. Clone-specific decrease in wood density and cell wall thickness was observed under elevated CO2 . In birch, the treatments had no major impacts on wood anatomy or wood density. Our study indicates that short-term impact studies conducted with young seedlings may not give a realistic view of long-term ecosystem responses. PMID:24372544

  2. Temperature elevation in the fetus from electromagnetic exposure during magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi

    2010-04-01

    This study computationally assessed the temperature elevations due to electromagnetic wave energy deposition during magnetic resonance imaging in non-pregnant and pregnant woman models. We used a thermal model with thermoregulatory response of the human body for our calculations. We also considered the effect of blood temperature variation on body core temperature. In a thermal equilibrium state, the temperature elevations in the intrinsic tissues of the woman and fetal tissues were 0.85 and 0.61 °C, respectively, at a whole-body averaged specific absorption rate of 2.0 W kg-1, which is the restriction value of the International Electrotechnical Commission for the normal operating mode. As predicted, these values are below the temperature elevation of 1.5 °C that is expected to be teratogenic. However, these values exceeded the recommended temperature elevation limit of 0.5 °C by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. We also assessed the irradiation time required for a temperature elevation of 0.5 °C at the aforementioned specific absorption rate. As a result, the calculated irradiation time was 40 min.

  3. Temperature elevation in the fetus from electromagnetic exposure during magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi

    2010-04-21

    This study computationally assessed the temperature elevations due to electromagnetic wave energy deposition during magnetic resonance imaging in non-pregnant and pregnant woman models. We used a thermal model with thermoregulatory response of the human body for our calculations. We also considered the effect of blood temperature variation on body core temperature. In a thermal equilibrium state, the temperature elevations in the intrinsic tissues of the woman and fetal tissues were 0.85 and 0.61 degrees C, respectively, at a whole-body averaged specific absorption rate of 2.0 W kg(-1), which is the restriction value of the International Electrotechnical Commission for the normal operating mode. As predicted, these values are below the temperature elevation of 1.5 degrees C that is expected to be teratogenic. However, these values exceeded the recommended temperature elevation limit of 0.5 degrees C by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. We also assessed the irradiation time required for a temperature elevation of 0.5 degrees C at the aforementioned specific absorption rate. As a result, the calculated irradiation time was 40 min. PMID:20360633

  4. Elevated somatic mutations at the glycophorin a (GPA) locus are associated with PAH exposure in Finnish iron foundry workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bigbee, W.L.; Dickey, C.P.; Mooney, L.A.

    1997-10-01

    The potential genotoxic effect of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was assessed using the GPA-based in vivo somatic cell mutation assay in a group of 39 iron foundry workers. Individual exposures to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) over a four-year period were estimated using job titles together with personal and area monitoring data. Blood samples, collected over the same period, were analyzed for the frequency of variant erythroyctes expressing GPA allele-loss (0/N) and allele-loss and duplication (N/N) phenotypes. The frequencies of these erythrocyte variants in the peripheral circulation is a measure of the level of gene-inactivating somatic mutations at the GPA reporter locus in erythroid progenitor cells thus providing an estimate of the acute and cumulative impact of exposure of bone marrow cells to genotoxic agents. Workers were stratified into two exposure categories based on estimated B[a]P levels of <5 ng/m{sup 3} (low exposure group, n=25) and {ge}5 ng/m{sup 3} (high exposure group, n=14). Linear regression analysis revealed significantly elevated frequencies of {O}/N (P=0.025), but not N/N, variants in the high exposure compared to the low exposure group with geometric mean frequency of 13.2 versus 7.9 per million cells, respectively, after adjustment for the effects of age, gender, and smoking status. These data confirm earlier results which suggested a trend toward increased {O}/N variant frequencies associated with greater B[a]P exposures and a significant positive association between the levels of leukocyte PAH-DNA adducts and T-lymphocyte HPRT locus somatic mutations in the peripheral blood of these workers. Taken together, the results demonstrate the power of these biological exposure and effect markers to reveal the impact of low levels of occupational exposure to genotoxic agents such as B[a]P in relatively small populations of workers with well-characterized exposures.

  5. Insect herbivory in model tropical plant communities after 1. 5 years exposure to elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Arnone, J.A. III; Zaller, J.G.; Korner, C.; Ziegler, C.; Zandt, H. )

    1994-06-01

    Insect herbivores have been observed to practice compensatory feeding when providing leaves from plants grown under elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2]. This has been attributed to reductions in leaf quality (e.g. increased C:N ratio) occurring at high CO[sub 2]. However, no data are available on feeding patterns in plant communications exposed to high CO[sub 2], where insects can choose among species and canopy layers. We introduced 100 Spodoptera eridania larvae to each of four identically-planted communities of moist tropical species (80 plants, 7 spp.) after 1.5 years exposure to either ambient (340 [mu]l l[sup [minus]1]) or elevated (610 [mu]l l[sup [minus]1]) CO[sub 2]. Species representing contrasting life forms were installed in 6.7 m[sup 2] closed ecosystems, each with a common soil. Larvae actively fed in all communities, but the total amount of leaf area and leaf biomass consumed was similar at both CO[sub 2] levels. Elevated CO[sub 2] did alter herbivore plant-species preference. For example, 62.8% of the total leaf area consumed was represented by Cecropia peltata in communities exposed to ambient CO[sub 2], versus 44.1% under elevated CO[sub 2]. Our results indicate that compensatory feeding may not occur in natural plant communities in a CO[sub 2]-rich world.

  6. Whole-ecosystem exposure to elevated carbon dioxide increases total ecosystem carbon and nitrogen in the Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, R. D.; Koyama, A.; Sonderegger, D.; Charlet, D.; Newingham, B. A.; Fenstermaker, L.; Ogle, K.; Smith, S. D.; Nowak, R.

    2011-12-01

    Arid ecosystems are predicted to be among the most responsive to global change and their response is globally significant considering their extensive spatial coverage. Although carbon cycling in arid lands is an important component of the global carbon budget, there is substantial uncertainty about the potential impacts of global change drivers, such as elevated CO2, on arid land carbon budgets. Studies suggest that productivity may be stimulated by elevated CO2 directly due to enhanced plant water-use efficiency. The indirect impacts of elevated CO2 on ecosystem productivity may also be constrained by available nitrogen, but little is known about how the importance of the nitrogen constraint or how the nitrogen cycle may be affected by global change drivers. Here we present the carbon and nitrogen mass budgets of a Mojave Desert ecosystem after ten years of exposure to elevated CO2. The Nevada Desert Free-Air Carbon Enrichment Facility (FACE) was established in 1997 to evaluate the response of an intact Mojave Desert ecosystem to elevated CO2. The CO2 concentration of the atmosphere in the elevated treatment was maintained at 513 uL/L until harvest in 2007. At harvest time, all aboveground biomass for 2/3 of each plot was harvested and soils and roots were removed down to 1 m depth and analyzed for total carbon and nitrogen. We observed significantly greater carbon (10,800 versus 9,200 kg C/ha, P=0.004) and nitrogen (1,400 versus 1,100 kg N/ha, P=0.002) in elevated compared to ambient CO2 treatments. Differences between treatments were due solely to greater C and N in soils across all cover types, and no differences were observed in above and belowground plant biomass. Companion research shows that increased soil C was from increased root exudation, microbial residues, and episodic increased litter input under elevated CO2, and these increased C inputs in turn stimulated production of inorganic nitrogen. Results from the Nevada Desert FACE Facility demonstrate

  7. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, V M; Davoli, C T; Heller, P J; Fitzwilliam, A; Peters, H L; Sunyer, J; Murphy, S E; Goldstein, G W; Groopman, J D

    1996-01-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans,trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 +/- 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 micrograms/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:8919771

  8. Effect of Thermal Exposure on the Tensile Properties of Aluminum Alloys for Elevated Temperature Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edahl, Robert A., Jr.; Domack, Marcia

    2004-01-01

    Tensile properties were evaluated for four aluminum alloys that are candidates for airframe applications on high speed transport aircraft. These alloys included the Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys C415 and C416 and the Al-Cu-Li-Mg-Ag alloys RX818 and ML377. The Al-Cu-Mg alloys CM001, which was used on the Concorde SST, and 1143, which was modified from the alloy used on the TU144 Russian supersonic aircraft, were tested for comparison. The alloys were subjected to thermal exposure at 200 F, 225 F and 275 F for times up to 30,000 hours. Tensile tests were performed on thermally-exposed and as-received material at -65 F, room temperature, 200 F, 225 F and 275 F. All four candidate alloys showed significant tensile property improvements over CM001 and 1143. Room temperature yield strengths of the candidate alloys were at least 20% greater than for CM001 and 1143, for both the as-received and thermally-exposed conditions. The strength levels of alloy RX818 were the highest of all materials investigated, and were 5-10% higher than for ML377, C415 and C416 for the as-received condition and after 5,000 hours thermal exposure. RX818 was removed from this study after 5,000 hours exposure due to poor fracture toughness performance observed in a parallel study. After 30,000 hours exposure at 200 F and 225 F, the alloys C415, C416 and ML377 showed minor decreases in yield strength, tensile strength and elongation when compared to the as-received properties. Reductions in tensile strength from the as-received values were up to 25% for alloys C415, C416 and ML377 after 15,000 hours exposure at 275 F.

  9. Geogenic Groundwater Contamination: A Case Study Of Canakkale - Western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Ozan; Çalık, Ayten

    2016-04-01

    some water sources is believed to be closely associated with the alteration of feldspar minerals in the andesite and basalts of the Middle Eocene Sahinli Formation. Various studies related to topic show that consumption of these water containing high aluminum, iron, manganese, nickel and lead for drinking purposes cause serious health problems (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, physical and mental development disorders in children, various cancers, stomach - intestinal disorders and skin diseases). This situation limits the usable groundwater potential and causes potable water scarcity in the region. Consequently, while using of these groundwater resources in the region, taking several precautions are necessary and doing new water resource explorations are recommended. This study is supported by The Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Institute (Project number: 113Y577). Keywords: Geogenic groundwater contamination, Water-Rock Interaction, Canakkale

  10. Physiological ecology of desert biocrust moss following 10 years exposure to elevated CO2: evidence for enhanced photosynthetic thermotolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, Kirsten K.; Belnap, Jayne; Grote, Edmund E.; Sparks, Jed P.

    2012-01-01

    In arid regions, biomes particularly responsive to climate change, mosses play an important biogeochemical role as key components of biocrusts. Using the biocrust moss Syntrichia caninervis collected from the Nevada Desert Free Air CO2 Enrichment Facility, we examined the physiological effects of 10 years of exposure to elevated CO2, and the effect of high temperature events on the photosynthetic performance of moss grown in CO2-enriched air. Moss exposed to elevated CO2 exhibited a 46% decrease in chlorophyll, a 20% increase in carbon and no difference in either nitrogen content or photosynthetic performance. However, when subjected to high temperatures (35–40°C), mosses from the elevated CO2 environment showed higher photosynthetic performance and photosystem II (PSII) efficiency compared to those grown in ambient conditions, potentially reflective of a shift in nitrogen allocation to components that offer a higher resistance of PSII to heat stress. This result suggests that mosses may respond to climate change in markedly different ways than vascular plants, and observed CO2-induced photosynthetic thermotolerance in S. caninervis will likely have consequences for future desert biogeochemistry.

  11. Physiological ecology of desert biocrust moss following 10 years exposure to elevated CO₂: evidence for enhanced photosynthetic thermotolerance.

    PubMed

    Coe, Kirsten K; Belnap, Jayne; Grote, Edmund E; Sparks, Jed P

    2012-04-01

    In arid regions, biomes particularly responsive to climate change, mosses play an important biogeochemical role as key components of biocrusts. Using the biocrust moss Syntrichia caninervis collected from the Nevada Desert Free Air CO₂ Enrichment Facility, we examined the physiological effects of 10 years of exposure to elevated CO₂, and the effect of high temperature events on the photosynthetic performance of moss grown in CO₂-enriched air. Moss exposed to elevated CO₂ exhibited a 46% decrease in chlorophyll, a 20% increase in carbon and no difference in either nitrogen content or photosynthetic performance. However, when subjected to high temperatures (35-40°C), mosses from the elevated CO₂ environment showed higher photosynthetic performance and photosystem II (PSII) efficiency compared to those grown in ambient conditions, potentially reflective of a shift in nitrogen allocation to components that offer a higher resistance of PSII to heat stress. This result suggests that mosses may respond to climate change in markedly different ways than vascular plants, and observed CO₂-induced photosynthetic thermotolerance in S. caninervis will likely have consequences for future desert biogeochemistry. PMID:22385156

  12. Critical exposure level of cadmium for elevated urinary metallothionein-An occupational population study in China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liang; Jin Taiyi . E-mail: tyjin@shmu.edu.cn; Huang, Bo; Nordberg, Gunnar; Nordberg, Monica

    2006-08-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxic agent with extremely long biological half-time of 15-30 years in humans. To prevent nephrotoxicity induced by cadmium, it is necessary to identify specific and sensitive biomarkers of cadmium exposure and renal damage, and to define critical exposure levels related to minimal nephrotoxicity in humans. In this study, urinary cadmium (UCd) and blood cadmium (BCd) were used as cadmium exposure indicators, urinary {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin (UB2M), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) and albumin (UALB) were applied as the effect biomarkers of tubular and glomerular dysfunction. The relationship between urinary metallothionein (UMT) and cadmium exposure biomarkers as well as effect biomarkers was examined. Significant correlations were found between the UMT and BCd, and UCd. At the same time, UB2M, UALB and UNAG showed positive correlation with UMT as well. According to this result, cadmium-exposed individuals with renal dysfunction excreted more metallothionein than those without. Dose-response relationships between UCd and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction were studied. The critical concentration of UCd was quantitatively estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The lower confidence limit of the BMD-10 (BMDL) of UCd (3.1 {mu}g/g Cr) related to increased excretion of urinary metallothionein was slightly higher than that for UNAG (2.7 {mu}g/g Cr), but lower than those of UB2M (3.4 {mu}g/g Cr) and UALB (4.2 {mu}g/g Cr). The results demonstrate that UMT may be used as a sensitive biomarker of renal tubular dysfunction in cadmium-exposed populations.

  13. Timing of terminal Pleistocene deglaciation at high elevations in southern and central British Columbia constrained by 10Be exposure dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margold, Martin; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Clague, John J.; Heyman, Jakob

    2014-09-01

    The Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) covered most of British Columbia and southern Yukon Territory at the local Last Glacial Maximum (lLGM) during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 2. However, its subsequent demise is not well understood, particularly at high elevations east of its ocean-terminating margin. We present 10Be exposure ages from two high-elevation sites in southern and central British Columbia that help constrain the time of initial deglaciation at these sites. We sampled granodiorite erratics at elevations of 2126-2230 m a.s.l. in the Marble Range and 1608-1785 m a.s.l. in the Telkwa Range at the western margin of the Interior Plateau. The erratics at both sites are near ice-marginal meltwater channels that delineate the local ice surface slope and thus the configuration of the ice sheet during deglaciation. The locations of the erratics and their relations to meltwater channels ensure that the resulting 10Be ages date CIS deglaciation and not the retreat of local montane glaciers. Our sample sites emerged above the surface of the CIS as its divide migrated westward from the Interior Plateau to the axis of the Coast Mountains. Two of the four samples from the summit area of the Marble Range yielded apparent exposure ages of 14.0 ± 0.7 and 15.2 ± 0.8 ka. These ages are 1.8-3.0 ka younger than the well-established lLGM age of ca 17 ka for the Puget lobe of the CIS in Washington State; they are 1.7 ka younger than the lLGM age for the Puget lobe if a snow-shielding correction to their uncertainty-weighted mean age is applied. The other two samples yielded much older apparent exposure ages (20.6 ± 1.4 and 33.0 ± 1.5 ka), indicating the presence of inherited isotopes. Four samples collected from the summit area of the Telkwa Range in the Hazelton Mountains yielded well clustered apparent exposure ages of 10.1 ± 0.6, 10.2 ± 0.7, 10.4 ± 0.5, and 11.5 ± 1.1 ka. Significant present-day snow cover introduces a large uncertainty in the apparent exposure ages from

  14. Acoustic inspection of bond strength of steel-reinforced mortar after exposure to elevated temperatures

    PubMed

    Chiang; Tsai; Kan

    2000-03-01

    In order to evaluate the bond strength between the reinforcement and concrete after fire damage, a combination of acoustic through-transmission and pull-out tests were used. Previous studies have shown a 25% decrease in the ultrasonic pulse velocity at 90% of the maximum load at room temperature. The specimens were kept in the oven at an elevated temperature for 1, 2, or 3 h. They were then removed and cooled to room temperature. Inspection was conducted using a high-power ultrasonic pulse velocity system while a pull-out load was applied. The correlation between preheated temperature, acoustic wave velocity, and the applied load was analyzed. Initial results show that bond strength and pulse velocity decreased substantially as the temperature or the heating time increased. PMID:10829721

  15. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0) and 46.6 (36.5–60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  16. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2-85.0) and 46.6 (36.5-60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring's consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children's BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children's BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  17. Exposure to paracetamol and antibiotics in early life and elevated risk of asthma in childhood.

    PubMed

    Muc, M; Padez, C; Pinto, A Mota

    2013-01-01

    Prospective studies on increased risk of childhood asthma due to exposure to paracetamol and antibiotics in early life have yielded contradictory results. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between administration of paracetamol and antibiotics in the first 12 months of life and delayed asthma symptoms later in childhood. This is a cross-sectional study that included 1,063 children from the primary schools in Coimbra, Portugal. ISAAC-based environmental and core asthma and rhinitis questionnaires were used to obtain information about children's respiratory health and administration of paracetamol and antibiotics. We found that early paracetamol use significantly increased the risk of asthma ever (at least one episode in life) (OR = 2.9; 95 %CI:1.8-4.5), current asthma (OR = 2.4; 95 %CI:1.5-3.6), wheezing ever (OR = 2.5; 95 %CI:1.8-3.4), rhinitis ever (OR = 2.4; 95 %CI:1.7-3.3), and current rhinitis (OR = 2.8; 95 %CI:2.0-3.9). Antibiotic exposure showed a similar effect with the risk for current asthma (OR = 1.6; 95 %CI:1.0-2.5), asthma ever (OR = 2.0; 95 %CI:1.3-3.1), wheeze ever (OR = 2.3; 95 %CI:1.7-3.2), and rhinitis symptoms (OR = 1.8; 95 %CI:1.3-2.6, OR = 1.8; 95 %CI:1.3-2.6, OR = 1.9; 95 %CI:1.2-3.0 for rhinitis ever, current rhinitis, and tearing, respectively). We further found that increased frequency of paracetamol use during the last 12 months preceding the study facilitated the appearance of allergic symptoms, suggesting a dose-dependent associations. In conclusion, the study shows a significant association between exposure to paracetamol and antibiotics in the first 12 months of life and both prevalence and severity of asthma and rhinitis symptoms in children 5-9 years old. PMID:23836003

  18. Elevated prenatal methylmercury exposure in Nigeria: evidence from maternal and cord blood.

    PubMed

    Obi, Ejeatuluchukwu; Okafor, Charles; Igwebe, Anthony; Ebenebe, Joy; Afonne, Onyenmechi Johnson; Ifediata, Francis; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Nriagu, Jerome O; Basu, Niladri

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury is a neurodevelopmental toxicant that is globally distributed though little is known about prenatal exposures in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the current study was to measure total mercury levels in cord blood and maternal blood from 95 mother-newborn pairs recruited from hospitals in Nnewi, Nigeria. The secondary aims of the study were to explore if demographic and dietary factors were associated with blood mercury levels, and to explore if mercury levels were associated with any self-reported health outcome and childbirth outcome. Maternal blood mercury levels averaged 3.6 μg L(-1) and ranged from 1.1 μg L(-1) to 9.5 μg L(-1). Cord blood mercury averaged 5.1 μg L(-1) and ranged from 1.2 μg L(-1) to 10.6 μg L(-1). The mean ratio of mercury in paired cord blood to maternal blood was 1.5 and it ranged from 0.4 to 3.2. Mercury in maternal and cord blood were significantly correlated (r=0.471). More than one-third of mothers reported eating fish at least once per day, and a weak (p=0.08) fish consumption-related increase in blood mercury was found. Cord blood mercury was positively and significantly associated with birth weight and length, and head and chest circumference. Mercury levels in 36% of the participants exceeded the biomonitoring guideline associated with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) reference dose for mercury. The study shows that pregnant women and their newborns are exposed to methylmercury and that their exposures are higher compared to general populations sampled from other regions of the world. PMID:25112573

  19. Does short-term exposure to elevated levels of natural gamma radiation in Ramsar cause oxidative stress?

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, SMJ; Niroomand-Rad, A; Roshan-Shomal, P; Razavi-Toosi, SMT; Mossayeb-Zadeh, M; Moghadam, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, has areas with some of the highest recorded levels of natural radiation among inhabited areas measured on the earth. Aims: To determine whether short-term exposure to extremely high levels of natural radiation induce oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: In this study, 53 Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 10-12 animals. Animals in the 1st group were kept for 7 days in an outdoor area with normal background radiation while the 2nd , 3rd , 4th and 5th groups were kept in four different outdoor areas with naturally elevated levels of gamma radiation in Ramsar. A calibrated RDS-110 survey meter, mounted on a tripod approximately 1 m above the ground, was used to measure exposure rate at each location. On days 7 and 9 blood sampling was performed to assess the serum levels of catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA). On day 8, all animals were exposed to a lethal dose of 8 Gy gamma radiations emitted by a Theratron Phoenix (Theratronics, Canada) Cobalt-60 (55 cGy/min) at Radiotherapy Department of Razi Hospital in Rasht, Iran. Results: Findings obtained in this study indicate that high levels of natural radiation cannot induce oxidative stress. CAT and MDA levels in almost all groups were not significantly different (P = 0.69 and P = 0.05, respectively). After exposure to the lethal dose, CAT and MDA levels in all groups were not significantly different (P = 0.054 and P = 0.163, respectively). Conclusions: These findings indicate that short-term exposure to extremely high levels of natural radiation (up to 196 times higher than the normal background) does not induce oxidative stress. PMID:25143879

  20. Chronic Superantigen Exposure Induces Systemic Inflammation, Elevated Bloodstream Endotoxin, and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance in Rabbits: Possible Role in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Bao G.; Stach, Christopher S.; Kulhankova, Katarina; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Excessive weight and obesity are associated with the development of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMII) in humans. They also pose high risks of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and overt infections. S. aureus causes a wide range of severe illnesses in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Among S. aureus virulence factors, superantigens are essential for pathogenicity. In this study, we show that rabbits that are chronically exposed to S. aureus superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) experience impaired glucose tolerance, systemic inflammation, and elevated endotoxin levels in the bloodstream, all of which are common findings in DMII. Additionally, such DMII-associated findings are also seen through effects of TSST-1 on isolated adipocytes. Collectively, our findings suggest that chronic exposure to S. aureus superantigens facilitates the development of DMII, which may lead to therapeutic targeting of S. aureus and its superantigens. PMID:25714716

  1. Abrasion and fatigue resistance of PDMS containing multiblock polyurethanes after accelerated water exposure at elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Kimberly A; Wilson, Charles L; Himes, Adam K; Dawson, James W; Haddad, Tarek D; Buckalew, Adam J; Miller, Jennifer P; Untereker, Darrel F; Simha, Narendra K

    2013-11-01

    Segmented polyurethane multiblock polymers containing polydimethylsiloxane and polyether soft segments form tough and easily processed thermoplastic elastomers (PDMS-urethanes). Two commercially available examples, PurSil 35 (denoted as P35) and Elast-Eon E2A (denoted as E2A), were evaluated for abrasion and fatigue resistance after immersion in 85 °C buffered water for up to 80 weeks. We previously reported that water exposure in these experiments resulted in a molar mass reduction, where the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction is supported by a straight forward Arrhenius analysis over a range of accelerated temperatures (37-85 °C). We also showed that the ultimate tensile properties of P35 and E2A were significantly compromised when the molar mass was reduced. Here, we show that the reduction in molar mass also correlated with a reduction in both the abrasion and fatigue resistance. The instantaneous wear rate of both P35 and E2A, when exposed to the reciprocating motion of an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) jacketed cable, increased with the inverse of the number averaged molar mass (1/Mn). Both materials showed a change in the wear surface when the number-averaged molar mass was reduced to ≈ 16 kg/mole, where a smooth wear surface transitioned to a 'spalling-like' pattern, leaving the wear surface with ≈ 0.3 mm cracks that propagated beyond the contact surface. The fatigue crack growth rate for P35 and E2A also increased in proportion to 1/Mn, after the molar mass was reduced below a critical value of ≈30 kg/mole. Interestingly, this critical molar mass coincided with that at which the single cycle stress-strain response changed from strain hardening to strain softening. The changes in both abrasion and fatigue resistance, key predictors for long term reliability of cardiac leads, after exposure of this class of PDMS-urethanes to water suggests that these materials are susceptible to mechanical compromise in vivo. PMID:23871543

  2. A preliminary report on the effect of elevated temperature exposure on the mechanical properties of titanium-alloy honeycomb-core sandwich panels.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, T. T.; Cain, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    A study has been initiated to determine the effects of elevated-temperature exposure on the room-temperature mechanical properties of titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panels fabricated by brazing or spot diffusion bonding. Only flatwise tensile properties following exposure have been determined to date. Preliminary results indicate very little change in the flatwise tensile strength of sandwich panels fabricated by spot diffusion bonding following exposures of 10,000 hr at 600 and 800 F and 1000 hr at 1000 F. Titanium panels fabricated by using a Ti-Zr-Be braze alloy are susceptible to oxidation at elevated temperature and experience flatwise tensile strength degradation after continuous exposures of 7500 hr at 600 F, 1000 hr at 800 F, and less than 100 hr at 1000 F. It is possible that the exposure life of the brazed panels may be substantially increased if the panel edges are sealed to prevent oxidation of the braze alloy.

  3. Elevated Antibodies against Rift Valley Fever Virus among Humans with Exposure to Ruminants in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Memish, Ziad A.; Masri, Malak A.; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Heil, Gary L.; Merrill, Hunter R.; Khan, Salah U.; Alsahly, Ahmad; Gray, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) occurred in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Since then there have been sparse efforts to monitor for RVFV reemergence. During 2012, we enrolled 300 individuals with ruminant exposure and 50 age-group matched non-exposed controls in southwestern KSA, in a cross-sectional epidemiological study of RVFV. Sera from the participants were screened with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-RVFV IgG antibodies of which 39 (11.1%) were positive. Sixteen (41.0%) of those 39 were also positive by a plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT). The PRNT-positive subjects were further studied with an IgM ELISA and one was positive. No RVFV was detected in the 350 sera using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Contact with cattle (odds ratio [OR] = 3.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01, 9.90) and a history of chronic medical illness (OR = 6.41, 95% CI 1.75, 23.44) were associated with greater odds of RVFV seropositivity by PRNT. The IgM-positive participant was 36 years of age, and reported multiple risk factors for ruminant contact. Although these findings simply may be vestiges of the 2000 epidemic, KSA's frequent visits from pilgrims and importations of live animals from RVFV-endemic areas suggest that more comprehensive surveillance for imported RVFV virus in ruminants, mosquitoes, and travelers is imperative. PMID:25646253

  4. Geogenic and agricultural controls on the geochemical composition of European agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol, Gerben; Saaltink, Remon; Griffioen, Jasper; Birke, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Concern about the environmental impact of agriculture caused by intensification is growing as large amounts of nutrients and contaminants are introduced into the environment. The aim of this paper is to identify the geogenic and agricultural controls on the elemental composition of European, grazing and agricultural soils. Materials and methods: Robust factor analysis was applied to data series for Al,B,Ca, Cd,Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg,Mn, Na,Ni, P, S, Se, Sr, U, Zn (ICP-MS) and SiO2, K2O, Na2O, Fe2O3, Al2O3 (XRF) based on the European GEMAS dataset. In addition, the following general soil properties were included: clay content, pH, chemical index of alteration (CIA), loss on ignition (LOI), cation exchange capacity (CEC), total organic carbon (TOC) and total carbon and total sulfur. Furthermore, this dataset was coupled to a dataset containing information of historic P2O5 fertilization across Europe. Also, a mass balance was carried out for Cd, Cu and Zn to determine if concentrations of these elements found in the soils have their origin in historic P2O5 fertilization. Results and discussion: Seven geogenic factors and one agricultural factor were found of which four prominent ones (all geogenic): chemical weathering, reactive iron-aluminum oxide minerals, clay minerals and carbonate minerals. Results for grazing and agricultural soils were near identical, which further proofs the prominence of geogenic controls on the total elemental composition. When the cumulative amount of P2O5 fertilization was considered, no extra agriculture-related factors became visible. The mass balance confirms these observations. Conclusion: Overall, the geological controls are more important for the total soil chemistry in agricultural and grazing land soils than the anthropogenic controls.

  5. Maintenance of C sinks sustains enhanced C assimilation during long-term exposure to elevated [CO2] in Mojave Desert shrubs.

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Ebbets, Allison L; Evans, R Dave; Tissue, David T; Nogués, Salvador; van Gestel, Natasja; Payton, Paxton; Ebbert, Volker; Adams, Williams W; Nowak, Robert S; Smith, Stanley D

    2011-10-01

    During the first few years of elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] treatment at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility, photosynthetic downregulation was observed in desert shrubs grown under elevated [CO(2)], especially under relatively wet environmental conditions. Nonetheless, those plants maintained increased A (sat) (photosynthetic performance at saturating light and treatment [CO(2)]) under wet conditions, but to a much lesser extent under dry conditions. To determine if plants continued to downregulate during long-term exposure to elevated [CO(2)], responses of photosynthesis to elevated [CO(2)] were examined in two dominant Mojave Desert shrubs, the evergreen Larrea tridentata and the drought-deciduous Ambrosia dumosa, during the eighth full growing season of elevated [CO(2)] treatment at the NDFF. A comprehensive suite of physiological processes were collected. Furthermore, we used C labeling of air to assess carbon allocation and partitioning as measures of C sink activity. Results show that elevated [CO(2)] enhanced photosynthetic performance and plant water status in Larrea, especially during periods of environmental stress, but not in Ambrosia. δ(13)C analyses indicate that Larrea under elevated [CO(2)] allocated a greater proportion of newly assimilated C to C sinks than Ambrosia. Maintenance by Larrea of C sinks during the dry season partially explained the reduced [CO(2)] effect on leaf carbohydrate content during summer, which in turn lessened carbohydrate build-up and feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. δ(13)C results also showed that in a year when plant growth reached the highest rates in 5 years, 4% (Larrea) and 7% (Ambrosia) of C in newly emerging organs were remobilized from C that was assimilated and stored for at least 2 years prior to the current study. Thus, after 8 years of continuous exposure to elevated [CO(2)], both desert perennials maintained their photosynthetic capacities under elevated [CO(2)]. We conclude that C storage, remobilization

  6. Influence of geogenic factors on microbial communities in metallogenic Australian soils.

    PubMed

    Reith, Frank; Brugger, Joel; Zammit, Carla M; Gregg, Adrienne L; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Andersen, Gary L; DeSantis, Todd Z; Piceno, Yvette M; Brodie, Eoin L; Lu, Zhenmei; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Wakelin, Steven A

    2012-11-01

    Links between microbial community assemblages and geogenic factors were assessed in 187 soil samples collected from four metal-rich provinces across Australia. Field-fresh soils and soils incubated with soluble Au(III) complexes were analysed using three-domain multiplex-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and phylogenetic (PhyloChip) and functional (GeoChip) microarrays. Geogenic factors of soils were determined using lithological-, geomorphological- and soil-mapping combined with analyses of 51 geochemical parameters. Microbial communities differed significantly between landforms, soil horizons, lithologies and also with the occurrence of underlying Au deposits. The strongest responses to these factors, and to amendment with soluble Au(III) complexes, was observed in bacterial communities. PhyloChip analyses revealed a greater abundance and diversity of Alphaproteobacteria (especially Sphingomonas spp.), and Firmicutes (Bacillus spp.) in Au-containing and Au(III)-amended soils. Analyses of potential function (GeoChip) revealed higher abundances of metal-resistance genes in metal-rich soils. For example, genes that hybridised with metal-resistance genes copA, chrA and czcA of a prevalent aurophillic bacterium, Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, occurred only in auriferous soils. These data help establish key links between geogenic factors and the phylogeny and function within soil microbial communities. In particular, the landform, which is a crucial factor in determining soil geochemistry, strongly affected microbial community structures. PMID:22673626

  7. Chemical controls on abiotic and biotic release of geogenic arsenic from Pleistocene aquifer sediments to groundwater.

    PubMed

    Gillispie, Elizabeth C; Andujar, Erika; Polizzotto, Matthew L

    2016-08-10

    Over 150 million people in South and Southeast Asia consume unsafe drinking water from arsenic-rich Holocene aquifers. Although use of As-free water from Pleistocene aquifers is a potential mitigation strategy, such aquifers are vulnerable to geogenic As pollution, placing millions more people at potential risk. The goal of this research was to define chemical controls on abiotic and biotic release of geogenic As to groundwater. Batch incubations of sediments with natural chemical variability from a Pleistocene aquifer in Cambodia were conducted to evaluate how interactions among arsenic, manganese and iron oxides, and dissolved and sedimentary organic carbon influenced As mobilization from sediments. The addition of labile dissolved organic carbon produced the highest concentrations of dissolved As after >7 months, as compared to sediment samples incubated with sodium azide or without added carbon, and the extent of As release was positively correlated with the percent of initial extractable Mn released from the sediments. The mode of As release was impacted by the source of DOC supplied to the sediments, with biological processes responsible for 81% to 85% of the total As release following incubations with lactate and acetate but only up to 43% to 61% of the total As release following incubations with humic and fulvic acids. Overall, cycling of key redox-active elements and organic-carbon reactivity govern the potential for geogenic As release to groundwater, and results here may be used to formulate better predictions of the arsenic pollution potential of aquifers in South and Southeast Asia. PMID:27463026

  8. Wood properties of trembling aspen and paper birch after 5 years of exposure to elevated concentrations of CO(2) and O(3).

    PubMed

    Kostiainen, Katri; Kaakinen, Seija; Warsta, Elina; Kubiske, Mark E; Nelson, Neil D; Sober, Jaak; Karnosky, David F; Saranpää, Pekka; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2008-05-01

    We investigated the interactive effects of elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO(2)]) and ozone ([O(3)]) on radial growth, wood chemistry and structure of five 5-year-old trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) clones and the wood chemistry of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.). Material for the study was collected from the Aspen FACE (free-air CO(2) enrichment) experiment in Rhinelander, WI, where the saplings had been exposed to four treatments: control, elevated [CO(2)] (560 ppm), elevated [O(3)] (1.5 x ambient) and their combination for five growing seasons. Wood properties of both species were altered in response to exposure to the treatments. In aspen, elevated [CO(2)] decreased uronic acids (constituents of, e.g., hemicellulose) and tended to increase stem diameter. In response to elevated [O(3)] exposure, acid-soluble lignin concentration decreased and vessel lumen diameter tended to decrease. Elevated [O(3)] increased the concentration of acetone-soluble extractives in paper birch, but tended to decrease the concentration of these compounds in aspen. In paper birch, elevated [CO(2)] decreased and elevated [O(3)] increased starch concentration. The responses of wood properties to 5 years of fumigation differed from those previously reported after 3 years of fumigation. PMID:18316312

  9. Mirror, Mirror by the Stairs: The Impact of Mirror Exposure on Stair versus Elevator Use in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Hodgin, Katie L.; Graham, Dan J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that self-awareness-inducing mirrors can successfully incite behaviors that align with one’s personal values, such as helping others. Other research has found a large discrepancy between the high percentage of young adults who report valuing the healthfulness of physical activity (PA) and the low percentage who actually meet PA participation standards. However, few studies have examined how mirror exposure and both perceived and actual body size influence highly valued PA participation among college students. The present study assessed stair versus elevator use on a western college campus and hypothesized that mirror exposure would increase the more personally healthy transportation method of stair use. In accordance with previous research, it was also hypothesized that males and those with a lower body mass index (BMI) would be more likely to take the stairs, and that body size distorting mirrors would impact the stair–elevator decision. One hundred sixty-seven students (51% male) enrolled in an introductory psychology course were recruited to take a survey about their “transportation choices” at an indoor campus parking garage. Participants were individually exposed to either no mirror, a standard full-length mirror, or a full-length mirror manipulated to make the reflected body size appear either slightly thinner or slightly wider than normal before being asked to go to the fourth floor of the garage for a survey. Participants’ choice of floor-climbing method (stairs or elevator) was recorded, and they were administered an Internet-based survey assessing demographic information, BMI, self-awareness, perceived body size, and other variables likely to be associated with stair use. Results from logistic regression analyses revealed that participants who were not exposed to a mirror [odds ratios (OR) = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14–0.96], males (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13–0.85), those with lower BMI (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0

  10. Mirror, Mirror by the Stairs: The Impact of Mirror Exposure on Stair versus Elevator Use in College Students.

    PubMed

    Hodgin, Katie L; Graham, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that self-awareness-inducing mirrors can successfully incite behaviors that align with one's personal values, such as helping others. Other research has found a large discrepancy between the high percentage of young adults who report valuing the healthfulness of physical activity (PA) and the low percentage who actually meet PA participation standards. However, few studies have examined how mirror exposure and both perceived and actual body size influence highly valued PA participation among college students. The present study assessed stair versus elevator use on a western college campus and hypothesized that mirror exposure would increase the more personally healthy transportation method of stair use. In accordance with previous research, it was also hypothesized that males and those with a lower body mass index (BMI) would be more likely to take the stairs, and that body size distorting mirrors would impact the stair-elevator decision. One hundred sixty-seven students (51% male) enrolled in an introductory psychology course were recruited to take a survey about their "transportation choices" at an indoor campus parking garage. Participants were individually exposed to either no mirror, a standard full-length mirror, or a full-length mirror manipulated to make the reflected body size appear either slightly thinner or slightly wider than normal before being asked to go to the fourth floor of the garage for a survey. Participants' choice of floor-climbing method (stairs or elevator) was recorded, and they were administered an Internet-based survey assessing demographic information, BMI, self-awareness, perceived body size, and other variables likely to be associated with stair use. Results from logistic regression analyses revealed that participants who were not exposed to a mirror [odds ratios (OR) = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14-0.96], males (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.85), those with lower BMI (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71-0.99), those

  11. Effect of long-time, elevated-temperature exposures to vacuum and lithium on the properties of a tantalum alloy, T-111

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzard, R. J.; Sheffler, K. D.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of long-term, elevated-temperature vacuum and lithium exposures on the mechanical properties of T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf) is determined. Exposure conditions were for 1000 hours at 980 or 1315 C, 5000 hours at 1315 C, and a duplex temperature exposure of 1000 hours at 980 C plus 4000 hours at 1040 C. The exposures resulted in reduced tensile and creep strengths of the T-111 in the 900 to 1100 C temperature range where a dynamic strain-age-strengthening mechanism is operative in this alloy. This strength reduction was attributed to the depletion of oxygen from solid solution in this alloy.

  12. Diabetes in Native Americans: elevated risk as a result of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Aminov, Zafar; Haase, Richard; Carpenter, David O

    2016-03-01

    We have studied rates of diabetes in 601 members of the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne, ages 18-84 years, in relation to serum concentrations of 101 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and three chlorinated pesticides [dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex]. Diabetes was determined from either a diagnosis by a physician or by having a fasting glucose concentration of >125 mg/dL. Rates of diabetes are high in this community. Three models were used. In the first model rate ratios (RR) were determined for quartiles of total PCBs after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and total serum lipids. For total PCBs RR=2.21 (1.2-4.2), while for total pesticides RR=3.75 (1.3-10.7). When the total PCB results were also adjusted for total pesticides and the total pesticide results were also adjusted for total PCBs (Model 2) the RRs were somewhat reduced. In Model 3 we considered subgroups of PCBs based on numbers of chlorines on the molecule (tri-/tetra, penta-/hexa, hepta plus) and numbers of ortho chlorines (non-/mono; di-, tri-/tetra-), and considered each of the pesticides individually after adjustment for all other contaminants as well as age, sex, BMI and serum lipids. We found a highly significant association between diabetes and PCBs with only three or four chlorines (RR=5.02), but no significant association with those with greater chlorination. When evaluating PCBs based on numbers of ortho chlorines only, those with no or one ortho chlorine showed significant associations. As mono-ortho PCBs include some with dioxin-like activity, we compared those with and without a TEF, and found that the association with diabetes was exclusively with the non-dioxin-like congeners. Of the pesticides only hexachlorobenzene showed a small but significant association with diabetes. Because lower chlorinated PCBs are more volatile and do not greatly accumulate in fish, these results suggest that inhalation is the major route of exposure to

  13. Effects of crude oil exposure and elevated temperature on the liver transcriptome of polar cod (Boreogadus saida).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Øivind; Frantzen, Marianne; Rosland, Marte; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Skugor, Adrijana; Krasnov, Aleksei

    2015-08-01

    Petroleum-related activities in the Arctic have raised concerns about the adverse effects of potential oil spill on the environment and living organisms. Polar cod plays a key role in the Arctic marine ecosystem and is an important species for monitoring oil pollution in this region. We examined potential interactions of oil pollution and global warming by analysing liver transcriptome changes in polar cod exposed to crude oil at elevated temperature. Adult males and females were kept at high (11°C) or normal (4°C) temperature for 5 days before exposure to mechanically dispersed crude oil for 2 days followed by recovery in clean sea water for 11 days at the two temperatures. Genome-wide microarray analysis of liver samples revealed numerous differentially expressed genes induced by uptake of oil as confirmed by increased levels of bile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites. The hepatic response included genes playing important roles in xenobiotic detoxification and closely related biochemical processes, but also of importance for protein stress response, cell repair and immunity. Though magnitude of transcriptome responses was similar at both temperatures, the upregulated expression of cyp1a1 and several chaperone genes was much stronger at 11°C. Most gene expression changes returned to basal levels after recovery. The microarray results were validated by qPCR measurement of eleven selected genes representing both known and novel biomarkers to assess exposure to anthropogenic threats on polar cod. Strong upregulation of the gene encoding fibroblast growth factor 7 is proposed to protect the liver of polar fish with aglomerular kidneys from the toxic effect of accumulated biliary compounds. The highly altered liver transcriptome patterns after acute oil exposure and recovery suggests rapid responses in polar cod to oil pollutants and the ability to cope with toxicity in relatively short time. PMID:26005920

  14. The relationship between specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in anatomically based human body models for plane wave exposure from 30 MHz to 6 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; Oizumi, Takuya; Hanatani, Ryuto; Chan, Kwok Hung; Wiart, Joe

    2013-02-01

    According to the international safety guidelines/standard, the whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (Poljak et al 2003 IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 45 141-5) and the peak spatial average SAR are used as metrics for human protection from whole-body and localized exposures, respectively. The IEEE standard (IEEE 2006 IEEE C95.1) indicates that the upper boundary frequency, over which the whole-body-averaged SAR is deemed to be the basic restriction, has been reduced from 6 to 3 GHz, because radio-wave energy is absorbed around the body surface when the frequency is increased. However, no quantitative discussion has been provided to support this description especially from the standpoint of temperature elevation. It is of interest to investigate the maximum temperature elevation in addition to the core temperature even for a whole-body exposure. In the present study, using anatomically based human models, we computed the SAR and the temperature elevation for a plane-wave exposure from 30 MHz to 6 GHz, taking into account the thermoregulatory response. As the primary result, we found that the ratio of the core temperature elevation to the whole-body-averaged SAR is almost frequency independent for frequencies below a few gigahertz; the ratio decreases above this frequency. At frequencies higher than a few gigahertz, core temperature elevation for the same whole-body averaged SAR becomes lower due to heat convection from the skin to air. This lower core temperature elevation is attributable to skin temperature elevation caused by the power absorption around the body surface. Then, core temperature elevation even for whole-body averaged SAR of 4 W kg-1 with the duration of 1 h was at most 0.8 °C, which is smaller than a threshold considered in the safety guidelines/standard. Further, the peak 10 g averaged SAR is correlated with the maximum body temperature elevations without extremities and pinna over the frequencies considered. These findings were confirmed

  15. Distribution of geogenic arsenic in hydrologic systems: controls and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Savage, Kaye; Foster, Andrea; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2008-07-29

    The presence of elevated concentration of arsenic (As) in natural hydrologic systems is regarded as the most formidable environmental crisis in the contemporary world. With its substantial presence in the drinking water of more than thirty countries worldwide, and with an affected population of more than 100 million, it has been termed as the largest mass poisoning in human history. In this special issue, we have tried to provide the most recent research advances on controls and challenges of this severe groundwater contaminant. The articles in this issue, originally presented in the 2006 Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, address the distribution of As in various geologic and geographic settings, the controls of redox and other geochemical parameters on its spatial and temporal variability, the influence of sedimentology and stratigraphy on its occurrence, and mechanisms controlling its mobility. The knowledge available from these studies should provide a roadmap for future research in arsenic contamination hydrology. PMID:18514970

  16. Computational model for calculating body-core temperature elevation in rabbits due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Sugiyama, Hironori; Kojima, Masami; Kawai, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Yoko; Fujiwara, Osamu; Watanabe, Soichi; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-01

    In the current international guidelines and standards with regard to human exposure to electromagnetic waves, the basic restriction is defined in terms of the whole-body average-specific absorption rate. The rationale for the guidelines is that the characteristic pattern of thermoregulatory response is observed for the whole-body average SAR above a certain level. However, the relationship between energy absorption and temperature elevation was not well quantified. In this study, we improved our thermal computation model for rabbits, which was developed for localized exposure on eye, in order to investigate the body-core temperature elevation due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz. The effect of anesthesia on the body-core temperature elevation was also discussed in comparison with measured results. For the whole-body average SAR of 3.0 W kg-1, the body-core temperature in rabbits elevates with time, without becoming saturated. The administration of anesthesia suppressed body-core temperature elevation, which is attributed to the reduced basal metabolic rate.

  17. FDTD analysis of temperature elevation in the lens of human and rabbit models due to near-field and far-field exposures at 2.45 GHz.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Takuya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Kojima, Masami; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2013-07-01

    The eye is said to be one of the most sensitive organs to microwave heating. According to previous studies, the possibility of microwave-induced cataract formation has been experimentally investigated in rabbit and monkey eyes, but not for the human eye due to ethical reasons. In the present study, the temperature elevation in the lens, the skin around the eye and the core temperature of numerical human and rabbit models for far-field and near-field exposures at 2.45 GHz are investigated. The temperature elevations in the human and rabbit models were compared with the threshold temperatures for inducing cataracts, thermal pain in the skin and reversible health effects such as heat exhaustion or heat stroke. For plane-wave exposure, the core temperature elevation is shown to be essential both in the human and in the rabbit models as suggested in the international guidelines and standards. For localised exposure of the human eye, the temperature elevation of the skin was essential, and the lens temperature did not reach its threshold for thermal pain. On the other hand, the lens temperature elevation was found to be dominant for the rabbit eye. PMID:23390146

  18. Effect of Exposure to Lithium-Paired or Amphetamine-Paired Saccharin Solution on Open Arm Avoidance in an Elevated Plus Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rana, Shadna A.; Parker, Linda A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that drug-induced conditioned taste avoidance may be mediated by conditioned fear (e.g., Parker, 2003). The experiments reported here evaluated the effect of exposure to a drug-paired flavor on open arm exploration in an elevated plus maze (EPM), a measure of fear. When rats were tested on a familiar (trial 2) EPM, but not…

  19. Mapping the geogenic radon potential: methodology and spatial analysis for central Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Katalin Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Horváth, Ákos; Szabó, Csaba

    2014-03-01

    A detailed geogenic radon potential (GRP) mapping based on field soil gas radon and soil gas permeability measurements was carried out in this study. A conventional continuous variable approach was used in this study for GRP determination and to test its applicability to the selected area of Hungary. Spatial pattern of soil gas radon concentration, soil permeability and GRP and the relationship between geological formations and these parameters were studied by performing detailed spatial analysis. Exploratory data analysis revealed that higher soil gas radon activity concentration and GRP characterizes the mountains and hills than the plains. The highest values were found in the proluvial-deluvial sediments, rock debris on the downhill slopes eroded from hills. Among the Quaternary sediments, which characterize the study area, the fluvial sediment has the highest values, which are also located in the hilly areas. The lowest values were found in the plain areas covered by drift sand, fluvioeolic sand, fluvial sand and loess. As a conclusion, radon is related to the sediment cycle in the study area. A geogenic radon risk map was created, which assists human health risk assessment and risk reduction since it indicates the potential of the source of indoor radon. The map shows that low and medium geogenic radon potential characterizes the study area in central Hungary. High risk occurs only locally. The results reveal that Quaternary sediments are inhomogeneous from a radon point of view, fluvial sediment has medium GRP, whereas the other rock formations such as drift sand, fluioeolic sand, fluvial sand and loess, found in the study area, have low GRP. PMID:24412775

  20. Influence of daily carbon dioxide exposure duration and root environment on soybean response to elevated carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Heagle, A.S.; Booker, F.L.; Miller, J.E.; Pursley, W.A. |; Stefanski, L.A.

    1999-03-01

    Little is known about effects of daily CO{sub 2} enrichment duration and root environment on plant response to elevated CO{sub 2}. Two experiments were performed with Essex soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in open-top field chambers to address these questions. In one experiment, effects of 12 and 24 h d{sup {minus}1} exposures to double-ambient CO{sub 2} were compared for plants grown in 14 L pots that were either insulated to moderate soil temperature or not insulated. Although never significant statistically, trends at some growth stages suggested that nighttime CO{sub 2} enrichment contributed to growth and yield. Plants grew and yielded more in insulated than noninsulated pots, but there were no significant CO{sub 2} enrichment {times} insulation interactions. In the second experiment, response to approximately 1.3, 1.6, and 1.9 times ambient CO{sub 2} was compared for plants grown in the ground or 14 L pots. Enhancement of photosynthesis, growth, and yield by CO{sub 2} enrichment was similar in pots and in the ground. Linear responses to different CO{sub 2} concentrations were significant for all yield components in both root environments, whereas quadratic responses were significant for plants in pots but not for plants in the ground. Tests of proportionality of response for yield components showed no evidence of significant differences between plants in pots and in the ground except weight per 100 seeds. Seed yield enhancement at 1.9 times ambient CO{sub 2} was 36% for plants in pots and 33% for plants in the ground. Overall, proportional response of soybean to CO{sub 2} enrichment was relatively uniform in spite of large differences in baseline growth and yield.

  1. Novelty-induced conditioned place preference, sucrose preference, and elevated plus maze behavior in adult rats after repeated exposure to methylphenidate during the preweanling period.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Cynthia A; Der-Ghazarian, Taleen; Britt, Cynthia E; Varela, Fausto A; Kozanian, Olga O

    2013-06-01

    Early treatment with methylphenidate has a persistent effect on the affective (i.e., anxiety- and depressive-like) behaviors of adult rats and mice. Interestingly, age at methylphenidate exposure appears to be a critical determinant influencing the expression of affective behaviors. In the present study, we exposed rats to methylphenidate during the preweanling period (i.e., PD 11-PD 20) because this ontogenetic period is analogous to early childhood in humans (an age associated with increasing methylphenidate usage). Rats were injected with methylphenidate (0, 2, or 5mg/kg) from PD 11 to PD 20 and reactivity to rewarding and aversive stimuli were measured in early adulthood. Specifically, novelty-induced CPP, sucrose preference, and elevated plus maze behavior were assessed on PD 60. Early treatment with 2 or 5mg/kg methylphenidate increased total time spent in the white compartment of the CPP chamber. This methylphenidate-induced effect occurred regardless of exposure condition. Performance on the elevated plus maze was also impacted by early methylphenidate exposure, because rats treated with 5mg/kg methylphenidate spent more time in the closed compartment of the elevated plus maze than vehicle controls. Early methylphenidate exposure did not alter sucrose preference. These data indicate that exposing rats to methylphenidate during the preweanling period differentially affects anxiety-like behavior depending on the type of anxiety-provoking stimulus. Specifically, early methylphenidate exposure decreased aversion to a bright white room when measured on a novelty-induced CPP task, whereas methylphenidate caused a long-term increase in anxiety when measured on the elevated plus maze. PMID:23466690

  2. Geogenic sources of benzene in aquifers used for public supply, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belitz, Kenneth; Landon, Matthew K.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical evaluation of two large statewide data sets from the California State Water Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program (1973 wells) and the California Department of Public Health (12417 wells) reveals that benzene occurs infrequently (1.7%) and at generally low concentrations (median detected concentration of 0.024 μg/L) in groundwater used for public supply in California. When detected, benzene is more often related to geogenic (45% of detections) than anthropogenic sources (27% of detections). Similar relations are evident for the sum of 17 hydrocarbons analyzed. Benzene occurs most frequently and at the highest concentrations in old, brackish, and reducing groundwater; the detection frequency was 13.0% in groundwater with tritium <1 pCi/L, specific conductance >1600 μS/cm, and anoxic conditions. This groundwater is typically deep (>180 m). Benzene occurs somewhat less frequently in recent, shallow, and reducing groundwater; the detection frequency was 2.6% in groundwater with tritium ≥1 pCi/L, depth <30 m, and anoxic conditions. Evidence for geogenic sources of benzene include: higher concentrations and detection frequencies with increasing well depth, groundwater age, and proximity to oil and gas fields; and higher salinity and lower chloride/iodide ratios in old groundwater with detections of benzene, consistent with interactions with oil-field brines.

  3. Demographic, residential, and behavioral determinants of elevated exposures to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes among the U.S. population: results from 1999-2000 NHANES.

    PubMed

    Symanski, Elaine; Stock, Thomas H; Tee, P Grace; Chan, Wenyaw

    2009-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) represent a broad spectrum of compounds and there is growing concern that VOC exposures, in addition to increasing risks for cancer, may be implicated in exacerbating asthma and other adverse respiratory effects. Yet little is known about exposures in the U.S. population beyond the seminal Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) studies that were conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) between 1979 and 1987. This investigation was carried out to evaluate the relationship between personal exposures to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) and socioeconomic, behavioral, demographic, and residential characteristics using a subsample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (636 participants who represented an estimated 141,363,503 persons aged 20 to 59 yr in the United States). Personal VOC exposures were evaluated using organic vapor monitors for periods that ranged from 48 to 72 h, and participants were administered a questionnaire regarding personal behaviors and residential characteristics while wearing the monitor. Geometric mean (GM) levels were significantly higher for males for all compounds except toluene. For benzene, GM levels were elevated among smokers and Hispanics. Sociodemographic characteristics could not be evaluated simultaneously in the weighted multiple regression models with the VOC questionnaire data because of issues associated with multicollinearity. Results from the regression analyses suggest that the presence of an attached garage (BTEX), having windows closed in the home during the monitoring period (benzene, toluene), pumping gasoline (toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), or using paint thinner, brush cleaner, or stripper (xylenes) results in higher exposure in the general population and confirm previous findings of studies that were more regional in scope. Once the complete NHANES VOC data are released, additional study is warranted to

  4. The relationship between specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in anatomically based human body models for plane wave exposure from 30 MHz to 6 GHz.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; Oizumi, Takuya; Hanatani, Ryuto; Chan, Kwok Hung; Wiart, Joe

    2013-02-21

    According to the international safety guidelines/standard, the whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (Poljak et al 2003 IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 45 141-5) and the peak spatial average SAR are used as metrics for human protection from whole-body and localized exposures, respectively. The IEEE standard (IEEE 2006 IEEE C95.1) indicates that the upper boundary frequency, over which the whole-body-averaged SAR is deemed to be the basic restriction, has been reduced from 6 to 3 GHz, because radio-wave energy is absorbed around the body surface when the frequency is increased. However, no quantitative discussion has been provided to support this description especially from the standpoint of temperature elevation. It is of interest to investigate the maximum temperature elevation in addition to the core temperature even for a whole-body exposure. In the present study, using anatomically based human models, we computed the SAR and the temperature elevation for a plane-wave exposure from 30 MHz to 6 GHz, taking into account the thermoregulatory response. As the primary result, we found that the ratio of the core temperature elevation to the whole-body-averaged SAR is almost frequency independent for frequencies below a few gigahertz; the ratio decreases above this frequency. At frequencies higher than a few gigahertz, core temperature elevation for the same whole-body averaged SAR becomes lower due to heat convection from the skin to air. This lower core temperature elevation is attributable to skin temperature elevation caused by the power absorption around the body surface. Then, core temperature elevation even for whole-body averaged SAR of 4 W kg(-1) with the duration of 1 h was at most 0.8 °C, which is smaller than a threshold considered in the safety guidelines/standard. Further, the peak 10 g averaged SAR is correlated with the maximum body temperature elevations without extremities and pinna over the frequencies considered. These findings

  5. Inter and intra-specific variation in photosynthetic acclimation response to long term exposure of elevated carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, M. |

    1996-08-01

    The response of intra and interspecific variation in photosynthetic acclimation to growth at elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration (600{micro}mol mol-l) in six important grassland species was investigated. Plants were grown in a background sward of Lolium perenne and measurements were made after four years of growth at elevated C{sub a}. Elevated CO{sub 2} was maintained using a FACE (Free-Air Carbon Enrichment) system. Significant intra and interspecific variation in acclimation response was demonstrated. The response of adaxial and abaxial stomatal conductance to elevated CO{sub 2} was also investigated. The stomatal conductance of both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces was found to be reduced by elevated C{sub a}. Significant asymmetric responses in stomatal conductance was demonstrated in D. glomerata and T. pratense. Analysis of stomatal indices and densities indicated that the observed reductions in stomatal conductance were probably the result of changes in stomatal aperture.

  6. Elevated blood lead levels and sources of exposure in the population of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Tuakuila, Joel; Lison, Dominique; Mbuyi, Francois; Haufroid, Vincent; Hoet, Perrine

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine blood lead levels (BLLs) and the possible sources of exposure in the population of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from January to May 2008 in a representative sample of the Kinshasan population. BLL was measured in 275 individuals (53.4% women) aged 1-70 years in the urban area of Kinshasa and from 60 additional subjects in the rural area. Pb was also determined in environmental specimens (air and soil, indoor and outdoor). BLL in the study population ranged from 2.9 to 49.3 μg/dl (median, 9.9 μg/dl). The median BLL among children aged <6 years was 11.5 μg/dl (range: 3.0-37.8 μg/dl). Of these children, 71% had elevated BLL (≥10 μg/dl) and 22% had BLL ≥20 μg/dl. The proportion of elevated BLL (≥10 μg/dl) was higher for children aged <3 years than for children aged 3 to 5 years (97% vs 56%). A higher prevalence of elevated BLL was observed in urban compared with rural children (71% vs 20%). Significantly higher BLLs were also found in children whose mother consumed fired clay during pregnancy. Residential informal activities in the recycling of car batteries also contributed to elevated BLL in children. The elevated background of Pb exposure in the Kinshasan population indicates a public health issue that requires corrective actions. Pb-contaminated dust and air in children's home is an issue of public health concern. The use of leaded gasoline and the activities of car battery recycling in certain residences appear to constitute the main sources of exposure in the city of Kinshasa. The traditional use of fired clay for the treatment of gastritis by pregnant women is another significant contributor for elevated BLL in children. PMID:22617721

  7. What are the main environmental exposures associated with elevated IgE in Cuban infants? A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Fundora-Hernández, Hermes; Venero-Fernández, Silvia J; Suárez-Medina, Ramón; Mora-Faife, Esperanza de la C; García-García, Gladys; del Valle-Infante, Ileana; Gómez-Marrero, Liem; Venn, Andrea; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays a key role in allergy disease pathogenesis, but little is known about the environmental factors associated with higher IgE levels in infants. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for elevated serum total IgE infants living in Havana. Methods Eight hundred and seventy-seven infants provided blood samples. Data on allergic disease symptoms and a wide range of exposures were collected. Results The median IgE was 35IU/ml (interquartile range 13–96). The risk of having an IgE level above the median was higher for children who had been breastfed for 4 months or more (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.61) and for children who reported cockroaches in their home (OR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.03–1.63). The risk was lower for children whose mother was in paid employment (OR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.54–0.97 compared with those who did not), for children living in homes where gas and electricity were used for cooking (OR 0.45; 95% CI: 0.32–0.62 compared with electricity only) and for children with domestic pets at birth (OR 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70-1.00). There was no association between paracetamol use and serum IgE levels. Conclusions Associations between gas fuel use and maternal employment indicate that IgE levels in early life are lower in children who may be living in relative affluence. The discrepancy in the effect of early exposure to pets or cockroaches may reflect differences in these allergens, or be confounded by relative affluence. Further investigation of this cohort will determine how these effects translate into the expression of allergic disease in later life. Objectif Les immunoglobulines E (IgE) jouent un rôle clé dans la pathogenèse de la maladie allergique, mais on sait peu sur les facteurs environnementaux associés à des taux plus élevés d'IgE chez les nourrissons. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs de risque pour un taux élevé d'IgE s

  8. Physiological and phenological bases of decline in growth enhancement after long-term exposure to elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, S.L.; Bazzaa, F.A. )

    1994-06-01

    We addressed the degree to which CO[sub 2]-induced growth enhancement in six temperate deciduous tree species is sustained, the physiological and phenological bases that underlie the growth response, and the effects of naturally occurring resource heterogeneity on seedling and sampling response to CO[sub 2] after three years of growth. At the end of year three, CO[sub 2]-induced growth enhancements decline with different degree among species and resource treatments. Photosynthetic rates as a function of intercellular CO[sub 2] concentrations were greatly influenced by elevated CO[sub 2], nutrients, light, and species. High CO[sub 2] plants, however, showed higher photosynthetic rates than ambient CO[sub 2] plants when both groups were measured in CO[sub 2] concentrations in situ. The photosynthetic enhancement is elevated CO[sub 2] largely resulted from higher intercellular CO[sub 2] levels. In contrast to photosynthesis, stomatal conductance showed little variation. The effect of elevated CO[sub 2] on leaf phenology was species-specific. In gray birch and yellow birch, ambient CO[sub 2] plants had lower leaf bud mortality and a faster rate of leaf bud break than high CO[sub 2] plants. In contrast, in red maple and striped maple, elevated CO[sub 2] plants showed lower leaf bud mortality in some treatments and there was no statistical difference in leaf bud break between ambient and elevated CO[sub 2] plants. These results show that beneficial effects of higher photosynthetic rates on growth in a high CO[sub 2] environment may be negated in some species by changes in other plant traits. Differential responses of species to elevated CO[sub 2] may have important implications for forest regeneration and species composition.

  9. Geogenic arsenic and other trace elements in the shallow hydrogeologic system of Southern Poopó Basin, Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio; Wern, Hannes; Johnsson, Fredrick; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Thunvik, Roger; Quintanilla, Jorge; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2013-11-15

    Environmental settings in the southern area of Lake Poopó in the Bolivian highlands, the Altiplano, have generated elevated amounts of arsenic (As) in the water. The area is characterised by a semiarid climate, slow hydrological flow and geologic formations of predominantly volcanic origin. The present study aimed at mapping the extent of the water contamination in the area and to investigate the geogenic sources and processes involved in the release of As to the groundwater. Ground- and surface-water samples were collected from 24 different sites, including drinking water wells and rivers, in the southern Poopó basin in two different field campaigns during the dry and rainy seasons. The results revealed variable levels of As in shallow drinking water wells and average concentration exceeding the WHO guidelines value. Arsenic concentrations range from below 5.2 μg/L (the detection level) to 207 μg/L and averages 72 μg/L. Additionally, high boron (B) concentrations (average 1902 μg/L), and high salinity are further serious concerns for deteriorating the groundwater quality and rendering it unsuitable for drinking. Groundwater is predominantly of the Na-Cl-HCO3 type or the Ca-Na-HCO3 type with neutral or slightly alkaline pH and oxidising character. While farmers are seriously concerned about the water scarcity, and on a few occasions about salinity, there are no concerns about As and B present at levels exceeding the WHO guidelines, and causing negative long term effects on human health. Sediment samples from two soil profiles and a river bed along with fourteen rock samples were also collected and analysed. Sequential extractions of the sediments together with the calculation of the mineral saturation indices indicate that iron oxides and hydroxides are the important secondary minerals phases which are important adsorbents for As. High pH values, and the competition of As with HCO3 and dissolved silica for the adsorption sites probably seems to be an

  10. Elevated Human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene expression in blood cells associated with chronic and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposure is associated with human cancer. Telomerase containing the catalytic subunit, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), can extend telomeres of chromosomes, delay senescence and promoting cell proliferation leading to tumorigenesis. OBJECTIVE:...

  11. Element Pool Changes within a Scrub-Oak Ecosystem after 11 Years of Exposure to Elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Benjamin D.; Dijkstra, Paul; Drake, Bert G.; Johnson, Dale W.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Hungate, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 on ecosystem element stocks are equivocal, in part because cumulative effects of CO2 on element pools are difficult to detect. We conducted a complete above and belowground inventory of non-nitrogen macro- and micronutrient stocks in a subtropical woodland exposed to twice-ambient CO2 concentrations for 11 years. We analyzed a suite of nutrient elements and metals important for nutrient cycling in soils to a depth of ∼2 m, in leaves and stems of the dominant oaks, in fine and coarse roots, and in litter. In conjunction with large biomass stimulation, elevated CO2 increased oak stem stocks of Na, Mg, P, K, V, Zn and Mo, and the aboveground pool of K and S. Elevated CO2 increased root pools of most elements, except Zn. CO2-stimulation of plant Ca was larger than the decline in the extractable Ca pool in soils, whereas for other elements, increased plant uptake matched the decline in the extractable pool in soil. We conclude that elevated CO2 caused a net transfer of a subset of nutrients from soil to plants, suggesting that ecosystems with a positive plant growth response under high CO2 will likely cause mobilization of elements from soil pools to plant biomass. PMID:23717607

  12. Temporal dynamics of fine roots under long-term exposure to elevated CO2 in the Mojave Desert.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Derek L; Ogle, Kiona; Evans, R Dave; Ferguson, Scot; Nowak, Robert S

    2013-04-01

    Deserts are considered 'below-ground dominated', yet little is known about the impact of rising CO(2) in combination with natural weather cycles on long-term dynamics of root biomass. This study quantifies the temporal dynamics of fine-root production, loss and standing crop in an intact desert ecosystem exposed to 10 yr of elevated CO(2). We used monthly minirhizotron observations from 4 yr (2003-2007) for two dominant shrub species and along community transects at the Nevada Desert free-air CO(2) enrichment Facility. Data were synthesized within a Bayesian framework that included effects of CO(2) concentration, cover type, phenological period, antecedent soil water and biological inertia (i.e. the influence of prior root production and loss). Elevated CO(2) treatment interacted with antecedent soil moisture and had significantly greater effects on fine-root dynamics during certain phenological periods. With respect to biological inertia, plants under elevated CO(2) tended to initiate fine-root growth sooner and sustain growth longer, with the net effect of increasing the magnitude of production and mortality cycles. Elevated CO(2) interacts with past environmental (e.g. antecedent soil water) and biological (e.g. biological inertia) factors to affect fine-root dynamics, and such interactions are expected to be important for predicting future soil carbon pools. PMID:23356437

  13. Element pool changes within a scrub-oak ecosystem after 11 years of elevated CO2 exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated CO2 effects on soil element pool size and fluxes are equivocal. We measured above and belowground pools of non-nitrogen macro and micronutrients in a Florida scrub-oak ecosystem exposed to twice-ambient CO2 concentrations for 11 years. We quantified element pools in above ground biomass of ...

  14. Salivary cortisol levels are elevated in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Keiver, Kathy; Bertram, Chris P; Orr, Alison Pritchard; Clarren, Sterling

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may underlie some of the behavioral and adaptive problems seen in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Infants prenatally exposed to alcohol show altered basal and post-stress cortisol levels, but it is unknown if this persists beyond 2 years of age. It is also unknown if cortisol levels can be normalized through intervention programs. In this study, we investigated the effects of a physical activity program for children with FASD to determine: 1) if HPA dysregulation persists in school-age children with FASD, and 2) the effect of our program on cortisol levels. Twenty six children (ages 6-14 years) with FASD participated in an 8 week motor skill development program. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 24 children and compared at 4 time points: before, immediately after, 3 months, and 1 year after program completion. Cortisol levels were also compared to 32 control children to evaluate the long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on HPA regulation. For each time point, saliva was collected on each of 2 days at 3 times in the diurnal cycle: awakening, after school, and just before bedtime. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with FASD with confirmed prenatal exposure to high levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 4), compared with Control children or children with FASD with exposure to low or unknown levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 3). The program did not significantly affect cortisol levels in children with FASD as a group. These results provide support for long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the HPA system in humans, which could increase vulnerability to mental health issues and diseases later in life. PMID:25583378

  15. Elevating your elevator talk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  16. Common occurrence of a positive δ53Cr shift in Central European waters contaminated by geogenic/industrial chromium relative to source values.

    PubMed

    Novak, Martin; Chrastny, Vladislav; Cadkova, Eva; Farkas, Juraj; Bullen, Thomas D; Tylcer, Jiri; Szurmanova, Zdenka; Cron, Marcel; Prechova, Eva; Curik, Jan; Stepanova, Marketa; Pasava, Jan; Erbanova, Lucie; Houskova, Marie; Puncochar, Karel; Hellerich, Lucas A

    2014-06-01

    Carcinogenic effects of hexavalent chromium in waters are of concern in many countries worldwide. We explored Cr isotope systematics at 11 sites in the Czech Republic and Poland. Geogenic Cr pollution was associated with serpentinite bodies at former convergent plate margins, while anthropogenic Cr pollution resulted from electroplating, tanning, and the chemical industry. Cr(VI) concentration in geogenic waters was less than 40 ppb. Anthropogenic waters contained up to 127,000 ppb Cr(VI). At both geogenic and anthropogenic sites, where known, the source of pollution had a low δ53Cr (<1‰). δ53Cr of geogenic and anthropogenic waters was up to 3.9 and 5.8‰, respectively. At both serpentinite-dominated and industrial sites, δ53Cr(VI)aq was shifted toward higher values, compared to the pollution source. At the industrial sites, this positive δ53Cr shift was related to Cr(VI) reduction, a process known to fractionate Cr isotopes. At geogenic sites, the origin of high δ53Cr(VI)aq is tentatively ascribed to preferential release of 53Cr during oxidation of soil Cr(III) and its mobilization to water. δ53Cr(VI) of industrially contaminated waters was significantly higher (p<0.001) compared to δ53Cr of waters carrying geogenic Cr(VI), implying that either the effective fractionation factor or process extent was greater for Cr(VI) reduction than for Cr(III) oxidation. PMID:24779992

  17. Exposure to elevated temperature and Pco(2) reduces respiration rate and energy status in the periwinkle Littorina littorea.

    PubMed

    Melatunan, Sedercor; Calosi, Piero; Rundle, Simon D; Moody, A John; Widdicombe, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In the future, marine organisms will face the challenge of coping with multiple environmental changes associated with increased levels of atmospheric Pco(2), such as ocean warming and acidification. To predict how organisms may or may not meet these challenges, an in-depth understanding of the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underpinning organismal responses to climate change is needed. Here, we investigate the effects of elevated Pco(2) and temperature on the whole-organism and cellular physiology of the periwinkle Littorina littorea. Metabolic rates (measured as respiration rates), adenylate energy nucleotide concentrations and indexes, and end-product metabolite concentrations were measured. Compared with values for control conditions, snails decreased their respiration rate by 31% in response to elevated Pco(2) and by 15% in response to a combination of increased Pco(2) and temperature. Decreased respiration rates were associated with metabolic reduction and an increase in end-product metabolites in acidified treatments, indicating an increased reliance on anaerobic metabolism. There was also an interactive effect of elevated Pco(2) and temperature on total adenylate nucleotides, which was apparently compensated for by the maintenance of adenylate energy charge via AMP deaminase activity. Our findings suggest that marine intertidal organisms are likely to exhibit complex physiological responses to future environmental drivers, with likely negative effects on growth, population dynamics, and, ultimately, ecosystem processes. PMID:22030851

  18. Ocular temperature elevation induced by threshold in vivo exposure to 1090-nm infrared radiation and associated heat diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhaohua; Schulmeister, Karl; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Kronschläger, Martin; Söderberg, Per G.

    2014-10-01

    An in vivo exposure to 197 W/cm2 1090-nm infrared radiation (IRR) requires a minimum 8 s for cataract induction. The present study aims to determine the ocular temperature evolution and the associated heat flow at the same exposure conditions. Two groups of 12 rats were unilaterally exposed within the dilated pupil with a close to collimated beam between lens and retina. Temperature was recorded with thermocouples. Within 5 min after exposure, the lens light scattering was measured. In one group, the temperature rise in the exposed eye, expressed as a confidence interval (0.95), was 11±3°C at the limbus, 16±6°C in the vitreous behind lens, and 16±7°C on the sclera next to the optic nerve, respectively. In the other group, the temperature rise in the exposed eye was 9±1°C at the limbus and 26±11°C on the sclera next to the optic nerve, respectively. The difference of forward light scattering between exposed and contralateral not exposed eye was 0.01±0.09 tEDC. An exposure to 197 W/cm2 1090-nm IRR for 8 s induces a temperature increase of 10°C at the limbus and 26°C close to the retina. IRR cataract is probably of thermal origin.

  19. Elevated ERCC-1 Gene Expression in blood cells associated with exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Inner Mongolia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with human cancers. The objective of this study was to investigate arsenic effects on a DNA nucleotide excision repair gene, ERCC1, expression in human blood cells. Material and Methods: Water and toe nail samples were coll...

  20. Soil respiration, root biomass, and root turnover following long-term exposure of northern forests to elevated atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3.

    PubMed

    Pregitzer, Kurt S; Burton, Andrew J; King, John S; Zak, Donald R

    2008-01-01

    The Rhinelander free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) experiment is designed to understand ecosystem response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (+CO(2)) and elevated tropospheric ozone (+O(3)). The objectives of this study were: to understand how soil respiration responded to the experimental treatments; to determine whether fine-root biomass was correlated to rates of soil respiration; and to measure rates of fine-root turnover in aspen (Populus tremuloides) forests and determine whether root turnover might be driving patterns in soil respiration. Soil respiration was measured, root biomass was determined, and estimates of root production, mortality and biomass turnover were made. Soil respiration was greatest in the +CO(2) and +CO(2) +O(3) treatments across all three plant communities. Soil respiration was correlated with increases in fine-root biomass. In the aspen community, annual fine-root production and mortality (g m(-2)) were positively affected by +O(3). After 10 yr of exposure, +CO(2) +O(3)-induced increases in belowground carbon allocation suggest that the positive effects of elevated CO(2) on belowground net primary productivity (NPP) may not be offset by negative effects of O(3). For the aspen community, fine-root biomass is actually stimulated by +O(3), and especially +CO(2) +O(3). PMID:18643941

  1. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.): allergenicity and molecular characterization of pollen after plant exposure to elevated NO2.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Elkelish, Amr; Durner, Jörg; Lindermayr, Christian; Winkler, J Barbro; Ruёff, Franziska; Behrendt, Heidrun; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Holzinger, Andreas; Kofler, Werner; Braun, Paula; von Toerne, Christine; Hauck, Stefanie M; Ernst, Dieter; Frank, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Ragweed pollen is the main cause of allergenic diseases in Northern America, and the weed has become a spreading neophyte in Europe. Climate change and air pollution are speculated to affect the allergenic potential of pollen. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of NO2 , a major air pollutant, under controlled conditions, on the allergenicity of ragweed pollen. Ragweed was exposed to different levels of NO2 throughout the entire growing season, and its pollen further analysed. Spectroscopic analysis showed increased outer cell wall polymers and decreased amounts of pectin. Proteome studies using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry indicated increased amounts of several Amb a 1 isoforms and of another allergen with great homology to enolase Hev b 9 from rubber tree. Analysis of protein S-nitrosylation identified nitrosylated proteins in pollen from both conditions, including Amb a 1 isoforms. However, elevated NO2 significantly enhanced the overall nitrosylation. Finally, we demonstrated increased overall pollen allergenicity by immunoblotting using ragweed antisera, showing a significantly higher allergenicity for Amb a 1. The data highlight a direct influence of elevated NO2 on the increased allergenicity of ragweed pollen and a direct correlation with an increased risk for human health. PMID:26177592

  2. Effect of service exposure on fatigue crack propagation of Inconel 718 turbine disc material at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Dae-Ho; Choi, Myung-Je; Goto, Masahiro; Lee, Hong-Chul; Kim, Sangshik

    2014-09-15

    In this study, the fatigue crack propagation behavior of Inconel 718 turbine disc with different service times from 0 to 4229 h was investigated at 738 and 823 K. No notable change in microstructural features, other than the increase in grain size, was observed with increasing service time. With increasing service time from 0 to 4229 h, the fatigue crack propagation rates tended to increase, while the ΔK{sub th} value decreased, in low ΔK regime and lower Paris' regime at both testing temperatures. The fractographic observation using a scanning electron microscope suggested that the elevated temperature fatigue crack propagation mechanism of Inconel 718 changed from crystallographic cleavage mechanism to striation mechanism in the low ΔK regime, depending on the grain size. The fatigue crack propagation mechanism is proposed for the crack propagating through small and large grains in the low ΔK regime, and the fatigue crack propagation behavior of Inconel 718 with different service times at elevated temperatures is discussed. - Highlights: • The specimens were prepared from the Inconel 718 turbine disc used for 0 to 4229 h. • FCP rates were measured at 738 and 823 K. • The ΔK{sub th} values decreased with increasing service time. • The FCP behavior showed a strong correlation with the grain size of used turbine disc.

  3. Indicators for elevated risk of human exposure to host-seeking adults of the Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni) in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lars; Ibarra-Juarez, Luis A; Eisen, Rebecca J; Piesman, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    The human-biting adult stage of the Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni) can cause tick paralysis in humans and domestic animals and is the primary tick vector in the intermountain west of the pathogens causing Colorado tick fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and tularemia. We conducted drag sampling studies in Poudre Canyon and Rocky Mountain National Park of Larimer County, CO, to determine microhabitat use patterns by host-seeking D. andersoni adults and find environmental factors signaling elevated risk of tick exposure. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) was found to serve as a general indicator of areas with elevated risk of exposure to host-seeking D. andersoni adults; this likely results from a shared climate tolerance of big sagebrush and D. andersoni. Grass was the favored substrate for host-seeking ticks. Drag sampling of open grass or grass bordering rock or shrub produced abundances of D. andersoni adults significantly higher than sampling of brush. Sampling sites in Rocky Mountain National Park, relative to Poudre Canyon, were characterized by more intense usage by elk (Cervus elaphus) but decreased brush coverage, smaller brush size, and lower abundances of host-seeking D. andersoni adults. There has been a tremendous increase in the population of elk in Rocky Mountain National Park over the last decades and we speculate that this has resulted in an ecological cascade where overgrazing of vegetation by elk is followed by suppression of rodent populations, decreased tick abundance, and, ultimately, reduced risk of human exposure to D. andersoni and its associated pathogens. PMID:18697314

  4. Prenatal exposure to the contaminant perfluorooctane sulfonate elevates lipid peroxidation during mouse fetal development but not in the pregnant dam.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y Y; Wong, C K C; Oger, C; Durand, T; Galano, J-M; Lee, J C-Y

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a member of the perfluorinated chemical family, has been convincingly demonstrated to affect lipid metabolism in animals and humans and readily crosses the placenta to exert its effects on the developing fetuses. While its exact mechanism is still not clear, PFOS exposure has long been suggested to exert its toxicity via oxidative stress and/or altered gene expression. Levels of PFOS and malondialdehyde in various organs and cell cultures have been widely determined as general indicators of non-specific lipid peroxidation after PFOS exposure. In this study, the oxidation of precise polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites, derived from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways was determined following PFOS exposure in both adult and maternal/fetal mice. CD-1 mice were exposed to 3 mg/kg body weight/day of PFOS in corn oil by oral gavage until late gestation (GD17). We demonstrated that lipid peroxidation was particularly and exclusively affected in fetuses exposed to PFOS, but this was not the case in the maternal mice, where limited effects were observed in the enzymatic oxidation pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that PFOS-induced lipid peroxidation might have a greater impact in free radical generation in fetuses than in dams and could be responsible for affecting fetal development. In addition, antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, appeared to maintain oxidative stress homeostasis partially in adult mice exposed to PFOS. Taken together, our results might elucidate the mechanism of how PFOS induces oxidative stress in vivo. PMID:25787935

  5. Characterization and mobility of geogenic chromium in soils and river bed sediments of Asopos basin.

    PubMed

    Lilli, Maria A; Moraetis, Daniel; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Karatzas, George P; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    A field and laboratory study was conducted to assess the origin and mobility of CrVI in Asopos basin in Greece. Sampling was designed in such way as to capture the spatial variability of chromium occurring in sediments and soils in different lithological units in the area. Physicochemical and geochemical characterization of surface agricultural soils obtained from river terraces and river bed sediments was conducted in order to determine the natural background of chromium. Lithologies with strong calcareous, siliceous and ultramafic components were identified using principal component analysis. Laboratory mobility studies quantified the rates of chromium sorption and release from soils and their capacity to adsorb chromium. Heavy metal analysis and local geology study support the hypothesis that the main source of chromium is of geogenic origin. Chromium distribution in Asopos river bed was influenced from the eroded products derived from extensive areas with ultramafic rocks the last 5Ma. The mobility studies showed that leaching process was very fast and sorption capacity was significant and capable to retain chromium in case of waste release in the river. Finally the mobility of chromium release is limited due to existing attenuation capacity controlled by ferric oxides coatings on the soil and sediments. PMID:25103879

  6. Elevated plus-maze performance of Fischer-344 rats as a function of age and of exposure to 56Fe particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L.; Carey, Amanda N.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A.; Foster, Brian C.

    The aging process is characterized by a series of changes in neurochemical functioning and in motor and cognitive performance. In addition to changes in cognitive/behavioral performance, aged rats also show an increase in baseline anxiety measured using the elevated plus-maze. Exposure to 56Fe particles, a component of cosmic rays, produces neurochemical and behavioral changes in young animals which are characteristic of aged organisms. The present study was designed to determine the relationships between aging and exposure to 56Fe particles on anxiety. Fischer-344 (F-344), which were 2, 7, 12, and 16 months of age at the time of irradiation, were exposed to 56Fe particles (50 200 cGy). Concordant with previous results, the oldest rats spent less time exploring the open arms of the maze. Exposure to 56Fe particles also produced decreased exploration of the open arms of the plus-maze. The dose needed to produce increased levels of anxiety was a function of age at the time of irradiation. The dose of 56Fe particles needed to produce a decrease in open arm exploration was significantly lower in the rats that were irradiated at 7 and 12 months of age than in the rats irradiated at 2 months of age. These results suggest the possibility that exposing middle-aged astronauts to cosmic rays during exploratory class missions outside the magnetosphere, and the resultant effects on exploration-induced anxiety, may affect their ability to successfully complete mission requirements.

  7. Late-Postnatal Cannabinoid Exposure Persistently Elevates Dendritic Spine Densities in Area X and HVC Song Regions of Zebra Finch Telencephalon

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Marcoita T.; Soderstrom, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Centrally acting cannabinoids are well known for their ability to impair functions associated with both learning and memory but appreciation of the physiological mechanisms underlying these actions, particularly those that persist, remains incomplete. Our earlier studies have shown that song stereotypy is persistently reduced in male zebra finches that have been developmentally exposed to cannabinoids. In the present work, we examined the extent to which changes in neuronal morphology (dendritic spine densities and soma size) within brain regions associated with zebra finch vocal learning are affected by late-postnatal cannabinoid agonist exposure. We found that daily treatment with the cannabinoid agonist WIN55212-2 (WIN, 1 mg/kg IM) is associated with 27 % and 31 % elevations in dendritic spine densities in the song regions Area X and HVC, respectively. We also found an overall increase in cell diameter within HVC. Changes in dendritic spine densities were only produced following developmental exposure; treatments given to adults that had completed vocal learning were not effective. These findings have important implications for understanding how repeated cannabinoid exposure can produce significant, lasting alteration of brain morphology, which may contribute to altered development and behavior. PMID:21737064

  8. Physical Activity- and Alcohol-dependent Association Between Air Pollution Exposure and Elevated Liver Enzyme Levels: An Elderly Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Kweon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The deleterious effects of air pollution on various health outcomes have been demonstrated. However, few studies have examined the effects of air pollution on liver enzyme levels. Methods: Blood samples were drawn up to three times between 2008 and 2010 from 545 elderly individuals who regularly visited a community welfare center in Seoul, Korea. Data regarding ambient air pollutants (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm [PM2.5], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide) from monitoring stations were used to estimate air pollution exposure. The effects of the air pollutants on the concentrations of three liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase [γ-GTP)]) were evaluated using generalized additive and linear mixed models. Results: Interquartile range increases in the concentrations of the pollutants showed significant associations of PM2.5 with AST (3.0% increase, p=0.0052), ALT (3.2% increase, p=0.0313), and γ-GTP (5.0% increase, p=0.0051) levels; NO2 with AST (3.5% increase, p=0.0060) and ALT (3.8% increase, p=0.0179) levels; and O3 with γ-GTP (5.3% increase, p=0.0324) levels. Significant modification of these effects by exercise and alcohol consumption was found (p for interaction <0.05). The effects of air pollutants were greater in non-exercisers and heavy drinkers. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to air pollutants such as PM2.5, NO2, and O3 is associated with increased liver enzyme levels in the elderly. These adverse effects can be reduced by exercising regularly and abstinence from alcohol. PMID:26081652

  9. Radium-226-contaminated drinking water: Hypothesis on an exposure pathway in a population with elevated childhood leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, W.; Kranefeld, A.; Schmitz-Feuerhake, I.

    1993-10-01

    A recent epidemiological survey on childhood malignant disease in the region of Ellweiler, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, revealed a significantly increased incidence of childhood leukemia, but observed incidences of lymphoma and solid tumors were normal. Established risk factors such as individual exposure to chemicals as well as hereditary genetic disorders were ruled out in interviews with the patients or their families. The general population in the region, however, is subjected to considerable doses of ionizing radiation due to high levels of external {gamma} radiation and high activities of indoor radon. Radiation-specific chromosome aberrations were found in one of two healthy siblings and one father of leukemia patients as well as in any of three probands living in houses with high indoor radon activities. Radon and natural {gamma} radiation, however, cannot explain the geographical pattern of the cases. Four out of seven cases were observed in two particular villages near a uranium processing plant. The drinking water of these villages partly came from a small river that was contaminated with radium-226 washed out from the dumps of the uranium plant. Only sparse measurements of {sup 226}Ra are available, but derived red bone marrow doses for children in the two villages obtained from a simple radio-ecological model show the significance of the drinking water pathway. Prenatal {sup 226}Ra exposure of fetuses due to placental transfer and accumulation may have led to significant doses and may explain the excess cases of childhood leukemia in the region even in quantitative terms. 11 refs., 6 tabs.

  10. Profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalves of low and elevated toxicities following exposure to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms in Portuguese estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Maria João; Vale, Carlos; Ferreira, João Gomes

    2015-11-01

    Profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were examined in 405 composite samples of Mytilus spp., Cerastoderma edule, Donax trunculus and Spisula solida collected between 2007 and 2012 from natural production areas in two estuaries (Aveiro and Mondego), two coastal lagoons (Óbidos and Formosa), and three open coastal areas (Aguda, Comporta and Culatra). Toxin concentrations were obtained from the biotoxin monitoring programme database. Episodes of PST toxicity in Portugal have been associated with Gymnodinium catenatum blooms. Toxin profiles for each species showed no trend over the surveyed years. In general, profiles differ only slightly among areas, except for Óbidos. However, toxin profiles in bivalves varied between low and elevated toxicities, corresponding to below and above the PST regulatory limit, respectively. The ratio R1=(C1+2):B1, which were the main toxins produced by G. catenatum cells, decreased considerably between elevated and low toxicity cockles, indicating the elimination of C1+2 or conversion of compounds into B1. R2=[(dcSTX)+(dcGTX2+3)]:[(C1+2)+(B1)], which represents the ratio of minor to major toxins in G. catenatum cells, increased substantially in wedge clams (D. trunculus) of low toxicity and less markedly in cockles (C. edule) and mussels (Mytilus spp.). These differences are interpreted as the predominance of a biotransformation phase after exposure to the algal bloom. The toxin profile of surf clams (S. solida) was dominated by decarbamoyl compounds, reflecting intense biotransformation during exposure to blooms. The higher ratio R2 in low toxicity samples suggests that elimination of the produced decarbamoyl toxins was slower than biotransformation. PMID:25616737

  11. Age-related qualitative shift in emotional behaviour: paradoxical findings after re-exposure of rats in the elevated-plus maze.

    PubMed

    Bessa, J M; Oliveira, M; Cerqueira, J J; Almeida, O F X; Sousa, N

    2005-07-01

    Several variables, including age, are known to influence anxiety. Previous exposure to the elevated-plus maze (EPM) is known to modify emotional behaviour as retesting in the EPM at a standard age of 3 months increases open-arm avoidance and attenuates the effects of anxiolytic drugs. This study analysed whether similar results are obtained when older animals are subjected to these experimental paradigms. Overall, increasing age was associated with more signs of anxiety. Additionally, we observed a paradoxical behaviour pattern in aged-subjects that were re-exposed to the EPM, with mid-aged and old rats failing to display open arm avoidance (OAA) in the second trial; this qualitative shift in emotional behaviour was not associated with decreased locomotion. An examination of how age influences responsiveness to anxiolytic drugs, with or without previous maze experience, was also conducted. Midazolam (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) proved anxiolytic in maize-naive young animals; in marked contrast, in older animals midazolam at 1 mg/kg resulted in sedation but not anxiolyis. One trial tolerance to midazolam was evident in animals of both ages that were subjected to a second EPM trial; the latter phenomenon was apparently accentuated in older animals as they do not show open arm avoidance upon re-exposure to the EPM. These data suggest that the age-associated 'resistance' to anxiolytic drugs might be related to a qualitative shift in emotional behaviour. PMID:15922074

  12. Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability for Antropogenic and Geogenic Contaminants in Subwatershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, K.; Koh, D.; Chae, G.; Cheong, B.

    2007-12-01

    Groundwater is an important natural resource that providing drinking water to more than five million people in Korea. Nonpoint source nitrate was frequently observed contaminant and the investigation result for small potable water supply system that mainly consisted of 70 percent groundwater showed that about 5 percent of water samples exceeded potable water quality standards of Korea. The geogenic contanminants such as arsenic and fluoride also frequently observed contaminants in Korea. In order to protect groundwater and to supply safe water to public, we need to assess groundwater vulnerability and to know the cause of occurrence of contaminants. To achieve this goal, we executed groundwater investigation and assessment study for Keumsan subwatershed with 600km2 in Keum-river watershed. The geostatistical and GIS technique were applied to map the spatial distribution of each contaminants and to calculate vulnerability index. The results of logistic regression for nitrate indicated the close relationship with land use. The results of hydrogeochemical analyses showed that nitrates in groundwater are largely influenced by land use and had high values in granitic region with dense agricultural field and resident. The high nitrates are closely related to groundwater of greenhouse area where large amount of manure and fertilizer were usually introduced in cultural land. The soil in granitic region had high contents of permeable sand of weathered products of granite that play as a role of pathway of contaminants in agricultural land and resident area. The high values of bicarbonate are originated from two sources, limestone dissolution of Ogcheon belt and biodegradation organic pollutants from municipal wastes in granitic region with dense agriculture and residence. It is considered that the anomalous distribution of arsenic and fluoride is related to limestone and metasedimentry rock of Ogcheon belt with high contents of sulfide minerals and F bearing minerals. The

  13. Geogenic and atmospheric sources for volatile organic compounds in fumarolic emissions from Mt. Etna and Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, F.; Capecchiacci, F.; Cabassi, J.; Calabrese, S.; Vaselli, O.; Rouwet, D.; Pecoraino, G.; Chiodini, G.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, fluid source(s) and processes controlling the chemical composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in gas discharges from Mt. Etna and Vulcano Island (Sicily, Italy) were investigated. The main composition of the Etnean and Volcano gas emissions is produced by mixing, to various degrees, of magmatic and hydrothermal components. VOCs are dominated by alkanes, alkenes and aromatics, with minor, though significant, concentrations of O-, S- and Cl(F)-substituted compounds. The main mechanism for the production of alkanes is likely related to pyrolysis of organic-matter-bearing sediments that interact with the ascending magmatic fluids. Alkanes are then converted to alkene and aromatic compounds via catalytic reactions (dehydrogenation and dehydroaromatization, respectively). Nevertheless, an abiogenic origin for the light hydrocarbons cannot be ruled out. Oxidative processes of hydrocarbons at relatively high temperatures and oxidizing conditions, typical of these volcanic-hydrothermal fluids, may explain the production of alcohols, esters, aldehydes, as well as O- and S-bearing heterocycles. By comparing the concentrations of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) in the fumarolic discharges with respect to those of background air, it is possible to highlight that they have a geogenic origin likely due to halogenation of both methane and alkenes. Finally, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) abundances appear to be consistent with background air, although the strong air contamination that affects the Mt. Etna fumaroles may mask a possible geogenic contribution for these compounds. On the other hand, no CFCs were detected in the Vulcano gases, which are characterized by low air contribution. Nevertheless, a geogenic source for these compounds cannot be excluded on the basis of the present data.

  14. Human behaviors elevating exposure to Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs and their associated bacterial zoonotic agents in a hardwood forest.

    PubMed

    Lane, Robert S; Steinlein, Denise B; Mun, Jeomhee

    2004-03-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that the nymph of the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, is the primary vector of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner, to humans in northwestern California. In spring 2002, six different human behaviors were evaluated as potential risk factors for acquiring I. pacificus nymphs in a deciduous woodland in Mendocino County, California. Also, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and the causative agents of human granulocytic (Anaplasma phagocytophilum [Foggie] Dumler, Barbet, Bekker, Dasch, Palmer, Ray, Rikihisa, and Rurangirwa) and monocytic ehrlichioses (Ehrlichia chaffeensis Anderson, Dawson, Jones, and Wilson) was determined in nymphs that had been collected from subjects or by dragging leaf litter. Activities involving a considerable degree of contact with wood resulted in greater acquisition of nymphs than those involving exposure solely to leaf litter. Time-adjusted tick-acquisition rates demonstrated that sitting on logs was the riskiest behavior, followed, in descending rank, by gathering wood, sitting against trees, walking, stirring and sitting on leaf litter, and just sitting on leaf litter. The number of ticks acquired appeared to be unrelated to the type of footwear worn (hiking boots, hiking sandals, or running shoes). Overall, 3.4% (n = 234) of the nymphs were infected with A. phagocytophilum, 3.9% (n = 181) with B. burgdorferi s.l., and none (n = 234) with E. chaffeensis. Of 13 nymphs infected with either A. phagocytophilum or B. burgdorferi s.l., 2 (15.4%) were coinfected with both bacteria, as were 1.3% of 158 nymphs obtained from leaf litter, the first report of coinfection in this life stage of I. pacificus. Four unattached, infected nymphs were removed from subjects, including two acquired while sitting on logs that contained A. phagocytophilum, another with the same bacterium obtained while walking, and one

  15. Cyclic AMP-elevating agents prolong or inhibit eosinophil survival depending on prior exposure to GM-CSF.

    PubMed Central

    Hallsworth, M. P.; Giembycz, M. A.; Barnes, P. J.; Lee, T. H.

    1996-01-01

    and dibutyryl cyclic AMP respectively. 8. In conclusion, cyclic AMP exerts opposing effects on eosinophil survival depending on prior exposure of the cells to GM-CSF. Images Figure 5 PMID:8825346

  16. Elevation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity in Holocaust survivor offspring: evidence for an intergenerational effect of maternal trauma exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bierer, Linda M.; Bader, Heather N.; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Adult offspring of Holocaust survivors comprise an informative cohort in which to study intergenerational transmission of the effects of trauma exposure. Lower cortisol and enhanced glucocorticoid sensitivity have been previously demonstrated in Holocaust survivors with PTSD, and in offspring of Holocaust survivors in association with maternal PTSD. In other work, reduction in the activity of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD-2), which inactivates cortisol, was identified in Holocaust survivors in comparison to age-matched, unexposed Jewish controls. Therefore, we investigated glucocorticoid metabolism in offspring of Holocaust survivors to evaluate if similar enzymatic decrements would be observed that might help to explain glucocorticoid alterations previously shown for Holocaust offspring. Methods Holocaust offspring (n=85) and comparison subjects (n=27) were evaluated with clinical diagnostic interview and self-rating scales, and asked to collect a 24-hr urine sample from which concentrations of cortisol and glucocorticoid metabolites were assayed by GCMS. 11β-HSD-2 activity was determined as the ratio of urinary cortisone to cortisol. Results Significantly reduced cortisol excretion was observed in Holocaust offspring compared to controls (p=.046), as had been shown for Holocaust survivors. However, 11β-HSD-2 activity was elevated for offspring compared to controls (p=.008), particularly among those whose mothers had been children, rather than adolescents or adults, during World War II (p=.032). The effect of paternal Holocaust exposure could not be reliably investigated in the current sample. Conclusions The association of offspring 11β-HSD-2 activity with maternal age at Holocaust exposure is consistent with the influence of glucocorticoid programming. Whereas a long standing reduction in 11β-HSD-2 activity among survivors is readily interpreted in the context of Holocaust related deprivation, understanding the

  17. Impact of medium-term exposure to elevated pCO(2) levels on the physiological energetics of the mussel Mytilus chilensis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Jorge M; Torres, Rodrigo; Acuña, Karin; Duarte, Cristian; Manriquez, Patricio H; Lardies, Marco; Lagos, Nelson A; Vargas, Cristian; Aguilera, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of medium-term exposure to elevated pCO(2) levels (750-1200 ppm) on the physiological processes of juvenile Mytilus chilensis mussels over a period of 70 d in a mesocosm system. Three equilibration tanks filled with filtered seawater were adjusted to three pCO(2) levels: ~380 (control), ~750 and ~1200 ppm by bubbling air or an air-CO(2) mixture through the water. For the control, atmospheric air (with aprox. 380 ppm CO(2)) was bubbled into the tank; for the 750 and 1200 ppm treatments, dry air and pure CO(2) were blended to each target concentration using mass flow controllers for air and CO(2). No impact on feeding activity was observed at the beginning of the experiment, but a significant reduction in clearance rate was observed after 35 d of exposure to highly acidified seawater. Absorption rate and absorption efficiency were reduced at high pCO(2) levels. In addition, oxygen uptake fell significantly under these conditions, indicating a metabolic depression. These physiological responses of the mussels resulted in a significant reduction of energy available for growth (scope for growth) with important consequences for the aquaculture of this species during medium-term exposure to acid conditions. The results of this study clearly indicate that high pCO(2) levels in the seawater have a negative effect on the health of M. chilensis. Therefore, the predicted acidification of seawater associated with global climate change could be harmful to this ecologically and commercially important mussel. PMID:23079160

  18. Occurrence of aluminum in chloride cells of Perla marginata (Plecoptera) after exposure to low pH and elevated aluminum concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Guerold, F.; Giamberini, L.; Pihan, J.C.; Tourmann, J.L.; Kaufmann, R.

    1995-04-01

    As a consequence of acid depositions on poorly buffered catchments underlain by hard rocks, aluminum is mobilized and transported from terrestrial systems to the aquatic environment. Loss of fishes has been related to low pH and elevated aluminum concentrations in surface waters which present a low ionic content especially during acid stress such as snowmelt and heavy rainfalls. Among the causes of fish population decline in acid waters, aluminum is considered a toxic cofactor. Different studies have clearly shown that aluminum is accumulated in different organs such as kidneys, liver and gills. Research on fish has demonstrated that aluminum may be toxic, but the toxicity is markedly influenced by the pH, organic compounds and calcium content of the water. Field surveys have shown clearly that macroinvertebrates are also affected by surface-water acidification. However, little is know about the possible effects of aluminum on aquatic invertebrates and, particularly, on aquatic insects exposed to acidic conditions. Hall et al. have shown that the whole-body concentration of aluminum decreases in blackflies and mayflies transplated from neutral water to acid water. Similar results have been reported for Daphnia and chironomid. On the contrary, Ormerod et al. demonstrated the absence of relationship between water pH and insect aluminum concentrations. When aluminum occurs in aquatic insects, it has been shown that it is primarily adsorbed on the external surface and/or accumulates in gut contents. To our knowledge, the subcellular location as well as the toxicity of aluminum to acid-sensitive aquatic insects remains unclear and existing hypotheses are often based on research on fish. In this content the purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of aluminum at a subcellular level in the acid-sensitive species of stonefly, Perla marginata, after exposure to low pH and elevated aluminum concentrations. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Assessing the environmental availability of heavy metals in geogenically contaminated soils of the Sierra de Aracena Natural Park (SW Spain). Is there a health risk?

    PubMed

    Rivera, M B; Giráldez, M I; Fernández-Caliani, J C

    2016-08-01

    Soil developed on mineralised bedrock areas of the Sierra de Aracena Natural Park (SW Spain) is geochemically characterised by naturally high levels of heavy metals and metalloids (notably Zn, Pb, Ag and Cd, but also As, Sb, Cu and Tl). To assess environmental availability, geochemical speciation and potential health risk of such geogenic trace elements, 24 randomly selected soil samples were subjected to one-step extraction procedures (0.01M CaCl2 and 0.05M EDTA), aqueous speciation modelling, and site-specific risk analysis. Metal fraction available for plant uptake or leaching to groundwater was found to be negligible (<1%) due to the low activity of dissolved and exchangeable ions in soil solution, as predicted from the CaCl2 extracts. Based on modelling calculations, free metal ions, primarily Cd(2+) and Zn(2+), were the dominant species in solution over the soil pH range of 5.8 to 7.8. For most metals, the EDTA-extractable fraction generally accounted for <5% suggesting that a limited reservoir of trace elements, mainly bound to Fe oxy-hydroxides, could be potentially available. The results of the health risk assessment for ingestion exposure to groundwater affected by soil leaching revealed that the hazard quotients of heavy metals are within the acceptable risk level. The cumulative hazard index (HI=0.55) fell below the regulatory threshold value of 1.0, even in the worst-case scenario being evaluated, leading to the conclusion that no toxic effects are expected to humans under the conditions and assumptions of the assessment. PMID:27101462

  20. Arsenic mobilization in the aquifers of three physiographic settings of West Bengal, India: understanding geogenic and anthropogenic influences.

    PubMed

    Bhowmick, Subhamoy; Nath, Bibhash; Halder, Dipti; Biswas, Ashis; Majumder, Santanu; Mondal, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Nriagu, Jerome; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Iglesias, Monica; Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Guha Mazumder, Debendranath; Bundschuh, Jochen; Chatterjee, Debashis

    2013-11-15

    A comparative hydrogeochemical study was carried out in West Bengal, India covering three physiographic regions, Debagram and Chakdaha located in the Bhagirathi-Hooghly alluvial plain and Baruipur in the delta front, to demonstrate the control of geogenic and anthropogenic influences on groundwater arsenic (As) mobilization. Groundwater samples (n = 90) from tube wells were analyzed for different physico-chemical parameters. The low redox potential (Eh = -185 to -86 mV) and dominant As(III) and Fe(II) concentrations are indicative of anoxic nature of the aquifer. The shallow (<100 m) and deeper (>100 m) aquifers of Bhagirathi-Hooghly alluvial plains as well as shallow aquifers of delta front are characterized by Ca(2+)HCO3(-) type water, whereas Na(+) and Cl(-) enrichment is found in the deeper aquifer of delta front. The equilibrium of groundwater with respect to carbonate minerals and their precipitation/dissolution seems to be controlling the overall groundwater chemistry. The low SO4(2-) and high DOC, PO4(3-) and HCO3(-) concentrations in groundwater signify ongoing microbial mediated redox processes favoring As mobilization in the aquifer. The As release is influenced by both geogenic (i.e. geomorphology) and anthropogenic (i.e. unsewered sanitation) processes. Multiple geochemical processes, e.g., Fe-oxyhydroxides reduction and carbonate dissolution, are responsible for high As occurrence in groundwaters. PMID:22999019

  1. Anthropogenic and geogenic radionuclides content in an undisturbed Slovenian forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P, Jankong; L, Mabit; A, Toloza; v, Zupanc

    2010-05-01

    dose rate of the top soil (79 ± 3 nGy h-1) is higher than the world average of 57 nGy h-1 reported by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). In complement to this local radio-ecological survey, as erosion studies in Slovenia have been only implemented using conventional techniques since the beginning of the 1960s, this study through the assessment of the initial 137Cs fallout in this undisturbed forest is also a first preliminary step in investigating soil redistribution using nuclear technique that can complement previous investigation using conventional erosion and sedimentation measurement. In this forest 137Cs, as expected in an undisturbed reference site, showed an exponential decreased with depth. 98 % of 137Cs is concentrated in the first 20 cm of the soil and the activity in the 30-40 cm layer was below the detection limit. For future investigation to assess the erosion and sedimentation processes of agricultural fields in the neighbourhood using the 137Cs approach, the base-line level of 137Cs was established at 7316 ± 2525 Bq m-2 with a coefficient of variation of 34 %. Keywords: Anthropogenic and geogenic radionuclides; 137Cs; 40K; 226Ra; 232Th; 235U; 238U; external gamma dose rate, erosion.

  2. Heavy metals in river and coast sediments of the Jakarta Bay region (Indonesia) - Geogenic versus anthropogenic sources.

    PubMed

    Sindern, Sven; Tremöhlen, Martin; Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Gronen, Lars; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Siregar, Tuti Hartati; Ariyani, Farida; Irianto, Hari Eko

    2016-09-30

    Sediment geochemistry of the Jakarta region, a densely populated tropical coast, is studied - with particular focus on rivers discharging to Jakarta Bay. Weathering volcanics in the river catchment area control the composition of major elements, As, Cr and in part Cu. In contrast, Zn, Ni, Pb and partly Cu are affected by anthropogenic sources, mainly in central Jakarta City. The data reflect a high variability of local emission sources, among which metal processing industries, fertilizers or untreated animal waste may be important. In particular, the role of street dusts is emphasized. Locally, heavy metals reach levels considered to have adverse biological effects. River discharge leads to anthropogenic enrichment of heavy metals in the coastal sediments. Element data also show geogenic effects on the composition of the coastal sediments, such as mixing of detrital silicates with biogenic carbonates as well as suspended particulate matter from the ocean. PMID:27293077

  3. Geogenic Cr oxidation on the surface of mafic minerals and the hydrogeological conditions influencing hexavalent chromium concentrations in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Kazakis, N; Kantiranis, N; Voudouris, K S; Mitrakas, M; Kaprara, E; Pavlou, A

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to specify the source minerals of geogenic chromium in soils and sediments and groundwater and to determine the favorable hydrogeological environment for high concentrations of Cr(VI) in groundwaters. For this reason, chromium origin and the relevant minerals were identified, the groundwater velocity was calculated and the concentrations of Cr(VI) in different aquifer types were determined. Geochemical and mineralogical analyses showed that chromium concentrations in soils and sediments range from 115 to 959 mg/kg and that serpentine prevails among the phyllosilicates. The high correlation between chromium and serpentine, amphibole and pyroxene minerals verifies the geogenic origin of chromium in soils and sediments and, therefore, in groundwater. Manganese also originates from serpentine, amphibole and pyroxene, and is strongly correlated with chromium, indicating that the oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) is performed by manganese-iron oxides located on the surface of Cr-Mn-rich minerals. Backscattered SEM images of the soils revealed the unweathered form of chromite grains and the presence of Fe-Mn-rich oxide on the outer surface of serpentine grains. Chemical analyses revealed that the highest Cr(VI) concentrations were found in shallow porous aquifers with low water velocities and their values vary from 5 to 70 μg/L. Cr(VI) concentrations in ophiolitic complex aquifers ranged between 3 and 17 μg/L, while in surface water, karst and deeper porous aquifers, Cr(VI) concentrations were lower than the detection limit of 1.4 μg/L. PMID:25666283

  4. Maintenance of C sinks sustains enhanced C assimilation during long-term exposure to elevated [CO2] in Mojave Desert shrubs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the first few years of elevated atmospheric [CO2] treatment at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility, photosynthetic downregulation was observed in desert shrubs grown under elevated [CO2], especially under relatively wet environmental conditions. Nonetheless, those plants maintained increased Asat...

  5. Carbon flux to woody tissues in a beech/spruce forest during summer and in response to chronic elevated O3 exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, W.; Andersen, C. P.; Matyssek, R.; Grams, T. E. E.

    2011-04-01

    The present study compares the dynamics in carbon (C) allocation of adult deciduous beech (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen spruce (Picea abies) during summer and in response to seven-year-long exposure with twice-ambient ozone (O3) concentrations (2 × O3). Focus was on the respiratory turn-over and translocation of recent photosynthates at various positions along the stems, coarse roots and soils. The hypotheses tested were that (1) 2 × O3 decreases the allocation of recent photosynthates to CO2 efflux of stems and coarse roots of adult trees, and that (2) according to their different O3 sensitivities this effect is stronger in beech than in spruce. Labeling of whole tree canopies was applied by releasing 13C depleted CO2 (δ13C of -46.9‰) using a free-air stable carbon isotope approach. Canopy air δ13C was reduced for about 2.5 weeks by ca. 8‰ in beech and 6‰ in spruce while the increase in CO2 concentration was limited to about 110 μL L-1 and 80 μL L-1, respectively. At the end of the labeling period, δ13C of stem CO2 efflux and phloem sugars was reduced to a similar extend by ca. 3-4‰ (beech) and ca. 2-3‰ (spruce). The fraction of labeled C (fE,new) in stem CO2 efflux amounted to 0.3 to 0.4, indicating slow C turnover of the respiratory supply system in both species. Elevated O3 slightly stimulated the allocation of recently fixed photosynthates to stem and coarse root respiration in spruce (rejection of hypothesis I for spruce), but resulted in a significant reduction in C flux in beech (acceptance of hypotheses I and II). The distinct decreased in C allocation to beech stems indicates the potential of chronic O3 stress to substantially mitigate the C sink strength of trees on the long-term scale.

  6. Exposure of endothelial cells to cyclic strain induces elevations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration through mobilization of intracellular and extracellular pools.

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, O R; Isales, C M; Barrett, P Q; Brophy, C; Sumpio, B E

    1997-01-01

    We have previously reported that exposure of endothelial cells to cyclic strain elicited a rapid but transient generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), which reached a peak 10 s after the initiation of cyclic deformation. To address the effect of cyclic strain on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and its temporal relationship to IP3 generation, confluent bovine aortic endothelial cells were grown on flexible membranes, loaded with aequorin and the membranes placed in a custom-designed flow-through chamber. The chamber was housed inside a photomultiplier tube, and vacuum was utilized to deform the membranes. Our results indicate that the initiation of 10% average strain induced a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i which contained two distinct components: a large initial peak 12 s after the initiation of stretch which closely followed the IP3 peak, and a subsequent lower but sustained phase. Pretreatment with 5 microM GdCl3 for 10 min or nominally Ca2+-free medium (CFM) for 3 min reduced the magnitude of the initial rise and abolished the sustained phase. Repetitive 10% average strain at a frequency of 60 cycles/min also elicited a single IP3 peak at 10 s. However, there was also a large initial [Ca2+]i peak followed by multiple smaller transient [Ca2+]i elevations. Preincubation with 5 microM GdCl3 or CFM diminished the initial [Ca2+]i transient and markedly inhibited the late-phase component. Preincubation with 25 microM 2,5-di-(t-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (BHQ) attenuated the initial [Ca2+]i transient. Cyclic-strain-mediated IP3 formation in confluent endothelial cells at 10 s, however, was not modified by pretreatment with 25 microM BHQ, 500 microM NiCl2, 10 nM charybdotoxin, 5 microM GdCl3 or CFM. We conclude that in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain, Ca2+ enters the cytosol from intracellular and extracellular pools but IP3 formation is not dependent on Ca2+ entry via the plasma membrane. PMID:9291109

  7. ELEVATING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Frederick, H.S.; Kinsella, M.A.

    1959-02-24

    An elevator is described, which is arranged for movement both in a horizontal and in a vertical direction so that the elevating mechanism may be employed for servicing equipment at separated points in a plant. In accordance with the present invention, the main elevator chassis is suspended from a monorail. The chassis, in turn supports a vertically moveable carriage, a sub- carriage vertically moveable on the carriage, and a turntable carried by the sub- carriage and moveable through an arc of 90 with the equipment attached thereto. In addition, the chassis supports all the means required to elevate or rotate the equipment.

  8. Tracing the sources of fine sediment in a nickel mining catchment using fallout and geogenic radionuclides (Thio River, New Caledonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Navratil, Oldrich; Lefèvre, Irène; Laceby, J. Patrick; Allenbach, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion and subsequent sediment transfer in rivers are exacerbated in tropical regions exposed to heavy rainfall. In New Caledonia, an island located in the southwestern part of the Southern Pacific Ocean, a significant fraction of this sediment is likely originating from tributaries draining nickel mining sites that are known to increase the terrigenous inputs to the rivers and, potentially to UNESCO World Heritage listed coastal lagoons. However, downstream contributions from these tributaries remain to be quantified. A pilot sediment tracing study has therefore been conducted in the 400-km² Thio River catchment. Fallout and geogenic radionuclides have been measured in sediment deposits collected in potential sources, i.e. (i) tributaries draining mines, (ii) tributaries draining 'natural' areas affected by landslides, and (iii) the main stem of the Thio River. Thorium-228 and Caesium-137 provide the best discrimination between sediment originating from the two tributaries. A distribution modelling approach was used to quantify the relative sediment contributions from these tributaries to the Thio River main stem. Results demonstrate that tributaries draining mining sites supply the majority of sediment (67-84%) to the main river. In the future, the validity of these results obtained on sediment deposits collected in April and May 2015 should be verified over a longer time period by applying a similar approach to sediment cores collected in the Thio river deltaic plain. Once validated, this method will be applicable to other catchments draining mines in New Caledonia to design appropriate measures to limit sediment supply to the lagoon.

  9. Variability in the intraspecific response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings subjected to long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Anschel, D.J.; Pushnik, J.C.; Anderson, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors are investigating the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and intraspecific variability on Pinus ponderosa. To analyze intraspecific variability, they included seedling source (family) as an additional treatment, using a split-plot experimental design. The three elevated CO{sub 2} treatments were ambient (approx. 350 ppm CO{sub 2}), ambient + 175 ppm CO{sub 2} and ambient +350 ppm CO{sub 2}. Their study uses the source/sink control framework at several key integrating steps, incorporating the long-term effects of elevated CO{sub 2} (insuring sufficient time for the expression of any long-term physiological and biochemical acclimation to occur) and genetics (using multiple species and multiple known genetic sources) in an attempt to ascertain the extent of overall regulation contributed by selected independent regulatory process at the physiological, biochemical and structural level. In order to assess intraspecific variability, this paper reports on the integration of measurements of photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, pigmentation, RuBPCase, SPSase to quantify the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on the growth response of various families of the same species.

  10. STOMATAL RESPONSES OF DOUGLAS-FIR SEEDLINGS TO ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE AND TEMPERATURE DURING THE THIRD AND FOURTH YEARS OF EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two major components of climate change, increasing atmospheric [CO2] and increasing temperature, may substantially alter the effects of water availability to plants through effects on the rate of water loss from leaves. We examined the interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and t...

  11. Long-term exposure to elevated CO2 enhances plant community stability by suppressing dominant plant species in a mixed-grass prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelikova, Tamara Jane; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Williams, David G.; Souza, Lara; LeCain, Daniel R.; Morgan, Jack; Pendall, Elise

    2014-10-01

    Climate controls vegetation distribution across the globe, and some vegetation types are more vulnerable to climate change, whereas others are more resistant. Because resistance and resilience can influence ecosystem stability and determine how communities and ecosystems respond to climate change, we need to evaluate the potential for resistance as we predict future ecosystem function. In a mixed-grass prairie in the northern Great Plains, we used a large field experiment to test the effects of elevated CO2, warming, and summer irrigation on plant community structure and productivity, linking changes in both to stability in plant community composition and biomass production. We show that the independent effects of CO2 and warming on community composition and productivity depend on interannual variation in precipitation and that the effects of elevated CO2 are not limited to water saving because they differ from those of irrigation. We also show that production in this mixed-grass prairie ecosystem is not only relatively resistant to interannual variation in precipitation, but also rendered more stable under elevated CO2 conditions. This increase in production stability is the result of altered community dominance patterns: Community evenness increases as dominant species decrease in biomass under elevated CO2. In many grasslands that serve as rangelands, the economic value of the ecosystem is largely dependent on plant community composition and the relative abundance of key forage species. Thus, our results have implications for how we manage native grasslands in the face of changing climate.

  12. SEASONAL PATTERNS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN DOUGLAS FIR SEEDLINGS DURING THE THIRD AND FOURTH YEAR OF EXPOSURE TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the interactive effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on seasonal patterns of photosynthesis in Douglas-fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings. Seedlings were grown in sunlit chambers controlled to track either ambient (~400 ppm) CO2 or am...

  13. Long-term exposure to elevated CO2 enhances plant community stability by suppressing dominant plant species in a mixed-grass prairie

    PubMed Central

    Zelikova, Tamara Jane; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Williams, David G.; Souza, Lara; LeCain, Daniel R.; Morgan, Jack; Pendall, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Climate controls vegetation distribution across the globe, and some vegetation types are more vulnerable to climate change, whereas others are more resistant. Because resistance and resilience can influence ecosystem stability and determine how communities and ecosystems respond to climate change, we need to evaluate the potential for resistance as we predict future ecosystem function. In a mixed-grass prairie in the northern Great Plains, we used a large field experiment to test the effects of elevated CO2, warming, and summer irrigation on plant community structure and productivity, linking changes in both to stability in plant community composition and biomass production. We show that the independent effects of CO2 and warming on community composition and productivity depend on interannual variation in precipitation and that the effects of elevated CO2 are not limited to water saving because they differ from those of irrigation. We also show that production in this mixed-grass prairie ecosystem is not only relatively resistant to interannual variation in precipitation, but also rendered more stable under elevated CO2 conditions. This increase in production stability is the result of altered community dominance patterns: Community evenness increases as dominant species decrease in biomass under elevated CO2. In many grasslands that serve as rangelands, the economic value of the ecosystem is largely dependent on plant community composition and the relative abundance of key forage species. Thus, our results have implications for how we manage native grasslands in the face of changing climate. PMID:25313034

  14. Molecular and immunological characterization of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen after exposure of the plants to elevated ozone over a whole growing season.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Ulrike; Heller, Werner; Durner, Jörg; Winkler, J Barbro; Engel, Marion; Behrendt, Heidrun; Holzinger, Andreas; Braun, Paula; Hauser, Michael; Ferreira, Fatima; Mayer, Klaus; Pfeifer, Matthias; Ernst, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and air pollution, including ozone is known to affect plants and might also influence the ragweed pollen, known to carry strong allergens. We compared the transcriptome of ragweed pollen produced under ambient and elevated ozone by 454-sequencing. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out for the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Pollen surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and phenolics were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Elevated ozone had no influence on the pollen size, shape, surface structure or amount of phenolics. ATR-FTIR indicated increased pectin-like material in the exine. Transcriptomic analyses showed changes in expressed-sequence tags (ESTs), including allergens. However, ELISA indicated no significantly increased amounts of Amb a 1 under elevated ozone concentrations. The data highlight a direct influence of ozone on the exine components and transcript level of allergens. As the total protein amount of Amb a 1 was not altered, a direct correlation to an increased risk to human health could not be derived. Additional, the 454-sequencing contributes to the identification of stress-related transcripts in mature pollen that could be grouped into distinct gene ontology terms. PMID:23637846

  15. REPEATED EXPOSURE TO THE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (AROCLOR 1254) ELEVATES THE BASAL SERUM LEVELS OF CORTICOSTERONE BUT DOES NOT AFFECT THE STRESS-INDUCED RISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants (Safe, 1984; Safe et al., 1985) resulting in concern over the possible effects to health after long-term low-level exposure. eries of studies with one of these chlorinated hydrocarbons, Aroclor 125...

  16. Elevated plus-maze performance of Fischer-344 rats as a function of age and of exposure to 56Fe particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aging process is characterized by a series of changes in neurochemical functioning and in motor and cognitive performance. Exposure to 56Fe particles, a component of cosmic rays, produces accelerated aging such that these changes that are characteristic of aged organisms are observed in young a...

  17. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  18. Influence of elevated alkalinity and natural organic matter (NOM) on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproductive performance in fathead minnows during chronic, multi-trophic exposures to a metal mine effluent.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, Jacob D; Dubé, Monique G; Niyogi, Som

    2013-09-01

    Metal bioavailability in aquatic organisms is known to be influenced by various water chemistry parameters. The present study examined the influence of alkalinity and natural organic matter (NOM) on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproductive performance of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) during environmentally relevant chronic exposures to a metal mine effluent (MME). Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or NOM (as commercial humic acid) were added to a Canadian MME [45 percent process water effluent (PWE)] in order to evaluate whether increases in alkalinity (3-4 fold) or NOM (~1.5-3mg/L dissolved organic carbon) would reduce metal accumulation and mitigate reproductive toxicity in fathead minnows during a 21-day multi-trophic exposure. Eleven metals (barium, boron, cobalt, copper, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, rubidium, selenium, and strontium) were elevated in the 45 percent PWE relative to the reference water. Exposure to the unmodified 45 percent PWE resulted in a decrease of fathead minnow egg production (~300 fewer eggs/pair) relative to the unmodified reference water, over the 21-day exposure period. Water chemistry modifications produced a modest decrease in free ion activity of some metals (as shown by MINTEQ, Version 3) in the 45 percent PWE exposure water, but did not alter the metal burden in the treatment-matched larval Chironomus dilutus (the food source of fish during exposure). The tissue-specific metal accumulation increased in fish exposed to the 45 percent PWE relative to the reference water, irrespective of water chemistry modifications, and the tissue metal concentrations were found to be similar between fish in the unmodified and modified 45 percent PWE (higher alkalinity or NOM) treatments. Interestingly however, increased alkalinity and NOM markedly improved fish egg production both in the reference water (~500 and ~590 additional eggs/pair, respectively) and 45 percent PWE treatments (~570 and ~260 additional eggs

  19. Trace Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals Present in Pennsylvania Groundwater are Correlated with Geogenic Brines rather than Hydraulic Fracturing Active Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drollette, B.; Shregglman, K.; D'Ambro, E.; Elsner, M.; Warner, N. R.; O'Connor, M.; Karatum, O.; Vengosh, A.; Jackson, R. B.; Darrah, T.; Plata, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that deep Marcellus shale brines migrate into shallow groundwater aquifers, presumably via fractures in the subsurface that exist independent of any gas extraction activities. However, whereas many inorganic species are conservative tracers, hydrophobic organic compounds are both sorptive and reactive, and geogenic organic chemicals may not survive transport from deep shales to the subsurface. Here, 40 shallow groundwater samples from private wells in Northeastern Pennsylvania were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and gasoline range organic compounds (GRO), and 17 were analyzed for VOCs, GRO, and diesel range organic compounds (DRO). BTEX compounds (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) were detected in 6 of 40 samples at concentrations orders of magnitude below EPA maximum contaminant levels (e.g., << 5 ppb) and did not spatially correlate with distance to the nearest active hydraulic fracturing well. GRO was detected in 10 of 40 samples at concentrations as high as 8.8 ± 0.4 ppb and did not correlate with distance to the nearest hydraulic fracturing well (p = 0.24) nor in active fracturing zones, which we defined as sample locations less than 1 km from a well (p = 0.60). However, GRO was strongly correlated (p = 0.004) with shallow groundwater with Marcellus Shale inorganic chemical character, as delineated by inorganic chemical analysis. DRO was detected in all 17 samples up to 158 ± 4 ppb and did not spatially correlate with distance to the nearest hydraulic fracturing well (p = 0.74), nor active zones (p = 0.61). Similar to GRO, DRO did correlate with shallow groundwater containing Marcellus Shale character with moderate significance (p = 0.08). These results indicate that: (a) hydrophobic organic chemicals can survive transport from the deep subsurface to shallow groundwaters, and (b) transport of these compounds is not detectably enhanced by hydraulic fracturing activities in Northeastern PA as of the

  20. Elevated paternal glucocorticoid exposure alters the small noncoding RNA profile in sperm and modifies anxiety and depressive phenotypes in the offspring

    PubMed Central

    Short, A K; Fennell, K A; Perreau, V M; Fox, A; O'Bryan, M K; Kim, J H; Bredy, T W; Pang, T Y; Hannan, A J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that physiological and behavioral traits may be transgenerationally inherited through the paternal lineage, possibly via non-genomic signals derived from the sperm. To investigate how paternal stress might influence offspring behavioral phenotypes, a model of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation was used. Male breeders were administered water supplemented with corticosterone (CORT) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated female mice. Female, but not male, F1 offspring of CORT-treated fathers displayed altered fear extinction at 2 weeks of age. Only male F1 offspring exhibited altered patterns of ultrasonic vocalization at postnatal day 3 and, as adults, showed decreased time in open on the elevated-plus maze and time in light on the light–dark apparatus, suggesting a hyperanxiety-like behavioral phenotype due to paternal CORT treatment. Interestingly, expression of the paternally imprinted gene Igf2 was increased in the hippocampus of F1 male offspring but downregulated in female offspring. Male and female F2 offspring displayed increased time spent in the open arm of the elevated-plus maze, suggesting lower levels of anxiety compared with control animals. Only male F2 offspring showed increased immobility time on the forced-swim test and increased latency to feed on the novelty-supressed feeding test, suggesting a depression-like phenotype in these animals. Collectively, these data provide evidence that paternal CORT treatment alters anxiety and depression-related behaviors across multiple generations. Analysis of the small RNA profile in sperm from CORT-treated males revealed marked effects on the expression of small noncoding RNAs. Sperm from CORT-treated males contained elevated levels of three microRNAs, miR-98, miR-144 and miR-190b, which are predicted to interact with multiple growth factors, including Igf2 and Bdnf. Sustained elevation of glucocorticoids is therefore involved in the transmission of

  1. Elevated paternal glucocorticoid exposure alters the small noncoding RNA profile in sperm and modifies anxiety and depressive phenotypes in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Short, A K; Fennell, K A; Perreau, V M; Fox, A; O'Bryan, M K; Kim, J H; Bredy, T W; Pang, T Y; Hannan, A J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that physiological and behavioral traits may be transgenerationally inherited through the paternal lineage, possibly via non-genomic signals derived from the sperm. To investigate how paternal stress might influence offspring behavioral phenotypes, a model of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation was used. Male breeders were administered water supplemented with corticosterone (CORT) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated female mice. Female, but not male, F1 offspring of CORT-treated fathers displayed altered fear extinction at 2 weeks of age. Only male F1 offspring exhibited altered patterns of ultrasonic vocalization at postnatal day 3 and, as adults, showed decreased time in open on the elevated-plus maze and time in light on the light-dark apparatus, suggesting a hyperanxiety-like behavioral phenotype due to paternal CORT treatment. Interestingly, expression of the paternally imprinted gene Igf2 was increased in the hippocampus of F1 male offspring but downregulated in female offspring. Male and female F2 offspring displayed increased time spent in the open arm of the elevated-plus maze, suggesting lower levels of anxiety compared with control animals. Only male F2 offspring showed increased immobility time on the forced-swim test and increased latency to feed on the novelty-supressed feeding test, suggesting a depression-like phenotype in these animals. Collectively, these data provide evidence that paternal CORT treatment alters anxiety and depression-related behaviors across multiple generations. Analysis of the small RNA profile in sperm from CORT-treated males revealed marked effects on the expression of small noncoding RNAs. Sperm from CORT-treated males contained elevated levels of three microRNAs, miR-98, miR-144 and miR-190b, which are predicted to interact with multiple growth factors, including Igf2 and Bdnf. Sustained elevation of glucocorticoids is therefore involved in the transmission of paternal

  2. Catalogue of the main gas manifestations in the Hellenic territory: a first step towards the estimation of the nationwide geogenic gas output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; D'Alessandro, Walter; Calabrese, Sergio; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Parello, Franco

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of gaseous emissions in geological systems is an important branch because it is a major source of greenhouse gas to the atmospheric budget. Of geological environments, there are two different categories: the first category includes emissions of the predominant carbon dioxide (CO2), while the second includes emissions of the predominant methane (CH4). The Hellenic territory has a very complex geodynamic setting deriving from a long and complicated geological history. It is strongly characterized by intense seismic activity and enhanced geothermal gradient. This activity, with the contribution of an active volcanic arc, favours the existence of many cold and thermal gas manifestations. Geogenic sources release huge amounts of gases, which, apart from having important influences on the global climate, could also have a strong impact on human health. Geochemical studies based on the isotopic composition of carbon and hydrogen, along with helium isotopic ratios have become a good indicator of the origin of the gas. The isotopic ratio 13C/12C of CO2 expressed in δ 13C (‰), provides important information about the amount of CO2 released from the Earth's crust or mantle. For methane, carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions and C1/(C2+C3) hydrocarbon ratios can characterize the origin of methane: biogenic (thermogenic or microbial) or abiogenic. Helium isotopic ratios provide additional information about crustal or mantle origin of the gas. In the present work, a large set of chemical and isotopic data is presented aiming at the identification of areas with geogenic gas emissions and their characterization in terms of different gas composition and origin. The present catalogue should be the base for the estimation total nationwide geogenic CO2 and CH4 fluxes.

  3. Effects of long-time elevated temperature exposures on hot-isostatically-pressed power-metallurgy Udimet 700 alloys with reduced cobalt contents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, F. H.

    1984-01-01

    Because almost the entire U.S. consumption of cobalt depends on imports, this metal has been designated "strategic'. The role and effectiveness of cobalt is being evaluated in commercial nickel-base superalloys. Udiment 700 type alloys in which the cobalt content was reduced from the normal 17% down to 12.7%, 8.5%, 4.3%, and 0% were prepared by standard powder metallurgy techniques and hot isostatically pressed into billets. Mechanical testing and microstructural investigations were performed. The mechanical properties of alloys with reduced cobalt contents which were heat-treated identically were equal or better than those of the standard alloy, except that creep rates tended to increase as cobalt was reduced. The effects of long time exposures at 760 C on mechanical properties and at 760 C and 845 C on microstructures were determined. Decreased tensile properties and shorter rupture lives with increased creep rates were observed in alloy modifications. The exposures caused gamma prime particle coarsening and formation of sigma phase in the alloys with higher cobalt contents. Exposure at 845 C also reduced the amount of MC carbides.

  4. Autotrophic fixation of geogenic CO2 by microorganisms contributes to soil organic matter formation and alters isotope signatures in a wetland mofette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M. E.; Beulig, F.; von Fischer, J.; Muhr, J.; Küsel, K.; Trumbore, S. E.

    2015-09-01

    To quantify the contribution of autotrophic microorganisms to organic matter formation (OM) in soils, we investigated natural CO2 vents (mofettes) situated in a wetland in NW Bohemia (Czech Republic). Mofette soils had higher SOM concentrations than reference soils due to restricted decomposition under high CO2 levels. We used radiocarbon (Δ14C) and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) to characterize SOM and its sources in two moffetes and compared it with respective reference soils, which were not influenced by geogenic CO2. The geogenic CO2 emitted at these sites is free of radiocarbon and enriched in δ13C compared to atmospheric CO2. Together, these isotopic signals allow us to distinguish C fixed by plants from C fixed by autotrophic microorganisms using their differences in δ13C discrimination. We can then estimate that up to 27 % of soil organic matter in the 0-10 cm layer of these soils was derived from microbially assimilated CO2. Isotope values of bulk SOM were shifted towards more positive δ13C and more negative Δ14C values in mofettes compared to reference soils, suggesting that geogenic CO2 emitted from the soil atmosphere is incorporated into SOM. To distinguish whether geogenic CO2 was fixed by plants or by CO2 assimilating microorganisms, we first used the proportional differences in radiocarbon and δ13C values to indicate the magnitude of discrimination of the stable isotopes in living plants. Deviation from this relationship was taken to indicate the presence of microbial CO2 fixation, as microbial discrimination should differ from that of plants. 13CO2-labelling experiments confirmed high activity of CO2 assimilating microbes in the top 10 cm, where δ13C values of SOM were shifted up to 2 ‰ towards more negative values. Uptake rates of microbial CO2 fixation ranged up to 1.59 ± 0.16 μg gdw-1 d-1. We inferred that the negative δ13C shift was caused by the activity of chemo-lithoautotrophic microorganisms, as indicated from

  5. Autotrophic fixation of geogenic CO2 by microorganisms contributes to soil organic matter formation and alters isotope signatures in a wetland mofette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M. E.; Beulig, F.; von Fischer, J.; Muhr, J.; Küsel, K.; Trumbore, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    To quantify the contribution of autotrophic microorganisms to organic matter (OM) formation in soils, we investigated natural CO2 vents (mofettes) situated in a wetland in northwest Bohemia (Czech Republic). Mofette soils had higher soil organic matter (SOM) concentrations than reference soils due to restricted decomposition under high CO2 levels. We used radiocarbon (Δ14C) and stable carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios to characterize SOM and its sources in two mofettes and compared it with respective reference soils, which were not influenced by geogenic CO2. The geogenic CO2 emitted at these sites is free of radiocarbon and enriched in 13C compared to atmospheric CO2. Together, these isotopic signals allow us to distinguish C fixed by plants from C fixed by autotrophic microorganisms using their differences in 13C discrimination. We can then estimate that up to 27 % of soil organic matter in the 0-10 cm layer of these soils was derived from microbially assimilated CO2. Isotope values of bulk SOM were shifted towards more positive δ13C and more negative Δ14C values in mofettes compared to reference soils, suggesting that geogenic CO2 emitted from the soil atmosphere is incorporated into SOM. To distinguish whether geogenic CO2 was fixed by plants or by CO2 assimilating microorganisms, we first used the proportional differences in radiocarbon and δ13C values to indicate the magnitude of discrimination of the stable isotopes in living plants. Deviation from this relationship was taken to indicate the presence of microbial CO2 fixation, as microbial discrimination should differ from that of plants. 13CO2-labelling experiments confirmed high activity of CO2 assimilating microbes in the top 10 cm, where δ13C values of SOM were shifted up to 2 ‰ towards more negative values. Uptake rates of microbial CO2 fixation ranged up to 1.59 ± 0.16 μg gdw-1 d-1. We inferred that the negative δ13C shift was caused by the activity of autotrophic microorganisms using the Calvin

  6. Human Arsenic exposure via dust across the different ecological zones of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Alamdar, Ambreen; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Ali, Saeed Waqar; Sohail, Mohammad; Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Subhani, Marghoob; Ghaffar, Bushra; Ullah, Rizwan; Huang, Qingyu; Shen, Heqing

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to assess the arsenic (As) levels into dust samples and its implications for human health, of four ecological zones of Pakistan, which included northern frozen mountains (FMZ), lower Himalyian wet mountains (WMZ), alluvial riverine plains (ARZ), and low lying agricultural areas (LLZ). Human nail samples (N=180) of general population were also collected from the similar areas and all the samples were analysed by using ICP-MS. In general the higher levels (p<0.05) in paired dust and human nail samples were observed from ARZ and LLZ than those of other mountainous areas (i.e., WMZ and FMZ), respectively. Current results suggested that elevated As concentrations were associated to both natural, (e.g. geogenic influences) and anthropogenic sources. Linear regression model values indicated that As levels into dust samples were associated with altitude (r(2)=0.23), soil carbonate carbon density (SCC; r(2)=0.33), and population density (PD; r(2)=0.25). The relationship of paired dust and nail samples was also investigated and associations were found for As-nail and soil organic carbon density (SOC; r(2)=0.49) and SCC (r(2)=0.19) in each studied zone, evidencing the dust exposure as an important source of arsenic contamination in Pakistan. Risk estimation reflected higher hazard index (HI) values of non-carcinogenic risk (HI>1) for children populations in all areas (except FMZ), and for adults in LLZ (0.74) and ARZ (0.55), suggesting that caution should be paid about the dust exposure. Similarly, carcinogenic risk assessment also highlighted potential threats to the residents of LLZ and ARZ, as in few cases (5-10%) the values exceeded the range of US-EPA threshold limits (10(-6)-10(-4)). PMID:26773831

  7. Prolonged exposure to elevated CO2 promotes growth of the algal symbiont Symbiodinium muscatinei in the intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima

    PubMed Central

    Towanda, Trisha; Thuesen, Erik V.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Some photosynthetic organisms benefit from elevated levels of carbon dioxide, but studies on the effects of elevated PCO2 on the algal symbionts of animals are very few. This study investigated the impact of hypercapnia on a photosynthetic symbiosis between the anemone Anthopleura elegantissima and its zooxanthella Symbiodinium muscatinei. Anemones were maintained in the laboratory for 1 week at 37 Pa PCO2 and pH 8.1. Clonal pairs were then divided into two groups and maintained for 6 weeks under conditions naturally experienced in their intertidal environment, 45 Pa PCO2, pH 8.1 and 231 Pa PCO2, pH 7.3. Respiration and photosynthesis were measured after the 1-week acclimation period and after 6 weeks in experimental conditions. Density of zooxanthellal cells, zooxanthellal cell size, mitotic index and chlorophyll content were compared between non-clonemate anemones after the 1-week acclimation period and clonal anemones at the end of the experiment. Anemones thrived in hypercapnia. After 6 weeks, A. elegantissima exhibited higher rates of photosynthesis at 45 Pa (4.2 µmol O2 g−1 h−1) and 231 Pa (3.30 µmol O2 g−1 h−1) than at the initial 37 Pa (1.53 µmol O2 g−1 h−1). Likewise, anemones at 231 Pa received more of their respiratory carbon from zooxanthellae (CZAR  = 78.2%) than those at 37 Pa (CZAR  = 66.6%) but less than anemones at 45 Pa (CZAR  = 137.3%). The mitotic index of zooxanthellae was significantly greater in the hypercapnic anemones than in anemones at lower PCO2. Excess zooxanthellae were expelled by their hosts, and cell densities, cell diameters and chlorophyll contents were not significantly different between the groups. The response of A. elegantissima to hypercapnic acidification reveals the potential adaptation of an intertidal, photosynthetic symbiosis for high PCO2. PMID:23213455

  8. Arsenic bioavailability to rice is elevated in Bangladeshi paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Khan, K Asaduzzaman; Stroud, Jacqueline L; Zhu, Yong-Guan; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2010-11-15

    Some paddy soils in the Bengal delta are contaminated with arsenic (As) due to irrigation of As-laden groundwater, which may lead to yield losses and elevated As transfer to the food chain. Whether these soils have a higher As bioavailability than other soils containing either geogenic As or contaminated by mining activities was investigated in a pot experiment. Fourteen soils varying in the source and the degree (4-138 mg As kg 1⁻¹) of As contamination were collected, 10 from Bangladeshi paddy fields (contaminated by irrigation water) and two each from China and the UK (geogenic or mining impacted), for comparison. Bangladeshi soils had higher percentages of the total As extractable by ammonium phosphate (specifically sorbed As) than other soils and also released more As into the porewater upon flooding. Porewater As concentrations increased with increasing soil As concentrations more steeply in Bangladeshi soils, with arsenite being the dominant As species. Rice growth and grain yield decreased markedly in Bangladeshi soils containing > 13 mg As kg 1⁻¹, but not in the other soils. Phosphate-extractable or porewater As was a better indicator of As bioavailability than total soil As. Rice straw As concentrations increased with increasing soil As concentrations; however, As phytotoxicity appeared to result in lower grain As concentrations. The relative proportions of inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in grain varied among soils, and the percentage DMA was larger in greenhouse-grown plants than grain samples collected from the paddy fields of the same soil and the same rice cultivar, indicating a strong environmental influence on As species found in rice grain. This study shows that Bangladeshi paddy soils contaminated by irrigation had a higher As bioavailability than other soils, resulting in As phytotoxicity in rice and substantial yield losses. PMID:20977268

  9. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? ...

  10. Estimate of the annual per capita surplus dose due to the elevated indoor exposure to 222Rn progeny caused by the use of slag and spoil of uranium rich coal for building purposes in Ajka Town, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Papp, Z

    1998-03-01

    Ajka is a mining and industrial town in Hungary. Brown coal rich in uranium (300 to 900 Bq kg(-1)) has been mined by the town since 1865. Slag and spoil of the coal were frequently used in the town for building purposes before 1960. Screening measurements of 222Rn progeny in indoor air were performed in 86 Ajka buildings. Elevated 222Rn progeny levels were found in houses that used the above by-products as building materials or foundations. Annual per capita surplus effective doses due to the exposure to elevated 222Rn progeny levels were estimated from the results of the screening measurements. The possibility of estimating the mean of the annual averages of 222Rn or 222Rn progeny concentration for a group of houses from the results of screening measurements is discussed in detail. The estimated annual surplus dose is 0.64 mSv for the population of the whole town and 1.86 mSv for the 7,000 occupants of family houses built before 1960. PMID:9482606

  11. Emiliania huxleyi increases calcification but not expression of calcification-related genes in long-term exposure to elevated temperature and pCO2

    PubMed Central

    Benner, Ina; Diner, Rachel E.; Lefebvre, Stephane C.; Li, Dian; Komada, Tomoko; Carpenter, Edward J.; Stillman, Jonathon H.

    2013-01-01

    Increased atmospheric pCO2 is expected to render future oceans warmer and more acidic than they are at present. Calcifying organisms such as coccolithophores that fix and export carbon into the deep sea provide feedbacks to increasing atmospheric pCO2. Acclimation experiments suggest negative effects of warming and acidification on coccolithophore calcification, but the ability of these organisms to adapt to future environmental conditions is not well understood. Here, we tested the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature on the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi over more than 700 generations. Cells increased inorganic carbon content and calcification rate under warm and acidified conditions compared with ambient conditions, whereas organic carbon content and primary production did not show any change. In contrast to findings from short-term experiments, our results suggest that long-term acclimation or adaptation could change, or even reverse, negative calcification responses in E. huxleyi and its feedback to the global carbon cycle. Genome-wide profiles of gene expression using RNA-seq revealed that genes thought to be essential for calcification are not those that are most strongly differentially expressed under long-term exposure to future ocean conditions. Rather, differentially expressed genes observed here represent new targets to study responses to ocean acidification and warming. PMID:23980248

  12. Combined effects of short-term exposure to elevated CO2 and decreased O2 on the physiology and energy budget of the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus.

    PubMed

    Sui, Yanming; Kong, Hui; Huang, Xizhi; Dupont, Sam; Hu, Menghong; Storch, Daniela; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Lu, Weiqun; Wang, Youji

    2016-07-01

    Hypoxia and ocean acidification are two consequences of anthropogenic activities. These global trends occur on top of natural variability. In environments such as estuarine areas, short-term acute pH and O2 fluctuations are occurring simultaneously. The present study tested the combined effects of short-term seawater acidification and hypoxia on the physiology and energy budget of the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus. Mussels were exposed for 72 h to six combined treatments with three pH levels (8.1, 7.7 and 7.3) and two dissolved oxygen (DO) levels (2 mg L(-1), 6 mg L(-1)). Clearance rate (CR), food absorption efficiency (AE), respiration rate (RR), ammonium excretion rate (ER), O:N ratio and scope for growth (SFG) were significantly reduced, and faecal organic dry weight ratio (E) was significantly increased at low DO. Low pH did not lead to a reduced SFG. Interactive effects of pH and DO were observed for CR, E and RR. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed positive relationships among most physiological indicators, especially between SFG and CR under normal DO conditions. These results demonstrate that Mytilus coruscus was sensitive to short-term (72 h) exposure to decreased O2 especially if combined with decreased pH levels. In conclusion, the short-term oxygen and pH variation significantly induced physiological changes of mussels with some interactive effects. PMID:27115845

  13. Gross primary production of a semiarid grassland is enhanced by six years of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2, warming, and irrigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E.; Ogle, K.; Peltier, D.; Williams, D. G.; Pendall, E.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify interannual variation of gross primary production (GPP) and evaluate potential drivers of GPP with global change using the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment in semiarid grassland in southeastern Wyoming. PHACE consists of the treatments: control, warming only, elevated CO2 (eCO2) only, eCO2 and warming, and irrigation only. We expected that GPP would be most strongly influenced by interannual variability in precipitation under all PHACE treatments, soil water availability under eCO2, and nitrogen availability. GPP data were obtained from paired measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (Reco; GPP = Reco - NEE) made on 2-4 week intervals over six growing seasons (2007-2012). Soil temperature (T), soil water content (SWC), vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were continuously recorded at the plot (T, SWC) and site (VPD, PAR) scales. Annual, plot-level aboveground plant nitrogen content (N) was measured during peak biomass. We fit a non-linear light-response model to the GPP data within a Bayesian framework, and modeled the maximum GPP rate (Gmax) and canopy light-use efficiency (Q) as functions of N and current and antecedent SWC, T, and VPD. The model fit the GPP data well (R2 = 0.64), and regardless of the PHACE treatment the most important drivers of GPP were N (for Gmax), VPD (Gmax and Q), antecedent T (Gmax), and antecedent VPD (Q). Model simulations predicted that annual GPP increased on average by about 16% with eCO2, 14% with warming, 12% with eCO2 and warming, and 23% with irrigation. For four of the six years, annual GPP was significantly affected by either eCO2 alone or when combined with warming. The increase in annual GPP under irrigation was similar to the increase under eCO2 during a dry year (2012), but irrigation stimulated GPP to a greater degree than eCO2 during wet years (2008, 2009). Hence, increases in GPP under eCO2

  14. Elevated ROS-scavenging enzymes contribute to acclimation to UV-B exposure in transplastomic tobacco plants, reducing the role of plastid peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Czégény, Gyula; Le Martret, Bénédicte; Pávkovics, Dóra; Dix, Philip J; Hideg, Éva

    2016-08-20

    Leaf peroxidases play a key role in the successful acclimation of plants to low UV-B doses. The aim of the present study was to examine whether selective enhancement of alternative chloroplast antioxidant pathways achieved by chloroplast transformation affected the need for peroxidase defense. Transplastomic tobacco lines expressing glutathione reductase in combination with either dehydroascorbate reductase or glutathione-S-transferase in their plastids exhibited better tolerance to supplemental UV-B than wild type plants. After 10days UV treatment, both the maximum and effective quantum yields of PSII decreased in the wild type by 10% but were unaffected in either of the transformed lines. Activities of total peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase, in addition to dehydroascorbate reductase and gluthatione-S-transferase, were increased by UV in all lines. Gluthatione reductase activity was unaffected by UV in the transplastomic line engineered to have a higher constitutive level of this enzyme, but increased in the two other genotypes. However, the observed more successful acclimation required less activation of peroxidases in the doubly transformed plants than in the wild type and less increase in non-enzymatic hydroxyl radical neutralization in the dehydroascorbate reductase plus glutathione reductase fortified plants than in either of the other lines. These results highlight the fundamental role of efficient glutathione, and especially ascorbate, recycling in the chloroplast in response to exposure of plants to UV-B. They also identify chloroplast localized peroxidases among the large variety of leaf peroxidases as essential elements of defense, supporting our earlier hypothesis on hydrogen peroxide UV-B photo-cleavage as the primary mechanism behind damage. PMID:27448725

  15. Central HIV-1 Tat exposure elevates anxiety and fear conditioned responses of male mice concurrent with altered mu-opioid receptor-mediated G-protein activation and β-arrestin 2 activity in the forebrain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Yun K; Paris, Jason J; Lichtman, Aron H; Hauser, Kurt F; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Selley, Dana E; Knapp, Pamela E

    2016-08-01

    Co-exposure to opiates and HIV/HIV proteins results in enhanced CNS morphological and behavioral deficits in HIV(+) individuals and in animal models. Opiates with abuse liability, such as heroin and morphine, bind preferentially to and have pharmacological actions through μ-opioid-receptors (MORs). The mechanisms underlying opiate-HIV interactions are not understood. Exposure to the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein causes neurodegenerative outcomes that parallel many aspects of the human disease. We have also observed that in vivo exposure to Tat results in apparent changes in morphine efficacy, and thus have hypothesized that HIV proteins might alter MOR activation. To test our hypothesis, MOR-mediated G-protein activation was determined in neuroAIDS-relevant forebrain regions of transgenic mice with inducible CNS expression of HIV-1 Tat. G-protein activation was assessed by MOR agonist-stimulated [(35)S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPγS) autoradiography in brain sections, and in concentration-effect curves of MOR agonist-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding in membranes isolated from specific brain regions. Comparative studies were done using the MOR-selective agonist DAMGO ([D-Ala(2), N-MePhe(4), Gly-ol]-enkephalin) and a more clinically relevant agonist, morphine. Tat exposure reduced MOR-mediated G-protein activation in an agonist, time, and regionally dependent manner. Levels of the GPCR regulatory protein β-arrestin-2, which is involved in MOR desensitization, were found to be elevated in only one affected brain region, the amygdala; amygdalar β-arrestin-2 also showed a significantly increased association with MOR by co-immunoprecipitation, suggesting decreased availability of MOR. Interestingly, this correlated with changes in anxiety and fear-conditioned extinction, behaviors that have substantial amygdalar input. We propose that HIV-1 Tat alters the intrinsic capacity of MOR to signal in response to agonist binding

  16. Mapping human health risks from exposure to trace metal contamination of drinking water sources in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Katsoyiannis, Ioannis; Shen, Heqing; Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Syeda Maria; Bokhari, Habib; Schäfer, Ralf B; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah

    2015-12-15

    The consumption of contaminated drinking water is one of the major causes of mortality and many severe diseases in developing countries. The principal drinking water sources in Pakistan, i.e. ground and surface water, are subject to geogenic and anthropogenic trace metal contamination. However, water quality monitoring activities have been limited to a few administrative areas and a nationwide human health risk assessment from trace metal exposure is lacking. Using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and eight relevant spatial predictors, we calculated nationwide human health risk maps by predicting the concentration of 10 trace metals in the drinking water sources of Pakistan and comparing them to guideline values. GWR incorporated local variations of trace metal concentrations into prediction models and hence mitigated effects of large distances between sampled districts due to data scarcity. Predicted concentrations mostly exhibited high accuracy and low uncertainty, and were in good agreement with observed concentrations. Concentrations for Central Pakistan were predicted with higher accuracy than for the North and South. A maximum 150-200 fold exceedance of guideline values was observed for predicted cadmium concentrations in ground water and arsenic concentrations in surface water. In more than 53% (4 and 100% for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% confidence interval (CI)) of the total area of Pakistan, the drinking water was predicted to be at risk of contamination from arsenic, chromium, iron, nickel and lead. The area with elevated risks is inhabited by more than 74 million (8 and 172 million for the lower and upper boundaries of 95% CI) people. Although these predictions require further validation by field monitoring, the results can inform disease mitigation and water resources management regarding potential hot spots. PMID:26312405

  17. Effects of developmental exposure to manganese and/or low iron diet: Changes to metal transporters, sucrose preference, elevated zero-maze, open-field, and locomotion in response to fenfluramine, amphetamine, and MK-801

    PubMed Central

    Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M.; Bloor, Colin P.; Qureshi, Momina A.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Williams, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Manganese overexposure (MnOE) can be neurotoxic. In humans this can occur through occupational exposure, air or water contamination, well water, soy milk, and some baby formulas. In children MnOE has been associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits. The effects of MnOE may be modified by factors such as iron status. We hypothesized that developmental MnOE would be exacerbated by iron deficiency. A diet with a 90% decrease in iron (FeD) was given to gravid female rats starting on embryonic day 15 and continued through postnatal day (P)28. Mn (100 mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH) was administered by gavage every other day from P4–28. Metal transporters and receptors (divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1), transferrin (Tf), transferrin receptor (TfR), and zip8 (zrt8)) were quantified in brain at P28. These markers were increased but the changes were specific: MnOE increased TfR and decreased Tf in hippocampus, whereas FeD increased TfR in neostriatum and increased TfR and DMT1 in the hippocampus, and the combination increased TfR in neostriatum (zip8 was unaffected). Identically treated animals were tested behaviorally at P29 or P60. The combination of FeD+MnOE increased head dips in an elevated zero-maze, reversed deficits in sucrose preference induced by MnOE alone, and increased spontaneous locomotion in an open-field. Rats were also evaluated for changes in locomotor activity after challenge with (±)-fenfluramine (FEN, a 5-HT agonist: 5 mg/kg), MK-801 (MK801, an NMDA antagonist: 0.2 mg/kg), or (+)amphetamine (AMPH, a dopamine agonist: 1 mg/kg). Compared with VEH animals, MnOE animals were more hyperactive after fenfluramine, amphetamine, or MK-801, regardless of FeD exposure. The results indicate persistent effects of developmental MnOE on brain and behavior but few interactions with dietary iron deficiency. PMID:26295019

  18. Effects of landscape heterogeneity on the elevated trace metal concentrations in agricultural soils at multiple scales in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Li, Fangbai; Wu, Zhifeng; Cheng, Jiong

    2015-11-01

    Based on multiple geo-accumulation indices and correlation and partial redundancy analyses, we examined the spatial patterns of agricultural soil contaminations for As, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni in the Pearl River Delta, South China and their relations with landscape heterogeneity at small, medium and large spatial scales. We found that the concentrations of trace elements were slightly elevated, and most trace metals had a geogenic origin. Landscape variables explained 21-53% of the variation of elevated trace metal concentrations with an increasing explanatory power from the small to the large scale. The three variable groups representing parent materials, distance density characteristics and land use had different contributions to the elevated trace metals among scales. Both the distance density variables and land use pattern had a stronger influences on trace metal concentrations at a small scale than at a larger scale, while the parent materials was important at all the scales. PMID:26196316

  19. The impact of elevated CO2 concentrations on soil microbial community, soil organic matter storage and nutrient cycling at a natural CO2 vent in NW Bohemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Martin; Beulig, Felix; von Fischer, Joe; Muhr, Jan; Kuesel, Kirsten; Trumbore, Susan

    2014-05-01

    Natural CO2 vents or 'mofettes' are diffusive or advective exhalations of geogenic CO2 from soils. These structures occur at several places worldwide and in most cases they are linked to volcanic activity. Characteristic for mofette soils are high CO2 concentrations of up to more than 90% as well as a lack of oxygen, low pH values and reducing conditions. Mofette soils usually are considered to be sites of carbon accumulation, which is not only due to the absence of oxygen, but might also result from lower plant litter quality due to CO2 fertilization of CO2 influenced plants and reduced availability of N and P for the decomposer community. Furthermore, fermentation processes and the formation of reduced elements by anoxic decomposition might fuel chemo-lithoautotrophic or mixotrophic microbial CO2 uptake, a process which might have important ecological functions by closing internal element cycles, formation of trace gasses as well as by re-cycling and storing of carbon. Several studies of microbial community structure revealed a shift towards CO2 utilizing prokaryotes in moffete soils compared to a reference site. Here, we use combined stable and radiocarbon isotope data from mofette soils in NW Bohemia to quantify the contribution of geogenic CO2 to soil organic carbon formation within mofette soils, either resulting from plant litter or from microbial CO2 uptake. This is possible because the geogenic CO2 has a distinct isotopic signature (δ13C = -2 o Δ14C = -1000 ) that is very different from the isotopic signature of atmospheric CO2. First results show that mofette soils have a high Corg content (20 to 40 %) compared to a reference site (2 to 20 %) and soil organic matter is enriched in 13C as well as depleted in 14C. This indicates that geogenic CO2 is re-fixed and stored as SOM. In order to quantify microbial contribution to CO2 fixation and SOM storage, microbial CO2 uptake rates were determined by incubating mofette soils with 13CO2 labelled gas. The

  20. Effect of outdoor exposure at ambient and elevated temperatures on fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy sheet in the annealed and the solution treated and aged condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy sheet in the annealed and the solution-treated and aged heat-treatment condition were exposed outdoors at ambient and 560 K (550 F) temperatures to determine the effect of outdoor exposure on fatigue life. Effects of exposure were determined by comparing fatigue lives of exposed specimens to those of unexpected specimens. Two procedures for fatigue testing the exposed specimens were evaluated: (1) fatigue tests conducted outdoors by applying 1200 load cycles per week until failure occurred and (2) conventional fatigue tests (continuous cycling until failure occurred) conducted indoors after outdoor exposure under static load. The exposure period ranged from 9 to 28 months for the outdoor fatigue-test group and was 24 months for the static-load group. All fatigue tests were constant-amplitude bending of specimens containing a drilled hole (stress concentration factor of 1.6). The results of the tests indicate that the fatigue lives of solution-treated and aged specimens were significantly reduced by the outdoor exposure at 560 K but not by the exposure at ambient temperature. Fatigue lives of the annealed specimens were essentially unaffected by the outdoor exposure at either temperature. The two test procedures - outdoor fatigue test and indoor fatigue test after outdoor exposure - led to the same conclusions about exposure effects.

  1. Geogenic Gases and Red Wood Ant Clusters as Indicators for Neotectonic Activity at the Peninsula Bodanrück (South West Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberich, G.; Klimetzek, D.; Schreiber, U.; Berberich, M.

    2012-04-01

    The peninsula Bodanrück (South West Germany) is situated at the crosscut zone of two major fault systems, the "Permokarbontrog" and the Cenozoic "Freiburg-Bonndorf-Hegau-Bodensee-Graben". The Trog, striking approximately NE-SW, is sheared by WSW-ENE to W-E trending faults. The Graben is controlled by the recent compressional stress field in NNW-SSE direction leading to a WSW-ENE extensional regime, in which NW-SE, NNE-SSW and NS trending faults cut through the entire crust combined with uplift and subsidence (Ziegler & Dèzes 2007, Pavoni 1984, Nagra 1992). The northern boundary of the Graben is marked by the Mindelsee fault, which extends in the longitudinal direction of the Bodanrück and splits into several smaller units, which are not yet fully understood (Schreiner 1992). To the South, the Graben is bordered by the Randen fault zone several hundred meters wide. Whether the Graben further extends across the entire Bodanrück is still under discussion (HSK 2005). Red wood ants (Formica rufa-group, RWA) are bioindicators for identifying hidden neotectonic strike-slip faults (Berberich 2010, Schreiber & Berberich 2011). At the Bodanrück, we investigated if a combination of soil gas analyses and RWA mound distribution can be used to complement this neotectonic fault regime southeast of the Mindelsee. Geogenic gas analyses for carbon dioxide (CO2), helium (He) and radon (Rn) showed significantly increased anomalies, providing evidence of spotty degassing anomalies and neotectonic stress comparable to those measured in the Neogene Basins of Italy or the Westeifel Volcanic Field (Ciotoli et al. 2006, Berberich 2010). Anomalous CO2 values (up to 11 Vol. %) agree well with high Rn anomalies suggesting a fit with supposed local fault systems (Kemski et al. 1996, Ferrari et al. 2003). This correlation confirms the presence of deep reaching gas-bearing channels in the study area. The agglomeration of RWA in the study area is embedded between the Mindelsee and the Randen

  2. Metal fractionation of cadmium, lead and arsenic of geogenic origin in topsoils from the Marrancos gold mineralisation, northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Reis, A P; Patinha, C; Ferreira da Silva, E; Sousa, A J

    2012-04-01

    The Marrancos gold mineralisation has a chemical assemblage of Fe-As-Se-Bi-Au-Ag-Te-(Cu-Pb-Zn-Sn-W). The -200 mesh of 144 topsoil samples was analysed by ICP-MS to determine total contents of 53 elements that include potentially harmful elements like Cd, As and Pb. The soil geochemistry shows that some trace elements occur in considerably high concentrations. On the basis of data for total metal concentrations, 10 topsoil samples were selected to carry out a metal fractionation study using a selective extraction method. A set of four leaches of increasing strength was used sequentially in the soil samples. Across the study area, there is some evidence of past mining and exploration activity, indicating that these soils may be locally disturbed. The shallow mineralised quartz veins were exploited for gold by the Romans. Several galleries were constructed during the 2nd World War, probably for the exploration of quartz-cassiterite-wolframite veins. However, the main mineralised body in depth was never explored. The results of metal fractionation show different partitions for the three elements. Total Cd concentrations in these soils are low, with a median value of 0.1 mg/kg. In average, 12% of total Cd is adsorbed by clays and/or co-precipitated with carbonates, and 19% is bounded to Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides. However, the low concentrations indicate that the metal does not represent an immediate risk to human health. For Pb, metal fractionation shows that, on average, 22% of Pb is adsorbed by amorphous Fe and Mn oxides, but the samples from the northern part of the area have the major fractions of Pb in soluble forms. The low probability of exposure in this part of the study area decreases the risk posed by this heavy metal. Total As concentrations in the Marrancos soils are extremely high. A large area has As concentrations above 1,000 mg/kg. For As, metal fractions in the sulphide phase vary between 84 and 98% in the studied samples. But one sample has 20% of total As

  3. Particle exposures and infections.

    PubMed

    Ghio, A J

    2014-06-01

    Particle exposures increase the risk for human infections. Particles can deposit in the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and distal lung and, accordingly, the respiratory tract is the system most frequently infected after such exposure; however, meningitis also occurs. Cigarette smoking, burning of biomass, dust storms, mining, agricultural work, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), wood stoves, traffic-related emissions, gas stoves, and ambient air pollution are all particle-related exposures associated with an increased risk for respiratory infections. In addition, cigarette smoking, burning of biomass, dust storms, mining, and ETS can result in an elevated risk for tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial infections, and meningitis. One of the mechanisms for particle-related infections includes an accumulation of iron by surface functional groups of particulate matter (PM). Since elevations in metal availability are common to every particle exposure, all PM potentially contributes to these infections. Therefore, exposures to wood stove emissions, diesel exhaust, and air pollution particles are predicted to increase the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis, atypical mycobacterial infections, and meningitis, albeit these elevations are likely to be small and detectable only in large population studies. Since iron accumulation correlates with the presence of surface functional groups and dependent metal coordination by the PM, the risk for infection continues as long as the particle is retained. Subsequently, it is expected that the cessation of exposure will diminish, but not totally reverse, the elevated risk for infection. PMID:24488331

  4. Exposure assessment of trichloroethylene.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C; Schaum, J

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews exposure information available for trichloroethylene (TCE) and assesses the magnitude of human exposure. The primary sources releasing TCE into the environment are metal cleaning and degreasing operations. Releases occur into all media but mostly into the air due to its volatility. It is also moderately soluble in water and can leach from soils into groundwater. TCE has commonly been found in ambient air, surface water, and groundwaters. The 1998 air levels in microg/m(3) across 115 monitors can be summarized as follows: range = 0.01-3.9, mean = 0.88. A California survey of large water utilities in 1984 found a median concentration of 3.0 microg/L. General population exposure to TCE occurs primarily by inhalation and water ingestion. Typical average daily intakes have been estimated as 11-33 microg/day for inhalation and 2-20 microg/day for ingestion. A small portion of the population is expected to have elevated exposures as a result of one or more of these pathways: inhalation exposures to workers involved in degreasing operations, ingestion and inhalation exposures occurring in homes with private wells located near disposal/contamination sites, and inhalation exposures to consumers using TCE products in areas of poor ventilation. More current and more extensive data on TCE levels in indoor air, water, and soil are needed to better characterize the distribution of background exposures in the general population and elevated exposures in special subpopulations. Images Figure 1 PMID:10807565

  5. Carbon Cycling of Lake Kivu (East Africa): Net Autotrophy in the Epilimnion and Emission of CO2 to the Atmosphere Sustained by Geogenic Inputs

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alberto V.; Morana, Cédric; Bouillon, Steven; Servais, Pierre; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Darchambeau, François

    2014-01-01

    We report organic and inorganic carbon distributions and fluxes in a large (>2000 km2) oligotrophic, tropical lake (Lake Kivu, East Africa), acquired during four field surveys, that captured the seasonal variations (March 2007–mid rainy season, September 2007–late dry season, June 2008–early dry season, and April 2009–late rainy season). The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in surface waters of the main basin of Lake Kivu showed modest spatial (coefficient of variation between 3% and 6%), and seasonal variations with an amplitude of 163 ppm (between 579±23 ppm on average in March 2007 and 742±28 ppm on average in September 2007). The most prominent spatial feature of the pCO2 distribution was the very high pCO2 values in Kabuno Bay (a small sub-basin with little connection to the main lake) ranging between 11213 ppm and 14213 ppm (between 18 and 26 times higher than in the main basin). Surface waters of the main basin of Lake Kivu were a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere at an average rate of 10.8 mmol m−2 d−1, which is lower than the global average reported for freshwater, saline, and volcanic lakes. In Kabuno Bay, the CO2 emission to the atmosphere was on average 500.7 mmol m−2 d−1 (∼46 times higher than in the main basin). Based on whole-lake mass balance of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) bulk concentrations and of its stable carbon isotope composition, we show that the epilimnion of Lake Kivu was net autotrophic. This is due to the modest river inputs of organic carbon owing to the small ratio of catchment area to lake surface area (2.15). The carbon budget implies that the CO2 emission to the atmosphere must be sustained by DIC inputs of geogenic origin from deep geothermal springs. PMID:25314144

  6. Contrasting isotopic signatures between anthropogenic and geogenic Zn and evidence for post-depositional fractionation processes in smelter-impacted soils from Northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juillot, Farid; Maréchal, Chloe; Morin, Guillaume; Jouvin, Delphine; Cacaly, Sylvain; Telouk, Philipe; Benedetti, Marc F.; Ildefonse, Philippe; Sutton, Steve; Guyot, François; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.

    2011-05-01

    Zinc isotopes have been studied along two smelter-impacted soil profiles sampled near one of the largest Pb and Zn processing plants in Europe located in northern France, about 50 km south of Lille. Mean δ 66Zn values along these two soil profiles range from +0.22 ± 0.17‰ (2 σ) to +0.34 ± 0.17‰ (2 σ) at the lowest horizons and from +0.38 ± 0.45‰ (2 σ) to +0.76 ± 0.14‰ (2 σ) near the surface. The δ 66Zn values in the lowest horizons of the soils are interpreted as being representative of the local geochemical background (mean value +0.31 ± 0.38‰), whereas heavier δ 66Zn values near the surface of the two soils are related to anthropogenic Zn. This anthropogenic Zn occurs in the form of franklinite (ZnFe 2O 4)-bearing slag grains originating from processing wastes at the smelter site and exhibiting δ 66Zn values of +0.81 ± 0.20‰ (2 σ). The presence of franklinite is indicated by EXAFS analysis of the topsoil samples from both soil profiles as well as by micro-XANES analysis of the surface horizon of a third smelter-impacted soil from a distant site. These results indicate that naturally occurring Zn and smelter-derived Zn exhibit significantly different δ 66Zn values, which suggests that zinc isotopes can be used to distinguish between geogenic and anthropogenic sources of Zn in smelter-impacted soils. In addition to a possible influence of additional past sources of light Zn (likely Zn-sulfides and Zn-sulfates directly emitted by the smelter), the light δ 66Zn values in the surface horizons compared to smelter-derived slag materials are interpreted as resulting mainly from fractionation processes associated with biotic and/or abiotic pedological processes (Zn-bearing mineral precipitation, Zn complexation by organic matter, and plant uptake of Zn). This conclusion emphasizes the need for additional Zn isotopic studies before being able to use Zn isotopes to trace sources and pathways of this element in surface environments.

  7. 54. West elevation of portion of elevated Mainline structure (Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. West elevation of portion of elevated Mainline structure (Section F-5) over Washington Street - looking East - at the corner of Bray Street. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. Atmospheric deposition to high-elevation forests

    SciTech Connect

    Lovett, G.M.; Weathers, K.C.; Lindberg, S.E. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1994-06-01

    Three important phenomena characterize atmospheric deposition to high-elevation forests: (1) multiple deposition mechanisms (wet, dry, and cloud deposition), (2) high rates of deposition, and (3) high spatial variability. The high rates of deposition are caused by changes in meteorological conditions with elevation, especially increasing wind speed and cloud immersion frequency. The high spatial variability of deposition is a result of the regulation of cloud and dry deposition rates by microclimatic and canopy structure conditions, which can be extremely heterogeneous in mountain landscapes. Spruce-fir forests are often [open quotes]hot spots[close quotes] of deposition when viewed in a landscape or regional context because of their elevation, exposure, and evergreen canopy. In this talk we will consider atmospheric depositions to high-elevation forests in both the northeastern and southeastern U.S., using field data and geographic information systems to illustrate deposition patterns.

  9. Short-term carbon dynamics in a temperate heathland upon six years of exposure to elevated CO2 concentration, drought and warming: Evidence from an in-situ 13CO2 pulse-chase experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambus, P.; Reinsch, S.; Sárossy, Z.; Egsgaard, H.; Jakobsen, I.; Michelsen, A.; Schmidt, I.; Nielsen, P.

    2013-12-01

    An in-situ 13CO2 pulse-labeling experiment was carried out in a temperate heathland (8 oC MAT, 610 mm MAP) to study the impact on short-term carbon (C) allocation as affected by elevated CO2 concentration (+120 ppm), prolonged summer droughts (ca. -43 mm) and warming (+1 oC). The study was carried out six years after the climate treatments were initiated and took place in the early growing season in May in vegetation dominated by grasses, mainly Deschampsia flexuosa. Newly assimilated C (13C from the pulse-label) was traced into vegetation, soil and soil microorganisms and belowground respiration 1, 2 and 8 days after pulse-labeling. The importance of the microbial community in C utilization was investigated using 13C enrichment patterns in different microbial functional groups on the basis of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Climate treatments did not affect microorganism abundance in soil or rhizosphere fractions in terms of total PLFA-C concentration. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced the abundance of gram-negative bacteria (17:0cy), but did not affect the abundance of decomposers (fungi and actinomycetes) in rhizosphere fractions. Drought favored the bacterial community in rhizosphere fractions whereas warming reduced the abundance of gram-negative bacteria (19:0cy) and changed the actinomycetes community (10Me16:0, 10Me18:0). Fastest and highest utilization of recently assimilated C was observed in rhizosphere associated gram-negative bacteria followed by gram-positive bacteria. The utilization of recently assimilated C by the microbial community was faster under elevated CO2 conditions compared to ambient. The 13C assimilation by green plant tissue and translocation to roots was significantly reduced by the extended summer drought. Under elevated CO2 conditions we observed an increased amount of 13C in the litter fraction. The assimilation of 13C by vegetation was not changed when the climate factors were applied in combination. The total amount of

  10. NATIONAL ELEVATION DATASET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) has been developed by merging the highest-resolution, best-quality elevation data available across the United States into a seamless raster format. NED is the result of the maturation of the USGS effort to provide 1:24,000-scale Digital ...

  11. NATIONAL ELEVATION DATASET HILLSHADE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) has been developed bymerging the highest-resolution, best-quality elevation data available across the United States into a seamless raster format. NED is the result of the maturation of the USGS effort to provide 1:24,000-scale Digital E...

  12. CORNICE AND WINDOW DETAIL, WEST ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST (LIGHT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CORNICE AND WINDOW DETAIL, WEST ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST (LIGHT AND DARK EXPOSURES). - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. Mars elevation distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.; Ablin, Karyn K.

    1991-01-01

    A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of Mars was derived with both Mercator and Sinusoidal Equal-Area projections from the global topographic map of Mars (scale 1:15 million, contour interval 1 km). Elevations on the map are referred to Mars' topographic datum that is defined by the gravity field at a 6.1-millibar pressure surface with respect to the center of mass of Mars. The DTM has a resolution at the equator of 1/59.226 degrees (exactly 1 km) per pixel. By using the DTM, the volumetric distribution of Mars topography above and below the datum has previously been calculated. Three types of elevation distributions of Mars' topography were calculated from the same DTM: (1) the frequency distribution of elevations at the pixel resolution; (2) average elevations in increments of 6 degrees in both longitude and latitude; and (3) average elevations in 36 separate blocks, each covering 30 degrees of latitude and 60 degrees of longitude.

  14. Nonoccupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls became worldwide environmental contaminants during five decades of industrial use. They cause cancer in some animals and are suspected of causing birth defects and elevated triglycerides in humans. The risk to humans from low-level exposure is unclear. No clinical symptoms have yet been identified in people who eat contaminated fish, a major source of low-level exposure. 19 references.

  15. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide increases soil carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, Richard J; Jastrow, Julie D; Miller, Michael R; Matamala, Roser; Boutton, Thomas W; Rice, Charles W; Owensby, Clenton E

    2005-01-01

    In a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science, researchers from Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories and Kansas State and Texas A&M Universities evaluated the collective results of earlier studies by using a statistical procedure called meta-analysis. They found that on average elevated CO2 increased soil carbon by 5.6 percent over a two to nine year period. They also measured comparable increases in soil carbon for Tennessee deciduous forest and Kansas grassland after five to eight years of experimental exposure to elevated CO2.

  16. Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Light: Isometric Casing with Lens, South Elevation, North Elevation, Top Plan, Base Plan; Fresnel Lens: Isometric, Elevation, Plan - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  17. location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location map, floor plan, north elevation, north elevation with porch removed, south elevation, building section - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  18. 21. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT, TOP ELEVATOR SUPPORT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT, TOP ELEVATOR SUPPORT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  19. Space Elevator: Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perek, Lubos

    2008-04-01

    Many papers have been published on engineering and economic aspects of the Space Elevator. The Elevator, however, is a very special and unusual astronomical body. Its behavior in space is affected not only by the attraction of the Earth and by the "centrifugal force" but also by the attraction of the Sun and the Moon, by the detailed shape of the Earth, by the presence of space debris, etc. Not all of the minor effects have been adequately studied. The size of the Space Elevator and its lack of resistance against buckling or bending require a detailed study of its stability, both in its initial phase as a geostationary (GEO) satellite as well as in its operational phase as a "sling". Lunisolar perturbations and other minor forces may affect the stability in the initial phase and will cause oscillations in the operational phase. Station-keeping thrusters will have to be mounted at selected points along the cable in order to maintain stability. In addition, the thrusters will perform local maneuvers for avoiding collisions with passing space debris. The control system of thrusters has to be adaptive, reacting fast to actual situation and rectifying the attitude of the Elevator whenever necessary. A further advantage of the thrusters is a possibility to locate the Elevator at any longitude, possibly looking for a region with minimum traffic at GEO distance. Extensive numerical simulations will have to be performed in order to determine elements of the thrusters and their control system.

  20. Elevated BP after AKI.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Hsu, Raymond K; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP-defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit-during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization. PMID:26134154

  1. 1. MAIN ELEVATIONS, VIEW SHOWING LEFT ELEVATION WITH TWENTIETH CENTURY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. MAIN ELEVATIONS, VIEW SHOWING LEFT ELEVATION WITH TWENTIETH CENTURY REMODELING, CENTRAL ELEVATION WITH EARLY AND MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY ALTERATIONS, AND RIGHT ELEVATION WITH TWENTIETH CENTURY ALTERATIONS TO GROUND FLOOR - 160-166 Main Street, 160-166 Main Street, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, MD

  2. 60. FORWARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR PIT WITH ELEVATOR IN RAISED POSITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. FORWARD AIRPLANE ELEVATOR PIT WITH ELEVATOR IN RAISED POSITION AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE SHOWING ELEVATOR GUIDES, WIREWAYS, SHEAVES, HYDRAULIC OIL TANKS AND ELEVATOR LANDING PADS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. [Acute blood pressure elevations].

    PubMed

    Chamontin, B; Amar, J; Chollet, F; Rouge, P; Bonetti-d'Esteve, L; Guittard, J; Salvador, M

    2000-11-01

    Blood pressure (BP) elevations may correspond to different clinical situations. Hypertensives emergencies are situations that require immediate reduction in BP because of acute or rapidly progressing target organ damage: accelerated malignant hypertension, hypertensive encephalopathy, acute myocardial infarction, acute aortic dissection, acute left ventricular failure, and eclampsia. Hypertensive urgencies are those with marked elevated BP in which it is desirable to reduce BP progressively within few hours, such as severe hypertension, progressive target organ damage, perioperative hypertension. Cerebrovascular accidents have to be individualized. In most patients in the immediate post-stroke period, BP should not be lowered. Caution is advised in lowering BP in these patients because excessive falls may precipitate cerebral ischemia. In situations without symptoms or progressive target organ it is necessary to exclude proximate causes of elevated BP such as pain and elevated BP alone rarely requires antihypertensive treatment. Among parenteral antihypertensive (AH) drugs labetalol, nicardipine, urapidil, and nitroprussiate are generally used, and the choice of AH drug depends on the clinical situation. It is not required to normalize BP immediately but to reduce mean BP no more than 25%, then toward 160/100 mmHg as recommended by JNC VI, in order to avoid an impairment of renal, cerebral or coronary ischemia. Oral long-acting dihydropyridines are often subsequently administrated, except in myocardial ischemia. Therapeutic attitudes vary considerably according to the clinical situation: abstention, immediate decrease or progressive decrease in BP have to be decided. PMID:11190294

  4. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, J. F.; Malik, S. N.; Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.; Laflen, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Elevated Temperature Crack Growth Project is to evaluate proposed nonlinear fracture mechanics methods for application to combustor liners of aircraft gas turbine engines. During the first year of this program, proposed path-independent (P-I) integrals were reviewed for such applications. Several P-I integrals were implemented into a finite-element postprocessor which was developed and verified as part of the work. Alloy 718 was selected as the analog material for use in the forthcoming experimental work. A buttonhead, single-edge notch specimen was designed and verified for use in elevated-temperature strain control testing with significant inelastic strains. A crack mouth opening displacement measurement device was developed for further use.

  5. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Engaging in intensive aerobic exercise, specifically endurance sports, is associated with HPA axis activation indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Whether the repeated short-term elevations in cortisol levels result in higher long-term cortisol exposure of endurance athletes has been difficult to examine since traditional methods of cortisol assessments (saliva, blood, urine) reflect only relatively short time periods. Hair segment analysis provides a new method to assess cumulative cortisol secretion over prolonged time periods in a retrospective fashion. The aim of this study was to investigate cumulative cortisol secretion over several months reflecting intensive training and competitive races by examining hair cortisol levels of endurance athletes. Hair samples were obtained from 304 amateur endurance athletes (long-distance runners, triathletes, cyclists) and 70 controls. Cortisol concentrations were determined in the first to third 3-cm hair segments most proximal to the scalp. In addition, self-report measures of training volume were obtained. Endurance athletes exhibited higher cortisol levels in all three hair segments compared to controls (p<.001). Positive correlations between the cortisol concentration in the first hair segment and each indicator of training volume were found (all p<.01). These data suggest that repeated physical stress of intensive training and competitive races among endurance athletes is associated with elevated cortisol exposure over prolonged periods of time. These findings may have important implications with regard to somatic and mental health of athletes which should be investigated in future research. PMID:21944954

  6. first floor plan, east elevation, north elevation, building section, paneling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    first floor plan, east elevation, north elevation, building section, paneling details, crown molding and location map - Cedar Pass Lodge, Cabin 1-2, 20681 South Dakota Highway 240, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  7. first floor plan, building section, west elevation, south elevation, baseboard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    first floor plan, building section, west elevation, south elevation, baseboard profile, crown molding profile, window and door details - Cedar Pass Lodge, Cabin 22, 20681 South Dakota Highway 240, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  8. first floor plan, west elevation, north elevation, building section, door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    first floor plan, west elevation, north elevation, building section, door details, window details, paneling details, crown molding and location map - Cedar Pass Lodge, Cabin 14-16, 20681 South Dakota Highway 240, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  9. first floor plan, north elevation, east elevation, building section, door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    first floor plan, north elevation, east elevation, building section, door details, window details, crown molding and location map - Cedar Pass Lodge, Cabin 9, 20681 South Dakota Highway 240, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  10. 33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (right) Photographs taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  11. Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground Floor Plan, Section A-A - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  12. 3. NORTH ELEVATION OF BOILER HOUSE; PARTIAL NORTH ELEVATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH ELEVATION OF BOILER HOUSE; PARTIAL NORTH ELEVATION OF ENGINE HOUSE, LEFT REAR. - Providence Sewage Treatment System, Ernest Street Pumping Station, Boiler House, Ernest Street & Allens Avenue, Providence, Providence County, RI

  13. South elevation of post office, with elevated storage tank and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South elevation of post office, with elevated storage tank and standpipe at left and water column at right. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  14. SOUTH ELEVATION OF POST OFFICE, WITH ELEVATED STORAGE TANK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION OF POST OFFICE, WITH ELEVATED STORAGE TANK AND STANDPIPE AT LEFT AND WATER COLUMN AT RIGHT - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  15. 43. ELEVATOR HEADHOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. ELEVATOR HEAD-HOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator head-house at the Washington and Mason Street powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. north elevation, south elevation, building section, window details Chopawamsic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    north elevation, south elevation, building section, window details - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  17. location plan, floor plan, west elevation, east elevation Chopawamsic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, west elevation, east elevation - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  18. 44. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MOTOR LOCATED ABOVE TOP OF ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MOTOR LOCATED ABOVE TOP OF ELEVATOR NEAR WEST WALL OF MST STATION 111 ANTEROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. 3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Occident Terminal Elevator. Reinforced concrete. First total "electric" elevator at Duluth. (Powered by electrical substation instead of steam generator). - Occident Terminal Elevator & Storage Annex, South side of second slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  20. Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building C west elevation showing south elevation of Building B (on left) and north elevation of Building D (on right). The Germantown Dyeworks complex and smoke stack appear in the background. View looking east - Hinckley Knitting Mills, Building C, 21-35 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Digital Elevation Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1993-01-01

    The Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) distributes digital cartographic/geographic data files produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Mapping Program. Digital cartographic data files may be grouped into four basic types. The first of these, called a Digital Line Graph (DLG), is the line map information in digital form. These data files include information on base data categories, such as transportation, hypsography, hydrography, and boundaries. The second type, called a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), consists of a sampled array of elevations for a number of ground positions at regularly spaced intervals. The third type is Land Use and Land Cover digital data which provides information on nine major classes of land use such as urban, agricultural, or forest as well as associated map data such as political units and Federal land ownership. The fourth type, the Geographic Names Information System, provides primary information for all known places, features, and areas in the United States identified by a proper name.

  2. Military Exposures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... for Providers Diagnosis and Treatment of Exposure Health Effects More Provider Resources » return to top Get Email ...

  3. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    A three year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for non-proportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved undertanding were through several critical non-proportional loading experiments. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C.

  4. Elevated temperature crack growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Vanstone, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to extend the work performed in the base program (CR 182247) into the regime of time-dependent crack growth under isothermal and thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) loading, where creep deformation also influences the crack growth behavior. The investigation was performed in a two-year, six-task, combined experimental and analytical program. The path-independent integrals for application to time-dependent crack growth were critically reviewed. The crack growth was simulated using a finite element method. The path-independent integrals were computed from the results of finite-element analyses. The ability of these integrals to correlate experimental crack growth data were evaluated under various loading and temperature conditions. The results indicate that some of these integrals are viable parameters for crack growth prediction at elevated temperatures.

  5. Elevated temperature biaxial fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.

    1985-01-01

    A 3 year experimental program for studying elevated temperature biaxial fatigue of a nickel based alloy Hastelloy-X has been completed. A new high temperature fatigue test facility with unique capabilities has been developed. Effort was directed toward understanding multiaxial fatigue and correlating the experimental data to the existing theories of fatigue failure. The difficult task of predicting fatigue lives for nonproportional loading was used as an ultimate test for various life prediction methods being considered. The primary means of reaching improved understanding were through several critical nonproportional loading experiments. The direction of cracking observed on failed specimens was also recorded and used to guide the development of the theory. Cyclic deformation responses were permanently recorded digitally during each test. It was discovered that the cracking mode switched from primarily cracking on the maximum shear planes at room temperature to cracking on the maximum normal strain planes at 649 C. In contrast to some other metals, loading path in nonproportional loading had little effect on fatigue lives. Strain rate had a small effect on fatigue lives at 649 C. Of the various correlating parameters the modified plastic work and octahedral shear stress were the most successful.

  6. Fingerprinting digital elevation maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Hongmei; Wu, Min

    2006-02-01

    Digital elevation maps (DEMs) provide a digital representation of 3-D terrain information. In civilian applications, high-precision DEMs carry a high commercial value owing to the large amount of effort in acquiring them; and in military applications, DEMs are often used to represent critical geospatial information in sensitive operations. These call for new technologies to prevent unauthorized distribution and to trace traitors in the event of information leak related to DEMs. In this paper, we propose a new digital fingerprinting technique to protect DEM data from illegal re-distribution. The proposed method enables reliable detection of fingerprints from both 3-D DEM data set and its 2-D rendering, whichever format that is available to a detector. Our method starts with extracting from a DEM a set of critical contours either corresponding to important topographic features of the terrain or having application-dependent importance. Fingerprints are then embedded into these critical contours by employing parametric curve modeling and spread spectrum embedding. Finally, a fingerprinted DEM is constructed to incorporate the marked 2-D contours. Through experimental results, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method against a number of challenging attacks applied to either DEMs or their contour representations.

  7. Elevated T cell subpopulations in dental students

    SciTech Connect

    Eedy, D.J.; Burrows, D.; Clifford, T.; Fay, A. )

    1990-05-01

    The absolute numbers of circulating white cells and lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in 25 final-year dental students and compared with a control group of 28 medical students. The total lymphocyte count, total T cell numbers (CD3), T helper/inducer (CD4), and T suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8) numbers were significantly elevated in the dental students as compared with the control group. There was no significant difference in the T helper/inducer to T suppressor/cytotoxic cell ratios or the circulating B cell (CD21) and natural killer cell (CD16) numbers between the study and control groups. Patch testing to mercury and mercuric compounds in both the study and control groups showed no evidence of cutaneous hypersensitivity to mercury. The reason for the observed elevations in T cell subpopulations in dental students is not clear. However, one possible explanation is the dental student's occupational exposure to mercury. Further work is underway to examine this possible relationship and it is suggested that dental personnel take adequate measures to reduce their exposure to mercury until the results of these studies are available.

  8. Elevated triglyceride and decreased high density lipoprotein level in carbon disulfide workers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Chang, Shu-Ju; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Chen, Chiou-Jong; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Huang, Chin-Chang

    2003-01-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2) is a man-made product utilized primarily in the manufacture of viscose rayon. Overexposure to CS2 has been associated with an increase in coronary heart disease. The aims of this study were to examine the dose-response relationship of CS2 exposure and elevated lipid profile tests among CS2-exposed workers in Taiwan. A total of 132 workers were recruited from two viscose rayon plants. Air sampling was performed to determine the CS2 exposure of workers. Demographic data and work history were gathered by a standard self-administered questionnaire. Lipid profile tests were also performed by routine methods. The average CS2 exposure concentration was 50.6 +/- 25.6 ppm (range: 24-127 ppm) in the high-exposure group, 12.9 +/- 5 ppm (range: 5.2-22.3 ppm) in the mid-exposure group, and 3.5 +/- 1.2 ppm (range 0.97-5.2 ppm) in the low-exposure group. There were 21 out of 33 (63.7%) elevated triglyceride levels among high-CS2-exposure workers, 27 out of 64 (42.2%) among the middle-CS2-exposure, and 14 out of 35 (40%) among low-CS2-exposure workers, respectively. Compared to the low-CS2-exposure workers, the age- and weight-adjusted odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) of the prevalence of elevated triglyceride value were 1.12 (0.5, 2.7) for middle-CS2-exposure workers, and 2.81 (1.02, 7.8) for high-CS2-exposure workers. There was a significant linear trend between CS2 exposure and the prevalence of elevated triglyceride value (P = 0.046) after adjusting for other factors. There was also a lower prevalence of elevated HDL level in high-CS2-exposure workers than low-CS2-exposure workers (15.2% versus 31.4%). Compared to the low-CS2-exposure workers, the age- and weight-adjusted odds ratio (and 95% confidence intervals) of elevated HDL level were 0.34 (0.1, 1.18) for high-CS2-exposure workers, which was borderline significant. In conclusion, this study suggests that elevated triglyceride level and decreased HDL level are associated with CS2 exposure

  9. Elevated-Temperature Tribology of Metallic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2010-01-01

    The wear of metals and alloys takes place in many forms, and the type of wear that dominates in each instance is influenced by the mechanics of contact, material properties, the interfacial temperature, and the surrounding environment. The control of elevated-temperature friction and wear is important for applications like internal combustion engines, aerospace propulsion systems, and metalworking equipment. The progression of interacting, often synergistic processes produces surface deformation, subsurface damage accumulation, the formation of tribolayers, and the creation of free particles. Reaction products, particularly oxides, play a primary role in debris formation and microstructural evolution. Chemical reactions are known to be influenced by the energetic state of the exposed surfaces, and that surface energy is in turn affected by localized deformation and fracture. At relatively low temperatures, work-hardening can occur beneath tribo-contacts, but exposure to high temperatures can modify the resultant defect density and grain structure to affect the mechanisms of re-oxidation. As research by others has shown, the rate of wear at elevated temperatures can either be enhanced or reduced, depending on contact conditions and nature of oxide layer formation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic driving force for certain chemical reactions is moderated by kinetics and microstructure. The role of deformation, oxidation, and tribo-corrosion in the elevated temperature tribology of metallic alloys will be exemplified by three examples involving sliding wear, single-point abrasion, and repetitive impact plus slip.

  10. 34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  11. 35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  12. 38. Second Floor Plan, North Elevation, South Elevation and Details. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Second Floor Plan, North Elevation, South Elevation and Details. Addition to Bacteriology Laboratory at Letterman General Hospital, San Francisco, Cal. January 1916. BUILDING 1006. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating rear elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing east - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180 degree view of Building 7 elevations, illustrating front elevation of two story unit type with one story step-down on street side. View facing west - Harbor Hills Housing Project, One & Two Story Townhouse Type, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Continuous exposure of animals to methylisobutylketone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernot, E. H.; Macewen, J. D.; Harris, E. S.

    1971-01-01

    Continuous exposure of dogs, monkeys, mice, and rats to MIBK for two weeks and all animals except mice for 90 days resulted in measurable adverse effects only in the case of rats. Rat kidney weights and kidney to body weight ratios were significantly elevated after exposure to 410 mg/cu m for two weeks, and kidney and liver organ weights and organ to body weight ratios were elevated after exposure to 820 mg/cu m for two weeks and to 410 mg/cu m for 90 days.

  16. An examination of the hypothesis that intraocular pressure elevation episodes can have prognostic significance in glaucoma suspects

    PubMed Central

    McMonnies, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of intraocular pressure reduction in retarding the progression of glaucoma has been demonstrated. This review examines the potential for prognostic advantage for glaucoma suspects in reducing their optic nerve head exposure to elevated intraocular pressure associated with activities which have been shown to elevate intraocular pressure. In this observational study, patients examined at the Centre for Eye Health (University of New South Wales) with a diagnosis of glaucoma suspect were surveyed to determine their histories for participation in activities which are known to elevate intraocular pressure. The evidence regarding the pathological significance of these sources of elevation in susceptible patients was examined. Apart from the universality of sleep-related intraocular pressure elevations, the histories from 183 confirmed glaucoma suspects indicate a wide range and variation in frequency of participation in other intraocular pressure elevating activities. A reduction in exposure to elevated intraocular pressure may improve the prognosis for glaucoma suspects. Additional patient specific assessment of the results of this screening could provide an indication of the degree (frequency, intensity level and duration) of exposure to elevated intraocular pressure. Such information may provide the basis for improving a patient's prognosis by helping them to identify opportunities to reduce such exposure to elevated intraocular pressure. Any benefit of reduction of such exposure appears likely to be greater if activities which elevate intraocular pressure are of long duration, occur frequently, occur over a long period of time, and/or involve high levels of intraocular pressure elevation. PMID:25199440

  17. An examination of the hypothesis that intraocular pressure elevation episodes can have prognostic significance in glaucoma suspects.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of intraocular pressure reduction in retarding the progression of glaucoma has been demonstrated. This review examines the potential for prognostic advantage for glaucoma suspects in reducing their optic nerve head exposure to elevated intraocular pressure associated with activities which have been shown to elevate intraocular pressure. In this observational study, patients examined at the Centre for Eye Health (University of New South Wales) with a diagnosis of glaucoma suspect were surveyed to determine their histories for participation in activities which are known to elevate intraocular pressure. The evidence regarding the pathological significance of these sources of elevation in susceptible patients was examined. Apart from the universality of sleep-related intraocular pressure elevations, the histories from 183 confirmed glaucoma suspects indicate a wide range and variation in frequency of participation in other intraocular pressure elevating activities. A reduction in exposure to elevated intraocular pressure may improve the prognosis for glaucoma suspects. Additional patient specific assessment of the results of this screening could provide an indication of the degree (frequency, intensity level and duration) of exposure to elevated intraocular pressure. Such information may provide the basis for improving a patient's prognosis by helping them to identify opportunities to reduce such exposure to elevated intraocular pressure. Any benefit of reduction of such exposure appears likely to be greater if activities which elevate intraocular pressure are of long duration, occur frequently, occur over a long period of time, and/or involve high levels of intraocular pressure elevation. PMID:25199440

  18. Space Station tethered elevator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  19. MONOTERPENE LEVELS IN NEEDLES OF DOUGLAS-FIR EXPOSED TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of monoterpenes in current year needles of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were measured at the conclusion of four years of exposure to ambient or elevated CO2 (+ 179 mmol.mol-1), and ambient or elevated temperature (+ 3.5 C). Eleven monoterpen...

  20. High and dry: high elevations disproportionately exposed to regional climate change in Mediterranean-climate landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, Ian M.; Davis, Frank W.; Dingman, John R.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.; Serra-Diaz, Josep M.; Syphard, Alexandra D.; Moritz, Max A.; Hannah, Lee; Franklin, Janet

    2016-01-01

    In moisture-limited, Mediterranean-climate landscapes, high elevations may experience the greatest exposure to climate change in the 21st century. High elevation species may thus be especially vulnerable to continued climate change as habitats shrink and historically energy-limited locations become increasingly moisture-limited in the future.

  1. 1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 'Front Elevation, End Elevation of Parapet, Section on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1909. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. Domestic Asbestos Exposure: A Review of Epidemiologic and Exposure Data

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Emily; Craven, Valerie; Dahlstrom, David L.; Alexander, Dominik; Mowat, Fionna

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of asbestos resulting from living with and handling the clothing of workers directly exposed to asbestos has been established as a possible contributor to disease. This review evaluates epidemiologic studies of asbestos-related disease or conditions (mesothelioma, lung cancer, and pleural and interstitial abnormalities) among domestically exposed individuals and exposure studies that provide either direct exposure measurements or surrogate measures of asbestos exposure. A meta-analysis of studies providing relative risk estimates (n = 12) of mesothelioma was performed, resulting in a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) of 5.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48–10.13). This SRRE pertains to persons domestically exposed via workers involved in occupations with a traditionally high risk of disease from exposure to asbestos (i.e., asbestos product manufacturing workers, insulators, shipyard workers, and asbestos miners). The epidemiologic studies also show an elevated risk of interstitial, but more likely pleural, abnormalities (n = 6), though only half accounted for confounding exposures. The studies are limited with regard to lung cancer (n = 2). Several exposure-related studies describe results from airborne samples collected within the home (n = 3), during laundering of contaminated clothing (n = 1) or in controlled exposure simulations (n = 5) of domestic exposures, the latter of which were generally associated with low-level chrysotile-exposed workers. Lung burden studies (n = 6) were also evaluated as a surrogate of exposure. In general, available results for domestic exposures are lower than the workers’ exposures. Recent simulations of low-level chrysotile-exposed workers indicate asbestos levels commensurate with background concentrations in those exposed domestically. PMID:24185840

  3. Elevation Derivatives for National Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    The Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) project is a multi-agency effort to develop standard topographically derived layers for use in hydrologic and environmental modeling. The EDNA takes advantage of the seamless and filtered characteristics for the National Elevation Dataset (NED) to create a hydrologically conditioned Digital Elevation Model (DEM) useful for modeling applications. The goals of the project are to create a hydrologically conditioned DEM and systematically extract a set of standard derivatives that can be used to facilitate data integration with other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) framework data sets such as the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the Watershed Boundaries Dataset (WBD).

  4. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  5. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  6. Space Elevator Base Leg Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, C.; Swan, P. A.

    While the Space Elevator stretches for 104,000 kilometers, the region of most concern, from the survival perspective, is 2,500 kms and below. The threats inside this dangerous arena include debris, spacecraft, meteorites, lightening, winds, rogue waves, aircraft, and intentional human acts. Two major questions will be addressed that will influence the overall systems architecture of a Space Elevator. While the deployment phase of the development of the Space Elevator will only have a single ribbon from the surface of the Earth to well beyond the Geosynchronous altitude, a mature Space Elevator must never allow a complete sever of the system. Design approaches, materials selections, international policy development and assembly must ensure that the integrity of the Space Elevator be maintained. The trade space analysis will address the probability of an individual ribbon being severed, the length of time to repair, and the potential for a catastrophic Space Elevator cut. The architecture proposed for the base leg portion will address two questions: Shall there be multiple base legs to 2,500 kms altitude? And Should the anchor be based on land or at sea?

  7. Aerosol dynamics and health: strategies to reduce exposure and harm.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Gerald

    2009-07-01

    The term 'air pollution' is used to describe the presence of chemicals or materials in the atmosphere that produce poor air quality. Air pollutants may be classified into four principal categories which include anthropogenic (man-made; e.g. combustion products), biogenic (biological; e.g. pollen, allergens), technogenic (technology; e.g. metal aerosols or smelter) and geogenic (geological; e.g. erosion of earth, i.e. minerals, volcanic ash). From these categories are derived the seven main pollutants of human health concern, i.e. carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, hydrocarbons, lead, and particulate matter (PM). The common provenance of all these emissions is from the combustion of fossil fuels (e.g. coal, petrol and diesel), biomass (e.g. cooking) and tobacco smoke. PM is now considered to be the most precarious of pollutants, with the combustion-derived nano-particles being linked to a myriad of premature and excess deaths world-wide; especially for persons with pre-existing cardiovascular disorders. This meeting intended to bring together scientists from a host of disciplines (toxicologists, biologists, chemists, physicists and material scientists) that work at the bio-particulate interface. It aimed to present and discuss, via topical 'break-out' sessions, the current thoughts on the 'burden to human health' following exposure to and harm from combustion-derived particles. Furthermore, strategies for 'harm reduction' were another feature of this cross-disciplinary meeting. The final objectives were to identify biomarkers of exposure and harm to these inhalation hazards. All topics covered sought to find biomarker indices for human health effects. PMID:19604050

  8. The floor effect: impoverished spatial memory for elevator buttons.

    PubMed

    Vendetti, Michael; Castel, Alan D; Holyoak, Keith J

    2013-05-01

    People typically remember objects to which they have frequently been exposed, suggesting that memory is a by-product of perception. However, prior research has shown that people have exceptionally poor memory for the features of some objects (e.g., coins) to which they have been exposed over the course of many years. Here, we examined how people remember the spatial layout of the buttons on a frequently used elevator panel, to determine whether physical interaction (rather than simple exposure) would ensure the incidental encoding of spatial information. Participants who worked in an eight-story office building displayed very poor recall for the elevator panel but above-chance performance on a recognition test. Performance was related to how often and how recently the person had used the elevator. In contrast to their poor memory for the spatial layout of the elevator buttons, most people readily recalled small distinctive graffiti on the elevator walls. In a more implicit test, the majority were able to locate their office floor and the eighth floor button when asked to point toward these buttons when in the actual elevator, with the button labels covered. However, identification was very poor for other floors (including the first floor), suggesting that even frequent interaction with information does not always lead to accurate spatial memory. These findings have implications for understanding the complex relationships among attention, expertise, and memory. PMID:23512481

  9. 2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 'Tunnel No 6 West End, Front Elevation, Sectional Elevation on Centerline of Portal,' Southern Pacific Standard Single-Track Tunnel, 1910. Tunnel 6, which today would be Tunnel 20, was daylighted and no longer exists. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 23 (HAER No. CA-198), Tunnel 24 (HAER No. CA-200), Tunnel 25 (HAER No. CA-201), Tunnel 27 (HAER No. CA-203), Tunnel 28 (HAER No. CA-204), and Tunnel 29 (HAER No. CA-205). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. Elevated carbon dioxide concentrations and whole plant senescence

    SciTech Connect

    St. Omer, L.; Horvath, S.M.

    1983-10-01

    Investigations concerned with the effects of elevated atmospheric CO/sub 2/ on plant growth and senescence have generally involved short-term exposures. This report concerns the effects of lifetime exposures to elevated CO/sub 2/ levels in three native winter annual plant species on biomass accumulation, induction of flowering, leaf senescence, and death of whole plants. Life span was significantly (P < .05) reduced in Layia platyglossa and Clarkia rubicunda at the highest CO/sub 2/ concentrations (0.21%). Flower initiation was significantly (P < .05) accelerated for Layia platyglossa and Clarkia rubicunda at 0.14 and 0.21% CO. Dry matter accumulation (biomass) of Layia and Clarkia increased with increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO/sub 2/. The number of senesced leaves per plant during the early stages of development (pre-anthesis, 105 d) was not significantly different for CO/sub 2/ treatments for either Nemophila menziesii or Layia platyglossa.

  11. PHYSIOLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION IN ESTUARINE MYSIDS AND LARVAL DECAPODS WITH CHRONIC PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of physiological functions was examined in an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) during life-cycle exposures to four classes of pesticides. Pesticide exposure initially elevated respiration rates of juveniles. These increased metabolic requirements reduced the amount of...

  12. Criminal exposure.

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    A 39-year-old man who had sex with a 16-year-old boy, was sentenced to five years in prison. The defendant pleaded guilty to statutory rape and criminal exposure to HIV. The boy discovered that the man was taking HIV medications, and the man subsequently disclosed his treatment after being arrested. PMID:11367003

  13. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This proceedings chapter will discuss the state-of-the-science regarding the evaluation of exposure as it relates to water quality criteria (WQC), sediment quality guidelines (SQG), and wildlife criteria (WC). Throughout this discussion, attempts are made to identify the methods ...

  14. Hypotonic exposures.

    PubMed

    Flynn, W J; Hill, R M

    1984-03-01

    Even without a contact lens, the cornea can suffer adverse physiological changes from hypotonic exposure, as well as the associated subjective phenomena (e.g., halo and rainbows). The contact lens adds a dimension to this problem that should be viewed against a background of normal (non-wearing) susceptibilities. PMID:6715776

  15. Tether Elevator Crawler Systems (TECS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Frank R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the needs of the experimenters on the space station is access to steady and controlled-variation microgravity environments. A method of providing these environments is to place the experiment on a tether attached to the space station. This provides a high degree of isolation from structural oscillations and vibrations. Crawlers can move these experiments along the tethers to preferred locations, much like an elevator. This report describes the motion control laws developed for these crawlers and the testing of laboratory models of these tether elevator crawlers.

  16. ST-segment elevation: Distinguishing ST elevation myocardial infarction from ST elevation secondary to nonischemic etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Alok; Birnbaum, Yochai

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of early perfusion in ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) are established; however, early perfusion of non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions has not been shown to be beneficial. In addition, ST elevation (STE) caused by conditions other than acute ischemia is common. Non-ischemic STE may be confused as STEMI, but can also mask STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG). As a result, activating the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) protocol often depends on determining which ST elevation patterns reflect transmural infarction due to acute coronary artery thrombosis. Coordination of interpreting the ECG in its clinical context and appropriately activating the pPCI protocol has proved a difficult task in borderline cases. But its importance cannot be ignored, as reflected in the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines concerning the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Multiples strategies have been tested and studied, and are currently being further perfected. No matter the strategy, at the heart of delivering the best care lies rapid and accurate interpretation of the ECG. Here, we present the different patterns of non-ischemic STE and methods of distinguishing between them. In writing this paper, we hope for quicker and better stratification of patients with STE on ECG, which will lead to be better outcomes. PMID:25349651

  17. Exposure chamber

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.; Briant, James K.

    1983-01-01

    An exposure chamber includes an imperforate casing having a fluid inlet at the top and an outlet at the bottom. A single vertical series of imperforate trays is provided. Each tray is spaced on all sides from the chamber walls. Baffles adjacent some of the trays restrict and direct the flow to give partial flow back and forth across the chambers and downward flow past the lowermost pan adjacent a central plane of the chamber.

  18. Gas Generation Testing of Neptunium Oxide at Elevated Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, JM

    2004-01-30

    Elevated temperature gas generation tests have been conducted using neptunium dioxide produced on a laboratory scale using the HB-Line Phase II flowsheet. These tests were performed to determine what effect elevated temperatures would have on the neptunium dioxide in comparison to neptunium dioxide tested at ambient temperature. The headspace gas compositions following storage at elevated temperatures associated with normal conditions of transport (NCT) have been measured. These test results show an increase in hydrogen generation rate at elevated temperature and significant removal of oxygen from the headspace gas. The elevated temperature gas generation tests described in this report involved heating small test vessels containing neptunium dioxide and measuring the headspace gas pressure and composition at the end of the test period. Four samples were used in these tests to evaluate the impact of process variables on the gas generation rate. Two samples were calcined to 600 degrees Celsius and two were calcined to 650 degrees Celsius. Each test vessel contained approximately 9.5 g of neptunium dioxide. Following exposure to 75 per cent relative humidity (RH) for five days, these samples were loaded in air and then heated to between 105 and 115 degrees Celsius for about one month. At the conclusion of the test period, the headspace gas of each container was analyzed using a micro-gas chromatograph installed in the glovebox where the experiments were conducted. The pressure, volume, and composition data for the headspace gas samples were used to calculate average H2 generation rates.

  19. Passive radiation shielding considerations for the proposed space elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, A. M.; Patamia, S. E.; Gassend, B.

    2007-02-01

    The Earth's natural van Allen radiation belts present a serious hazard to space travel in general, and to travel on the space elevator in particular. The average radiation level is sufficiently high that it can cause radiation sickness, and perhaps death, for humans spending more than a brief period of time in the belts without shielding. The exact dose and the level of the related hazard depends on the type or radiation, the intensity of the radiation, the length of exposure, and on any shielding introduced. For the space elevator the radiation concern is particularly critical since it passes through the most intense regions of the radiation belts. The only humans who have ever traveled through the radiation belts have been the Apollo astronauts. They received radiation doses up to approximately 1 rem over a time interval less than an hour. A vehicle climbing the space elevator travels approximately 200 times slower than the moon rockets did, which would result in an extremely high dose up to approximately 200 rem under similar conditions, in a timespan of a few days. Technological systems on the space elevator, which spend prolonged periods of time in the radiation belts, may also be affected by the high radiation levels. In this paper we will give an overview of the radiation belts in terms relevant to space elevator studies. We will then compute the expected radiation doses, and evaluate the required level of shielding. We concentrate on passive shielding using aluminum, but also look briefly at active shielding using magnetic fields. We also look at the effect of moving the space elevator anchor point and increasing the speed of the climber. Each of these mitigation mechanisms will result in a performance decrease, cost increase, and technical complications for the space elevator.

  20. Ongoing exposure versus intense periodic exposure to military conflict and terror attacks in Israel.

    PubMed

    Lahad, Mooli; Leykin, Dmitry

    2010-12-01

    The manifestation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in two clinical samples in Israel (N = 212) was examined. Individuals suffering ongoing exposure to shelling were compared with subjects exposed to intense periodic exposure. Elevated arousal and avoidance symptoms, but not intrusion were reported in the ongoing exposure group. When compared by age, young participants in the ongoing exposure group had significantly lower PTSD scores, whereas no differences were found between participants among the intense periodic exposure age groups. No gender differences in symptoms were found among participants from intense periodic exposure, whereas in the other ongoing group the difference was in avoidance. Results are discussed in light of past research on exposure to terrorism. PMID:21171129

  1. Tolerance of LSS plant component to elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ushakova, S A; Tikhomirov, A A

    2002-06-01

    Stability of LSS based on biological regeneration of water, air and food subject to damaging factors is largely dependent on the behavior of the photosynthesizing component represented, mainly, by higher plants. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tolerance of uneven-aged wheat and radish cenoses to temperature effects different in time and value. Estimation of thermal tolerance of plants demonstrated that exposure for 20 h to the temperature increasing to 45 degrees C brought about irreversible damage both in photosynthetic processes (up to 80% of initial value) and the processes of growth and development. Kinetics of visible photosynthesis during exposure to elevated temperatures can be used to evaluate critical exposure time within the range of which the damage of metabolic processes is reversible. With varying light intensity and air temperature it is possible to find a time period admissible for the plants to stay under adverse conditions without considerable damage of metabolic processes. PMID:12053940

  2. Tolerance of LSS Plant Component to Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    2002-06-01

    Stability of LSS based on biological regeneration of water, air and food subject to damaging factors is largely dependent on the behavior of the photosynthesizing component represented, mainly, by higher plants. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the tolerance of uneven-aged wheat and radish cenoses to temperature effects different in time and value. Estimation of thermal tolerance of plants demonstrated that exposure for 20 h to the temperature increasing to 45°C brought about irreversible damage both in photosynthetic processes (up to 80% of initial value) and the processes of growth and development. Kinetics of visible photosynthesis during exposure to elevated temperatures can be used to evaluate critical exposure time within the range of which the damage of metabolic processes is reversible. With varying light intensity and air temperature it is possible to find a time period admissible for the plants to stay under adverse conditions without considerable damage of metabolic processes.

  3. Elevator deflections on the icing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of elevator deflection of the horizontal stabilizer for certain icing parameters is investigated. Elevator deflection can severely change the lower and upper leading-edge impingement limits, and ice can accrete on the elevator itself. Also, elevator deflection had practically no effect on the maximum local collection efficiency. It is shown that for severe icing conditions (large water droplets), elevator deflections that increase the projected height of the airfoil can significantly increase the total collection efficiency of the airfoil.

  4. Criminal exposure.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    In August, an HIV-positive man plead guilty to sexually assaulting a 14-year-old boy. The sleeping boy awoke to find [name removed] sexually assaulting him, while watching a pornographic video. [Name removed] plead guilty to the assault with intent to rape a child. In addition, [name removed] received three counts of indecent assault and battery on a child, and exposure of pornographic material to a minor. [Name removed] will remain on probation for five years, although the prosecution had recommended sentencing [name removed] to four or five years in prison. The boy continues to be tested for HIV. PMID:11366904

  5. Gravity referenced elevation encoder development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, R. E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent progress in the development of a gravity-sensor-based instrument for determining the elevation angle of DSN antennas is described. The benefits of such a system include the capability to locate the Gravity Referenced Elevation Encoder (GREE) directly on the primary reflector (thus bypassing structural flexure and deformation error sources), anticipated lower maintenance costs compared to the present gimbal encoders, direct replaceability, or supplementation of the present gimbal encoders and the utilization of off-the-shelf components to construct the GREE. This article includes a description of the nominal GREE design. Test results on a laboratory breadboard model are given. Rigid-body dynamics of the GREE are derived and the simulated performance in response to measured antenna vibrations is given.

  6. Gravity referenced elevation encoder development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of a gravity-sensor-based instrument for determining the elevation angle of DSN antennas is described. The benefits of such a system include the capability to locate the Gravity Referenced Elevation Encoder (GREE) directly on the primary reflector (thus bypassing structural flexure and deformation error sources), anticipated lower maintenance costs compared to the present gimbal encoders, direct replaceability, or supplementation of the present gimbal encoders and the utilization of off-the-shelf components to construct the GREE. This article includes a description of the nominal GREE design. Test results on a laboratory breadboard model are given. Rigid-body dynamics of the GREE are derived and the simulated performance in response to measured antenna vibrations is given.

  7. Ion implantation at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N.Q.; Leaf, G.K.

    1985-11-01

    A kinetic model has been developed to investigate the synergistic effects of radiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation and preferential sputtering on the spatial redistribution of implanted solutes during implantation at elevated temperatures. Sample calculations were performed for Al and Si ions implanted into Ni. With the present model, the influence of various implantation parameters on the evolution of implant concentration profiles could be examined in detail.

  8. Science on a space elevator

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.; Jorgensen, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe in-situ science stations mounted on a science-dedicated space elevator tether. The concept presented here involves a carbon nanotube ribbon that is constructed by an existing space elevator and then science sensors are stationed along the ribbon at differing altitudes. The finished ribbon can be moved across the earth to the position at which its scientific measurements are to be taken. The ability to station scientific, in-situ instrumentation at different altitudes for round-the-clock observations is a unique capability of the SE. The environments that the science packages sense range from the troposphere out beyond the magnetopause of the magnetosphere on the solar side of the earth. Therefore, the very end of the SE can sense the solar wind. The measurements at various points along its length include temperature, pressure, density, sampling, chemical analyses, wind speed, turbulence, free oxygen, electromagnetic radiation, cosmic rays, energetic particles and plasmas in the earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind. There exist some altitudes that are difficult to access with aircraft or balloons or rockets and so remain relatively unexplored. The space elevator solves these problems and opens these regions up to in-situ measurements. Without the need for propulsion, the SE provides a more benign and pristine environment for atmospheric measurements than available with powered aircraft. Moreover, replacing and upgrading instrumentation is expected to be very cost effective with the SE. Moving and stationing the science SE affords the opportunity to sense multiple regions of the atmosphere. The SE's geosynchronous, orbital motion through the magnetosphere, albeit nominally with Earth's magnetic field, will trace a plane through that region

  9. Occupational exposure to natural radiation.

    PubMed

    Dixon, D W

    1985-10-01

    Natural sources of radiation can make an important contribution to the exposures of people at work. Two areas of interest are work with minerals having elevated concentrations of activity and work in buildings where radon daughter concentrations are elevated. The Euratom Directive on ionising radiation requires that the handling of radioactive substances be reported to national authorities. National authorities may waive this requirement where the activity per unit mass is below 100 Bq g-1, or for solid natural radioactive substances, 500 Bq g-1. An investigation was undertaken in five factories to determine whether work with minerals having levels of natural activity below these might lead to significant doses. Models based on the data collected were used to relate the activity in the minerals to the effective dose equivalent arising from gamma radiation, inhalation of radon daughters, and intake of long-lived activity. These assessments show that the activity concentration at which exposures to airborne dust could lead to doses equal to one-tenth of the dose limit for workers are 0.3 Bq g-1 for thorium-232 and 1 Bq g-1 for uranium-238. Above these values, radiological supervision may be necessary. In a separate study, measurements of radon daughter concentrations were made in seventy workplaces. Concentrations in some premises approached or exceeded the derived air concentration for occupational exposure. The highest concentrations were found in premises with low ventilation rates. PMID:4081708

  10. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON SOIL C AND N: RESULTS OF A DOUGLAS FIR MESOCOSM STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a 4-year study on the effects of elevated CO2 and elevated air temperature on Douglas fir seedlings growing under controlled exposure conditions in outdoor sun-lit mesocosms. 1+1 seedlings were planted in mesocosms in Corvallis, OR in the spring of 1993 in a reconstr...

  11. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON SOIL C AND N IN A DOUGLAS FIR MESOCOSM STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a 4-year study on the effects of elevated CO2 and elevated air temperature on Douglas fir seedlings growing under controlled climate and exposure conditions in outdoor sun-lit mesocosms. 1+1 seedlings were planted in mesocosms in Corvallis, OR in the spring of 1993 i...

  12. An Analysis of Sound Exposure in a University Music Rehearsal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Joe; Thrasher, Michael; Fumo, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high sound levels may lead to a variety of hearing abnormalities, including Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL). Pre-professional university music majors may experience frequent exposure to elevated sound levels, and this may have implications on their future career prospects (Jansen, Helleman, Dreschler & de Laat, 2009). Studies…

  13. Estimating Air-Manganese Exposures in Two Ohio Towns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manganese (Mn), a nutrient required for normal metabolic function, is also a persistent air pollutant and a known neurotoxin at high concentrations. Elevated exposures can result in a number of motor and cognitive deficits. Quantifying chronic personal exposures in residential po...

  14. PROTEIN ACCUMULATION IN LUNG LAVAGE FLUID FOLLOWING OZONE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accumulation of protein in lung lavage fluid was used as an indicator of pulmonary damage following exposure of guinea pigs to 03. Exposure of animals to 510, 1000 or 1960 micrograms/cu. m. (O.26, 0.51 or 1.0 ppm) of O3 for 72 hours resulted in significantly elevated levels of la...

  15. Lung cancer in French and Czech uranium miners: Radon-associated risk at low exposure rates and modifying effects of time since exposure and age at exposure.

    PubMed

    Tomasek, Ladislav; Rogel, Agnès; Tirmarche, Margot; Mitton, Nicolas; Laurier, Dominique

    2008-02-01

    Radon is recognized as a public health concern for indoor exposure. Precise quantification derived from occupational exposure in miners is still needed for estimating the risk and the factors that modify the dependence on cumulated exposure. The present paper reports on relationship between radon exposure and lung cancer risk in French and Czech cohorts of uranium miners (n = 10,100). Miners from these two cohorts are characterized by low levels of exposure (average cumulated exposure of less than 60 WLM) protracted over a long period (mean duration of exposure of 10 years) and by a good quality of individual exposure estimates (95% of annual exposures based on radon measurements). The modifying effect of the quality of exposure on the risk is analyzed. A total of 574 lung cancer deaths were observed, which is 187% higher than expected from the national statistics. This significantly elevated risk is strongly associated with cumulated radon exposure. The estimated overall excess relative risk per WLM is 0.027 (95% CI: 0.017-0.043, related to measured exposures). For age at exposure of 30 and 20 years since exposure, the ERR/WLM is 0.042, and this value decreases by approximately 50% for each 10-year increase in age at exposure and time since exposure. The present study emphasizes that the quality of exposure estimates is an important factor that may substantially influence results. Time since exposure and simultaneously age at exposure were the most important effect modifiers. No inverse exposure-rate effect below 4 WL was observed. The results are consistent with estimates of the BEIR VI report using the concentration model at an exposure rate below 0.5 WL. PMID:18220460

  16. Indoor firing ranges and elevated blood lead levels - United States, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    Beaucham, Catherine; Page, Elena; Alarcon, Walter A; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Methner, Mark; Schoonover, Todd M

    2014-04-25

    Indoor firing ranges are a source of lead exposure and elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) among employees, their families, and customers, despite public health outreach efforts and comprehensive guidelines for controlling occupational lead exposure. There are approximately 16,000-18,000 indoor firing ranges in the United States, with tens of thousands of employees. Approximately 1 million law enforcement officers train on indoor ranges. To estimate how many adults had elevated BLLs (≥10 µg/dL) as a result of exposure to lead from shooting firearms, data on elevated BLLs from the Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES) program managed by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) were examined by source of lead exposure. During 2002-2012, a total of 2,056 persons employed in the categories "police protection" and "other amusement and recreation industries (including firing ranges)" had elevated BLLs reported to ABLES; an additional 2,673 persons had non-work-related BLLs likely attributable to target shooting. To identify deficiencies at two indoor firing ranges linked to elevated BLLs, the Washington State Division of Occupational Safety and Health (WaDOSH) and NIOSH conducted investigations in 2012 and 2013, respectively. The WaDOSH investigation found a failure to conduct personal exposure and biologic monitoring for lead and also found dry sweeping of lead-containing dust. The NIOSH investigation found serious deficiencies in ventilation, housekeeping, and medical surveillance. Public health officials and clinicians should ask about occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating findings of elevated BLLs. Interventions for reducing lead exposure in firing ranges include using lead-free bullets, improving ventilation, and using wet mopping or high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) vacuuming to clean. PMID:24759656

  17. Experimental and Natural Warming Elevates Mercury Concentrations in Estuarine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Jennifer A.; Buckman, Kate L.; Ward, Darren; Evans, David W.; Dionne, Michele; Chen, Celia Y.

    2013-01-01

    Marine food webs are the most important link between the global contaminant, methylmercury (MeHg), and human exposure through consumption of seafood. Warming temperatures may increase human exposure to MeHg, a potent neurotoxin, by increasing MeHg production as well as bioaccumulation and trophic transfer through marine food webs. Studies of the effects of temperature on MeHg bioaccumulation are rare and no study has specifically related temperature to MeHg fate by linking laboratory experiments with natural field manipulations in coastal ecosystems. We performed laboratory and field experiments on MeHg accumulation under varying temperature regimes using the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Temperature treatments were established in salt pools on a coastal salt marsh using a natural temperature gradient where killifish fed on natural food sources. Temperatures were manipulated across a wider range in laboratory experiments with killifish exposed to MeHg enriched food. In both laboratory microcosms and field mesocosms, MeHg concentrations in killifish significantly increased at elevated temperatures. Moreover, in field experiments, other ancillary variables (salinity, MeHg in sediment, etc.) did not relate to MeHg bioaccumulation. Modeling of laboratory experimental results suggested increases in metabolic rate as a driving factor. The elevated temperatures we tested are consistent with predicted trends in climate warming, and indicate that in the absence of confounding factors, warmer sea surface temperatures could result in greater in bioaccumulation of MeHg in fish, and consequently, increased human exposure. PMID:23554891

  18. Qualification of diesel generator exhaust carbon steel piping to intermitted elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ratiu, M.D.; Moisidis, N.T.

    1996-02-01

    The diesel generator exhaust piping, usually made up of carbon steel piping (e.g., ASME SA-106, SA-53), is subjected to successive short time exposures at elevated temperatures up to 1,000 F (538 C). A typical design of this piping, without consideration for creep-fatigue cumulative damage, is at least incomplete, if not inappropriate. Also, a design for creep-fatigue, usually employed for long-term exposure to elevated temperatures, would be too conservative and will impose replacement of the carbon steel piping with heat-resistant CrMo alloy piping. The existing ASME standard procedures do not explicitly provide acceptance criteria for the design qualification to withstand these intermittent exposures to elevated temperatures. The serviceability qualification proposed is based on the evaluation of equivalent full temperature cycles which are presumed/expected to be experienced by the exhaust piping during the design operating life of the diesel engine. The proposed serviceability analysis consists of: (a) determination of the permissible stress at elevated temperatures, and (b) estimation of creep-fatigue damage for the total expected cycles of elevated temperature exposures following the procedure provided in ASME Code Cases N-253-6 and N-47-28.

  19. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC EXPOSURE AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN HEALTHY WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extremely high exposure levels evaluated in prior investigations relating elevated levels of drinking water arsenic and hypertension prevalence make extrapolation to potential vascular effects at lower exposure levels very difficult. A cross-sectional study was conducted on ...

  20. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PHYSIOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS AND POPULATION CHANGES IN AN ESTUARINE MYSID DURING CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO A PESTICIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of vital life processes of an estuarine mysid (Mysidopsis bahia) were examined throughout its life cycle during exposure to the thiocarbamate herbicide, thiobencarb. Initial exposure of juvenile mysids to thiobencarb resulted in elevated respiration rates. Concentrations...

  1. Intelligent elevator management system using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, H. Sai; Karunamurthy, Vignesh; Kumar, R. Barath

    2015-03-01

    In the modern era, the increase in the number of shopping malls and industrial building has led to an exponential increase in the usage of elevator systems. Thus there is an increased need for an effective control system to manage the elevator system. This paper is aimed at introducing an effective method to control the movement of the elevators by considering various cases where in the location of the person is found and the elevators are controlled based on various conditions like Load, proximity etc... This method continuously monitors the weight limit of each elevator while also making use of image processing to determine the number of persons waiting for an elevator in respective floors. Canny edge detection technique is used to find out the number of persons waiting for an elevator. Hence the algorithm takes a lot of cases into account and locates the correct elevator to service the respective persons waiting in different floors.

  2. Approach to managing elevated creatinine.

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Richard

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a systematic approach to finding the underlying cause of an elevated creatinine level. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: This diagnostic approach is based on a synthesis of information from reference works on nephrology, articles found through a MEDLINE search, and the author's personal experience. MAIN MESSAGE: Elevated creatinine levels suggest the differential diagnosis of renal failure (RF). History and a complete physical examination are important, keeping in mind that RF is often asymptomatic in the early stages. After repeating the creatinine test to verify results, baseline tests should be ordered to identify the cause of the RF. Comparing results of serial tests is essential for determining whether RF is acute or chronic, stable or progressive. An ultrasound scan is particularly useful for eliminating an obstructive cause; the size of the kidney can indicate whether disease is acute or chronic. Complementary blood tests and imaging studies might be useful. CONCLUSION: Diagnosing and managing RF can appear complex, but a systematic approach will help you find the cause and treat the condition. PMID:15171676

  3. Exposure of migrant bald eagles to lead in prairie Canada.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of elevated exposure to lead was assessed in a migrant population of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at a waterfowl staging area in the southern portion of the Canadian prairies, from September to November, 1992-1995. Of 103 eagles, 8% exhibited blood lead (PbB) concentrations suggestive of elevated exposure to lead (> or = 0.200 microgram ml-1 wet wt.). PbB concentrations in eagles from the study area ranged from < 0.01 to 0.585 microgram ml-1, while those of nestling eagles from a reference site indicated normal or background exposure (< 0.01 microgram ml-1). No differences in the prevalence of elevated exposure were detected among genders or age classes (0.5- and > or = 1.5-year-old birds) (P > 0.05). The prevalence of elevated exposure was significantly greater in November than in October (21.7 vs. 3.8%) (all years: chi 2Y = 5.75, P = 0.017). Eagles with shotshell pellets in the digestive tract did not have accompanying high PbB concentrations. The prevalence of elevated lead exposure in this study was low in comparison to other areas in North America. Potential biases in the trapping technique as they relate to interpreting the results are addressed. PMID:11234531

  4. The oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kussner, H G; Schwartz, I

    1941-01-01

    The two-dimensional problem of the oscillating wing with aerodynamically balanced elevator is treated in the manner that the wing is replaced by a plate with bends and stages and the airfoil section by a mean line consisting of one or more straights. The computed formulas and tables permit, on these premises, the prediction of the pressure distribution and of the aerodynamic reactions of oscillating elevators and tabs with any position of elevator hinge in respect to elevator leading edge.

  5. Exposure chamber

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.

    1980-01-01

    A chamber for exposing animals, plants, or materials to air containing gases or aerosols is so constructed that catch pans for animal excrement, for example, serve to aid the uniform distribution of air throughout the chamber instead of constituting obstacles as has been the case in prior animal exposure chambers. The chamber comprises the usual imperforate top, bottom and side walls. Within the chamber, cages and their associated pans are arranged in two columns. The pans are spaced horizontally from the walls of the chamber in all directions. Corresponding pans of the two columns are also spaced horizontally from each other. Preferably the pans of one column are also spaced vertically from corresponding pans of the other column. Air is introduced into the top of the chamber and withdrawn from the bottom. The general flow of air is therefore vertical. The effect of the horizontal pans is based on the fact that a gas flowing past the edge of a flat plate that is perpendicular to the flow forms a wave on the upstream side of the plate. Air flows downwardly between the chamber walls and the outer edges of the pan. It also flows downwardly between the inner edges of the pans of the two columns. It has been found that when the air carries aerosol particles, these particles are substantially uniformly distributed throughout the chamber.

  6. Elevations and Distances in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in elevations and distances with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. The entire document consists of statistical charts depicting the nation's 50 largest cities, extreme and mean elevations, elevations of named summits over 14,000 feet…

  7. 46 CFR 183.540 - Elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 183.540 Elevators. Each elevator on a vessel must meet the requirements of ANSI A 17.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) or other standard... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevators. 183.540 Section 183.540 Shipping COAST...

  8. Cardiac responses to elevated seawater temperature in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Atlantic salmon aquaculture operations in the Northern hemisphere experience large seasonal fluctuations in seawater temperature. With summer temperatures often peaking around 18-20°C there is growing concern about the effects on fish health and performance. Since the heart has a major role in the physiological plasticity and acclimation to different thermal conditions in fish, we wanted to investigate how three and eight weeks exposure of adult Atlantic salmon to 19°C, previously shown to significantly reduce growth performance, affected expression of relevant genes and proteins in cardiac tissues under experimental conditions. Results Transcriptional responses in cardiac tissues after three and eight weeks exposure to 19°C (compared to thermal preference, 14°C) were analyzed with cDNA microarrays and validated by expression analysis of selected genes and proteins using real-time qPCR and immunofluorescence microscopy. Up-regulation of heat shock proteins and cell signaling genes may indicate involvement of the unfolded protein response in long-term acclimation to elevated temperature. Increased immunofluorescence staining of inducible nitric oxide synthase in spongy and compact myocardium as well as increased staining of vascular endothelial growth factor in epicardium could reflect induced vascularization and vasodilation, possibly related to increased oxygen demand. Increased staining of collagen I in the compact myocardium of 19°C fish may be indicative of a remodeling of connective tissue with long-term warm acclimation. Finally, higher abundance of transcripts for genes involved in innate cellular immunity and lower abundance of transcripts for humoral immune components implied altered immune competence in response to elevated temperature. Conclusions Long-term exposure of Atlantic salmon to 19°C resulted in cardiac gene and protein expression changes indicating that the unfolded protein response, vascularization, remodeling of connective

  9. Thermal Spore Exposure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudet, Robert A.; Kempf, Michael; Kirschner, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Thermal spore exposure vessels (TSEVs) are laboratory containers designed for use in measuring rates of death or survival of microbial spores at elevated temperatures. A major consideration in the design of a TSEV is minimizing thermal mass in order to minimize heating and cooling times. This is necessary in order to minimize the number of microbes killed before and after exposure at the test temperature, so that the results of the test accurately reflect the effect of the test temperature. A typical prototype TSEV (see figure) includes a flat-bottomed stainless-steel cylinder 4 in. (10.16 cm) long, 0.5 in. (1.27 cm) in diameter, having a wall thickness of 0.010 plus or minus 0.002 in. (0.254 plus or minus 0.051 mm). Microbial spores are deposited in the bottom of the cylinder, then the top of the cylinder is closed with a sterile rubber stopper. Hypodermic needles are used to puncture the rubber stopper to evacuate the inside of the cylinder or to purge the inside of the cylinder with a gas. In a typical application, the inside of the cylinder is purged with dry nitrogen prior to a test. During a test, the lower portion of the cylinder is immersed in a silicone-oil bath that has been preheated to and maintained at the test temperature. Test temperatures up to 220 C have been used. Because the spores are in direct contact with the thin cylinder wall, they quickly become heated to the test temperature.

  10. Elevation Map of Kathmandu, Nepal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These Shuttle Radar Topgraphy Mission (SRTM) images show the basin of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal: On the left a detail (27 km x 20.5 km) of the X-SAR digital elevation model (shown below), on the right the corresponding radar amplitude image. The amplitude is a measure of the backscattering of the transmitted microwaves. In the amplitude image the 'Bagmati-River' is visible south of the city center and the international Airport in the eastern part. The runway appears as a dark stripe. The airport is infamous for its difficult landing/takeoff conditions due to the close vicinity of the surrounding high mountains. For more information and a image of the region around Kathmandu, visit the German Remote Sensing Data Center SRTM Treasure Vault. Image courtesy German Remote Sensing Data Center

  11. Relocation of congenitally elevated scapula.

    PubMed

    Klisić, P; Filipović, M; Uzelac, O; Milinković, Z

    1981-01-01

    In the treatment of Sprengel's deformity, extraperiosteal greenstick fracture of the clavicle in conjunction with surgical release of all attachments between the scapula and the spine provides an easy, safe method of relocating the scapula to its normal level. The improved position is maintained by temporary fixation of the inferior border of the scapula to the eighth rib with slowly resorbable sutures. Section of the coracoclavicular ligaments, excision of the superior pole of the scapula, and suture fixation of the medial angle of the scapula to the spinous process of the fourth vertebra enables the procedure to be performed on patients until the age of puberty. This surgical technique has been performed in 28 consecutive patients with Sprengel's deformity, aged 4 to 19 years, without any neurovascular complications. A normal scapular position was achieved in 67% of cases, 1 to 2 cm elevation in 29%, and 5 cm in 4%. PMID:7341651

  12. Elevation dependency of mountain snow depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, T.; Bühler, Y.; Lehning, M.

    2014-07-01

    Elevation strongly affects quantity and distribution of precipitation and snow. Positive elevation gradients were identified by many studies, usually based on data from sparse precipitation stations or snow depth measurements. We present a systematic evaluation of the elevation - snow depth relationship. We analyse areal snow depth data obtained by remote sensing for seven mountain sites. Snow depths were averaged to 100 m elevation bands and then related to their respective elevation level. The assessment was performed at three scales ranging from the complete data sets by km-scale sub-catchments to slope transects. We show that most elevation - snow depth curves at all scales are characterised through a single shape. Mean snow depths increase with elevation up to a certain level where they have a distinct peak followed by a decrease at the highest elevations. We explain this typical shape with a generally positive elevation gradient of snow fall that is modified by the interaction of snow cover and topography. These processes are preferential deposition of precipitation and redistribution of snow by wind, sloughing and avalanching. Furthermore we show that the elevation level of the peak of mean snow depth correlates with the dominant elevation level of rocks.

  13. Elevation dependency of mountain snow depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünewald, T.; Bühler, Y.; Lehning, M.

    2014-12-01

    Elevation strongly affects quantity and distribution patterns of precipitation and snow. Positive elevation gradients were identified by many studies, usually based on data from sparse precipitation stations or snow depth measurements. We present a systematic evaluation of the elevation-snow depth relationship. We analyse areal snow depth data obtained by remote sensing for seven mountain sites near to the time of the maximum seasonal snow accumulation. Snow depths were averaged to 100 m elevation bands and then related to their respective elevation level. The assessment was performed at three scales: (i) the complete data sets (10 km scale), (ii) sub-catchments (km scale) and (iii) slope transects (100 m scale). We show that most elevation-snow depth curves at all scales are characterised through a single shape. Mean snow depths increase with elevation up to a certain level where they have a distinct peak followed by a decrease at the highest elevations. We explain this typical shape with a generally positive elevation gradient of snow fall that is modified by the interaction of snow cover and topography. These processes are preferential deposition of precipitation and redistribution of snow by wind, sloughing and avalanching. Furthermore, we show that the elevation level of the peak of mean snow depth correlates with the dominant elevation level of rocks (if present).

  14. Antiproliferative effect of elevated glucose in human microvascular endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamal, K.; Du, W.; Mills, I.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1998-01-01

    Diabetic microangiopathy has been implicated as a fundamental feature of the pathological complications of diabetes including retinopathy, neuropathy, and diabetic foot ulceration. However, previous studies devoted to examining the deleterious effects of elevated glucose on the endothelium have been performed largely in primary cultured cells of macrovessel origin. Difficulty in the harvesting and maintenance of microvascular endothelial cells in culture have hindered the study of this relevant population. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the effect of elevated glucose on the proliferation and involved signaling pathways of an immortalized human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1) that possess similar characteristics to their in vivo counterparts. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were grown in the presence of normal (5 mM) or high D-glucose (20 mM) for 14 days. The proliferative response of HMEC-1 was compared under these conditions as well as the cAMP and PKC pathways by in vitro assays. Elevated glucose significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) HMEC-1 proliferation after 7, 10, and 14 days. This effect was not mimicked by 20 mM mannitol. The antiproliferative effect was more pronounced with longer exposure (1-14 days) to elevated glucose and was irreversible 4 days after a 10-day exposure. The antiproliferative effect was partially reversed in the presence of a PKA inhibitor, Rp-cAMP (10-50 microM), and/or a PKC inhibitor, Calphostin C (10 nM). HMEC-1 exposed to elevated glucose (20 mM) for 14 days caused an increase in cyclic AMP accumulation, PKA, and PKC activity but was not associated with the activation of downstream events such as CRE and AP-1 binding activity. These data support the hypothesis that HMEC-1 is a suitable model to study the deleterious effects of elevated glucose on microvascular endothelial cells. Continued studies with HMEC-1 may prove advantageous in delineation of the molecular

  15. Autonomic and prefrontal events during moral elevation.

    PubMed

    Piper, Walter T; Saslow, Laura R; Saturn, Sarina R

    2015-05-01

    Moral elevation, or elevation, is a specific emotional state triggered by witnessing displays of profound virtue and moral beauty. This study set out to characterize the physiology underlying elevation with measurements of heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity. During elevation, HR and RSA increased. These findings illustrate that elevation involves an uncommon combination of both sympathetic and parasympathetic activation, which is present in circumstances where arousal and social engagement are both required. In addition, we show evidence of content-dependent alterations of mPFC activity during elevation peaks. Altogether, this study shows that the induction of moral elevation recruits an uncommon autonomic and neural pattern that is consistent with previous understanding of socioemotional-induced allostasis. PMID:25813121

  16. 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arundel, Samantha T.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Phillips, Lori A.; Roche, Brittany L.; Constance, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    In January 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center began producing the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model data product. This new product was developed to provide high resolution bare-earth digital elevation models from light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data and other elevation data collected over the conterminous United States (lower 48 States), Hawaii, and potentially Alaska and the U.S. territories. The 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model consists of hydroflattened, topographic bare-earth raster digital elevation models, with a 1-meter x 1-meter cell size, and is available in 10,000-meter x 10,000-meter square blocks with a 6-meter overlap. This report details the specifications required for the production of the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model.

  17. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme is elevated in association with underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.B.; Cale, W.F.; Lapp, N.L. )

    1991-10-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (SACE) and lysozyme activity were measured in a group of 40 underground coal miners and two control groups, 20 subjects with sarcoidosis and 15 normal non-dust-exposed volunteers. The miners were grouped first according to whether they had recent exposure (still actively mining or retired three years or less prior to measurement) or temporally more distant exposure (retired more than three years prior to measurement). Secondly, they were grouped as to whether or not they had coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). The subjects with sarcoidosis were grouped according to disease activity. As expected, the subjects with active sarcoidosis had elevated SACE activity compared with normal subjects. The coal miners as a group did not have elevation of their SACE activity. However, the coal miners with recent exposure had elevated SACE activity (57.1 {plus minus} 3.9 U/ml) compared with normal controls (43.8 {plus minus} 1.5 U/ml, p = 0.007). The SACE activity in miners without recent exposure was not elevated (39.8 {plus minus} 1.3 U/ml) compared with the normal controls. No increase in SACE activity was found when the miners were grouped according to the presence or absence of CWP. In contrast, the miners' serum lysozyme activity was not elevated. Since alveolar macrophages are a potential source of SACE, elevation of SACE activity in underground coal miners may reflect alveolar macrophage activation caused by increased pulmonary mixed coal mine dust burden. Furthermore, since both SACE and serum lysozyme are elevated in association with silicosis, these findings may confirm that the macrophage responses to inhaled silica and coal dust differ.

  18. 74. East elevation of elevated Mainline structure (Section F6) looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. East elevation of elevated Mainline structure (Section F-6) looking West - along the Arborway toward the masonry bridge carrying the former New Haven R.R. tracks over the Arborway. Arborway overpass is at upper right. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. The space station tethered elevator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  20. XEROMORPHY INCREASES IN SHOOTS OF PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (MIRB.) FRANCO SEEDLINGS WITH EXPOSURE TO ELEVATED TEMPERATURE BUT NOT ELEVATED CO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seedling structure influences tree structure and function, ultimately determining the potential productivity of trees and their competitiveness for resources. We investigated changes in shoot organ structure, as indicated by biomass allocation, allometry and anatomy in response ...

  1. Phase-preserved optical elevator

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

    2013-01-01

    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

  2. Space elevator systems level analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  3. Defense of a space elevator

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low-cost access is to be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a defensive system of the SE. The primary scenario adopted for this analysis is the SE based on a floating platform in the ocean along the equator. A second possible scenario is the SE stationed on land (island or continent) on or near the equator. The SE will capture the imaginations of people around the world. It will become a symbol of power, capability, wealth and prestige for the country that builds it. As such, it will become a prime terrorist target. Moreover, the tremendous economic leverage afforded by the SE might motivate rogue nations to plot its destruction. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the requirements for defense of the SE. For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that the SE is to be deployed by the United States or one of its companies, and the resources of the US are available for its defense.

  4. Elevation Measurement Profile of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The elevation measurements were collected by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) aboard Global Surveyor during the spring and summer of 1998, as the spacecraft orbited Mars in an interim elliptical orbit. MOLA sends laser pulses toward the planet and measures the precise amount of time before the reflected signals are received back at the instrument. From this data, scientists can infer surface and cloud heights.

    During its mapping of the north polar cap, the MOLA instrument also made the first direct measurement of cloud heights on the red planet. Reflections from the atmosphere were obtained at altitudes from just above the surface to more than nine miles (approximately 15 kilometers) on about 80 percent of the laser profiles. Most clouds were observed at high latitudes, at the boundary of the ice cap and surrounding terrain.

    Clouds observed over the polar cap are likely composed of carbon dioxide that condenses out of the atmosphere during northern hemisphere winter. Many clouds exhibit dynamic structure probably caused by winds interacting with surface topography, much as occurs on Earth when winds collide with mountains to produce turbulence.

    The principal investigator for MOLA is Dr. David E. Smith of Goddard. The MOLA instrument was designed and built by the Laser Remote Sensing Branch of Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics at Goddard. The Mars Global Surveyor Mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for the NASA Office of Space Science.

  5. Soil moisture feedback mediates increased carbon storage under elevated CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Hungate, B.A.; Chapin, F.S. III; Jackson, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    After 3 years of exposure to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}, soil carbon increased in an extremely nutrient-limited serpentine grassland, but did not change in a more productive sandstone grassland. The increase in the serpentine shows the potential for nutrient-limited ecosystems to sequester carbon under elevated CO{sub 2}, but lack of response in the sandstone grassland suggests that increased soil carbon is not a general ecosystem response to elevated CO{sub 2}. Changes in soil moisture under elevated CO{sub 2} may explain the lack of response in the sandstone. Elevated CO{sub 2} decreases transpiration in plants from both ecosystems, but this consistently increases soil moisture only on the sandstone, where plants more strongly control evapotranspiration than on the serpentine. Increased soil moisture stimulates decomposition in these systems, potentially compensating for increased carbon input to soil under elevated CO{sub 2}, resulting in no net change in soil carbon. Increased soil moisture also stimulates plant growth directly and stimulates nitrogen mineralization and plant nitrogen uptake, potentially increasing plant production under elevated CO{sub 2}. We suggest that, in ecosystems with well developed plant canopies where increased soil moisture is likely under elevated CO{sub 2}, feedbacks through soil moisture may increase production, but may also constrain increased carbon storage in soil.

  6. Elevational patterns of sulfur deposition at a site in the Catskill Mountains, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovett, Gary M.; Thompson, Andrew W.; Anderson, James B.; Bowser, Jonathan J.

    In this paper we report measurements of SO 2-4 fluxes in throughfall and bulk deposition across an elevational transect from 800 to 1275 m on Slide Mountain in the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York State. The net throughfall flux of SO 2-4 (throughfall-bulk deposition), which we attribute to cloud and dry deposition, increased by roughly a factor of 13 across this elevational range. Part of the observed increase results from the year-round exposure of evergreen foliage at the high-elevation sites, compared to the lack of foliage in the dormant season in the deciduous canopies at low elevations. Comparison of the net throughfall flux with estimates of cloud deposition suggests that both cloud deposition and dry deposition increased with elevation. Dry deposition estimates from a nearby monitoring site fall within the measured range of net throughfall flux for SO 2-4. The between-site variation in net throughfall flux was very high at the high-elevation sites, and less so at the lower sites, suggesting that studies of atmospheric deposition at high-elevations will be complicated by extreme spatial variability in deposition rates. Studies of atmospheric deposition in mountainous areas of the eastern U.S. have often emphasized cloud water deposition, but these results suggest that elevational increases in dry deposition may also be important.

  7. Does a decade of elevated [CO2] affect a desert perennial plant community?

    PubMed

    Newingham, Beth A; Vanier, Cheryl H; Kelly, Lauren J; Charlet, Therese N; Smith, Stanley D

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on plant community structure is crucial to predicting ecosystem responses to global change. Early predictions suggested that productivity in deserts would increase via enhanced water-use efficiency under elevated [CO2], but the response of intact arid plant communities to elevated [CO2 ] is largely unknown. We measured changes in perennial plant community characteristics (cover, species richness and diversity) after 10 yr of elevated [CO2] exposure in an intact Mojave Desert community at the Nevada Desert Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Facility. Contrary to expectations, total cover, species richness, and diversity were not affected by elevated [CO2]. Over the course of the experiment, elevated [CO2] had no effect on changes in cover of the evergreen C3 shrub, Larrea tridentata; alleviated decreases in cover of the C4 bunchgrass, Pleuraphis rigida; and slightly reduced the cover of C3 drought-deciduous shrubs. Thus, we generally found no effect of elevated [CO2] on plant communities in this arid ecosystem. Extended drought, slow plant growth rates, and highly episodic germination and recruitment of new individuals explain the lack of strong perennial plant community shifts after a decade of elevated [CO2]. PMID:24117700

  8. INDEPENDENT AND CONTRASTING EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION ROOT ARCHITECTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on architecture of Pinus ponderosa fine roots and their associated mycorrhizal symbionts were measured over a 4-year period. The study was conducted in open-top field-exposure chambers located near Placerville, CA. A replicated (thr...

  9. Long-term effects of elevated carbon dioxide on sour orange tree specific gravity and anatomy.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 for a period of 17 years resulted in small but statistically significant increases in wood basic specific gravity and number of rays per mm. Other anatomical characteristics (percentages of tissues, number of vessels per square mm, vessel diameters, and...

  10. Controls on interior West Antarctic Ice Sheet Elevations: inferences from geologic constraints and ice sheet modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackert, Robert P.; Putnam, Aaron E.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Pollard, David; DeConto, Robert M.; Kurz, Mark D.; Borns, Harold W.

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) response to past sea level and climate forcing is necessary to predict its response to warmer temperatures in the future. The timing and extent of past interior WAIS elevation changes provides insight to WAIS behavior and constraints for ice sheet models. Constraints prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) however, are rare. Surface exposure ages of glacial erratics near the WAIS divide at Mt. Waesche in Marie Byrd Land, and at the Ohio Range in the Transantarctic Mountains, range from ∼10 ka to >500 ka without a dependence on elevation. The probability distribution functions (PDF) of the exposure ages at both locations, are remarkably similar. During the last glaciation, maximum interior ice elevations as recorded by moraines and erratics were reached between 10 ka and 12 ka. However, most exposure ages are older than the LGM and cluster around ∼40 ka and ∼80 ka. The peak in the exposure age distributions at ∼40 ka includes ages of alpine moraine boulders at Mercer Ridge in the Ohio Range. Comparison of the PDF of exposures ages from the Ohio Range and Mt. Waesche with the temperature record from the Fuji Dome ice core indicates that the youngest peak in the exposure age distributions corresponds to the abrupt warming during the Last Glacial termination. A prominent peak in the Ohio Range PDF corresponds to the penultimate termination (stage 5e). During the intervening glacial period, there is not a consistent relationship between the peaks in the PDF at each location and temperature. A combined ice sheet/ice shelf model with forcing scaled to marine δ18O predicts that interior WAIS elevations near the ice divide have varied ∼300 m over the Last Glacial cycle. Peaks in the PDF correspond to model highstands over the last 200 ka. In the simulated elevation history, maximum ice elevations at Ohio Range (+100 m) and Mt. Waesche (+60 m) occur at ∼10 ka, in agreement with observations from these sites

  11. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma following asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Manavoğlu, O; Orhan, B; Evrensel, T; Ozçelik, T; Yolcu, I; Kunt, E

    1996-01-01

    Clinical, epidemiological, and pathological studies have demonstrated that asbestosis plays a major role in the etiology of mesothelioma. The direct exposure of workers in industrialized countries to asbestos fibers and nonoccupational household contact elevate the risk of malignant mesothelioma. An increased risk has been found in certain geographic areas of Turkey due to the presence of asbestos deposits and the use of the material known as "white soil" as an insulation. We present a malignant mesothelioma case from rural eastern Turkey with a history of asbestos exposure from using "white soil". We review the epidemiological aspects of asbestos as they relate to mesothelioma. PMID:9216805

  12. ST Segment Elevation with Normal Coronaries

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Pooja; Sharma, Ashwini; Paul, Timir

    2016-01-01

    Noncardiac causes should be kept in the differential while evaluating ST elevation on EKG. Rarely abdominal pathologies like acute pancreatitis can present with ST elevation in the inferior leads. Once acute coronary syndrome is ruled out by emergent cardiac catheterization alternative diagnosis should be sorted. Abdominal pathologies, like acute pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis, can present with ST elevation in the inferior leads. Treating the underlying condition would result in resolution of these EKG changes. PMID:27403165

  13. Behavioral consequences of predator stress in the rat elevated T-maze.

    PubMed

    Bulos, Erika Mondin; Pobbe, Roger Luis Henschel; Zangrossi, Helio

    2015-07-01

    Analyses of the behavioral reactions of rodents to predators have greatly contributed to the understanding of defense-related human psychopathologies such as anxiety and panic.We here investigated the behavioral consequences of exposing male Wistar rats to a live cat using the elevated T-maze test of anxiety. This test allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and escape, which in terms of pathology have been associated with generalized anxiety and panic disorders, respectively. For comparative reasons, the effects of exposure to the cat were also assessed in the elevated plus-maze. The results showed that a 5-min exposure to the cat selectively facilitated inhibitory avoidance acquisition, an anxiogenic effect, without affecting escape expression in the elevated T-maze. This was seen immediately but not 30 min after contact with the predator. This short-lived anxiogenic effect was also detected in the elevated plus-maze. Previous administration of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam (2 mg/kg) decreased the immediate avoidance response to the predator and the neophobic reaction to a dummy cat used as a control stimulus. The drug also impaired inhibitory avoidance acquisition in the elevated T-maze, indicating an anxiolytic effect, without affecting escape performance. The results indicate that the state of anxiety evoked during contact with the predator generalizes to both elevated plus- and T-mazes, impacting on defensive responses associated with generalized anxiety disorder. PMID:26066720

  14. Nasadem Global Elevation Model: Methods and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippen, R.; Buckley, S.; Agram, P.; Belz, E.; Gurrola, E.; Hensley, S.; Kobrick, M.; Lavalle, M.; Martin, J.; Neumann, M.; Nguyen, Q.; Rosen, P.; Shimada, J.; Simard, M.; Tung, W.

    2016-06-01

    NASADEM is a near-global elevation model that is being produced primarily by completely reprocessing the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) radar data and then merging it with refined ASTER GDEM elevations. The new and improved SRTM elevations in NASADEM result from better vertical control of each SRTM data swath via reference to ICESat elevations and from SRTM void reductions using advanced interferometric unwrapping algorithms. Remnant voids will be filled primarily by GDEM3, but with reduction of GDEM glitches (mostly related to clouds) and therefore with only minor need for secondary sources of fill.

  15. TOWARDS RELIABLE AND COST-EFFECTIVE OZONE EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT: PARAMETER EVALUATION AND MODEL VALIDATION USING THE HARVARD SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CHRONIC OZONE EXPOSURE STUDY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate assessment of chronic human exposure to atmospheric criteria pollutants, such as ozone, is critical for understanding human health risks associated with living in environments with elevated ambient pollutant concentrations. In this study, we analyzed a data set from a...

  16. National requirements for improved elevation data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Gregory I.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Jason, Allyson L.; Maune, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of surveys, structured interviews, and workshops conducted to identify key national requirements for improved elevation data for the United States and its territories, including coastlines. Organizations also identified and reported the expected economic benefits that would be realized if their requirements for improved elevation were met (appendixes 1–3). This report describes the data collection methodology and summarizes the findings. Participating organizations included 34 Federal agencies, 50 States and two territories, and a sampling of local governments, tribes, and nongovernmental orgnizations. The nongovernmental organizations included The Nature Conservancy and a sampling of private sector businesses. These data were collected in 2010-2011 as part of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA), a study to identify program alternatives for better meeting the Nation’s elevation data needs. NEEA tasks included the collection of national elevation requirements; analysis of the benefits and costs of meeting these requirements; assessment of emerging elevation technologies, lifecycle data management needs, and costs for managing and distributing a national-scale dataset and derived products; and candidate national elevation program alternatives that balance costs and benefits in meeting the Nation’s elevation requirements. The NEEA was sponsored by the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), a government coordination body with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as managing partner that includes the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), among the more than a dozen agencies and organizations. The term enhanced elevation data as used in this report refers broadly to three-dimensional measurements of land or

  17. 28 CFR 36.404 - Alterations: Elevator exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alterations: Elevator exemption. 36.404... Alterations: Elevator exemption. (a) This section does not require the installation of an elevator in an... facility has an elevator....

  18. Medium wave exposure characterisation using exposure quotients.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Jesús M; Rufo, Montaña; Jiménez, Antonio; Antolín, Alicia; Pinar, Iván

    2010-06-01

    One of the aspects considered in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines is that, in situations of simultaneous exposure to fields of different frequencies, exposure quotients for thermal and electrical stimulation effects should be examined. The aim of the present work was to analyse the electromagnetic radiation levels and exposure quotients for exposure to multiple-frequency sources in the vicinity of medium wave radio broadcasting antennas. The measurements were made with a spectrum analyser and a monopole antenna. Kriging interpolation was used to prepare contour maps and to estimate the levels in the towns and villages of the zone. The results showed that the exposure quotient criterion based on electrical stimulation effects to be more stringent than those based on thermal effects or power density levels. Improvement of dosimetry evaluations requires the spectral components of the radiation to be quantified, followed by application of the criteria for exposure to multiple-frequency sources. PMID:20159912

  19. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Ya-Tang; Chen, Chien-Jen; Li, Wan-Fen; Hsu, Ling-I; Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Sun, Chien-Wen; Chen, Wei J.; Wang, Shu-Li

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ► We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ► LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ► Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  20. 24. 'HANGAR SHEDS ELEVATIONS DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. 'HANGAR SHEDS - ELEVATIONS - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Partial elevations, and details of sliding doors and ventilator flaps, as built. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/81, revision B, dated April 6, 1943. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. 75 FR 61373 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this notice is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and modified......

  2. 76 FR 3590 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this notice is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and modified......

  3. 76 FR 73534 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this proposed rule is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and......

  4. 75 FR 78664 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this notice is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and modified......

  5. 76 FR 54415 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ...On March 25, 2009, FEMA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that contained an erroneous table. This document provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published. The table provided in this document represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and modified elevations, and communities affected for Cumberland County,......

  6. 77 FR 76998 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ...On May 25, 2010, FEMA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that contained an erroneous table. This notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 29219. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and modified elevations, and communities affected for Butler County,......

  7. 76 FR 50960 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this proposed rule is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and......

  8. 75 FR 29264 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... affected elevation Elevation in meters (MSL) Effective Modified Carter County, Kentucky, and Incorporated... River). with the Little Sandy Carter County. River to approximately 0.5 mile upstream of Eagle...

  9. Insect Population Dynamics in Commercial Grain Elevators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data were collected in 1998-2002 from wheat stored in commercial grain elevators in south-central Kansas. Storage bins at these elevators had concrete walls and were typically 6-9 m in diameter and 30-35 m tall. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to collect ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 m of the...

  10. Elevated Ozone Alters Soybean-Virus Interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examine the effects of elevated O3 and elevated CO2, two major components of global change, on the interaction between soybean and Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV) by measuring molecular, cellular, and physiological processes, in natural field conditions and in controlled environment. In natural field ...

  11. 75 FR 5930 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... published on May 26, 2009, at 74 FR 24729. The table for Ransom County, North Dakota, and Incorporated Areas... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the...

  12. 76 FR 19005 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  13. 76 FR 23528 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  14. 75 FR 5909 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  15. 75 FR 59192 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  16. 75 FR 23642 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  17. 76 FR 43968 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  18. 75 FR 59188 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  19. 76 FR 66887 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  20. 75 FR 43479 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  1. 75 FR 34415 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  2. 75 FR 5925 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  3. 76 FR 40670 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  4. 75 FR 5929 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... published on September 8, 2009, at 74 FR 46047. The table for Carroll County, Arkansas, and Incorporated... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the...

  5. 76 FR 62006 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  6. 75 FR 59184 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the...

  7. 76 FR 13572 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...On December 7, 2010, FEMA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that contained an erroneous table. This notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 75945. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and modified elevations, and communities affected for Skagit County,......

  8. 76 FR 73537 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this proposed rule is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and......

  9. 75 FR 55515 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ...Comments are requested on the proposed Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and proposed BFE modifications for the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this notice is to seek general information and comment regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream locations in the table below. The BFEs and modified......

  10. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  11. Maternal arsenic exposure and birth outcomes: a comprehensive review of the epidemiologic literature focused on drinking water.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Michael S; Surdu, Simona; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2014-09-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a human toxicant to which populations may be exposed through consumption of geogenically contaminated groundwater. A growing body of experimental literature corroborates the reproductive toxicity of iAs; however, the results of human studies are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review of epidemiologic studies focused on drinking water iAs exposure and birth outcomes to assess the evidence for causality and to make recommendations for future study. We reviewed 18 English language papers assessing birth weight, gestational age, and birth size. Thirteen of the studies were conducted among populations with frequent exposure to high-level groundwater iAs contamination (>10 μg/L) and five studies were conducted in areas without recognized contamination. Most studies comprised small samples and used cross-sectional designs, often with ecologic exposure assessment strategies, although several large prospective investigations and studies with individual-level measurements were also reported. We conclude that: (1) the epidemiologic evidence for an increased risk of low birth weight (<2500 g) is insufficient, although there exists limited evidence for birth weight decreases; (2) the evidence for increased preterm delivery is insufficient; and, (3) there exists minimal evidence for decreased birth size. In further investigation of birth weight and size, we recommend incorporation of individual susceptibility measures using appropriate biomarkers, with collection timed to windows of vulnerability and speciated arsenic analysis, as well as consideration of populations exposed primarily to drinking water iAs contamination <10 μg/L. Given the large potential public health impact, additional, high quality epidemiologic studies are necessary to more definitively assess the risk. PMID:24713268

  12. Understanding existing exposure situations.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, J-F

    2016-06-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 removed the distinction between practices and interventions, and introduced three types of exposure situation: existing, planned, and emergency. It also emphasised the optimisation principle in connection with individual dose restrictions for all controllable exposure situations. Existing exposure situations are those resulting from sources, natural or man-made, that already exist when a decision on control has to be taken. They have common features to be taken into account when implementing general recommendations, such as: the source may be difficult to control; all exposures cannot be anticipated; protective actions can only be implemented after characterisation of the exposure situation; time may be needed to reduce exposure below the reference level; levels of exposure are highly dependent on individual behaviour and present a wide spread of individual dose distribution; exposures at work may be adventitious and not considered as occupational exposure; there is generally no potential for accident; many stakeholders have to be involved; and many factors need to be considered. ICRP is currently developing a series of reports related to the practical implementation of Publication 103 to various existing exposure situations, including exposure from radon, exposure from cosmic radiation in aviation, exposure from processes using naturally occurring radioactive material, and exposure from contaminated sites due to past activities. PMID:26975365

  13. Potential exposure levels and health effects of neighborhood exposure to a municipal incinerator bottom ash landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, A.H.; Munshi, A.A.; Goodman, A.K. )

    1988-10-01

    An investigation was conducted to assess the potential exposure levels and pursuant public health implications of neighborhood exposure to a municipal incinerator bottom ash landfill. This site received ash from a single incinerator without pollution control devices from 1954-1973. Soil was sampled for 10 heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodioxin and furan congeners, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil concentrations for these substances were converted to estimates of exposure, health effects, and/or cancer risk by the application of a general exposure model and exposure/effect and exposure/risk models for specific substances. The results of soil analysis and modeling indicate that the level of lead detected on the site was considerably above the recommended levels of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and may lead to an elevated blood lead level in exposed children above that currently defining a case of lead poisoning. The potential for health effects resulting from exposure to other substances measured in the soil on this site is considered to be small, and no significant increased cancer risk is expected. Comparison of levels of various substances obtained at this site with levels obtained in fresh bottom ash in other studies suggests that these results may be applicable to exposures from other municipal incinerator bottom ash landfills.

  14. Potential exposure levels and health effects of neighborhood exposure to a municipal incinerator bottom ash landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, A.H.; Munshi, A.A.; Goodman, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to assess the potential exposure levels and pursuant public health implications of neighborhood exposure to a municipal incinerator bottom ash landfill. This site received ash from a single incinerator without pollution control devices from 1954-1973. Soil was sampled for 10 heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodioxin and furan congeners, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil concentrations for these substances were converted to estimates of exposure, health effects, and/or cancer risk by the application of a general exposure model and exposure/effect and exposure/risk models for specific substances. The results of soil analysis and modeling indicate that the level of lead detected on the site was considerably above the recommended levels of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and may lead to an elevated blood lead level in exposed children above that currently defining a case of lead poisoning. The potential for health effects resulting from exposure to other substances measured in the soil on this site is considered to be small, and no significant increased cancer risk is expected. Comparison of levels of various substances obtained at this site with levels obtained in fresh bottom ash in other studies suggests that these results may be applicable to exposures from other municipal incinerator bottom ash landfills.

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research on exposure measurements, human activity patterns, exposure and dose models, and cumulative exposures critical for the Agency to make scientificall...

  16. Benzene exposure in the United States 1978-1983: an overview.

    PubMed

    Runion, H E; Scott, L M

    1985-01-01

    Due to the interest in reducing the benzene exposure limit from 10 to 1 ppm, the benzene exposure data collected since 1977 were compiled and evaluated. Some 38,000 data points representing either time-weighted air samples or persons exposed were collected from five industries which produce and/or use benzene and two government organizations. Of the reported data, 87% represented exposure levels of 1.0 ppm or less. Petroleum and chemical operations where elevated exposure levels were reported included petrochemical and bulk loading operations. Benzol and by-product plants in the iron and steel industry showed similar elevated results. PMID:4003401

  17. Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars W.; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C.; Berg, Katherine M.; Cocchi, Michael N.; Donnino, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Lactate levels are commonly evaluated in acutely ill patients. Although most commonly used in the context of evaluating shock, lactate can be elevated for many reasons. While tissue hypoperfusion is probably the most common cause of elevation, many other etiologies or contributing factors exist. Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation. The current review is based on a comprehensive PubMed search and contains an overview of the pathophysiology of lactate elevation followed by an in-depth look at the varied etiologies, including medication-related causes. The strengths and weaknesses of lactate as a diagnostic/prognostic tool and its potential use as a clinical endpoint of resuscitation will be discussed. The review ends with some general recommendations on management of patients with elevated lactate. PMID:24079682

  18. Spatial resolution requirements for traffic-related air pollutant exposure evaluations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicle emissions represent one of the most important air pollution sources in most urban areas, and elevated concentrations of pollutants found near major roads have been associated with many adverse health impacts. To understand these impacts, exposure estimates should reflect ...

  19. US GeoData Digital Elevation Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2000-01-01

    Digital elevation model (DEM) data are arrays of regularly spaced elevation values referenced horizontally either to a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection or to a geographic coordinate system. The grid cells are spaced at regular intervals along south to north profiles that are ordered from west to east. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produces five primary types of elevation data: 7.5-minute DEM, 30-minute DEM, 1-degree DEM, 7.5-minute Alaska DEM, and 15-minute Alaska DEM.

  20. US GeoData digital elevation models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    Digital elevation model (DEM) data consist of a sampled array of regularly spaced elevation values referenced horizontally either to a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection or to a geographic coordinate system. The grid cells are spaced at regular intervals along south to north profiles that are ordered from west to east. the U.S> Geological Survey (USGS) produces five primary types of elevation data: 7.5-minute DEM, 30-minute DEM, 1-degree DEM, 7.5-minute Alaska DEM, and 15-minute Alaska DEM.

  1. Unacceptable "occupational" exposure to toxic agents among children in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Harari, R; Forastiere, F; Axelson, O

    1997-09-01

    To document the problem of child labor as a health issue, we report here three case-studies in Ecuador: exposure to mercury among gold washers, exposure to organophosphates and carbamates in the fruit-growing industry, and exposure to solvents among shoe cleaners. We measured the relevant biological indicators of exposure (mercury in urine, urinary levels of phenols, and acetylcholine esterase in erythrocytes) among selected samples of 10 children for each working place. In all the case studies, the values of the biological indicators showed elevated exposure to well-known toxicants, which are now rare in developed countries, even among adult workers. The findings meld with a previously reported case study of intoxication from inorganic lead among children employed in the manufacture of roof tiles in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to properly evaluate and control the potential health effects due to exposure to toxic substances among children employed in different occupations in several parts of the world. PMID:9219645

  2. Elevated concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene in schoolchildren during winter in Christchurch, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Jo-Anne E; Brown, Leslie; Trought, Katherine; Kingham, Simon; Epton, Michael J

    2007-03-01

    Particulate air pollution is significantly elevated during the winter in Christchurch, New Zealand, largely attributable to use of wood burners for domestic home heating, topography, and meteorological conditions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a key component of airborne particulate matter (PM) and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) has previously been used to assess exposure of people to PAHs. We examined urinary 1-OHP in Christchurch male non-smoking schoolchildren (12-18 yr) on two occasions after high pollution events (48 and 72 microg PM(10)/m(3) 24-h average) and two occasions during periods of low pollution (19 and 12 microg PM(10)/m(3)). Concentrations of urinary 1-OHP were significantly elevated in the students during high pollution events (median (mean+/-SD) 0.043 (0.051+/-0.032) and 0.042 (0.060+/-0.092) micromol OHP/mol creatinine respectively) compared with low pollution periods (median (mean+/-SD) 0.019 (0.026+/-0.032) and 0.025 (0.028+/-0.018) micromol/mol creatinine respectively). The observed 1-OHP concentrations are at the lower end of those determined in children and non-occupationally exposed adults in international studies and suggest a generally low exposure to PAHs. The increased urinary 1-OHP concentrations following nights of elevated particulate concentrations in ambient air suggest increased exposure to ambient air pollution during winter time, and could potentially be used as a biomarker of exposure in this population. PMID:17257655

  3. Particle exposures and infections

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particle exposures increase the risk for human infections. Particles can deposit in the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and distal lung and, accordingly, the respiratory tract is the system most frequently infected after such exposure; however, meningitis also occurs. Ci...

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  5. CHAPTER ONE: EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining human exposure to suspended particualte concentrations requires measurements that quantify different particle properties in microenvironments where people live, work, and play. Particle mass, size, and chemical composition are important exposure variables, and these ...

  6. Integrated Exposure Assessment Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behar, Joseph V.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Integrated Exposure Assessment Monitoring is the coordination of environmental (air, water, land, and crops) monitoring networks to collect systematically pollutant exposure data for a specific receptor, usually man. (Author/BB)

  7. Maternal exposure to metals--concentrations and predictors of exposure.

    PubMed

    Callan, A C; Hinwood, A L; Ramalingam, M; Boyce, M; Heyworth, J; McCafferty, P; Odland, J Ø

    2013-10-01

    A variety of metals are important for biological function but have also been shown to impact health at elevated concentrations, whereas others have no known biological function. Pregnant women are a vulnerable population and measures to reduce exposure in this group are important. We undertook a study of maternal exposure to the metals, aluminium, arsenic, copper, cobalt, chromium, lithium, manganese, nickel, selenium, tin, uranium and zinc in 173 participants across Western Australia. Each participant provided a whole blood and urine sample, as well as drinking water, residential soil and dust samples and completed a questionnaire. In general the concentrations of metals in all samples were low with the notable exception of uranium (blood U mean 0.07 µg/L, range <0.01-0.25 µg/L; urinary U mean 0.018 µg/g creatinine, range <0.01-0.199 µg/g creatinine). Factors that influenced biological concentrations were consumption of fish which increased urinary arsenic concentrations, hobbies (including mechanics and welding) which increased blood manganese concentrations and iron/folic acid supplement use which was associated with decreased concentrations of aluminium and nickel in urine and manganese in blood. Environmental concentrations of aluminium, copper and lithium were found to influence biological concentrations, but this was not the case for other environmental metals concentrations. Further work is underway to explore the influence of diet on biological metals concentrations in more detail. The high concentrations of uranium require further investigation. PMID:23896418

  8. Structural efficiencies of various aluminum, titanium, and steel alloys at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimerl, George J; Hughes, Philip J

    1953-01-01

    Efficient temperature ranges are indicated for two high-strength aluminum alloys, two titanium alloys, and three steels for some short-time compression-loading applications at elevated temperatures. Only the effects of constant temperatures and short exposure to temperature are considered, and creep is assumed not to be a factor. The structural efficiency analysis is based upon preliminary results of short-time elevated-temperature compressive stress-strain tests of the materials. The analysis covers strength under uniaxial compression, elastic stiffness, column buckling, and the buckling of long plates in compression or in shear.

  9. Effect of sun elevation upon remote sensing of ocean color over an acid waste dump site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressette, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Photographic flights were made over an ocean acid waste dump site while dumping was in progress. The flights resulted in wide angle, broadband, spectral radiance film exposure data between the wavelengths of 500 to 900 nanometers for sun elevation angles ranging from 26 to 42 degrees. It is shown from densitometer data that the spectral signature of acid waste discharged into ocean water can be observed photographically, the influence of sun elevation upon remotely sensed apparent color can be normalized by using a single spectral band ratioing technique, and photographic quantification and mapping of acid waste through its suspended iron precipitate appears possible.

  10. Effects of nuclear radiation and elevated temperature storage on electroexplosive devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menichelli, V. J.

    1976-01-01

    Aerospace type electroexplosive devices (EEDs) were subjected to nuclear radiation. Components and chemicals used in the EEDs were also included. The kind of radiation and total dosage administered were those which may be experienced in a space flight of 10 years duration, based on information available at this time. After irradiation, the items were stored in elevated constant-temperature ovens to accelerate early effects of the exposure to radiation. Periodically, samples were withdrawn for visual observation and testing. Significant changes occurred which were attributed to elevated-temperature storage and not radiation.

  11. Flood elevation limits in the rocky mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of 77,987 station-years of streamflow-gaging station data from 3,748 stations in the Rocky Mountains indicates that there is a latitude-dependent elevation limit to substantial rainfall-produced flooding. The elevation limit ranges from about 1,650 m in Montana to about 2,350 m in New Mexico. Above this elevation limit, large rainfall-produced floods occur very infrequently and maximum unit discharge is 1.7 m3/s/km2 or less. Below this elevation limit, large-magnitude flooding is more common and maximum unit discharge ranges from to 30 m3/s/km2 in Idaho and Montana to 59 m3/s/km2 in New Mexico. These results emphasize the critical need for additional research to increase our knowledge of floods, and have important implications in water-resources investigations in the Rocky Mountains.

  12. Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men.

    PubMed

    Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men. PMID:24320065

  13. ST elevation occurring during stress testing

    PubMed Central

    Malouf, Diana; Mugmon, Marc

    2016-01-01

    A case is presented of significant reversible ST elevation occurring during treadmill testing, and the coronary anatomy and subsequent course are described, indicating that ischemia is a potential cause of this electrocardiographic finding. PMID:27124164

  14. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  15. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The National Enhanced Elevation Assessment evaluated multiple elevation data acquisition options to determine the optimal data quality and data replacement cycle relative to cost to meet the identified requirements of the user community. The evaluation demonstrated that lidar acquisition at quality level 2 for the conterminous United States and quality level 5 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (ifsar) data for Alaska with a 6- to 10-year acquisition cycle provided the highest benefit/cost ratios. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative selected an 8-year acquisition cycle for the respective quality levels. 3DEP, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Office of Management and Budget Circular A–16 lead agency for terrestrial elevation data, responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other 3D representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  16. Elevated blood Hg at recommended seafood consumption rates in adult seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Roxanne; Silbernagel, Susan; Fisher, Nicholas S; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2014-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure from seafood continues to be a public health concern due to health effects from elevated exposure, increasing worldwide seafood consumption, and continued Hg inputs into the environment. Elevated Hg exposure can occur in populations with specialized diets of sport-caught freshwater fish. However, we need a better understanding of Hg exposure from seafood, the most common exposure source, and from specific seafood types. We examined Hg exposure in avid seafood consumers, and the seafood items and consumption frequency that confer the largest Hg exposure. Adult, avid seafood consumers, in Long Island, NY, USA, with blood total Hg concentrations predicted to exceed the USEPA reference concentration that is considered safe (5.8 μg L(-1)), were eligible for the study; 75% of self-reported avid seafood consumers were eligible to participate. We measured blood total Hg concentrations and seafood consumption in 285 participants. We examined relationships between Hg and seafood consumption using multiple linear regression. Seafood consumption rate for our population (14.4 kg yr(-1)) was >2 times that estimated for the U.S. (6.8 kg yr(-1)), and lower than the worldwide estimate (18.4 kg yr(-1)). Mean blood Hg concentration was 4.4 times the national average, and 42% of participants had Hg concentrations exceeding 5.8 μg L(-1). Elevated Hg exposures occurred at all seafood consumption frequencies, including the recommended frequency of 2 meals per week. Blood Hg concentrations were positively associated with weekly tuna steak or sushi intake (β=6.30 change in blood Hg, μg L(-1)) and monthly (β=2.54) or weekly (β=9.47) swordfish, shark or marlin intake. Our findings show that seafood consumers in this population have elevated Hg exposures even at relatively low seafood consumption rates that are at or below current dietary recommendations. Further study should examine health risks and benefits of avid seafood consumption, and consider modifying

  17. A High Elevation Climate Monitoring Network: Strategy and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, K. T.

    2004-12-01

    Populations living at low elevations are critically dependent on processes and resources at higher elevations. Most western U.S. streamflow begins as mountain snowmelt. Observational evidence and theoretical considerations indicate that climate variations in a given geographic domain can and do exhibit different characteristics and temporal behavior at different elevations. Subtleties in the interplay between topography and airflow can significantly affect precipitation patterns. However, there are very few systematic, long-term, in-situ, climate quality, high-altitude observational time series with hourly resolution for the western North American mountains to investigate these issues at the proper scales. Climate at high elevations is severely undersampled, a consequence of the harsh physical environment, and demands on sensors, maintenance, access, communications, time, and budgets. Costs are higher, human presence is limited, AC power is often not available, and there are permitting and aesthetic constraints. The observational strategy should include these main elements: 1) All major mountain ranges should be sampled. 2) Along-axis and cross-axis sampling for major mountain chains. 3) Approximately 5-10 sites per state (1 per 56000 sq km to 1 per 28000 sq km). 4) Highest sites as high as possible within each state, but at both high relative and absolute elevations. 5) Free air exposures at higher sites. 6) Utilize existing measurements and networks, and extend existing records, when possible. 7) AC power to prevent ice/rime when practical. 8) Temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, solar radiation as main elements, others as feasible. 9) Hourly readings, and real time communication whenever possible. 10) Absence of local artificial influences, site stable for next 5-10 decades. 11) Current and historical measurements accessible via World Wide Web when possible. 12) Hydro measurements (precipitation, snow water content and depth) are not

  18. Response of tundra ecosystems to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. [Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Oechel, W.C.; Grulke, N.E.

    1988-12-31

    Our past research shows that arctic tussock tundra responds to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} with marked increases in net ecosystem carbon flux and photosynthetic rates. However, at ambient temperatures and nutrient availabilities, homeostatic adjustments result in net ecosystem flux rates dropping to those found a contemporary CO{sub 2} levels within three years. Evidence for ecosystem-level acclimation in the first season of elevated CO{sub 2} exposure was found in 1987. Photosynthetic rates of Eriophorum vaginatum, the dominant species, adjusts to elevated CO{sub 2} within three weeks. Past research also indicates other changes potentially important to ecosystem structure and function. Elevated CO{sub 2} treatment apparently delays senescence and increases the period of positive photosynthetic activity. Recent results from the 1987 field season verify the results obtained in the 1983--1986 field seasons: Elevated CO{sub 2} resulted in increased ecosystem-level flux rates. Regressions fitted to the seasonal flux rates indicate an apparent 10 d extension of positive CO{sub 2} uptake reflecting a delay of the onset of plant dormancy. This delay in senescence could increase the frost sensitivity of the system. Major end points proposed for this research include the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and the interaction of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} with elevated soil temperature and increased nutrient availability on: (1) Net ecosystem CO{sub 2} flux; (2) Net photosynthetic rates; (3) Patterns and resource controls on homeostatic adjustment in the above processes to elevated CO{sub 2}; (4) Plant-nutrient status, litter quality, and forage quality; (5) Soil-nutrient status; (6) Plant-growth pattern and shoot demography.

  19. Lung cancer incidence decreases with elevation: evidence for oxygen as an inhaled carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, Kamen P; Himmelstein, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    The level of atmospheric oxygen, a driver of free radical damage and tumorigenesis, decreases sharply with rising elevation. To understand whether ambient oxygen plays a role in human carcinogenesis, we characterized age-adjusted cancer incidence (compiled by the National Cancer Institute from 2005 to 2009) across counties of the elevation-varying Western United States and compared trends displayed by respiratory cancer (lung) and non-respiratory cancers (breast, colorectal, and prostate). To adjust for important demographic and cancer-risk factors, 8-12 covariates were considered for each cancer. We produced regression models that captured known risks. Models demonstrated that elevation is strongly, negatively associated with lung cancer incidence (p < 10(-16)), but not with the incidence of non-respiratory cancers. For every 1,000 m rise in elevation, lung cancer incidence decreased by 7.23 99% CI [5.18-9.29] cases per 100,000 individuals, equivalent to 12.7% of the mean incidence, 56.8. As a predictor of lung cancer incidence, elevation was second only to smoking prevalence in terms of significance and effect size. Furthermore, no evidence of ecological fallacy or of confounding arising from evaluated factors was detected: the lung cancer association was robust to varying regression models, county stratification, and population subgrouping; additionally seven environmental correlates of elevation, such as exposure to sunlight and fine particulate matter, could not capture the association. Overall, our findings suggest the presence of an inhaled carcinogen inherently and inversely tied to elevation, offering epidemiological support for oxygen-driven tumorigenesis. Finally, highlighting the need to consider elevation in studies of lung cancer, we demonstrated that previously reported inverse lung cancer associations with radon and UVB became insignificant after accounting for elevation. PMID:25648772

  20. Elevator Illusion and Gaze Direction in Hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Hargens, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A luminous visual target in a dark hypergravity (Gz greater than 1) environment appears to be elevated above its true physical position. This "elevator illusion" has been attributed to changes in oculomotor control caused by increased stimulation of the otolith organs. Data relating the magnitude of the illusion to the magnitude of the changes in oculomotor control have been lacking. The present study provides such data.

  1. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme δ-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 μg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  2. Opioid Antagonist Impedes Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty spider-phobic adults underwent exposure to 17 phobic-related, graded performance tests. Fifteen subjects were assigned to naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and 15 were assigned to placebo. Naltrexone had a significant effect on exposure, with naltrexone subjects taking significantly longer to complete first 10 steps of exposure and with…

  3. DIETARY EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research constitutes the MCEARD base dietary exposure research program and is conducted to complement the NERL total human exposure program. The research builds on previous work to reduce the level of uncertainty in exposure assessment by improving NERL's ability to evaluat...

  4. GUIDELINES FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Guidelines for Exposure Assessment describe the general concepts of exposure assessment including definitions and associated units, and by providing guidance on the planning and conducting of an exposure assessment. Guidance is also provided on presenting the results of the e...

  5. HUMAN EXPOSURE ACTIVITY PATTERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activity/uptake rate data are necessary to estimate potential human exposure and intake dose to environmental pollutants and to refine human exposure models. Personal exposure monitoring studies have demonstrated the critical role that activities play in explaining and pre...

  6. EROSION OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE CORROSION SCALES ON METALS

    SciTech Connect

    Maasberg, J.A.; Levy, A.V.

    1981-05-01

    Combined erosion-corrosion poses a considerable problem to the design of long lifetime metallic components in energy conversion systems. To gain some insight into this problem, scales were formed on stainless steel at elevated temperature and subsequently were eroded at room temperature to determine the nature of the erosion rates and the mechanism of scale removal. Thin corrosion scales were formed on 310 stainless steel and an experimental Fe-18Cr-5Al-1Hf alloy at high temperatures (9ooo and 980°C) in gas mixtures with various levels of oxygen and combined oxygen-sulfur. The corroded specimens were eroded at room temperature in an air-solid particle stream using 50{micro}m SiC at 60 ms{sup -1}. The conditions of the corrosive exposures, the rates of erosion of these scales and the microscopic appearance of the eroded surface were correlated to determine the mechanism of thin scale erosion.

  7. Energy considerations in the partial space elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Pamela; Misra, Arun K.

    2014-06-01

    The space elevator has been proposed as an alternate method for space transportation. A partial elevator is composed of a tether of several hundreds of kilometres, held vertically in tension between two end masses, with its centre of orbit placed at the geosynchronous orbit. A spacecraft can dock at the lower end, and then use the climber on the elevator to ascend to higher altitudes. In this paper, energy calculations are performed, to determine whether a partial elevator can provide sufficient savings in operational costs, compared to the traditional rocket-powered launch. The energy required to launch a spacecraft from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to the geostationary orbit (GEO) is calculated for two trajectories. In the first trajectory, the spacecraft travels from LEO to GEO via a Hohmann transfer. In the second trajectory, the spacecraft travels from LEO to the lower end of the partial space elevator with a Hohmann transfer, and then uses the elevator to climb to GEO. The total energy required is compared between the two trajectories. The effects of tether length, spacecraft-to-climber mass ratio, altitude of LEO, and tether material are investigated.

  8. Michelson-Morley in Einstein's elevators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Fred; Pierce, Ayal

    2010-02-01

    Experiments are proposed in which a Michelson-Morley interferometer is placed in Einstein's thought experiments where elevators are subjected to varied accelerated fields. Unbeknownst to the observers inside the elevators, they are placed in different circumstances: on the surface of the Earth, in free fall, in space distant from any mass, and inside a rotating space station. By use of not one, but two objects, the observer will be challenged to determine the nature and shape of the accelerated field, if any, inside the elevator. It will be demonstrated that the nature of the accelerated field can be determined easily from inside the elevator by the motion of the two objects released by the observer. It will also be shown that, for the elevator on the space station which is generating an ``artificial gravity'' field by rotation, Michelson-Morley would have the same null result as on Earth. However, the Michelson-Morley experiment is adapted so that in addition to the two horizontal arms of the interferometer (parallel to the floor of the elevator) a vertical arm is added perpendicular to the floor facing towards the ceiling. Such a vertical arm added to the Michelson-Morley experiment adds a new dimension to examining each accelerated field, including gravity. )

  9. Maternal exposure to metals—Concentrations and predictors of exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Callan, A.C.; Hinwood, A.L.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-10-15

    A variety of metals are important for biological function but have also been shown to impact health at elevated concentrations, whereas others have no known biological function. Pregnant women are a vulnerable population and measures to reduce exposure in this group are important. We undertook a study of maternal exposure to the metals, aluminium, arsenic, copper, cobalt, chromium, lithium, manganese, nickel, selenium, tin, uranium and zinc in 173 participants across Western Australia. Each participant provided a whole blood and urine sample, as well as drinking water, residential soil and dust samples and completed a questionnaire. In general the concentrations of metals in all samples were low with the notable exception of uranium (blood U mean 0.07 µg/L, range <0.01–0.25 µg/L; urinary U mean 0.018 µg/g creatinine, range <0.01–0.199 µg/g creatinine). Factors that influenced biological concentrations were consumption of fish which increased urinary arsenic concentrations, hobbies (including mechanics and welding) which increased blood manganese concentrations and iron/folic acid supplement use which was associated with decreased concentrations of aluminium and nickel in urine and manganese in blood. Environmental concentrations of aluminium, copper and lithium were found to influence biological concentrations, but this was not the case for other environmental metals concentrations. Further work is underway to explore the influence of diet on biological metals concentrations in more detail. The high concentrations of uranium require further investigation. -- Highlights: • High concentrations of uranium with respect to international literature. • Environmental concentrations of Al, Cu and Li influenced urinary concentrations. • Exposure to mechanics/welding hobbies increased blood Mn concentrations. • Iron/Folic acid supplements reduced biological concentrations of Al, Ni and Mn.

  10. Environmental Exposures and Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Nandipati, Sirisha; Litvan, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects millions around the world. The Braak hypothesis proposes that in PD a pathologic agent may penetrate the nervous system via the olfactory bulb, gut, or both and spreads throughout the nervous system. The agent is unknown, but several environmental exposures have been associated with PD. Here, we summarize and examine the evidence for such environmental exposures. We completed a comprehensive review of human epidemiologic studies of pesticides, selected industrial compounds, and metals and their association with PD in PubMed and Google Scholar until April 2016. Most studies show that rotenone and paraquat are linked to increased PD risk and PD-like neuropathology. Organochlorines have also been linked to PD in human and laboratory studies. Organophosphates and pyrethroids have limited but suggestive human and animal data linked to PD. Iron has been found to be elevated in PD brain tissue but the pathophysiological link is unclear. PD due to manganese has not been demonstrated, though a parkinsonian syndrome associated with manganese is well-documented. Overall, the evidence linking paraquat, rotenone, and organochlorines with PD appears strong; however, organophosphates, pyrethroids, and polychlorinated biphenyls require further study. The studies related to metals do not support an association with PD. PMID:27598189

  11. Low-level environmental arsenic exposure correlates with unexplained male infertility risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Weipan; Huang, Qingyu; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Xia, Yankai; Zhang, Weibing; Shen, Heqing

    2016-11-15

    Humans are exposed to arsenic via drinking water, dietary intake and inhaled particulates. Endemic chronic arsenic exposure related reproductive toxicity is well documented, but the effect of low-level general environmental arsenic exposure on unexplained male infertility (UMI) remains unclear. In this case-control study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between non-geogenic environmental arsenic exposure and UMI risk. One hundred and one infertile men with normal semen as cases and sixty one fertile men as controls were recruited. Five urinary arsenic species: pentavalent arsenate (Asi(V)), trivalent arsenite (Asi(III)), methylated to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), arsenobetaine (AsB) were quantitatively measured by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). To assess the semen quality, semen volume, sperm concentration, total motility, and progressive motility were measured. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the differences of arsenic species and index between the case and the control group; we observed that concentrations of Asi(V), AsB, MMA(V), DMA(V), total inorganic As and total As were significantly higher in the cases than the controls. The urine Asi(V) level increased more than twenty folds in case group. Moreover, higher redox index (Asi(V)/Asi(III)) and lower primary arsenic methylation index (PMI=MMA(V)/Asi) were observed for case group. Furthermore, through the logistic regression analysis, we observed that the urine Asi(V) level and PMI were most significantly associated with UMI risk among the observations. Specifically, in comparison to the first quartile, the subjects with higher Asi(V) levels were more likely to exhibit UMI with increasing adjusted odds ratios (AORs) (adjusted by age, body mass index, drinking status and smoking status) of 8.39 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.59-27.17], 13.12 (95% CI, 3.44-50.12) and 36.51 (95% CI, 8

  12. Carbon monoxide and ST-elevation myocardial infarction: case reports.

    PubMed

    Sward, Douglas G; Sethuraman, Kinjal N; Wong, Jennifer S; Rosenthal, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    We describe two cases of myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation on electrocardiogram associated with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, a condition rarely reported in the literature. The first was a 62-year-old woman who experienced chest pain in the emergency department (ED) while being assessed for exposure to carbon monoxide in her home. The second was an 80-year-old man who fainted at home and was found to have ST elevation during the ED workup. After hospitalization, he returned home and soon thereafter had difficulty walking and speaking. The responding paramedics detected a very high CO level in the home. Both patients received hyperbaric oxygen therapy within the first several hours of presentation. For this combination of conditions, it is difficult to derive evidence-based management recommendations, given the paucity of cases reported to date. We conclude that rapid consultation with interventional cardiology and consideration of angioplasty or stenting are appropriate, especially when electrocardiographic findings and echocardiography point to a specific coronary distribution. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy might have a role in the treatment, based on its effects on myocardial ischemia and injury in other models. PMID:27000015

  13. Bidirectional impact of atrazine-induced elevations in progesterone (P4) on the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estradiol (E2)-primed rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) have been reported to suppress the luteinizing hormone surge (LHS) in female rats. Exposure has also been found to elevate P4 concentrations, and an increase in P4 is known to have a different directional effect on LH depe...

  14. The effect of elevated temperature on the toxicity of the laboratory cultured dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis (Dinophyceae).

    PubMed

    Ashton, Mayra; Tosteson, Thomas; Tosteson, Carmen

    2003-06-01

    Ostreopsis lenticularis Fukuyo 1981, is the major benthic dinoflagellate vector implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in finfish on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. Clonal laboratory cultures of O. lenticularis (clone 301) exposed to elevated temperatures (30-31 degrees C) for 33 and 54 days showed significant increases in the quantity of extractable toxin they produced as compared to their toxicities versus cells grown at temperatures of 25-26 degrees C. O lenticularis samples collected directly from the field following exposure to elevated temperatures for comparable periods of time also showed significant increases in extractable toxin. The increased toxicity of both field sampled and laboratory grown O. lenticularis exposed to elevated temperatures may result from the effects of elevated temperatures on their metabolism and/or the bacterial symbionts found associated with these microalgae. The number of bacteria associated with cultured O. lenticularis exposed to elevated temperatures was significantly reduced. Increased toxin recovery from O. lenticularis exposed to elevated temperatures may have resulted from the direct effect of temperature on toxin production and/or the reduction of Ostreopsis associated bacterial flora that consume toxin in the process of their growth. This reduction in the quantity of associated bacterial flora in temperature treated cultures may result in increased toxin recovery from O. lenticularis due to a reduction in the consumption of toxin by these symbiont bacteria. PMID:15264548

  15. Elevational distribution and extinction risk in birds.

    PubMed

    White, Rachel L; Bennett, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Mountainous regions are hotspots of terrestrial biodiversity. Unlike islands, which have been the focus of extensive research on extinction dynamics, fewer studies have examined mountain ranges even though they face increasing threats from human pressures - notably habitat conversion and climate change. Limits to the taxonomic and geographical extent and resolution of previously available information have precluded an explicit assessment of the relative role of elevational distribution in determining extinction risk. We use a new global species-level avian database to quantify the influence of elevational distribution (range, maximum and midpoint) on extinction risk in birds at the global scale. We also tested this relationship within biogeographic realms, higher taxonomic levels, and across phylogenetic contrasts. Potential confounding variables (i.e. phylogenetic, distributional, morphological, life history and niche breadth) were also tested and controlled for. We show that the three measures of elevational distribution are strong negative predictors of avian extinction risk, with elevational range comparable and complementary to that of geographical range size. Extinction risk was also found to be positively associated with body weight, development and adult survival, but negatively associated with reproduction and niche breadth. The robust and consistent findings from this study demonstrate the importance of elevational distribution as a key driver of variation in extinction dynamics in birds. Our results also highlight elevational distribution as a missing criterion in current schemes for quantifying extinction risk and setting species conservation priorities in birds. Further research is recommended to test for generality across non-avian taxa, which will require an advance in our knowledge of species' current elevational ranges and increased efforts to digitise and centralise such data. PMID:25849620

  16. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Kilian A.

    2005-07-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator-launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required Δv, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo.

  17. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    PubMed

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. PMID:16010760

  18. Elevational Distribution and Extinction Risk in Birds

    PubMed Central

    White, Rachel L.; Bennett, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Mountainous regions are hotspots of terrestrial biodiversity. Unlike islands, which have been the focus of extensive research on extinction dynamics, fewer studies have examined mountain ranges even though they face increasing threats from human pressures – notably habitat conversion and climate change. Limits to the taxonomic and geographical extent and resolution of previously available information have precluded an explicit assessment of the relative role of elevational distribution in determining extinction risk. We use a new global species-level avian database to quantify the influence of elevational distribution (range, maximum and midpoint) on extinction risk in birds at the global scale. We also tested this relationship within biogeographic realms, higher taxonomic levels, and across phylogenetic contrasts. Potential confounding variables (i.e. phylogenetic, distributional, morphological, life history and niche breadth) were also tested and controlled for. We show that the three measures of elevational distribution are strong negative predictors of avian extinction risk, with elevational range comparable and complementary to that of geographical range size. Extinction risk was also found to be positively associated with body weight, development and adult survival, but negatively associated with reproduction and niche breadth. The robust and consistent findings from this study demonstrate the importance of elevational distribution as a key driver of variation in extinction dynamics in birds. Our results also highlight elevational distribution as a missing criterion in current schemes for quantifying extinction risk and setting species conservation priorities in birds. Further research is recommended to test for generality across non-avian taxa, which will require an advance in our knowledge of species’ current elevational ranges and increased efforts to digitise and centralise such data. PMID:25849620

  19. NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS IN CZECH CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient levels of SO2, NOx, PAHs and heavy metals are elevated in Northern Bohemia as a result of intensive mining and combustion of brown coal. To assess the neurotoxicological effects of exposure to these chemicals, tests from the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES2) we...

  20. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to Manganese

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive...

  1. Responses of soil cellulolytic fungal communities to elevated atmospheric CO₂ are complex and variable across five ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Weber, Carolyn F; Zak, Donald R; Hungate, Bruce A; Jackson, Robert B; Vilgalys, Rytas; Evans, R David; Schadt, Christopher W; Megonigal, J Patrick; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2011-10-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO(2) generally increases plant productivity and subsequently increases the availability of cellulose in soil to microbial decomposers. As key cellulose degraders, soil fungi are likely to be one of the most impacted and responsive microbial groups to elevated atmospheric CO(2). To investigate the impacts of ecosystem type and elevated atmospheric CO(2) on cellulolytic fungal communities, we sequenced 10,677 cbhI gene fragments encoding the catalytic subunit of cellobiohydrolase I, across five distinct terrestrial ecosystem experiments after a decade of exposure to elevated CO(2). The cbhI composition of each ecosystem was distinct, as supported by weighted Unifrac analyses (all P-values; < 0.001), with few operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being shared across ecosystems. Using a 114-member cbhI sequence database compiled from known fungi, less than 1% of the environmental sequences could be classified at the family level indicating that cellulolytic fungi in situ are likely dominated by novel fungi or known fungi that are not yet recognized as cellulose degraders. Shifts in fungal cbhI composition and richness that were correlated with elevated CO(2) exposure varied across the ecosystems. In aspen plantation and desert creosote bush soils, cbhI gene richness was significantly higher after exposure to elevated CO(2) (550 µmol mol(-1)) than under ambient CO(2) (360 µmol mol(-1) CO(2)). In contrast, while the richness was not altered, the relative abundance of dominant OTUs in desert soil crusts was significantly shifted. This suggests that responses are complex, vary across different ecosystems and, in at least one case, are OTU-specific. Collectively, our results document the complexity of cellulolytic fungal communities in multiple terrestrial ecosystems and the variability of their responses to long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO(2). PMID:21883796

  2. Responses of soil cellulolytic fungal communities to elevated atmospheric CO2 are complex and variableacross five ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Carolyn F; Zak, Donald R; Hungate, Bruce; Jackson, Robert B; Vilgalys, Rytas; Evans, R David; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2011-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO(2) generally increases plant productivity and subsequently increases the availability of cellulose in soil to microbial decomposers. As key cellulose degraders, soil fungi are likely to be one of the most impacted and responsive microbial groups to elevated atmospheric CO(2) . To investigate the impacts of ecosystem type and elevated atmospheric CO(2) on cellulolytic fungal communities, we sequenced 10 677 cbhI gene fragments encoding the catalytic subunit of cellobiohydrolase I, across five distinct terrestrial ecosystem experiments after a decade of exposure to elevated CO(2) . The cbhI composition of each ecosystem was distinct, as supported by weighted Unifrac analyses (all P-values; < 0.001), with few operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being shared across ecosystems. Using a 114-member cbhI sequence database compiled from known fungi, less than 1% of the environmental sequences could be classified at the family level indicating that cellulolytic fungi in situ are likely dominated by novel fungi or known fungi that are not yet recognized as cellulose degraders. Shifts in fungal cbhI composition and richness that were correlated with elevated CO(2) exposure varied across the ecosystems. In aspen plantation and desert creosote bush soils, cbhI gene richness was significantly higher after exposure to elevated CO(2) (550 mol mol(-1) ) than under ambient CO(2) (360 mol mol(-1) CO(2) ). In contrast, while the richness was not altered, the relative abundance of dominant OTUs in desert soil crusts was significantly shifted. This suggests that responses are complex, vary across different ecosystems and, in at least one case, are OTU-specific. Collectively, our results document the complexity of cellulolytic fungal communities in multiple terrestrial ecosystems and the variability of their responses to long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO(2) .

  3. (18)OS04 AND (18)OH20 AS PROSPECTIVE INDICATORS OF ELEVATED ARSENIC IN THE GOOSE RIVER GROUND-WATERSHED, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anomalous geogenic arsenic occurs in drinking water from the Goose River crystalline ground-watershed in mid-coastal Maine. Isotope investigations were useful in understanding release areas of arsenic into affected water wells. The isotope composition of sulfate associated with p...

  4. Zika Virus, Elevation, and Transmission Risk

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Osorio, Jorge; Qiao, Huijie; Escobar, Luis E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Zika virus has appeared in the Americas in the form of a major outbreak, and is now known to cause birth defects when pregnant women are infected. As a result, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued travel guidelines, in the form of an elevational risk definition: destinations below 2000m are considered as at-risk. Methods: We explored the distribution of known Zika virus vector mosquito species in relation to climatic conditions, elevation, latitude, and air traffic connections to the United States. Results: In view of the tropical and subtropical nature of the mosquito species that are the primary Zika virus vectors, we point out that climate varies rather dramatically with respect to elevation and latitude, such that a single elevational criterion will be a poor predictor of potential for transmission. Discussion: We suggest an initial adjustment would consider latitude in addition to elevation; a more definitive, quantitative analysis of risk would consider variables of ecology, climate, human condition, and connectivity of areas. PMID:27280061

  5. Space Elevator Concept Considered a Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The `once upon a time' science fiction concept of a space elevator has been envisioned and studied as a real mass transportation system in the latter part of the 21st century. David Smitherman of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Projects Office has compiled plans for such an elevator. The space elevator concept is a structure extending from the surface of the Earth to geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) at 35,786 km in altitude. The tower would be approximately 50 km tall with a cable tethered to the top. Its center mass would be at GEO such that the entire structure orbits the Earth in sync with the Earth's rotation maintaining a stationary position over its base attachment at the equator. Electromagnetic vehicles traveling along the cable could serve as a mass transportation system for transporting people, payloads, and power between space and Earth. This illustration by artist Pat Rawling shows the concept of a space elevator as viewed from the geostationary transfer station looking down the length of the elevator towards the Earth.

  6. Design and Deployment of a Space Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Bradley C.

    2000-11-01

    The space elevator was first proposed in the 1960s as a method of getting into space. The initial studies of a space elevator outlined the basic concept of a cable strung between Earth and space but concluded that no material available at the time had the required properties to feasibly construct such a cable. With the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991 it is now possible to realistically discuss the construction of a space elevator. Although currently produced only in small quantities, carbon nanotubes appear to have the strength-to-mass ratio required for this endeavor. However, fabrication of the cable required is only one of the challenges in construction of a space elevator. Powering the climbers, surviving micrometeor impacts, lightning strikes and low-Earth-orbit debris collisions are some of the problems that are now as important to consider as the production of the carbon nanotube cable. We consider various aspects of a space elevator and find each of the problems that this endeavor will encounter can be solved with current or near-future technology.

  7. Constitutive Modeling and Testing of Polymer Matrix Composites Incorporating Physical Aging at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced polymer matrix composites (PMC's) are desirable for structural materials in diverse applications such as aircraft, civil infrastructure and biomedical implants because of their improved strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. For example, the next generation military and commercial aircraft requires applications for high strength, low weight structural components subjected to elevated temperatures. A possible disadvantage of polymer-based composites is that the physical and mechanical properties of the matrix often change significantly over time due to the exposure of elevated temperatures and environmental factors. For design, long term exposure (i.e. aging) of PMC's must be accounted for through constitutive models in order to accurately assess the effects of aging on performance, crack initiation and remaining life. One particular aspect of this aging process, physical aging, is considered in this research.

  8. Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Narod, S.A.; Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Blakey, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references.

  9. 5. VIEW OF SECOND ELEVATOR WITH WOODFRAME HEADHOUSE AND ASPHALTIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF SECOND ELEVATOR WITH WOOD-FRAME HEADHOUSE AND ASPHALTIC SIDING, LOOKING WEST. - Lockport DuPage Farmer's Elevator Company Grain Elevator, South of Romeoville Road, Lockport, Will County, IL

  10. 2. View of Mainline elevated structure, parallel to Washington Street, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Mainline elevated structure, parallel to Washington Street, crossing over the Massachusetts Turnpike and the B&A R.R. tracks - looking North. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 55. View underneath elevated Mainline structure (Section F5) looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. View underneath elevated Mainline structure (Section F-5) - looking Northwest toward Bray Street and the Egleston Square Power sub-station. Lattice work joist and crossbracing dominate structure. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 53. View underneath elevated Mainline structure (Section F5) looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. View underneath elevated Mainline structure (Section F-5) - looking North - along Washington Street toward Bray Street. Former New England Hospital is in the background. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. 29. Elevator no. 3: top floor, conveyor belt rollers for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Elevator no. 3: top floor, conveyor belt rollers for belt to gangway (in background) connecting with elevator no. 2, facing northwest - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  14. 26. View underneath elevated Mainline structure looking North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. View underneath elevated Mainline structure - looking North - along Washington Street at Junction of Sections F-3 and F-4 at Bent #1066 near former Arnold Street. - Boston Elevated Railway, Elevated Mainline, Washington Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. Childhood Cumulative Risk Exposure and Adult Amygdala Volume and Function.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W; Swain, James E; King, Anthony P; Wang, Xin; Javanbakht, Arash; Ho, S Shaun; Angstadt, Michael; Phan, K Luan; Xie, Hong; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-06-01

    Considerable work indicates that early cumulative risk exposure is aversive to human development, but very little research has examined the neurological underpinnings of these robust findings. This study investigates amygdala volume and reactivity to facial stimuli among adults (mean 23.7 years of age, n = 54) as a function of cumulative risk exposure during childhood (9 and 13 years of age). In addition, we test to determine whether expected cumulative risk elevations in amygdala volume would mediate functional reactivity of the amygdala during socioemotional processing. Risks included substandard housing quality, noise, crowding, family turmoil, child separation from family, and violence. Total and left hemisphere adult amygdala volumes were positively related to cumulative risk exposure during childhood. The links between childhood cumulative risk exposure and elevated amygdala responses to emotionally neutral facial stimuli in adulthood were mediated by the corresponding amygdala volumes. Cumulative risk exposure in later adolescence (17 years of age), however, was unrelated to subsequent adult amygdala volume or function. Physical and socioemotional risk exposures early in life appear to alter amygdala development, rendering adults more reactive to ambiguous stimuli such as neutral faces. These stress-related differences in childhood amygdala development might contribute to the well-documented psychological distress as a function of early risk exposure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26469872

  16. EXAMPLE EXPOSURE SCENARIOS ASSESSMENT TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure scenarios are a tool to help the assessor develop estimates of exposure, dose, and risk. An exposure scenario generally includes facts, data, assumptions, inferences, and sometimes professional judgment about how the exposure takes place. The human physiological and beh...

  17. Uranium Exposures in a Community near a Uranium Processing Facility: Relationship with Hypertension and Hematologic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Sara E.; Burch, James B.; Bottai, Matteo; Pinney, Susan M.; Puett, Robin; Porter, Dwayne; Vena, John E.; Hébert, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Environmental uranium exposure originating as a byproduct of uranium processing can impact human health. The Fernald Feed Materials Production Center functioned as a uranium processing facility from 1951 to 1989, and potential health effects among residents living near this plant were investigated via the Fernald Medical Monitoring Program (FMMP). Methods Data from 8,216 adult FMMP participants were used to test the hypothesis that elevated uranium exposure was associated with indicators of hypertension or changes in hematologic parameters at entry into the program. A cumulative uranium exposure estimate, developed by FMMP investigators, was used to classify exposure. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and physician diagnoses were used to assess hypertension; and red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cell differential counts were used to characterize hematology. The relationship between uranium exposure and hypertension or hematologic parameters was evaluated using generalized linear models and quantile regression for continuous outcomes, and logistic regression or ordinal logistic regression for categorical outcomes, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Results Of 8,216 adult FMMP participants 4,187 (51%) had low cumulative uranium exposure, 1,273 (15%) had moderate exposure, and 2,756 (34%) were in the high (>0.50 Sievert) cumulative lifetime uranium exposure category. Participants with elevated uranium exposure had decreased white blood cell and lymphocyte counts and increased eosinophil counts. Female participants with higher uranium exposures had elevated systolic blood pressure compared to women with lower exposures. However, no exposure-related changes were observed in diastolic blood pressure or hypertension diagnoses among female or male participants. Conclusions Results from this investigation suggest that residents in the vicinity of the Fernald plant with elevated exposure to uranium primarily via inhalation exhibited

  18. Temperature changes across CO2-lased dentin during multiple exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariasen, Kenneth L.; Barron, Joseph R.; Boran, Thomas L.

    1990-06-01

    The literature increasingly indicates that lasers will have a multitude of applications for dental hard tissue procedures, e.g. preventive therapy, caries removal, laser etching and endodontic therapy. However, it is critical that such laser therapies avoid the production of heat levels which will be damaging to the surrounding vital tissues, such as the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. Our preliminary research on temperature changes across C02 lased dentin indicated that for single preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot) the mean temperature rise across 350 j.tm of dentin was 0.57 0C while across 1000 .tm of dentin the mean rise was only 0.18 °C. Further research utilizing multiple preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot, 3 x 1.0 sec. intervals) showed mean temperature elevations of 1.56 0C across 350 m of dentin and 0.66 O across 1000 xm of dentin. While these temperature elevations, which would be associated with preventive therapy, are very low and would be biologically acceptable, it must be noted that exposures of higher intensities are required to fuse enamel and porcelain, or remove decay. This current research investigates temperature elevations which occuT during C02 lasing utilizing the following exposure parameters: 8.0 W., 1.0 mm focal spot, 0.1 sec. exposures, 2 or 4 exposures per site pulsed 1.0 sec. apart. Three dentin thicknesses were utilized, i.e. 1000 jim, 1500 p.tm and 2000 .tm. Four sections of each thickness were utilized with four exposure sites per specimen (2 with 2 exposures, 2 with 4 exposures). All dentin sections were prepared from non-carious third molars using a hard tissue microtome. A thermistor was placed on the dentin surface opposite each lased site and temperature changes were recorded for approximately 50 sec. following lasing. Mean temperature elevations ranged from a high of 3.07 C for the 1000 xm section utilizing four exposures to a low of 0.37 0C for the

  19. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Detail design activities are reported for a program to develop an advanced composites elevator for the Boeing 727 commercial transport. Design activities include discussion of the full scale ground test and flight test activities, the ancillary test programs, sustaining efforts, weight status, and the production status. Prior to flight testing of the advanced composites elevator, ground, flight flutter, and stability and control test plans were reviewed and approved by the FAA. Both the ground test and the flight test were conducted according to the approved plan, and were witnessed by the FAA. Three and one half shipsets have now been fabricated without any significant difficulty being encountered. Two elevator system shipsets were weighed, and results validated the 26% predicted weight reduction. The program is on schedule.

  20. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector. PMID:18938291

  1. Modeling exposures to organophosphates and pyrethroids for children living in an urban low-income environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticide exposure in urban low-income residential environments may be elevated as a result of persistent application due to severe pest infestation. Children living in this environment may be a sensitive subpopulation for these non-dietary exposures, due to their physiological a...

  2. Leukemia following occupational exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields among Ontario electric utility workers.

    PubMed

    Miller, A B; To, T; Agnew, D A; Wall, C; Green, L M

    1996-07-15

    In a nested case-control study of 1,484 cancer cases and 2,179 matched controls from a cohort of 31,543 Ontario Hydro male employees, the authors evaluated associations of cancer risk with electric field exposure and reevaluated the previously reported findings for magnetic fields. Pensioners were followed from January 1, 1970, and active workers (including those who left the corporation) from January 1, 1973, with both groups followed through December 31, 1988. Exposures to electric and magnetic fields and to potential occupational confounders were estimated through job exposure matrices. Odds ratios were elevated for hematopoietic malignancies with cumulative electric field exposure. After adjustment, the odds ratio for leukemia in the upper tertile was 4.45 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-19.7). Odds ratios were also elevated for acute nonlymphoid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and chronic lymphoid leukemia. For cumulative magnetic field exposure, there were similar elevations that fell with adjustment. Evaluation of the combined effect of electric and magnetic fields for leukemia showed significant elevations of risk for high exposure to both, with a dose-response relation for increasing exposure to electric fields and an inconsistent effect for magnetic fields. There was some evidence of a nonsignificant association for brain cancer and benign brain tumors with magnetic fields. For lung cancer, the odds ratio for high exposure to electric and magnetic fields was 1.84 (95% CI 0.69-4.94). PMID:8678046

  3. 23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ELEVATOR LOADING DOOR. - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  4. Skin Exposure and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Redlich, Carrie A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors. PMID:20427586

  5. Application of spring tabs to elevator controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, William H

    1944-01-01

    Equations are presented for calculating the stick-force characteristics obtained with a spring-tab type of elevator control. The main problems encountered in the design of a satisfactory elevator spring tab are to provide stick forces in the desired range, to maintain the force per g sufficiently constant throughout the speed range, to avoid undesirable "feel" of the control in ground handling or in flight at low airspeeds, and to prevent flutter. Examples are presented to show the design features of spring tabs required to solve these problems for airplanes of various sizes.

  6. Forest succession at elevated CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2002-02-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response.

  7. Biomarkers of xenobiotic exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, M.A.

    1988-07-01

    Direct measurement of xenobiotic (foreign) chemicals is not always feasible as an exposure assessment,--owing to rapid metabolism, sequestration into fatty tissues, or lack of suitable assay methods. Furthermore, suspect exposures often involve complex mixtures of organics. In these circumstances, indirect biomarkers of exposure can be most helpful. This paper reviews four urinary parameters that hold promise as biomarkers of exposure in occupational and environmental settings: glucaric acid (end-product of the glucuronidation pathway), thioethers (end-product of glutathione reaction with electrophilic or alkylating agents), porphyrin pattern (altered with disruption in heme biosynthesis), and the Ames mutagenicity test. 112 references.

  8. ELEVATED LEVELS OF INDUCIBLE HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN (HSP70-1) PROTECT MCF-7 CELLS FROM ARSENITE TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) belong to the highly conserved family of stress proteins and are induced following exposure to arsenic. Elevated HSPs protect against cellular damage from heat but it is unclear whether HSP induction alters the damaging effects of environmental chemical...

  9. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO-2 AND N FERTILIZATION ON FINE ROOT DYNAMICS AND FUNGAL GROWTH IN SEEDLING PINUS PONDEROSA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated CO-2 and N fertilization on fine root growth of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. C. Laws., grown in native soil in open-top field-exposure chambers at Placerville, CA, were monitored for a 2-year period using minirhizotrons. The experimental design was a...

  10. DIBROMOACETIC ACID-INDUCED ELEVATIONS IN CIRCULATING ESTRADIOL: EFFECTS IN BOTH CYCLING AND OVARIECTOMIZED/STEROID-PRIMED FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RTD-03-031
    Goldman, JM and Murr, AS. Dibromoacetic Acid-induced Elevations in Circulating Estradiol: Effects in Both Cycling and Ovariectomized/Steroid-primed Female Rats. Reproductive Toxicology (in press).

    Abstract

    Oral exposures to high concentrations of th...

  11. Reduced O2 and elevated CO2 tolerance limits of fresh-cut ‘Kent’ mango during retail display

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to unfavorable temperatures encountered during retail display may induce the development of injurious atmospheres inside improperly designed packages of fresh-cut products, compromising their quality and safety. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal reduced O2 and/or elev...

  12. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Janeen Denise Robertson

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  13. Potential Mechanism Leading to Impaired Thermoregulation Following Microgravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Etzel, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity or its analogues impairs thermoregulation in humans evidenced by higher internal temperatures following the exposure during a thermal challenge. Although the mechanism leading to this response has not been clearly delineated, we identified that prolonged head-down tilt (HDT) markedly impairs thermoregulatory reflex control of skin blood flow, as demonstrated by an increased internal temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation, and by a reduced slope of the relationship between the elevation in skin blood flow relative to the elevation in internal temperature. Recently, Fortney et al. identified similar responses in two individuals following 115 days of microgravity exposure. One possible mechanism leading to altered cutaneous vasodilation during a thermal challenge following actual or simulated microgravity exposure may be associated with baroreflex-mediated attenuation in the elevation of skin blood flow. During a heat stress the elevation in skin blood flow is accomplished through a combination of increased cutaneous vascular conductance and cardiac output, both of which result in central venous pressure (CVP) decreasing 2-6 mmHg. Reductions in CVP of this magnitude in normothermia decrease muscle blood flow and skin blood flow presumably through unloading the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors. It is unclear whether the reduction in CVP, and accompanying cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading, during passive heating buffers the elevation in skin blood flow. That is, would the elevation in skin blood flow be greater if CVP did not decrease, or decreased to a lesser extent during the heat stress? Conversely, if CVP decreased to a greater extend during a thermal challenge following a perturbation such as prolonged HDT, would the elevation in skin blood flow be attenuated during that thermal challenge? Given that prolonged HDT decreases plasma volume and central venous pressure, such a finding would provide a plausible hypothesis

  14. 76 FR 21695 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... +596 City of Huntsville. downstream of Bailey Cove Road Southeast. At the upstream side of None...

  15. 75 FR 67310 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... meter. ** BFEs to be changed include the listed downstream and upstream BFEs, and include BFEs...

  16. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  20. 78 FR 27 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  1. 76 FR 70386 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream..., Mississippi Mississippi Town of Carrollton...... Big Sand Creek Approximately 0.6 mile downstream of...

  2. 75 FR 29219 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream...) Existing Modified City of Alexandria, Virginia Backlick Run Approximately +79 +80 0.4 mile downstream...

  3. 76 FR 20606 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Unincorporated Areas of downstream of Old U.S. Sevier County. Highway 89. Approximately 500 feet None...

  4. 75 FR 29258 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Areas Brushy Creek Approximately 100 feet None +437 Unincorporated Areas of downstream of North...

  5. 76 FR 8986 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream.... Tanners Creek Approximately 0.46 mile +488 +489 City of Greendale, City downstream of U.S. of...

  6. 75 FR 31361 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Incorporated Areas Pearl River Approximately 1.0 mile None +341 City of Carthage. downstream of State...

  7. 76 FR 26968 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Road. Linda Creek Approximately 0.7 mile +172 +173 Unincorporated Areas of downstream of...

  8. 75 FR 62751 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... downstream of Big Barren Creek.... +1055 +1032 Claiborne County. ] Approximately 28 miles upstream of...

  9. 76 FR 26978 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... of Wayne. downstream of the downstream county boundary. Approximately 100 feet None +951 upstream...

  10. 75 FR 29246 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... include the listed downstream and upstream BFEs, and include BFEs located on the stream reach between...

  11. 75 FR 55527 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream.... ** BFEs to be changed include the listed downstream and upstream BFEs, and include BFEs located on...

  12. 76 FR 26976 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... of Ragland, Town confluence. of Riverside. Approximately 5.5 miles None +486 downstream of...

  13. 76 FR 70403 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream.... community (downstream of North Brinton Road). Lake Manitonka Entire shoreline within None +941 Township...

  14. 75 FR 77598 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Cottleville, downstream of Norfolk City of O'Fallon, City Southern Railroad. of St. Peters, Town of...

  15. 75 FR 75945 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Skagit County. Just downstream of the +49 +52 Burlington Northern Railroad. North Fork Skagit River...

  16. 76 FR 59361 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Cross County, Arkansas Arkansas Unincorporated Areas of Turkey Creek Approximately 0.48 mile...

  17. 75 FR 61371 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... City of Trussville, downstream of Whites Town of Argo, Town of Chapel Parkway. Margaret, Town of...

  18. 75 FR 19320 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ..., 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.4 2. The tables... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Tombigbee River). with the Tombigbee Sumter County. River to approximately 0.5 mile downstream of...

  19. 75 FR 55507 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Unincorporated Areas of downstream of Jersey Sierra County. Flat Bridge. Approximately 167 feet None...

  20. 75 FR 75949 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Waverly. community. Black River Approximately 2.69 None +612 Township of Aloha. miles downstream of...

  1. 76 FR 36482 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Heights, Virginia Virginia City of Colonial Heights Old Town Creek Approximately 0.63 mile downstream...

  2. MGA Analysis on Elevated 238 Pu Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T. F.; Moody, K. J.; Raschke, K. E.; Ruhter, W. D.

    2002-10-01

    Plutonium gamma-ray data analysis, in the 100-keV region, using MGA has been improved to overcome the original maximum limit of 2% 238Pu relative plutonium content in a sample in order to perform an analysis. MGA analysis results of elevated 238Pu samples are compared to the results from mass spectrometry.

  3. Primary Immunodeficiencies with Elevated IgE.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, Trine H

    2016-01-01

    In recent years a number of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) characterized by elevated Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels have been uncovered and termed as Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). In addition to the elevated levels of IgE, patients with these PIDs display a spectrum of infections by staphylococci and fungi, and in some cases viruses, particularly affecting skin and lungs. Most of these PIDs also have a non-infectious phenotype, comprising musculoskeletal, vascular, and neurological abnormalities. The genetic basis for the majority of conditions with elevated IgE has now been established and includes mutations in STAT3, DOCK8, TYK2, and most recently PGM3 molecules. However, in some patients with the relevant phenotype, mutations in these molecules are not identified, suggesting additional genetic etiologies of HIES not yet discovered. As the immunological and molecular basis of HIES is being unraveled, important insights are emerging that may have implications for our understanding of basic principles of immunology and protective immunity as well as for the pathogenesis and clinical management of patients with these complex and challenging PIDs. In this review, are presented the current knowledge on the clinical presentation, infectious phenotype, and the genetic and immunological pathogenesis of hyper-IgE syndromes as well as some other PIDs with elevated levels of IgE. PMID:25970001

  4. Climatic change at high elevation sites

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Henry F. Diaz

    1998-07-23

    A Workshop on climatic change at high elevation sites was held September 11-15, 1995 in Wengen, Switzerland. The meeting was sponsored by both U.S. (Department of Energy, National Science Foundation and National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) and European (Swiss National Science Foundation, European Science Foundation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) agencies. The goals of the workshop were to (1) focus the attention of the world climate community on the existence of unique high elevation geophysical records around the world, (2) highlight the value of these observing sites for climate change detection efforts and to help insure the continued support of governments and of relevant institutions in the maintenance of these high elevation data gathering efforts, (3) discuss and evaluate climatic trends that may be present in these records, and to compare the information with available paleoenvironmental records of glaciers, tree-rings and varved sediments from the alpine zones, and (4) discuss and evaluate information about elevational differences in current and projected greenhouse-gas induced climatic changes in coupled General Circulation Models.

  5. Elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism.

    PubMed

    Baron-Cohen, S; Auyeung, B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Hougaard, D M; Abdallah, M W; Melgaard, L; Cohen, A S; Chakrabarti, B; Ruta, L; Lombardo, M V

    2015-03-01

    Autism affects males more than females, giving rise to the idea that the influence of steroid hormones on early fetal brain development may be one important early biological risk factor. Utilizing the Danish Historic Birth Cohort and Danish Psychiatric Central Register, we identified all amniotic fluid samples of males born between 1993 and 1999 who later received ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) diagnoses of autism, Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS (pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) (n=128) compared with matched typically developing controls. Concentration levels of Δ4 sex steroids (progesterone, 17α-hydroxy-progesterone, androstenedione and testosterone) and cortisol were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All hormones were positively associated with each other and principal component analysis confirmed that one generalized latent steroidogenic factor was driving much of the variation in the data. The autism group showed elevations across all hormones on this latent generalized steroidogenic factor (Cohen's d=0.37, P=0.0009) and this elevation was uniform across ICD-10 diagnostic label. These results provide the first direct evidence of elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism. Such elevations may be important as epigenetic fetal programming mechanisms and may interact with other important pathophysiological factors in autism. PMID:24888361

  6. Aircraft structures research at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duberg, John E

    1955-01-01

    A review is made of the test techniques that have been developed and used by the NACA for experimental research in aircraft structures at elevated temperatures. Some experimental results are presented. Remarks are included on the problem of model scaling for testing of structures at high temperatures. (author)

  7. 76 FR 3531 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  8. 76 FR 54134 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  9. 75 FR 78926 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  10. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  11. 78 FR 21273 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  12. 75 FR 28497 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132, Federalism. This final rule involves no policies that... 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376. Sec. 67.11 0 2... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  13. 78 FR 21272 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...

  14. 76 FR 39305 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  15. 46 CFR 120.540 - Elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevators. 120.540 Section 120.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems...

  16. 76 FR 8330 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In proposed rule document 2011-1061, appearing on pages 3590-3595, in the issue of...

  17. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  18. 75 FR 11468 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  19. 77 FR 71702 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs are made final for the communities listed below. The BFEs and modified BFEs are the basis for the floodplain management measures that each community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of being already in effect in order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program...

  20. 76 FR 61279 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations Correction In rule document 2011-15507, beginning on page 36373, in the issue of Wednesday June 22, 2011,...

  1. ELEVATION DATA FOR OREGON AND WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WA 1:24,000 scale data have an elevation at approx. every 30 meters. The 1:250,000 scale data are gathered at intervals of approx. every 85 meters along the ground. These data may be used in the generation of graphics such as isometric projections displaying slope, directio...

  2. 76 FR 26982 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 73 FR 70944. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... rule published at 73 FR 70944 in the November 24, 2008, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published...

  3. 77 FR 50667 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 29246. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... rule published at 75 FR 29246, in the May 25, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published...

  4. 77 FR 50665 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 55515. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective... rule published at 75 FR 55515, in the September 13, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA...

  5. 76 FR 16722 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 73 FR 70944. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... buildings. Corrections In the proposed rule published at 73 FR 70944, in the November 24, 2008, issue of...

  6. 76 FR 45215 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 55168. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... rule published at 74 FR 55168, in the October 27, 2009, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published...

  7. 77 FR 73394 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 55515. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective... rule published at 75 FR 55515, in the September 13, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA...

  8. 77 FR 51743 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 78654. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... for the contents in those buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 75 FR 78654, in...

  9. 76 FR 13570 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 47169. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective... contents in those buildings. Correction In the proposed rule published at 74 FR 47169, in the September...

  10. 76 FR 26981 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 76 FR 8978. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... buildings. Corrections In the proposed rule published at 76 FR 8978, in the February 16, 2011, issue of...

  11. 76 FR 12665 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 47169. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective... rule published at 74 FR 47169, in the September 15, 2009, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA...

  12. 77 FR 15664 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 76 FR 46701. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, and effective... In the proposed rule published at 76 FR 46701, in the August 3, 2011, issue of the Federal...

  13. 77 FR 46994 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... proposed rule published at 76 FR 8965 in the February 16, 2011, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA... here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and modified..., it addresses the following flooding sources: Jones Bayou, Mississippi River, and Porter Bayou....

  14. 76 FR 13571 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 74 FR 46074. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... contents in those buildings. ] Correction In the proposed rule published at 74 FR 46074, in the September...

  15. 77 FR 67324 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 76 FR 73537. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... In the proposed rule published at 76 FR 73537, in the November 29, 2011, issue of the...

  16. 76 FR 46715 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 29290. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... rule published at 75 FR 29290, in the May 25, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published...

  17. 76 FR 46716 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 75 FR 31373. The table provided here represents the flooding sources, location of referenced elevations, effective and... rule published at 75 FR 31373, in the June 3, 2010, issue of the Federal Register, FEMA published...

  18. Automated building extraction using dense elevation matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendett, A. A.; Rauhala, Urho A.; Pearson, James J.

    1997-02-01

    The identification and measurement of buildings in imagery is important to a number of applications including cartography, modeling and simulation, and weapon targeting. Extracting large numbers of buildings manually can be time- consuming and expensive, so the automation of the process is highly desirable. This paper describes and demonstrates such an automated process for extracting rectilinear buildings from stereo imagery. The first step is the generation of a dense elevation matrix registered to the imagery. In the examples shown, this was accomplished using global minimum residual matching (GMRM). GMRM automatically removes y- parallax from the stereo imagery and produces a dense matrix of x-parallax values which are proportional to the local elevation, and, of course, registered to the imagery. The second step is to form a joint probability distribution of the image gray levels and the corresponding height values from the elevation matrix. Based on the peaks of that distribution, the area of interest is segmented into feature and non-feature areas. The feature areas are further refined using length, width and height constraints to yield promising building hypotheses with their corresponding vertices. The gray shade image is used in the third step to verify the hypotheses and to determine precise edge locations corresponding to the approximate vertices and satisfying appropriate orthogonality constraints. Examples of successful application of this process to imagery are presented, and extensions involving the use of dense elevation matrices from other sources are possible.

  19. 75 FR 3885 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations... locations above. Please refer to the revised Flood Insurance Rate Map located at the community...

  20. 78 FR 6743 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order 13132... et seq.; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations...