Science.gov

Sample records for elevated serum calcium

  1. Elevated PTH with normal serum calcium level: a structured approach.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Rachel K; Gittoes, Neil J

    2016-06-01

    Normocalcaemic hyperparathyroidism is a common biochemical finding, usually identified during an assessment of bone or renal health. Hypercalcaemia must be considered by calculation of adjusted calcium, and a careful history taken to assess dietary calcium intake and for the possibility of a malabsorption syndrome. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) should be measured and replaced if indicated. The management plan for the patient is influenced by the context in which calcium and PTH were measured. In this brief review we describe the assessment of a patient with normocalcaemic hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26939669

  2. Abnormalities of serum calcium and magnesium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neonatal hypocalcemia is defined as a total serum calcium concentration of <7 mg/dL or an ionized calcium concentration of <4 mg/dL (1mmol/L). In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, ionized calcium values of 0.8 to 1 mmol/L are common and not usually associated with clinical symptoms. In larger in...

  3. Refractory intraoperative hypotension with elevated serum tryptase

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Kelly J.; Divekar, Rohit D.; Butterfield, Joseph H.; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Weingarten, Toby N.

    2015-01-01

    Severe intraoperative hypotension has been reported in patients on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 antagonists. We describe a patient on lisinopril who developed refractory intraoperative hypotension associated with increased serum tryptase level suggesting mast cell activation (allergic reaction). However, allergology workup ruled out an allergic etiology as well as mastocytosis, and hypotension recalcitrant to treatment was attributed to uninterrupted lisinopril therapy. Elevated serum tryptase was attributed to our patient's chronic renal insufficiency. PMID:25653920

  4. Dietary Calcium Intake, Serum Calcium Level, and their Association with Preeclampsia in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anant; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Rai, Sanjay K.; Misra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with low serum calcium level. Though the evidence is abundant, it is equivocal. Objectives: The study aimed to estimate the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status among pregnant women, and to document the association of the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status with incidence of preeclampsia in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. All pregnant women between 28 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were interviewed. A semi-structured interview schedule and a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire were administered to assess the dietary calcium intake. AutoAnalyser (Biolis 24i) was used for measuring serum calcium. Results: We enrolled 217 pregnant women. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] dietary calcium intake was 858 (377) mg/day. The mean (SD) serum calcium level was 9.6 mg/dL (0.56). Incidence of preeclampsia was 13.4%. Preeclampsia was not associated with hypocalcemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.27-3.98]. Conclusion: The majority of pregnant women had inadequate dietary calcium intake. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was low. Low serum calcium level was not associated with preeclampsia. Calcium supplementation may not reduce preeclampsia in this population. PMID:27385877

  5. Whole blood versus serum ionized calcium concentrations in dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seok Hui; Cho, Kyu Hyang; Park, Jong Won; Yoon, Kyung Woo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim of this study is to measure the difference of ionized calcium between heparinized whole blood and serum. Methods We recruited 107 maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients from our hospital HD unit. The clinical and laboratory data included ionized calcium in serum and in whole blood (reference, 4.07 to 5.17 mg/dL). Results The level of ionized calcium in serum was higher than that in whole blood (p < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed that difference for ionized calcium was 0.5027. For the difference, the nonstandardized β was -0.4389 (p < 0.001) and the intercept was 2.2418 (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in the distribution of categories of ionized calcium level between two methods (κ, 0.279; p < 0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates that whole blood ionized calcium is underestimated compared with serum ionized calcium. Positive difference increases as whole blood ionized calcium decreases. Therefore, significant hypocalcemia in whole blood ionized calcium should be verified by serum ionized calcium. PMID:24648806

  6. Interpretation of Serum Calcium in Patients with Abnormal Serum Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Payne, R. B.; Little, A. J.; Williams, R. B.; Milner, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Two hundred consecutive specimens received in this laboratory for “liver function tests” showed a wide range of abnormal protein concentrations. Calcium concentration correlated closely with albumin (r = 0·867) but less closely with total protein (r = 0·682). A simple formula for adjusting calcium concentration was derived from the regression equation of calcium on albumin. Adjusted calcium = calcium - albumin + 4·0, where calcium is in mg/100 ml and albumin in g/100 ml. Low calcium concentrations were found in 49 (24·5%) and raised concentrations in six (3%) of the 200 blood specimens taken for liver function tests. After adjustment, the 95% limits of the observed range were identical with the 95% limits of the normal range determined in this laboratory. Unlike adjustments based on total protein or specific gravity, the adjustment on albumin in 39 specimens which showed hypergammaglobulinaemia on electrophoresis gave normal calcium concentrations. PMID:4758544

  7. Rapid and precise analysis for calcium in blood serum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, R. B.; Ilcewicz, F. H.

    1969-01-01

    Differential absorption spectrophotometric technique, using murexide, gives a highly precise analysis of calcium in volumes of blood serum as small as 0.01 ml. The method of additions and proper timing allows compensation to be made for fading, variation in type of serum or plasma, and aging of the specimen.

  8. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  9. Elevated Serum Aminotransferases Secondary to Rippling Muscle Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nalankilli, Kumanan; Lubel, John

    2013-01-01

    A 43-year-old man was referred by his general practitioner to the hepatology clinic with deranged serum aminotransferases, discovered as part of routine blood tests. The objective was to identify the cause of elevated serum aminotransferases in this patient in a systematic manner. Thorough history and physical examination revealed a background history of rippling muscle disease secondary to caveolin-3 protein deficiency, with typical clinical signs. There was a positive family history of musculoskeletal disease in the patient's father and brother. Previous diagnostic tests performed to investigate the patient's musculoskeletal symptoms, including muscle biopsies, were revisited. Subsequent systematic investigations such as blood tests, liver ultrasound scan and Fibroscan® were performed to exclude potential causes of the deranged serum aminotransferases. Liver biopsy was not performed. A consistent pattern of chronic low-grade elevations of serum aminotransferases, less than three times the upper limit of the normal range, was found. This was associated with a consistently elevated serum creatine kinase and normal renal function tests. Previous muscle biopsies had revealed chronic degenerative and regenerative changes suggestive of a focal necrotizing myopathy. Liver ultrasound scan and Fibroscan® were normal. With exclusion of other liver diseases and identification of profoundly elevated serum creatine kinase concentration, the deranged aminotransferases were attributed to rippling muscle disease. PMID:23798914

  10. Serum calcium fractions in sheep treated with Solanum malacoxylon.

    PubMed

    Bingley, J B; Ruksan, B E; Carrillo, B J

    1976-07-01

    Sheep treated with a single dose of an extract of the dried leaves of Solanum malacoxylon (SM) at the rate of 0-2 g of leaves per kg liveweight produced a pronounced hypercalcaemia (49 per cent, P less than 0-005) after 24 h, which persisted for at least six days. The ultra-filtrable fraction of the serum calcium rose to approximately the same extent as the protein-bound calcium. This finding is consistent with osteosclerosis and parathyroid atrophy found to occur in cases of experimental SM intoxication. At the dose level given serum inorganic phosphorus was not significantly increased and packed cell volume, serum proteins and ceruloplasmin concentrations remained constant. PMID:951523

  11. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M.; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root–transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. Results In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15–95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein–corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. Conclusions There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. PMID:25518946

  12. Delayed Serum Calcium Biochemical Response to Successful Parathyroidectomy in Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Alabdulkarim, Yousof; Nassif, Edgard

    2010-01-01

    Background: Parathyroidectomy is considered the standard treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism, however, though the onset of biochemical response is variable and is different from one patient to the other. Aim: To evaluate the onset of systemic response and the biochemical normalization of serum calcium levels to a successful surgery. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective fashion, we collected clinical data from 303 patients admitted to our hospital between 2005 and 2008, with a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism after sestamibi localization. The pathology reports, parathyroidectomy results, the preoperative and postoperative parathormone (PTH) and serum calcium levels were reviewed. Response of each patient to the surgery was studied and all the data were analyzed to determine how fast the serum calcium levels drop. Results: The majority of patients (72.9%, 221/303) showed a decrease in their serum calcium levels to normal values within 48 h. While in 40 patients it took 72 hours and 42 patients (13.8%) had a delayed normalization for more than 72 h. The pathology in the PH group was predominantly of a single adenoma 80.9% vs.19.1 with hyperplasia with a P of 0.03. Preoperative parathyroid hormone PTH elevation was not significantly deferent between the two groups (PH and EN) with a mean of 7.9±5.36 vs. 7.41±14.5 pmol/L respectively with a P of 0.43. Conclusion: The majority of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) respond to parathyroidectomy in the form of normalization of their serum calcium levels and PTH within 48 h; however, a certain group of patients will need more than 3 days. PMID:21814399

  13. Elevation of Serum Acid Sphingomyelinase Activity in Acute Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Konno, Yuuki; Takahashi, Ikuko; Narita, Ayuko; Takeda, Osamu; Koizumi, Hiromi; Tamura, Masamichi; Kikuchi, Wataru; Komatsu, Akira; Tamura, Hiroaki; Tsuchida, Satoko; Noguchi, Atsuko; Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that affects both small and medium-sized vessels including the coronary arteries in infants and children. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a lysosomal glycoprotein that hydrolyzes sphingomyelin to ceramide, a lipid, that functions as a second messenger in the regulation of cell functions. ASM activation has been implicated in numerous cellular stress responses and is associated with cellular ASM secretion, either through alternative trafficking of the ASM precursor protein or by means of an unidentified mechanism. Elevation of serum ASM activity has been described in several human diseases, suggesting that patients with diseases involving vascular endothelial cells may exhibit a preferential elevation of serum ASM activity. As acute KD is characterized by systemic vasculitis that could affect vascular endothelial cells, the elevation of serum ASM activity should be considered in these patients. In the present study, serum ASM activity in the sera of 15 patients with acute KD was determined both before and after treatment with infusion of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), a first-line treatment for acute KD. Serum ASM activity before IVIG was significantly elevated in KD patients when compared to the control group (3.85 ± 1.46 nmol/0.1 ml/6 h vs. 1.15 ± 0.10 nmol/0.1 ml/6 h, p < 0.001), suggesting that ASM activation may be involved in the pathophysiology of this condition. Serum ASM activity before IVIG was significantly correlated with levels of C-reactive protein (p < 0.05). These results suggest the involvement of sphingolipid metabolism in the pathophysiology of KD. PMID:26447086

  14. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are elevated in South Indian patients with ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Rajasree, S; Rajpal, K; Kartha, C C; Sarma, P S; Kutty, V R; Iyer, C S; Girija, G

    2001-01-01

    Several lines of evidence point to a possible relationship between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. Animal experiments and observational studies in humans suggest vitamin D to be arteriotoxic and an association of high intake of vitamin D with increased incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD). The major source of vitamin D in adults is vitamin D synthesized in the skin through exposure to the sun. In tropical environment there is a possibility of high level of solar exposure and enhanced serum levels of vitamin D in the population. We explored the relation between serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and IHD in a case-control study involving 143 patients with either angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease or patients with acute myocardial infarction and 70 controls, all men in the age group of 45-65 years. Fasting blood samples were collected, serum separated and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was measured by protein binding radioligand assay. Serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium, magnesium and inorganic phosphate were also determined. Prevalences of diabetes, hypertension and smoking history were noted. Statistical comparisons of variables between cases and controls were done using chi2-tests. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to examine the association of IHD with serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 controlling for selected variables. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, calcium, inorganic phosphate, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and triglycerides were elevated in a higher proportion of patients, compared to controls. Serum levels of 25-OH-D3 above 222.5 nmol/l (89 ng/ml) was observed in 59.4% of cases compared to 22.1% in controls (p < 0.001; unadjusted odds ratio (OR): 5.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.62-10.21). When controlled for age and selected variables using the multivariate logistic regression, the adjusted OR relating elevated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels (> or = 222.5 nmol

  15. Effects of oral administration of a calcium-containing gel on serum calcium concentration in postparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Queen, W G; Miller, G Y; Masterson, M A

    1993-02-15

    Various nutritious nutritional-supplement gels are being marketed for use in veterinary medicine. This study was designed to determine whether serum calcium, phosphorous, or magnesium concentrations were different between cows given a gel containing calcium chloride as its active ingredient (treated) and cows given inert carrier gel (control). The study revealed a significant (P < 0.01) increase in serum total calcium concentration within 5 minutes of administration of a calcium gel given to cows within 1 hour of parturition. Serum total calcium concentration had returned to baseline value by 24 hours after calcium gel administration. Serum inorganic phosphorus concentration also increased significantly (P < 0.05) after treatment. Significant changes in serum magnesium concentrations were not detected. PMID:8449800

  16. Unexplained elevations of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Katz, V L; Chescheir, N C; Cefalo, R C

    1990-11-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a commonly used prenatal screening test for congenital anomalies. However, when anomalies are excluded after high resolution ultrasound and/or amniocentesis, an elevated maternal serum AFP (MSAFP) has been found to be associated with a 2- to 4-fold increase in low birthweight resulting from both preterm delivery and intrauterine growth retardation. Unexplained MSAFP elevations are also associated with up to 10-fold increase of placental abruption and a 10-fold increase in perinatal mortality. Results from studies of over 225,000 screened pregnancies indicate that 20 and 38 per cent of women with an unexplained MSAFP elevation may have an adverse pregnancy outcome. Twin gestations with MSAFP elevations greater than four multiples of the median are associated with similar constellations of pregnancy complications. Maternal serum AFP elevations in women with pregnancy complications are most likely the result of a leak of AFP across the placenta. Optimum management of women with unexplained elevations has not yet been established; however, evaluation of fetal growth throughout gestation is important in these patients. PMID:1700347

  17. Sodium Oxybate Intolerance Associated with Familial Serum Acylcarnitine Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Our case describes clinical features of two families defined by joint phenotypes: sodium oxybate intolerance and elevated serum acylcarnitines. Oxybate intolerance variably presents as either cervical dystonia or sleep-related eating disorder. Our objective is to identify biological markers which predict a poor response to sodium oxybate as a treatment for disturbed sleep. Familial inheritance pattern, genotype analysis, multiorgan system involvement, and response to treatment suggest the presence of a secondary cause of fatty oxidation defect, i.e., mitochondrial disorder. Our case report supports the possible conclusion that variance in human mitochondrial metabolism may affect sodium oxybate tolerability. Citation: Berner J. Sodium oxybate intolerance associated with familial serum acylcarnitine elevation. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(1):71-72. PMID:23319908

  18. Is there an association between elevated or low serum levels of phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and calcium and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biochemical markers of altered mineral metabolism have been associated with increased mortality in end stage renal disease patients. Several studies have demonstrated non-linear (U-shaped or J-shaped) associations between these minerals and mortality, though many researchers have assumed linear relationships in their statistical modeling. This analysis synthesizes the non-linear relationships across studies. Methods We updated a prior systematic review through 2010. Studies included adults receiving dialysis and reported categorical data for calcium, phosphorus, and/or parathyroid hormone (PTH) together with all-cause mortality. We performed 2 separate meta-analyses to compare higher-than-referent levels vs referent and lower-than-referent levels vs referent levels. Results A literature review showed that when a linear relationship between the minerals and mortality was assumed, the estimated associations were more likely to be smaller or non-significant compared to non-linear models. In the meta-analyses, higher-than-referent levels of phosphorus (4 studies, RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.15-1.25), calcium (3 studies, RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.14), and PTH (5 studies, RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.07-1.16) were significantly associated with increased mortality. Although no significant associations between relatively low phosphorus or PTH and mortality were observed, a protective effect was observed for lower-than-referent calcium (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.83-0.89). Conclusions Higher-than-referent levels of PTH, calcium, and phosphorus in dialysis patients were associated with increased mortality risk in a selection of observational studies suitable for meta-analysis of non-linear relationships. Findings were less consistent for lower-than-referent values. Future analyses should incorporate the non-linear relationships between the minerals and mortality to obtain accurate effect estimates. PMID:23594621

  19. Elevated serum melatonin levels during human late pregnancy and labour.

    PubMed

    Wierrani, F; Grin, W; Hlawka, B; Kroiss, A; Grünberger, W

    1997-09-01

    Melatonin (MLT) shows an influence on gonadal steroid genesis, and has soporific effects. Serum MLT levels were examined during late pregnancy and 4 days after delivery in 25 women. Circulating levels of melatonin were analysed as integrated values (areas under the curve [AUC]) over 24 hours, 5 to 2 days before and 4 days after delivery. Antepartum AUCs were significantly increased compared with postpartum AUCs. Additionally, MLT levels were measured every 2 hours in a subgroup of 11 women during spontaneous labour between 08.00 and 12.00 h at a time when physiological serum MLT levels were low. Increased MLT levels were determined and compared to MLT levels measured in a previous evaluation of the antepartum AUCs. Elevated serum MLT levels during late-pregnancy and labour may influence the concentration of receptors of gonadal steroids in the gravid uterus at term and the psychic perception of painful uterine contractions during labour. PMID:15511919

  20. Pathologies Associated with Serum IgG4 Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Ebbo, Mikael; Grados, Aurélie; Bernit, Emmanuelle; Vély, Frederic; Boucraut, José; Harlé, Jean-Robert; Daniel, Laurent; Schleinitz, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Statement of Purpose. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is usually associated to an increase of serum IgG4 levels. However other conditions have also been associated to high serum IgG4 levels. Methods. All IgG subclasses analyses performed in our hospital over a one-year period were analyzed. When IgG4 level were over 1.35 g/L, the patient's clinical observation was analyzed and both final diagnosis and reason leading to IgG subclasses analysis were recorded. Only polyclonal increases of IgG4 were considered. Summary of the Results. On 646 IgG subclass analysis performed, 59 patients had serum IgG4 over 1.35 g/L. The final diagnosis associated to serum IgG4 increase was very variable. Most patients (25%) presented with repeated infections, 13.5% with autoimmune diseases, and 10% with IgG4-RD. Other patients presented with cancer, primary immune deficiencies, idiopathic interstitial lung disease, cystic fibrosis, histiocytosis, or systemic vasculitis and 13.5% presented with various pathologies or no diagnosis. Mean IgG4 levels and IgG4/IgG ratio were higher in IgG4-RD than in other pathologies associated to elevated IgG4 levels. Conclusions. Our study confirms that elevation of serum IgG4 is not specific to IgG4-RD. Before retaining IgG4-RD diagnosis in cases of serum IgG4 above 1.35 g/L, several other pathological conditions should be excluded. PMID:22966232

  1. Elevated serum levels of Chromogranin A in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the past three decades, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States has tripled. The neuroendocrine character has been observed in some tumor cells within some hepatocellular carcinoma nodules and elevated serum chromogranin A also been reported in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of serum concentration of chromogranin A in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at different stages. Methods The study population consisted of 96 patients (63 males and 33 females age range 52-84) at their first hospital admission for hepatocellular carcinoma. The control group consisted of 35 volunteers (20 males and 15 females age range 50-80). The hepatocellular carcinoma patients were stratified according the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer classification. Venous blood samples were collected before treatment from each patients before surgery, centrifuged to obtain serum samples and stored at -80° C until assayed. Results The chromogranin A serum levels were elevated (> 100 ng/ml) in 72/96 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The serum levels of chromogranin A were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with alpha-fetoprotein. In comparison with controls, the hepatocellular carcinoma patients showed a significant increase (p<0.001) vs controls. The chromogranin A levels in the Barcelona staging of hepatocellular carcinoma was higher in stage D compared to stage C (p<0.01), to stage B (p<0.001), and to stage A (p<0.001). Conclusions Molecular markers, such as chromogranin A, could be very useful tools for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis. However the molecular classification should be incorporated into a staging scheme, which effectively separated patients into groups with homogeneous prognosis and response to treatment, and thus serves to aid in the selection of appropriate therapy. PMID:23173843

  2. Elevated Serum S-Adenosylhomocysteine in Cobalamin Deficient Megaloblastic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Shinohara, Elvira M.; Morita, Olga E.; Pagliusi, Regina A.; Blaia-d’Avila, Vera L.; Allen, Robert H.; Stabler, Sally P.

    2007-01-01

    Impaired methylation due to accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) may contribute to the pathophysiology of cobalamin deficient anemia. We assayed serum S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), SAH, total homocysteine (tHcy), and methylmalonic acid (MMA) in 15 subjects with cobalamin deficient megaloblastic anemia and compared results to 19 subjects with anemia/pancytopenia due to other causes. Cobalamin deficient subjects had a median hematocrit of 20% and mean cell volume of 111.7 fL. The median serum cobalamin was 37 pg/mL, MMA 3030 nmol/L and tHcy 62.0 umol/L. SAH was elevated in 13 of 15 subjects (median value 42 nmol/L) and the median SAM was normal (103 nmol/L) but SAM/SAH ratio was low, 2.5. The SAH was higher and SAM/SAH ratio lower in cobalamin deficient subjects as compared to those with other anemias after excluding 4 patients with renal insufficiency. SAM concentrations were not low in cobalamin deficiency. Cobalamin injections corrected anemia, MMA, tHcy, SAM/SAH ratio and SAH. Some hematologic variables were inversely correlated with SAH and cobalamin but not tHcy or MMA. In conclusion, serum SAH is elevated in cobalamin deficient subjects with megaloblastic anemia and corrects with parenteral cobalamin therapy. PMID:17292722

  3. Acute Alcohol Consumption Elevates Serum Bilirubin, an Endogenous Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; Jatlow, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with both negative and favorable effects on health. The mechanisms responsible for reported favorable effects remain unclear. Higher (not necessarily elevated) concentrations of serum bilirubin, an antioxidant, have also been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. This study tests the hypothesis that single dose alcohol consumption elevates bilirubin providing a potential link between these observations. Methods 18 healthy individuals (8 cigarette smokers) were administered alcohol, calibrated to achieve blood concentrations of 20, 80 and 120 mg/dL, in random order in 3 laboratory sessions separated by a week. Each session was preceded by and followed by 5–7 days of alcohol abstinence. Serum bilirubin was measured at 7:45 am prior to drinking, at 2 pm, and at 7:45 the next morning. Mixed effects regression models compared baseline and 24 hr. post-drinking bilirubin concentrations. Results Total serum bilirubin (sum of indirect and direct) concentration increased significantly after drinking from baseline to 24 hours in non-smokers (from Mean=0.38, SD=0.24 to Mean=0.51 SD=0.30, F(1, 32.2) =24.24, p<.0001) but not in smokers (from Mean=0.25, SD=0.12 to Mean=0.26, SD=0.15, F(1, 31.1) =0.04, p=0.84). In nonsmokers the indirect bilirubin concentration and the ratio of indirect (unconjugated) to direct (conjugated) bilirubin also increased significantly. Conclusions Alcohol consumption leads to increases in serum bilirubin in nonsmokers. Considering the antioxidant properties of bilirubin, our findings suggest one possible mechanism for the reported association between alcohol consumption and reduced risk of some disorders that could be tested in future longitudinal studies. PMID:25707709

  4. Amphotericin B liposome-induced acrocyanosis and elevated serum creatinine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangcai; Jin, Jie; Cai, Chuang; Zheng, Ren; Wang, Yu; Xu, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    A 77-year-old male patient developed acrocyanosis and pain after treatment with amphotericin B liposome 150 mg daily intravenously for disseminated histoplasmosis, and subsequently developed elevated serum creatinine. Amphotericin B liposome was discontinued, and anisodamine was used intravenously to treat acrocyanosis and pain induced by amphotericin B liposome for 9 days and patient was cured. Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score was 5, the World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre criteria: Probable, indicating a probable adverse reaction to amphotericin B liposome. PMID:27298506

  5. Amphotericin B liposome-induced acrocyanosis and elevated serum creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangcai; Jin, Jie; Cai, Chuang; Zheng, Ren; Wang, Yu; Xu, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    A 77-year-old male patient developed acrocyanosis and pain after treatment with amphotericin B liposome 150 mg daily intravenously for disseminated histoplasmosis, and subsequently developed elevated serum creatinine. Amphotericin B liposome was discontinued, and anisodamine was used intravenously to treat acrocyanosis and pain induced by amphotericin B liposome for 9 days and patient was cured. Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score was 5, the World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre criteria: Probable, indicating a probable adverse reaction to amphotericin B liposome. PMID:27298506

  6. Elevated levels of serum creatinine: recommendations for management and referral

    PubMed Central

    Mendelssohn, D C; Barrett, B J; Brownscombe, L M; Ethier, J; Greenberg, D E; Kanani, S D; Levin, A; Toffelmire, E B

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential benefits of earlier referral to a nephrologist of patients with elevated levels of serum creatinine include identifying and treating reversible causes of renal failure, slowing the rate of decline associated with progressive renal insufficiency, managing the coexisting conditions associated with chronic renal failure and facilitating efficient entry into dialysis programs for all patients who might benefit. METHODS: A subcommittee of the Canadian Society of Nephrology, which included representatives from family practice and internal medicine, conducted a MEDLINE search for the period 1966 to 1998 using the key words referral and consultation, dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal replacement therapy and kidney diseases. Where published evidence was lacking, conclusions were reached by consensus. GUIDELINES: Earlier referral to nephrologists of patients with elevated creatinine levels is expected to lead to better health care outcomes and lower costs for both the patients and the health care system. All patients with newly discovered renal insufficiency (as evidenced by serum creatinine elevated to a level above the upper limit of the normal range of that laboratory, adjusted for age and height in children) must undergo investigations to determine the potential reversibility of disease, to evaluate the prognosis and to optimize planning of care. All patients with an established, progressive increase in serum creatinine level should be followed with a nephrologist. Adequate preparation for dialysis or transplantation (or both) requires at least 12 months of relatively frequent contact with a renal care team. Nephrologists should provide consultation in a timely manner for any patient with an elevated serum creatinine level. In addition, they should provide advice about what aspects of the condition require particularly urgent or emergency assessment. SPONSORS: This clinical practice guideline has been endorsed by the Canadian

  7. An Optical Method for Serum Calcium and Phosphorus Level Assessment during Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Holmar, Jana; Uhlin, Fredrik; Fernström, Anders; Luman, Merike; Jankowski, Joachim; Fridolin, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Survival among hemodialysis patients is disturbingly low, partly because vascular calcification (VC) and cardiovascular disease are highly prevalent. Elevated serum phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) levels play an essential role in the formation of VC events. The purpose of the current study was to reveal optical monitoring possibilities of serum P and Ca values during dialysis. Twenty-eight patients from Tallinn (Estonia) and Linköping (Sweden) were included in the study. The serum levels of Ca and P on the basis of optical information, i.e., absorbance and fluorescence of the spent dialysate (optical method) were assessed. Obtained levels were compared in means and SD. The mean serum level of Ca was 2.54 ± 0.21 and 2.53 ± 0.19 mmol/L; P levels varied between 1.08 ± 0.51 and 1.08 ± 0.48 mmol/L, measured in the laboratory and estimated by the optical method respectively. The levels achieved were not significantly different (p = 0.5). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement between the two methods varied from −0.19 to 0.19 for Ca and from −0.37 to 0.37 in the case of P. In conclusion, optical monitoring of the spent dialysate for assessing the serum levels of Ca and P during dialysis seems to be feasible and could offer valuable and continuous information to medical staff. PMID:25734785

  8. Relationships between coronary heart disease risk factors and serum ionized calcium in Kennedy Space Center Cohort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Lisa Ann; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Merz, Marion P.; Alford, William R.

    1987-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) employees are reported to be at high risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Risk factors for CHD include high serum total cholesterol levels, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), elevated triglyceride, smoking, inactivity, high blood pressure, being male, and being older. Higher dietary and/or serum calcium Ca(++) may be related to a lower risk for CHD. Fifty men and 37 women participated. Subjects were tested in the morning after fasting 12 hours. Information relative to smoking and exercise habits was obtained; seated blood pressures were measured; and blood drawn. KCS men had higher risk values than KCS women as related to HDLC, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Smoking and nonsmoking groups did not differ for other risk factors or for serum Ca(++) levels. Exercise and sedentary groups differed in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Serum Ca(++) levels were related to age, increasing with age in the sedentary group and decreasing in the exercisers, equally for men and women. It is concluded that these relationships may be significant to the risk of CHD and/or the risk of bone demineralization in an aging population.

  9. Effects of magnesium, calcium, and serum on reversion of stable L-forms.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, A H; Casida, L E

    1978-11-01

    The L-form of Agromyces ramosus was stable in the absence of penicillin when transferred on heart infusion agar containing NaCl and serum. It reverted to its bacterial form, however, when magnesium replaced the serum in this medium. On a dilute medium containing NaCl but lacking serum, the L-form died out unless calcium, magnesium, or serum was added. It grew as the L-form in the presence of calcium of serum but reverted to the bacterial form in the presence of magnesium. Reversion also occurred when magnesium was added to the dilute medium containing serum. Calcium interfered with or prevented the magnesium-induced reversion. The revertant bacterial form resulting from these studies was not NaCl sensitive, as was the case of the bacterial revertant of this organism produced in soil (A. H. Horwitz and L. E. Casida, Jr., Can. J. Microbiol, 24:50--55, 1978). PMID:711674

  10. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum

    PubMed Central

    Cross, James H.; Bradbury, Richard S.; Fulford, Anthony J.; Jallow, Amadou T.; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M.; Cerami, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4 h after oral supplementation with 2 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially scavenges heme iron, was unaffected. These data suggest that even modest oral supplements with highly soluble (non-physiological) iron, as typically used in low-income settings, could promote bacteremia by accelerating early phase bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses. PMID:26593732

  11. Ionized calcium in normal serum, ultrafiltrates, and whole blood determined by ion-exchange electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Edward W.

    1970-01-01

    Ion-exchange calcium electrodes represent the first practical method for the direct measurement of ionized calcium [Ca++] in biologic fluids. Using both “static” and “flow-through” electrodes, serum [Ca++] was within a rather narrow range: 0.94-1.33 mmoles/liter (mean, 1.14 mmoles/liter). Within a given individual, [Ca++] varied only about 6% over a several month period. Consistent pH effects on [Ca++] were observed in serum and whole blood, [Ca++] varying inversely with pH. Less consistent pH effects were also noted in ultrafiltrates, believed to largely represent precipitation of certain calcium complexes from a supersaturated solution. Heparinized whole blood [Ca++] was significantly less than in corresponding serum at normal blood pH, related to the formation of a calcium-heparin complex. [Ca++] in ultrafiltrates represented a variable fraction (66.7-90.2%) of total diffusible calcium. There was no apparent correlation between serum ionized and total calcium concentrations. Thus, neither serum total calcium nor total ultrafiltrable calcium provided a reliable index of serum [Ca++]. Change in serum total calcium was almost totally accounted for by corresponding change in protein-bound calcium [CaProt]. About 81% of [CaProt] was estimated to be bound to albumin and about 19% to globulins. From observed pH, serum protein, and [CaProt] data, a nomogram was developed for estimating [CaProt] without ultrafiltration. Data presented elsewhere indicate that calcium binding by serum proteins obeys the mass-law equation for a monoligand association. This was indicated in the present studies by a close correspondence of observed serum [Ca++] values with those predicted by the McLean-Hastings nomogram. While these electrodes allow study of numerous problems not possible previously, they have not been perfected to the same degree of reliability obtainable with current pH electrodes. The commercial (Orion flow-through) electrode is: (a) expensive. (b) requires

  12. Comparison Between Measured and Calculated Free Calcium Values at Different Serum Albumin Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Altaf Ahmad; Goyal, Bela; Datta, Sudip Kumar; Ikkurthi, Saidaiah; Pal, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Free ionic calcium is the metabolically active component of total calcium (TCa) in blood. However, most laboratories report TCa levels that are dependent on serum albumin concentration. Hence, several formulae have evolved to calculate free calcium levels from TCa after adjustment for albumin. However, free calcium can directly be measured using direction selective electrodes rather than spectrophotometric methods used in autoanalyzers. Objectives: This study compares the levels of free calcium obtained by measurement by direct ion selective electrode (ISE) and the one calculated as a function of TCa by formulae. Materials and Methods: A total of 254 serum samples submitted to clinical biochemistry laboratory of a tertiary care hospital were analyzed for total protein, albumin, and TCa by standard spectrophotometric methods and for free calcium by direct ISE. Three commonly used formulae viz. Orrell, Berry et al. and Payne et al. were used to calculate adjusted TCa. Calculated free calcium was obtained by taking 50% of these values. Results: A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between calculated free calcium by all the three formulae and measured free calcium estimated by direct ISE using paired t-test and Bland–Altman plots. Conclusion: Formulae for predicting free calcium by estimating TCa and albumin lacks consistency in prediction and free calcium should be evaluated by direct measurement. PMID:27365914

  13. Nutritional impact of elevated calcium transport activity in carrots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition recommendations worldwide emphasize ingestion of plant-based diets rather than diets that rely primarily on animal products. However, this plant-based diet could limit the intake of essential nutrients such as calcium. Osteoporosis is one of the world's most prevalent nutritional disorders...

  14. Comparison of Serum Calcium and Magnesium Between Preeclamptic and Normotensive Pregnant Nigerian Women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwuja, EI; Famurewa, AC; Ikaraoha, CI

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests the involvement of calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. However, findings from studies are heterogenous and inconsistent. Aim: The study aimed to compare the total serum calcium and magnesium levels in preeclamptic women with that of normotensive pregnant women. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional subjects of eighty pregnant women living in Abakaliki, Ebonyi state, South-East Nigeria, were recruited into the study. The present study compared serum calcium and magnesium in forty preeclamptic (cases) and forty normotensive (control) pregnant women matched for age, parity, and socioeconomic status. Serum calcium and magnesium levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 20 statistical software. Differences between means were compared using Student's t-test with P < 0.05 considered as statistically significant. Results: While the mean serum calcium was comparable between preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women (13.99 [3.29] vs. 14.02 [5.68] μg/dl), the preeclamptic pregnant women have significantly (P < 0.001) lower serum magnesium in comparison to their normotensive counterparts (3.22 [1.05] vs. 4.15 [0.78]). Conclusion: It may be concluded that serum magnesium seems to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia in this environment. PMID:27144074

  15. A theoretical model of cytosolic calcium elevation following wounding in urothelial cell monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, Peter A.; Shabir, Saqib; Southgate, Jennifer; Walker, Dawn

    2013-02-01

    Scratch wounding of a urothelial cell monolayer triggers a number of events including the release of soluble, diffusible signalling factors and mechanical stimulation of cells at the wound edge. These events cause a sustained elevation in cytosolic calcium concentration in the cells surrounding the wound and a transient rise in those further away. The precise form of this calcium transient is believed to play a central role in determining the subsequent response of individual cells and ultimately leads to a co-ordinated, population-level response that rapidly closes the wound. Here we present a framework for modelling the initial phases of this process. We combine a PDE model of diffusion in the extracellular medium and an ODE model of calcium signalling that has been tailored to represent urothelial cells. The ODE model is capable of generating a wide range of calcium transients, including spikes, bursts, oscillations and sustained elevations in the cytosolic calcium concentration. In multi-cell simulations of scratch wounding in a perfusion flow we find that the spatial position of the cells relative to the wound site leads to distinct classes of calcium response, with cells proximal to the wound exhibiting a sustained elevation and cells distal to the wound exhibiting a more transient elevation. We compare these results to existing experimental data and generate a number of novel predictions that could be used to test the model experimentally.

  16. Both serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium levels may increase the risk of incident prostate cancer in Caribbean men of African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Maria D; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Lindsay, Carole M; Smith, Garrett; Bennett, Franklyn I; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Aiken, William; Coard, Kathleen C M

    2015-06-01

    Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with both higher and lower risk of prostate cancer (PCa), whereas elevated levels of circulating calcium has been related to higher risks. However, there are few studies that account for effects of both calcium and 25(OH)D concentrations on incident PCa in a black population. We examined these relationships in a case-control study of men 40-80 years old with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed PCa in Jamaica, a tropical country. Mean serum calcium concentrations was higher among cases (2.32 ± 0.19 mmol/L) than controls, (2.27 ± 0.30 mmol/L) (P = 0.023) however, there were no differences in 25(OH)D by cancer status (cases, 33.67 ± 12.71 ng/mL; controls (32.25 ± 12.59 ng/mL). Serum calcium was not correlated with 25(OH)D (partial correlation: r, 0.06; P = 0.287). Multivariable-adjusted models showed a positive linear relationship between PCa and serum calcium (OR, 1.12; CI, 1.00-1.25 per 0.1 nmol/L). Serum 25(OH)D concentration also showed a positive association with PCa (OR, 1.23; CI, 1.01-1.49 per 10 ng/mL). The odds of PCa in men with serum 25(OH)D tertile 2 was OR, 2.18; CI, 1.04-4.43 and OR, 2.47 CI, 1.20-4.90 for tertile 3 (P(trend) = 0.013). Dietary intakes of calcium showed no relationship with PCa. Despite the strong relationship between serum calcium and vitamin D the mechanism by which each affects prostate cancer risk in men of African ancestry needs additional investigation. PMID:25858172

  17. Depressed serum erythropoietin in pregnant women with elevated blood lead.

    PubMed

    Graziano, J H; Slavkovic, V; Factor-Litvak, P; Popovac, D; Ahmedi, X; Mehmeti, A

    1991-01-01

    During the course of a prospective study of lead exposure and pregnancy outcome in 1,502 women, we tested the hypothesis that environmental lead exposure is associated with depressed serum erythropoietin concentration. At mid-pregnancy and at delivery, blood samples were stratified by hemoglobin concentration; within each hemoglobin stratum, sera of women with the lowest and highest whole blood lead concentrations were selected for serum erythropoietin analysis. Analysis of variance revealed that women with higher blood lead levels had inappropriately low serum erythropoietin at both mid-pregnancy and at delivery. Thus, depressed serum erythropoietin appears to indicate lead nephrotoxicity, and it may also be responsible for the anemia associated with lead poisoning. PMID:1772259

  18. Serum Vitamin D Concentrations and Unexplained Elevation in ALT Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Naga

    2013-01-01

    Background Low serum levels of vitamin D are associated with metabolic syndrome. Participants in NHANES III with unexplained elevation in ALT levels have high prevalence of metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that the serum concentrations of vitamin D were inversely associated with unexplained elevation in ALT. Methods A total of 6,826 fasting subjects underwent morning physical examination and met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. From these participants, we have constructed cases with unexplained elevation in ALT (n = 308) and compared their serum vitamin D concentrations to matched controls with normal ALT (N = 979). We examined the prevalence of unexplained elevation in ALT level across different quartiles of vitamin D levels. Results Participants with unexplained elevation in ALT had significantly lower serum vitamin D levels compared to controls (61.8 ± 26.0 nmol/l vs. 66.8 ± 27.1 nmol/l, P < 0.01). The unadjusted prevalence of unexplained elevation in ALT in patients with highest to lowest quartiles of serum vitamin D levels were 21.4, 21.4, 25.6, and 31.5%, respectively. Compared to lowest quartile, patients with top two quartiles of serum vitamin D levels had significantly lower prevalence of unexplained elevation in ALT (OR, 95% CI for highest quartile 0.62 [0.43–0.89] and for third quartile 0.61 [0.42–0.86]). This relationship persisted even after controlling for metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and serum triglycerides. Conclusions This study suggests a significant inverse relationship between serum vitamin D levels and unexplained elevation in ALT. Further studies are needed to confirm this observation and to understand the basis for and implications of this observation. PMID:21503677

  19. Elevation of intracellular calcium levels in spiral ganglion cells by trimethyltin.

    PubMed

    Fechter, L D; Liu, Y

    1995-11-01

    The neurotoxicant, trimethyltin (TMT) produces cochlear impairment at far lower dose levels and far more rapidly than it does central nervous system effects. The initial effects of TMT in the cochlea, in vivo, are consistent with disruption of the inner hair cell type-1 spiral ganglion cell synapse although it is uncertain whether the effect is on presynaptic and/or postsynaptic units. This synapse is believed to be an excitatory glutamatergic one, providing the possibility that TMT could induce an excitotoxic process resulting in elevations in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). The objective of this study was to determine whether TMT had direct toxic effects on the postsynaptic spiral ganglion cells studied in primary culture and to identify the role of extracellular calcium in such an effect. The marker of interest was the effect of this agent on [Ca2+]i levels as determined using quantitation of the fluorescent calcium dye, Fura-2. TMT did induce a marked and sustained elevation in [Ca2+]i level in the spiral ganglion cells that appeared to have a rapid initial phase and a slower saturating phase. Studies performed using calcium-free medium showed that elevation of [Ca2+]i in spiral ganglion cells by TMT was attenuated but not entirely blocked. Further, the L-type calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, was able to inhibit the initial increase in [Ca2+]i, suggesting that at least this phase of the TMT effect was mediated by calcium channels, although nifedipine had no significant effect on the time to reach the maximal [Ca2+]i level. Parallel control experiments performed using application of exogenous glutamate and depolarizing K+ concentrations also produced elevation in [Ca2+]i levels. The data indicate that TMT elevates [Ca2+]i in isolated spiral ganglion cells both by increasing extracellular uptake via Ca2+ channels and also by releasing Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Thus TMT ototoxicity appears to include a direct postsynaptic toxic event. PMID:8647712

  20. The influence of lithium on calcium and magnesium homeostasis in serum and tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Pasternak, Kazimierz; Musik, Irena

    2003-01-01

    Lithium is used in medicine. However, its administration can have negative side effects, disturb the water-electrolyte equilibrium and affect the level of essential elements. For these reasons the influence of oral lithium intoxication at the dose of 150 mg Li dm(-3) on magnesium and calcium levels in serum and tissues of rats was investigated. The concentration of Mg and Ca in serum increased throughout the experiment. The concentration of magnesium in tissues decreased after three weeks in liver, kidney, brain and femoral muscle. The trend of the changes of calcium tissue concentration was opposite to the one observed in the case of magnesium. PMID:15323205

  1. Benign elevations in serum aminotransferases and biomarkers of hepatotoxicity in healthy volunteers treated with cholestyramine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are currently no serum biomarkers capable of distinguishing elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) that portend serious liver injury potential from benign elevations such as those occurring during cholestyramine treatment. The aim of the research was to test the hypothesis that newly proposed biomarkers of hepatotoxicity would not significantly rise in serum during elevations in serum ALT associated with cholestyramine treatment, which has never been associated with clinically relevant liver injury. Methods In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, cholestyramine (8g) was administered for 11 days to healthy adult volunteers. Serum from subjects with elevations in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) exceeding three-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) were utilized for biomarker quantification. Results In 11 of 67 subjects, cholestyramine treatment resulted in ALT elevation by >3x ULN (mean 6.9 fold; range 3–28 fold). In these 11 subjects, there was a 22.4-fold mean increase in serum levels of miR-122 relative to baseline, supporting a liver origin of the serum ALT. Significant elevations were noted in mean levels of necrosis biomarkers sorbitol dehydrogenase (8.1 fold), cytokeratin 18 (2.1 fold) and HMGB1 (1.7 fold). Caspase-cleaved cytokeratin 18, a biomarker of apoptosis was also significantly elevated (1.7 fold). A rise in glutamate dehydrogenase (7.3 fold) may support mitochondrial dysfunction. Conclusion All toxicity biomarkers measured in this study were elevated along with ALT, confirming the liver origin and reflecting both hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis. Since cholestyramine treatment has no clinical liver safety concerns, we conclude that interpretation of the biomarkers studied may not be straightforward in the context of assessing liver safety of new drugs. PMID:25086653

  2. A Case of Vitamin D Deficiency without Elevation of Serum Alkaline Phosphatase in a Carrier of Hypophosphatasia.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kumihiro; Mukai, Tokuo; Furuya, Akiko; Suzuki, Shigeru; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Azuma, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a screening marker for the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency, which may fail to be diagnosed if serum ALP is not elevated. Here, we describe a case of vitamin D deficiency without elevation of serum ALP. A 1-year-old Japanese girl was referred to our hospital for the evaluation of genu varum. Her serum intact PTH level was elevated, while her serum ALP level was normal. Furthermore, her serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was reduced, and her urine phosphoethanolamine (PEA) level was mildly elevated. ALPL gene analysis revealed she was a heterozygous carrier of hypophosphatasia (c.1559delT). Serum intact PTH and urine PEA evaluations were helpful for diagnosing vitamin D deficiency and hypophosphatasia carrier status, respectively. Therefore, the possibility of vitamin D deficiency without elevation of serum ALP should be considered. PMID:24170964

  3. Elevated serum thymidine kinase activity in canine splenic hemangiosarcoma*.

    PubMed

    Thamm, D H; Kamstock, D A; Sharp, C R; Johnson, S I; Mazzaferro, E; Herold, L V; Barnes, S M; Winkler, K; Selting, K A

    2012-12-01

    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a soluble biomarker associated with DNA synthesis. This prospective study evaluated serum TK1 activity in dogs presenting with hemoabdomen and a splenic mass. An ELISA using azidothymidine as a substrate was used to evaluate TK1 activity. Sixty-two dogs with hemoabdomen and 15 normal controls were studied. Serum TK1 activity was significantly higher in dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA) than in normal dogs (mean ± SEM = 17.0 ± 5.0 and 2.01 ± 0.6, respectively), but not dogs with benign disease (mean ± SEM = 10.0 ± 3.3). Using a cut-off of 6.55 U/L, TK activity demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.52, specificity of 0.93, positive predictive value of 0.94 and negative predictive value of 0.48 for distinguishing HSA versus normal. When interval thresholds of <1.55 and >7.95 U/L were used together, diagnostic utility was increased. Serum TK1 evaluation may help to discriminate between benign disease and HSA in dogs with hemoabdomen and a splenic mass. PMID:22236280

  4. Association of serum calcium concentrations with fibrinogen and homocysteine in nondiabetic Korean subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Lee, Sung Won; Shin, Juyoung; Moon, Sung Dae; Han, Je Ho; Cha, Bong Yun; Kim, Eun Sook

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Considerable evidence shows that increased serum calcium levels are associated with metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and increased mortality. This study investigated whether serum calcium, within a normal range, is significantly associated with serum fibrinogen and homocysteine, markers of increased cardiovascular disease risk in nondiabetic Korean subjects. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on 1096 subjects (mean age, 55.1 ± 11.1 years; 36.1% women) undergoing a general health checkup. Serum biochemistry was analyzed including serum albumin-corrected calcium (Cac), insulin resistance (IR, using homeostasis model assessment [HOMA]), fibrinogen, and homocysteine. Compared with patients within the lowest Cac quartile, those with higher Cac levels had increased fibrinogen and homocysteine levels as well as an increased proportion of smoking, dyslipidemia, and HOMA-IR. Correlation analyses revealed linear relationships for Cac with fibrinogen and homocysteine in both genders. After adjustment for confounding factors, serum Cac was significantly associated with high fibrinogen (odds ratio [OR] for the highest vs the lowest quartile = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09–2.83, P = 0.02) and homocysteine (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.07–3.11, P = 0.027). Multivariate regression models showed that Cac was linearly associated with fibrinogen (standardized β = 0.14, P < 0.001) and homocysteine (standardized β = 0.07, P = 0.009). High normal calcium concentrations were independently associated with increased levels of fibrinogen and homocysteine. Further investigation is needed to validate whether slightly increased calcium levels within the normal range indicate a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27310988

  5. Elevated Serum Bisphenol A Level in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qinmei; Liu, Xiao; Shen, Yang; Yu, Peng; Chen, Sisi; Hu, Jinzhu; Yu, Jianhua; Li, Juxiang; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Hong, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine serum Bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as well as the association between serum BPA and several hormonal parameters in DCM patients compared with a healthy control group. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight DCM patients and 88 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Serum BPA levels and several hormonal parameters (including total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were measured by using corresponding ELISA Kits. The free androgen index (FAI) was calculated by the formula: total T in nmol/L × 100/SHBG in nmol/L. Results: BPA levels in the total DCM group were significantly higher compared with that in the controls (6.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL vs. 3.8 ± 1.9 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Significant difference was also observed in SHBG and FAI between DCM patients and controls, (76.9 ± 30.9 nM/L vs. 41.0 ± 15.6 nM/L and 2.9 ± 3.5 vs. 5.3 ± 2.6, respectively, both of p < 0.001). Similar trends were observed in the male and female subgroup. Mean T level was lower in DCM group than in control group (540.8 ± 186.0 pg/mL vs. 656.3 ± 112.9 pg/mL, p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis has shown that increasing serum BPA levels were statistically significantly associated with increased SHBG levels. However, no statistical difference was noted for E2. Conclusion: Our findings firstly demonstrated that BPA exposure increased in DCM patients compared with that in healthy controls, while FAI and T levels decreased. SHBG presented a positive association with BPA. It is concluded that hormone disorder induced by BPA exposure might be an environmental factor in the pathology of DCM. PMID:25996886

  6. [Approach to the Patient with Elevated Serum Ferritin].

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Florentine; Krayenbühl, Pierre-Alexandre; Goede, Jeroen; Nowak, Albina

    2016-05-11

    An increase of the serum ferritin may appear as an incidental finding in asymptomatic patients in the routine laboratory examination. On the one hand, ferritin reflects the iron stores of the body and can therefore indicate an iron overload of various causes. On the other hand, it is an acute phase protein and thus increases in inflammatory and malignant diseases. We aim to describe an approach to the incidental finding hyperferritinemia with possible evaluation strategy and to explain the most important differential diagnoses. PMID:27167475

  7. Transient elevations of cytosolic free calcium retard subsequent apoptosis in neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, M K; Hardwick, S J; Meagher, L C; Savill, J S; Haslett, C

    1993-01-01

    Elevation of cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) has been reported to induce apoptosis in a number of cell types. However, in the neutrophil, which undergoes apoptosis constitutively during aging in vitro, activation by inflammatory mediators elevates [Ca2+]i and prolongs lifespan via inhibition of apoptosis. To examine this paradox, we investigated the effects of modulation of [Ca2+]i upon apoptosis of neutrophils in vitro. Calcium ionophores (A23187, ionomycin) retarded apoptosis in neutrophil populations after 20 h (P < 0.001). Conversely, intracellular Ca(2+)-chelation, using bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) acetoxymethyl ester (AM) promoted apoptosis (P < 0.02). W-7 (an inhibitor of calmodulin) also promoted apoptosis (P < 0.05). Measurements of [Ca2+]i, using fura-2, showed (a) increased apoptosis in neutrophil populations was not associated with elevated [Ca2+]i, (b) neutrophils cultured with ionophore at concentrations inhibiting apoptosis exhibited transient (< 1 h) elevations of [Ca2+]i, to levels previously reported with receptor-mediated stimuli, and (c) BAPTA was able to prevent the elevation of [Ca2+]i and the inhibition of apoptosis produced by ionophore. Modulation of apoptosis occurred without alterations in intracellular pH. Thus, in the neutrophil, unlike lymphoid cells, elevation of [Ca2+]i exerts an inhibitory effect upon apoptosis. Furthermore, these data suggest that transient elevation of [Ca2+]i elicits signaling events leading to prolonged inhibition of apoptosis. Images PMID:8392090

  8. Evaluation of postmortem serum calcium and magnesium levels in relation to the causes of death in forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Quan, Li; Li, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Dong; Michiue, Tomomi; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2005-12-01

    There appears to be very poor investigation of postmortem serum calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) for diagnostic evidence to determine the cause of death. The aim of the present study was a comprehensive analysis of the serum levels in relation to the causes of death in routine casework. Autopsy cases (total, n=360; 5-48 h postmortem), including blunt injury (n=76), sharp injury (n=29), asphyxiation (n=42), drownings (n=28: freshwater, n=11; saltwater, n=17), fire fatalities (n=79), methamphetamine (MA) poisoning (n=8), delayed death from traumas (n=37), and acute myocardial infarction/ischemia (AMI, n=61), were examined. In total cases, there was no significant postmortem time-dependent rise in serum Ca and Mg. Both Ca and Mg levels in the heart and peripheral blood were significantly higher in saltwater drowning compared with those of the other groups. In addition, a significant elevation in the Ca level was observed in freshwater drowning and fire fatalities, and in the Mg level in fatal MA intoxication and asphyxiation. Topographic analyses suggested a rise in serum Ca and Mg due to aspirated saltwater in drowning, that in serum Ca in freshwater drowning and fire fatalities of peripheral skeletal muscle origin and that in serum Mg in MA fatality and asphyxiation of myocardial and/or peripheral origin. These markers may be useful especially for diagnosis and differentiation of salt- and freshwater drownings and may be also helpful to determine the causes of death involving skeletal muscle damage, including burns and MA intoxication. PMID:16216707

  9. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor: elevated levels in serum and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A B; Eisenbeis, C H; Carrabis, S; Brown, M C; Ip, S H

    1990-01-01

    Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels were quantitated in the serum and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and degenerative joint disease (DJD). A sandwich immunoassay, employing two monoclonal antibodies against distinct epitopes on the IL-2R, was utilized for measurement. We found a striking elevation of sIL-2R in RA SF as compared with DJD SF (RA, 1319 +/- 135; DJD, 416 +/- 59; p less than 0.001). RA serum sIL-2R levels were also significantly elevated over DJD levels. There was no interaction between rheumatoid factor (RF) and sIL-2R. RA patients with elevated sIL-2R levels had significantly longer disease duration, higher c-reactive protein (CRP) levels in serum and SF, and higher RF levels in serum and SF. The groups were similar in regard to other laboratory variables. The presence of elevated levels of sIL-2R in RA serum and SF confirms the presence of a heightened immune reactivity and in vivo activation of lymphocytes in RA. PMID:2313471

  10. Force and stiffness in glycerinated rabbit psoas fibers. Effects of calcium and elevated phosphate.

    PubMed

    Martyn, D A; Gordon, A M

    1992-05-01

    Force (F) and stiffness (K) were measured in glycerinated psoas fibers at various calcium levels with 0, 10, 20, and 30 mM orthophosphate (Pi) added to the bathing solutions. The concentrations of bathing solution constituents were as follows: 110 mM potassium, 40 mM sodium, 4 mM MgATP, 10 mM total EGTA, and variable amounts of MOPS (pH buffer). The pH was 7.0, the ionic strength was 200 mM, and the temperature was 10 degrees C. Calcium levels were established by adding various amounts of CaCl2. All solutions contained 4% Dextran T-500. Fiber K was measured by imposing sinusoidal length changes (0.03-0.1%) at 1 kHz and by applying rapid steps in length and measuring the resulting F changes. At all [Pi] tested, K was more sensitive to calcium than F. Elevating bathing solution [Pi] caused a decrease in the calcium sensitivity of both F and K, while the slopes of F-calcium and K-calcium relations increased. In maximally activating calcium, raising [Pi] caused a continuous decrease in F over the range tested, while from very low to 10 mM Pi K remained constant. Above 10 mM Pi K declined, but to a lesser extent than did F. The results suggest that under our experimental conditions strongly attached crossbridges can exist in both force-producing and non-force-producing states, and that the relative population of these states may be calcium dependent. PMID:1607853

  11. Calcium intake, serum vitamin D and obesity in children: is there an association?

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Kelly Aparecida; Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Loureiro, Laís Monteiro Rodrigues; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; de Novaes, Juliana Farias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between calcium intake and serum vitamin D levels and childhood obesity by an integrative review. DATA SOURCE: The research was conducted in the databases PubMed/medLine, Science Direct and SciELO with 2001 to 2014 publications. We used the combined terms in English: ''children'' and ''calcium'' or ''children'' and ''vitamin D'' associated with the descriptors: ''obesity'', ''adiposity'' or ''body fat'' for all bases. Cross-sectional and cohort studies, as well as clinical trials, were included. Review articles or those that that have not addressed the association of interest were excluded. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight articles were part of this review, five of which were related to calcium and three to vitamin D. Most studies had a longitudinal design. The analyzed studies found an association between calcium intake and obesity, especially when age and sex were considered. Inverse relationship between serum vitamin D and measures of adiposity in children has been observed and this association was influenced by the sex of the patient and by the seasons of the year. CONCLUSIONS: The studies reviewed showed an association between calcium and vitamin D with childhood obesity. Considering the possible protective effect of these micronutrients in relation to childhood obesity, preventive public health actions should be designed, with emphasis on nutritional education. PMID:25890445

  12. Elevation of circulating serotonin improves calcium dynamics in the peripartum dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Samantha R; Prichard, Austin P; Endres, Elizabeth L; Newhouse, Stefanie A; Peters, Tonia L; Crump, Peter M; Akins, Matthew S; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Hernandez, Laura L

    2016-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a metabolic disorder that affects dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 days prepartum with either saline or 1.0mg/kg bodyweight of the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, 5hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP). On infusion days, blood was collected before, after, and at 2, 4, and 8h postinfusion. Blood and urine were collected daily before the infusion period, for 14 days postpartum and on day 30 postpartum. Milk was collected daily during the postpartum period. Feed intake and milk yield were unaffected by 5-HTP infusion postpartum. Cows infused with 5-HTP had elevated circulating serotonin concentrations prepartum. Infusion with 5-HTP induced a transient hypocalcemia in Jersey cows prepartum, but not in any other treatment. Holstein cows infused with saline had the highest milk calcium on the day of and day after parturition. Postpartum, circulating total calcium tended to be elevated, and urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) concentrations were elevated in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP. Overall, Jerseys had higher urine DPD concentrations postpartum when compared with Holsteins. Taken together, these data warrant further investigation of the potential therapeutic benefit of 5-HTP administration prepartum for prevention of hypocalcemia. Further research should focus on delineation of mechanisms associated with 5-HTP infusion that control calcium homeostasis during the peripartum period in Holstein and Jersey cows. PMID:27390301

  13. Overexpression of Sly41 suppresses COPII vesicle–tethering deficiencies by elevating intracellular calcium levels

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Indrani; Barlowe, Charles

    2016-01-01

    SLY41 was identified as a multicopy suppressor of loss of Ypt1, a Rab GTPase essential for COPII vesicle tethering at the Golgi complex. SLY41 encodes a polytopic membrane protein with homology to a class of solute transporter proteins, but how overexpression suppresses vesicle-tethering deficiencies is not known. Here we show that Sly41 is efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles and actively cycles between the ER and Golgi compartments. SLY41 displays synthetic negative genetic interactions with PMR1, which encodes the major Golgi-localized Ca2+/Mn2+ transporter and suggests that Sly41 influences cellular Ca2+ and Mn2+ homeostasis. Experiments using the calcium probe aequorin to measure intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in live cells reveal that Sly41 overexpression significantly increases cytosolic calcium levels. Although specific substrates of the Sly41 transporter were not identified, our findings indicate that localized overexpression of Sly41 to the early secretory pathway elevates cytosolic calcium levels to suppress vesicle-tethering mutants. In vitro SNARE cross-linking assays were used to directly monitor the influence of Ca2+ on tethering and fusion of COPII vesicles with Golgi membranes. Strikingly, calcium at suppressive concentrations stimulated SNARE-dependent membrane fusion when vesicle-tethering activity was reduced. These results show that calcium positively regulates the SNARE-dependent fusion stage of ER–Golgi transport. PMID:27030673

  14. Changes in serum calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in captive ruminants affected by diet manipulation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Weber, Martha; Valdes, Eduardo V; Neiffer, Donald; Fontenot, Diedre; Fleming, Gregory; Stetter, Mark

    2010-09-01

    A combination of low serum calcium (Ca), high serum phosphorus (P), and low serum magnesium (Mg) has been observed in individual captive ruminants, primarily affecting kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), eland (Taurotragus oryx), nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus), and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). These mineral abnormalities have been associated with chronic laminitis, acute tetany, seizures, and death. Underlying rumen disease secondary to feeding highly fermentable carbohydrates was suspected to be contributing to the mineral deficiencies, and diet changes that decreased the amount of starch fed were implemented in 2003. Serum chemistry values from before and after the diet change were compared. The most notable improvement after the diet change was a decrease in mean serum P. Statistically significant decreases in mean serum P were observed for the kudu (102.1-66.4 ppm), eland (73.3-58.4 ppm), and bongo (92.1-64.2 ppm; P < 0.05). Although not statistically significant, mean serum P levels also decreased for nyala (99.3-86.8 ppm) and giraffe (82.6-68.7 ppm). Significant increases in mean serum Mg were also observed for kudu (15.9-17.9 ppm) and eland (17.1-19.7 ppm). A trend toward increased serum Mg was also observed in nyala, bongo, and giraffe after the diet change. No significant changes in mean serum Ca were observed in any of the five species evaluated, and Ca was within normal ranges for domestic ruminants. The mean Ca:P ratio increased to greater than one in every species after the diet change, with kudu, eland, and bongo showing a statistically significant change. The results of this study indicate that the diet change had a generally positive effect on serum P and Mg levels. PMID:20945636

  15. Analysis of S100 calcium binding protein B serum levels in different types of traumatic intracranial lesions.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Harald; Frantal, Sophie; Pajenda, Gholam; Leitgeb, Johannes; Sarahrudi, Kambiz; Hajdu, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the type of intracranial traumatic lesions, the number of simultaneous traumatic lesions, and the occurrence of skull and facial bone fractures have an influence on S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B) serum levels. Patients with blunt traumatic brain injury were prospectively enrolled into this cohort study over a period of 13 months. Venous blood samples were obtained prior to emergency cranial CT scan in all patients within 3 h after injury. The patients were then assigned into six groups: 1) concussion, 2) epidural hematoma, 3) subdural hematoma, 4) subarachnoid hemorrhage, 5) brain contusions, and 6) brain edema. The study included 1696 head trauma patients with a mean age of 57.7 ± 25.3 years, and 126 patients (8%) had 182 traumatic lesions on CT. Significant differences in S100B serum levels were found between cerebral edema and the other four bleeding groups: epidural p = 0.0002, subdural p < 0.0001, subarachnoid p = 0.0001, brain contusions p = 0.0003, and concussion p < 0.0001. Significant differences in S100B values between patients with one or two intracranial lesions (p = 0.014) or with three (p < 0.0001) simultaneous intracranial lesions were found. In patients with intracranial traumatic lesions, skull fractures, as well as skull and facial bone fractures occurring together, were identified as significant additional factors for the increase in serum S100B levels (p < 0.0001). Older age was also associated with elevated S100B serum levels (p < 0.0001). Our data show that peak S100B serum levels were found in patients with cerebral edema and brain contusions. PMID:25068442

  16. Effect of elevated serum prolactin concentrations on cytokine production and natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Clodi, M; Svoboda, T; Kotzmann, H; Deyssig, R; Woloszczuk, W; Zielinski, C C; Luger, A

    1992-12-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies in rodents and human suggested an immunostimulatory effect of prolactin. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of chronically elevated serum prolactin concentrations on the immune system in patients with prolactinomas. For this purpose parameters of the humoral and cellular immune system were studied in seven patients with prolactinomas on two occasions (1) when their serum prolactin concentration had been normalized through treatment with dopamine agonists and (2) when their serum prolactin concentration was high. Serum concentrations of immunoglobulines, interleukin 1, 3 and 6, TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma and the soluble interleukin 2 receptor, leukocyte subsets and the natural killer cell activity were found to be within the normal range on both occasions, i.e. at normal and at high serum prolactin concentrations. The assumption could be made that long-lasting elevation of serum prolactin concentration induces adaptive changes when the acute stimulatory effects of prolactin on several parameters of the immune system have subsided. PMID:1369584

  17. Cytokine profile in cases with premature elevation of progesterone serum concentrations during ovarian stimulation.

    PubMed

    Nikolettos, N; Asimakopoulos, B; Köster, F; Schöpper, B; Schulz, Ch; Caglar, G S; Efthimiadou, A; Pagonopoulou, O; Diedrich, K; Al-Hasani, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6, in cycles with a premature rise of serum progesterone. 25 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with (Group 1) and 25 ICSI cycles without a premature progesterone elevation (Group 2) were included. The cut-off value of serum progesterone on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration was 0.9 ng/ml. The indication for ICSI was male factor infertility exclusively. On the day of hCG injection, serum IL-6, VEGF and bFGF were significantly higher in Group 1 (7.7+/-24.5 pg/ml, 290.2+/-161.4 pg/ml and 15.7+/-8.2 ng/ml respectively) than in Group 2 (1.7+/-0.7 pg/ml, 175.2+/-92.1 pg/ml, and 9+/-1.6 ng/ml respectively). On the day of follicular puncture, serum cytokine concentrations were similar in the two groups. IL-6 intrafollicular concentrations were higher in Group 1 (14.7+/-20.7 pg/ml) than in Group 2 (9+/-9.3 pg/ml, p=0.031). There were no differences regarding the ICSI outcome. Patients with serum progesterone above 0.9 ng/ml, have elevated serum concentrations of IL-6, VEGF, and bFGF, as well as elevated intrafollicular concentrations of IL-6. The outcome of ICSI cycles is not associated with premature elevation of progesterone when the cut-off value is set at 0.9 ng/ml. PMID:17298206

  18. Clinical significance of elevated serum and urine amylase levels in patients with appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Swensson, E E; Maull, K I

    1981-12-01

    During the 45 month period beginning January 1977, 251 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of acute appendicitis underwent celiotomy at the Medical College of Virginia Hospital. A preoperative serum or urine amylase determination was recorded in 155 of the patients (62 percent). Of this group, 15 patients (10 percent) had elevation of serum amylase or 2 hour urine amylase. Hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria directly led to misdiagnosis or treatment delay in 5 of the 15 patients. Appendiceal rupture occurred in three patients, two of whom had prolonged (greater than 1 month) hospitalizations directly attributable to the misdiagnosis. As a result of this study, we conclude that (1) acute appendicitis and elevated amylase levels may occur concurrently, (2) hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria should not dissuade the surgeon from early operation if other clinical features suggest appendicitis, and (3) abdominal pain and elevation of amylase level define significant intraabdominal disease, not specifically pancreatic disease. PMID:6172043

  19. Both serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium levels may increase the risk of incident prostate cancer in Caribbean men of African ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Maria D; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Lindsay, Carole M; Smith, Garrett; Bennett, Franklyn I; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Aiken, William; Coard, Kathleen C M

    2015-01-01

    Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with both higher and lower risk of prostate cancer (PCa), whereas elevated levels of circulating calcium has been related to higher risks. However, there are few studies that account for effects of both calcium and 25(OH)D concentrations on incident PCa in a black population. We examined these relationships in a case–control study of men 40–80 years old with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed PCa in Jamaica, a tropical country. Mean serum calcium concentrations was higher among cases (2.32 ± 0.19 mmol/L) than controls, (2.27 ± 0.30 mmol/L) (P = 0.023) however, there were no differences in 25(OH)D by cancer status (cases, 33.67 ± 12.71 ng/mL; controls (32.25 ± 12.59 ng/mL). Serum calcium was not correlated with 25(OH)D (partial correlation: r, 0.06; P = 0.287). Multivariable-adjusted models showed a positive linear relationship between PCa and serum calcium (OR, 1.12; CI, 1.00–1.25 per 0.1 nmol/L). Serum 25(OH)D concentration also showed a positive association with PCa (OR, 1.23; CI, 1.01–1.49 per 10 ng/mL). The odds of PCa in men with serum 25(OH)D tertile 2 was OR, 2.18; CI, 1.04–4.43 and OR, 2.47 CI, 1.20–4.90 for tertile 3 (Ptrend = 0.013). Dietary intakes of calcium showed no relationship with PCa. Despite the strong relationship between serum calcium and vitamin D the mechanism by which each affects prostate cancer risk in men of African ancestry needs additional investigation. PMID:25858172

  20. Helminths and malaria co-infections are associated with elevated serum IgE

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Both helminth and malaria infections result in a highly polarized immune response characterized by IgE production. This study aimed to investigate the total serum IgE profile in vivo as a measure of Th2 immune response in malaria patients with and without helminth co-infection. Methods A cross sectional observational study composed of microscopically confirmed malaria positive (N = 197) and malaria negative (N = 216) apparently healthy controls with and without helminth infection was conducted at Wondo Genet Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. A pre-designed structured format was utilized to collect socio-demographic and clinical data of the subjects. Detection and quantification of helminths, malaria parasites and determination of serum IgE levels were carried out following standard procedures. Results Irrespective of helminth infection, individuals infected by malaria showed significantly high levels of serum IgE compared with malaria free apparently healthy controls (with and without helminth infections). Moreover, malaria patients co-infected with intestinal helminths showed high level of serum IgE compared with those malaria patients without intestinal helminths (2198 IU/ml versus 1668 IU/ml). A strong statistically significant association was observed between malaria parasite density and elevated serum IgE levels (2047 IU/ml versus 1778 IU/ml; P = 0.001) with high and low parasitaemia (parasite density >50,000 parasite/μl of blood), respectively. Likewise, helminth egg loads were significantly associated with elevated serum IgE levels (P = 0.003). Conclusions The elevated serum IgE response in malaria patients irrespective of helminth infection and its correlation with malaria parasite density and helminth egg intensity support that malaria infection is also a strong driver of IgE production as compared to helminths. PMID:24886689

  1. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme is elevated in association with underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.B.; Cale, W.F.; Lapp, N.L. )

    1991-10-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (SACE) and lysozyme activity were measured in a group of 40 underground coal miners and two control groups, 20 subjects with sarcoidosis and 15 normal non-dust-exposed volunteers. The miners were grouped first according to whether they had recent exposure (still actively mining or retired three years or less prior to measurement) or temporally more distant exposure (retired more than three years prior to measurement). Secondly, they were grouped as to whether or not they had coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). The subjects with sarcoidosis were grouped according to disease activity. As expected, the subjects with active sarcoidosis had elevated SACE activity compared with normal subjects. The coal miners as a group did not have elevation of their SACE activity. However, the coal miners with recent exposure had elevated SACE activity (57.1 {plus minus} 3.9 U/ml) compared with normal controls (43.8 {plus minus} 1.5 U/ml, p = 0.007). The SACE activity in miners without recent exposure was not elevated (39.8 {plus minus} 1.3 U/ml) compared with the normal controls. No increase in SACE activity was found when the miners were grouped according to the presence or absence of CWP. In contrast, the miners' serum lysozyme activity was not elevated. Since alveolar macrophages are a potential source of SACE, elevation of SACE activity in underground coal miners may reflect alveolar macrophage activation caused by increased pulmonary mixed coal mine dust burden. Furthermore, since both SACE and serum lysozyme are elevated in association with silicosis, these findings may confirm that the macrophage responses to inhaled silica and coal dust differ.

  2. Dietary calcium intake, serum copper concentration and bone density in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Strause, L.; Andon, M.B.; Howard, G.; Smith, K.T.; Saltman, P. Procter and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH )

    1991-03-11

    Data from experimental animal nutrition and animal husbandry indicate that several trace minerals, including copper (Cu) are involved in bone metabolism. In addition, a large body of data suggests that low dietary calcium (Ca) intake is a risk factor for age related bone loss. The authors measured the serum (Cu), dietary Ca intake (dCa) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine of 225 postmenopausal women. The median dCa and serum (Cu) were 562 mg/d and 9.73 umoles/L, respectively. Serum (Cu) but, not dCa, was greater in subjects with a history of estrogen therapy (ERT). BMD was higher in subjects with above median dCa and serum (Cu) (group 1) compared to those with below median values (group 2). BMD was intermediate for subjects with either Low serum (Cu):High dCa or High serum (Cu):Low dCa. This relationship was observed in the subject group as a whole, as well as in subgroups partitioned according to history of ERT. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ in basic demographic characteristics such as age, age at menopause, body weight and height. These data support the hypothesis that Ca and Cu nutriture are determinants of skeletal health in postmenopausal women.

  3. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to bone mineral density among US adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A higher calcium intake is still the primary recommendation for the prevention of osteoporosis, while vitamin D deficiency is often not addressed. To study the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in regard to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in ...

  4. The elevated serum urea:creatinine ratio in canine babesiosis in South Africa is not of renal origin.

    PubMed

    de Scally, M P; Leisewitz, A L; Lobetti, R G; Thompson, P N

    2006-12-01

    Pigmented serum, usually due to free haemoglobin and/or bilirubin, is a common finding in dogs with babesiosis, resulting in interference with all biochemical tests that rely on photochemistry. This is particularly true of urea and creatinine determinations, complicating the diagnosis of acute renal failure, which is a serious complication of babesiosis. A disproportionately raised serum urea concentration of unknown origin occurs in severely anaemic canine babesiosis patients and gives rise to an increased serum urea:creatinine ratio. The assay for cystatin-C, an excellent measure of glomerular filtration rate, is unaffected by free serum haemoglobin, and due to its different intrinsic origins, is free of influence by the metabolic derangements and organ pathology, other than renal disease, encountered in canine babesiosis. Serum cystatin-C was used to compare the concentrations of serum urea and serum creatinine in dogs with the severely anaemic form of canine babesiosis as well as a canine babesiosis-free reference group. Mean serum urea and mean serum urea:creatinine ratio were significantly elevated in the babesia-infected group relative to the reference population in this study. Mean serum creatinine and mean serum cystatin-C were within the reference ranges. Therefore an elevated urea:creatinine ratio in canine babesiosis in the presence of a normal serum creatinine concentration is considered to be caused by an elevated serum urea concentration and is most likely of non-renal origin. Serum creatinine was therefore as specific a measure of renal function as serum cystatin-C in canine babesiosis in this study. The sensitivity of serum creatinine as a measure of renal function was not established by this study. Serum urea, however, proved to be of little use compared to serum cystatin-C and serum creatinine. Serum urea should therefore not be used to diagnose renal failure in canine babesiosis. PMID:17458340

  5. Elevation of PTH and PTHrp induced by excessive fluoride in rats on a calcium-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Liu, Qin-Yi; Zhang, Jing-Min; Zhang, He; Li, Guang-Sheng

    2010-10-01

    Study on the role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrp) in the process of skeletal fluorosis, involved especially in calcium deficiency, is rare. We evaluated the level of serum PTH and mRNA expression of PTHrp in femur when rats were exposed to excessive fluoride with low-calcium diet. Wistar rats (n = 60) was divided into four groups, a control group, fluoride group, low-calcium group, and low-calcium fluoride group. The fluoride groups were treated with fluoride by drinking tap water containing 100 mg F-/L. The low-calcium diet contained 0.05% calcium. Serum was collected in the first, fourth, eighth, and 12th of phase for the detemination of PTH and Ca(2+). RNA extraction from femora was used to analyze the mRNA express of PTHrp, osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCN) after 12 weeks of fluoride dosing. Results showed that serum PTH increased gradually with the extension of fluoride exposure, but Ca2+ decreased, both of which embodied a time-dependent relationship. Cotreatment of excessive fluoride with low-calcium diet largely stimulated the secretion of PTH. The low dietary calcium markedly increased mRNA expression of PTHrp in animals with fluoride treatment. Expression of OPN and OCN significantly increased in the rats treated with excessive fluoride and low-calcium diet. We demonstrated that fluoride by itself affected the body's calcium metabolism and stimulate the secretion of PTH. PTH may play an important role in anabolic effect of excessive fluoride on bone turnover of skeletal fluorosis and calcium deficiency exacerbated the action of PTH and PTHrp on the characteristic bone lesion of fluorosis. PMID:19915804

  6. Effect of zoledronic acid on serum calcium in Paget’s disease patients after educational strategies to improve calcium and vitamin D supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Henry G.; Su, Guoqin; Tan, Monique; Ozturk, Zafer E.; Aftring, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Bisphosphonates are the most effective therapeutic agents in patients with Paget’s disease of bone. As a result of their inhibition of osteoclastic activity, hypocalcemia of variable frequency and severity following intravenous bisphosphonate therapy has been reported. The present study assessed the effect of physician and patient education on adequate supplementation of calcium and vitamin D to reduce the potential risk of developing hypocalcemia following infusion of 5 mg zoledronic acid. Methods: This was an open-label, multicenter, controlled registry trial in which patients with Paget’s disease were treated with a single intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid. Physicians were provided with educational materials focusing on optimization of calcium and vitamin D supplementation following zoledronic infusion that they used to educate their patients. The primary safety variable was the percentage of patients with serum calcium level <2.07mmol/l 9–11 days after zoledronic acid infusion. Results: A total of 75 patients were evaluable in the post dose hypocalcemia safety analysis. Of these, only 1 patient had treatment-emergent hypocalcemia, with a serum calcium level of 1.92 mmol/l 4 days following therapy. Hypocalcemia-related symptoms were not reported in this patient and the serum calcium returned to normal range at 2.17 mmol/l within 1 week on oral calcium supplementation. Conclusions: These results suggest that, with optimization of calcium and vitamin D supplementation by physician and patient education, hypocalcemia is an infrequent occurrence following zoledronic acid infusion. PMID:26301065

  7. Elevated total serum immunoglobulin E (>1000 IU/mL): implications?

    PubMed

    Tay, T R; Bosco, J; Aumann, H; O'Hehir, R; Hew, M

    2016-07-01

    Atopic eczema, allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis, helminthic infections and rare primary immunodeficiencies are known to elevate total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) above 1000 IU/mL. However, of 352 patients with IgE >1000 IU/mL seen in our hospital over a 5-year period, less than 50% had these conditions. Markedly elevated IgE levels in the rest of the patients were associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and food allergy, instances where the test is of limited diagnostic utility. PMID:27405892

  8. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Ho, Wen-Chao; Caffrey, James L.; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2014-10-15

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Elevated cadmium exposure is global public health issue and the assessment of zinc nutritional status may be an important covariate in determining its effective renal toxicity. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium was associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. • Low serum zinc may exacerbate risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction. • Both zinc deficiency and elevated cadmium exposure are global public health issues.

  9. The role of calcium in the hydrolysis of the organophosphate paraoxon by human serum A-esterase.

    PubMed

    Vitarius, J A; Sultatos, L G

    1995-01-01

    Human serum A-esterase is a calcium-dependent enzyme that hydrolyzes the organophosphate paraoxon by an Ordered Uni Bi kinetic mechanism. Incubation of various concentrations of calcium chloride with human serum A-esterase resulted in corresponding changes in appk3 and appE for the reaction, while appk2 was unaffected. Carboxyglutamic acid (CAG) prevented calcium chloride from altering appk3, but not appE. Similarly CAG reduced the calcium-stimulated nonenzymatic hydrolysis of paraoxon, as well as the calcium-stimulated de-phosphorylation of chymotrypsin phosphorylated by paraoxon. These results suggest that calcium plays two roles in the hydrolysis of paraoxon by A-esterase. Firstly, calcium is required in order to maintain an active site. In this capacity calcium might participate directly in the catalytic reaction, or it might be required in order to maintain the appropriate confirmation of the active site. And secondly, free calcium (or calcium weakly associated with A-esterase) facilitates the removal of diethyl phosphate from A-esterase, probably by polarizing the P = O bond of the diethyl phosphate-A-esterase intermediate, thereby rendering phosphorus more susceptible to nucleophilic attack by hydroxide ions. PMID:7823759

  10. Elevated Preoperative Serum Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase Predicts Poor Prognosis for Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shun-Jun; Zhao, Qiang; Ji, Fei; Chen, Mao-Gen; Wu, Lin-Wei; Ren, Qing-Qi; Guo, Zhi-Yong; He, Xiao-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GGT) is a membrane-bound enzyme that is involved in biotransformation, nucleic acid metabolism, and tumourigenesis. Elevated serum γ-GGT levels are related to an increased cancer risk and worse prognosis in many cancers. In the present study, we evaluated the prognostic value of preoperative serum γ-GGT in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent liver transplantation (LT). A total of 130 HCC patients after LT were included in the study. The optimal cut-off value of γ-GGT was 128U/L by receiver operating characteristic analysis, with a sensitivity and specificity of 60.0% and 72.9%, respectively. Elevated preoperative serum γ-GGT was significantly associated with high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), large tumor size, and macro- and micro-vascular invasion. The 1-, 3-, 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of HCC patients in the γ-GGT > 128U/L group were poorer than those in the γ-GGT ≤ 128U/L group. Stratification analysis revealed that γ-GGT exhibited a greater predictive value for DFS and OS in HCC patients beyond the Milan criteria and no macro-vascular invasion. In conclusion, elevated preoperative serum γ-GGT was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage and aggressive tumor behaviors, and serum γ-GGT can be considered as a prognostic factor for HCC patients after LT, especially for patients beyond the Milan criteria or without macro-vascular invasion. PMID:27381639

  11. Elevated Preoperative Serum Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase Predicts Poor Prognosis for Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shun-Jun; Zhao, Qiang; Ji, Fei; Chen, Mao-Gen; Wu, Lin-Wei; Ren, Qing-Qi; Guo, Zhi-Yong; He, Xiao-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GGT) is a membrane-bound enzyme that is involved in biotransformation, nucleic acid metabolism, and tumourigenesis. Elevated serum γ-GGT levels are related to an increased cancer risk and worse prognosis in many cancers. In the present study, we evaluated the prognostic value of preoperative serum γ-GGT in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent liver transplantation (LT). A total of 130 HCC patients after LT were included in the study. The optimal cut-off value of γ-GGT was 128U/L by receiver operating characteristic analysis, with a sensitivity and specificity of 60.0% and 72.9%, respectively. Elevated preoperative serum γ-GGT was significantly associated with high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), large tumor size, and macro- and micro-vascular invasion. The 1-, 3-, 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of HCC patients in the γ-GGT > 128U/L group were poorer than those in the γ-GGT ≤ 128U/L group. Stratification analysis revealed that γ-GGT exhibited a greater predictive value for DFS and OS in HCC patients beyond the Milan criteria and no macro-vascular invasion. In conclusion, elevated preoperative serum γ-GGT was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage and aggressive tumor behaviors, and serum γ-GGT can be considered as a prognostic factor for HCC patients after LT, especially for patients beyond the Milan criteria or without macro-vascular invasion. PMID:27381639

  12. A predictive algorithm for evaluating elevated serum prolactin in patients with a sellar mass.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jason S; Salinas, Ryan; Molinaro, Annette; Chang, Edward F; Kunwar, Sandeep; Blevins, Lewis; Aghi, Manish K

    2015-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia occurs in patients with a prolactinoma and in those with a sellar mass compressing the pituitary stalk. Distinguishing these two diagnostic possibilities guides treatment with dopamine agonist therapy or surgical resection. We aimed to identify a simple, predictive algorithm to aid in the diagnosis of prolactinoma in patients with an elevated serum prolactin and a sellar mass. A case-control analysis of pathologically confirmed prolactinomas and non-endocrine secreting controls from the University of California, San Francisco was performed. From 2001 to 2011, this resulted in 177 patients with prolactinomas and 87 controls. Univariate and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined the significance of demographic variables, patient symptoms, laboratory values, and radiographic findings in distinguishing pathology. Additionally, a subset of patients with mildly elevated serum prolactin (25-125 ng/ml) was independently analyzed. Prolactinomas had a mean pre-operative prolactin of 858 ng/ml versus 17.57 ng/ml in controls (p<0.01). One hundred and two (62.6%) of the prolactinomas were macroadenomas (size >10mm) compared to 74 (92.5%) of the controls (p<0.01). CART analysis identified preoperative prolactin (>41.5 ng/ml), age (<40.5 years), and size (<17 mm) as being predictive of prolactinoma with a misclassification rate of 7.9% (21/264). Similar analysis on the subset of patients with mildly elevated serum prolactin (<125 ng/ml) identified size (<2.5 cm) and pre-operative prolactin (>40 ng/ml) as key variables. These two factors correctly predicted 98.6% (69/70) of cases. Our model correctly classifies most patients with elevated serum prolactin and identifies those patients most amenable to surgical treatment. PMID:25481269

  13. Serum endostatin levels are elevated in colorectal cancer and correlate with invasion and systemic inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Kantola, T; Väyrynen, J P; Klintrup, K; Mäkelä, J; Karppinen, S M; Pihlajaniemi, T; Autio-Harmainen, H; Karttunen, T J; Mäkinen, M J; Tuomisto, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII, is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with anti-tumour functions. However, elevated circulating endostatin concentrations have been found in several human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Serum endostatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay from a series of 143 patients with CRC and from 84 controls, and correlated with detailed clinicopathological features of CRC, serum leukocyte differential count and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results: Patients with CRC had higher serum endostatin levels than the controls (P=0.005), and high levels associated with age, tumour invasion through the muscularis propria and poor differentiation, but not with metastases. Endostatin levels showed a positive correlation with the markers of systemic inflammatory response and a negative correlation with the densities of tumour-infiltrating mast cells and dendritic cells. Collagen XVIII was expressed in tumour stroma most strikingly in blood vessels and capillaries, and in the muscle layer of the bowel wall. Conclusions: Elevated endostatin levels in CRC correlate with systemic inflammation and invasion through the muscularis propria. Increased endostatin level may be a result of invasion-related cleavage of collagen XVIII expressed in the bowel wall. The negative correlations between serum endostatin and intratumoural mast cells and immature dendritic cells may reflect angiogenesis inhibition by endostatin. PMID:25137019

  14. Failure of Elevating Calcium Induces Oxidative Stress Tolerance and Imparts Cisplatin Resistance in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liwei; Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Chunyan; Su, Jing; Xie, Qi; Xu, Lu; Yu, Yang; Liu, Shibing; Li, Songyan; Xu, Ye; Li, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug, used for the treatment of malignant ovarian cancer, but acquired resistance limits its application. There is therefore an overwhelming need to understand the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer, that is, ovarian cancer cells are insensitive to cisplatin treatment. Here, we show that failure of elevating calcium and oxidative stress tolerance play key roles in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cell lines. Cisplatin induces an increase in oxidative stress and alters intracellular Ca2+ concentration, including cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ in cisplatin-sensitive SKOV3 cells, but not in cisplatin-resistant SKOV3/DDP cells. Cisplatin induces mitochondrial damage and triggers the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in cisplatin-sensitive SKOV3 cells, but rarely in cisplatin-resistant SKOV3/DDP cells. Inhibition of calcium signaling attenuates cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and intracellular Ca2+ overload in cisplatin-sensitive SKOV3 cells. Moreover, in vivo xenograft models of nude mouse, cisplatin significantly reduced the growth rates of tumors originating from SKOV3 cells, but not that of SKOV3/DDP cells. Collectively, our data indicate that failure of calcium up-regulation mediates cisplatin resistance by alleviating oxidative stress in ovarian cancer cells. Our results highlight potential therapeutic strategies to improve cisplatin resistance. PMID:27330840

  15. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile: An Observational Study on a Large Cohort From South Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S; Irace, Concetta

    2016-02-01

    Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk.Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods.We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women.Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  16. Elevated Levels of IFN-γ in CSF and Serum of Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Gao, Lina; Zang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore whether the levels of IFN-γ in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and serum are elevated in ALS patients and to analyze the correlations between the IFN-γ levels and disease progression. Methods CSF and serum samples were obtained from 52 ALS patients and 31 non-ALS patients. The levels of IFN-γ in CSF and serum were assessed, and disease progression parameters, including the disease interval (months from onset, MFO), the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-r) score and the disease progression rate (DPR) were analyzed by registered neurologists. All samples were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analyses were performed using Prism software. Results Compared to the non-ALS patients, the ALS patients displayed significantly increased levels of IFN-γ in both CSF and serum, and these values consistently correlated with disease progression. Conclusions These results demonstrated that IFN-γ in CSF may serve as a biomarker of ALS differentiation and progression. CSF IFN-γ was a more reliable biomarker of disease diagnosis and progression than serum IFN-γ. PMID:26332465

  17. Pineal ganglioglioma in a patient with familial basal ganglia calcification and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein: case report.

    PubMed

    Tokoro, K; Chiba, Y; Ohtani, T; Abe, H; Yagishita, S

    1993-09-01

    Pineal ganglioglioma was diagnosed in a 36-year-old man with familial basal ganglia calcification and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein. The patient was treated surgically with a good result. Only four other cases of this tumor have been reported. His 38-year-old brother also showed basal ganglia calcification and elevated serum chorionic gonadotropin as well as alpha-fetoprotein. Familial basal ganglia calcification with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein in a nonhepatic benign condition is rare. The pathogenesis of these conditions is discussed. PMID:7692346

  18. Are serum hepcidin levels chronically elevated in collegiate female distance runners?

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoya; Patterson, Kaitlyn J; Gieschen, Kayla M; Bodary, Peter F

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of iron deficiency tends to be higher in athletic populations, especially among endurance-trained females. Recent studies have provided evidence that the iron-regulating hormone hepcidin is transiently increased with acute exercise and suggest that this may contribute to iron deficiency anemia in athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether resting serum hepcidin is significantly elevated in highly trained female distance runners compared with a low exercise control group. Due to the importance of the monocyte in the process of iron recycling, monocyte expression of hepcidin was also measured. A single fasted blood sample was collected midseason from twenty female distance runners averaging 81.9 ± 14.2 km of running per week. Ten age-, gender-, and BMI-matched low-exercise control subjects provided samples during the same period using identical collection procedures. There was no difference between the runners (RUN) and control subjects (CON) for serum hepcidin levels (p = .159). In addition, monocyte hepcidin gene expression was not different between the two groups (p = .635). Furthermore, no relationship between weekly training volume and serum hepcidin concentration was evident among the trained runners. The results suggest that hepcidin is not chronically elevated with sustained training in competitive collegiate runners. This is an important finding because the current clinical conditions that link hepcidin to anemia include a sustained elevation in serum hepcidin. Nevertheless, additional studies are needed to determine the clinical relevance of the well-documented, transient rise in hepcidin that follows acute sessions of exercise. PMID:23580449

  19. Cholangiolocellular carcinoma with rapid progression initially showing abnormally elevated serum alfa-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yoh, Tomoaki; Kato, Tatsushi; Hirohata, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Yuya; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Ryuji

    2016-08-01

    Cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC) is a rare malignant liver tumor derived from hepatic progenitor cells, which exist in the canals of Hering. We encountered a case of CoCC with an extremely poor clinical course, initially showing abnormally elevated serum alfa-fetoprotein (AFP). A 72-year-old male presented with a liver tumor and abnormally elevated serum AFP levels (16,399 ng/ml). We preoperatively diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma and performed extended right hepatectomy, after which the serum AFP levels remarkably decreased to 97 ng/ml. Postoperatively, the disease was pathologically diagnosed as CoCC. Furthermore, immunohistochemical pathological findings were alcian blue negative, cytokeratin (CK) 7 partially positive, CK19 positive, hepatocyte paraffin-1 negative, membranous negative for epithelial membrane antigen, and AFP negative. Fifty-five days later, intra- and extrahepatic recurrence developed, and the patient died 65 days after surgery. Although CoCCs show favorable outcomes, these characteristics of our case were not previously reported. It is necessary to accumulate more information on CoCC. PMID:27363839

  20. Elevated serum IgE, eosinophilia, and lung function in rubber workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bascom, R.; Baser, M.E.; Thomas, R.J.; Fisher, J.F.; Yang, W.N.; Baker, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported an outbreak of acute respiratory illness associated with eosinophilia in a group of rubber workers who performed a thermoinjection process in which synthetic rubber was heated and then injected onto metal molds. This study was conducted to determine if persistent respiratory health effects were associated with this work area and to explore the possible allergic etiology of this syndrome. A survey was performed 1 mo after a major improvement in area ventilation and consisted of baseline, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry; diffusing capacity; serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), total eosinophil count; and skin patch testing. Baseline lung function, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry were not significantly worse in the exposed group as compared to the control group. However, either eosinophilia (greater than 450/mm3) or elevated serum IgE (greater than 470 ng/ml) were present in 44% of exposed workers vs. 11% of the control group (p = .003). Nine months later, neither eosinophilia nor elevated IgE were associated with employment in this work area. We conclude that employment in the thermoinjection process was associated with eosinophilia and elevated IgE, which suggests sensitization to one of the components of the rubber, although no effect on pulmonary function could be demonstrated.

  1. Elevated maternal serum folate in the third trimester and reduced fetal growth: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Takimoto, Hidemi; Hayashi, Fumi; Kusama, Kaoru; Kato, Noriko; Yoshiike, Nobuo; Toba, Mikayo; Ishibashi, Tomoko; Miyasaka, Naoyuki; Kubota, Toshiro

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of fetal growth and elevated third trimester maternal serum folate due to folic acid (FA) supplement intake. Dietary intake, use of FA supplements, weight, and blood biomarkers of B-vitamins (serum folate, pyridoxal, vitamin B(12), and plasma total homocysteine) were observed in 33 healthy pregnant women at the third trimester (average gestational age 35 wk). Birth outcomes were assessed through hospital birth records. Infant anthropometry and maternal blood biomarkers were followed up at 1 mo postpartum. Fourteen women were taking FA supplements at the third trimester. Dietary intake was similar among FA users and non-users, but serum folate and pyridoxal were significantly higher in users (11.6±6.7 vs. 6.1±3.2 ng/mL, and 13.8±21.7 vs. 3.2±1.4 ng/mL, respectively). Plasma total homocystein (tHcy) was higher in non-users compared to users, but not significantly. Nine FA users and eight non-users had low serum vitamin B(12) values (<203 pg/mL). Nine FA users and all non-users had low serum pyridoxal values (<7.0 ng/mL). Infant birthweight was significantly lower in users compared to non-users (2,894±318 vs. 3,154±230 g). At 1 mo postpartum, infant weight and length were similar between FA users and non-users, but infant weight gain was larger in users. Higher serum folate values due to FA use in the third trimester was related to reduced fetal size. Excess FA under low vitamin B(6) and B(12) status may affect fetal growth. PMID:21697631

  2. Serum levels of soluble CD44 variant isoforms are elevated in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kittl, E M; Haberhauer, G; Ruckser, R; Selleny, S; Rech-Weichselbraun, I; Hinterberger, W; Bauer, K

    1997-01-01

    Serum levels of soluble CD44 variant proteins including sequences encoded by exon v5 and exon v6 (sCD44v5, sCD44v6) were determined in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases: 56 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA+) and 31 with miscellaneous inflammatory rheumatic diseases (MIRD). There were very significantly higher serum levels of sCD44v5 and sCD44v6 in patients with RA+ than in those with MIRD (RA+ to MIRD: sCD44v5: 81 +/- 54 ng/ml to 33 +/- 13 ng/ml; sCD44v6: 237 +/- 124 ng/ml to 166 +/- 53 ng/ml; both P < 0.001). In RA+ elevated serum levels of sCD44v5 were correlated with the inflammatory activity of disease. In 17 patients with RA+ three or four follow-up measurements of sCD44v5 were performed within 6 months. The development of sCD44v5 serum levels reflected the clinical course of disease in the patients investigated. PMID:9032816

  3. Evidence that serum calcium oxalate supersaturation is a consequence of oxalate retention in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Worcester, E M; Nakagawa, Y; Bushinsky, D A; Coe, F L

    1986-01-01

    Serum oxalate rises in uremia because of decreased renal clearance, and crystals of calcium oxalate occur in the tissues of uremic patients. Crystal formation suggests that either uremic serum is supersaturated with calcium oxalate, or local oxalate production or accumulation causes regional supersaturation. To test the first alternative, we ultrafiltered uremic serum and measured supersaturation with two different methods previously used to study supersaturation in urine. First, the relative saturation ratio (RSR), the ratio of the dissolved calcium oxalate complex to the thermodynamic calcium oxalate solubility product, was estimated for 11 uremic (before and after dialysis) and 4 normal serum samples using a computer program. Mean ultrafiltrate oxalate predialysis was 89 +/- 8 microM/liter (+/- SEM), 31 +/- 4 postdialysis, and 10 +/- 3 in normals. Mean RSR was 1.7 +/- 0.1 (predialysis), 0.7 +/- 0.1 (postdialysis), and 0.2 +/- 0.1 (normal), where values greater than 1 denote supersaturation, less than 1, undersaturation. Second, the concentration product ratio (CPR), the ratio of the measured calcium oxalate concentration product before to that after incubation of the sample with calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal, was measured in seven uremic and seven normal serum ultrafiltrates. Mean oxalate was 91 +/- 11 (uremic) and 8 +/- 3 (normal). Mean CPR was 1.4 +/- 0.2 (uremic) and 0.2 +/- 0.1 (normal). Predialysis, 17 of 18 uremic ultrafiltrates were supersaturated with respect to calcium oxalate. The degree of supersaturation was correlated with ultrafiltrate oxalate (RSR, r = 0.99, r = 29, P less than 0.001; CPR, r = 0.75, n = 11, P less than 0.001). A value of ultrafiltrate oxalate of 50 microM/liter separated undersaturated from supersaturated samples and occurred at a creatinine of approximately 9.0 mg/dl. PMID:3711339

  4. Electrophysiological characterization of spinal neuron sensitization by elevated calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chunyi; Luo, Z. David

    2013-01-01

    Background Voltage-gated calcium channel α2δ1 subunit is the binding site for gabapentin, an effective drug in controlling neuropathic pain states including thermal hyperalgesia. Hyperalgesia to noxious thermal stimuli in both spinal-nerve-ligated (SNL) and voltage-gated calcium channel α2δ1 over-expressing transgenic (Tg) mice correlates with higher α2δ1 levels in dorsal root ganglia and dorsal spinal cord. In this study, we investigated whether abnormal synaptic transmission is responsible for thermal hyperalgesia induced by elevated α2δ1 expression in these models. Methods Behavioral sensitivities to thermal stimuli were test in L4 SNL and sham mice, as well as in α2δ1 Tg and wild-type mice. Miniature excitatory (mEPSC) and inhibitory (mIPSC) postsynaptic currents were recorded in superficial dorsal spinal cord neurons from these models using whole-cell patch clamp slice recording techniques. Results The frequency, but not amplitude, of mEPSC in superficial dorsal horn neurons was increased in SNL and α2δ1 Tg mice, which could be attenuated by gabapentin dose dependently. Intrathecal α2δ1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment diminished increased mEPSC frequency and gabapentin's inhibitory effects in elevated mEPSC frequency in the SNL mice. In contrast, neither the frequency, nor the amplitude, of mIPSC was altered in superficial dorsal horn neurons from the SNL and α2δ1 Tg mice. Conclusions Our findings support a role of peripheral nerve injury-induced α2δ1 in enhancing presynaptic excitatory input onto superficial dorsal spinal cord neurons that contributes to nociception development. PMID:24151064

  5. Body Fatness and Risk for Elevated Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol, and Serum Lipoprotein Ratios in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Daniel P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the relationship between body fat percent and risk for elevated blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and serum lipoprotein ratios in 1,230 African-American and 2,090 white 5-18 year olds (1,667 males and 1,653 females). Results support body fatness standards in children and adolescents as cardiovascular risk factors. (SLD)

  6. Elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in patients with subchorionic hematoma.

    PubMed

    Kumbak, Banu; Sahin, Levent

    2010-07-01

    Subchorionic hematoma might be associated with poor pregnancy outcome. Two intra cytoplasmic sperm injection pregnancies complicated with subchorionic hematoma were found to have elevated mid-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. One of them had miscarriage at 16 weeks' gestation and the other delivered a healthy baby by cesarean section. The valid interpretation of triple test result might be complicated by subchorionic hematoma. Therefore, it is better not to order triple test in such cases to avoid unnecessarily provoking the anxiety of the couple. PMID:19883262

  7. Alcohol, metabolic risk and elevated serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in Indigenous Australians

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The interaction between overweight/obesity and alcohol intake on liver enzyme concentrations have been demonstrated. No studies have yet examined the interaction between metabolic syndrome or multiple metabolic risk factors and alcohol intake on liver enzymes. The aim of this study was to examine if alcohol consumption modifies the effect of metabolic risk on elevated serum GGT in Indigenous Australians. Methods Data were from N = 2609 Indigenous Australians who participated in a health screening program in rural far north Queensland in 1999-2000 (44.5% response rate). The individual and interactive effects of metabolic risk and alcohol drinking on elevated serum GGT concentrations (≥50 U/L) were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Overall, 26% of the population had GGT≥50 U/L. Elevated GGT was associated with alcohol drinking (moderate drinking: OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.6 - 3.2]; risky drinking: OR 6.0 [4.4 - 8.2]), and with abdominal obesity (OR 3.7 [2.5 - 5.6]), adverse metabolic risk cluster profile (OR 3.4 [2.6 - 4.3]) and metabolic syndrome (OR 2.7 [2.1 - 3.5]) after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking, physical activity and BMI. The associations of obesity and metabolic syndrome with elevated GGT were similar across alcohol drinking strata, but the association of an adverse metabolic risk cluster profile with elevated GGT was larger in risky drinkers (OR 4.9 [3.7 - 6.7]) than in moderate drinkers (OR 2.8 [1.6 - 4.9]) and abstainers (OR 1.6 [0.9 - 2.8]). Conclusions In this Indigenous population, an adverse metabolic profile conferred three times the risk of elevated GGT in risky drinkers compared with abstainers, independent of sex and ethnicity. Community interventions need to target both determinants of the population's metabolic status and alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of elevated GGT. PMID:20682033

  8. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    PubMed

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts. PMID:20075632

  9. Freeze-dried strawberries lower serum cholesterol and lipid peroxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J

    2014-06-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (-3 ± 11 mg/dL, -3 ± 9 mg/dL, and -28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion molecules

  10. Commercial radioimmunoassay for beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin: falsely positive determinations due to elevated serum luteinizing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.E. Jr.; Platoff, G.E.; Kubrock, C.A.; Stuzman, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Among 17 men who had received seemingly curative treatment for unilateral non-seminomatous germ cell tumors for the testis and who had consistently normal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) levels at a reference laboratory, 7 (41%) had at least one falsely positive commercial serum HCG determination. To investigate the cause of these falsely positive determinations the authors measured the cross reactivity of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) standards in the commercial HCG assay, and studied the relationships between commercial HCG levels and serum LH levels, serum FSH levels and gonadal status in men with and without normal gonadal function. The falsely positive HCG determinations appeared to be due to elevated serum LH levels and cross reactivity of LH in the commercial HCG assay because: 1) there was substantial cross reactivity of the LH standards in the commercial assay, 2) the serum LH was elevated in four of six men with solitary testes, 3) there was a striking correlation between elevated serum LH levels and falsely elevated commercial HCG levels in ten men with solitary or absent testes, and 4) there were no falsely positive HCG determinations in 13 normal men but there were falsely positive HCG determinations in seven of ten anorchid men.

  11. Brief oral stimulation, but especially oral fat exposure, elevates serum triglycerides in humans.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D

    2009-02-01

    Oral exposure to dietary fat results in an early initial spike, followed by a prolonged elevation, of serum triglycerides in humans. The physiological and pathophysiological implications remain unknown. This study sought to determine the incidence of the effect, the required fat exposure duration, and its reliability. Thirty-four healthy adults participated in four to six response-driven trials held at least a week apart. They reported to the laboratory after an overnight fast, a catheter was placed in an antecubital vein, and a blood sample was obtained. Participants then ingested 50 g of safflower oil in capsules with 500 ml of water within 15 min to mimic a high fat meal but without oral fat exposure. Blood was collected 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 min after capsule ingestion with different forms (full fat, nonfat, none) and durations of oral fat exposures (10 s, 5 min, 20 min, and/or 2 h). A triglyceride response (increase of triglyceride >10 mg/dl within 30 min) was observed in 88.2%, 70.5%, and 50% of participants with full-fat, nonfat, and no oral exposure, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 75% with full-fat exposure but only 45.4% with nonfat exposure. Full-fat and nonfat exposures led to comparable significant elevations of triglyceride over no oral stimulation with 10-s exposures, but full fat led to a greater rise than nonfat with 20 min of exposure. These data indicate that nutritionally relevant oral fat exposures reliably elevate serum triglyceride concentrations in most people. PMID:19074638

  12. Elevated serum 25(OH)-vitamin D levels are negatively correlated with molar-incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Kühnisch, J; Thiering, E; Kratzsch, J; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Hickel, R; Heinrich, J

    2015-02-01

    To date, the precise etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is uncertain. Vitamin D plays a key role in hard tissue formation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and dental health data obtained from 1,048 children in a 10-year follow-up of the Munich GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. The dental examination included the diagnosis of MIH and recording of (non-)cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from blood samples of the 10-year investigation and measured with a fully automated, modular system. Different logistic regression and Poisson hurdle models were calculated. MIH was diagnosed in 13.6% of the study population. Approximately 16.4% of the children demonstrated caries-related defects (D3-4MFS > 0). The mean season-adjusted concentration of 25(OH)D was 75.8 nmol/l (standard deviation 22.0 nmol/l). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, equivalent income, and television/personal computer (TV/PC) viewing hours, a 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio of having MIH (OR = 0.89; P = 0.006). Furthermore, higher 25(OH)D values were associated with a lower number of caries-affected permanent teeth. It is concluded that elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with better dental health parameters. PMID:25503610

  13. Elevated postoperative serum procalcitonin is not indicative of bacterial infection in cardiac surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Murali; Kavaraganahalli, Deepak; Pargaonkar, Sumant; Hosur, Rajathadri; Harivelam, Chidananda; Bharadwaj, Ashwin; Raghunathan, Aditi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying infections early, commencing appropriate empiric antibiotic not only helps gain control early, but also reduces mortality and morbidity. Conventional cultures take about 5 days to identify infections. To identify the infections early biomarker like serum procalcitonin (SPC). Aims: We studied the correlation of an elevated level of SPC and positive culture in elective adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods: This prospective study was conducted from January to December 2013. SPC was checked in patients showing evidence of sepsis. Simultaneously, relevant culture was also undertaken. Correlation, specificity, and sensitivity of elevated SPC were checked. Results: A total of 819 adult patients were included in the study. 43 of them had signs of infection and SPC levels were checked. Based on the level of SPC criteria, 10 patients were diagnosed as “nil”, out of them, 4 had culture-positive infections, 17 were suggested to have “mild infection,” 3 out those had culture positivity. None among the eleven patients suggested to have “moderate infection,” had a positive culture, and one among the five suggested to have a severe infection had a positive culture. The sensitivity was 50% and the specificity 17%. The positive predictive value was 12% and the negative predictive value 60%. Conclusions: We failed to elicit positive correlation between elevated SPC levels and postoperative infection in cardio surgical patients. PMID:25849691

  14. A syndrome of functional hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and sterility in a male with elevated serum estradiol.

    PubMed

    Valenta, L J

    1977-08-01

    A 36-year-old male complaining of impotence was examined. He was a genotypic male. Phenotypically, he exhibited signs of long-standing estrogen excess, such as feminine body build, gynecomastia, and varicose veins. His testes were soft and borderline small, and his prostate was small and soft. However, he had a normal-sized penis, normal male hair distribution, normal sense of smell, and normal intelligence. The laboratory data were compatible with mild hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Serum estradiol (E2) levels were consistently elevated. The patient had azoospermia and a decreased semen volume. Inappropriately low levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone responded normally to gonadotropin-releasing hormone and clomiphene citrate. Levels of both testosterone (T) and E2 increased dramatically after prolonged clomiphene medication and in response to human chorionic gonadotropin. There was no change in either T or E2 levels in response to manipulations of the pituitary-adrenal axis. It is concluded that the elevated E2 level was responsible for suppression of gonadotropins which, in turn, caused mild hypogonadism and sterility in this patient. According to the stimulation tests, the source of the elevated E2 levels was testicular. PMID:69556

  15. Serum Galectin and Renal Dysfunction in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Karetnikova, Victoria; Osokina, Anastasia; Gruzdeva, Olga; Uchasova, Evgenya; Zykov, Michael; Kalaeva, Victoria; Kashtalap, Vasily; Shafranskaya, Kristina; Hryachkova, Oksana; Barbarash, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between serum galectin levels and renal dysfunction in relation to in-hospital prognosis and unfavorable prognosis 1 year after ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI). Patients were assigned to two groups according to the cystatin C-based estimate of GFR on day 12 after STEMI: (1) STEMI patients with normal renal function (GFR based on cystatin C levels = 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and (2) those with renal dysfunction (RD) (GFR based on cystatin C levels <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). A decrease in GFR estimated from the CKD-EPI equation on day 12 was more frequently found in patients with a reduced GFR based on cystatin C levels (41.9%) compared with those without RD (21.3%). Galectin levels exceeded the cut-off value (17.8 ng/mL) in 50.6% of cases in the group with GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and in 32% of cases in the group with a normal GFR. The presence of RD and elevated galectin levels >17.8 ng/mL on day 12 after MI are independent predictors of an adverse prognosis at 1 year in STEMI patients. Elevated galectin levels are directly correlated with the presence of early postinfarction angina. PMID:26980923

  16. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Six New Loci for Serum Calcium Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    O'Seaghdha, Conall M.; Wu, Hongsheng; Yang, Qiong; Kapur, Karen; Guessous, Idris; Zuber, Annie Mercier; Köttgen, Anna; Stoudmann, Candice; Teumer, Alexander; Kutalik, Zoltán; Mangino, Massimo; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Weihua; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Li, Guo; Tanaka, Toshiko; Portas, Laura; Lopez, Lorna M.; Hayward, Caroline; Lohman, Kurt; Matsuda, Koichi; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Firsov, Dmitri; Sorice, Rossella; Ulivi, Sheila; Brockhaus, A. Catharina; Kleber, Marcus E.; Mahajan, Anubha; Ernst, Florian D.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.; Mace, Aurelien; Boerwinckle, Eric; Arking, Dan E.; Tanikawa, Chizu; Nakamura, Yusuke; Brown, Morris J.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Siscovick, David S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Bergmann, Sven; Vollenweider, Peter; Vitart, Veronique; Wright, Alan F.; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Kolcic, Ivana; Navarro, Pau; Brown, Edward M.; Estrada, Karol; Ding, Jingzhong; Harris, Tamara B.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Hernandez, Dena; Singleton, Andrew B.; Girotto, Giorgia; Ruggiero, Daniela; d'Adamo, Adamo Pio; Robino, Antonietta; Meitinger, Thomas; Meisinger, Christa; Davies, Gail; Starr, John M.; Chambers, John C.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Huang, Jie; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H.; Campbell, Harry; Morris, Andrew P.; Franco, Oscar H.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Völker, Uwe; Hannemann, Anke; Biffar, Reiner; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Shin, So–Youn; Lescuyer, Pierre; Henry, Hughes; Schurmann, Claudia; Munroe, Patricia B.; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Nicola; Ciullo, Marina; Gieger, Christian; März, Winfried; Lind, Lars; Spector, Tim D.; Smith, Albert V.; Rudan, Igor; Wilson, James F.; Polasek, Ozren; Deary, Ian J.; Pirastu, Mario; Ferrucci, Luigi; Liu, Yongmei; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Nauck, Matthias; Kao, W. H. Linda; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Calcium is vital to the normal functioning of multiple organ systems and its serum concentration is tightly regulated. Apart from CASR, the genes associated with serum calcium are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 39,400 individuals from 17 population-based cohorts and investigated the 14 most strongly associated loci in ≤21,679 additional individuals. Seven loci (six new regions) in association with serum calcium were identified and replicated. Rs1570669 near CYP24A1 (P = 9.1E-12), rs10491003 upstream of GATA3 (P = 4.8E-09) and rs7481584 in CARS (P = 1.2E-10) implicate regions involved in Mendelian calcemic disorders: Rs1550532 in DGKD (P = 8.2E-11), also associated with bone density, and rs7336933 near DGKH/KIAA0564 (P = 9.1E-10) are near genes that encode distinct isoforms of diacylglycerol kinase. Rs780094 is in GCKR. We characterized the expression of these genes in gut, kidney, and bone, and demonstrate modulation of gene expression in bone in response to dietary calcium in mice. Our results shed new light on the genetics of calcium homeostasis. PMID:24068962

  17. [Circadian variations in rat serum and urinary calcium and phosphorus. Reflections on the Ca/PO4 ratio].

    PubMed

    Gaggi, R; Bartolomei, N; David, M; Ghelfi, C; Ceresi, E

    1978-01-01

    Daily variations of serum and urine calcium and phosphate were determined in young and adult rats of both sexes. The animals were maintained in natural conditions of illumination and feeding ad libitum. The twenty-four hour rhythm of the serum levels and urinary excretion of these electrolytes in male rats is confirmed. This rhythm is markedly modified in young females and less in adult females. Evidence for a circadian rhythm of the Ca/PO4 ratio appears in all groups of rats. The rhythms of serum and urine Ca/PO4 rations are similar in all experimental groups. PMID:555322

  18. Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in school-age children are inconsistently associated with increased calcium absorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in adults may enhance calcium absorption (Ca-abs). There are few similar pediatric data leading to uncertainty about the optimal target for 25-OHD to maximize Ca-abs.Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between 25-OHD and Ca-abs in a large coho...

  19. Calcium absorption is not consistently enhanced by maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels > 50 or 80 nmol/L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in adults may enhance calcium absorption (Ca-abs). Targeting of 25-OHD values for the entire population has been widely advocated recently with goals of 25-OHD of at least 50 or 80 nmol/L advocated. There are few pediatric data that relate 25-OHD to Ca-a...

  20. Elevated serum CA72-4 levels predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma after intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Luying

    2015-04-20

    Carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) is a human tumor-associated glycoprotein, commonly used as a tumor marker for diagnosing and predicting outcome in gastric and ovarian cancers. However, the relationship between serum CA72-4 levels and prognosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma has not been fully elucidated. A total of 113 consecutive locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with or without chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Serum CA72-4 levels were analyzed using immunoenzymometric assays. The association between serum CA72-4 levels and prognosis was evaluated. Serum CA72-4 levels was related with lymph node metastasis (P<0.001). The median overall survival time was 14.0 months for patients with serum CA72-4 normal levels and 10.0 months for the elevated levels (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis identified that Serum CA72-4 concentration was a significant prognostic factor (P<0.001). The hazard ratio (HR) of elevated serum CA72-4 levels compared with normal serum CA72-4 levels was 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-3.73), after adjusted for gender and age. Based on this finding, Serum CA72-4 is a potential marker to predict lymph node metastasis and prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:25860937

  1. The Effect of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D on Elevated Homocysteine Concentrations in Participants of a Preventive Health Program

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Truong-Minh; Ekwaru, John Paul; Mastroeni, Silmara S.; Mastroeni, Marco F.; Loehr, Sarah A.; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Both lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and elevated homocysteine concentrations are potential risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A recent analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reported an inverse association of serum 25(OH)D with homocysteine, however, the longitudinal relationship has yet to be investigated. We hypothesized and examined whether a temporal increase in 25(OH)D concentrations is paralleled by a reduction in the risk for elevated homocysteine. We analyzed data of 4475 participants with repeated assessments of serum 25(OH)D and homocysteine concentrations who enrolled in a preventive health program that encourages vitamin D supplementation and monitors serum 25(OH)D and homocysteine concentrations. We defined elevated homocysteine as concentrations greater than 13 micromoles per liter. Logistic regression was applied to assess the association of temporal changes in serum 25(OH)D with the risk of elevated homocysteine. We observed an inverse gradient whereby greater increases in 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a lower prevalence of elevated homocysteine. Relative to those without temporal increases in 25(OH)D, participants who showed improvements in their serum 25(OH)D concentrations of “<25”, “25–50”, “50–75”, and “≥75” nanomoles per liter at follow up were 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.62–1.37), 0.52 (0.33–0.80), 0.34 (0.20–0.58), and 0.32 (0.19–0.54) times as likely to have elevated homocysteine, respectively. These observations suggest that temporal improvements in vitamin D status reduce serum homocysteine concentrations, and therefore may potentially contribute to the primary prevention of CVD. PMID:27548258

  2. The Effect of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D on Elevated Homocysteine Concentrations in Participants of a Preventive Health Program.

    PubMed

    Pham, Truong-Minh; Ekwaru, John Paul; Mastroeni, Silmara S; Mastroeni, Marco F; Loehr, Sarah A; Veugelers, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Both lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and elevated homocysteine concentrations are potential risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A recent analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reported an inverse association of serum 25(OH)D with homocysteine, however, the longitudinal relationship has yet to be investigated. We hypothesized and examined whether a temporal increase in 25(OH)D concentrations is paralleled by a reduction in the risk for elevated homocysteine. We analyzed data of 4475 participants with repeated assessments of serum 25(OH)D and homocysteine concentrations who enrolled in a preventive health program that encourages vitamin D supplementation and monitors serum 25(OH)D and homocysteine concentrations. We defined elevated homocysteine as concentrations greater than 13 micromoles per liter. Logistic regression was applied to assess the association of temporal changes in serum 25(OH)D with the risk of elevated homocysteine. We observed an inverse gradient whereby greater increases in 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a lower prevalence of elevated homocysteine. Relative to those without temporal increases in 25(OH)D, participants who showed improvements in their serum 25(OH)D concentrations of "<25", "25-50", "50-75", and "≥75" nanomoles per liter at follow up were 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.62-1.37), 0.52 (0.33-0.80), 0.34 (0.20-0.58), and 0.32 (0.19-0.54) times as likely to have elevated homocysteine, respectively. These observations suggest that temporal improvements in vitamin D status reduce serum homocysteine concentrations, and therefore may potentially contribute to the primary prevention of CVD. PMID:27548258

  3. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  4. Postoperative enteral hyperalimentation results in earlier elevation of serum branched-chain amino acid levels.

    PubMed

    Moss, G; Naylor, E D

    1994-07-01

    To objectively document the immediate maintenance and successful exploitation of postoperative gastrointestinal (GI) function, elemental diet was infused into the more distal duodenum of 30 cholecystectomy patients at 300 kcal per hour, beginning on arrival at the recovery room. Approximately 4,600 kcal and 190 grams of amino acids were absorbed during the initial 16 hours. Serum branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) had risen above basal levels at 4 hours, statistically significant only for leucine (+64%). The higher concentrations had reached statistical significance for all BCAAs by 6 hours, when leucine had risen by 83%, isoleucine by 54%, and valine by 47%. The elevated BCAA and glucose levels sustained throughout the hyperalimentation period objectively verify that postoperative GI function can be safely exploited, and may contribute to improved wound healing and sepsis resistance. PMID:8024096

  5. Strong Negative Interference by Calcium Dobesilate in Sarcosine Oxidase Assays for Serum Creatinine Involving the Trinder Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiuzhi; Hou, Li’an; Cheng, Xinqi; Zhang, Tianjiao; Yu, Songlin; Fang, Huiling; Xia, Liangyu; Qi, Zhihong; Qin, Xuzhen; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Qian; Liu, Li; Chi, Shuling; Hao, Yingying; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The vasoprotective drug calcium dobesilate is known to interfere with creatinine (Cr) quantifications in sarcosine oxidase enzymatic (SOE) assays. The aim of this study was to investigate this interference in 8 different commercially available assays and to determine its clinical significance. In in vitro experiments, interference was evaluated at 3 Cr levels. For this, Cr was quantified by SOE assays in pooled serum supplemented with calcium dobesilate at final concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 μg/mL. Percent bias was calculated relative to the drug-free specimen. For in vivo analyses, changes in serum concentrations of Cr, cystatin C (CysC; a renal function marker), and calcium dobesilate were monitored in healthy participants of group I before and after oral calcium dobesilate administration. In addition, variations in interference were also examined among different SOE assays using serum obtained from healthy participants of group II. Lastly, Cr levels from the 10 patients treated with calcium dobesilate were measured using 4 SOE assays and liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS/MS) for comparison. Our in vitro analyses indicated that the presence of 8 μg/mL calcium dobesilate resulted in a −4.4% to −36.3% reduction in Cr serum concentration compared to drug-free serum for 8 SOE assays examined. In vivo, Cr values decreased relative to the baseline level with increasing drug concentration, with the lowest Cr levels obtained at 2 or 3 hours after drug administration in participants of group I. The observed Cr concentrations for participants in group II were reduced by −28.5% to −3.1% and −60.5% to −11.6% at 0 and 2 hours after administration related to baseline levels. The Cr values of 10 patients measured by Roche, Beckman, Maker, and Merit Choice SOE assays showed an average deviation of −20.0%, −22.4%, −14.2%, and −29.6%, respectively, compared to values obtained by LC

  6. Urine TMPRSS2:ERG fusion transcript stratifies prostate cancer risk in men with elevated serum PSA

    PubMed Central

    Tomlins, Scott A.; Aubin, Sheila M. J.; Siddiqui, Javed; Lonigro, Robert J.; Sefton-Miller, Laurie; Miick, Siobhan; Williamsen, Sarah; Hodge, Petrea; Meinke, Jessica; Blase, Amy; Penabella, Yvonne; Day, John R.; Varambally, Radhika; Han, Bo; Wood, David; Wang, Lei; Sanda, Martin G.; Rubin, Mark A.; Rhodes, Daniel R.; Hollenbeck, Brent; Sakamoto, Kyoko; Silberstein, Jonathan L.; Fradet, Yves; Amberson, James B.; Meyers, Stephanie; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Rittenhouse, Harry; Wei, John T.; Groskopf, Jack; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2011-01-01

    More than 1,000,000 men undergo prostate biopsy each year in the United States, most for “elevated” serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). Given the lack of specificity and unclear mortality benefit of PSA testing, methods to individualize management of elevated PSA are needed. Greater than 50% of PSA-screened prostate cancers harbor fusions between the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian) (ERG) genes. Here, we report a clinical-grade, transcription-mediated amplification assay to risk stratify and detect prostate cancer noninvasively in urine. The TMPRSS2:ERG fusion transcript was quantitatively measured in prospectively collected whole urine from 1312 men at multiple centers. Urine TMPRSS2:ERG was associated with indicators of clinically significant cancer at biopsy and prostatectomy, including tumor size, high Gleason score at prostatectomy, and upgrading of Gleason grade at prostatectomy. TMPRSS2:ERG, in combination with urine prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), improved the performance of the multivariate Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator in predicting cancer on biopsy. In the biopsy cohorts, men in the highest and lowest of three TMPRSS2:ERG+PCA3 score groups had markedly different rates of cancer, clinically significant cancer by Epstein criteria, and high-grade cancer on biopsy. Our results demonstrate that urine TMPRSS2:ERG, in combination with urine PCA3, enhances the utility of serum PSA for predicting prostate cancer risk and clinically relevant cancer on biopsy. PMID:21813756

  7. HFE genotyping in patients with elevated serum iron indices and liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Andreia Silva; Nakhle, Maria Cristina; de Araújo, Thiago Ferreira; Abrantes-Lemos, Clarice Pires; Deguti, Marta Mitiko; Carrilho, Flair José; Cançado, Eduardo Luiz Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Iron abnormalities in chronic liver disease may be the result of genetic diseases or secondary factors. The present study aimed to identify subjects with HFE-HH in order to describe the frequency of clinical manifestations, identify risk factors for iron elevation, and compare the iron profile of HFE-HH to other genotypes in liver disease patients. A total of 108 individuals with hepatic disease, transferrin saturation (TS) > 45%, and serum ferritin (SF) > 350 ng/mL were tested for HFE mutations. Two groups were characterized: C282Y/C282Y or C282Y/H63D genotypes (n = 16) were the HFE hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE-HH) group; and C282Y and H63D single heterozygotes, the H63D/H63D genotype, and wild-type were considered group 2 (n = 92). Nonalcoholic liver disease, alcoholism, and chronic hepatitis C were detected more frequently in group 2, whereas arthropathy, hepatocarcinoma, diabetes, and osteoporosis rates were significantly higher in the HFE-HH group. TS > 82%, SF > 2685 ng/mL, and serum iron > 178 μg/dL were the cutoffs for diagnosis of HFE-HH in patients with liver disease. Thus, in non-Caucasian populations with chronic liver disease, HFE-HH diagnosis is more predictable in those with iron levels higher than those proposed in current guidelines for the general population. PMID:25654085

  8. Retroperitoneal Leiomyosarcoma Associated with an Elevated β-HCG Serum Level Mimicking Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Hans-Juergen; Manseck, Andreas; Oehlschlaeger, Sven; Wirth, Manfred P.

    2000-01-01

    Patient. A 65-year-old man was admitted with a large primary retroperitoneal tumor and an increased β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) serum level. A germ cell tumor was suspected; however, a computed tomography-guided biopsy failed to enable tumor classification. After two courses of chemotherapy, the β-HCG serum level had returned to the normal level and a diagnostic laparotomy with incisional biopsy was performed. The immunohistochemical examination of the specimen identified the tumor as a retroperitoneal pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma. Discussion. Tumor markers play only a marginal role in the work-up of patients with soft tissue sarcomas. In men with suspected retroperitoneal sarcomas, however, the determination of germ cell tumor markers occasionally enables a preoperative distinguishing of primary retroperitoneal germ cell tumors with considerable consequences for management. In this setting, a retroperitoneal tumor associated with a moderately elevated β-HCG is a diagnostic dilemma, and surgeons should be aware of the pitfall of a β-HCG-producing leiomyosarcoma in the differential diagnosis. PMID:18521299

  9. High serum carotenoids are associated with lower risk for developing elevated serum alanine aminotransferase among Japanese subjects: the Mikkabi cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Minoru; Nakamura, Mieko; Ogawa, Kazunori; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Yano, Masamichi

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have shown that antioxidant vitamins and/or carotenoids may reduce liver disease, but this association has not been well established with thorough longitudinal cohort studies. The objective of this study was to longitudinally investigate whether serum carotenoids at baseline are associated with the risk of developing elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) among Japanese subjects. We conducted a follow-up study of 1073 males and females aged between 30 and 79 years at baseline from the Mikkabi prospective cohort study. Those who participated in the baseline study and completed follow-up surveys were examined longitudinally. Exclusions included excessive alcohol consumption (≥60 g alcohol/d), hepatitis B and C and having a history of medication use for liver disease. A cohort of 213 males and 574 females free of elevated serum ALT (>30 IU/ml) at baseline was studied. Over a mean follow-up period of 7·4 (sd 3·1) years, thirty-one males and forty-nine females developed new elevated serum ALT. After adjustments for confounders, the hazard ratios for elevated serum ALT in the highest tertiles of basal serum β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and total provitamin A carotenoids against the lowest tertiles were 0·43 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·81), 0·51 (CI 0·27, 0·94) and 0·52 (CI 0·28, 0·97), respectively. For α-carotene and lycopene, borderline reduced risks were also observed; however, these were not significant. Our results further support the hypothesis that antioxidant carotenoids, especially provitamin A carotenoids, might help prevent earlier pathogenesis of non-alcoholic liver disease in Japanese subjects. PMID:26916997

  10. Elevated Serum Creatine Phosphokinase is Associated with Mortality and Inotropic Requirement in Critically Injured Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sowards, Kendell J.; Mukherjee, Kaushik; Norris, Patrick R.; Shintani, Ayumi; Ware, Lorraine B.; Roberts, L. Jackson; May, Addison K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemeproteins such as free myoglobin can undergo autoxidation and catalyze lipid peroxidation, increasing oxidative stress. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation is a marker for free myoglobin after myocyte damage. Since oxidative injury is a key mechanism of injury-related organ dysfunction, we hypothesized that serum CPK levels correlate with mortality and need for and duration of inotropic support, i.e. shock, among critically injured patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of 17,847 patients admitted to a single Trauma Intensive Care Unit over 9 years. 2,583 patients with serum CPK levels were included in the analysis. Patient data were collected continuously into an electronic ICU repository. Univariate analysis was accomplished using Spearman correlation and the Mann Whitney U test. Propensity score adjustment models accounting for potential confounders were used to assess the independent effect of CPK level on mortality, need for inotropic support, and duration of inotropic support. Results Median CPK was significantly higher in patients who died (916 [IQR 332, 2472] vs. 711 [253, 1971], p= 0.004) and in those who required inotropic medications (950 [353, 2525] vs. 469 [188, 1220], p< 0.001). After adjusting for propensity score and potential confounders the odds of mortality increased by 1.10 (95% CI 1.02– 1.19, p= 0.020) and the odds of inotropic medication use increased by 1.30 (95% CI 1.22–1.38, p <0.001) per natural log unit increase in CPK. There was a significant association between CPK level and duration of inotropic support (Spearman’s rho .237, p< 0.001) that remained significant in a propensity score adjusted model. Conclusion In critically injured patients, elevated serum CPK level is independently associated with mortality, need for inotropic medication, and duration of inotropic support. This study is the first to evaluate the relationship of CPK level and mortality in addition to surrogate measures of shock in a

  11. Activation of the calcium sensing receptor with cinacalcet increases serum gastrin levels in healthy older subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acidity is postulated to enhance calcium absorption since calcium is better dissolved at low pH. Extracellular calcium stimulates gastrin and gastric acid secretion in humans. Ex vivo studies indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), which is expressed on the surface of human G cells...

  12. Relationships between serum asunaprevir concentration and alanine aminotransferase elevation during daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for chronic HCV genotype 1b infection.

    PubMed

    Akuta, Norio; Sezaki, Hitomi; Suzuki, Fumitaka; Kawamura, Yusuke; Hosaka, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Mariko; Saitoh, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Arase, Yasuji; Ikeda, Kenji; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2016-03-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations were the most frequent adverse events during all-oral combinations with daclatasvir and asunaprevir for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the underline mechanisms are unclear. Seventy patients with chronic HCV genotype 1b infection, who were introduced daclatasvir 60 mg once daily plus asunaprevir 100 mg twice daily for 24 weeks, were measured serum asunaprevir concentrations at the one point or more of 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the start of treatment. In 4 and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, asunaprevir concentrations in patients with albumin levels <3.6 g/dl at baseline were significantly higher than those in patients with albumin levels ≥3.6 g/dl. The baseline factors did not affect to ALT severe elevations (≥300 IU/l). At 2 weeks after the start of treatment, ALT severe elevations with asunaprevir concentrations of ≥800 ng/ml (54.5%) tended to indicate the higher rates than those of <800 ng/ml (17.6%). Furthermore, the discontinuation or reduction of asunaprevir improved ALT levels, regardless the significant decrease of serum asunaprevir concentrations. In conclusion, serum albumin levels affected to serum asunaprevir concentrations, and serum asunaprevir concentrations might partly affect to ALT severe elevations. Further large-scale prospective studies are needed to investigate the impact of the discontinuation or reduction of asunaprevir to help in the design of more effective therapeutic regimens. PMID:26292191

  13. On the effect of the injection of potassium phosphate in vivo inducing the precipitation of serum calcium with inorganic phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Alcimar B; Ticianeli, José G; Soares, Letícia B M; Amaro, George

    2013-01-01

    High concentrations of inorganic phosphate (Pi) resulted from the hydrolysis of ATP is strongly associated to the weakness of the contractile mechanism of muscles due to its attractiveness to calcium. The majority of the experiments to study such effect are conducted in vitro. This work investigates the effects of different concentrations of Pi, induced by the injection of potassium phosphate in live animals, in the precipitation with serum calcium and the generation of calcium phosphate composites. The experiments were also designed to find out the ideal amount of potassium phosphate to induce an effective reaction. Potassium phosphate was injected in Wistar rats, randomly separated and distributed into seven groups. Group I was injected with 0.5 ml of saline solution (control) and groups II through VII were injected with 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/kg of potassium phosphate, respectively. Blood collected from the inferior vena cava was submitted to biochemical analyses to measure the concentrations of calcium, Pi, urea and creatinine. The results showed that Pi, induced by the injection of potassium phosphate in live animals, causes precipitation with serum calcium, with statistically significant differences between the control and the treatment groups for doses up to 5.0 mg/kg. No statistically significant differences were found between the different doses and the concentration of urea and creatinine in the plasma. We conclude that potassium phosphate can be used to induce serum calcium precipitation in-vivo, with minor effects on other physiological variables, and the ideal dose to do so is 5.0 mg/kg. PMID:24379908

  14. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... of calcium dietary supplements are carbonate and citrate. Calcium carbonate is inexpensive, but is absorbed best when taken ... antacid products, such as Tums® and Rolaids®, contain calcium carbonate. Each pill or chew provides 200–400 mg ...

  15. Serum amyloid A induces calcium mobilization and chemotaxis of human monocytes by activating a pertussis toxin-sensitive signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Badolato, R; Johnston, J A; Wang, J M; McVicar, D; Xu, L L; Oppenheim, J J; Kelvin, D J

    1995-10-15

    We have previously reported that serum amyloid A (SAA) induces adhesion and chemotaxis of human monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils, in vitro as well as in vivo. Since the mechanism of SAA signaling is unknown, we have investigated the possibility that SAA, like other chemoattractants such as the chemotactic peptide FMLP and chemokines, might induce migration of monocytes by G protein activation. We report here that preincubation of monocytes with pertussis toxin (PTx) inhibited SAA chemotaxis, while incubation with cholera toxin (CTx) did not. Staurosporine and H-7, both inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), significantly decreased rSAA-induced chemotaxis of monocytes, suggesting that PKC may be involved in the rSAA signaling pathway. Moreover, rSAA, at concentrations that were effective in chemoattracting monocytes, resulted in transient elevation of cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), and incubation of cells with PTx markedly inhibited the mobilization of Ca2+ in response to rSAA. This suggests that both chemotaxis and the rise in [Ca2+]i, are mediated by G proteins of the Gi class. The increase in [Ca2+]i, induced in monocytes by rSAA, was comparable to that elicited by FMLP, and was severalfold greater than that induced by optimal concentrations of chemokine beta-family members such as RANTES, MCAF/MCP-1, and MIP-1 alpha. The chemoattractants FMLP, RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MCAF/MCP-1, all failed to desensitize rSAA-induced Ca2+ influx and chemotaxis in monocytes. This suggests that SAA uses a distinct receptor that is coupled to PTx-sensitive G proteins. PMID:7561109

  16. Clinical efficacy of serum lipase subtype analysis for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic and non-pancreatic lipase elevation

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Chang Seok; Kim, Jin Bong; Park, Sang Hyun; Baik, Gwang Ho; Su, Ki Tae; Yoon, Jai Hoon; Kim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Dong Joon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Non-pancreatic elevations of serum lipase have been reported, and differential diagnosis is necessary for clinical practice. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of serum lipase subtype analysis for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic and non-pancreatic lipase elevation. Methods: Patients who were referred for the serum lipase elevation were prospectively enrolled. Clinical findings and serum lipase subtypes were analyzed and compared by dividing the patients into pancreatitis and non-pancreatitis groups. Results: A total of 34 patients (12 pancreatitis vs. 22 non-pancreatitis cases) were enrolled. In univariate analysis, the fraction of pancreatic lipase (FPL) in the total amount of serum lipase subtypes was statistically higher in patients with pancreatitis ([median, 0.004; interquartile range [IQR], 0.003 to 0.011] vs. [median, 0.002; IQR, 0.001 to 0.004], p = 0.04). Based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for the prediction of acute pancreatitis, FPL was the most valuable predictor (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.86; sensitivity, 83.3%; specificity, 63.6%; positive predictive value, 55.6%; negative predictive value, 97.5%). In multivariate analysis, a cut-off value higher than 0.0027 for the FPL was associated with acute pancreatitis (odds ratio, 8.3; 95% CI, 1.3 to 51.7; p = 0.02). Conclusions: The results did not support that serum lipase subtype analysis could replace standard lipase measurement for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. However, the test demonstrated adequate sensitivity for use in triage or as an add-on test for serum lipase elevation. PMID:27243230

  17. Serum vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations in ponies, horses and foals from the United States and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pozza, Megan E; Kaewsakhorn, Thattawan; Trinarong, Chumnan; Inpanbutr, Nongnuch; Toribio, Ramiro E

    2014-03-01

    Vitamin D is essential in calcium and phosphorus regulation, bone physiology, cell proliferation and epithelial integrity. Literature on vitamin D in growing horses is sparse, and the effect of age on vitamin D has not been evaluated in equids in the United States or in tropical countries. The goal of this study was to determine if there was an effect of age on serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations in equids in the US (Ohio/Kentucky) and Thailand (Chiang Rai and Kanchanaburi) during the same time of the year. Blood samples were collected from healthy ponies (n=21) and Thoroughbred foals (n=13), yearlings (n=10), and horses (n=20) in Thailand and from Thoroughbred foals (n=10) and horses (n=17) in the US. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3, calcium and phosphorus were measured. In both countries, serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations were lower in foals than in yearlings and adult horses. Serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations were higher in horses than in ponies in Thailand, but were not different between horses from either country. Calcium concentrations were not different between groups or location. In both countries, phosphorus concentrations were higher in foals than in older groups; however, were not different between ponies and horses. This study shows that independent of geography there are age-related differences in 25(OH)D3 concentrations in horses and further confirms that 25(OH)D3 concentrations are lower in horses compared to other species. The information will serve as the basis for future clinical studies and to help understand better the pathophysiology of equine disorders associated with calcium and phosphorus dysregulation. PMID:24524849

  18. Elevated baseline serum glutamate as a pharmacometabolomic biomarker for acamprosate treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nam, H W; Karpyak, V M; Hinton, D J; Geske, J R; Ho, A M C; Prieto, M L; Biernacka, J M; Frye, M A; Weinshilboum, R M; Choi, D-S

    2015-01-01

    Acamprosate has been widely used since the Food and Drug Administration approved the medication for treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in 2004. Although the detailed molecular mechanism of acamprosate remains unclear, it has been largely known that acamprosate inhibits glutamate action in the brain. However, AUD is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. Thus, biomarkers are required to prescribe this medication to patients who will have the highest likelihood of responding positively. To identify pharmacometabolomic biomarkers of acamprosate response, we utilized serum samples from 120 alcohol-dependent subjects, including 71 responders (maintained continuous abstinence) and 49 non-responders (any alcohol use) during 12 weeks of acamprosate treatment. Notably, baseline serum glutamate levels were significantly higher in responders compared with non-responders. Importantly, serum glutamate levels of responders are normalized after acamprosate treatment, whereas there was no significant glutamate change in non-responders. Subsequent functional studies in animal models revealed that, in the absence of alcohol, acamprosate activates glutamine synthetase, which synthesizes glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. These results suggest that acamprosate reduces serum glutamate levels for those who have elevated baseline serum glutamate levels among responders. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that elevated baseline serum glutamate levels are a potential biomarker associated with positive acamprosate response, which is an important step towards development of a personalized approach to treatment for AUD. PMID:26285131

  19. Significant elevations of serum lipase not caused by pancreatitis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Ahmer M; Lam, Vincent W T; Pleass, Henry C

    2015-01-01

    Background Many authors advocate lipase as the preferred serological test for the diagnosis of pancreatitis and a cut-off level of three or more times the upper limit of normal (ULN) is often quoted. The literature contains no systematic review that explores alternative causes of a lipase level over three times as high as the ULN. Such a review was therefore the objective of this study. Methods The EMBASE and MEDLINE databases (1985 to August 2013) were searched for all eligible articles. Predetermined data were extracted and independently analysed by two reviewers. Results In total, data from 58 studies were included in the final analysis. The following causes other than pancreatitis of lipase levels exceeding three times the ULN were found: reduced clearance of lipase caused by renal impairment or macrolipase formation; other hepatobiliary, gastroduodenal, intestinal and neoplastic causes; critical illness, including neurosurgical pathology; alternative pancreatic diagnoses, such as non-pathological pancreatic hyperenzymaemia, and miscellaneous causes such as diabetes, drugs and infections. Conclusions A series of differential diagnoses for significant serum lipase elevations (i.e. exceeding three times the ULN) has been provided by this study. Clinicians should utilize this knowledge in the interpretation and management of patients who have lipase levels over three times as high as the ULN, remaining vigilant for an alternative diagnosis to pancreatitis. The medical officer should be aware of the possibility of incorrect diagnosis in the asymptomatic patient. PMID:24888393

  20. Serum Calcium and the Risk of Breast Cancer: Findings from the Swedish AMORIS Study and a Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    PubMed

    Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Sagoo, Harkiran K; Hamza, Mustafa; Melvin, Jennifer; Holmberg, Lars; Garmo, Hans; Malmström, Håkan; Lambe, Mats; Hammar, Niklas; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between serum calcium and risk of breast cancer using a large cohort and a systematic review with meta-analysis. From the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS) Study we included 229,674 women who had baseline measurements of serum total calcium and albumin. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess the association between total and albumin-corrected calcium and breast cancer risk. For the systematic review, an electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to identify other prospective cohorts assessing the relationship between serum calcium and breast cancer risk. We pooled the results of our AMORIS cohort with other eligible studies in a meta-analysis using a random effects model. I² test was used to assess heterogeneity. In the AMORIS study, 10,863 women were diagnosed with breast cancer (mean follow-up: 19 years). We found an inverse association between total serum calcium and breast cancer when comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile (HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88-0.99, p value for trend 0.04) and similar results using albumin-corrected calcium. In the systematic review, we identified another two prospective cohorts evaluating pre-diagnostic serum total calcium and breast cancer. Combining these studies and our findings in AMORIS in a meta-analysis showed a protective effect of serum calcium against breast cancer, with a summary RR of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.66-0.97). No substantial heterogeneity was observed. Our findings in AMORIS and the meta-analysis support an inverse association between serum calcium and breast cancer risk, which warrants mechanistic investigations. PMID:27608013

  1. Study of Denosumab in the Treatment of Hypercalcemia of Malignancy in Subjects With Elevated Serum Calcium

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-18

    Breast Cancer; Hypercalcemia of Malignancy; Colon Cancer; Endocrine Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Lung Cancer; Lymphoma; Metastatic Cancer; Multiple Myeloma; Parathyroid Neoplasms; Renal Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  2. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... body stores more than 99 percent of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and keep them ... in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with soft bones that you eat, such as canned sardines and ...

  3. Hypophysectomy eliminates and growth hormone (GH) maintains the midpregnancy elevation in GH receptor and serum binding protein in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Jimenez, F.; Fielder, P.J.; Martinez, R.R.; Smith, W.C.; Talamantes, F. )

    1990-02-01

    ({sup 125}I)Iodomouse GH (({sup 125}I)iodo-mGH) binding to samples of serum and hepatic microsomal membranes was measured in hypophysectomized pregnant, sham-operated pregnant, intact pregnant, and intact adult virgin mice. Surgeries were carried out on day 11 of pregnancy, and the animals were killed on day 14. The binding of mGH to both serum and hepatic microsomal membranes of intact virgin mice was much lower than to those of intact pregnant mice. In hypophysectomized mice, the mGH-binding capacity of both serum and hepatic microsomes decreased to values similar to those of nonpregnant mice. No significant differences were observed between intact and sham-operated pregnant animals in the maternal serum mGH concentration, the serum GH-binding protein concentration, or the hepatic GH receptor concentration. GH receptor and binding protein-encoding mRNAs were also higher in intact and sham-operated pregnant mice than in virgin and hypophysectomized mice. Hypophysectomized mice were treated with 200 micrograms/day bovine GH, administered by osmotic minipump; after 3 days of treatment, a significant elevation of hepatic GH receptor and serum GH-binding protein levels was observed. These results demonstrate an up-regulation of hepatic GH receptors and serum GH-binding protein by GH during pregnancy in the mouse.

  4. Chronic bronchitis with fungal infection presenting with marked elevation of serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ping; Yan, Wei; Luo, Yi; Tu, Wei; He, Jia-Yi; Liu, Jing-Mei; Gong, Jin; Wang, Yun-Wu; Li, Meng-Ke; Tian, De-An; Huang, Huan-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is the most frequently applied serum tumor marker for diagnosis of cancers in the digestive organs. However, some patients with benign diseases can have elevated serum levels of CA19-9 as well. The current study presents a 55-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital for further evaluation of a nodular cavity shadow in the right lower lobe and clarification of the cause of the marked elevation of serum CA19-9 levels. Abdominal MRI and gastrointestinal endoscopy did not find any malignancy. As lung cancer cannot be excluded in this patient, a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was carried, intraoperative and postoperative biopsy analysis both suggested chronic bronchitis with fungal infection (due to Histoplasma capsulatum or Penicillium marneffei) and organization. Immunohistochemistry showed marked positive staining for CA19-9 in the damaged lung tissue. The CA19-9 levels quickly returned to the normal range following lobe resection. Therefore, the marked elevation of serum CA19-9 levels, in this case, may have resulted from the chronic bronchitis with fungal infection. PMID:25337284

  5. HIGH SERUM PCBs ARE ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATION OF SERUM LIPIDS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN A NATIVE AMERICAN POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Goncharov, Alexey; Haase, Richard F.; Santiago-Rivera, Azara; Morse, Gayle; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Rej, Robert; Carpenter, David O.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the relationships among the concentration of total serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), various PCB congener groupings, and three pesticides to total serum lipids in humans with and without self-reported cardiovascular disease. Blood samples were obtained from 335 adult Akwesasne Mohawks, and were analyzed for 101 PCB congeners, mirex, DDE, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), as well as serum triglycerides and cholesterol. Structural equation modeling, following the definition of latent variables by means of confirmatory factor analysis, was used to analyze the relationships between serum lipids with PCBs and heart disease. There were significant associations among PCBs, lipids, age, and body mass index (BMI), a fact which justified the application of the structural equation model. Gender of the participant was unrelated to any of the remaining study variables. The results of this study are consistent with a model in which age is considered as both an exogenous explanatory variable and a biological driving mechanism for the acquisition of PCBs. Moreover, the results of this study are consistent with the conclusion that PCBs, acting through P450 enzymes, are directly responsible for increased synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides, substances known to be major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:18054906

  6. Serum Metabolite Profiles and Target Tissue Gene Expression Define the Effect of Cholecalciferol Intake on Calcium Metabolism in Rats and Mice1,2

    PubMed Central

    Fleet, James C.; Gliniak, Christy; Zhang, Zhentao; Xue, Yingben; Smith, Kathleen B.; McCreedy, Rebecca; Adedokun, Sunday A.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effect of cholecalciferol (VD3) intake on VD3 status and markers of calcium (Ca) homeostasis in mice and rats. Serum 25 hydroxycholecalciferol (25OH-VD3) concentrations were increased in animals fed diets containing 400–20,000 international units (IU) VD3/kg (37 nmol·L−1·1000 IU VD3−1), but body weight, serum Ca, and duodenal gene expression were not altered. High-VD3 intake decreased serum 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2-VD3] and renal 25 hydroxycholecalciferol-1ahydroxylase (CYP27B1) mRNA, suggesting that rodents tolerate high-VD3 intake by suppressing the activity of the VD3 endocrine system. Serum 25OH-VD3 declined when animals were fed diets containing 1000 to 25 IU VD3/kg (9–11 wk, inflection at 200 IU/kg, 4-fold steeper slope below this). Neither body weight nor serum Ca were influenced by low-VD3 intake. However, mice fed the 25-IU/kg diet had lower serum 1,25(OH)2-VD3, duodenal calbindin D9k mRNA, bone mineral density, and renal 25 hydroxycholecalciferol-24 hydroxylase mRNA, whereas renal CYP27B1 mRNA was elevated when rodents were fed ,200 IU VD3/kg. These data reveal a stress on VD3 and Ca metabolism at low dietary VD3 intake. Dietary Ca restriction (0.25 vs. 0.5%, 9 wk) increased serum 1,25(OH)2-VD3 and was 30% greater in rats fed a 10,000-IU VD3/kg diet. High-VD3 intake did not prevent Ca restriction-induced bone loss. Our data show that modeling human VD3 status requires lower intake than the current NRC rodent requirement (1000-IU/kg diet). Also, although rodents are very tolerant of high-VD3 intake, it cannot compensate for moderate Ca restriction. PMID:18492843

  7. Ursolic Acid-Induced Elevation of Serum Irisin Augments Muscle Strength During Resistance Training in Men

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun Seok; Seo, Dae Yun; Chung, Yong Min; Oh, Kyoung-Mo; Park, Jung Jun; Arturo, Figueroa; Jeong, Seung-Hun; Kim, Nari

    2014-01-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), a type of pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid purified from natural plants, can promote skeletal muscle development. We measured the effect of resistance training (RT) with/without UA on skeletal muscle development and related factors in men. Sixteen healthy male participants (age, 29.37±5.14 years; body mass index=27.13±2.16 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to RT (n=7) or RT with UA (RT+UA, n=9) groups. Both groups completed 8 weeks of intervention consisting of 5 sets of 26 exercises, with 10~15 repetitions at 60~80% of 1 repetition maximum and a 60~90-s rest interval between sets, performed 6 times/week. UA or placebo was orally ingested as 1 capsule 3 times/day for 8 weeks. The following factors were measured pre-and post-intervention: body composition, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), irisin, and skeletal muscle strength. Body fat percentage was significantly decreased (p<0.001) in the RT+UA group, despite body weight, body mass index, lean body mass, glucose, and insulin levels remaining unchanged. IGF-1 and irisin were significantly increased compared with baseline levels in the RT+UA group (p<0.05). Maximal right and left extension (p<0.01), right flexion (p<0.05), and left flexion (p<0.001) were significantly increased compared with baseline levels in the RT+UA group. These findings suggest that UA-induced elevation of serum irisin may be useful as an agent for the enhancement of skeletal muscle strength during RT. PMID:25352765

  8. A cohort study of relationship between serum calcium levels and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in ischemic stroke patients with AF and/or RHD.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Deren; Xiong, Yao; Liu, Bian; Wei, Chenchen; Ma, Zhenxing; Wu, Bo; Yuan, Ruozhen; Tang, Hehan; Liu, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Calcium is an essential element for life and has cerebroprotective property in stroke patients. Low serum calcium levels were found to be related to large hematoma volumes in intracerebral hemorrhagic patients and hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke patients after thrombolysis. However, their impact on hemorrhage-prone small vessel disease represented by cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) is uncertain. We aim to investigate whether low serum calcium levels are associated with presence and location of CMBs.Ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or rheumatic heart disease admitted to our hospital were consecutively and prospectively enrolled. Demographic and clinical information were collected and analyzed according to the occurrence and location of CMBs, and levels of serum calcium. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate the multivariable adjusted relationship between serum calcium levels and the presence or location of CMBs.Among the 67 patients (28 males; mean age, 67.3 years) in the final analysis, 39 (58.2%) were found to have CMBs. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking habits, drinking habits, and renal impairment, the presence of CMBs and deep CMBs was, respectively, 4.96- and 4.83-fold higher in patients with lower serum calcium levels (≤2.15 mmol/L) than in patients with higher serum calcium levels.Lower serum calcium levels (≤2.15 mmol/L) are independently associated with the presence of CMBs and deep CMBs in ischemic stroke patients with AF and/or rheumatic heart disease, which should be verified and extended in large cohorts, with other types of stroke patients and the general population. PMID:27368027

  9. A cohort study of relationship between serum calcium levels and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in ischemic stroke patients with AF and/or RHD

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Deren; Xiong, Yao; Liu, Bian; Wei, Chenchen; Ma, Zhenxing; Wu, Bo; Yuan, Ruozhen; Tang, Hehan; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Calcium is an essential element for life and has cerebroprotective property in stroke patients. Low serum calcium levels were found to be related to large hematoma volumes in intracerebral hemorrhagic patients and hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke patients after thrombolysis. However, their impact on hemorrhage-prone small vessel disease represented by cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) is uncertain. We aim to investigate whether low serum calcium levels are associated with presence and location of CMBs. Ischemic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or rheumatic heart disease admitted to our hospital were consecutively and prospectively enrolled. Demographic and clinical information were collected and analyzed according to the occurrence and location of CMBs, and levels of serum calcium. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate the multivariable adjusted relationship between serum calcium levels and the presence or location of CMBs. Among the 67 patients (28 males; mean age, 67.3 years) in the final analysis, 39 (58.2%) were found to have CMBs. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking habits, drinking habits, and renal impairment, the presence of CMBs and deep CMBs was, respectively, 4.96- and 4.83-fold higher in patients with lower serum calcium levels (≤2.15 mmol/L) than in patients with higher serum calcium levels. Lower serum calcium levels (≤2.15 mmol/L) are independently associated with the presence of CMBs and deep CMBs in ischemic stroke patients with AF and/or rheumatic heart disease, which should be verified and extended in large cohorts, with other types of stroke patients and the general population. PMID:27368027

  10. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... milligrams) of calcium each day. Get it from: Dairy products. Low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, and cottage ... lactase that helps digest the sugar (lactose) in dairy products, and may have gas, bloating, cramps, or ...

  11. Serum MEPE-ASARM-peptides are elevated in X-linked rickets (HYP): implications for phosphaturia and rickets

    PubMed Central

    Bresler, Doron; Bruder, Jan; Mohnike, Klaus; Fraser, William D; Rowe, Peter S N

    2012-01-01

    MEPE (Matrix Extracellular PhosphoglycoprotEin) expression is markedly elevated in X-linked-hypophosphatemic-rickets (HYP) and tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO). In normal individuals, circulating serum-levels of MEPE are tightly correlated with serum-phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone mineral density (BMD). Also, MEPE derived, C-terminal ASARM-peptides are candidate minhibins and/or phosphatonins. Our aims were to determine: 1. whether MEPE-ASARM-peptide(s) are abnormally elevated in HYP/hyp serum, and, 2. whether the ASARM-peptide(s) accumulate in hyp mice kidney renal-tubules. Using a specific competitive ELISA we measured a five fold increase (P=0·007) of serum ASARM-peptide(s) in human HYP patients (normal subjects 3·25 μM n=9; S.E.M.=0·51 and HYP-patients 15·74 μM, n=9; S.E.M.=3·32). A 6·23 fold increase (P=0·008) was measured in hyp male mice compared with their normal male siblings (normal-siblings, 3·73 μM, S.E.M.=0·57, n=3; and hyp-mice 23·4 μM, n=3, S.E.M.=4·01). Renal immuno-histological screening also revealed a dramatic increase of ASARM-peptides in regions anatomically consistent with the proximal convoluted tubules. This study demonstrates for the first time that markedly elevated serum levels of protease-resistant ASARM-peptide(s) occur in HYP/hyp and they accumulate in murine hyp kidneys. These peptides are thus likely responsible for the phosphaturia and defective mineralization in HYP/hyp and TIO. PMID:15590969

  12. Elevated serum ferritin is an independent predictor of histologic severity and advanced fibrosis among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kowdley, Kris V.; Belt, Patricia; Wilson, Laura A.; Yeh, Matthew M.; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A.; Chalasani, Naga; Sanyal, Arun J.; Nelson, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) levels are commonly elevated in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), due to systemic inflammation, increased iron stores or both. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between elevated SF and NAFLD severity. Demographic, clinical, histologic, laboratory and anthropometric data were analyzed in 628 adult patients with NAFLD (age≥18 years) with biopsy-proven NAFLD and a serum ferritin measurement within six months of their liver biopsy. A threshold SF>1.5XULN (i.e. >300 ng/ml in women and >450 ng/ml in men) was significantly associated with male sex, elevated serum ALT, AST, iron, transferrin-iron saturation, iron stain grade and decreased platelets (p<0.01). Histologic features of NAFLD were more severe among patients with SF>1.5XULN including steatosis, fibrosis, hepatocellular ballooning and diagnosis of NASH (p<0.026). On multiple regression analysis, SF>1.5XULN was independently associated with advanced hepatic fibrosis (OR, 1.66, 95% CI, 1.05-2.62, p=0.028) and increased NAFLD Activity Score (NAS) (OR, 1.99, 95% CI, 1.06-3.75, p=0.033). Conclusions A SF >1.5XULN is associated with hepatic iron deposition, a diagnosis of NASH, and worsened histologic activity, and is an independent predictor of advanced hepatic fibrosis among patients with NAFLD. Furthermore, elevated SF is independently associated with higher NAS even among patients without hepatic iron deposition. We conclude that serum ferritin is useful to identify NAFLD patients at risk for NASH and advanced fibrosis. PMID:21953442

  13. Elevated serum interleukin-38 level at baseline predicts virological response in telbivudine-treated patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Fang; Wang, Xin-Rui; Zhang, Man-Li; Gao, Pu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate serum interleukin (IL)-38 level and its clinical role in predicting virological response (VR) to telbivudine (LdT) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: The study participants were divided into two groups; one group consisted of 43 healthy controls (HCs) and the other group consisted of 46 patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive CHB. All patients were administered 600 mg of oral LdT daily for 52 wk, and they visited physicians every 12 wk for physical examination and laboratory tests. Serum IL-38 levels were determined using ELISA. The concentrations of serum Th1- and Th2-type cytokines were measured using the cytometric bead array (CBA) method. RESULTS: Serum levels of IL-38 at baseline in all patients were higher than those in HCs [306.97 (123.26-492.79) pg/mL vs 184.50 (135.56-292.16) pg/mL, P = 0.019]; the levels returned to normal after the first 12 wk of treatment with LdT [175.51 (103.90-331.91) pg/mL vs 184.50 (135.56-292.16) pg/mL, P > 0.05]. Serum IL-38 levels at baseline were positively associated with serum aspartate aminotransferase levels in patients with CHB (r = 0.311, P = 0.036). Higher levels of serum IL-38 at baseline were associated with a greater probability of VR to LdT treatment at 24 wk (48.15% vs 15.79%, P = 0.023) and 52 wk (66.67% vs 36.84%, P = 0.044). The levels of serum IL-38 in patients with primary non-response at week 12 after treatment initiation were lower than those in patients with primary response [64.44 (49.85-172.08) pg/mL vs 190.54 (121.35-355.28) pg/mL, P = 0.036]. Serum IL-38 levels were correlated with serum IL-6 and IL-12 levels in patients with CHB during treatment with LdT. CONCLUSION: Elevated serum IL-38 levels in untreated CHB patients reflect ongoing liver injury. Higher serum IL-38 levels before treatment indicate a greater probability of VR to LdT treatment. PMID:27182162

  14. How the use of creatine supplements can elevate serum creatinine in the absence of underlying kidney pathology.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Lydia; New, David

    2014-01-01

    Serum creatinine is a widely used marker in the assessment of renal function. Elevated creatinine levels suggest kidney dysfunction, prompting the need for further investigation. This report describes a case in which the consumption of the bodybuilding supplement creatine ethyl ester resulted in raised serum creatinine in the absence of true underlying kidney pathology. The abnormalities reversed after discontinuation of the supplement. A case of pseudo renal failure was recognised and kidney function was concluded to be normal. This report aims to address the mechanisms by which the ingestion of creatine ethyl ester can mimic the blood results expected in advanced renal failure, and confronts the problems faced when relying on serum creatinine as a diagnostic tool. PMID:25239988

  15. Elevated Preoperative Serum CA19-9 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Is Associated with Poor Prognosis after Resection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hung; Hu, Rey-Heng; Ho, Ming-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Serum levels of the tumor marker CA19-9 have been reported to be elevated in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its clinicopathologic significance is still unknown. A cohort of 304 patients undergoing surgical resection for HCC and having preoperative CA19-9 data was enrolled in this study. Serum CA19-9 levels were correlated with clinicopathologic factors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the predictors of patient survival. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cut off value of CA19-9 was determined to be 27 U/mL. One hundred and six patients had preoperative CA19-9 values >27 U/mL. High serum CA19-9 levels did not correlate with patient age, sex, viral status, α-fetoprotein level, tumor size, tumor grade, tumor stage, multiplicity, and vascular invasion. Patients with elevated preoperative CA19-9 levels had lower 10-year survival than those without CA19-9 elevation. Multivariate analysis revealed that CA19-9 level, tumor grade, and tumor size are independent prognostic factors for long-term survival. In conclusion, a preoperative CA19-9 value >27 U/mL is associated with poor prognosis after resection for HCC. PMID:23843733

  16. Abnormal physiological conditions in acute schizophrenic patients on emergency admission: dehydration, hypokalemia, leukocytosis and elevated serum muscle enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hatta, K; Takahashi, T; Nakamura, H; Yamashiro, H; Endo, H; Fujii, S; Fukami, G; Masui, K; Asukai, N; Yonezawa, Y

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated varieties and incidence of abnormal physiological conditions in acute schizophrenic patients on emergency. Laboratory data obtained prior to treatment from patients, admitted on an emergency basis during an 18-month period, were evaluated retrospectively, as well as demographics and clinical characteristics. Of 259 male acute schizophrenic patients (ICD-10: F2), 6.9% revealed dehydration, a third had hypokalemia and leukocytosis, and two thirds showed elevated serum muscle enzymes. These percentages were statistically significant compared with those of outpatients. In addition, the former three of these conditions in the F2 group were as frequent as those in alcohol and/or psychoactive substance abusers (ICD-10: F1) on emergency admission, although elevated serum muscle enzymes in the F2 group was less frequent than that in the F1 group. In order to prevent these abnormal physiological conditions from worsening and becoming life-threatening, one fourth of the F2 group [dehydration, 6.9%, severe hypokalemia (< 3.0 mEq/l), 2.3%, and markedly elevated serum muscle enzymes (creatine phosphokinase > 1000 IU/l), 16.5%] required medical management such as fluid therapy and various types of monitoring. In cases of a behavioral emergency, laboratory screening and monitoring of urinary output were essential. Due to their lack of cooperation, case history, physical examination, and initial vital signs did not contribute to detection of their medical condition. PMID:9810481

  17. Elevation of serum heat-shock protein levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Daigo; Nakamura, Akinori; Hineno, Akiyo; Kobayashi, Chinatsu; Kinoshita, Tomomi; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we aimed to examine whether the serum levels of HSPs (HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90) are altered in patients with ALS. We included 58 patients diagnosed with ALS and 85 control individuals. Serum HSP levels of patients and controls were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum levels of HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly higher in patients than in controls. In contrast, serum levels of HSP27 did not differ significantly between the patient and control groups. Moreover, serum levels of HSP70 and HSP90 in patients remained high throughout the duration of the disease. Taken together, our findings suggest that HSPs might have a role in ALS progression throughout the course of the disease. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of HSPs in the pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:27112486

  18. Impact of Elevated Hemoglobin and Serum Protein on Vasovagal Reaction from Blood Donation

    PubMed Central

    Tanba, Taiko; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Motoji, Toshiko; Munakata, Masaya; Nakajima, Kazunori; Minami, Mutsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate factors contributing to vasovagal reaction (VVR), the most frequent side effect following whole blood and apheresis donations. Complications recorded at the collection sites after voluntary donations by the Japanese Red Cross Tokyo Blood Center (JRC), in the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years, were analyzed by both univariate analysis and the multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Of 1,119,716 blood donations over the full two years, complications were recorded for 13,320 donations (1.18%), among which 67% were VVR. There were 4,303 VVR cases which had sufficient information and could be used for this study. For each VVR case, two sex- and age-matched controls (n = 8,606) were randomly selected from the donors without complications. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), predonation blood pressure, pulse and blood test results, including total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin, were compared between the VVR group and the control group. In univariate analysis, the VVR group was significantly younger, with a lower BMI, higher blood pressure and higher blood protein and hemoglobin levels than the control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, blood protein and hemoglobin levels showed dose-dependent relationships with VVR incidences by the Cochran-Armitage trend test (p<0.01). For both sexes, after adjusting for confounders with the multivariate conditional logistic regression model, the higher than median groups for total protein (male: OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.76,-2.21; female: OR 2.29; 95%CI 2.05–2.56), albumin (male: 1.75; 1.55–1.96; female: 1.76; 1.57–1.97) and hemoglobin (male: 1.98; 1.76–2.22; female: 1.62; 1.45–1.81) had statistically significant higher risk of VVR compared to the lower than median groups. These elevated serum protein and hemoglobin levels might offer new indicators to help understand VVR occurrence. PMID:26894814

  19. Impact of calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies on serum parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density: analysis of the 4th & 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative contributions of calcium and vitamin D to calcium metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) have been examined previously, but not in a population with very low calcium intake. To determine the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concent...

  20. Calcium-substituted Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors with enhanced Tc synthesized at elevated oxygen pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, D. E.; Narwankar, P.; Sinha, A. P. B.; Takano, K.; Fayn, B.; Shum, V. T.

    1990-03-01

    Calcium substitution in the Y-Ba-Cu-O system at elevated P(O2) results in superconducting compounds with novel and enhanced properties: tetragonal CaxY(1-x)Ba2Cu3Oy with Tc=86 K for x=0.2 prepared at P(O2)=16 bars, and CaxY(1-x)Ba2Cu4Oy (1:2:4) with Tc=89 K for x=0.1 prepared at 50-200 bars. Calcium substitution shifts the phase-stability boundary between 1:2:3, 2:4:7, and 1:2:4 phases to higher P(O2), and stabilizes a tetragonal 1:2:3 structure at moderately elevated P(O2) without substantial decrease in Tc. The Tc of 1:2:4 increases with Ca substitution up to x=0.1, and then decreases gradually for larger x, possibly because of excessive hole concentration.

  1. Elevated Levels of SOX10 in Serum from Vitiligo and Melanoma Patients, Analyzed by Proximity Ligation Assay

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsdottir, Sigrun M.; Vuu, Jimmy; Ullenhag, Gustav; Kämpe, Olle; Landegren, Ulf; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood; Hedstrand, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of malignant melanoma currently relies on clinical inspection of the skin surface and on the histopathological status of the excised tumor. The serum marker S100B is used for prognostic estimates at later stages of the disease, but analyses are marred by false positives and inadequate sensitivity in predicting relapsing disorder. Objectives To investigate SOX10 as a potential biomarker for melanoma and vitiligo. Methods In this study we have applied proximity ligation assay (PLA) to detect the transcription factor SOX10 as a possible serum marker for melanoma. We studied a cohort of 110 melanoma patients. We further investigated a second cohort of 85 patients with vitiligo, which is a disease that also affects melanocytes. Results The specificity of the SOX10 assay in serum was high, with only 1% of healthy blood donors being positive. In contrast, elevated serum SOX10 was found with high frequency among vitiligo and melanoma patients. In patients with metastases, lack of SOX10 detection was associated with treatment benefit. In two responding patients, a change from SOX10 positivity to undetectable levels was seen before the response was evident clinically. Conclusions We show for the first time that SOX10 represents a promising new serum melanoma marker for detection of early stage disease, complementing the established S100B marker. Our findings imply that SOX10 can be used to monitor responses to treatment and to assess if the treatment is of benefit at stages earlier than what is possible radiologically. PMID:27110718

  2. Elevation of serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels in androgen-treated and ultraviolet-irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Ohata, M; Sakagami, Y; Fujita, T

    1977-10-01

    Administration of 4-8 mg testosterone propionate significantly raised 25-hydroxycalciferol levels in the ultraviolet irradiated rats compared to the ultraviolet irradiated controls, but failed to influence serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels in the non-irradiated animals. Estradiol benzoate and progesterone did not influence serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels regardless of the ultraviolet irradiation. These findings implicate that testosterone enhances vitamin D biosynthesis induced by ultraviolet irradiation in rats, in accordance with the clinical observation that males often show higher levels of serum 25-hydroxycalciferol than females. PMID:303993

  3. [Determination of the content of serum calcium with methylthymol blue as chromogenic reagent].

    PubMed

    Yang, C; Liu, W; Zhao, Z; Wu, H

    1998-08-01

    It is reported in this paper that calcium can be determined with MTB as chromogenic reagent by isoabsorption dual-wavelength elimination. The measuring wavelength and referential wavelength were 613.7 and 590.0nm, respectively. No masking reagent was necessary in the analysis. The average recovery and RSD of calcium are 98.98% and 0.81%, respectively. Compared with titration, this method is rapid, simple and precise. PMID:15825349

  4. Characterization of Granulations of Calcium and Apatite in Serum as Pleomorphic Mineralo-Protein Complexes and as Precursors of Putative Nanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Young, John D.; Young, Andrew; Hung, Chin-Ming; Young, Lena; Chao, Ying-Jie; Young, James; Wu, Cheng-Yeu

    2009-01-01

    Calcium and apatite granulations are demonstrated here to form in both human and fetal bovine serum in response to the simple addition of either calcium or phosphate, or a combination of both. These granulations are shown to represent precipitating complexes of protein and hydroxyapatite (HAP) that display marked pleomorphism, appearing as round, laminated particles, spindles, and films. These same complexes can be found in normal untreated serum, albeit at much lower amounts, and appear to result from the progressive binding of serum proteins with apatite until reaching saturation, upon which the mineralo-protein complexes precipitate. Chemically and morphologically, these complexes are virtually identical to the so-called nanobacteria (NB) implicated in numerous diseases and considered unusual for their small size, pleomorphism, and the presence of HAP. Like NB, serum granulations can seed particles upon transfer to serum-free medium, and their main protein constituents include albumin, complement components 3 and 4A, fetuin-A, and apolipoproteins A1 and B100, as well as other calcium and apatite binding proteins found in the serum. However, these serum mineralo-protein complexes are formed from the direct chemical binding of inorganic and organic phases, bypassing the need for any biological processes, including the long cultivation in cell culture conditions deemed necessary for the demonstration of NB. Thus, these serum granulations may result from physiologically inherent processes that become amplified with calcium phosphate loading or when subjected to culturing in medium. They may be viewed as simple mineralo-protein complexes formed from the deployment of calcification-inhibitory pathways used by the body to cope with excess calcium phosphate so as to prevent unwarranted calcification. Rather than representing novel pathophysiological mechanisms or exotic lifeforms, these results indicate that the entities described earlier as NB most likely originate

  5. Characterization of granulations of calcium and apatite in serum as pleomorphic mineralo-protein complexes and as precursors of putative nanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Young, John D; Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, Andrew; Hung, Chin-Ming; Young, Lena; Chao, Ying-Jie; Young, James; Wu, Cheng-Yeu

    2009-01-01

    Calcium and apatite granulations are demonstrated here to form in both human and fetal bovine serum in response to the simple addition of either calcium or phosphate, or a combination of both. These granulations are shown to represent precipitating complexes of protein and hydroxyapatite (HAP) that display marked pleomorphism, appearing as round, laminated particles, spindles, and films. These same complexes can be found in normal untreated serum, albeit at much lower amounts, and appear to result from the progressive binding of serum proteins with apatite until reaching saturation, upon which the mineralo-protein complexes precipitate. Chemically and morphologically, these complexes are virtually identical to the so-called nanobacteria (NB) implicated in numerous diseases and considered unusual for their small size, pleomorphism, and the presence of HAP. Like NB, serum granulations can seed particles upon transfer to serum-free medium, and their main protein constituents include albumin, complement components 3 and 4A, fetuin-A, and apolipoproteins A1 and B100, as well as other calcium and apatite binding proteins found in the serum. However, these serum mineralo-protein complexes are formed from the direct chemical binding of inorganic and organic phases, bypassing the need for any biological processes, including the long cultivation in cell culture conditions deemed necessary for the demonstration of NB. Thus, these serum granulations may result from physiologically inherent processes that become amplified with calcium phosphate loading or when subjected to culturing in medium. They may be viewed as simple mineralo-protein complexes formed from the deployment of calcification-inhibitory pathways used by the body to cope with excess calcium phosphate so as to prevent unwarranted calcification. Rather than representing novel pathophysiological mechanisms or exotic lifeforms, these results indicate that the entities described earlier as NB most likely originate

  6. Association of serum uric acid level with mortality and morbidity of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Reza; Ghaffari, Samad; Salehi, Rezvanieh; Mazani, Sarvin; Aghavali, Sharmin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Investigating the clinical impact of serum uric acid (UA) and its lowering agents on the complications and mortality of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) can open a new era in STEMI treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of on admission serum UA level on the mortality and morbidity of patients admitted with STEMI. Methods: A number of 608 patients with STEMI were enrolled in this study from December 21, 2012 until February 19, 2014. Patients were followed for 20 months. Male to female ratio was 2.53, and the mean age of patients was 62.6±13.4. The relationship between the level of UA and patients’ mortality and morbidity, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), atrial and ventricular arrhythmia was analyzed. Results: Patients with high serum UA level had higher Killip class after STEMI (P=0.001). Mean LVEF was measured to be 39.5±9.6 in normal UA group and 34.6±11.6 in high UA group (P=0.001). In comparison with normal UA group, high UA group had significantly higher cTnI (2.68±0.09 vs 4.09±0.42, respectively, P=0.001), increased blood pressure (P=0.009), and higher atrial fibrillation (AF) occurrence (P=0.03), but no association was seen between ventricular tachycardia and serum UA level. Short term and midterm mortality were not different in two groups (P=0.44 and 0.31, respectively). Conclusion: In the current study, high serum UA level in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) was not associated with higher in-hospital or midterm mortality, but it was associated with lower LVEF, higher Killip class, elevated cTnI, creatinine, triglyceride, and higher AF. PMID:27489597

  7. No effects of low and high consumption of dairy products and calcium supplements on body composition and serum lipids in Puerto Rican obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Cristina; Bertrán, José J.; Ríos, Ruth E.; Soltero, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective Epidemiologic studies have shown that a high calcium intake is related to lower body weight, fat, and serum lipids in obese individuals. However, clinical studies have shown inconclusive results. The present study was conducted to determine if dairy or calcium supplementation alters body composition or serum lipids in Puerto Rican obese adults without dietary energy restriction or exercise. Methods A 21-wk randomized clinical trial was conducted in 30 obese adults, aged 21–50 y, with usual calcium intakes <700 mg/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to the following: high dairy (~1300 mg/d of calcium from dairy products by substituting foods); high calcium (~1300 mg/d of calcium; ~700 mg/d from diet and 600 mg/d from a supplement); or placebo. Subjects were asked to continue their established dietary intake (except for the high dairy group) and their physical activity during the study. Body weight was measured monthly; body fat, bone, and serum lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triacylglycerol) were measured at baseline and at 21 wk. Pairwise differences in study endpoints among the groups were assessed using ANOVA and post-hoc analysis. Results Grand mean calcium intake was 1200 ± 370 (median 1187) mg/d in the high dairy group, 1171 ± 265 (median 1165) mg/d in the high calcium group, and 668 ± 273 (median 691) mg/d in the control group, which was significantly lower compared to the two treatment groups (P < 0.001). There were no significant group effects in any of the outcome variables. Conclusion A high dairy or calcium diet alone did not alter body composition or serum lipids profile in a sample of Puerto Rican obese adults. PMID:20579848

  8. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR α mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR α and ACO mRNA expression. Expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the ovariectomized control group. Rats administered low-dose olive leaf extract showed significantly elevated adiponectin mRNA expression compared with rats in the ovariectomized control group. Even though dose-dependent effects were not observed in most of the measurements, these results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism may be regulated by olive leaf extract administration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25714618

  9. Serum elevation of B lymphocyte stimulator does not increase regulatory B cells in glioblastoma patients undergoing immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Saraswathula, Anirudh; Reap, Elizabeth A; Choi, Bryan D; Schmittling, Robert J; Norberg, Pamela K; Sayour, Elias J; Herndon, James E; Healy, Patrick; Congdon, Kendra L; Archer, Gerald E; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Sampson, John H

    2016-02-01

    Regulatory B cells that secrete IL-10 (IL-10(+) Bregs) represent a suppressive subset of the B cell compartment with prominent anti-inflammatory capacity, capable of suppressing cellular and humoral responses to cancer and vaccines. B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a key regulatory molecule in IL-10(+) Breg biology with tightly controlled serum levels. However, BLyS levels can be drastically altered upon chemotherapeutic intervention. We have previously shown that serum BLyS levels are elevated, and directly associated, with increased antigen-specific antibody titers in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) undergoing lymphodepletive temozolomide chemotherapy and vaccination. In this study, we examined corresponding IL-10(+) Breg responses within this patient population and demonstrate that the IL-10(+) Breg compartment remains constant before and after administration of the vaccine, despite elevated BLyS levels in circulation. IL-10(+) Breg frequencies were not associated with serum BLyS levels, and ex vivo stimulation with a physiologically relevant concentration of BLyS did not increase IL-10(+) Breg frequency. However, BLyS stimulation did increase the frequency of the overall B cell compartment and promoted B cell proliferation upon B cell receptor engagement. Therefore, using BLyS as an adjuvant with therapeutic peptide vaccination could promote humoral immunity with no increase in immunosuppressive IL-10(+) Bregs. These results have implications for modulating humoral responses in human peptide vaccine trials in patients with GBM. PMID:26759007

  10. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR α mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR α and ACO mRNA expression. Expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the ovariectomized control group. Rats administered low-dose olive leaf extract showed significantly elevated adiponectin mRNA expression compared with rats in the ovariectomized control group. Even though dose-dependent effects were not observed in most of the measurements, these results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism may be regulated by olive leaf extract administration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25714618

  11. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS. PMID:26663940

  12. Heat-induced gelation of bovine serum albumin/low-methoxyl pectin systems and the effect of calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Donato, Laurence; Garnier, Catherine; Novales, Bruno; Durand, Sylvie; Doublier, Jean-Louis

    2005-01-01

    Influence of low-methoxyl pectin (LM pectin) and calcium ions (3 mM) on mechanical behavior and microstructure of bovine serum albumin (BSA) gels (pH 6.8, in 0.1 M NaCl) was evaluated. Protein and LM pectin concentrations were fixed at 2, 4, and 8 wt % and 0.21, 0.43, and 0.85 wt %, respectively. Rheological measurements and confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled with texture image analysis by use of the co-occurrence method were performed. Heat treatment of BSA/LM pectin mixtures induced protein gelation and a phase separation process between the two biopolymers, which was kinetically trapped. Calcium ions induced pectin gelation and modified BSA gel properties. Depending on biopolymer concentrations, a balance between pectin and/or protein gel contribution on final gel strength exists. The microstructures of the mixed systems in the presence of calcium can be interpreted as interpenetrated structures. Texture image analysis allowed one to classify more precisely the different microstructures observed in relation with mechanical properties. PMID:15638542

  13. Diet manipulation as treatment for elevated serum iron parameters in captive raggiana bird of paradise (Paradisaea raggiana).

    PubMed

    Helmick, Kelly E; Kendrick, Erin L; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2011-09-01

    Elevated serum iron parameters were lowered through dietary manipulation in captive Raggiana bird of paradise (Paradisaea raggiana). Study birds were part of a captive breeding program consisting of two males and one female, captive born, 3.5-9 yr of age. Serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), percentage saturation, body weight, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, and hematocrit were monitored at regular intervals for 2.5 yr. Routine diet consisted of a variety of fruits, vegetables, a multivitamin supplement, and a commercial low iron avian pellet, with a dietary iron content of 55 mg/kg (dry matter basis) or 1.12 mg iron/bird/day. Dietary treatment involved removal of the commercial avian pellet for 30 days at 6-to 12-mo intervals, resulting in an iron content of 42 mg/kg (dry matter basis) or 0.64 mg iron/bird/day. Average serum iron and TIBC were decreased by 75% (TIBC) to 80% (serum iron) ofpretreatment values after one 30-day treatment. Average iron saturation levels were lowered by 10% of pretreatment values after one 30-day treatment. Average hematocrit, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, and body weight remained unchanged. No adverse effects were noted through the 2.5-yr evaluation period, and breeding behavior was undisturbed. Periodic removal of low iron commercial pellets in the diet of captive bird of paradise is a safe and effective method for lowering serum iron values without need for handling. Periodic application of this technique may be useful as a preventive tool to maintain appropriate serum iron values in avian species susceptible to iron storage disease. PMID:22950319

  14. Serum Estradiol and Testosterone Levels in Kidney Stones Disease with and without Calcium Oxalate Components in Naturally Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Lili; Duan, Xiaolu; Zeng, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological data reveal that the overall risk for kidney stones disease is lower for women compared to age-matched men. However, the beneficial effect for the female sex is lost upon menopause, a time corresponding to the onset of fall in estrogen levels. The aim of this study was to describe the serum estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) characteristics of naturally postmenopausal women with kidney stones. Methods 113 naturally postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed kidney stones (aged 57.4±4.98 years) and 84 age frequency matched stone-free controls (56.9±4.56 years) were validly recruited in the case-control study. The odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between sex hormones and kidney stones were estimated with logistic regression models, adjusting for demographic data and medical history. Patients were also stratified analyzed according to stone components (calcium oxalate stones [COS]; non-calcium oxalate stones [NCOS]). Results Serum E2 (21.1 vs. 31.1 pg/ml) was significantly lower in kidney stones patients compared to controls. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that this effect was driven by COS patients (p<0.001). According to tertiles of the E2 levels, a significant higher frequency of COS was seen in the lowest E2 group (p <0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified E2 level as a strong factor that was independently associated with the risk for COS (per 1 SD increase, OR=0.951, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.919-0.985; highest: lowest tertile, OR=0.214, 95%CI = 0.069-0.665). However, serum T levels did not significantly differ among the groups. Conclusions Naturally postmenopausal women with higher remaining estradiol levels appear less likely to suffer from kidney calcium oxalate stones. However, no correlation was found between serum T level and kidney stones. These findings support the hypothesis that higher postmenopausal endogenous estrogens may protect against kidney stones with ageing. PMID:24086550

  15. Elevated Serum Gas6 Is a Novel Prognostic Biomarker in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tao; Liu, Guoxia; Wang, Lin; Liu, Hongchen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study explored the level and clinical significance of serum Gas6 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods A total of 128 OSCC patients and 145 normal controls were selected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect Gas6 concentration in sera from the OSCC patients and controls. The correlations of serum Gas6 concentration and clinicopathological characteristics of OSCC patients were assessed, and the prognostic significance of serum Gas6 was evaluated with a Kaplan–Meier curve and log-rank test. Results The results showed that serum Gas6 concentration was significantly higher in OSCC patients than in controls (P < 0.05). OSCC patients with late TNM stage (III, IV) had a relatively high serum Gas6 concentration compared with those with early stage (I, II) (P < 0.01) and patients with poorly differentiated tumors had a higher level of serum Gas6 than those with well-differentiated tumors (P < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that high serum Gas6 was an independent risk factor for lymph nodal metastases in OSCC patients (OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.72–4.48). For predicting OSCC development, ROC curve analysis showed a sensitivity of 0.63 with a specificity of 0.92 (AUC = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.74–0.85). Cox analysis revealed that high serum Gas6 was an independent biomarker for predicting poor overall survival in OSCC patients (HR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.79–3.62). In addition, we found that Gas6 expression was increased in OSCC tissues and it may significantly decrease E-cadherin expression, and increase P-cadherin and N-cadherin expression, in OSCC cells. Further, Gas6 could promote the migratory and invasive ability of OSCC cells in vitro. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that Gas6 increases the metastatic capacity of OSCC cells and serum Gas6 could be a candidate biomarker for diagnostic and prognostic use in OSCC patients. PMID:26207647

  16. [Hydronephrosis associated with elevated serum levels of CA 125 antigen. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Giordano, S; Miglionico, L; Pellegrino, M; De Meco, C; Scianname, N; Castriota Scanderbeg, A

    1996-01-01

    High level of the CA 125 serum antigen is typically associated with ovarian malignancies. However the CA 125 antigen can also be found in association with inflammation or neoplasms of tissues other than ovaries, i.e. mesothelial cells, mullerian duct derivatives and gastroenteric tract. Therefore the marker is not specific for ovarian neoplasms. In childhood there is not a large experience about clinical meaning of high CA 125 serum levels. We report a case in a 14-year-old patient, female, affected by hydronephrosis. Our case confirms that high CA 125, especially in childhood, is not necessarily associated with ovarian or pelvic diseases. Moreover the review of literature suggests the opportunity to investigate CA 125 serum levels in children affected by hydronephrosis. PMID:8965765

  17. Elevation of serum sphingosine-1-phosphate attenuates impaired cardiac function in experimental sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Coldewey, Sina M.; Benetti, Elisa; Collino, Massimo; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Sponholz, Christoph; Bauer, Michael; Huwiler, Andrea; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Serum levels of the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are reduced in septic patients and are inversely associated with disease severity. We show that serum S1P is reduced in human sepsis and in murine models of sepsis. We then investigated whether pharmacological or genetic approaches that alter serum S1P may attenuate cardiac dysfunction and whether S1P signaling might serve as a novel theragnostic tool in sepsis. Mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan (LPS/PepG). LPS/PepG resulted in an impaired systolic contractility and reduced serum S1P. Administration of the immunomodulator FTY720 increased serum S1P, improved impaired systolic contractility and activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-pathway in the heart. Cardioprotective effects of FTY720 were abolished following administration of a S1P receptor 2 (S1P2) antagonist or a PI3K inhibitor. Sphingosine kinase-2 deficient mice had higher endogenous S1P levels and the LPS/PepG-induced impaired systolic contractility was attenuated in comparison with wild-type mice. Cardioprotective effects of FTY720 were confirmed in polymicrobial sepsis. We show here for the first time that the impaired left ventricular systolic contractility in experimental sepsis is attenuated by FTY720. Mechanistically, our results indicate that activation of S1P2 by increased serum S1P and the subsequent activation of the PI3K-Akt survival pathway significantly contributes to the observed cardioprotective effect of FTY720. PMID:27277195

  18. Elevation of serum sphingosine-1-phosphate attenuates impaired cardiac function in experimental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Coldewey, Sina M; Benetti, Elisa; Collino, Massimo; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Sponholz, Christoph; Bauer, Michael; Huwiler, Andrea; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Serum levels of the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are reduced in septic patients and are inversely associated with disease severity. We show that serum S1P is reduced in human sepsis and in murine models of sepsis. We then investigated whether pharmacological or genetic approaches that alter serum S1P may attenuate cardiac dysfunction and whether S1P signaling might serve as a novel theragnostic tool in sepsis. Mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan (LPS/PepG). LPS/PepG resulted in an impaired systolic contractility and reduced serum S1P. Administration of the immunomodulator FTY720 increased serum S1P, improved impaired systolic contractility and activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-pathway in the heart. Cardioprotective effects of FTY720 were abolished following administration of a S1P receptor 2 (S1P2) antagonist or a PI3K inhibitor. Sphingosine kinase-2 deficient mice had higher endogenous S1P levels and the LPS/PepG-induced impaired systolic contractility was attenuated in comparison with wild-type mice. Cardioprotective effects of FTY720 were confirmed in polymicrobial sepsis. We show here for the first time that the impaired left ventricular systolic contractility in experimental sepsis is attenuated by FTY720. Mechanistically, our results indicate that activation of S1P2 by increased serum S1P and the subsequent activation of the PI3K-Akt survival pathway significantly contributes to the observed cardioprotective effect of FTY720. PMID:27277195

  19. Joint Effect of Hypertension and Elevated Serum Phosphorus on the Risk of Mortality in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-III

    PubMed Central

    Vart, Priya; Nigatu, Yeshambel T; Jaglan, Ajay; van Zon, Sander K R; Shafique, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum phosphorus might aggravate the effect of hypertension on mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the joint effect of hypertension and serum phosphorus on the risk of mortality. Methods and Results A large prospective (n=15 833), population-based cohort of participants from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III was examined to test potential synergism between hypertension, elevated serum phosphorus, and the risk of mortality. Interaction on additive scale and multiplicative scale was estimated. After a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 1691 cases of cardiovascular mortality and 3875 cases of all-cause mortality were identified. Interaction was observed between hypertension and elevated serum phosphorus on the additive scale for cardiovascular mortality (relative excess risk due to interaction, 0.99, 95% CI: 0.06; 1.92, adjusted for age, gender, race, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). No statistically significant interaction was found between hypertension and serum phosphorus for all-cause mortality on the additive scale. No significant interaction was detected on the multiplicative scale. In sensitivity analysis, excluding participants who died in first 2 years and adjustment for additional confounders resulted in essentially similar findings. Conclusions The joint effect of hypertension and elevated serum phosphorus was larger than the sum of the independent effects on cardiovascular mortality but not on all-cause mortality. Future studies should investigate whether controlling elevated serum phosphorus in hypertensive individuals helps in prevention of extra risk of cardiovascular mortality. PMID:25994440

  20. Clinical significance of elevated serum A-FABP and free fatty acid in neonates with hypoxic ischemic brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei; Jiang, Lian; Zhang, Huifen; Wang, Dandan; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Lianshan

    2016-01-01

    The main function of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) is to regulate fatty acid metabolism as its molecular chaperone. The clinical significance of A-FABP in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) neonates is not yet clear. Free fatty acid (FFA) in cerebral cortex increases along with hypoxia ischemia degree. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether FFA can induce A-FABP expression and elevate the serum A-FABP level in HIBD neonates. In the present study, 42 HIBD neonates were selected including 11 cases as mild, 16 cases as moderate and 15 cases as severe. The serum was collected from peripheral vein at 72 h after the first visit (acute stage) and 7 days after birth (recovery stage), and the serum from 10 normal neonates was used as the control. The serum level of A-FABP and FFA in 42 neonates with acute phase and recovery phase HIBD were detected using ELISA and copper colorimetric method. The overall serum A-FABP content in HIBD neonates at the acute stage was significantly higher compared to the normal neonates (P<0.05). The serum A-FABP level in severe HIBD neonates was significantly higher than that in mild HIBD, moderate HIBD and normal neonates (P<0.05). The serum FFA level in HIBD neonates at the acute stage was 1,521.57±605.63 µmol/l, which was significantly higher than that in the normal neonates 838.24±294.22 µmol/l. The serum FFA levels in mild, moderate and severe HIBD neonates were significantly higher than those in the normal neonates. The overall A-FABP level in HIBD neonates at the recovery stage was significantly lower compared to the acute stage, which was significant in severe HIBD neonates. A-FABP levels in mild and moderate HIBD neonates at recovery stage were decreased compared with the acute stage, although there was no statistical difference. There was a positive correlation between serum A-FABP and FFA in HIBD neonates at acute stage (r=0.369, P<0.05). In conclusion, serum A-FABP and FFA levels were signifcantly increased in

  1. Effect of curing conditions on the dimensional and thermal stability of calcium phosphate cement for elevated temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Blom, Johan; Rahier, Hubert; Wastiels, Jan

    2014-12-15

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are attractive materials for elevated temperature applications, like moulds to process thermoplastics up to 300 °C. The CPC resulting from the reaction of wollastonite with phosphoric acid cured at room temperature however contains hydrated phases like brushite, and is thus not stable when exposed to temperatures above 200 °C. A non-contact method based on digital image correlation demonstrated that isothermal curing at 60 °C reduces the thermal shrinkage up to 300 °C by 25%. This curing method results in the direct formation of the more stable monetite in a shorter curing time. The correlated results of TGA, pH of the filtration water, and DSC analysis on partially cured material indicate this. XRD diffractograms and SEM images in combination with EDX show the evolution of the transformation of wollastonite into monetite, and the structure and morphology of the formed material.

  2. Activiation of the calcium sensing receptor stimulates serum gastrin and gastric acid secretion in healthy subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acid secretion is a complex process regulated by neuronal and hormonal pathways. Ex vivo studies in human gastric tissues indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), expressed on the surface of G and parietal cells, may be involved in this regulation. We sought to determine whether cin...

  3. Activation of the calcium sensing receptor stimulates serum gastrin and gastric acid secretion in healthy subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acid secretion is a complex process regulated by neuronal and hormonal pathways. Ex vivo studies in human gastric tissues indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), expressed on the surface of G and parietal cells, may be involved in this regulation. We sought to determine whether cin...

  4. Unique Responsiveness of Angiosperm Stomata to Elevated CO2 Explained by Calcium Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Brodribb, Timothy J.; McAdam, Scott A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperm and conifer tree species respond differently when exposed to elevated CO2, with angiosperms found to dynamically reduce water loss while conifers appear insensitive. Such distinct responses are likely to affect competition between these tree groups as atmospheric CO2 concentration rises. Seeking the mechanism behind this globally important phenomenon we targeted the Ca2+-dependent signalling pathway, a mediator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2, as a possible explanation for the differentiation of stomatal behaviours. Sampling across the diversity of vascular plants including lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms we show that only angiosperms possess the stomatal behaviour and prerequisite genetic coding, linked to Ca2+-dependent stomatal signalling. We conclude that the evolution of Ca2+-dependent stomatal signalling gives angiosperms adaptive benefits in terms of highly efficient water use, but that stomatal sensitivity to high CO2 may penalise angiosperm productivity relative to other plant groups in the current era of soaring atmospheric CO2. PMID:24278470

  5. Elevated levels of thymidine kinase 1 peptide in serum from patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Anders; Lindman, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Thymidine kinase (TK) has an important role in DNA synthesis and is thus related to cell proliferation and turn-over. Traditionally, TK has been measured by enzymatic activity or radioimmunoassays. These assays are difficult to adapt to random access instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new immunological sandwich assay for detection of TK peptides in serum from breast cancer patients. Material and methods Serum samples were collected from patients with breast cancer and stored frozen at −70°C. The samples were collected after surgery, after metastatic tumor recurrence and after chemotherapy due to tumour recurrence. Patients’ serum samples were analysed by the TK enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results In receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses of TK1 for diagnosis of breast cancer, the area under the curve (AUC) collected four weeks after surgery was 0.56 (95% CI 0.47–0.65), for samples collected postsurgically after tumour recurrence 0.73 (95% CI 0.65–0.80), and after chemotherapy 0.64 (95% CI 0.56–0.72). Conclusions This study indicates that the tumour proliferation marker TK has a potential as a serum marker in breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to verify this observation. PMID:19396699

  6. Serum Uric Acid Levels and Renal Impairment among ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Shacham, Yacov; Gal-Oz, Amir; Flint, Nir; Keren, Gad; Arbel, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated serum uric acid (UA) levels are associated with adverse outcomes in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the relation between UA and acute kidney injury (AKI) in this population is unclear. We evaluated the effect of elevated UA levels on the risk to develop AKI among consecutive STEMI patients treated with primary PCI. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 1,372 consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of STEMI between January 2008 and February 2015. Patients were stratified into quartiles according to UA levels as follows: quartile 1, <4.7 mg/dl; quartile 2, 4.8 to <5.6 mg/dl; quartile 3, 5.7 to <6.6 mg/dl, and quartile 4, >6.7 mg/dl. Results STEMI patients with elevated UA levels had a higher frequency of AKI (4 vs. 6% vs. 10 vs. 24%; p < 0.001). In a subgroup analysis of patients with reduced baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (≤60 ml/min/1.73 m2), an elevated UA level was associated with a significant risk to develop AKI, with 46% of patients developing AKI in the highest UA quartile. In a multivariate logistic regression model, for every 1-mg/dl increase in the UA concentration, the adjusted risk for AKI increased by 46% (OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.18-1.66; p < 0.001). Conclusions Among STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI, elevated UA levels are an independent predictor of AKI.

  7. Contribution of elevated intracellular calcium to pulmonary arterial myocyte alkalinization during chronic hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Trevor; Shimoda, Larissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the lung, exposure to chronic hypoxia (CH) causes pulmonary hypertension, a debilitating disease. Development of this condition arises from increased muscularity and contraction of pulmonary vessels, associated with increases in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). In this study, we explored the interaction between pHi and [Ca2+]i in PASMCs from rats exposed to normoxia or CH (3 weeks, 10% O2). PASMC pHi and [Ca2+]i were measured with fluorescent microscopy and the dyes BCECF and Fura-2. Both pHi and [Ca2+]i levels were elevated in PASMCs from hypoxic rats. Exposure to KCl increased [Ca2+]i and pHi to a similar extent in normoxic and hypoxic PASMCs. Conversely, removal of extracellular Ca2+ or blockade of Ca2+ entry with NiCl2 or SKF 96365 decreased [Ca2+]i and pHi only in hypoxic cells. Neither increasing pHi with NH4Cl nor decreasing pHi by removal of bicarbonate impacted PASMC [Ca2+]i. We also examined the roles of Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX) and Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) in mediating the elevated basal [Ca2+]i and Ca2+-dependent changes in PASMC pHi. Bepridil, dichlorobenzamil, and KB-R7943, which are NCX inhibitors, decreased resting [Ca2+]i and pHi only in hypoxic PASMCs and blocked the changes in pHi induced by altering [Ca2+]i. Exposure to ethyl isopropyl amiloride, an NHE inhibitor, decreased resting pHi and prevented changes in pHi due to changing [Ca2+]i. Our findings indicate that, during CH, the elevation in basal [Ca2+]i may contribute to the alkaline shift in pHi in PASMCs, likely via mechanisms involving reverse-mode NCX and NHE. PMID:27076907

  8. Contribution of elevated intracellular calcium to pulmonary arterial myocyte alkalinization during chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Undem, Clark; Luke, Trevor; Shimoda, Larissa A

    2016-03-01

    In the lung, exposure to chronic hypoxia (CH) causes pulmonary hypertension, a debilitating disease. Development of this condition arises from increased muscularity and contraction of pulmonary vessels, associated with increases in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). In this study, we explored the interaction between pHi and [Ca(2+)]i in PASMCs from rats exposed to normoxia or CH (3 weeks, 10% O2). PASMC pHi and [Ca(2+)]i were measured with fluorescent microscopy and the dyes BCECF and Fura-2. Both pHi and [Ca(2+)]i levels were elevated in PASMCs from hypoxic rats. Exposure to KCl increased [Ca(2+)]i and pHi to a similar extent in normoxic and hypoxic PASMCs. Conversely, removal of extracellular Ca(2+) or blockade of Ca(2+) entry with NiCl2 or SKF 96365 decreased [Ca(2+)]i and pHi only in hypoxic cells. Neither increasing pHi with NH4Cl nor decreasing pHi by removal of bicarbonate impacted PASMC [Ca(2+)]i. We also examined the roles of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange (NCX) and Na(+)/H(+) exchange (NHE) in mediating the elevated basal [Ca(2+)]i and Ca(2+)-dependent changes in PASMC pHi. Bepridil, dichlorobenzamil, and KB-R7943, which are NCX inhibitors, decreased resting [Ca(2+)]i and pHi only in hypoxic PASMCs and blocked the changes in pHi induced by altering [Ca(2+)]i. Exposure to ethyl isopropyl amiloride, an NHE inhibitor, decreased resting pHi and prevented changes in pHi due to changing [Ca(2+)]i. Our findings indicate that, during CH, the elevation in basal [Ca(2+)]i may contribute to the alkaline shift in pHi in PASMCs, likely via mechanisms involving reverse-mode NCX and NHE. PMID:27076907

  9. Serum progranulin levels are elevated in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, reflecting viral load.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Zhan, Tingxi; Li, Qing; Zhang, Guozhen; Tan, Bing; Yang, Xiaoliang; Wu, Yan; Que, Wenjuan; Xing, Yan; Liu, Hui; Hu, Xue; Yu, Zebo

    2016-09-01

    Progranulin (PGRN) is implicated in infection, immunity and host defense, but its role in the pathogenesis of HBV infection remains unknown. Here we investigated whether there is dysregulated production and the clinical significance of circulating PGRN in patients with chronic HBV infection. Serum concentrations of PGRN were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum PGRN levels were significantly higher in patients with chronic HBV infection than healthy subjects. PGRN levels were significantly associated with HBV-DNA levels, but did not correlate with the concentrations of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. This study demonstrates increased circulating PGRN production and association between PGRN levels and viral loads in patients with chronic HBV infection, suggesting a functional role of PGRN in the pathogenesis of HBV infection. PMID:27281451

  10. Elevation of serum surfactant protein-A with exacerbation in canine eosinophilic pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    SONE, Katsuhito; AKIYOSHI, Hideo; HAYASHI, Akiyoshi; OHASHI, Fumihito

    2015-01-01

    A 7-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was admitted to our hospital, because of cough with sputum. She was diagnosed as having canine eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) based on blood eosinophilia, bronchial pattern and infiltrative shadow observed on thoracic radiography, bronchiolar obstruction and air-space consolidation predominantly affecting the right caudal lung lobe, as revealed by computed tomography (CT), predominant eosinophils in CT-guided fine needle aspiration and the clinical course. She exhibited a good response to steroid therapy, and the cough disappeared. The serum surfactant protein (SP)-A level increased with the aggravated symptom and decreased markedly with improvement compared with the C-reactive protein level and the number of eosinophils. We propose that serum SP-A level is a good biomarker in CEP. PMID:26300438

  11. Mechanism of trichloroethylene-induced elevation of individual serum bile acids. I. Correlation of trichloroethylene concentrations to bile acids in rat serum.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, H; Stacey, N H

    1993-08-01

    The temporal relationship between trichloroethylene (TRI) and individual serum bile acids (SBA) has been investigated to gain insight into the mechanism of solvent-induced increases in SBA. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 1 mmol/kg TRI in corn oil, while control rats received only corn oil. Blood samples were collected from the abdominal aorta at 2, 4, 8, and 16 hr after dosing. Individual SBA were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Liver and blood concentrations of TRI and one of its metabolites, trichloroethanol (TCEOH), were determined by gas chromatography. SBA levels reached their peak at 4 hr and returned to control levels by 16 hr. There was a relationship between SBA levels and TRI concentrations, which were also at their peak 4 hr after dosing. By 16 hr the levels were undetectable. However, peak blood concentrations of TCEOH were reached 8 hr after dosing, and remained high at 16 hr. Cholic acid and taurocholic acid showed the highest levels of bile acids. Some other bile acids were also elevated, including deoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and taurochenodeoxycholic acid. Determination of total bile acids in serum using an enzymatic/colorimetric method showed a similar pattern of response to that obtained with the HPLC analysis. The data are consistent with TRI having a rapid and specific effect on SBA levels by a mechanism other than liver cell damage. PMID:8346545

  12. CNS germinoma with elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin level: Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Hiroyuki . E-mail: ogino@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp; Shibamoto, Yuta; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Ishihara, Shun-Ichi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Sugie, Chikao; Nomoto, Yoshihito; Mimura, Mikio

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: The prognostic significance of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) level in central nervous system germinoma remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical characteristics and prognosis of germinoma patients with normal and high HCG titers in the serum. Methods and Materials: We undertook a multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 103 patients with central nervous system germinoma whose serum HCG and/or {beta}-HCG level had been measured before treatment between 1984 and 2002. All patients had been treated with radiation therapy either alone (n = 66) or in combination with chemotherapy (n = 37) with a median dose of 47.8 Gy. Results: HCG and/or {beta}-HCG level in the serum was high in 39% of all patients. The proportion of HCG-producing tumors was higher in the lesions at the basal ganglia than in the lesions at the other sites. No correlation was found between tumor size and HCG level, but there seemed to be a weak correlation between size and {beta}-HCG. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 96% and 94%, respectively, in both patient groups with normal and high HCG (p = 0.99). The 5- and 10-year relapse-free survival rates were 87% and 82%, respectively, in patients with normal HCG level and were both 87% in patients with high HCG (p = 0.74). Also, no other patient-, tumor-, or treatment-related factors seemed to influence the prognosis of the patients. Conclusion: Serum HCG level does not seem to influence patient prognosis when treated with sufficient doses of radiation. Relationship between tumor size and site and HCG level should be investigated further.

  13. Elevated serum triiodothyronine and intellectual and motor disability with paroxysmal dyskinesia caused by a monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Oliver; Pfarr, Nicole; Pohlenz, Joachim; Schmidt, Heinrich

    2009-03-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8 or SLC16A2) is important for the neuronal uptake of triiodothyronine (T3) in its function as a specific and active transporter of thyroid hormones across the cell membrane, thus being essential for human brain development. We report on a German male with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome presenting with severe intellectual and motor disability, paroxysmal dyskinesia combined with truncal muscular hypotonia, and peripheral muscular hypertonia at his current age of 9 years. Additionally, the patient has a lesion in the left putamen region revealed by magnetic resonance imaging and elevated serum T3 levels. The male appeared to have a hemizygous mutation (R271H) in the MCT8 gene that was sequenced directly from genomic DNA and occurred de novo in the maternal germline, as both his mother and his sister were not carriers of the mutation. Ruling out a common polymorphism, 50 normal individuals of the same ethnic background did not harbour the mutation. The identified MCT8 gene mutation (R271H) is very likely to be the genetic cause for neuronal hypothyroidism despite elevated serum T3 levels. PMID:19018842

  14. Elevated serum amyloid A levels in cases of aborted equine fetuses due to fetal and placental infections.

    PubMed

    Erol, Erdal; Jackson, Carney; Horohov, David; Locke, Stephan; Smith, Jacqueline; Carter, Craig

    2016-09-01

    Determination of fetal serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations in aborted fetuses can provide valuable information regarding the infectious and/or inflammatory process of abortion in horses. To investigate the relationship between fetal SAA levels and the infectious/inflammatory disease process in feto-placental tissues, a SAA ELISA was used to test heart serum samples of 89 equine fetuses that were necropsied and diagnosed in the following groups: a multiorgan disease process diagnosed with an identified microorganism (14 cases, group 1); only placentitis diagnosed with an identified microorganism (nine cases, group 2); only placentitis diagnosed with no microorganism identified (six cases, group 3); and no infectious or inflammatory disease process diagnosed (60 cases, group 4). Serum amyloid A concentrations in equine fetuses were elevated from 10.5 to ≥40 mg/L in 10 of 14 cases in group 1; and from less than 2.5 mg/L to greater than 40 mg/L in seven of nine cases in group 2. In group 3, SAA concentrations were found to be less than 2.5 mg/L in five of six cases. In group 4, SAA concentrations were less than 2.5 mg/L in 55 cases, whereas in five cases SAA concentrations were elevated. Statistical significant differences were found between the concentrations of SAA in fetal horse blood and the presence of infectious and/or inflammatory disease process in the feto-placental tissues when a causative microorganism was identified. These results suggest that testing SAA concentrations in fetal heart blood may aid in further understanding the causes of abortions in horses. PMID:27125694

  15. Elevation of Serum Aminotransferase Levels and Future Risk of Death from External Causes: A Prospective Cohort Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jungwoo; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Cho, Jaelim; Choi, Yoon Jung; Suh, Il

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The association between liver enzymes and death from external causes has not been examined. We investigated the association between serum aminotransferase levels and external-cause mortality in a large prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods A total of 142322 subjects of 35-59 years of age who completed baseline examinations in 1990 and 1992 were enrolled. Mortalities were identified using death certificates. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were categorized into quintiles. Sub-distribution hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a competing risks regression model in which deaths from other causes were treated as competing risks. Results Of 8808 deaths, 1111 (12.6%) were due to external causes. Injury accounted for 256 deaths, and suicide accounted for 255. After adjusting for covariates, elevated ALT and AST were significantly associated with an increased risk of all external-cause mortalities, as well as suicide and injury. Sub-distribution hazards ratios (95% CIs) of the highest versus the lowest quintiles of serum ALT and AST were, respectively, 1.57 (1.26-1.95) and 1.45 (1.20-1.76) for all external causes, 2.73 (1.68-4.46) and 1.75 (1.15-2.66) for suicide, and 1.79 (1.10-2.90) and 1.85 (1.21-2.82) for injury. The risk of external-cause mortality was also significantly higher in the fourth quintile of ALT (21.6-27.5 IU/L) than in its first quintile. Conclusion Elevated aminotransferase levels, even within the normal range, were significantly associated with increased risk of all external-cause mortalities, including suicide, and injury. PMID:26446640

  16. Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Muhammad W

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to be associated with tumor burden in patients with colorectal cancer. However, it is also elevated to a significant degree in a number of other malignant and non-malignant conditions. We report a case of reversible CEA elevation in a patient using lithium for bipolar disorder. A 58-year-old female with a longstanding smoking history and a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bipolar illness, hypothyroidism, and obesity was found to have an elevated CEA level of 11.2 ng/ml (normal level <5 ng/ml) in the workup for postmenopausal bleeding. Her history was not positive for malignancy of colorectum, ovaries, thyroid, or breast.  She underwent a large number of imaging and endoscopic studies to evaluate for colorectal, breast, ovarian, and lung cancer; however, it did not reveal any evidence of malignancy. Upon review of her medications, she reported that she had recently started lithium for her bipolar illness. We followed up her CEA level while her dose of lithium was reduced from 450 to 300 mg per day. Her CEA level decreased from 25 mg/dl to 6.1 mg/dl and remained stable over the course of the next eight months. Our case is the first case report that identifies lithium as a potential cause of reversible CEA elevation. The underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated, but it underscores the importance of investigating the medications as part of the workup. PMID:27446768

  17. Elevated Level of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Search for a Malignancy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Asad-Ur-Rahman, Fnu; Saif, Muhammad W

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been shown to be associated with tumor burden in patients with colorectal cancer. However, it is also elevated to a significant degree in a number of other malignant and non-malignant conditions. We report a case of reversible CEA elevation in a patient using lithium for bipolar disorder. A 58-year-old female with a longstanding smoking history and a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bipolar illness, hypothyroidism, and obesity was found to have an elevated CEA level of 11.2 ng/ml (normal level <5 ng/ml) in the workup for postmenopausal bleeding. Her history was not positive for malignancy of colorectum, ovaries, thyroid, or breast.  She underwent a large number of imaging and endoscopic studies to evaluate for colorectal, breast, ovarian, and lung cancer; however, it did not reveal any evidence of malignancy. Upon review of her medications, she reported that she had recently started lithium for her bipolar illness. We followed up her CEA level while her dose of lithium was reduced from 450 to 300 mg per day. Her CEA level decreased from 25 mg/dl to 6.1 mg/dl and remained stable over the course of the next eight months. Our case is the first case report that identifies lithium as a potential cause of reversible CEA elevation. The underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated, but it underscores the importance of investigating the medications as part of the workup. PMID:27446768

  18. Benign Hydronephrosis and Elevated of Serum Levels of Carbohydrate Antigen CA 19-9: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Branka; Milinić, Nikola; Gacic, Jasna; Markovic, Olivera; Djokovic, Aleksandra; Filipovic, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carbohydrate tumor-associated antigen (CA 19-9) has been shown to be upregulated in other malignant tumors including gastric, ovarian, hepatocellular, and colorectal carcinoma as well as benign diseases of the biliary track such as pancreatitis, cholangitis, and choledocholithiasis. According to the available literature, in several cases of benign hydronephrosis and in a few cases of benign renal diseases, elevated CA 19-9 has been noted. CASE REPORT A 58-year-old Caucasian male patient was admitted in our clinic with complaints about blunt abdominal pain in the past two-month period localized in the right lumbar region and irradiating into the right inguinal area, constipation, abdominal bloating, and intermittent hematuria. The concentration of serum CA 19-9 was 3500 U/mL. Urine cytology provided no signs of abnormality. Intravenous urography visualized right-sided pyelon and ureter duplex with the defect in contrast shade of the pyelon, caused by a stag horn calculus. Contrast added computerized axial tomography of the abdomen and pelvis visualized the pyelon casted concretion spreading throughout the right pyelon, with ureterohydronephrosis with the distal block for passage of the contrast to the distal part of the ureter. CONCLUSIONS There is no doubt that CA 19-9 level is occasionally elevated in patients with obstructive urolithiasis as it was in our case. In the routine medical praxis, urolithiasis should not be neglected in the differential diagnosis of elevated concentrations of CA 19-9 marker. PMID:27287959

  19. KEY COMPARISON: CCQM-K14: Calcium amount content in serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Nevel, L.; Aregbe, Y.; Taylor, P. D. P.

    2004-01-01

    This key comparison 'Ca in Serum' is a follow-up to the pilot study P14. The aim of the study is to demonstrate and document the capability of national metrology institutes to measure the Ca amount content in a serum sample. The comparison was an activity of the Inorganic Analysis Working Group of CCQM and was piloted by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, Geel, Belgium). The following laboratories participated in this key comparison (in alphabetical order): CENAM (Mexico) CSIR-NML (South Africa) IAEA (International Organization) IRMM (European Union) KRISS (South Korea) LGC (United Kingdom) NIST (United States of America) NMi -VSL (The Netherlands) PTB (Germany) The majority of participants applied isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) using thermal ionization MS (TIMS), sector field or quadrupole inductively coupled plasma MS (ICP-MS) as the analytical technique. IAEA reported a combined result of AAS and ICP-OES for the Ca amount content in the serum. The Key Comparison Reference Value (KCRV) was agreed upon during the IAWG meeting in October 2003 at EMPA/St-Gallen as the weighted mean of the reported participants' results. Accordingly the equivalence statements were calculated. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  20. Association Studies of Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR) Polymorphisms with Serum Concentrations of Glucose and Phosphate, and Vascular Calcification in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Maréchal, Céline; Jadoul, Michel; Devuyst, Olivier; Thakker, Rajesh V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and linked to arterial calcification. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein coupled receptor, plays a pivotal role in extracellular calcium homeostasis and is expressed in the intimal and medial layers of the arterial wall. We investigated whether common CASR gene variants are predictors for aortic and coronary artery calcification or influence risk factors such as serum calcium, phosphate and glucose concentrations in RTRs. Methods Two hundred and eighty four RTRs were investigated for associations between three CASR promoter region single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs115759455, rs7652589, rs1501899), three non-synonymous CASR coding region SNPs (A986S, R990G, Q1011E), and aortic and coronary artery calcium mass scores, cardiovascular outcomes and calcification risk factors that included serum phosphate, calcium, total cholesterol and glucose concentrations. Results Multivariate analysis revealed that RTRs homozygous for the minor allele (SS) of the A986S SNP, when compared to those homozygous for the major allele (AA), had raised serum glucose concentrations (8.7±5.4 vs. 5.7±2.1 mmol/L, P<0.05). In addition, RTRs who were heterozygous (CT) at the rs115759455 SNP, when compared to those homozygous for the major allele (CC), had higher serum phosphate concentrations (1.1±0.3 vs. 1.0±0.2 mmol/L, P<0.05). CASR SNPs were not significant determinants for aortic or coronary artery calcification, and were not associated with cardiovascular outcomes or mortality in this RTR cohort. Conclusions Common CASR SNPs may be independent predictors of serum glucose and phosphate concentrations, but are not determinants of vascular calcification or cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:25786244

  1. Diabetes and Pancreas: Why So Difficult? Potential Mechanisms of Elevated Serum Pancreatic Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, Elena; Giampietro, Ottavio

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been associated with a higher risk of exocrine pancreas disorders despite inconsistencies among studies, presumably due to the presence of several (often unmeasured) confounding factors. As a direct consequence of this uncertainty, the relationship between anti-diabetic therapies and pancreatic adverse reactions is difficult to evaluate and remains far from being clarified. Indeed, the on going debate on the safety of incretin-based therapies does not lie in any definite conclusion. Serum level of amylases and lipase reflects the balance between production from different tissues and clearance, but it may be also influenced by numerous molecular, cellular, and systems mechanisms. The present review tries to provide an overview of potential biochemical pathways that may underlie pancreatic hyperenzymemia in health and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26639098

  2. IgG4-Related Lung Disease without Elevation of Serum IgG4 Level: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Kyu; Cho, Yongseon; Han, Minsoo; Jung, Sun Young; Moon, Kyoung Min; Kim, Jinyoung; Kim, Ju Ri; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Park, Jun Hyung; Chung, So Hee

    2016-07-01

    Since IgG4-related pancreatitis was first reported in 2001, IgG4-related disease has been identified in other organs such as salivary gland, gallbladder, thyroid, retroperitoneum and kidney; but lung invasion is rare. A 63-year-old man presented with hemoptysis at the pulmonary clinic and chest computed tomography revealed about 4.1 cm irregular shaped mass with spiculated margin at the left upper lobe. Despite no elevation of serum IgG4 level, he was finally diagnosed as IgG4-related lung disease by transthoracic needle biopsy. After treatment with oral glucocorticoids, hemoptysis disappeared and the size of lung mass was decreased. PMID:27433179

  3. IgG4-Related Lung Disease without Elevation of Serum IgG4 Level: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min Kyu; Han, Minsoo; Jung, Sun Young; Moon, Kyoung Min; Kim, Jinyoung; Kim, Ju Ri; Lee, Dong-kyu; Park, Jun Hyung; Chung, So Hee

    2016-01-01

    Since IgG4-related pancreatitis was first reported in 2001, IgG4-related disease has been identified in other organs such as salivary gland, gallbladder, thyroid, retroperitoneum and kidney; but lung invasion is rare. A 63-year-old man presented with hemoptysis at the pulmonary clinic and chest computed tomography revealed about 4.1 cm irregular shaped mass with spiculated margin at the left upper lobe. Despite no elevation of serum IgG4 level, he was finally diagnosed as IgG4-related lung disease by transthoracic needle biopsy. After treatment with oral glucocorticoids, hemoptysis disappeared and the size of lung mass was decreased. PMID:27433179

  4. Biphasic modulation by mGlu5 receptors of TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium elevation in sensory neurons contributes to heat sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Masuoka, T; Nakamura, T; Kudo, M; Yoshida, J; Takaoka, Y; Kato, N; Ishibashi, T; Imaizumi, N; Nishio, M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Elevation of glutamate, an excitatory amino acid, during inflammation and injury plays a crucial role in the reception and transmission of sensory information via ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the biphasic effects of metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptor activation on responses to noxious heat. Experimental Approach We assessed the effects of intraplantar quisqualate, a non-selective glutamate receptor agonist, on heat and mechanical pain behaviours in mice. In addition, the effects of quisqualate on the intracellular calcium response and on membrane currents mediated by TRPV1 channels, were examined in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons from mice. Key Results Activation of mGlu5 receptors in hind paw transiently increased, then decreased, the response to noxious heat. In sensory neurons, activation of mGlu5 receptors potentiated TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium elevation, while terminating activation of mGlu5 receptors depressed it. TRPV1-induced currents were potentiated by activation of mGlu5 receptors under voltage clamp conditions and these disappeared after washout. However, voltage-gated calcium currents were inhibited by the mGlu5 receptor agonist, even after washout. Conclusions and Implications These results suggest that, in sensory neurons, mGlu5 receptors biphasically modulate TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium response via transient potentiation of TRPV1 channel-induced currents and persistent inhibition of voltage-gated calcium currents, contributing to heat hyper- and hypoalgesia. PMID:25297838

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma of the colon with an elevated serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen responding to combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Copur, S; Ledakis, P; Novinski, D; Mleczko, K L; Frankforter, S; Bolton, M; Fruehling, R M; VanWie, E; Norvell, M; Muhvic, J

    2001-05-01

    Primary squamous cell colorectal carcinomas are uncommon, and their characteristics are not well known. They seem to occur most commonly in the fifth decade of life with a slight predominance for men. The most commonly reported anatomic locations are the rectum and the proximal colon. Clinical features and common diagnostic methods do not easily differentiate squamous cell colorectal carcinomas from adenocarcinomas. Because of their extremely rare occurrence, it is difficult to study their natural course, clinical behavior, and response to therapy. This report presents the case of a pure squamous cell colorectal cancer and provides a brief review of the literature, which includes 60 previously published cases. The case of a patient with T3N2M0 primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon, which was initially treated with abdominoperineal resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation, is presented. During the follow-up, an elevated squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) level led to restaging computed tomography scans, which confirmed recurrent metastatic disease in the liver. Response to chemotherapy with a decrease in tumor size correlated with a decrease in the serum SCC Ag level. Although SCC Ag has been used as a tumor marker for squamous cell cancers of the lung, head and neck, uterine cervix, and esophagus, this is the first reported case of a squamous cell colon carcinoma presenting with an elevated SCC Ag at the time of recurrence. In addition, this patient showed an objective partial response to combination chemotherapy, with a decrease in the serum level of this tumor marker. PMID:12445380

  6. Elevated serum anti-flagellin antibodies implicate subclinical bowel inflammation in ankylosing spondylitis: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) share genetic and clinical features. IBD is associated with the presence of antibodies to a variety of commensal microorganisms including anti-Saccharomyces cerevesiae antibodies (ASCA), antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), anti-I2 (associated with anti-Pseudomonas activity), anti-Eschericia coli outer membrane porin C (anti-OmpC) and anti-flagellin antibodies (anti-CBir1). Subclinical intestinal inflammation may be present in up to 65% of patients with AS. This study evaluated the presence of antimicrobial antibodies in patients with AS alone, patients with AS and concomitant IBD (AS-IBD) and a control group of patients with mechanical back pain (MBP). Methods Sera were tested by ELISA for ASCA IgG and IgA, anti-OmpC, anti-CBir1 and ANCA in 76 patients with AS alone, 77 patients with AS-IBD and 48 patients with MBP. Antibody positivity rates, median quantitative antibody levels and the proportion of patients with antibody levels in the 4th quartile of a normal distribution were compared between the three groups of patients. Results Patients with AS alone demonstrated higher anti-CBir1 antibody positivity rates and median antibody levels than MBP patients. Anti-CBir1 positivity in AS was associated with elevation of acute phase reactants. AS-IBD patients demonstrated elevated responses when compared to AS alone for ASCA, anti-OmpC and anti-CBir1. Quartile analysis confirmed the findings. Conclusions These data suggest that adaptive immune responses to microbial antigens occur in AS patients without clinical IBD and support the theory of mucosal dysregulation as a mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of AS. PMID:24286190

  7. Serum levels of innate immunity cytokines are elevated in dogs with metaphyseal osteopathy (hypertrophic osteodytrophy) during active disease and remission.

    PubMed

    Safra, Noa; Hitchens, Peta L; Maverakis, Emanual; Mitra, Anupam; Korff, Courtney; Johnson, Eric; Kol, Amir; Bannasch, Michael J; Pedersen, Niels C; Bannasch, Danika L

    2016-10-15

    Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) (hypertrophic osteodystrophy) is a developmental disorder of unexplained etiology affecting dogs during rapid growth. Affected dogs experience relapsing episodes of lytic/sclerotic metaphyseal lesions and systemic inflammation. MO is rare in the general dog population; however, some breeds (Weimaraner, Great Dane and Irish Setter) have a much higher incidence, supporting a hereditary etiology. Autoinflammatory childhood disorders of parallel presentation such as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), and deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), involve impaired innate immunity pathways and aberrant cytokine production. Given the similarities between these diseases, we hypothesize that MO is an autoinflammatory disease mediated by cytokines involved in innate immunity. To characterize immune dysregulation in MO dogs we measured serum levels of inflammatory markers in 26 MO and 102 control dogs. MO dogs had significantly higher levels (pg/ml) of serum Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-18, IL-6, Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and IL-10. Notably, recovered MO dogs were not different from dogs during active MO disease, providing a suggestive mechanism for disease predisposition. This is the first documentation of elevated immune markers in MO dogs, uncovering an immune profile similar to comparable autoinflammatory disorders in children. PMID:27590423

  8. Significant elevation of tumour-associated isoforms of soluble CD44 in serum of normal individuals caused by cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Kittl, E M; Ruckser, R; Rech-Weichselbraun, I; Hinterberger, W; Bauer, K

    1997-02-01

    While performing a prospective study on sCD44 variant isoforms as tumour markers in certain malignancies, we detected relevant differences in the control group between non-smokers and smokers. For a detailed evaluation of these findings, serum levels of sCD44 variant proteins, including sequences encoded by exon v5 and exon v6, respectively, were adjusted to sex, age and smoking habit. We were able to demonstrate a significant elevation of serum levels of sCD44v5 and sCD44v6 in normal individuals due to cigarette smoking (non-smokers to smokers: sCD44v5: 33 +/- 11 microg/l to 62 +/- 30 microg/l; sCD44v6: 142 +/- 34 microg/l to 232 +/- 86 microg/l). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis of the concentrations of sCD44v5 and sCD44v6 on the possible influence factors sex, age and smoking habit revealed cigarette smoking as the only factor influencing these isoforms (both p < 0.001). Further investigations have to elucidate a possible clinical importance of these findings in smokers. However, in patients with suspected or proven malignancy the diagnostic specifity of sCD44v5 and sCD44v6 is diminished due to this observation. PMID:9056747

  9. Excessive collagen turnover products are released during colorectal cancer progression and elevated in serum from metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kehlet, S N; Sanz-Pamplona, R; Brix, S; Leeming, D J; Karsdal, M A; Moreno, V

    2016-01-01

    During cancer progression, the homeostasis of the extracellular matrix becomes imbalanced with an excessive collagen remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases. As a consequence, small protein fragments of degraded collagens are released into the circulation. We have investigated the potential of protein fragments of collagen type I, III and IV as novel biomarkers for colorectal cancer. Specific fragments of degraded type I, III and IV collagen (C1M, C3M, C4M) and type III collagen formation (Pro-C3) were assessed in serum from colorectal cancer patients, subjects with adenomas and matched healthy controls using well-characterized and validated ELISAs. Serum levels of the biomarkers were significantly elevated in colorectal cancer patients compared to subjects with adenomas (C1M, Pro-C3, C3M) and controls (C1M, Pro-C3). When patients were stratified according to their tumour stage, all four biomarkers were able to differentiate stage IV metastatic patients from all other stages. Combination of all markers with age and gender in a logistic regression model discriminated between metastatic and non-metastatic patients with an AUROC of 0.80. The data suggest that the levels of these collagen remodeling biomarkers may be a measure of tumour activity and invasiveness and may provide new clinical tools for monitoring of patients with advanced stage colorectal cancer. PMID:27465284

  10. A retroperitoneal NF1-independent malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with elevated serum CA125: case report and discussion.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bing; Meng, Xianze; Shi, Bian; Shi, Jun; Qin, Zhifeng; Wei, Pinkang

    2012-08-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are usually located in the trunk, extremities, head, or neck, and most occur with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1; von Recklinghausen's disease). No biomarkers have previously been found to be associated with their progression. Retroperitoneal NF1-independent MPNSTs are rare; they are considered to be less aggressive and to have better prognoses compared to NF1-related tumors. Currently, en bloc excision is the only consensus treatment approach. In a 27-year-old male with a giant retroperitoneal MPNST and no stigmata or family history of neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1), a remarkable elevation of serum CA125 was detected. The high-grade tumor displayed a striking progression: the primary lesion, 25 cm in diameter, recurred in its previous site as a 17-cm MPNST less than 50 days after total excision. Subsequent treatment with microwave ablation and huachansu, a traditional Chinese medication, proved ineffective, and the patient died within 3 months. Our case suggests that retroperitoneal MPNSTs can deteriorate rapidly even if NF1 independent, that aggressive treatment may not benefit large high-grade MPNSTs, and that novel and effective treatment is urgently needed. Our case also suggests the possibility of using serum tumor markers in the early detection and monitoring of MPNSTs. PMID:22528792

  11. Elevated Serum Levels of Soluble CD30 in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients and Its Association with Disease Severity-Related Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rongfen; Sun, Wei; Chen, Yu; Su, Yuying; Wang, Chenqiong; Dong, Lingli

    2015-01-01

    Soluble CD30 (sCD30), a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, has been shown to be associated with various pathological conditions. This study was designed to measure the levels of serum sCD30 in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to evaluate the relationships between serum sCD30 levels and other disease severity-related indexes, including bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (ASDAS), and bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI). Our results demonstrated significantly elevated sCD30 levels in AS patients compared to healthy controls (HCs) with mean values of 32.0 ± 12.2 and 24.9 ± 8.0 ng/mL, respectively (P** = 0.007), suggesting a potential role of sCD30 in the pathogenesis of AS. However, no significant correlations of sCD30 with BASDAI, ASDAS, or BASFI were detected in our study (P > 0.05). Therefore, sCD30 cannot be used as a reliable marker for reflecting disease activity and functional ability of AS patients. PMID:26273636

  12. Elevated serum progesterone/ MII oocyte ratio on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration can predict impaired endometrial receptivity

    PubMed Central

    Aflatoonian, Abbas; Davar, Robab; Hojjat, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increased serum progesterone on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration may affect in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether progesterone elevation on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration is associated with poor IVF outcome. Materials and Methods: To determine the relationship between serum progesterone on the day of HCG and the outcome of IVF-embryo transfer treatment, 378 infertile patients undergoing IVF-embryo transfer at Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility from October 2009 to March 2011 were prospectively studied. Results: In this study, absolute p-value and P/E2 ratio were not a good predictor outcome of in-vitro fertilization but progesterone per metaphase II were predictive of implantation rate and pregnancy rate with statistically significant results but had no effect on the fertilization rate. Conclusion: We suggest avoided the increased progesterone that the cause of advanced endometrial maturation and impaired endometrial receptivity. If the progesterone is greater than 0.32 per oocyte metaphase II, the embryo transfer can be canceled and freezing all embryos for future transfer must be considered, to increase acceptance of the endometrium and thus increase the success rate. PMID:25071852

  13. Excessive collagen turnover products are released during colorectal cancer progression and elevated in serum from metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kehlet, S. N.; Sanz-Pamplona, R.; Brix, S.; Leeming, D. J.; Karsdal, M. A.; Moreno, V.

    2016-01-01

    During cancer progression, the homeostasis of the extracellular matrix becomes imbalanced with an excessive collagen remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases. As a consequence, small protein fragments of degraded collagens are released into the circulation. We have investigated the potential of protein fragments of collagen type I, III and IV as novel biomarkers for colorectal cancer. Specific fragments of degraded type I, III and IV collagen (C1M, C3M, C4M) and type III collagen formation (Pro-C3) were assessed in serum from colorectal cancer patients, subjects with adenomas and matched healthy controls using well-characterized and validated ELISAs. Serum levels of the biomarkers were significantly elevated in colorectal cancer patients compared to subjects with adenomas (C1M, Pro-C3, C3M) and controls (C1M, Pro-C3). When patients were stratified according to their tumour stage, all four biomarkers were able to differentiate stage IV metastatic patients from all other stages. Combination of all markers with age and gender in a logistic regression model discriminated between metastatic and non-metastatic patients with an AUROC of 0.80. The data suggest that the levels of these collagen remodeling biomarkers may be a measure of tumour activity and invasiveness and may provide new clinical tools for monitoring of patients with advanced stage colorectal cancer. PMID:27465284

  14. Platelet Activating Factor Enhances Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis Via PKC, Elevated Intracellular Calcium, and Modulation of Synapsin 1 Dynamics and Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Jennetta W.; Lu, Shao-Ming; Gelbard, Harris A.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is an inflammatory phospholipid signaling molecule implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory and neurotoxicity during neuroinflammation. However, little is known about the intracellular mechanisms mediating PAF’s physiological or pathological effects on synaptic facilitation. We show here that PAF receptors are localized at the synapse. Using fluorescent reporters of presynaptic activity we show that a non-hydrolysable analog of PAF (cPAF) enhances synaptic vesicle release from individual presynaptic boutons by increasing the size or release of the readily releasable pool and the exocytosis rate of the total recycling pool. cPAF also activates previously silent boutons resulting in vesicle release from a larger number of terminals. The underlying mechanism involves elevated calcium within presynaptic boutons and protein kinase C activation. Furthermore, cPAF increases synapsin I phosphorylation at sites 1 and 3, and increases dispersion of synapsin I from the presynaptic compartment during stimulation, freeing synaptic vesicles for subsequent release. These findings provide a conceptual framework for how PAF, regardless of its cellular origin, can modulate synapses during normal and pathologic synaptic activity. PMID:26778968

  15. Pasteurella haemolytica A1-Derived Leukotoxin and Endotoxin Induce Intracellular Calcium Elevation in Bovine Alveolar Macrophages by Different Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hsuan, S. L.; Kannan, M. S.; Jeyaseelan, S.; Prakash, Y. S.; Sieck, G. C.; Maheswaran, S. K.

    1998-01-01

    Leukotoxin and endotoxin derived from Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 are the primary virulence factors contributing to the pathogenesis of lung injury in bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. Activation of bovine alveolar macrophages with endotoxin or leukotoxin results in the induction of cytokine gene expression, with different kinetics (H. S. Yoo, S. K. Maheswaran, G. Lin, E. L. Townsend, and T. R. Ames, Infect. Immun. 63:381–388, 1995; H. S. Yoo, B. S. Rajagopal, S. K. Maheswaran, and T. R. Ames, Microb. Pathog. 18:237–252, 1995). Furthermore, extracellular Ca2+ is required for leukotoxin-induced cytokine gene expression. However, the involvement of Ca2+ in endotoxin effects and the precise signaling mechanisms in the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ by leukotoxin and endotoxin are not known. In fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester-loaded alveolar macrophages, intracellular Ca2+ regulation by leukotoxin and endotoxin was studied by video fluorescence microscopy. Leukotoxin induced a sustained elevation of intracellular Ca2+ in a concentration-dependent fashion by influx of extracellular Ca2+ through voltage-gated channels. In the presence of fetal bovine serum, endotoxin elevated intracellular Ca2+ even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Leukotoxin-induced intracellular Ca2+ elevation was inhibited by pertussis toxin, inhibitors of phospholipases A2 and C, and the arachidonic acid analog 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid. Intracellular Ca2+ elevation by endotoxin was inhibited by inhibitors of phospholipase C and protein tyrosine kinase, but not by pertussis toxin, or the arachidonic acid analog. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Ca2+ signaling by leukotoxin through a G-protein-coupled mechanism involving activation of phospholipases A2 and C and release of arachidonic acid in bovine alveolar macrophages. Ca2+ signaling by endotoxin, on the other hand, involves activation of phospholipase C and requires tyrosine phosphorylation. The

  16. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio might help prediction of acute myocardial infarction in patients with elevated serum creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Nalbant, Ahmet; Cinemre, Hakan; Kaya, Tezcan; Varim, Ceyhun; Varim, Perihan; Tamer, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Diagnostic performance of troponin assays is affected by renal insufficiency. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio(NLR) is an independent predictor of acute coronary syndrome. Our objective was to evaluate performance of NLR in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among patients with elevated serum creatinine. Methods: Patients with elevated creatinine levels evaluated for coronary artery disease were included (n=284). Patients were divided into two groups according to having AMI or non-specific chest pain. AMI diagnosis was made based on clinical and laboratory data, including serial EKG and cardiac enzymes, ECHO and coronary angiography. Results: Troponin, neutrophil, and NLR were found to be higher in patients with AMI, compared to patients without AMI (P= 0.001, P= 0.001 and P=0.028, respectively). ROC curve analysis for NLR in diagnosing AMI was significant (AUC: 0.607; P=0.003). Sensitivity, specificity, LR +, LR-, PPV and NPV for NLR>7.4 were found as 42.3%, 74.7%, 1.68%, 0.77%, 77% and 40%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that patients whose NLR>7.4 were 2.18 times as likely to have AMI. Conclusions: NLR can be used as an independent predictor of AMI in patients with renal insufficiency. This seems to get more important in the era of high sensitivity troponin assays. Our results might also help in early diagnosis of AMI in this high risk population while serial cardiac enzyme results are pending. PMID:27022355

  17. Elevation of serum l-lactate dehydrogenase B correlated with the clinical stage of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Anjian; Li, Na; Liu, Jifu; Liu, Chuanjun; Lv, Dongxia; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Lingyun; Yang, Shuanying; He, Dacheng; Xiao, Xueyuan

    2006-10-01

    To identify potential biomarkers related with lung cancer metastasis, conditional media (CM) proteins collected from a primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line NCI-H226 and its brain metastatic subline H226Br were analyzed by one-dimensional electrophoresis (1-D PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Twelve biomarkers were identified, of which l-lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) chain was significantly up-regulated in the CM of H226Br cell and was further validated in 105 lung cancer, 93 non-lung cancer, 41 benign lung disease, as well as 65 healthy individuals sera using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It was found that the levels of LDHB were specifically elevated in NSCLC sera compared with other groups and were progressively increased with the clinical stage. At the cutoff point 0.260 (OD value) on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, LDHB could comparatively discriminate lung cancer from benign lung disease and healthy control groups with sensitivity 81%, specificity 70% and total accuracy 76%. These findings demonstrated that secretome could open up a possibility to find, identify, and characterize novel biomarkers related with invasion and metastasis. PMID:16890323

  18. Reference values of serum calcitonin with calcium stimulation tests by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay before/after total thyroidectomy in Japanese patients with thyroid diseases other than medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Minoru; Miyauchi, Akira; Kudo, Takumi; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Miya, Akihiro

    2016-07-30

    Calcitonin is a very sensitive tumor marker of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). MTC patients usually have very high values of serum calcitonin that can be used to diagnose the disease. To improve the diagnostic sensitivity in family members with small MTCs and to evaluate the postoperative biochemical cure status, a calcium stimulation test is widely used. Serum calcitonin has been measured using several methods, but in Japan, only an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) is currently performed to determine serum calcitonin. Reference values for the calcium stimulation test using an ECLIA have not been reported. Here we conducted a calcium stimulation tests in 26 patients without MTC before and after total thyroidectomy. Preoperatively, the basal calcitonin values of all patients were within normal limits and increased to a mean of 14.4 pg/mL after calcium stimulation. We transformed the peak values before total thyroidectomy to a logarithmic distribution and calculated the normalized mean ± 1.96× standard deviation; the reference upper limit was thus expressed. In the female patients with non-MTC, the reference upper limit was 67.6 pg/mL. In all patients, the calcium stimulation test results after total thyroidectomy showed undetectable basal and stimulated calcitonin values (<0.5 pg/mL). This is the first study to determine reference values to be used for the calcium stimulation test along with an ECLIA in non-MTC patients. We propose that female patients are regarded as biochemically cured or normal when the stimulated calcitonin values by ECLIA are <67.6 pg/mL before surgery and <0.5 pg/mL after total thyroidectomy. PMID:27097651

  19. Benign Hydronephrosis and Elevated of Serum Levels of Carbohydrate Antigen CA 19-9: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Filipovic, Branka; Milinić, Nikola; Gacic, Jasna; Markovic, Olivera; Djokovic, Aleksandra; Filipovic, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: Hydronephrosis Symptoms: Blunt abdominal pain • constipation • constipation Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostolithotomy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Carbohydrate tumor-associated antigen (CA 19-9) has been shown to be upregulated in other malignant tumors including gastric, ovarian, hepatocellular, and colorectal carcinoma as well as benign diseases of the biliary track such as pancreatitis, cholangitis, and choledocholithiasis. According to the available literature, in several cases of benign hydronephrosis and in a few cases of benign renal diseases, elevated CA 19-9 has been noted. Case Report: A 58-year-old Caucasian male patient was admitted in our clinic with complaints about blunt abdominal pain in the past two-month period localized in the right lumbar region and irradiating into the right inguinal area, constipation, abdominal bloating, and intermittent hematuria. The concentration of serum CA 19-9 was 3500 U/mL. Urine cytology provided no signs of abnormality. Intravenous urography visualized right-sided pyelon and ureter duplex with the defect in contrast shade of the pyelon, caused by a stag horn calculus. Contrast added computerized axial tomography of the abdomen and pelvis visualized the pyelon casted concretion spreading throughout the right pyelon, with ureterohydronephrosis with the distal block for passage of the contrast to the distal part of the ureter. Conclusions: There is no doubt that CA 19-9 level is occasionally elevated in patients with obstructive urolithiasis as it was in our case. In the routine medical praxis, urolithiasis should not be neglected in the differential diagnosis of elevated concentrations of CA 19-9 marker. PMID:27287959

  20. Feeding the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N(omega)nitroarginine elevates serum very low density lipoprotein and hepatic triglyceride synthesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Goto, T; Ohnomi, S; Khedara, A; Kato, N; Ogawa, H; Yanagita, T

    1999-05-01

    This study was conducted to study the influence of dietary L-N(omega)nitroarginine (L-NNA), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, on serum lipids and lipoproteins and on the activities of enzymes related to lipid metabolism in rats. Feeding rats a diet containing 0.2 g/kg L-NNA for 5 weeks elevated serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, phospholipid, and free fatty acid and reduced serum nitrate (an oxidation product of NO). The elevation in serum triglyceride was mainly due to the elevation in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride. Contents of cholesterol and phospholipid in the VLDL fraction also were elevated by L-NNA. L-NNA treatment caused significantly higher activity of hepatic microsomal phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (the rate-limiting enzyme in triglyceride synthesis) and lower activity of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid oxidation). Activities of hepatic enzymes responsible for fatty acid synthesis such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, and fatty acid synthase were unaffected by L-NNA. The activity of hepatic microsomal phosphocholine cytidyltransferase (the rate-limiting enzyme in phosphatidylcholine synthesis) was reduced significantly by L-NNA. Our results suggest that lower NO production caused the elevations in hepatic triglyceride synthesis by higher esterification of fatty acid and lower fatty acid oxidation, leading to an enrichment of VLDL triglyceride. PMID:15539300

  1. DETERMINATION OF MATERNAL SERUM ZINC, IRON, CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM DURING PREGNANCY IN PREGNANT WOMEN AND UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Khoushabi, Fahimeh; Shadan, Mohammad Reza; Miri, Ali; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trace elements and specially minerals are critical for the development of fetus. Many minerals are transferred to the fetus for fetal stores in the latter part of the pregnancy. It has been shown that various trace elements such as Zinc, Iron, Calcium and Magnesium are metabolically interrelated and there is alteration in their concentration during pregnancy. Beyond pregnancy is associated with increased demand of all the nutrients and deficiency of any of these could affect pregnancy, delivery and outcome of pregnancy. Aim: To study the levels of trace elements namely zinc, iron, magnesium and calcium in maternal and umbilical cord blood and their association with pregnancy outcome. Methods: Sixty pregnant women in Zabol, Iran were selected from those who had registered their names for the prenatal care and who had followed up till the 3rd trimester of pregnancy ending in child birth. Biochemical parameters analyzed with help of the biochemical laboratory. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: The mean biochemical profile such, serum calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron in the pregnant women were as follow: in the 1st trimester 8.3, 1.9, 74.9 and 74.4 µg/dl respectively; in the 2nd trimester 8.5, 1.9, 73.1 and 79.3 µg/dl, respectively; in the 3rd trimester 8.6, 1.9, 68.4, and 82.2 µg/dl, respectively. In the umbilical cord blood, the mean serum calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron were 8.5, 1.9, 84.1, and 89.8 µg/dl, respectively. The mean serum calcium and magnesium during the three trimesters of pregnancy were not significantly different from that in the umbilical cord blood, while the mean serum zinc and iron in the umbilical cord blood were significantly different (p<0.05) in the three trimester of pregnancy. The mean birth weight of neonates was 3.1 kg and 12% of neonates showed low birth weight. Our findings showed that, except magnesium, the profile of other biochemical variables, namely, calcium, zinc and iron in the umbilical cord blood

  2. Elevated serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 may associate with the development of ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Ya; Xue, Bin; Wang, Yi; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Qiao; Kwang, Hou-Wen; Wu, Dong-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A meta-analysis was undertaken to examine the correlation between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) progression and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-17 (IL-17) in AS patients. Methods: PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane Library database, Ovid, Springer link, WANFANG, China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) and VIP databases(last updated search in October, 2014) were exhaustively searched for published case-control studies using keywords related to IL-6, IL-17 and AS. The search results were screened using stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the data from selected high-quality studies was analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 software. Results: Thirteen case-control studies were selected for this meta-analysis and contained a pooled total of 514 AS patients and 358 healthy controls. Our main result revealed strikingly higher serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 in AS patients, compared to healthy controls (IL-6: SMD = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.33~3.70, P = 0.01; IL-17: SMD = 3.05, 95% CI = 2.09~4.02, P < 0.001). Ethnicity-based subgroup analysis showed a statistically correlation of high IL-6 and IL-17 serum levels with AS both in Asian (IL-6: SMD = 3.15, 95% CI = 0.75~5.55, P < 0.001; IL-17: SMD = 3.30, 95% CI = 1.93~4.66, P < 0.001) and Caucasian populations (IL-6: SMD = 1.34, 95% CI = 0.33~2.35, P = 0.009; IL-17: SMD = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.06~3.98, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Meta-analysis of pooled data from thirteen high-quality studies revealed a strong correlation between elevated IL-6 and IL-17 serum levels and the development of AS. Therefore, IL-6 and IL-17 could be used as markers for diagnosis and assessment of treatment outcomes in AS patients. PMID:26770328

  3. Elevated Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Alteration of Thyroid Hormones in Children from Guiyu, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xijin; Liu, Junxiao; Zeng, Xiang; Lu, Fangfang; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. This study explored whether there is an association between PBDEs, heavy metal and key growth- and development-related hormones in children from Guiyu, an e-waste area in southern China. We quantified eight PBDE congeners using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry, lead and cadmium utilizing graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, three thyroids with radioimmunoassay and two types of growth hormones by an enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) in 162 children, 4 to 6 years old, from Guiyu. In blood, median total PBDE was 189.99 ng/g lipid. Lead and cadmium concentrations in blood averaged 14.53±4.85 µg dL−1 and 0.77±0.35 µg L−1, respectively. Spearman partial correlation analysis illustrated that lead was positively correlated with BDE153 and BDE183. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was positively correlated with almost all PBDE congeners and negatively correlated with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), whereas free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) were negatively correlated with BDE154. However, no correlation between the hormones and blood lead or cadmium levels was found in this study. Adjusted multiple linear regression analysis showed that total PBDEs was negatively associated with FT3 and positively associated with TSH. Notably, FT4 was positively correlated with FT3, house functions as a workshop, and father's work involved in e-waste recycling and negatively correlated with vitamin consumptions. TSH was negatively related with FT4, paternal residence time in Guiyu, working hours of mother, and child bean products intake. IGFBP-3 was positively correlated with IGF-1 and house close to an e-waste dump. These results suggest that elevated PBDEs and heavy metals related to e-waste in Guiyu may be important risk factors for hormone alterations in children

  4. Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Indicator of Plant Stress in Conifers at two elevations on Mount Moosilauke, NH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. N.; Rock, B. N.; Hale, S. R.; Graham, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The research presented was conducted as part of Watershed Watch, a two-week hands-on summer program for undeclared entry-level undergraduates, designed to recruit and retain students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. The research was conducted on needles of red spruce (Picea rubens) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) at the University of New Hampshire. The presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) in the cell walls of spruce mesophyll cells has been reported as an indicator of environmental stress. To assess this, first and third year needles of both species were collected from Mt. Moosilauke (Woodstock, NH) at two elevations (790m and 960m). Needles were analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Estimates of chlorophyll and water were made using the Red Edge Inflection Point and the Moisture Stress Index. These were compared to SEM images of needle sections to visually correlate the amount of CaOx with the reflectance indices. Balsam fir from 790m have a higher occurrence of CaOx in their first and third year needles than from the 960m site, while spectroscopy results indicated less stress (i.e., higher chlorophyll and more water) at the lower site. This does not support a correlation between CaOx and stress factors in balsam fir. In red spruce, those needles with fewest CaOx had higher estimates of chlorophyll and water, supporting the correlation. Based on these results, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between CaOx and plant stress in different species of conifers.

  5. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels. These may include abnormal blood levels of albumin or immunoglobulins. Normal Results Children: 4.8 to ... 2016:chap 245. Read More Acute kidney failure Albumin - blood (serum) test Bone tumor Calcium blood test ...

  6. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  7. Elevated Serum Leptin Levels are Associated With an Increased Risk of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Junna; Wei, Wei; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Johnson, Marcella M.; Wyatt, Cynthia M.; Ellerhorst, Julie A.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The metabolic hormone leptin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various malignancies and may contribute to the high rate of cancer in obese individuals. We reported that leptin and its receptor are expressed by melanoma tumors and cell lines, and that leptin stimulates proliferation of cultured melanoma cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that leptin contributes to early melanoma progression by assessing its association with sentinel node positivity in cutaneous melanoma patients. The study enrolled 72 patients who were scheduled to undergo lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy. Fasting blood was obtained before surgery, and serum leptin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a “raw” (assay value) and an “adjusted” value (raw value divided by body mass index). Leptin levels and other clinicopathologic parameters were compared between sentinel node positive and negative groups. Logistic regression models were used to predict sentinel node status using leptin and other relevant clinical parameters. The raw and adjusted leptin levels were significantly higher in the 15 patients with positive sentinel nodes. These findings could not be attributed to differences in body mass indices. Univariate models revealed raw leptin, adjusted leptin, Breslow thickness, and mitotic rate as significant predictors of sentinel node status. Leptin levels and Breslow thickness remained significant in multivariate models. Survival and follow-up analysis revealed more aggressive disease in diabetic patients. Elevated serum leptin levels predict sentinel node metastasis in melanoma. Validation of this finding in larger cohorts should enable better stratification of early stage melanoma patients. PMID:26986135

  8. Use of CA125 and HE4 serum markers to predict ovarian cancer in elevated-risk women

    PubMed Central

    Karlan, Beth Y.; Thorpe, Jason; Watabayashi, Kate; Drescher, Charles W.; Palomares, Melanie; Daly, Mary B.; Paley, Pam; Hillard, Paula; Andersen, M Robyn; Anderson, Garnet; Drapkin, Ronny; Urban, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum markers are used prior to pelvic imaging to improve specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of ovarian cancer multimodal screening strategies. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled pilot trial to estimate surgical PPV of a “2 of 3 tests positive” screening rule, and to compare use of HE4 as a 1st-line (Arm 1) vs. a 2nd-line (Arm 2) screen, in women at high and elevated risk for EOC at five study sites. Semi-annual screening was offered to 208 women aged 25-80 with deleterious BRCA germ-line mutations, and to 834 women aged 35-80 with pedigrees suggesting inherited susceptibility. Annual screening was offered to 130 women aged 45-80 (Risk Group 3) with epidemiologic and serum marker risk factors. Rising marker levels were identified using the parametric empirical Bayes algorithm. Results Both strategies yielded surgical PPV above 25%. Protocol-indicated surgery was performed in six women, identifying two ovarian malignancies and yielding a surgical PPV in both arms combined of 33% (95% CI: 4%-78%), 25% in Arm 1 and 50% in Arm 2. Surgical consultation was recommended for 37 women (26 in Arm 1, 11 in Arm 2). Based on 12 women with at least 2 of 3 tests positive (CA125, HE4 or imaging), an intent-to-treat analysis yielded PPV of 14% in Arm 1 and 20% in Arm 2. Conclusions Positive screens were more frequent when HE4 was included in the primary screen. Impact. HE4 may be useful as a confirmatory screen when rising CA125 is used alone as a primary screen. PMID:24789859

  9. Serum Potassium Levels and Short-Term Outcomes in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenfang; Liang, Yan; Zhu, Jun; Yang, Yanmin; Tan, Huiqiong; Yu, Litian; Gao, Xin; Feng, Guangxun; Li, Jiandong

    2016-09-01

    Current guidelines recommend maintaining serum potassium levels between 4.0 and 5.0 mEq/L (1 mEq/L = mmol/L) in patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, these guidelines are based on studies conducted before the β blocker and reperfusion era. We retrospectively analyzed 6613 patients diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who presented without renal insufficiency. Patients were categorized into 5 groups according to mean serum potassium levels: <3.5, 3.5 to <4.0, 4.0 to <4.5, 4.5 to <5.0, and ≥5.0 mEq/L. Patients with potassium levels of 4.0 to <4.5 mEq/L had the lowest predefined event rates, which were 6.4% for 7-day malignant arrhythmia, 3.7% for 7-day mortality, and 5.3% for 30-day mortality. Compared with the reference group (4.0 to <4.5 mEq/L), multivariate regression analysis revealed significantly higher 30-day mortality risk in patients with potassium level of 4.5 to <5.0 (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.98; P = .002) and even higher risk in patients with potassium level of ≥5.0 mEq/L (HR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.22-2.66; P = .002). The lowest 30-day mortality was observed in patients with STEMI having potassium levels between 4.0 and 4.5 mEq/L, and a level >4.5 mEq/L significantly increased mortality risk. PMID:26626107

  10. Persistently Elevated Serum Interleukin-6 Predicts Mortality Among Adults Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Botswana: Results from a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Bethan; Moyo, Sikhulile; Gabaitiri, Lesego; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Bussmann, Hermann; Koethe, John R.; Musonda, Rosemary; Makhema, Joseph; Novitsky, Vladimir; Marlink, Richard G.; Wester, C. William

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Elevated serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity among HIV-infected individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in European and U.S. cohorts. Few similar data are available from sub-Saharan Africa, where most cART-treated adults reside and the prevalence of advanced immunosuppression and opportunistic infections (OIs) at cART initiation is higher. This was a retrospective nested case-control analysis of clinical trial data from the completed Adult Antiretroviral Treatment and Drug Resistance (“Tshepo”) study, 2002–2007, Gaborone, Botswana. We measured pretreatment serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and D-dimer in stored plasma samples from 32 deceased participants (cases) and 64 survivors (controls), matched for age, sex, baseline CD4+ cell count, and plasma HIV-1 RNA. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses were used to compare inflammatory biomarker levels, adjusting for pretreatment body mass index (BMI) and the presence of OIs. A total of 37 (5.7%) of 650 patients died on study, for a crude mortality rate of 20.6/1,000 person-years. Of 37 (86%) study participants who died on study 32 were included in this analysis. Causes of death (n=32) included non-AIDS-defining events (31.3%), HIV-related OIs (28.1%), cART/toxicity-related (21.9%), other infectious etiologies (15.6%), and unknown (3.1%). Median time to death was 31 weeks [interquartile range (IQR) 14–64]. Median baseline levels of all three biomarkers were higher in cases compared to matched controls. After adjusting for BMI and the presence of OIs, only baseline and most recent (near time of event) levels of IL-6 remained as significant predictors of all-cause mortality [adjusted OR (aOR)=1.25, 95% CI (1.05–1.48); p=0.012; and aOR=1.48 (1.05–2.09); p=0.027, respectively]. Serum IL-6 levels are important predictors of all-cause mortality in this adult

  11. Brain and Serum Androsterone Is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Servatius, Richard J.; Marx, Christine E.; Sinha, Swamini; Avcu, Pelin; Kilts, Jason D.; Naylor, Jennifer C.; Pang, Kevin C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs) in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM). ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs) 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34), PID 35 (S35), on both days (2S), or the experimental context (CON). Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG), allopregnanolone (ALLO), and androsterone (ANDRO) were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration. PMID:27616978

  12. Assessment and diagnostic relevance of novel serum biomarkers for early decision of ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Yoon-Seok; Seo, Suk Min; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Chang, Kiyuk; Seung, Ki Bae; Kim, Pum-Joon; Nam, Suk Woo

    2015-01-01

    Blood transcriptome reflects the status of diseases, and characteristic molecular signature provides a novel window on gene expression preceding acute coronary events. We aim to determine blood transcriptome-based molecular signature of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and to identify novel serum biomarkers for early stage ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We obtained peripheral blood from the patients with ACS who visited emergency department within 4 hours after the onset of chest pain: STEMI (n = 10), Non-ST-segment-elevation MI (NSTEMI, n = 10) and unstable angina (UA, n = 11). Blood transcriptome scans revealed that a characteristic gene expression change exists in STEMI, resulting in 531 outlier genes as STEMI molecular signature (Welch's t test, P < 0.05). Another analysis with a set of blood samples of patients with STEMI (n = 7) before and 7 days after the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 7) and normal control (n = 10) evidenced that STEMI molecular signature directly reflects the onset of STEMI pathogenesis. From the two sets of transcriptome-based STEMI signatures, we identified 10 genes encoding transmembrane or secretory proteins that are highly expressed in STEMI. We validated blood protein expression levels of these 10 putative biomarkers in 40 STEMI and 32 healthy subjects by ELISA. Data suggested that PGLYRP1, IRAK3 and VNN3 are more specific and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers for STEMI than traditional CK-MB or troponin. Blood transcriptome scans of ACS evidenced early stage molecular markers for STEMI. Here, we report novel biomarkers to diagnose STEMI at emergency department in hospitals by a simple ELISA method. PMID:26025919

  13. Brain and Serum Androsterone Is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Servatius, Richard J; Marx, Christine E; Sinha, Swamini; Avcu, Pelin; Kilts, Jason D; Naylor, Jennifer C; Pang, Kevin C H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs) in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM). ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs) 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34), PID 35 (S35), on both days (2S), or the experimental context (CON). Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG), allopregnanolone (ALLO), and androsterone (ANDRO) were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration. PMID:27616978

  14. Elevated Serum Levels of the Antiapoptotic Protein Decoy-Receptor 3 Are Associated with Advanced Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gizis, Michalis; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Laoudi, Eyfrosyni; Siakavellas, Spyros I.; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Vlachogiannakos, John; Vafiadis-Zouboulis, Irene; Daikos, George L.; Papatheodoridis, George V.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Decoy-receptor 3 (DcR3) exerts antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory function and is overexpressed in neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Serum DcR3 (sDcR3) levels during the chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) sequence have not been explored. Objective. To assess the levels and significance of sDcR3 protein in various stages of chronic liver disease. Methods. We compared sDcR3 levels between healthy controls and patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH), decompensated cirrhosis (DC), and HCC. Correlations between sDcR3 levels and various patient- and disease-related factors were analyzed. Results. sDcR3 levels were significantly higher in patients with CVH than in controls (P < 0.01). sDcR3 levels were elevated in DC and HCC, being significantly higher compared not only to controls (P < 0.001 for both) but to CVH patients as well (P < 0.001 for both). In addition, DcR3 protein was detected in large quantities in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotics. In patients with CVH, sDcR3 significantly correlated to fibrosis severity, as estimated by Ishak score (P = 0.019) or by liver stiffness measured with elastography (Spearman r = 0.698, P < 0.001). In cirrhotic patients, significant positive correlations were observed between sDcR3 levels and markers of severity of hepatic impairment, including MELD score (r = 0.653, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Circulating levels of DcR3 are elevated during chronic liver disease and correlate with severity of liver damage. sDcR3 may serve as marker for liver fibrosis severity and progression to end-stage liver disease. PMID:27595094

  15. Elevated Serum Levels of the Antiapoptotic Protein Decoy-Receptor 3 Are Associated with Advanced Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Bamias, Giorgos; Gizis, Michalis; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Laoudi, Eyfrosyni; Siakavellas, Spyros I; Koutsounas, Ioannis; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Vlachogiannakos, John; Vafiadis-Zouboulis, Irene; Daikos, George L; Papatheodoridis, George V; Ladas, Spiros D

    2016-01-01

    Background. Decoy-receptor 3 (DcR3) exerts antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory function and is overexpressed in neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Serum DcR3 (sDcR3) levels during the chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) sequence have not been explored. Objective. To assess the levels and significance of sDcR3 protein in various stages of chronic liver disease. Methods. We compared sDcR3 levels between healthy controls and patients with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH), decompensated cirrhosis (DC), and HCC. Correlations between sDcR3 levels and various patient- and disease-related factors were analyzed. Results. sDcR3 levels were significantly higher in patients with CVH than in controls (P < 0.01). sDcR3 levels were elevated in DC and HCC, being significantly higher compared not only to controls (P < 0.001 for both) but to CVH patients as well (P < 0.001 for both). In addition, DcR3 protein was detected in large quantities in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotics. In patients with CVH, sDcR3 significantly correlated to fibrosis severity, as estimated by Ishak score (P = 0.019) or by liver stiffness measured with elastography (Spearman r = 0.698, P < 0.001). In cirrhotic patients, significant positive correlations were observed between sDcR3 levels and markers of severity of hepatic impairment, including MELD score (r = 0.653, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Circulating levels of DcR3 are elevated during chronic liver disease and correlate with severity of liver damage. sDcR3 may serve as marker for liver fibrosis severity and progression to end-stage liver disease. PMID:27595094

  16. Elevated serum levels of IGFBP-2 found in children suffering from acute leukaemia is accompanied by the occurrence of IGFBP-2 mRNA in the tumour clone.

    PubMed Central

    Wex, H.; Vorwerk, P.; Mohnike, K.; Bretschneider, D.; Kluba, U.; Aumann, V.; Blum, W. F.; Mittler, U.

    1998-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) are important modulators of IGF action. In 50 children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), we studied the serum levels of IGFBP-1,-2 and-3. The mean standard deviation score (SDS) values were estimated to be 0.7, 3.1 and -1.7 for the IGFBP-1,-2 and-3, respectively, compared with the normal range defined by a SDS from -2 to +2. IGFBP-1 and-3 were normal, but for IGFBP-2 we found a significantly elevated serum level compared with control groups (P < 0.05). However, during chemotherapy this increased serum IGFBP-2 normalized. In addition, we found a correlation between higher serum levels and the detection rate of the IGFBP-2 transcript in corresponding cells. In patients with ALL, the detection rates of IGFBP-2 mRNA were estimated to be 72% and 35% at the time of diagnosis and at day 33 of chemotherapy respectively; in the control groups (healthy children and children at their initial presentation of diabetes mellitus), the values were 28% and 33% respectively. Based on the correlation between IGFBP-2 serum levels and the corresponding gene expression as well as the normalization of IGFBP-2 levels during chemotherapy, we concluded that the increased serum level mainly originated from the tumour clone itself. Furthermore, possible functional consequences of elevated IGFBP-2 were outlined. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9716037

  17. Keratin 19-positive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with elevated serum cytokeratin 19 fragment 21-1 level: A case report

    PubMed Central

    UEDA, MISATO; YASUDA, MICHINORI; SHIBAOKA, YOSHIE; KUROKAWA, ICHIRO; KAKUNO, AYAKO; TSUBURA, AIRO

    2016-01-01

    cytokeratin 19 fragment 21-1 (CYFRA21-1) is a marker of lung cancer useful for evaluating clinical diagnosis and prognosis. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with high levels of CYFRA21-1 to date. We herein report a case of a 79-year-old man with a large subcutaneous tumor of the left shoulder, which was diagnosed as primary cutaneous poorly differentiated SCC. The tumor nests were composed of poorly differentiated atypical squamous cells exhibiting high-grade malignancy and mitotic figures; multinuclear cells were also identified inside lymph vessels. Keratin 19 (K19) was intensely expressed in tumor cells. A significantly elevated level of CYFRA21-1 (33 ng/ml) was observed preoperatively. After surgery, the level of CYFRA21-1 was significantly decreased (from 33 to 5.0 ng/ml). Our case demonstrated that K19-positive primary cutaneous undifferentiated SCC induced high levels of CYFRA21-1 in the serum. Thus, CYFRA 21-1 may be a marker indicative of poorly differentiated cutaneous SCC exhibiting K19 expression. PMID:27313859

  18. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) Mutation in Breast Adenocarcinoma Is Associated With Elevated Levels of Serum and Urine 2-Hydroxyglutarate

    PubMed Central

    Sadrzadeh, Hossein; Comander, Amy H.; Higgins, Michaela J.; Bardia, Aditya; Perry, Ashley; Burke, Meghan; Silver, Regina; Matulis, Christina R.; Straley, Kimberly S.; Yen, Katharine E.; Agresta, Sam; Kim, Hyeryun; Schenkein, David P.; Borger, Darrell R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase) genes have been discovered across a range of solid-organ and hematologic malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia, glioma, chondrosarcoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. An intriguing aspect of IDH-mutant tumors is the aberrant production and accumulation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which may play a pivotal oncogenic role in these malignancies. We describe the first reported case of an IDH1 p.R132L mutation in a patient with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast adenocarcinoma. This patient was initially treated for locally advanced disease, but then suffered a relapse and metastasis, at which point an IDH1-R132 mutation was discovered in an affected lymph node. The mutation was subsequently found in the primary tumor tissue and all metastatic sites, but not in an uninvolved lymph node. In addition, the patient’s serum and urine displayed marked elevations in the concentration of 2-HG, significantly higher than that measured in six other patients with metastatic HR+ breast carcinoma whose tumors were found to harbor wild-type IDH1. In summary, IDH1 mutations may impact a rare subgroup of patients with breast adenocarcinoma. This may suggest future avenues for disease monitoring through noninvasive measurement of 2-HG, as well as for the development and study of targeted therapies against the aberrant IDH1 enzyme. PMID:24760710

  19. The viability of mouse spermatogonial germ cells on a novel scaffold, containing human serum albumin and calcium phosphate nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yadegar, Mona; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyed Hossein; Nezami Saridar, Saeide; Jebali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: In spermatogenesis, spermatogonial cells differentiate to the haploid gametes. It has been shown that spermatogenesis can be done at in vitro condition. In vitro spermatogenesis may provide an open window to treat male infertility. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel scaffold containing human serum albumin (HSA)/tri calcium phosphate nanoparticles (TCP NPs) on the mouse spermatogonial cell line (SCL). Materials and Methods: First, TCP NPs were synthesized by reaction of calcium nitrate and diammonium phosphate at pH 13. Then, serial concentrations of TCP NPs were separately added to 500 mg/mL HSA, and incubated in the 100oC water for 30 min. In the next step, each scaffold was cut (2×2mm), placed into sterile well of microplate, and then incubated for 1, 2, and 3 days at 37oC with mouse SCL. After incubation, the cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was evaluated by different tests including 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, vital staining, and cell counting. On the other hand, the release of TCP NPs and HSA from the scaffolds was measured. Results: Based on microscopic observation, the size of cavities for all scaffolds was near 200-500 µm, and the size of TCP NPs was near 50-100 nm. All toxicity tests showed that the increase of TCP concentration in the scaffold did not affect mouse SCL. It means that the percentage of cell viability, LDH release, vital cells, and cell quantity was 85%, 105%, 90%, and 110%, respectively. But, the increase of incubation time led to increase of LDH release (up to 115%) and cell count (up to 115%). Also, little decrease of cell viability and vital cells was seen when incubation time was increased. Here, no release of TCP NPs and HSA was seen after increase of TCP concentration and incubation time. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the increase of TCP concentration in HSA/ TCP NPs scaffold does not lead to

  20. Genetic parameters of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium serum concentrations during the first 8 days after calving in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Tsiamadis, V; Banos, G; Panousis, N; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, M; Arsenos, G; Valergakis, G E

    2016-07-01

    Calcium, Mg, P, and K are of great importance for the health and productivity of dairy cows after calving. So far genetic studies have focused on clinical hypocalcemia, leaving the genetic parameters of these macroelements unstudied. Our objective was to estimate the genetic parameters of Ca, Mg, P, and K serum concentrations and their changes during the first 8d after calving. The study was conducted in 9 herds located in northern Greece, with 1,021 Holstein cows enrolled from November 2010 until November 2012. No herd used any kind of preventive measures for hypocalcemia. Pedigree information for all cows was available. A total of 35 cows were diagnosed and treated for periparturient paresis and, therefore, excluded from the study. The remaining 986 cows were included in genetic analysis. The distribution of cows across parities was 459 (parity 1), 234 (parity 2), 158 (parity 3), and 135 (parity ≥4). A sample of blood was taken from each cow on d1, 2, 4, and 8 after calving and serum concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, and K were measured in each sample. A final data set of 15,390 biochemical records was created consisting of 3,903 Ca, 3,902 P, 3,903Mg, and 3,682K measurements. Moreover, changes of these concentrations between d1 and 4 as well as 1 and 8 after calving were calculated and treated as different traits. Random regression models were used to analyze the data. Results showed that daily heritabilities of Ca, P, and Mg concentrations traits were moderate to high (0.20-0.43), whereas those of K were low to moderate (0.12-0.23). Regarding concentration changes, only Mg change between d1 and 8 after calving had a significant heritability of 0.18. Genetic correlations between Ca, P, Mg, and K concentrations and their concentration changes from d1 to 4 and 1 to 8 after calving were not significantly different from zero. Most phenotypic correlations among Ca, P, Mg, and K concentrations were positive and low (0.09-0.16), whereas the correlation between P and Mg was

  1. Calcium and magnesium content of the uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazle; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) variations during the estrus cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures. 18 animals were pro-estrous, 15 estrous, 16 met-estrous and 22 diestrous. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean ± SEM total serum and uterine fluid Ca in cyclic buffaloes were 8.68 ± 0.28 mg dL-1 and 8.10 ± 0.2 mg dL-1 vs. 6.76 ± 0.65 mg dL-1 and 7.90 ± 0.15 mg dL-1 in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum Mg was not different in cyclic and pre-pubertal animals but the uterine fluid Mg in cyclic cows was higher than those in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Ca in pro-estrus and estrus were higher than those in other stages and also higher than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest Mg content of serum was recorded in diestrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle except for estrus the uterine fluid Mg content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Ca was passively secreted in uterine lumen and mostly dependent on blood serum Ca concentrations but Mg was secreted independently. The values (except for serum total Mg) also increased after puberty. PMID:25610582

  2. Elevation of serum interleukins 8, 4, and 1β levels in patients with gastrointestinal low-grade B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Toji, Tomohiro; Goto, Naoe; Kasahara, Senji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Tari, Akira; Noujima-Harada, Mai; Miyata, Takafumi; Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines that are produced by helper T cells (Th) regulate immune reactions, facilitate class switching of B cells, and prolong the lifespan of B and T cells. Eradication therapy using antibiotics is sometimes effective against gastrointestinal (GI) malignant lymphoma, suggesting that the tumor development or progression is affected by the inflammatory microenvironment. In the present study, serum samples from 148 patients with various subtypes of malignant lymphoma were tested for 11 proinflammatory Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the comparison by subtype or GI lesions, serum interleukin (IL)-8 (P = 6.7E−05), IL-4 (P = 7.5E−05), and IL-1β (P = 0.0043) levels showed significant differences among subtypes, being particularly elevated in follicular lymphomas (FL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Serum IL-8 levels were elevated in GI-FL and MALT lymphomas, and serum IL-4 and IL-1 β levels were elevated in MALT lymphomas. These findings show that GI low-grade B-cell lymphoma could develop against the background of an inflammatory microenvironment. Thus, these cytokines may be useful as diagnostic markers and could provide new insights into tumor development. PMID:26674732

  3. Elevation of serum interleukins 8, 4, and 1β levels in patients with gastrointestinal low-grade B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Toji, Tomohiro; Goto, Naoe; Kasahara, Senji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Tari, Akira; Noujima-Harada, Mai; Miyata, Takafumi; Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines that are produced by helper T cells (Th) regulate immune reactions, facilitate class switching of B cells, and prolong the lifespan of B and T cells. Eradication therapy using antibiotics is sometimes effective against gastrointestinal (GI) malignant lymphoma, suggesting that the tumor development or progression is affected by the inflammatory microenvironment. In the present study, serum samples from 148 patients with various subtypes of malignant lymphoma were tested for 11 proinflammatory Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the comparison by subtype or GI lesions, serum interleukin (IL)-8 (P = 6.7E-05), IL-4 (P = 7.5E-05), and IL-1β (P = 0.0043) levels showed significant differences among subtypes, being particularly elevated in follicular lymphomas (FL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Serum IL-8 levels were elevated in GI-FL and MALT lymphomas, and serum IL-4 and IL-1 β levels were elevated in MALT lymphomas. These findings show that GI low-grade B-cell lymphoma could develop against the background of an inflammatory microenvironment. Thus, these cytokines may be useful as diagnostic markers and could provide new insights into tumor development. PMID:26674732

  4. Velcalcetide (AMG 416), a novel peptide agonist of the calcium-sensing receptor, reduces serum parathyroid hormone and FGF23 levels in healthy male subjects

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kevin J.; Bell, Gregory; Pickthorn, Karen; Huang, Saling; Vick, Andrew; Hodsman, Peter; Peacock, Munro

    2014-01-01

    Context Velcalcetide, also known as AMG 416, is a novel, long-acting selective peptide agonist of the calcium sensing receptor. It is being developed as an intravenous treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease—mineral and bone disorder. Objective To assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of velcalcetide in healthy male volunteers. Methods The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-dose, dose-escalation study in healthy males aged 18–45 years conducted at a single center. Each cohort included eight subjects randomized 6:2 to velcalcetide or placebo. Intervention Velcalcetide at 0.5, 2, 5 and 10 mg or placebo was administered intravenously. Outcomes Measurements included plasma ionized calcium (iCa), serum total calcium, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), phosphorus and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, calcitonin and urine creatinine, calcium and phosphorus and plasma pharmacokinetics for velcalcetide. Vital signs, safety biochemical and hematological indices, and adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Results Intravenous administration of velcalcetide was well tolerated with no adverse reaction of nausea, vomiting or diarrhea reported. Velcalcetide mediated dose-dependent decreases in serum iPTH at 30 min, FGF23 at 24 h and iCa at 12 h post dose (P < 0.05) and in urine fractional excretion of phosphorus and increases in tubular reabsorption of phosphorus. Velcalcetide plasma exposure increased in a dose-related manner and the terminal elimination of half-life was comparable across the dose range evaluated and ranged from 18.4 to 20.0 h. Conclusion Single IV doses of velcalcetide were well tolerated and associated with rapid, sustained, dose-dependent reductions in serum PTH. The results support further evaluation of velcalcetide as a treatment for SHPT in hemodialysis patients. PMID:24235081

  5. Elevated serum neuron-specific enolase in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: a video-EEG study.

    PubMed

    Palmio, Johanna; Keränen, Tapani; Alapirtti, Tiina; Hulkkonen, Janne; Mäkinen, Riikka; Holm, Päivi; Suhonen, Jaana; Peltola, Jukka

    2008-10-01

    Established markers of brain damage, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S-100b protein (S-100), may increase after status epilepticus, but whether a single tonic-clonic or complex partial seizure induces elevation of these markers is not known. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the risk of seizure-related neuronal damage in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) differs from that in extratemporal lobe epilepsies (XTLE). The aim of this study was to analyze NSE and S-100 in patients with TLE and XTLE after acute seizures. The levels of NSE and S-100 were measured in serum before (0h) and at 3, 6, 12, and 24h after acute seizures in 31 patients during inpatient video-EEG monitoring. The patients were categorized into the TLE and the XTLE group based on video-EEG recordings and MRI findings. Fifteen patients had TLE and 16 XTLE. Index seizures were mainly complex partial seizures (n=21). In TLE mean+/-S.D. values for NSE levels (mug/L) were 8.36+/-2.64 (0h), 11.35+/-3.84 (3h), 13.48+/-4.49 (6h), 12.95+/-5.46 (12h) and 10.33+/-3.13 (24h) (p=0.006, ANOVA). In XTLE the changes were not significant (p=0.3). There was less increase in the levels of S-100 in TLE (p=0.05) and no significant change in XTLE (p=0.4). The levels of markers of neuronal damage were increased in patients with TLE, not only after tonic-clonic but also after complex partial seizures. These data suggest that TLE may be associated with brain damage. PMID:18595663

  6. Elevated Serum Levels of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Are Associated with Progressive Chronic Cardiomyopathy in Patients with Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cutrullis, Romina A.; Petray, Patricia B.; Schapachnik, Edgardo; Sánchez, Rubén; Postan, Miriam; González, Mariela N.; Martín, Valentina; Corral, Ricardo S.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical symptoms of chronic Chagas disease occur in around 30% of the individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and are characterized by heart inflammation and dysfunction. The pathogenesis of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) is not completely understood yet, partially because disease evolution depends on complex host-parasite interactions. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that promotes numerous pathophysiological processes. In the current study, we investigated the link between MIF and CCC progression. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated MIF overexpression in the hearts from chronically T. cruzi-infected mice, particularly those showing intense inflammatory infiltration. We also found that MIF exogenously added to parasite-infected murine macrophage cultures is capable of enhancing the production of TNF-α and reactive oxygen species, both with pathogenic roles in CCC. Thus, the integrated action of MIF and other cytokines and chemokines may account for leukocyte influx to the infected myocardium, accompanied by enhanced local production of multiple inflammatory mediators. We further examined by ELISA the level of MIF in the sera from chronic indeterminate and cardiomyopathic chagasic patients, and healthy subjects. CCC patients displayed significantly higher MIF concentrations than those recorded in asymptomatic T. cruzi-infected and uninfected individuals. Interestingly, increased MIF levels were associated with severe progressive Chagas heart disease, in correlation with elevated serum concentration of high sensitivity C-reactive protein and also with several echocardiographic indicators of left ventricular dysfunction, one of the hallmarks of CCC. Our present findings represent the first evidence that enhanced MIF production is associated with progressive cardiac impairment in chronic human infection with T. cruzi, strengthening the relationship between inflammatory response and parasite

  7. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels in the regulation of basal and agonist-elevated tones in isolated conduit arteries. Short communication.

    PubMed

    Pataricza, J; Márton, Z; Hegedus, Z; Krassói, Irén; Kun, A; Varró, A; Papp, J Gy

    2004-01-01

    Functional role of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels on the basal and agonist-elevated arterial tones was investigated in isolated rabbit aorta, porcine and canine coronary arteries as well as in human internal mammary artery. The vascular tones enhanced by contractile agents were increased further by preincubation of these conduit blood vessels with selective (charybdotoxin or iberiotoxin) or nonselective (tetraethylammonium) inhibitors of KCa channels. The basal tone (without an agonist) was increased only in the canine coronary artery. The results indicate a feed-back regulatory role of KCa channels counteracting the vasospasm of conduit arteries. PMID:16438119

  8. THE EFFECT OF UVB RADIATION ON SERUM VITAMIN D AND IONIZED CALCIUM IN THE AFRICAN SPOONBILL (PLATALEA ALBA).

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Sarah J; Rick, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Metabolic bone disease (MBD) was diagnosed in two chicks produced by a captive breeding colony of African spoonbills (Platalea alba). The birds were housed indoor during the winter breeding season and had no access to natural sunlight. When the index cases occurred, the nesting birds and chicks had a mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration of 9.9 ± 2.7 nmol/L and a mean ionized calcium (iCa) concentration of 0.98 ± 0.12 mmol/L (winter pretreatment). For comparison purposes, serum was collected the following summer; mean 25-OHD was 20.8 ± 3.9 nmol/L and mean iCa was 1.32 ± 0.05 mmol/L (summer). During the following breeding season, ultraviolet B (UVB) lighting was provided to the flock, resulting in a mean 25-OHD of 19.0 ± 5.6 nmol/L and mean iCa of 1.23 ± 0.06 mmol/L (winter treatment 1). Both 25-OHD and iCa were significantly higher compared with winter pretreatment, and 25-OHD was not significantly different from summer, indicating that treatment during the winter months succeeded in increasing 25-OHD levels to summer levels. However, winter treatment 1 and summer iCa were significantly different. During the next breeding season (winter treatment 2), the birds were exposed to a light with higher UVB output. The mean 25-OHD of the flock was 16.5 ± 7.2 nmol/L, and the mean iCa increased to 1.34 ± 0.04 mmol/L. Both were comparable to summer values. Healthy chicks were hatched during both breeding seasons, and no further cases of MBD occurred during the course of the study. Provision of a UVB light source to captive African spoonbills maintained indoors during the winter months can increase 25-OHD and iCa to levels equivalent to those seen in the summer months, when birds have unrestricted access to natural sunlight. UVB lighting is recommended for all breeding spoonbills that do not have access to natural sunlight. PMID:27468015

  9. Interactions between calcium and phosphorus in the regulation of the production of fibroblast growth factor 23 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Stephen J.; Thomsen, Alex R. B.; Pang, Jian L.; Kantham, Lakshmi; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Pollak, Martin; Goltzman, David

    2013-01-01

    Calcium and phosphorus homeostasis are highly interrelated and share common regulatory hormones, including FGF23. However, little is known about calcium's role in the regulation of FGF23. We sought to investigate the regulatory roles of calcium and phosphorus in FGF23 production using genetic mouse models with targeted inactivation of PTH (PTH KO) or both PTH and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR; PTH-CaSR DKO). In wild-type, PTH KO, and PTH-CaSR DKO mice, elevation of either serum calcium or phosphorus by intraperitoneal injection increased serum FGF23 levels. In PTH KO and PTH-CaSR DKO mice, however, increases in serum phosphorus by dietary manipulation were accompanied by severe hypocalcemia, which appeared to blunt stimulation of FGF23 release. Increases in dietary phosphorus in PTH-CaSR DKO mice markedly decreased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] despite no change in FGF23, suggesting direct regulation of 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis by serum phosphorus. Calcium-mediated increases in serum FGF23 required a threshold level of serum phosphorus of about 5 mg/dl. Analogously, phosphorus-elicited increases in FGF23 were markedly blunted if serum calcium was less than 8 mg/dl. The best correlation between calcium and phosphorus and serum FGF23 was found between FGF23 and the calcium × phosphorus product. Since calcium stimulated FGF23 production in the PTH-CaSR DKO mice, this effect cannot be mediated by the full-length CaSR. Thus the regulation of FGF23 by both calcium and phosphorus appears to be fundamentally important in coordinating the serum levels of both mineral ions and ensuring that the calcium × phosphorus product remains within a physiological range. PMID:23233539

  10. TRPC6 is required for hypoxia-induced basal intracellular calcium concentration elevation, and for the proliferation and migration of rat distal pulmonary venous smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingjie; Wang, Dong; Yan, Gaoling; Sun, Ling; Tang, Chengchun

    2016-02-01

    Hypoxia induces pulmonary vasoconstriction and reconstruction in the pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins (PVs), and elevation of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is a primary factor of these processes. In the present study, the role of transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPCs) in mediating the hypoxia-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i in rat distal pulmonary venous smooth muscle cells (PVSMCs) was investigated. Rats with chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (CHPH) were used for in vivo experiments, and PVSMCs were isolated for in vitro experiments. [Ca2+]i was measured using fura-2-based fluorescence calcium imaging. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of TRPCs. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium and Transwell assays were used to investigate the proliferation and migration of PVSMCs, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrated that TRPC6 was increased in the distal PVs of CHPH rats, and in PVSMCs exposed to hypoxic conditions (4% O2, 72 h); however, TRPC1 was not. The 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol-induced [Ca2+]i elevation was increased in PVSMCs isolated from CHPH rats and in PVSMCs cultured under hypoxic conditions (4% O2, 72 h). Hypoxia induced PVSMC [Ca2+]i elevation, proliferation and migration. These alterations were inhibited following TRPC6 knockdown. Results from the present study suggest that TRPC6 expression is increased during chronic hypoxia, which contributes to Ca2+ entry into the cell, thus promoting proliferation and migration of PVSMCs. PMID:26718737

  11. TRPC6 is required for hypoxia-induced basal intracellular calcium concentration elevation, and for the proliferation and migration of rat distal pulmonary venous smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QINGJIE; WANG, DONG; YAN, GAOLING; SUN, LING; TANG, CHENGCHUN

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia induces pulmonary vasoconstriction and reconstruction in the pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins (PVs), and elevation of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is a primary factor of these processes. In the present study, the role of transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPCs) in mediating the hypoxia-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i in rat distal pulmonary venous smooth muscle cells (PVSMCs) was investigated. Rats with chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (CHPH) were used for in vivo experiments, and PVSMCs were isolated for in vitro experiments. [Ca2+]i was measured using fura-2-based fluorescence calcium imaging. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of TRPCs. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium and Transwell assays were used to investigate the proliferation and migration of PVSMCs, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrated that TRPC6 was increased in the distal PVs of CHPH rats, and in PVSMCs exposed to hypoxic conditions (4% O2, 72 h); however, TRPC1 was not. The 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol-induced [Ca2+]i elevation was increased in PVSMCs isolated from CHPH rats and in PVSMCs cultured under hypoxic conditions (4% O2, 72 h). Hypoxia induced PVSMC [Ca2+]i elevation, proliferation and migration. These alterations were inhibited following TRPC6 knockdown. Results from the present study suggest that TRPC6 expression is increased during chronic hypoxia, which contributes to Ca2+ entry into the cell, thus promoting proliferation and migration of PVSMCs. PMID:26718737

  12. Peripheral insulin resistance in obese girls with hyperandrogenism is related to oxidative phosphorylation and elevated serum free fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, Bradley R.; Coe, Gregory; Newnes, Lindsey; Baumgartner, Amy; Brown, Mark S.; Pyle, Laura; Reusch, Jane E.; Nadeau, Kristen J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperandrogenic syndrome (HAS) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Muscle IR in type 2 diabetes is linked with defects in mitochondrial oxidative capacity. In vivo muscle mitochondrial function has not been studied in HAS, especially in youth, who are early in the disease process. Our goal was to measure muscle mitochondrial oxidative function and peripheral IR in obese youth with HAS. Obese girls without HAS [n = 22, age 15(13,17) yr, BMI Z-score 2.05 ± 0.37] and with HAS [n = 35, age 15(14,16) yr, BMI Z-score 2.18 ± 0.30] were enrolled. Mitochondrial function was assessed with 31phosphorus MR spectroscopy before, during, and after near-maximal isometric calf exercise, and peripheral IR was assessed with an 80 mU·m−2·min−1 hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Girls with HAS had higher androgens [free androgen index 7.9(6.6,15.5) vs. 3.5(3.0,4.0), P < 0.01] and more IR [glucose infusion rate 9.4(7.0, 12,2) vs. 14.5(13.2,15.8) mg·kg lean−1·min−1, P < 0.01]. HAS girls also had increased markers of inflammation including CRP, platelets, and white blood cell count and higher serum free fatty acids during hyperinsulinemia. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was lower in HAS [0.11(0.06,0.19) vs. 0.18(0.12,0.23) mmol/s, P < 0.05], although other spectroscopy markers of mitochondrial function were similar between groups. In multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, IR related to androgens, oxidative phosphorylation, and free fatty acid concentrations during hyperinsulinemia. These relationships were present in just the HAS cohort as well. Obese girls with HAS have significant peripheral IR, which is related to elevated androgens and free fatty acids and decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. These may provide future options as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25714677

  13. Peripheral insulin resistance in obese girls with hyperandrogenism is related to oxidative phosphorylation and elevated serum free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cree-Green, Melanie; Newcomer, Bradley R; Coe, Gregory; Newnes, Lindsey; Baumgartner, Amy; Brown, Mark S; Pyle, Laura; Reusch, Jane E; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2015-05-01

    Hyperandrogenic syndrome (HAS) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Muscle IR in type 2 diabetes is linked with defects in mitochondrial oxidative capacity. In vivo muscle mitochondrial function has not been studied in HAS, especially in youth, who are early in the disease process. Our goal was to measure muscle mitochondrial oxidative function and peripheral IR in obese youth with HAS. Obese girls without HAS [n = 22, age 15(13,17) yr, BMI Z-score 2.05 ± 0.37] and with HAS [n = 35, age 15(14,16) yr, BMI Z-score 2.18 ± 0.30] were enrolled. Mitochondrial function was assessed with (31)phosphorus MR spectroscopy before, during, and after near-maximal isometric calf exercise, and peripheral IR was assessed with an 80 mU·m(-2)·min(-1) hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Girls with HAS had higher androgens [free androgen index 7.9(6.6,15.5) vs. 3.5(3.0,4.0), P < 0.01] and more IR [glucose infusion rate 9.4(7.0, 12,2) vs. 14.5(13.2,15.8) mg·kg lean(-1)·min(-1), P < 0.01]. HAS girls also had increased markers of inflammation including CRP, platelets, and white blood cell count and higher serum free fatty acids during hyperinsulinemia. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was lower in HAS [0.11(0.06,0.19) vs. 0.18(0.12,0.23) mmol/s, P < 0.05], although other spectroscopy markers of mitochondrial function were similar between groups. In multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, IR related to androgens, oxidative phosphorylation, and free fatty acid concentrations during hyperinsulinemia. These relationships were present in just the HAS cohort as well. Obese girls with HAS have significant peripheral IR, which is related to elevated androgens and free fatty acids and decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. These may provide future options as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25714677

  14. Complete remission achieved in a multiple myeloma patient with elevated serum KL-6 level by a combination regimen with bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Yutaka; Nishimura, Nao; Nosaka, Kisato; Hata, Hiroyuki; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2014-04-01

    A 79-year-old woman suffering from double vision after a 4-year history of MGUS was referred to our hospital. MRI revealed that she had three intracranial plasmacytoma masses and one spinal plasmacytoma mass. Bone marrow aspirates showed 52.4% plasma cell infiltration and immunoelectrophoresis identified serum IgG-M protein, leading to a diagnosis of IgG-type multiple myeloma. IgG was elevated to 3,355 mg/dl and urine type Bence-Jones protein was positive. KL-6, a membrane-bound glycoprotein encoded by Mucin 1 and a marker of interstitial pneumonia, was also elevated to 1,409 mg/dl, but computed tomography of the lungs revealed no obvious pulmonary lesions. Previously reported studies showing that myeloma patients with elevated KL-6 might have a poor prognosis prompted us to treat this patient with a three-drug (bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone: VCD) combination regimen. When 6 cycles of the regimen had been completed, no M-protein was detectable in her serum. Furthermore, κ free light chain had significantly decreased from 12,700 to 24.8 mg/l. In addition, (18)F-FDG PET/CT revealed reduced mass sizes and no (18)F-FDG uptakes by plasmacytomas. Thus, she was defined as having achieved a stringent complete remission (sCR). We therefore concluded that the VCD combination regimen was highly effective in this multiple myeloma patient with KL-6 elevation. PMID:24850459

  15. Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen allergen induces elevation of intracellular calcium in human keratinocytes and impairs epidermal barrier function of human skin ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Junichi; Tsutsumi, Moe; Goto, Makiko; Nagayama, Masaharu; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Cry j1 is the major peptide allergen of Japanese cedar (Sugi), Cryptomeria japonica. Since some allergens disrupt epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis, we hypothesized that Cry j1 might have a similar effect. Intracellular calcium level in cultured human keratinocytes was measured with a ratiometric fluorescent probe, Fura-2 AM. Application of Cry j1 significantly increased the intracellular calcium level of keratinocytes, and this increase was inhibited by trypsin inhibitor or a protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) antagonist. We found that Cry j1 itself did not show protease activity, but application of Cry j1 to cultured keratinocytes induced a rapid (within 30 s) and transient increase of protease activity in the medium. This transient increase was blocked by trypsin inhibitor or PAR-2 antagonist. The effect of Cry j1 on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) of cultured human skin was measured in the presence and absence of a trypsin inhibitor and PAR-2 antagonist. Cry j1 significantly impaired the barrier function of human skin ex vivo, and this action was blocked by co-application of trypsin inhibitor or PAR-2 antagonist. Our results suggested that interaction of Cry j1 with epidermal keratinocytes leads to the activation of PAR-2, which induces elevation of intracellular calcium and disruption of barrier function. Blocking the interaction of Cry j1 with epidermal keratinocytes might ameliorate allergic reaction and prevent disruption of epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. PMID:26498292

  16. Association of ferroportin Q248H polymorphism with elevated levels of serum ferritin in African-Americans in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Charles A.; Barton, James C.; Gordeuk, Victor R.; Acton, Ronald T.; Speechley, Mark R.; Snively, Beverly M.; Leiendecker-Foster, Catherine; Press, Richard D.; Adams, Paul C.; McLaren, Gordon D.; Dawkins, Fitzroy W.; McLaren, Christine E.; Reboussin, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The ferroportin (FPN1) Q248H polymorphism has been associated with increased serum ferritin (SF) levels in sub-Saharan Africans and in African Americans (AA). AA participants of the HEIRS Study who did not have HFE C282Y or H63D who had elevated initial screening SF (≥300 μg/L in men and ≥200 μg/L in women) (defined as cases) were frequency-matched to AA participants with normal SF (defined as controls) to investigate the association of the Q248H with elevated SF. 10.4% of cases and 6.7% of controls were Q248H heterozygotes (P = 0.257). Q248H homozygosity was observed in 0.5% of the cases and none of the controls. The frequency of Q248H was higher among men with elevated SF than among control men (P = 0.047); corresponding differences were not observed among women. This appeared to be unrelated to self-reports of a previous diagnosis of liver disease. Men with elevated SF were three times more likely than women with elevated SF to have Q248H (P = 0.012). There were no significant differences in Q248H frequencies in men and women control participants. We conclude that the frequency of the FPN1 Q248H polymorphism is greater in AA men with elevated SF than in those with normal SF. PMID:17276706

  17. Association of ferroportin Q248H polymorphism with elevated levels of serum ferritin in African Americans in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Charles A; Barton, James C; Gordeuk, Victor R; Acton, Ronald T; Speechley, Mark R; Snively, Beverly M; Leiendecker-Foster, Catherine; Press, Richard D; Adams, Paul C; McLaren, Gordon D; Dawkins, Fitzroy W; McLaren, Christine E; Reboussin, David M

    2007-01-01

    The ferroportin (FPN1) Q248H polymorphism has been associated with increased serum ferritin (SF) levels in sub-Saharan Africans and in African Americans (AA). AA participants of the HEIRS Study who did not have HFE C282Y or H63D who had elevated initial screening SF (> or =300 microg/L in men and >= or =200 microg/L in women) (defined as cases) were frequency-matched to AA participants with normal SF (defined as controls) to investigate the association of the Q248H with elevated SF. 10.4% of cases and 6.7% of controls were Q248H heterozygotes (P=0.257). Q248H homozygosity was observed in 0.5% of the cases and none of the controls. The frequency of Q248H was higher among men with elevated SF than among control men (P=0.047); corresponding differences were not observed among women. This appeared to be unrelated to self-reports of a previous diagnosis of liver disease. Men with elevated SF were three times more likely than women with elevated SF to have Q248H (P=0.012). There were no significant differences in Q248H frequencies in men and women control participants. We conclude that the frequency of the FPN1 Q248H polymorphism is greater in AA men with elevated SF than in those with normal SF. PMID:17276706

  18. Elevated Levels of Serum Fibrin and Fibrinogen Degradation Products Are Independent Predictors of Larger Coronary Plaques and Greater Plaque Necrotic Core

    PubMed Central

    Corban, Michel T; Hung, Olivia Y; Mekonnen, Girum; Eshtehardi, Parham; Eapen, Danny J; Rasoul-Arzrumly, Emad; Kassem, Hatem Al; Manocha, Pankaj; Ko, Yi-An; Sperling, Laurence S; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Samady, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Background Co-existence of vulnerable plaque and pro-thrombotic state may provoke acute coronary events. It was hypothesized that elevated serum levels of fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) are associated with larger total plaque and necrotic core (NC) areas. Methods and Results Seventy-five patients presenting with stable anginal symptoms (69%) or stabilized acute coronary syndrome (ACS; 31%), and found to have non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) with a fractional flow reserve >0.8, were studied. Invasive virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) was performed in 68 LAD arteries, 6 circumflex arteries, and 1 right coronary artery. Serum FDP levels were measured using ELISA technique. Plaque volumetrics and composition were assessed in each VH-IVUS frame and averaged. The median age of patients was 56 (47–63) years; 52% were men and 23% had diabetes. The average length of coronary artery studied was 62 mm. After adjustment for systemic risk factors, medications, CRP levels and ACS, male gender (P<0.001) and serum FDP levels (P=0.02) were independent predictors of a larger NC area. Older age (P<0.001), male gender (P<0.0001) and increased serum FDP level (P=0.03) were associated with a larger plaque area. Conclusions In patients with CAD, a higher serum level of FDP is independently associated with larger plaques and greater plaque NC. PMID:26911453

  19. Elevated Serum ADA Activity as a Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Indian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R.; Pandey, Raj K.; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V. N. R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2016-01-01

    Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL. PMID:27186641

  20. Elevated Serum ADA Activity as a Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Indian Patients.

    PubMed

    Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R; Pandey, Raj K; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V N R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2016-01-01

    Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL. PMID:27186641

  1. Elevated Intracellular Calcium Increases Ferritin H Expression Through an NFAT-Independent Posttranscriptional Mechanism Involving mRNA Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Elizabeth L.; Tsuji, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    An increase in intracellular Ca2+ is one of the initiating events in T cell activation. A calcium-mediated signaling cascade in T cells involves activation of calcineurin and the dephosphorylation and translocation of Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cells (NFAT), resulting in the transcriptional activation of target genes such as IL-2. In the present study, we found that increased intracellular calcium leads to induction of the antioxidant protein ferritin H. We previously reported that the ferritin H gene is transcriptionally activated under oxidative stress conditions through an antioxidant responsive element (ARE). The facts that the ferritin H ARE contains a composite AP1 site, and that NFAT collaborates with AP1 transcription factors, led us to test whether calcium-activated NFAT is involved in the ferritin H induction through the ARE. Treatment of Jurkat T cells with the calcium ionophore, ionomycin, increased ferritin H mRNA and protein expression. Though NFAT translocated to the nucleus and bound a consensus NFAT sequence located in the IL-2 promoter following ionomycin treatment, it did not activate ferritin H transcription despite the presence of a putative NFAT binding sequence in the ferritin H ARE. In addition, the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A treatment blocked ionomycin-mediated NFAT nuclear translocation but failed to abrogate the increase in ferritin H mRNA. Analysis of mRNA stability following actinomycin D treatment revealed that ionomycin prolongs ferritin H mRNA half-life. Taken together, these results suggest that ionomycin-mediated induction of ferritin H may occur in an NFAT-independent manner but through posttranscriptional stabilization of the ferritin H mRNA. PMID:18076382

  2. Are elevated serum amyloid A levels and amyloid-enhancing factor sufficient to induce inflammation-associated amyloid deposition?

    PubMed

    Kisilevsky, R; Tan, R; Subrahmanyan, L; Snow, A

    1984-01-01

    During inflammation-associated amyloidosis two coincident factors, serum amyloid A (SAA) and amyloid-enhancing factor (AEF) are apparently necessary for amyloid A (AA) deposition. It is shown by passive transfer of cytokines, which stimulate SAA production, and AEF that these are not sufficient. A further factor(s) is necessary, which stems from the acute inflammatory response. Potential candidates are serum or tissue glycosaminoglycans. PMID:6400464

  3. The Effects of Serum from Prostate Cancer Patients with Elevated Body Mass Index on Prostate Cancer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Benjamin C; Fleshner, Neil E; Klotz, Laurence H; Venkateswaran, Vasundara

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether serum from obese, compared to non-obese, PCa (prostate cancer) patients creates a growth-enhancing tumor micro-environment in vitro. Serum from 80 subjects was divided into four groups: normal weight men with and without PCa and overweight/obese men with and without PCa. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were measured in LNCaP, and PC3 cells treated with patient serum were obtained from the above groups. The results reveal that proliferation of LNCaP cells was significantly (P = 0.05) greater with serum from non-obese (mean = 1.26 ± 0.20) compared to that from obese patients (mean = 1.16 ± 0.19). Serum from obese PCa patients compared to non-obese PCa patients induced significantly greater amounts of cell migration (P < 0.01) in PC3 cells. Serum from obese patients induced significantly (P < 0.01) lower amounts of cell invasion (mean = 8.2 ± 4.5) compared to non-obese patients (mean = 18.1 ± 5.0) when treated on PC3 cells. Serum TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha) levels correlated with LNCaP cell proliferation in vitro in non-obese PCa (P < 0.01) and non-obese control groups (P = 0.05). All statistical calculations controlled for age, since the PCa patient groups were significantly older than the control groups (P < 0.01). In conclusion, serum from obese PCa patients induced greater PCa cell migration and lower cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. PMID:25987846

  4. Cortisol elevation and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in response to adverse job conditions: how are they interrelated?

    PubMed

    Härenstam, A; Theorell, T

    1990-10-01

    This study explores the use of plasma cortisol as an indicator of psychologically straining work. As plasma cortisol and liver function might be associated through biological mechanisms, this paper has a secondary object, namely to explore the interaction between cortisol and liver function. As an index of liver function the serum level of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GT) was used. The study sample was 2,000 prison employees from 67 different prisons in Sweden. Questionnaires and health examinations were used as well as measurements of plasma cortisol and serum GT. Very few work-related factors were associated with plasma cortisol unless analyzed separately for high and low level of serum GT. Two-way analyses of variance showed significant differences in the physiological "responses" to straining work with regard to psychic strain at work (men), social support at work (men), job role (men), loneliness at work (men and women), management style (women) and overtime work (women) between "low serum GT" and "high serum GT" individuals. Aggregated analyses showed that prison means of work-related factors were in some respects associated with prison means of plasma cortisol. The conclusion is that in individually based analyses plasma cortisol is difficult to use as an indicator of straining work, especially if the level of serum GT is unknown. PMID:1983313

  5. Effect of Calcium Soap of Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Ovarian Activity during Out-of-the-Breeding Season in Crossbred Ewes

    PubMed Central

    El-Nour, Hayat H. M.; Nasr, Soad M.; Hassan, Walid R.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of calcium soap of fatty acid (CSFA) supplementation on serum biochemical and hormones and ovarian activity during out-of-the-breeding season in ewes. Twelve crossbred ewes, 2-3 years of age and weighting 45–55 kg, were allocated into two equal groups. The first group was control and the other was treated with 50 g/head of CSFA. All ewes were fed basal diet and treated with 60 mg of medroxy progesterone acetate intravaginal sponge for 12 day. At the third day of sponge removal, the CSFA-treated group was given 50 g/head of CSFA daily for two estrous cycles. During the estrus phase, ovarian activity was detected using ultrasonography in both groups. All ewes were then subjected to natural breeding and conception rate. Blood samples were collected from all ewes during treatment period. Results revealed significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and progesterone levels with decrease in calcium and phosphorous levels in treated group. In treated group, normal-size ovaries and more than one follicle on the ovaries were detected and pregnancy rate increased. In conclusion, CSFA supplementation was effective to maintain the reproductive performance when ewes were out of the breeding season. PMID:22629155

  6. Peripheral Blood Cells from Patients with Autoimmune Addison's Disease Poorly Respond to Interferons In Vitro, Despite Elevated Serum Levels of Interferon-Inducible Chemokines.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Kine; Bjånesøy, Trine; Hellesen, Alexander; Breivik, Lars; Bakke, Marit; Husebye, Eystein S; Bratland, Eirik

    2015-10-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is a disorder caused by an immunological attack on the adrenal cortex. The interferon (IFN)-inducible chemokine CXCL10 is elevated in serum of AAD patients, suggesting a peripheral IFN signature. However, CXCL10 can also be induced in adrenocortical cells stimulated with IFNs, cytokines, or microbial components. We therefore investigated whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from AAD patients display an enhanced propensity to produce CXCL10 and the related chemokine CXCL9, after stimulation with type I or II IFNs or the IFN inducer poly (I:C). Although serum levels of CXCL10 and CXCL9 were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls, IFN stimulated patient PBMC produced significantly less CXCL10/CXCL9 than control PBMC. Low CXCL10 production was not significantly associated with medication, disease duration, or comorbidities, but the low production of poly (I:C)-induced CXCL10 among patients was associated with an AAD risk allele in the phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene. PBMC levels of total STAT1 and -2, and IFN-induced phosphorylated STAT1 and -2, were not significantly different between patients and controls. We conclude that PBMC from patients with AAD are deficient in their response to IFNs, and that the adrenal cortex itself may be responsible for the increased serum levels of CXCL10. PMID:25978633

  7. Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements of gastrointestinal type associated with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level: an unusual case and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Mariana; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Marques, Rita Canas; Félix, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the case of a 19-year-old woman with a poorly differentiated ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and an elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level. The patient presented with diffuse abdominal pain and bloating. Physical examination, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right ovarian tumor that was histopathologically diagnosed as a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements. Her alpha-fetoprotein serum level was undetectable after tumor resection. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that account for 0.5% of all ovarian neoplasms. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors tend to be unilateral and occur in women under 30 years of age. Although they are the most common virilizing tumor of the ovary, about 60% are endocrine-inactive tumors. Elevated serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein are rarely associated with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, with only approximately 30 such cases previously reported in the literature. The differential diagnosis should include common alpha-fetoprotein-producing ovarian entities such as germ cell tumors, as well as other non-germ cell tumors that have been rarely reported to produce this tumor marker. PMID:25926909

  8. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety. PMID:26847149

  9. Effects of maintenance lithium treatment on serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels: a retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Umberto; De Cori, David; Aguglia, Andrea; Barbaro, Francesca; Lanfranco, Fabio; Bogetto, Filippo; Maina, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study was to evaluate the effects of maintenance lithium treatment on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels. Methods A retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study design was used. Data were collected from the database of a tertiary psychiatric center covering the years 2010–2014. Included were bipolar patients who had never been exposed to lithium and had lithium started, and who had PTH, and total and ionized calcium levels available before and during lithium treatment. Paired t-tests were used to analyze changes in PTH and calcium levels. Linear regressions were performed, with mean lithium level and duration of lithium exposure as independent variables and change in PTH levels as dependent variable. Results A total 31 patients were included. The mean duration of lithium treatment was 18.6±11.4 months. PTH levels significantly increased during lithium treatment (+13.55±14.20 pg/mL); the rate of hyperparathyroidism was 12.9%. Neither total nor ionized calcium increased from baseline to follow-up; none of our patients developed hypercalcemia. Linear regressions analyses did not show an effect of duration of lithium exposure or mean lithium level on PTH levels. Conclusion Lithium-associated stimulation of parathyroid function is more common than assumed to date. Among parameters to be evaluated prior to lithium implementation, calcium and PTH should be added. PMID:26229473

  10. Fetuin-A/Albumin-Mineral Complexes Resembling Serum Calcium Granules and Putative Nanobacteria: Demonstration of a Dual Inhibition-Seeding Concept

    PubMed Central

    Young, David; Young, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB) are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend to block apatite

  11. Fetuin-A/albumin-mineral complexes resembling serum calcium granules and putative nanobacteria: demonstration of a dual inhibition-seeding concept.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, John D

    2009-01-01

    Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB) are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend to block apatite

  12. Effectiveness of different corticosterone administration methods to elevate corticosterone serum levels, induce depressive-like behavior, and affect neurogenesis levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kott, J M; Mooney-Leber, S M; Shoubah, F A; Brummelte, S

    2016-01-15

    High levels of chronic stress or stress hormones are associated with depressive-like behavior in animal models. However, slight elevations in corticosterone (CORT) - the major stress hormone in rodents - have also been associated with improved performances, albeit in a sex-dependent manner. Some of the discrepancies in the literature regarding the effects of high CORT levels may be due to different administrations methods. The current study aims to compare the effects of ∼40mg/kg given either via subcutaneous injection, through an implanted pellet, or in the drinking water, for ∼21days on CORT serum levels, depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST), and neurogenesis levels in the dentate gyrus (DG) in adult female rats. We found that animals exposed to the daily injections showed elevated CORT levels throughout the administration period, while the pellet animals showed only a transient increase, and drinking water animals revealed no elevation in CORT in serum. In addition, only the injection group exhibited higher levels of immobility in the FST. Interestingly, animals receiving CORT via injection or drinking water had lower numbers of doublecortin-positive cells in the ventral DG one week after the last CORT administration compared to animals implanted with a CORT pellet. These results will contribute to the growing literature on the effects of chronic CORT exposure and may help to clarify some of the discrepancies among previous studies, particularly in females. PMID:26556064

  13. Changes of Serum Calcium Concentration, Frequency of Ruminal Contraction and Feed Intake Soon after Parturition of Dairy Cows Fed Difructose Anhydride III

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, S.; Teramura, M.; Sato, T.; Hanada, M.

    2015-01-01

    Requirements to control the large decrease in serum calcium (Ca) due to parturition and to increase the feed intake soon after parturition have been well accepted in dairy cows. This study was aimed to investigate the feed intake affected by serum Ca concentration with difructose anhydride (DFA) III supplement in dairy cows soon after parturition. Fourteen transition Holstein cows were divided into DFA and control (CONT) groups within 1 to 5 parity variations in each group. Measurement schedule for an individual cow was from 14 d before parturition to 7 d following parturition. The cows in DFA group were supplied 0.2 kg/head/d of DFA III feed containing 40 g of pure DFA III while the cows in CONT group received no DFA III. Other feeding procedures were the same for all cows in both groups. At parturition (d 0), serum Ca concentration sharply declined in both groups (p<0.05). Time interval for recovery from decreased serum Ca to its normal range (>9.0 mg/dL) tended to be faster in DFA group (12 h) than in the CONT group (48 h), but the differences were not significant. Active ruminal contraction was observed in DFA group at following parturition of d 1 (p<0.05), d 3 (p<0.05), and d 5 (p<0.01). Dry matter (DM) intake did not differ between the groups. However, positive correlations were observed between serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction (p<0.001), and between ruminal contraction and DM intake (p<0.001) during following parturition. According to multiple regression analysis (R2 = 0.824, p<0.001), the DM intake was positively affected by serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction. These results suggest that feed intake soon after parturition in dairy cows can be increased by improvement of serum Ca concentration and active ruminal contraction, but DFA III supplementation in this study did not improve the lower serum Ca concentration due to parturition. PMID:25557676

  14. Influence of pre-, post-, and simultaneous perfusion of elevated calcium on the effect of ascending concentrations of lead on digoxin-induced cardiac arrest in isolated frog heart

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, M.S.; Muthu, P.; Parthiban, N.

    1995-10-01

    Cardiotoxicity of lead, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has already been documented as a potentially lethal, although rarely recognized, complication of lead intoxication. Further, it has already been reported from this laboratory that lead acetate (LA) preperfusion potentiated cardiotoxicity of digoxin (DGN) in isolated frog heart preparation and that exposure to elevated calcium (elev. Ca{sup 2+}) prior to, and simultaneously with LA at 10{sup {minus}7} M concentration, attenuated this potentiation. As an extension of this work, it was considered of interest to study the effect of perfusion of elev. Ca{sup 2+} (6.5 mM) prior to, after and simultaneously with ascending concentrations of lead (10{sup {minus}9}, 10{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}5}M) on DGN induced cardiac arrest (CA) in isolated frog heart, since Pb{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions are known to compete with each other for the same target sites at the cellular level, an instance of competitive mass action effect. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. In Situ 13C NMR at Elevated-Pressures and -Temperatures Investigating the Conversion of CO2 to Magnesium and Calcium Carbonate Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surface, J. A.; Conradi, M. S.; Skemer, P. A.; Hayes, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    We have constructed specialized NMR hardware to conduct in situ elevated-pressure, elevated-temperature 13C NMR studies of unmixed heterogeneous mixtures of solids, liquids, gases, and supercritical fluids. Specifically, our aim is to monitor CO2 uptake in both ultramafic rocks and in more porous geological materials to understand the mechanisms of chemisorption as a function of temperature, pressure and pH. In this in situ NMR probe, we are able to simulate processes at geologically relevant fluid pressures and temperatures, monitoring the kinetics of CO2 conversion to carbonates. The in situ NMR experiments consist of heterogeneous mixtures of rock, salty brine solution, and moderate pressure CO2 gas at elevated temperatures. The purpose of studying these reactions is to determine efficacy of carbonate formation in various geological reservoirs. Via 13C NMR, we have spectroscopically characterized and quantified the conversion of CO2 to magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate minerals. When CO2 reacts with the calcium or magnesium in a mineral or rock sample, the 13C chemical shift, linewidth, lineshape, and relaxation times change dramatically. This change can be monitored in situ and provide instantaneous and continuous characterization that maps the chemistry that is taking place. For example, on the pathway to MgCO3 formation, there are a number of phases of Mg(OH)x(H2O)y(CO3)z that are apparent via NMR spectroscopy. We will demonstrate that NMR can be used for quantitative characterization of multiple metastable mineral phases in pure forms and in mixtures. Results are confirmed via powder XRD and Raman spectroscopy of aquo- hydro- carbonato- magnesium species and calcium carbonate species. We also have monitored the 13C spectroscopy to analyze the phase of CO2 (liquid, supercritical, or gas) and its conversion into other forms, such as bicarbonate and carbonate species, providing a "window" into the in situ pH of the reacting system. Reference: 'In Situ

  16. Elevated extracellular calcium increases expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene via a calcium channel and ERK pathway in human dental pulp cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Eiji; Kanaya, Sousuke; Hamaji, Nozomu; Sato, Hisae; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2010-04-16

    Dental pulp cells, which have been shown to share phenotypical features with osteoblasts, are capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and generating a dentin-like mineral structure. Elevated extracellular Ca{sup 2+}Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} has been implicated in osteogenesis by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} signaling in odontogenesis remains unclear. We found that elevated Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} increases bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 gene expression in human dental pulp cells. The increase was modulated not only at a transcriptional level but also at a post-transcriptional level, because treatment with Ca{sup 2+} increased the stability of BMP-2 mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. A similar increase in BMP-2 mRNA level was observed in other human mesenchymal cells from oral tissue; periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts. However, the latter cells exhibited considerably lower expression of BMP-2 mRNA compared with dental pulp cells and periodontal ligament cells. The BMP-2 increase was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD98059, and partially inhibited by the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channels inhibitor, nifedipine. However, pretreatment with nifedipine had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation triggered by Ca{sup 2+}, suggesting that the Ca{sup 2+} influx from Ca{sup 2+} channels may operate independently of ERK signaling. Dental pulp cells do not express the transcript of Ca{sup 2+}-sensing receptors (CaSR) and only respond slightly to other cations such as Sr{sup 2+} and spermine, suggesting that dental pulp cells respond to Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} to increase BMP-2 mRNA expression in a manner different from CaSR and rather specific for Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} among cations.

  17. Elevated Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Levels in Patients with Neurological Remission after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Arash; Sperl, André; Heller, Raban; Kunzmann, Kevin; Graeser, Viola; Akbar, Michael; Gerner, Hans Jürgen; Biglari, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    After traumatic spinal cord injury, an acute phase triggered by trauma is followed by a subacute phase involving inflammatory processes. We previously demonstrated that peripheral serum cytokine expression changes depend on neurological outcome after spinal cord injury. In a subsequent intermediate phase, repair and remodeling takes place under the mediation of growth factors such as Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1). IGF-1 is a promising growth factor which is thought to act as a neuroprotective agent. Since previous findings were taken from animal studies, our aim was to investigate this hypothesis in humans based on peripheral blood serum. Forty-five patients after traumatic spinal cord injury were investigated over a period of three months after trauma. Blood samples were taken according to a fixed schema and IGF-1 levels were determined. Clinical data including AIS scores at admission to the hospital and at discharge were collected and compared with IGF-1 levels. In our study, we could observe distinct patterns in the expression of IGF-1 in peripheral blood serum after traumatic spinal cord injury regardless of the degree of plegia. All patients showed a marked increase of levels seven days after injury. IGF-1 serum levels were significantly different from initial measurements at four and nine hours and seven and 14 days after injury, as well as one, two and three months after injury. We did not detect a significant correlation between fracture and the IGF-1 serum level nor between the quantity of operations performed after trauma and the IGF-1 serum level. Patients with clinically documented neurological remission showed consistently higher IGF-1 levels than patients without neurological remission. This data could be the base for the establishment of animal models for further and much needed research in the field of spinal cord injury. PMID:27447486

  18. Elevated Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Levels in Patients with Neurological Remission after Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Arash; Sperl, André; Heller, Raban; Kunzmann, Kevin; Graeser, Viola; Akbar, Michael; Gerner, Hans Jürgen; Biglari, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    After traumatic spinal cord injury, an acute phase triggered by trauma is followed by a subacute phase involving inflammatory processes. We previously demonstrated that peripheral serum cytokine expression changes depend on neurological outcome after spinal cord injury. In a subsequent intermediate phase, repair and remodeling takes place under the mediation of growth factors such as Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1). IGF-1 is a promising growth factor which is thought to act as a neuroprotective agent. Since previous findings were taken from animal studies, our aim was to investigate this hypothesis in humans based on peripheral blood serum. Forty-five patients after traumatic spinal cord injury were investigated over a period of three months after trauma. Blood samples were taken according to a fixed schema and IGF-1 levels were determined. Clinical data including AIS scores at admission to the hospital and at discharge were collected and compared with IGF-1 levels. In our study, we could observe distinct patterns in the expression of IGF-1 in peripheral blood serum after traumatic spinal cord injury regardless of the degree of plegia. All patients showed a marked increase of levels seven days after injury. IGF-1 serum levels were significantly different from initial measurements at four and nine hours and seven and 14 days after injury, as well as one, two and three months after injury. We did not detect a significant correlation between fracture and the IGF-1 serum level nor between the quantity of operations performed after trauma and the IGF-1 serum level. Patients with clinically documented neurological remission showed consistently higher IGF-1 levels than patients without neurological remission. This data could be the base for the establishment of animal models for further and much needed research in the field of spinal cord injury. PMID:27447486

  19. DSR-71167, a novel mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity, separates urinary sodium excretion and serum potassium elevation in rats.

    PubMed

    Nariai, Tetsuro; Fujita, Katsuya; Kawane, Kenji; Mori, Masaya; Nakayama, Ryo; Matsuda, Koichi; Katayama, Seiji; Fukuda, Nobuhisa; Hori, Seiji; Iwata, Masato; Hasegawa, Futoshi; Suzuki, Kuniko; Kato, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists, such as spironolactone (SPI) and eplerenone (EPL), are useful for treating hypertension and heart failure. However, these two agents have the serious side effect of hyperkalemia. We hypothesized that adding the ability to inhibit carbonic anhydrase (CA) would reduce the risk of hyperkalemia associated with MR antagonists. We investigated the profiles of DSR-71167 [2-([(2,2-difluoroethyl)amino]methyl)-2'-fluoro-N-(3-methoxy-4-sulfamoylphenyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide hydrochloride; an MR antagonist with weak CA inhibitory activity] with regard to antimineralocorticoid actions by examining relationships between the urinary excretion of sodium (index of antimineralocorticoid action) in deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats and elevation of serum levels of potassium in potassium-loaded rats compared with a DSR-71167 derivative without CA inhibition (2-(hydroxymethyl)-N-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-2'-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide), SPI, and EPL. DSR-71167 dose-dependently increased urinary excretion of sodium in deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats without elevating serum levels of potassium in potassium-loaded rats. 2-(Hydroxymethyl)-N-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-2'-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide, SPI, and EPL elevated serum levels of potassium significantly in potassium-loaded rats at doses that increased MR inhibitory activity. We confirmed that DSR-71167 significantly increases urinary bicarbonate and decreases blood bicarbonate, as pharmacodynamic markers of CA inhibition, in intact rats. Chronic DSR-71167 administration showed antihypertensive effects in high salt-loaded Dahl hypertensive rats. These results demonstrate that DSR-71167 is a novel type of MR antagonist, with CA inhibitory activity, which is expected to become a safer MR antagonist with a low potential risk for hyperkalemia. PMID:25922341

  20. Elevation of serum KL-6 in patients with psoriasis treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor-α therapy.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Y; Tada, K; Shimokawa, M; Kawai, K; Kanekura, T

    2016-01-01

    We report three patients with psoriasis whose serum level of Krebs Von Den Lungen (KL)-6 increased during therapy with anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. A diagnosis of early-phase or subclinical interstitial pneumonia was made in two patients, and their KL-6 level decreased after anti-TNF-α discontinuation. The rise in KL-6 in the other patient was attributed to methotrexate. We propose that serum KL-6 should be monitored routinely in patients treated with anti-TNF agents. PMID:25557847

  1. A Phase II Randomized, Controlled Trial of S-Adenosylmethionine in Reducing Serum α-Fetoprotein in Patients with Hepatitis C Cirrhosis and Elevated AFP.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Timothy R; Osann, Kathryn; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Pimstone, Neville; Hoefs, John C; Hu, Ke-Qin; Hassanein, Tarek; Boyer, Thomas D; Kong, Lorene; Chen, Wen-Pin; Richmond, Ellen; Gonzalez, Rachel; Rodriguez, Luz M; Meyskens, Frank L

    2015-09-01

    In animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) increased the risk of HCC whereas administration of SAMe reduced HCC. The aim of this trial was to determine whether oral SAMe administration to patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis would decrease serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) level, a biomarker of HCC risk in hepatitis C. This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of SAMe, up to 2.4 g/d, for 24 weeks as compared with placebo among subjects with hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated serum AFP. Primary outcome was change in AFP between baseline and week 24. Secondary outcomes included changes in routine tests of liver function and injury, other biomarkers of HCC risk, SAMe metabolites, markers of oxidative stress, and quality of life. One hundred ten subjects were randomized and 87 (44 SAMe and 43 placebo) completed treatment. There was no difference in the change in AFP during 24 weeks among subjects receiving SAMe as compared with placebo. Changes in markers of liver function, liver injury, and hepatitis C viral level were not significantly different between groups. Similarly, SAMe did not change markers of oxidative stress or serum glutathione level. SAMe blood level increased significantly among subjects receiving SAMe. Changes in quality of life did not differ between groups. Overall, this trial did not find that SAMe treatment improved serum AFP in subjects with advanced hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated AFP. SAMe did not improve tests of liver function or injury or markers of oxidative stress or antioxidant potential. PMID:26130251

  2. Elevated pretreatment serum levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and lactate dehydrogenase as predictors of survival in cutaneous metastatic malignant melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Franzke, A.; Probst-Kepper, M.; Buer, J.; Duensing, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Wittke, F.; Volkenandt, M.; Ganser, A.; Atzpodien, J.

    1998-01-01

    Very rapid progression of disease with a median survival of 6-9 months is a common feature of metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma. Nevertheless, substantial variability of survival suggests that metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma can be divided into several biological subgroups. Pretreatment serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules and various clinical parameters in cutaneous metastatic malignant melanoma were evaluated to determine their prognostic value. In this study pretreatment serum levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (sE-selectin) and multiple clinical factors were assessed in relation to overall survival of 97 consecutive patients with metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma seen at our institution between May 1990 and April 1996. For statistical analysis, both univariate and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards models were used. Elevated pretreatment serum levels of sVCAM-1 (P < 0.005) and of lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.002) were rendered statistically independent and were significantly associated with unfavourable outcome. Patients were assigned to one of three risk categories (low, intermediate and high) according to a cumulative risk score defined as the function of the sum of these two variables. There were significant differences in overall survival (P < 0.0001) between low- (n = 53, 5-year survival probability of 23.3%), intermediate- (n = 29, 5-year survival probability of 9.9%) and high-risk (n = 15) patients. Elevated pretreatment serum levels of sVCAM-1 and of lactate dehydrogenase correlate with poor outcome in metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma. These data support risk stratification for future therapeutic trials and identify factors that need to be validated in prospective studies and may potentially influence decision-making in palliative management of patients with disseminated cutaneous

  3. Identification of Leptospira interrogans Phospholipase C as a Novel Virulence Factor Responsible for Intracellular Free Calcium Ion Elevation during Macrophage Death

    PubMed Central

    Ojcius, David M.; Zhao, Xin; Sun, Dexter; Ge, Yu-Mei; Zheng, Lin-Li; Lin, Xu’ai; Li, Lan-Juan; Yan, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospira-induced macrophage death has been confirmed to play a crucial role in pathogenesis of leptospirosis, a worldwide zoonotic infectious disease. Intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) elevation induced by infection can cause cell death, but [Ca2+]i changes and high [Ca2+]i-induced death of macrophages due to infection of Leptospira have not been previously reported. Methodology/Principal Findings We first used a Ca2+-specific fluorescence probe to confirm that the infection of L. interrogans strain Lai triggered a significant increase of [Ca2+]i in mouse J774A.1 or human THP-1 macrophages. Laser confocal microscopic examination showed that the [Ca2+]i elevation was caused by both extracellular Ca2+ influx through the purinergic receptor, P2X7, and Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, as seen by suppression of [Ca2+]i elevation when receptor-gated calcium channels were blocked or P2X7 was depleted. The LB361 gene product of the spirochete exhibited phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (L-PI-PLC) activity to hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), which in turn induces intracellular Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum, with the Km of 199 µM and Kcat of 8.566E-5 S-1. Secretion of L-PI-PLC from the spirochete into supernatants of leptospire-macrophage co-cultures and cytosol of infected macrophages was also observed by Western Blot assay. Lower [Ca2+]i elevation was induced by infection with a LB361-deficient leptospiral mutant, whereas transfection of the LB361 gene caused a mild increase in [Ca2+]i. Moreover, PI-PLCs (PI-PLC-β3 and PI-PLC-γ1) of the two macrophages were activated by phosphorylation during infection. Flow cytometric detection demonstrated that high [Ca2+]i increases induced apoptosis and necrosis of macrophages, while mild [Ca2+]i elevation only caused apoptosis. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrated that L. interrogans infection induced [Ca2

  4. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle in the bovine.

    PubMed

    Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak; Abedizadeh, Roya; Khaki, Amir; Pak, Mozhgan; Alizadeh, Sajad

    2012-01-01

    To investigate uterine and serum Ca(++) and Mg(++) variations during the estrous cycle in the bovine, 66 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir, Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examination of the structures present on ovaries and uterine tonicity. Of the collected samples, 17 were pro-estrus, 12 estrus, 14 metestrus and 23 diestrus. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The mean ± SEM concentration of serum Ca(++) in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 5.77 ± 0.69, 8.87 ± 1.83, 10.95 ± 1.52, 11.09 ± 1.08 mg dL(-1), and the mean concentration of uterine fluid Ca(++) was 4.40 ± 0.72, 3.15 ± 0.67, 5.89 ± 0.88, 8.63 ± 0.97 mg dL(-1), respectively. The mean concentration of serum Mg(++) in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 3.53 ± 0.30, 4.20 ± 0.52, 3.49 ± 0.38, 3.39 ± 0.29 mg dL(-1), and mean concentration of uterine fluid Mg(++) was 5.27 ± 0.42, 4.92 ± 0.60, 5.56 ± 0.30, 5.88 ± 0.36 mg dL(-1), respectively. The serum and uterine fluid Ca(++) in pro-estrus were significantly different from those of the metestrus and diestrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the mean concentration of serum Ca(++) was higher than that in the uterine fluid. The difference between serum and uterine fluid Ca(++) in estrus, metestrus and diestrus was significant. There was no significant difference between serum Mg(++) content nor was it different from uterine fluid Mg(++) content at any stages of estrous cycle. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Mg(++) was higher than that of the serum. These results suggest that during the estrous cycle in the cow, Ca(++) is passively secreted in uterine fluids and is mostly dependent on blood serum Ca(++) variations but Mg(++) is secreted independently and does not follow variations in the serum concentrations. PMID:25653760

  5. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle in the bovine

    PubMed Central

    Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak; Abedizadeh, Roya; Khaki, Amir; Pak, Mozhgan; Alizadeh, Sajad

    2012-01-01

    To investigate uterine and serum Ca++ and Mg++ variations during the estrous cycle in the bovine, 66 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir, Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examination of the structures present on ovaries and uterine tonicity. Of the collected samples, 17 were pro-estrus, 12 estrus, 14 metestrus and 23 diestrus. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The mean ± SEM concentration of serum Ca++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 5.77 ± 0.69, 8.87 ± 1.83, 10.95 ± 1.52, 11.09 ± 1.08 mg dL-1, and the mean concentration of uterine fluid Ca++ was 4.40 ± 0.72, 3.15 ± 0.67, 5.89 ± 0.88, 8.63 ± 0.97 mg dL-1, respectively. The mean concentration of serum Mg++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 3.53 ± 0.30, 4.20 ± 0.52, 3.49 ± 0.38, 3.39 ± 0.29 mg dL-1, and mean concentration of uterine fluid Mg++ was 5.27 ± 0.42, 4.92 ± 0.60, 5.56 ± 0.30, 5.88 ± 0.36 mg dL-1, respectively. The serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in pro-estrus were significantly different from those of the metestrus and diestrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the mean concentration of serum Ca++ was higher than that in the uterine fluid. The difference between serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in estrus, metestrus and diestrus was significant. There was no significant difference between serum Mg++ content nor was it different from uterine fluid Mg++ content at any stages of estrous cycle. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Mg++ was higher than that of the serum. These results suggest that during the estrous cycle in the cow, Ca++ is passively secreted in uterine fluids and is mostly dependent on blood serum Ca++ variations but Mg++ is secreted independently and does not follow variations in the serum concentrations. PMID:25653760

  6. Ca2+ Content and Expression of an Acidocalcisomal Calcium Pump Are Elevated in Intracellular Forms of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hong-Gang; Zhong, Li; de Souza, Wanderley; Benchimol, Marlene; Moreno, Silvia; Docampo, Roberto

    1998-01-01

    The survival of a eukaryotic protozoan as an obligate parasite in the interior of a eukaryotic host cell implies its adaptation to an environment with a very different ionic composition from that of its extracellular habitat. This is particularly important in the case of Ca2+, the intracellular concentration of which is 3 orders of magnitude lower than the extracellular value. Ca2+ entry across the plasma membrane is a widely recognized mechanism for Ca2+ signaling, needed for a number of intracellular processes, and obviously, it would be restricted in the case of intracellular parasites. Here we show that Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes possess a higher Ca2+ content than the extracellular stages of the parasite. This correlates with the higher expression of a calcium pump, the gene for which was cloned and sequenced. The deduced protein product (Tca1) of this gene has a calculated molecular mass of 121,141 Da and exhibits 34 to 38% identity with vacuolar Ca2+-ATPases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Dictyostelium discoideum, respectively. The tca1 gene suppresses the Ca2+ hypersensitivity of a mutant of S. cerevisiae that has a defect in vacuolar Ca2+ accumulation. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy analysis indicate that Tca1 colocalizes with the vacuolar H+-ATPase to the plasma membrane and to intracellular vacuoles of T. cruzi. These vacuoles were shown to have the same size and distribution as the calcium-containing vacuoles identified by the potassium pyroantimoniate-osmium technique and as the electron-dense vacuoles observed in whole unfixed parasites by transmission electron microscopy and identified in a previous work (D. A. Scott, R. Docampo, J. A. Dvorak, S. Shi, and R. D. Leapman, J. Biol. Chem. 272:28020–28029, 1997) as being acidic and possessing a high calcium content (i.e., acidocalcisomes). Together, these results suggest that acidocalcisomes are distinct from other previously recognized organelles present in these parasites

  7. Influence of the use of phosphate binders on serum levels of calcium phosphate in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis: A retrospective and prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Setiani Agus, Lusi; Effendi, Imam; Abdillah, Syamsudin

    2013-01-01

    Hypercalcemia–hyperphosphatemia is an unavoidable consequence of end-stage chronic kidney disease and common in hemodialytic patients. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is one type of phosphate binder used widely and prescribed in patients undergoing hemodialysis, aiming to control the levels of calcium and phosphate. These drugs are most effective if taken with meals. This study aimed to evaluate the use of phosphate binders in hemodialysis patients and the factors that influence the success of phosphate binder therapy by experimental studies with retrospective data collection through the medical records and prospectively through the questionnaire and interviews with patients. The research was conducted in the Unit Hemodialysis building floor 8 of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. The data were collected in a retrospective way for two months (January–February 2013) and a prospective study in March–April 2013. Patients included were stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients who underwent hemodialysis in hemodialysis ward of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. Patients who had data of serum levels at the beginning of the use of calcium phosphate and the final data in 2013 got the phosphate binder therapy. Results Ninety six patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease who underwent hemodialysis had been using phosphate binder for 3 years in average. Patient evaluation showed that hypocalcemia was obtained in 23%; normokalemia in 42.7% and hypercalcemia in 34.3%. While the percentage of patients with hipofosfatemia14, 6%, normofosfatemia 32.3% and 53.1% hyperphosphatemia. Results obtained by the prospective analysis of factors that affect the success of the use of phosphate binder therapy are related to how the routine use of phosphate binders is made by the patient. Chi square test showed a significance of 0.000 (p < 0.05), the effect of 54%. Conclusion We can conclude there are many events happening such as hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients that use phosphate

  8. The level of serum ionised calcium, aspartate aminotransferase, insulin, glucose, betahydroxybutyrate concentrations and blood gas parameters in cows with left displacement of abomasum.

    PubMed

    Sen, I; Ok, M; Coskun, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine concentrations of serum glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), insulin, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOH) and ionised calcium (Ica) in dairy cows with left displaced abomasum (LDA) and to compare these parameters before and after surgical correction of LDA. Eighteen Swiss-Holstein dairy cows with LDA were used in this study. Clinically healthy post parturient cows (n: 10) from a local dairy farm were used as control group. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein from all the cows. Surgery was performed in cows with LDA. Blood samples from cows with LDA were collected 24 hours after surgery. The abomasum was repositioned followed by an omentopexy. Six of the 18 cows with LDA had clinical ketosis as detected with urine dipstick. The mean concentrations of insulin, BOH, glucose and AST in cows with LDA at admission time were increased compared with the healthy cows. But the mean concentration of ICa at admission time was slightly decreased compared with healthy cows. The mean BOH concentration was decreased 24 hours following surgery compared with values on admission time. However, the mean serum AST levels were increased both at admission time and 24 hours after surgery compared with healthy cows. The levels of blood gas parameters in cows with LDA were not significantly different in comparison with healthy cows, although hyperbasemia in six of 18 cows with LDA was determined. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that serum insulin, glucose, AST and BOH levels were increased in dairy cows with LDA. Serum BOH and ICa levels were decreased 24 hours after surgery compared with values on admission time. All cows with LDA used in this study had subclinical/clinical ketosis. We could say that ketosis might be a risk factor for the displacement of the abomasum. PMID:17203740

  9. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk of Compensated Cirrhosis Patients with Elevated HBV DNA Levels according to Serum Aminotransferase Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junggyu; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jung Hee; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Kim, Hye Seung; Jung, Sin-Ho; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Yoo, Byung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes, hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhotic patients with normal aminotransferase levels are closely followed-up for the elevation of aminotransferase levels instead of prompt antiviral therapy (AVT). We analyzed the long-term hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk according to the aminotransferase levels in a retrospective cohort of 1,468 treatment-naïve, HBV-related, compensated cirrhosis patients with elevated HBV DNA levels (≥2,000 IU/mL). Based on aminotransferase levels, patients were categorized into normal (< 40 U/L, n = 364) and elevated group (≥40 U/L, n = 1,104). During a median of 5.3 yr of follow-up (range: 1.0-8.2 yr), HCC developed in 296 (20%) patients. The 5-yr cumulative HCC incidence rate was higher in patients with elevated aminotransferase level, but was not low in normal aminotransferase level (17% vs. 14%, P = 0.004). During the follow-up, 270/364 (74%) patients with normal aminotransferase levels experienced elevation of aminotransferase levels, and AVT was initiated in 1,258 (86%) patients. Less patients with normal aminotransferase levels received AVT (70% vs. 91%, P < 0.001) and median time to start AVT was longer (17.9 vs. 2.4 months, P < 0.001). AVT duration was an independent factor associated with HCC, and median duration of AVT was shorter (4.0 vs. 2.6 yr, P < 0.001) in patients with normal aminotransferase levels. The HCC risk of compensated cirrhosis patients with normal aminotransferase level is not low, and AVT duration is associated with lowered HCC risk, indicating that prompt AVT should be strongly considered even for those with normal aminotransferase levels. PMID:26539006

  10. The effect of injectable butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on postpartum serum beta-hydroxybutyrate, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Rollin, E; Berghaus, R D; Rapnicki, P; Godden, S M; Overton, M W

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of an injection of 10% butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin (Catosal, Bayer, Shawnee Mission, KS) on the day of calving and 1 d later on the prevalence of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle in the early postpartum period. Cows from 4 herds (n=1,122) were randomized to receive either 25mL of 10% butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin or 25mL of sterile water subcutaneously on both days. Each milliliter of Catosal contained 0.05mg of cyanocobalamin and 100mg of butaphosphan, which provided 17.3mg of P in the form of [1-(butylamino)-1-methylethyl]-phosphonic acid. Serum was sampled for beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration at calving (pretreatment) and again between 3 and 10 d in milk. A subset of samples from mature cows was also evaluated for serum Ca and P concentrations. When cows from all age groups were included in the analysis, there was no difference between the median serum BHBA concentrations of cows in the 2 treatment groups, and no difference in the proportion of hyperketonemic cows (serum BHBA >or=1,200micromol/L) during the first week postpartum. When the analysis was restricted to mature cows (lactation >or=3), both the median BHBA concentration and the proportion of hyperketonemic cows were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the placebo group. Serum Ca and P concentrations did not differ between treatment groups. Our results suggest that injection of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on the day of calving and 1 d later may decrease the prevalence of subclinical ketosis during the week after calving in mature dairy cows, but not in first- and second-lactation animals. PMID:20172218

  11. Cellular Hypertrophy and Increased Susceptibility to Spontaneous Calcium-Release of Rat Left Atrial Myocytes Due to Elevated Afterload

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifei; Cannell, Mark B.; Kim, Shang Jin; Watson, Judy J.; Norman, Ruth; Calaghan, Sarah C.; Orchard, Clive H.; James, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Atrial remodeling due to elevated arterial pressure predisposes the heart to atrial fibrillation (AF). Although abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function has been associated with AF, there is little information on the effects of elevated afterload on atrial Ca2+-handling. We investigated the effects of ascending aortic banding (AoB) on Ca2+-handling in rat isolated atrial myocytes in comparison to age-matched sham-operated animals (Sham). Myocytes were either labelled for ryanodine receptor (RyR) or loaded with fluo-3-AM and imaged by confocal microscopy. AoB myocytes were hypertrophied in comparison to Sham controls (P<0.0001). RyR labeling was localized to the z-lines and to the cell edge. There were no differences between AoB and Sham in the intensity or pattern of RyR-staining. In both AoB and Sham, electrical stimulation evoked robust SR Ca2+-release at the cell edge whereas Ca2+ transients at the cell center were much smaller. Western blotting showed a decreased L-type Ca channel expression but no significant changes in RyR or RyR phosphorylation or in expression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, SR Ca2+ ATPase or phospholamban. Mathematical modeling indicated that [Ca2+]i transients at the cell center were accounted for by simple centripetal diffusion of Ca2+ released at the cell edge. In contrast, caffeine (10 mM) induced Ca2+ release was uniform across the cell. The caffeine-induced transient was smaller in AoB than in Sham, suggesting a reduced SR Ca2+-load in hypertrophied cells. There were no significant differences between AoB and Sham cells in the rate of Ca2+ extrusion during recovery of electrically-stimulated or caffeine-induced transients. The incidence and frequency of spontaneous Ca2+-transients following rapid-pacing (4 Hz) was greater in AoB than in Sham myocytes. In conclusion, elevated afterload causes cellular hypertrophy and remodeling of atrial SR Ca2+-release. PMID:26713852

  12. Elevated expression of orexin receptor 2 (HCRTR2) in benign prostatic hyperplasia is accompanied by lowered serum orexin A concentrations.

    PubMed

    Malendowicz, Witold; Szyszka, Marta; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Rucinski, Marcin; Kwias, Zbigniew

    2011-03-01

    In search for the new polypeptides responsible for energy homeostasis which are also involved in regulating the growth and function of the human prostate, we assessed the expression of orexins (OXs) and of orexin receptors (OXRs) in human normal prostate and in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Conventional RT-PCR revealed the expression of OXR2 in all studied samples obtained either from normal prostates or BPH ones while neither preproorexin (ppOX)nor OXR1 mRNA were detected. In adenomatous prostates, expression levels of OXR2 were 30- to 40-fold higher compared to controls. Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of OXR2 protein in the studied samples and its expression levels were 4-fold higher in tissue samples from BPH. In normal glands, presence of OXR2-like immunoreactivity was found in the apical parts of epithelial cells as well as in smooth muscle cells of the stroma. Immunostaining for OXR2 was more intense in sections obtained from BPH. Immunohistochemistry did not detect the expression of OXR1-like protein. OXA serum concentrations were lowered in BPH patients (mean ± SE 56±4 ng/ml, n=12; P<0.01) and unaltered in prostate cancer (79±7 ng/ml, n=18) compared to the controls (69±2 ng/ml, n=16). On the contrary, serum OXB levels were similar in all studied groups of patients. We thus have demonstrated the mRNA and protein expression of OXR2, but not of ppOX and OXR1 in both normal and BPH human prostate glands. We also demonstrated notable up-regulation of OXR2 in benign prostatic hyperplasia, an alteration accompanied by lowered serum OXA concentrations. These findings suggest that both OXA and OXR2 may be involved in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of BPH. PMID:21186399

  13. Elevated serum 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D levels are associated with risk of TB progression in Gambian adults

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Olumuyiwa; Agbla, Schadrac; Owiafe, Patrick; Donkor, Simon; Togun, Toyin; Sillah, Abdou K.; Ota, Martin O.C.; Sutherland, Jayne S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Vitamin D is essential in the host defence against tuberculosis (TB) as an immune modulator. The aim of this study was to determine the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) from adult TB index cases before and after treatment and their exposed household contacts (HHC) in The Gambia. Methods Serum from adult index TB cases and their TB-exposed household contacts (HHC) was analysed for 25(OH) D and Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) concentrations. Tuberculin skin test (TST) status was used as a measure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infectivity in the HHC. In addition, HHC who later progressed to active TB (incident cases) were assessed alongside non-progressors to determine the influence of 25 (OH) D levels on TB risk. Results Eighty-three TB cases, 46 TST+ and 52 TST− HHC were analysed. Generally levels of 25(OH) D were considered insufficient in all subjects. However, median levels of 25(OH) D and VDBP were significantly higher in TB cases compared to both TST+ and TST− HHC at recruitment and were significantly reduced after TB therapy (p < 0.0001 for all). In addition, levels of serum 25(OH) D at recruitment were significantly higher in TB progressors compared to non-progressors (median (IQR): 25.0(20.8–29.2) in progressors and 20.3 (16.3–24.6) ng/ml in non-progressors; p = 0.007). Conclusion In The Gambia, an equatorial country, 25(OH) D levels are higher in serum of TB progressors and those with active disease compared to latently infected and uninfected subjects. These results contrast to findings in non-equatorial countries. PMID:27156622

  14. Development of status epilepticus, sustained calcium elevations and neuronal injury in a rat survival model of lethal paraoxon intoxication.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Laxmikant S; Carter, Dawn S; Phillips, Kristin F; Blair, Robert E; DeLorenzo, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    Paraoxon (POX) is an active metabolite of organophosphate (OP) pesticide parathion that has been weaponized and used against civilian populations. Exposure to POX produces high mortality. OP poisoning is often associated with chronic neurological disorders. In this study, we optimize a rat survival model of lethal POX exposures in order to mimic both acute and long-term effects of POX intoxication. Male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with POX (4mg/kg, ice-cold PBS, s.c.) produced a rapid cholinergic crisis that evolved into status epilepticus (SE) and death within 6-8min. The EEG profile for POX induced SE was characterized and showed clinical and electrographic seizures with 7-10Hz spike activity. Treatment of 100% lethal POX intoxication with an optimized three drug regimen (atropine, 2mg/kg, i.p., 2-PAM, 25mg/kg, i.m. and diazepam, 5mg/kg, i.p.) promptly stopped SE and reduced acute mortality to 12% and chronic mortality to 18%. This model is ideally suited to test effective countermeasures against lethal POX exposure. Animals that survived the POX SE manifested prolonged elevations in hippocampal [Ca(2+)]i (Ca(2+) plateau) and significant multifocal neuronal injury. POX SE induced Ca(2+) plateau had its origin in Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores since inhibition of ryanodine/IP3 receptor lowered elevated Ca(2+) levels post SE. POX SE induced neuronal injury and alterations in Ca(2+) dynamics may underlie some of the long term morbidity associated with OP toxicity. PMID:24785379

  15. Elevated intracellular calcium concentration increases secretory processing of the amyloid precursor protein by a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Petryniak, M A; Wurtman, R J; Slack, B E

    1996-01-01

    Secretory cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), a process that releases soluble APP derivatives (APPs) into the extracellular space, is stimulated by the activation of muscarinic receptors coupled to phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The signalling pathways involved in the release process exhibit both protein kinase C- and protein tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent components [Slack, Breu, Petryniak, Srivastava and Wurtman (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 8337-8344]. The possibility that elevations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration initiate the tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent release of APPs was examined in human embryonic kidney cells expressing muscarinic m3 receptors. Inhibition of protein kinase C with the bisindolylmaleimide GF 109203X decreased the carbachol-evoked release of APPs by approx. 30%, as shown previously. The residual response was further decreased, in an additive manner, by the Ca2+ chelator EGTA, or by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin A25. The Ca2+ ionophore, ionomycin, like carbachol, stimulated both the release of APPs and the tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, one of which was identified as paxillin, a component of focal adhesions. The effects of ionomycin on APPs release and on protein tyrosine phosphorylation were concentration-dependent, and occurred over similar concentration ranges; both effects were inhibited only partly by GF 109203X, but were abolished by EGTA or by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The results demonstrate for the first time that ionophore-induced elevations in intracellular Ca2+ levels elicit APPs release via increased tyrosine phosphorylation. Part of the increase in APPs release evoked by muscarinic receptor activation might be attributable to a similar mechanism. PMID:9003386

  16. Serum creatinine elevation after switch to dolutegravir in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H; Malat, G E; Bias, T E; Harhay, M N; Ranganna, K; Doyle, A M

    2016-08-01

    Dolutegravir is a preferred antiretroviral drug for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following solid organ transplantation. It has potent antiretroviral activity and does not interact with calcineurin inhibitors. We describe a case of an HIV-infected kidney transplant patient, who was noted to have a rising serum creatinine following initiation of dolutegravir. At first, an acute rejection episode was suspected, but this finding was later attributed to inhibition of creatinine secretion by dolutegravir. We suggest that an awareness of this potential effect of dolutegravir is important for providers who take care of HIV-positive kidney transplant recipients, in order to prevent potentially unnecessary testing. PMID:27159656

  17. Elevated Serum Uric Acid Is Associated with Greater Bone Mineral Density and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Juan; Wang, Chen; Qiu, Rui; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Previous studies have suggested a positive link between serum uric acid (UA) and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we re-examined the association between UA and BMD and further explored whether this was mediated by skeletal muscle mass in a general Chinese population. Method This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 3079 (963 men and 2116 women) Chinese adults aged 40–75 years. Face-to-face interviews and laboratory analyses were performed to determine serum UA and various covariates. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess the BMD and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = ASM/Height2, kg/m2) for the total limbs, arms, and legs was then calculated. Results The serum UA was graded and, in general, was significantly and positively associated with the BMD and muscle mass, after adjustment for multiple covariates in the total sample. Compared with participants in lowest quartile of UA, those participants in highest quartile showed a 2.3%(whole body), 4.1%(lumbar spine), 2.4%(total hip), and 2.0% (femoral neck) greater BMDs. The mean SMIs in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile increased by 2.7% (total), 2.5% (arm), 2.7% (leg) respectively. In addition, path analysis suggested that the favorable association between UA and BMD might be mediated by increasing SMI. Conclusion The elevated serum UA was associated with a higher BMD and a greater muscle mass in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population and the UA-BMD association was partly mediated by muscle mass. PMID:27144737

  18. Elevated expression of calcium-binding protein p9Ka is associated with increasing malignant characteristics of rat prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ke, Y; Jing, C; Barraclough, R; Smith, P; Davies, M P; Foster, C S

    1997-05-29

    Northern and Western blotting techniques were used to study expression of the mRNA and corresponding protein product of the S100-related calcium-binding molecule p9Ka in 6 different metastatic cell lines of the Dunning R3327 rat prostate cancer model. In cells with the lowest metastatic capability (G cells), p9Ka mRNA was barely detectable. In 2 weakly metastatic cell lines (AT-1 and AT-2), p9Ka transcript amounts were, respectively, 6.29 +/- 0.74 and 5.55 +/- 1.11 times that detected in the G cells. In 3 highly metastatic cell lines (AT-3, MAT-LyLu and MAT-Lu), the amounts of p9Ka mRNA were, respectively, 12.85 +/- 2.82, 13.06 +/- 1.69 and 11.62 +/- 1.81 times that expressed in the G cells. Western blot analyses detected no p9Ka protein in the G cells. The amounts of p9Ka protein expressed by tumour cells of intermediate metastatic capability (AT-1 and AT-2) were 3.4 +/- 1.3 microg and 3.3 +/- 1.4 microg, respectively, per 1 x 10(6) cells. The amounts of p9Ka protein expressed by the tumour cells of highest metastatic capability (AT-3, MAT-LyLu and MAT-Lu) were 8.3 +/- 1.1 microg, 8.7 +/- 1.6 microg and 9.6 +/- 1.7 microg, respectively, per 1 x 10(6) cells. Our data reveal a direct association between the elevated expression of mRNA and the p9Ka protein amounts and the increased metastatic capability of individual prostatic cancer cell lines. We suggest that calcium-binding protein p9Ka may play an important role in the metastatic behaviour of rat prostate cancer. PMID:9180153

  19. Elevated Serum MicroRNA Levels Associate with Absence of High-Grade Prostate Cancer in a Retrospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mihelich, Brittany L.; Maranville, Joseph C.; Nolley, Rosalie; Peehl, Donna M.; Nonn, Larisa

    2015-01-01

    To reduce treatment of indolent prostate cancer (PCa), biomarkers are needed to improve identification of patients with a low-risk of having aggressive disease. Over-treatment of these patients occurs because of uncertainty in the aggressiveness of the entire tumor based on the biopsies, which do not accurately sample multifocal tumors. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are stable serum markers and differential miRNA levels occur in men with PCa. The goal of this study was to identify circulating miRNAs that were associated with aggressive or indolent PCa. We measured circulating miRNAs in 150 patients prior to surgery and compared the miRNA levels to the pathology of the entire radical prostatectomy specimen. For this study we used an exceptionally well-characterized cohort of patients who had benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), low-grade or high-grade PCa. Low-grade was defined as patients with 100% Gleason grade 3 tumor as determined by step-wise sectioning. High-grade PCa patients had 30-90% Gleason grade 4+5 in the tumor. BPH patients had at least two biopsies negative for PCa. Twenty one miRNAs were selected for analysis. The miRNAs were quantified by RT-qPCR and analyzed by logistic regression. High levels of 14 miRNAs were exclusively present in the serum from patients with low-grade PCa or BPH, compared to men with high-grade PCa who had consistently low levels. The expression levels of the 14 miRNAs were combined into a “miR Score” which had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.939 to predict absence of high-grade PCa among PCa and BPH patients. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) was known for the PCa patients and a combined “miR Risk Score” accurately classified a subset of patients with low risk of BCR (NPV 0.941). In summary, measurement of serum miRNAs may have pre-surgical utility in combination with clinical risk calculators to identify patients with low risk of harboring aggressive PCa. PMID:25874774

  20. Repeated spurious elevation of serum prostate-specific antigen values solved by chemiluminescence analysis: A possible interference by heterophilic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Arturo; Bayó, Miquel; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Jesús; Bellido, Jose Antonio; Abascal-Junquera, Jose María; Hannaoui, Naim; Banús, Josep Maria

    2015-11-01

    Heterophilic antibodies are human immunoglobulins directed against various animal antigens. They can produce false-positive results in the analysis of different tumor markers, including prostate-specific antigen. This interference can lead to misdiagnosis, unnecessary tests, and overtreatment in some cases. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old man with repeated spurious elevation of prostate-specific antigen, reaching levels of 108.7 ng/mL, that were suspected to be caused by heterophilic antibodies. The interference was solved by changing the analysis technique. Real values of prostate-specific antigen were less than 1 ng/mL. PMID:26568798

  1. Elevated serum creatine kinase and small cerebellum prompt diagnosis of congenital muscular dystrophy due to FKRP mutations.

    PubMed

    Trovato, Rosanna; Astrea, Guja; Bartalena, Laura; Ghirri, Paolo; Baldacci, Jacopo; Giampietri, Matteo; Battini, Roberta; Santorelli, Filippo M; Fiorillo, Chiara

    2014-03-01

    Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) is a putative glycosyltransferase that mediate O-linked glycosylation of the α-dystroglycan. Mutations in the FKRP gene cause a spectrum of diseases ranging from a limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2I (LGMD2I), to severe Walker-Warburg or muscle-eye-brain forms and a congenital muscular dystrophy (with or without mental retardation) termed MDC1C. This article reports on a Moroccan infant who presented at birth with moderate floppiness, high serum creatine kinase (CK) levels, and brain ultrasonograph suggestive of widening of the posterior fossa. Muscle biopsy displayed moderate dystrophic pattern with complete absence of α-distroglycan and genetic studies identified a homozygous missense variant in FKRP. Mutations in FKRP should be looked for in forms of neonatal-onset hyperCKaemia with floppiness and small cerebellum. PMID:23420653

  2. Serum Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) Concentrations and Liver Function Biomarkers in a Population with Elevated PFOA Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Valentina; Leonardi, Giovanni; Genser, Bernd; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Karlsson, Lee; Ducatman, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) persist in the environment and are found in relatively high concentrations in animal livers. Studies in humans have reported inconsistent associations between PFOA and liver enzymes. Objectives: We examined the cross-sectional association between serum PFOA and PFOS concentrations with markers of liver function in adults. Methods: The C8 Health Project collected data on 69,030 persons; of these, a total of 47,092 adults were included in the present analysis. Linear regression models were fitted for natural log (ln)-transformed values of alanine transaminase (ALT), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and direct bilirubin on PFOA, PFOS, and potential confounders. Logistic regression models were fitted comparing deciles of PFOA or PFOS in relation to high biomarker levels. A multilevel analysis comparing the evidence for association of PFOA with liver function at the individual level within water districts to that at the population level between water districts was also performed. Results: ln-PFOA and ln-PFOS were associated with ln-ALT in linear regression models [PFOA: coefficient, 0.022; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.018, 0.025; PFOS: coefficient, 0.020; 95% CI: 0.014, 0.026] and with raised ALT in logistic regression models [with a steady increase in the odds ratio (OR) estimates across deciles of PFOA and PFOS; PFOA: OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.13; PFOS: OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.18]. There was less consistent evidence of an association of PFOA and GGT or bilirubin. The relationship with bilirubin appears to rise at low levels of PFOA and to fall again at higher levels. Conclusions: These results show a positive association between PFOA and PFOS concentrations and serum ALT level, a marker of hepatocellular damage. PMID:22289616

  3. Intra-uterine infection and cord immunoglobulin M II. Clinical analysis of infants with elevated cord serum immunoglobulin M *

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Annette; Dent, P. B.; Emrich, W. H.; Gent, M.; Rahim, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    Cord blood immunoglobulin M was measured in 3474 consecutive newborn infants. A group of 147 infants with elevated IgM values (≥19.0 mg./100 ml.) were compared with 92 unselected newborn infants with normal IgM values. One infant with clinically unsuspected congenital rubella was detected in the study group while no cases of intra-uterine infection were found among the controls. A greater proportion of mothers in the study group had a history of viral infection. The study group also contained a larger number of mothers who might be considered to be at greater risk of infection with agents known to cause intra-uterine disease. Follow-up studies at 6 months of age revealed no differences between the two groups aside from an increased incidence of minor motor abnormalities in the study group. While it is recognized that infants with cord blood IgM levels truly in excess of 30 mg./100 ml. may represent a high-risk group with respect to proved or subclinical intra-uterine infection, it is concluded that routine cord blood screening for elevated IgM values is not a high-yield procedure for the detection of intra-uterine infection in our population. PMID:4203457

  4. Endocytosis of secretory granules in mouse pancreatic beta-cells evoked by transient elevation of cytosolic calcium.

    PubMed Central

    Eliasson, L; Proks, P; Ammälä, C; Ashcroft, F M; Bokvist, K; Renström, E; Rorsman, P; Smith, P A

    1996-01-01

    1. To investigate the mechanisms regulating the reuptake of secretory granule membranes following regulated exocytosis, we have monitored changes in cell capacitance in single pancreatic beta-cells. 2. Membrane retrieval (endocytosis) occurred both in a continuous manner and in abrupt steps, corresponding to the simultaneous retrieval of 50-100 granules. The large endocytotic steps were associated with a conductance change of about 1 nS which we attribute to the formation of a fission pore with a pore radius of approximately 1 nm. 3. In some cells, we observed large amplitude capacitance fluctuations, suggesting that aggregates of granules are connected to the plasma membrane by a single pore and are subsequently retrieved as a single unit. 4. Endocytosis was evoked by elevation of cytosolic [Ca2+]i, but once initiated, a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i was not required for endocytosis to continue. 5. The [Ca2+]i dependence of exo- and endocytosis was studied by photorelease of Ca2+ from the 'caged' precursor Ca(2+)-nitrophenyl-EGTA (Ca(2+)-NP-EGTA). Both exo- and endocytosis were initiated at between 0.5 and 2 microM Cai(2+). The rate of endocytosis saturated above 2 microM Cai(2+), whereas exocytosis continued to increase up to 4 microM Cai(2+). The maximum rate of endocytosis was < 25% of that of exocytosis. 6. Unlike exocytosis, endocytosis proceeded equally well in the presence or absence of Mg-ATP. 7. Our data indicate that in the pancreatic beta-cell, exocytosis and endocytosis are regulated by different mechanisms. Images Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:8799897

  5. Association of decreased variation of R-R interval and elevated serum C-reactive protein level in a general population in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kon, Hisashi; Nagano, Masahide; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Satoh, Kenyu; Segawa, Toshie; Nakamura, Motoyuki

    2006-11-01

    Several studies have suggested that an increased high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level is a strong independent predictor of increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) has also been reported to predict cardiovascular events such as sudden death and myocardial infarction in apparently healthy subjects. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to test the possible correlation between variation of the R-R interval as one of the markers of HRV and serum hsCRP levels in a general population in Japan. Resting, supine, 2-minute, beat-to-beat heart rate data were collected in 823 randomly selected participants enrolled in our cohort study. The coefficient of variation of the R-R interval (CVrr) was obtained as a parameter of HRV. To determine which factors predict the presence of low CVrr (below the 5 percentile) in this group, we performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis using cardiovascular risk factors and an elevated hsCRP level as independent variables. The lowest CVrr group showed significantly higher hsCRP levels compared to those of other quartiles (P < 0.01). After adjustment for confounding factors such as age, heart rate, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension by multivariate logistic analysis, an elevated hsCRP level (OR = 3.11, 95%CI; 1.27-7.60: P < 0.02) was a significant independent predictor of low CVrr. The results of the present study indicate that an increased serum hsCRP level is significantly associated with reduced CVrr in this general population. It is conceivable that the parasympathetic nerve withdrawal and inflammation could interact with each other, resulting in the progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:17268121

  6. (Z)3,4,5,4‧-trans-tetramethoxystilbene, a new analogue of resveratrol, inhibits gefitinb-resistant non-small cell lung cancer via selectively elevating intracellular calcium level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xing-Xing; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Su Wei; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; He, Jian-Xing; Ding, Jian; Xue, Wei-Wei; Mujtaba, Tahira; Michelangeli, Francesco; Huang, Min; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Da-Kai; Jiang, Ze-Bo; Zhou, Yan-Ling; Kin-Ting Kam, Richard; Liu, Liang; Lai-Han Leung, Elaine

    2015-11-01

    Calcium is a second messenger which is required for regulation of many cellular processes. However, excessive elevation or prolonged activation of calcium signaling would lead to cell death. As such, selectively regulating calcium signaling could be an alternative approach for anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we have identified an effective analogue of resveratrol, (Z)3,4,5,4‧-trans-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) which selectively elevated the intracellular calcium level in gefitinib-resistant (G-R) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. TMS exhibited significant inhibitory effect on G-R NSCLC cells, but not other NSCLC cells and normal lung epithelial cells. The phosphorylation and activation of EGFR were inhibited by TMS in G-R cells. TMS induced caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy by directly binding to SERCA and causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and AMPK activation. Proteomics analysis also further confirmed that mTOR pathway, which is the downstream of AMPK, was significantly suppressed by TMS. JNK, the cross-linker of ER stress and mTOR pathway was significantly activated by TMS. In addition, the inhibition of JNK activation can partially block the effect of TMS. Taken together, TMS showed promising anti-cancer activity by mediating calcium signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis as well as autophagy in G-R NSCLC cells, providing strategy in designing multi-targeting drug for treating G-R patients.

  7. (Z)3,4,5,4'-trans-tetramethoxystilbene, a new analogue of resveratrol, inhibits gefitinb-resistant non-small cell lung cancer via selectively elevating intracellular calcium level.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xing-Xing; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Su Wei; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; He, Jian-Xing; Ding, Jian; Xue, Wei-Wei; Mujtaba, Tahira; Michelangeli, Francesco; Huang, Min; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Da-Kai; Jiang, Ze-Bo; Zhou, Yan-Ling; Kam, Richard Kin-Ting; Liu, Liang; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is a second messenger which is required for regulation of many cellular processes. However, excessive elevation or prolonged activation of calcium signaling would lead to cell death. As such, selectively regulating calcium signaling could be an alternative approach for anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we have identified an effective analogue of resveratrol, (Z)3,4,5,4'-trans-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) which selectively elevated the intracellular calcium level in gefitinib-resistant (G-R) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. TMS exhibited significant inhibitory effect on G-R NSCLC cells, but not other NSCLC cells and normal lung epithelial cells. The phosphorylation and activation of EGFR were inhibited by TMS in G-R cells. TMS induced caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy by directly binding to SERCA and causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and AMPK activation. Proteomics analysis also further confirmed that mTOR pathway, which is the downstream of AMPK, was significantly suppressed by TMS. JNK, the cross-linker of ER stress and mTOR pathway was significantly activated by TMS. In addition, the inhibition of JNK activation can partially block the effect of TMS. Taken together, TMS showed promising anti-cancer activity by mediating calcium signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis as well as autophagy in G-R NSCLC cells, providing strategy in designing multi-targeting drug for treating G-R patients. PMID:26542098

  8. (Z)3,4,5,4′-trans-tetramethoxystilbene, a new analogue of resveratrol, inhibits gefitinb-resistant non-small cell lung cancer via selectively elevating intracellular calcium level

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xing-Xing; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Su Wei; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; He, Jian-Xing; Ding, Jian; Xue, Wei-Wei; Mujtaba, Tahira; Michelangeli, Francesco; Huang, Min; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Da-Kai; Jiang, Ze-Bo; Zhou, Yan-Ling; Kin-Ting Kam, Richard; Liu, Liang; Lai-Han Leung, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is a second messenger which is required for regulation of many cellular processes. However, excessive elevation or prolonged activation of calcium signaling would lead to cell death. As such, selectively regulating calcium signaling could be an alternative approach for anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we have identified an effective analogue of resveratrol, (Z)3,4,5,4′-trans-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) which selectively elevated the intracellular calcium level in gefitinib-resistant (G-R) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. TMS exhibited significant inhibitory effect on G-R NSCLC cells, but not other NSCLC cells and normal lung epithelial cells. The phosphorylation and activation of EGFR were inhibited by TMS in G-R cells. TMS induced caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy by directly binding to SERCA and causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and AMPK activation. Proteomics analysis also further confirmed that mTOR pathway, which is the downstream of AMPK, was significantly suppressed by TMS. JNK, the cross-linker of ER stress and mTOR pathway was significantly activated by TMS. In addition, the inhibition of JNK activation can partially block the effect of TMS. Taken together, TMS showed promising anti-cancer activity by mediating calcium signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis as well as autophagy in G-R NSCLC cells, providing strategy in designing multi-targeting drug for treating G-R patients. PMID:26542098

  9. Contribution of the organic anion transporter OAT2 to the renal active tubular secretion of creatinine and mechanism for serum creatinine elevations caused by cobicistat

    PubMed Central

    Lepist, Eve-Irene; Zhang, Xuexiang; Hao, Jia; Huang, Jane; Kosaka, Alan; Birkus, Gabriel; Murray, Bernard P; Bannister, Roy; Cihlar, Tomas; Huang, Yong; Ray, Adrian S

    2014-01-01

    Many xenobiotics including the pharmacoenhancer cobicistat increase serum creatinine by inhibiting its renal active tubular secretion without affecting the glomerular filtration rate. This study aimed to define the transporters involved in creatinine secretion, applying that knowledge to establish the mechanism for xenobiotic-induced effects. The basolateral uptake transporters organic anion transporter OAT2 and organic cation transporters OCT2 and OCT3 were found to transport creatinine. At physiologic creatinine concentrations, the specific activity of OAT2 transport was over twofold higher than OCT2 or OCT3, establishing OAT2 as a likely relevant creatinine transporter and further challenging the traditional view that creatinine is solely transported by a cationic pathway. The apical multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters MATE1 and MATE2-K demonstrated low-affinity and high-capacity transport. All drugs known to affect creatinine inhibited OCT2 and MATE1. Similar to cimetidine and ritonavir, cobicistat had the greatest effect on MATE1 with a 50% inhibition constant of 0.99 μM for creatinine transport. Trimethoprim potently inhibited MATE2-K, whereas dolutegravir preferentially inhibited OCT2. Cimetidine was unique, inhibiting all transporters that interact with creatinine. Thus, the clinical observation of elevated serum creatinine in patients taking cobicistat is likely a result of OCT2 transport, facilitating intracellular accumulation, and MATE1 inhibition. PMID:24646860

  10. Ovarian acyclicity in zoo African elephants (Loxodonta africana) is associated with high body condition scores and elevated serum insulin and leptin.

    PubMed

    Morfeld, Kari A; Brown, Janine L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether excessive body fat and altered metabolic hormone concentrations in the circulation were associated with ovarian acyclicity in the world's largest land mammal, the African elephant. We compared body condition, glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations and the glucose-to-insulin ratio (G:I) between cycling (n=23; normal 14-16 week cycles based on serum progestagens for at least 2 years) and non-cycling (n=23; consistent baseline progestagen concentrations for at least 2 years) females. A validated body condition score (BCS) index (five-point scale; 1=thinnest, 5=fattest) was used to assess the degree of fatness of the study elephants. The mean BCS of non-cycling elephants was higher than that of their cycling counterparts. There were differences in concentrations of serum metabolic biomarkers, with non-cycling elephants in the BCS 5 category having higher leptin and insulin concentrations and a lower G:I ratio than cycling BCS 5 females. Using 'non-cycling' as the outcome variable in regression models, high BCS was a strong predictor of a non-cycling status. This study provides the first evidence that ovarian acyclicity in zoo African elephants is associated with body condition indicative of obesity, as well as elevated, perturbed biomarkers of metabolic status. PMID:25375263

  11. Osteopontin and Integrin αvβ3 Expression during the Implantation Window in IVF Patients with Elevated Serum Progesterone and Oestradiol Level

    PubMed Central

    He, Z.; Ma, Y.; Li, L.; Liu, J.; Yang, H.; Chen, C.; Lin, N.; Bai, Y.; Ma, R.; Li, R.; Wu, Z.; Qiao, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To explore whether endometrial receptivity is determined by osteopontin (OPN) and integrin αvβ3 expression in women with elevated serum progesterone (P) and/or oestradiol (E2) who are undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Methods: According to serum hormone levels on the day of HCG administration, 33 infertile women were divided into 3 groups: the high E2, high P, and high E2 and P groups. The control group included 11 fertile, healthy women. Endometrial biopsy was performed on ovulation day + 7 to + 8 for all study participants, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of OPN and integrin αvβ3 were analyzed. Result: No statistically significant differences regarding OPN and integrin αvβ3 expression were found between infertile patients in the high P, high E2, high E2 and P and control groups. There was no significant correlation between OPN and integrin αvβ3 staining intensity during the implantation window biopsy in any of the groups studied. Conclusion: Endometrial OPN and integrant αvβ3 expression/co-expression is not impaired during the window of implantation in patients with high P, high E2, or high E2 and P levels. The clinical value of assessing endometrial receptivity with OPN and integrin αvβ3 seems to be uncertain. PMID:27365542

  12. miR-181b Promotes hepatic stellate cells proliferation by targeting p27 and is elevated in the serum of cirrhosis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Baocan; Li, Wenxi; Guo, Kun; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Yuqin; Fan, Jiangao

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181a and miR-181b, especially, miR-181b could be induced by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) in hepatic stellate cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181b could promote HSC-T6 cell proliferation by directly targeting the negative cell regulator-p27 in HSC-T6 cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181b was identified as potential serum diagnostic marker for liver cirrhosis patients. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs, as a kind of negative gene regulators, were demonstrated to be involved in many types of diseases. In this study, we found that transforming growth factor-beta 1 could induce the expression of miR-181a and miR-181b, and miR-181b increased in the much higher folds than miR-181a. Because of the important role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in HSC activation and liver cirrhosis, we investigate the effect of miR-181a and miR-181b on HSC proliferation. The results showed that miR-181b could promote HSC-T6 cell proliferation by regulating cell cycle. Further study showed p27, the cell cycle regulator, was the direct target of miR-181b in HSC-T6 cell. But miR-181a had no effects on HSC-T6 cell proliferation and cell cycle, and did not target p27. Interestingly, miR-181b is elevated significantly in serum of liver cirrhosis cases comparing to that of normal persons, whereas miR-181a expression was in the similar level with that of normal persons. These results suggested that miR-181b could be induced by TGF-{beta}1 and promote the growth of HSCs by directly targeting p27. The elevation of miR-181b in serum suggested that it may be potential diagnostic biomarkers for cirrhosis. As for miR-181a, it may work in TGF-{beta}1 pathway by a currently unknown mechanism.

  13. The Severity of Visceral Leishmaniasis Correlates with Elevated Levels of Serum IL-6, IL-27 and sCD14

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Priscila L.; de Oliveira, Fabrícia A.; Santos, Micheli Luize B.; Cunha, Luana Celina S.; Lino, Michelle T. B.; de Oliveira, Michelle F. S.; Bomfim, Manuela O. M.; Silva, Angela Maria; de Moura, Tatiana R.; de Jesus, Amélia R.; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Reed, Steven G.; de Almeida, Roque P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe disease caused by infection with protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Classic VL is characterized by a systemic infection of phagocytic cells and an intense activation of the inflammatory response. It is unclear why 90% of infected individuals do not develop the disease while a minority develop the classical form. Furthermore, among those that develop disease, a small group progresses to more severe form that is unresponsive to treatment. The presence of inflammatory mediators in serum could theoretically help to control the infection. However, there is also a release of anti-inflammatory mediators that could interfere with the control of parasite multiplication. In this study, we took advantage of the spectrum of outcomes to test the hypothesis that the immune profile of individuals infected with Leishmania (L.) infantum is associated with the development and severity of disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera from patients with confirmed diagnosis of VL were evaluated for the presence of numerous molecules, and levels compared with healthy control and asymptomatic infected individuals. Conclusions/Principal Findings Although differences were not observed in LPS levels, higher levels of sCD14 were detected in VL patients. Our data suggest that L. infantum may activate the inflammatory response via CD14, stimulating a generalized inflammatory response with production of several cytokines and soluble molecules, including IFN-γ, IL-27, IL-10, IL-6 and sCD14. These molecules were strongly associated with hepatosplenomegaly, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. We also observed that IL-6 levels greater than 200 pg/ml were strongly associated with death. Together our data reinforce the close relationship of IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-27 in the immune dynamics of VL and suggest the direct participation of sCD14 in the activation of the immune response against L. infantum. PMID:26814478

  14. Elevated Serum Levels of Homocysteine as an Early Prognostic Factor of Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kevere, Laura; Purvina, Santa; Bauze, Daiga; Zeibarts, Marcis; Andrezina, Raisa; Rizevs, Arnis; Jelisejevs, Sergejs; Piekuse, Linda; Kreile, Madara; Purvins, Indulis

    2012-01-01

    Background and Goal. The aim was to examine the serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and their associations with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T polymorphism in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders as well as controls. Materials and Methods. There were 198 patients: 82 with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 22 with mood disorders, and 94 controls. The level of Hcy was determined by an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography system. MTHFR C677T polymorphism was analysed using the restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction method. Results. The average level of Hcy was 11.94 ± 5.6 μmol/L for patients with schizophrenia, 11.65 ± 3.3 μmol/L for patients with affective disorders, versus 6.80 ± 2.93 μmol/L in a control. The highest level of Hcy has been observed in patients with episodic-recurrent course of schizophrenia (11.30 ± 7.74 μmol/L), paranoid schizophrenia continuous (12.76 ± 5.25 μmol/L), and in patients with affective disorders (11.65 ± 3.26 μmol/L). An association between the MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism and Hcy level was found by linear regression analysis (r = 1.41, P = 0.029). Conclusions. The data indicate a link between Hcy levels and schizophrenia and mood disorders. No associations between the level of Hcy in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism were found. PMID:23091720

  15. Elevated serum complement factors 3 and 4 are strong inflammatory markers of the metabolic syndrome development: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenfang; Tang, Qin; Wen, Jing; Tang, Yan; Huang, DaMin; Huang, Yuzhen; Xie, Jinling; Luo, Yawen; Liang, Min; Wu, Chunlei; Lu, Zheng; Tan, Aihua; Gao, Yong; Wang, Qiuyan; Jiang, Yonghua; Yao, Ziting; Lin, Xinggu; Zhang, Haiying; Mo, Zengnan; Yang, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological design, consisting of cross-sectional (n = 2376) and cohort (n = 976) studies, was adopted to investigate the association between complement factors 3 (C3) and 4, and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) development. In the cross-sectional study, the C3 and C4 concentrations in the MetS group were higher than those in the non-MetS group (all P < 0.001), and the levels of immune globulin M (IgM), IgA, IgE, and IgG exhibited no significant differences between MetS and non-MetS (all P > 0.050). After multi-factor adjustment, the odds ratios (ORs) in the highest quartile of C3 and C4 concentrations were 7.047 (4.664, 10.648) and 1.961 (1.349, 2.849), respectively, both Ptrend < 0.050. After a 4 years follow-up, total 166 subjects were diagnosed with MetS, and the complement baseline levels from 2009 were used to predict the MetS risk in 2013. In the adjusted model, the relative risks (RRs) in the highest quartile of C3 and C4 levels were 4.779 (2.854, 8.003) and 2.590 (1.567, 4.280), respectively, both Ptrend < 0.001. Activation of complement factors may be an important part of inflammatory processes, and our results indicated that the elevated C3 and C4 levels were independent risk factors for MetS development. PMID:26726922

  16. Utility of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Kamaleshwaran, K. K.; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, 99mTc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. 18F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. 18F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. PMID:26097420

  17. Elevated serum level of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in benign biliary stricture diseases can reduce its value as a tumor marker.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mao-Song; Huang, Jun-Xing; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Although carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) level is frequently upregulated in pancreatobiliary cancer, it is also elevated in some benign diseases. This study aimed to determine whether CA19-9 levels could be used to distinguish between benign obstructive jaundice and pancreatobiliary cancer. Fifty-seven patients with obstructive jaundice were studied retrospectively. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), sphincterotomy, stone extraction, or stent placement were used to treat patients with benign bile duct stricture or inoperable malignant biliopancreatic diseases, whilst surgery was performed in suitable cases. Serum CA19-9 levels and some additional biochemical parameters were evaluated before and after treatment. CA19-9 levels were elevated in most patients, along with levels of total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and 10 patients with benign disorders had extraordinarily high levels of these markers (> 1000 U/mL). The mean CA19-9 level in the malignant group was greater than that in the benign group (826.83 ± 557.34 vs. 401.92 ± 483.92 U/mL, P = 0.005), and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for CA19-9 were 100%, 7.69%, 33.33% and 47.47%, respectively. CA19-9 levels in the whole cohort were correlated with ALP (r = 0.77, P < 0.001), GGT (r = 0.83, P < 0.001), bilirubin (r = 0.69, P < 0.001), and CRP (r = 0.37, P = 0.004). The reduction in serum level of CA19-9 after treatment in the malignant group was remarkably less than that observed in the benign group (97.26 ± 123.24 U/mL vs. 352.71 ± 397.29 U/mL, P < 0.001). CA19-9 levels may not be sufficient to distinguish between malignant and benign obstructive jaundice diseases. PMID:24753772

  18. SETX mutations are a frequent genetic cause of juvenile and adult onset cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/background Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia defines a group of genetically distinct recessive ataxias including ataxia-telangectasia (A-T, ATM gene), ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1, APTX gene) and type 2 (AOA2, SETX gene). Although, a few unique clinical features differentiate each of these forms, the patients also share common clinical signs, such as the presence of cerebellar atrophy, sensorimotor axonal neuropathy, and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum level. Materials and methods We selected 22 Italian patients from 21 families, presenting progressive cerebellar ataxia, axonal neuropathy, and elevated serum AFP. We screened the coding regions of ATM, APTX and SETX genes for point mutations by direct sequencing or DHPLC, and searched genomic rearrangements in SETX by MLPA analysis. In selected cases, quantification of ATM and senataxin proteins was performed by Western blot. Clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging data were collected. Results Thirteen patients (12 families) carried SETX mutations (AOA2, 57%), two were mutated in ATM (A-T), and three in APTX (AOA1). In three remaining patients, we could not find pathogenic mutations, and in one case we found, in homozygosis, the SETX p.K992R polymorphism (population frequency 1-2%). In AOA2 cases, we identified 14 novel and three reported SETX mutations. Signs at onset were gait ataxia and facial dyskinesia, and the age ranged between 11 and 18 years. None had obvious oculomotor apraxia at the latest examination (age 14–45 years). The patient carrying the p.K992R SETX polymorphism had a phenotype similar to that of the diagnosed AOA2 patients, while the other three undiagnosed subjects had a very late onset and a few distinguishing clinical features. Discussion and conclusions We describe a large series of 13 AOA2 Italian patients. The phenotype was consistent with previous descriptions of AOA2, except for a higher frequency of strabism, and for the absence of oculomotor

  19. Should HFE p.C282Y homozygotes with moderately elevated serum ferritin be treated? A randomised controlled trial comparing iron reduction with sham treatment (Mi-iron)

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sim Yee; Dolling, Lara; Dixon, Jeannette L; Nicoll, Amanda J; Gurrin, Lyle C; Wolthuizen, Michelle; Wood, Erica M; Anderson, Greg J; Ramm, Grant A; Allen, Katrina J; Olynyk, John K; Crawford, Darrell; Kava, Jennifer; Ramm, Louise E; Gow, Paul; Durrant, Simon; Powell, Lawrie W; Delatycki, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HFE p.C282Y homozygosity is the most common cause of hereditary haemochromatosis. There is currently insufficient evidence to assess whether non-specific symptoms or hepatic injury in homozygotes with moderately elevated iron defined as a serum ferritin (SF) of 300–1000 µg/L are related to iron overload. As such the evidence for intervention in this group is lacking. We present here methods for a study that aims to evaluate whether non-specific symptoms and hepatic fibrosis markers improve with short-term normalisation of SF in p.C282Y homozygotes with moderate elevation of SF. Methods and analysis Mi-iron is a prospective, multicentre, randomised patient-blinded trial conducted in three centres in Victoria and Queensland, Australia. Participants who are HFE p.C282Y homozygotes with SF levels between 300 and 1000 μg/L are recruited and randomised to either the treatment group or to the sham treatment group. Those in the treatment group have normalisation of SF by 3-weekly erythrocytapheresis while those in the sham treatment group have 3-weekly plasmapheresis and thus do not have normalisation of SF. Patients are blinded to all procedures. All outcome measures are administered prior to and following the course of treatment/sham treatment. Patient reported outcome measures are the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS-primary outcome), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form V.2 (SF36v2) and Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale 2 short form (AIMS2-SF). Liver injury and hepatic fibrosis are assessed with transient elastography (TE), Fibrometer and Hepascore, while oxidative stress is assessed by measurement of urine and serum F2-isoprostanes. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of Austin Health, Royal Melbourne Hospital and Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference

  20. Elevated on-treatment levels of serum IFN-gamma is associated with treatment failure of peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Ying; Huang, Ching-I; Dai, Chia-Yen; Wang, Shu-Chi; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Liang, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Hung; Hou, Nai-Jen; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Huang, Chung-Feng; Lin, Zu-Yau; Chen, Shinn-Cherng; Huang, Jee-Fu; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection had been associated with cytokine imbalance. Cytokine dynamics in response to peginterferon/ribavirin therapy have an impact on the treatment efficacy for HCV patients. Ninety-two treatment-naive chronic hepatitis C patients were treated with 24 or 48 weeks of peginterferon/ribavirin therapy according to their viral genotypes. Sustained virologic response (SVR) is defined as undetectable HCV RNA throughout a 24-week post-treatment follow-up period. Dynamic serum levels of the following cytokines: (1) Th1-mediated cytokines: IFN-γ, interleukin-2, and TNF-alpha; (2)Th2-mediated cytokines: interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 and (3)immuno-modulatory cytokines: interleukin-1β, interleukin-8, and interleukin-12 were determined by Fluorescent Bead immunoassay. Serial dynamic cytokine expression demonstrated that not only elevated IFN-γ concentrations at specific time points but also the total IFN-γ amount was strongly linked to non-response in peginterferon/ribavirin therapy. IFN-γ levels could serve as an independent predictor for SVR analyzed by multivariate logistic regression test. The accuracy of discriminating responders from non-responders was acceptable when IFN-γ cut-off levels were set at 180, 120, and 40 pg/ml at the 4th week, 12th week, and end-of-treatment of therapy, respectively. Elevated on-treatment IFN-γ concentration was significantly associated with treatment failure among interleukin-28B rs8099917TT carriers and those patients failed to achieve rapid virologic response. PMID:26965318

  1. The Complexities of Interpreting Reversible Elevated Serum Creatinine Levels in Drug Development: Does a Correlation with Inhibition of Renal Transporters Exist?

    PubMed

    Chu, Xiaoyan; Bleasby, Kelly; Chan, Grace Hoyee; Nunes, Irene; Evers, Raymond

    2016-09-01

    In humans, creatinine is formed by a multistep process in liver and muscle and eliminated via the kidney by a combination of glomerular filtration and active transport. Based on current evidence, creatinine can be taken up into renal proximal tubule cells by the basolaterally localized organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and the organic anion transporter 2, and effluxed into the urine by the apically localized multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1) and MATE2K. Drug-induced elevation of serum creatinine (SCr) and/or reduced creatinine renal clearance is routinely used as a marker for acute kidney injury. Interpretation of elevated SCr can be complex, because such increases can be reversible and explained by inhibition of renal transporters involved in active secretion of creatinine or other secondary factors, such as diet and disease state. Distinction between these possibilities is important from a drug development perspective, as increases in SCr can result in the termination of otherwise efficacious drug candidates. In this review, we discuss the challenges associated with using creatinine as a marker for kidney damage. Furthermore, to evaluate whether reversible changes in SCr can be predicted prospectively based on in vitro transporter inhibition data, an in-depth in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) analysis was conducted for 16 drugs with in-house and literature in vitro transporter inhibition data for OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2K, as well as total and unbound maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and Cmax,u) data measured in the clinic. PMID:26825641

  2. Association of Elevated Serum Lipoprotein(a), Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Chronic Kidney Disease with Hypertension in Non-diabetes Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Tangvarasittichai, Surapon; Pingmuanglaew, Patcharin; Tangvarasittichai, Orathai

    2016-10-01

    Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular risk factor. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], inflammation, oxidative stress and chronic kidney disease (CKD) exacerbate the response to tissue injury and acts as markers of the vascular disease, especially in glomerulosclerosis. We compared the clinical characteristics of 138 non-diabetes hypertensive women (ndHT) patients with 417 non-diabetes normotensive subjects and tested the association of hypertension with Lp(a), inflammation, CKD and oxidative stress by using multiple logistic regression. BP, BMI, waist circumference, creatinine, Lp(a), inflammation and malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher and CKD state in the ndHT patients (p < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression showed hypertension associated with increased Lp(a), inflammation, ORs and 95 % CIs were 2.52 (1.33, 4.80), 2.75 (1.44, 5.27) after adjusting for their covariates. Elevated serum Lp(a) and inflammation levels concomitants with increased oxidative stress and CKD were the major risk factors associated with hypertension and implications for the increased risk of HT and vascular disease. PMID:27605742

  3. Elevated levels of endothelial-derived microparticles, and serum CXCL9 and SCGF-β are associated with unstable asymptomatic carotid plaques.

    PubMed Central

    Schiro, Andrew; Wilkinson, Fiona L.; Weston, Ria; Smyth, J. Vincent; Serracino-Inglott, Ferdinand; Alexander, M. Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are released from dysfunctional endothelial cells. We hypothesised that patients with unstable carotid plaque have higher levels of circulating microparticles compared to patients with stable plaques, and may correlate with serum markers of plaque instability and inflammation. Circulating EMPs, platelet MPs (PMPs) and inflammatory markers were measured in healthy controls and patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. EMP/PMPs were quantified using flow cytometry. Bioplex assays profiled systemic inflammatory and bone-related proteins. Immunohistological analysis detailed the contribution of differentially-regulated systemic markers to plaque pathology. Alizarin red staining showed calcification. EMPs and PMPs were significantly higher in patients with carotid stenosis (≥70%) compared to controls, with no differences between asymptomatic vs symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients with unstable plaques exhibited higher levels of EMPs, CXCL9 and SCGF-β compared to those with stable plaques. CXCL9, and SCGF-β were detected within all plaques, suggesting a contribution to both localised and systemic inflammation. Osteopontin and osteoprotegerin were significantly elevated in the symptomatic vs asymptomatic group, while osteocalcin was higher in asymptomatic patients with stable plaque. All plaques exhibited calcification, which was significantly greater in asymptomatic patients. This may impact on plaque stability. These data could be important in identifying patients at most benefit from intervention. PMID:26564003

  4. Elevated levels of endothelial-derived microparticles, and serum CXCL9 and SCGF-β are associated with unstable asymptomatic carotid plaques.

    PubMed

    Schiro, Andrew; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Weston, Ria; Smyth, J Vincent; Serracino-Inglott, Ferdinand; Alexander, M Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are released from dysfunctional endothelial cells. We hypothesised that patients with unstable carotid plaque have higher levels of circulating microparticles compared to patients with stable plaques, and may correlate with serum markers of plaque instability and inflammation. Circulating EMPs, platelet MPs (PMPs) and inflammatory markers were measured in healthy controls and patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. EMP/PMPs were quantified using flow cytometry. Bioplex assays profiled systemic inflammatory and bone-related proteins. Immunohistological analysis detailed the contribution of differentially-regulated systemic markers to plaque pathology. Alizarin red staining showed calcification. EMPs and PMPs were significantly higher in patients with carotid stenosis (≥ 70%) compared to controls, with no differences between asymptomatic vs symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients with unstable plaques exhibited higher levels of EMPs, CXCL9 and SCGF-β compared to those with stable plaques. CXCL9, and SCGF-β were detected within all plaques, suggesting a contribution to both localised and systemic inflammation. Osteopontin and osteoprotegerin were significantly elevated in the symptomatic vs asymptomatic group, while osteocalcin was higher in asymptomatic patients with stable plaque. All plaques exhibited calcification, which was significantly greater in asymptomatic patients. This may impact on plaque stability. These data could be important in identifying patients at most benefit from intervention. PMID:26564003

  5. Effect Modifying Role of Serum Calcium on Mortality-Predictability of PTH and Alkaline Phosphatase in Hemodialysis Patients: An Investigation Using Data from the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System from 2005 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Chung; Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Chiao-Ying; Kao, Chih-Chin; Chang, Fan-Chi; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Hsu, Chi-Cheng; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2015-01-01

    Predicting mortality in dialysis patients based on low intact parathyroid hormone levels is difficult, because aluminum intoxication, malnutrition, older age, race, diabetes, or peritoneal dialysis may influence these levels. We investigated the clinical implications of low parathyroid hormone levels in relation to the mortality of dialysis patients using sensitive, stratified, and adjusted models and a nationwide dialysis database. We analyzed data from 2005 to 2012 that were held on the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System, and 94,983 hemodialysis patients with valid data regarding their intact parathyroid levels were included in this study. The patient cohort was subdivided based on the intact parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase levels. The mean hemodialysis duration within this cohort was 3.5 years. The mean (standard deviation) age was 62 (14) years. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, the hemodialysis duration, serum albumin levels, hematocrit levels, calcium levels, phosphate levels, and the hemodialysis treatment adequacy score, the single-pool Kt/V, the crude and adjusted all-cause mortality rates increased when alkaline phosphatase levels were higher or intact parathyroid hormone levels were lower. In general, at any given level of serum calcium or phosphate, patients with low intact parathyroid hormone levels had higher mortality rates than those with normal or high iPTH levels. At a given alkaline phosphatase level, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.33 (p < 0.01, 95% confidence interval 1.27–1.39) in the group with intact parathyroid hormone levels < 150 pg/mL and serum calcium levels > 9.5 mg/dL, but in the group with intact parathyroid hormone levels > 300 pg/mL and serum calcium levels > 9.5 mg/dL, the hazard ratio was 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.01). Hence, maintaining albumin-corrected high serum calcium levels at > 9.5 mg/dL may correlate with poor prognoses for patients with low intact parathyroid hormone

  6. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting. PMID:18429501

  7. Association of severe insulin resistance with both loss of limb fat and elevated serum tumor necrosis factor receptor levels in HIV lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mynarcik, D C; McNurlan, M A; Steigbigel, R T; Fuhrer, J; Gelato, M C

    2000-12-01

    HIV-lipodystrophy (HIV-LD) is characterized by the loss of body fat from the limbs and face, an increase in truncal fat, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia, factors placing affected patients at increased risk for vascular disease. This study evaluated insulin sensitivity and inflammatory status associated with HIV-LD and provides suggestions about its etiology. Insulin sensitivity and immune activation markers were assessed in 12 control subjects and 2 HIV-positive groups, 14 without and 15 with LD syndrome. Peripheral insulin sensitivity (mostly skeletal muscle) was determined with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels, and their response to insulin infusion were indicative of insulin responsiveness of liver and adipose tissue, respectively. Serum levels of soluble type 2 tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) receptor (sTNFR2) were used as an indicator of immune activation. HIV-LD study subjects had significantly reduced (twofold) peripheral insulin sensitivity, but normal levels of FFA and reduced levels of IGFBP-1, relative to the nonlipodystrophy groups, indicating that the loss of insulin sensitivity was more pronounced in skeletal muscle than in liver or fat. The significant loss of peripheral fat in the HIV-LD group (34%; p <.05) closely correlated with the reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity (p =. 0001). Levels of sTNFR2 were elevated in all HIV-infected study subjects, but they were significantly higher in those with lipodystrophy than without, and sTNFR2 levels strongly correlated with the reduction in insulin sensitivity (p =.0001). Loss of peripheral fat, normal levels of FFA, and reduced levels of IGFBP-1 indicate that insulin resistance in HIV-LD is distinct from type 2 diabetes and obesity. The relationship between the degree of insulin resistance and sTNFR2 levels suggests an inflammatory stimulus is contributing to the development of

  8. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  9. Elevated granulocyte strontium in inflammatory arthritides is related to the inflammatory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haellgren, R.; Svensson, K.; Johansson, E.; Lindh, U.

    1984-12-01

    Total cellular strontium and calcium were measured by the nuclear microprobe technique. Increased mass fraction of both elements was found in granulocytes isolated from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and other kinds of inflammatory arthritides. Increased granulocyte calcium but only marginally elevated granulocyte strontium was demonstrated in patients with scleroderma. The granulocyte accumulation of strontium and calcium seems to be linked to the degree of inflammatory activity, because the granulocyte content of both elements was positively correlated to the plasma concentration of acute-phase proteins. Corticosteroid therapy induced a marked reduction of granulocyte strontium but a more modest decrease of granulocyte calcium. The serum levels of strontium and calcium were within the normal ranges in all patients and were not significantly altered by corticosteroids. 21 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Elevated Serum Transforming Growth Factor β1 Levels in Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Diseases and Their Correlation with Virus-Specific Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingwu; Ahmad, Ali; Jones, James F.; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Vaccher, Emanuela; Prasad, Umapati; Menezes, José

    2000-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is an immunosuppressive cytokine which can induce immunoglobulin A (IgA) switch and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication in latently infected cells. Here we report elevated serum levels of TGF-β in various EBV-associated diseases correlating positively with EBV-specific IgA titers and negatively with IgM titers, suggesting a role for this cytokine in the pathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:10666277

  11. Exposure to lithium through drinking water and calcium homeostasis during pregnancy: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Harari, Florencia; Åkesson, Agneta; Casimiro, Esperanza; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing evidence of adverse health effects due to elevated lithium exposure through drinking water but the impact on calcium homeostasis is unknown. This study aimed at elucidating if lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the maternal calcium homeostasis. In a population-based mother-child cohort in the Argentinean Andes (n=178), with elevated lithium concentrations in the drinking water (5-1660μg/L), blood lithium concentrations (correlating significantly with lithium in water, urine and plasma) were measured repeatedly during pregnancy by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and used as exposure biomarker. Markers of calcium homeostasis included: plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in serum and urine. The median maternal blood lithium concentration was 25μg/L (range 1.9-145). In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models, blood lithium was inversely associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (-6.1nmol/L [95%CI -9.5; -2.6] for a 25μg/L increment in blood lithium). The estimate increased markedly with increasing percentiles of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models, the odds ratio of having 25-hydroxyvitamin D3<30nmol/L (19% of the women) was 4.6 (95%CI 1.1; 19.3) for a 25μg/L increment in blood lithium. Blood lithium was also positively associated with serum magnesium, but not with serum calcium and PTH, and inversely associated with urinary calcium and magnesium. In conclusion, our study suggests that lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the calcium homeostasis, particularly vitamin D. The results reinforce the need for better control of lithium in drinking water, including bottled water. PMID:26828622

  12. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... at both ionized calcium and calcium attached to proteins. You may need to have a separate ionized calcium test if you have factors that increase or decrease total calcium levels. These may include abnormal blood levels ...

  13. Calcium kinetics in the Solanum malacoxylon-treated rat.

    PubMed

    Cabrejas, M; Ladizesky, M; Mautalen, C A

    1975-12-01

    The chronic ingestion of the leaves of the plant Solanum malacoxylon (SM) causes an endemic disease in the cattle of some areas of Buenos Aires province. The animals affected manifest loss of appetite and weight, hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and ectopic calcifications. In order to study the mechanism of the hypercalcemia provoked by the administration of SM, a calcium kinetic study was performed in control and treated adult intact rats. The animals receiving SM showed higher levels of serum calcium throughout the study. The body excretion of 47Ca and the size of the most rapidly exchangeable calcium pool were also elevated. On the other hand, the bone accretion rate and the urinary excretion of total hydroxyproline were significantly diminished. The results indicate that during the early phase of SM administration in intact rats, bone turnover rate is depressed. PMID:1195017

  14. Elevating your elevator talk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  15. Usefulness of serum unbound free fatty acid levels to predict death early in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (from the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] II trial).

    PubMed

    Huber, Andrew H; Kampf, J Patrick; Kwan, Thomas; Zhu, Baolong; Adams, Jesse; Kleinfeld, Alan M

    2014-01-15

    Circulating total free fatty acid (FFA) levels are elevated early in myocardial infarction (MI) and have been associated with an increase in mortality. We investigated the association of serum unbound FFA (FFAu) levels with mortality in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation MI in the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction II trial. The Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction II trial enrolled patients within 4 hours of chest pain onset. The patients were treated with a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 1 hour of enrollment. The FFAu concentration was evaluated in serum samples from 1,834 patients obtained at baseline, before therapy. The FFAu level was an independent risk factor for death as early as at 1 day of hospitalization and continued to be an independent risk factor for the >3.8 years of follow-up. When adjusted for other cardiovascular risk factors, the FFAu levels in the fourth versus the first quartile remained an independent risk factor for death from MI (hazard ratio 5.0, 95% confidence interval 1.9 to 13.0), all cardiac death (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.4), and all-cause death (hazard ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 3.1). Women were twice as likely to be in the upper 2 FFAu quartiles and had approximately twice the rate of death as men. In conclusion, FFAu elevation is 1 of the earliest molecular biomarkers of mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation MI and was independent of other risk factors known to affect the outcomes after ST-segment elevation MI. PMID:24176067

  16. Effects of dietary energy and calcium levels on performance, egg shell quality and bone metabolism in hens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sha; Cui, Luying; Shi, Cheng; Ke, Xiao; Luo, Jingwen; Hou, Jiafa

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary energy and calcium levels on laying performance, eggshell quality and bone metabolism of layers. One hundred and sixty-two 19-week-old Hy-Line brown laying hens in 54 battery cages were allocated to one of nine dietary treatments with control, middle and high levels of energy (11.50, 12.68 and 13.37 MJ/kg, respectively) and low, control and high levels of calcium (2.62%, 3.7% and 4.4%, respectively) for 60 days, using a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Compared with the control energy diet, high- and middle-energy diets increased fat deposition and egg weight, decreased feed intake and bone quality and had no effects on eggshell quality. The high-energy diet reduced the serum phosphate concentration and elevated osteocalcin mRNA expression in the keel bone without increasing osteocalcin protein. Dietary calcium intake did not affect fat deposition, feed intake or egg weight. Low dietary calcium resulted in weaker eggshells and poorer bone quality than that from hens fed the control diet. High dietary calcium increased serum calcium concentration, osteoprotegerin mRNA and osteocalcin protein and inhibited serum alkaline phosphatase activity and decreased its mRNA compared with low or control dietary calcium. The high-energy and high-calcium diet significantly reduced egg production. Compared with the control energy diet, high- and middle-energy diets increased fat deposition but had negative effects on bone metabolic homeostasis. Dietary calcium did not influence fat deposition but a high-calcium diet benefited bone homeostasis, while a low-calcium diet was associated with poorer eggshell quality and bone homeostasis. PMID:24054908

  17. Calcium Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent; Bird, Gary S.; Putney, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium signaling results from a complex interplay between activation and inactivation of intracellular and extracellular calcium permeable channels. This complexity is obvious from the pattern of calcium signals observed with modest, physiological concentrations of calcium-mobilizing agonists, which typically present as sequential regenerative discharges of stored calcium, a process referred to as calcium oscillations. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanism of calcium oscillations through the power of mathematical modeling. We also summarize recent findings on the role of calcium entry through store-operated channels in sustaining calcium oscillations and in the mechanism by which calcium oscillations couple to downstream effectors. PMID:21421924

  18. Calcium bioavailability from calcium fortified food products.

    PubMed

    Kohls, K

    1991-08-01

    The calcium balance of 12 presumed healthy human young adult subjects was assessed. Subjects consumed a constant laboratory-controlled diet supplemented with one of four calcium-fortified food products: orange juice (OJ), milk (M), experimental pasteurized processed cheese (T), soda (S), or a calcium carbonate plus vitamin D tablet (CC). Study length was 6 weeks with seven-day experimental periods (2-days allowed for adjustment with 5-days combined for purposes of analysis). All urine and fecal samples were collected by the subjects for the duration of the study. Blood samples were drawn at the end of each experimental period. Urine and fecal calcium contents were determined. Blood samples were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase. Results of this study indicate a higher fecal calcium content (mg/day) when subjects consumed CC and T, and when subjects consumed self-selected diets, than when given S, M, or OJ. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly lower when subjects consumed OJ than when they consumed M, T, or their self-selected diets. A significantly larger positive calcium balance was demonstrated when subjects consumed OJ as compared to T. Fecal transmit time did not vary significantly. Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly lower when subjects consumed T than when they consumed self-selected diets. PMID:1765836

  19. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; Orwoll, Shiela; McCarron, David A.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P < 0.001), elevated parathyroid hormone levels (P < 0.001), reduced calcitonin levels (P < 0.05), unchanged 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, and elevated skull (P < 0.01) and reduced femur bone mineral density. Basal and thrombin-stimulated platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for indirect systolic BP to be reduced in conscious flight animals (P = 0.057). However, mean arterial pressure was elevated (P < 0.001) after anesthesia. Dietary calcium altered all aspects of calcium metabolism (P < 0.001), as well as BP (P < 0.001), but the only interaction with flight was a relatively greater increase in ionized calcium in flight animals fed low- compared with high-calcium diets (P < 0.05). The results indicate that 1) flight-induced disruptions of calcium metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  20. Elevated Serum Retinol and Low Beta-Carotene but not Alpha-Tocopherol Concentrations Are Associated with Dyslipidemia in Brazilian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Mellina Neyla de Lima; Diniz, Alcides da Silva; Arruda, Ilma Kruze Grande de

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of retinol, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol serum concentrations in adolescents with dyslipidemia. A case series dyslipidemia study was conducted, with an attached control group, including 104 adolescents of public schools in Recife during the months of March/April 2013. Retinol, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol serum concentrations were analysed by high efficiency liquid chromatography. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, clinical and biochemical variables were analysed. Dyslipidemic adolescents had high serum concentrations of both retinol (p=0.007) and beta-carotene/apolipoprotein A-I ratio (p=0.034); they also had low concentrations of beta-carotene/total cholesterol (p<0.0001) and beta-carotene/apolipoprotein B ratios (p=0.033) when compared to the controls. The alpha-tocopherol serum status was not associated with dyslipidemia. Overweight, abdominal obesity, lipid profile markers, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were more prevalent in dyslipidemic adolescents. The findings show an association between vitamin A and dyslipidemia in adolescents. However, additional investigations of this risk group are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of action of this nutrient in the pathogenesis of this syndrome, aiming at reducing cardiometabolic risks as of earlier ages. PMID:27264090

  1. Elevated hepcidin serum level in response to inflammatory and iron signals in exercising athletes is independent of moderate supplementation with vitamin C and E

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Víctor; Peinado, Ana B; Barba-Moreno, Laura; Altamura, Sandro; Butragueño, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Alteheld, Birgit; Stehle, Peter; Zapico, Augusto G; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Gassmann, Max

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency among endurance athletes is of major concern for coaches, physicians, and nutritionists. Recently, it has been observed that hepcidin, the master regulator of iron metabolism, was upregulated after exercise and was found to be related to interleukin-6 (IL-6) elevation. In this study performed on noniron deficient and well-trained runners, we observed that hepcidin concentrations remain elevated in response to inflammatory and iron signals despite a 28-days supplementation period with vitamins C (500 mg/day) and E (400 IU/day). PMID:26243212

  2. Elevated hepcidin serum level in response to inflammatory and iron signals in exercising athletes is independent of moderate supplementation with vitamin C and E.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Víctor; Peinado, Ana B; Barba-Moreno, Laura; Altamura, Sandro; Butragueño, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Alteheld, Birgit; Stehle, Peter; Zapico, Augusto G; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Gassmann, Max

    2015-08-01

    Iron deficiency among endurance athletes is of major concern for coaches, physicians, and nutritionists. Recently, it has been observed that hepcidin, the master regulator of iron metabolism, was upregulated after exercise and was found to be related to interleukin-6 (IL-6) elevation. In this study performed on noniron deficient and well-trained runners, we observed that hepcidin concentrations remain elevated in response to inflammatory and iron signals despite a 28-days supplementation period with vitamins C (500 mg/day) and E (400 IU/day). PMID:26243212

  3. Elevated serum IL-35 and increased expression of IL-35-p35 or -EBI3 in CD4+CD25+ T cells in patients with active tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Bin; Liu, Gan-Bin; Zhang, Jun-Ai; Fu, Xiao-Xia; Xiang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yu-Chi; Lu, Yuan-Bin; Wu, Xian-Jing; Qiu, Feng; Wang, Wan-Dang; Yi, Lai-Long; Zhong, Ji-Xin; Chen, Zheng W; Xu, Jun-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent appreciation of interleukin 35 (IL-35) function in inflammatory diseases, little is known for IL-35 response in patients with active tuberculosis (ATB). In the current study, we demonstrated that ATB patients exhibited increases in serum IL-35 and in mRNA expression of both subunits of IL-35 (p35 and EBI3) in white blood cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Consistently, anti-TB drug treatment led to reduction in serum IL-35 level and p35 or EBI3 expression. TB infection was associated with expression of p35 or EBI3 protein in CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells. Most p35+CD4+ T cells and EBI3+CD4+ T cells expressed Treg-associated marker CD25. Our findings may be important in understanding immune pathogenesis of TB. IL-35 in the blood may potentially serve as a biomarker for immune status and prognosis in TB. PMID:27158354

  4. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  5. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... best treatment for the most common type of kidney stone , which is made of calcium. This type of ... the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production ...

  6. Abnormally elevated serum hCG in a patient with end-stage renal disease seeking abortion: to be expected or a cause for concern? A case report.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Benjamin W; Zerden, Matthew L; Morse, Jessica E

    2015-07-01

    A patient with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis was referred to our abortion clinic with a concern for molar pregnancy. By 12 weeks, her human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level was over 500,000. A review of the literature demonstrates that elevated hCG should be expected in this population and should not alter care. PMID:25858678

  7. Increased serum triglyceride clearance and elevated high-density lipoprotein 2 and 3 cholesterol during treatment of primary hypertriglyceridemia with bezafibrate☆

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Nagahiko; Ikeuchi, Reiko; Hibino, Takeshi; Yoshida, Takayuki; Mukai, Seiji; Akita, Sachie; Yajima, Kazuhiro; Miyabe, Hiromichi; Goto, Toshihiko; Takada, Norio; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Kunimatu, Mitoshi; Kimura, Genjiro

    2003-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia accompanied by low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. High-density lipoprotein 2 (HDL2) and 3 (HDL3) are believed to suppress the progress of atherosclerosis through reverse cholesterol transport. As a result, peripheral tissues can be protected against excessive accumulation of cholesterol. Although bezafibrate is known to accelerate the increase of HDL-C, results are not standardized regarding increases of HDL3 and HDL2 subfractions. Objective This study assessed the effects of bezafibrate on serum triglyceride (TG) fractional clearance rate (K2) and HDL2 and HDL3 cholesterol (HDL2-C and HDL3-C, respectively) levels in patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia (serum TG ≥150 mg/dL). Methods Outpatients with primary hypertriglyceridemia were enrolled in this 8-week study conducted at the Third Department of Internal Medicine, Nagoya City University Hospital (Nagoya, Japan). Oral bezafibrate was administered at a dose of 400 mg/d (200-mg tablet BID, morning and evening) for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, HDL-C, HDL2-C, and HDL3-C were measured. A fat emulsion tolerance test to assess K2 and measurements of plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mass, LPL activity, and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) activity in postheparin plasma were performed before bezafibrate administration and after the course of treatment. Results Sixteen patients (10 men, 6 women; mean [SD] age, 54 [12] years [range, 30–69 years]; mean [SD] body mass index, 23 [2] kg/m2) entered the study. The following findings were observed in male and female patients after 8 weeks of treatment. A statistically significant reduction was observed in mean serum TG level (P<0.01). Significant increases were seen in HDL-C, HDL2-C, and HDL3-C (all P<0.01), K2 (P<0.01), and in plasma LPL mass (P<0.01) and LPL activity (P<0.05). TC level and HTGL activity did not change

  8. Low Serum Testosterone Levels Are Associated with Elevated Urinary Mandelic Acid, and Strontium Levels in Adult Men According to the US 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Héroux, Paul; Zhang, Qunwei; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Gu, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the effects of environmental exposure of chemicals on androgenic system in the general population. We studied 5,107 subjects included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011–2012). Methods Urinary, serum, and blood levels of 15 subclasses comprising 110 individual chemicals were analyzed for their association with serum testosterone levels. The subjects were divided into high and low testosterone groups according to the median testosterone concentration (374.51 ng/dL). Odds ratios (ORs) of individual chemicals in association with testosterone were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for age, ethnicity, cotinine, body mass index, creatinine, alcohol, and the poverty income ratio. Results Adjusted ORs for the highest versus lowest quartiles of exposure were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.07, 4.21; Ptrend = 0.044), 1.84 (95% CI: 1.02, 3.34; Ptrend = 0.018) for the association between urinary mandelic acid, and strontium quartiles with low testosterone concentrations in adult men, respectively. However, no association was observed for the remaining chemicals with testosterone. Conclusions The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data suggest that elevations in urinary mandelic acid, and strontium levels are negatively related to low serum testosterone levels in adult men. PMID:25996772

  9. Parathyroid and Calcium Status in Patients with Thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Meenu; Abrol, Pankaj

    2010-01-01

    Thirty patients with thalassemia major receiving repeated blood transfusion were studied to see their serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium status. Serum PTH, serum and 24 h urinary calcium, and serum alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, and albumin-corrected calcium levels were determined. Half of these patients, in addition to transfusion, were also supplemented with vitamin D (60,000 IU for 10d) and calcium (1500 mg/day for 3 months). Serum PTH, and serum and 24 h urinary calcium concentrations of the patients receiving transfusions were found to be significantly reduced while their serum alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, and albumin-corrected calcium levels were not significantly altered when compared to the respective mean values for the control group. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation significantly increased their serum PTH and calcium levels. Supplementations also increased urinary excretion of calcium. The results thus suggest that patients with thalassemia have hypoparathyroidism and reduced serum calcium concentrations that in turn were improved with vitamin D and calcium supplementation. PMID:21966110

  10. IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with only lymphadenopathy and without elevated serum IgG4 or renal imaging abnormalities: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xi; Wang, Lihua; Wang, Chen; Gao, Lifang; Yao, Shulei; Wu, Liran; Zhang, Xiaoqin

    2015-01-01

    IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN) is the most common renal manifestation of IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) and may cause acute or chronic renal dysfunction. Imaging often shows heterogeneous densities in the kidneys, such as a mass or multiple nodules. Serology usually demonstrates high levels of serum IgG4 and total IgG. Most patients have other organs involvement by IgG4 related disease. Although lymphadenopathy is frequently observed in patients with IgG4-TIN, it is rarely presented as the only extrarenal lesion. Herein, we present a rare case of IgG4-TIN associated with only lymphadenopathy and without elevated serum IgG4 or renal imaging abnormalities. A 61-year-old Chinese man was admitted to our hospital with seven months history of generalized lymphadenopathy and five months history of renal dysfunction. His renal imaging was normal. He had no current or previous clinical, radiographic, and/or histologic evidence of other organ involvement except for the lymphadenopathy. Renal biopsy indicated plasma cell-rich TIN with an increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells and storiform fibrosis. Repeated lymph nodes biopsy revealed IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. However, he did not have elevated serum IgG4 or total IgG levels. Oral prednisone therapy improved his renal function and lymphadenopathy. These findings supported our final diagnosis of IgG4-TIN. Clinicians should be aware of this condition and steroid therapy should be considered for such patients. An early diagnosis and appropriate therapy can induce remission and preserve renal function. PMID:26770608

  11. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Laffray, Sophie; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca(2+) homeostasis. The low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms) play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca(2+) channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations. PMID:24672455

  12. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH. PMID:25755701

  13. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH. PMID:25755701

  14. Non-Specific Inhibition of Ischemia- and Acidosis-Induced Intracellular Calcium Elevations and Membrane Currents by α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, Butylated Hydroxytoluene and Trolox

    PubMed Central

    Katnik, Christopher; Cuevas, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose) and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0) produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the spin trapping molecule α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) were used to determine the role of free radicals in these responses. PBN and BHT inhibited the initial transient increases in [Ca2+]i, produced by ischemia, acidosis and acidic ischemia and increased steady state levels in response to acidosis and the acidic ischemia. BHT and PBN also potentiated the rate at which [Ca2+]i increased after the initial transients during acidic ischemia. Trolox inhibited peak and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i during ischemia. BHT inhibited ischemia induced initial inward currents and trolox inhibited initial inward currents activated by acidosis and acidic ischemia. Given the inconsistent results obtained using these antioxidants, it is unlikely their effects were due to elimination of free radicals. Instead, it appears these compounds have non-specific effects on the ion channels and exchangers responsible for these responses. PMID:24583849

  15. Non-specific inhibition of ischemia- and acidosis-induced intracellular calcium elevations and membrane currents by α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, butylated hydroxytoluene and trolox.

    PubMed

    Katnik, Christopher; Cuevas, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose) and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0) produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the spin trapping molecule α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) were used to determine the role of free radicals in these responses. PBN and BHT inhibited the initial transient increases in [Ca2+]i, produced by ischemia, acidosis and acidic ischemia and increased steady state levels in response to acidosis and the acidic ischemia. BHT and PBN also potentiated the rate at which [Ca2+]i increased after the initial transients during acidic ischemia. Trolox inhibited peak and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i during ischemia. BHT inhibited ischemia induced initial inward currents and trolox inhibited initial inward currents activated by acidosis and acidic ischemia. Given the inconsistent results obtained using these antioxidants, it is unlikely their effects were due to elimination of free radicals. Instead, it appears these compounds have non-specific effects on the ion channels and exchangers responsible for these responses. PMID:24583849

  16. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Laffray, Sophie; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca2+ homeostasis. The low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms) play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca2+ channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations. PMID:24672455

  17. Elevated IL-17 and TGF-β Serum Levels: A Positive Correlation between T-helper 17 Cell-Related Pro-Inflammatory Responses with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davami, Mohammad Hasan; Baharlou, Rasoul; Ahmadi Vasmehjani, Abbas; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Keshtkar, Mitra; Dezhkam, Iman; Atashzar, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is a mental disorder that highly associated with immune system. Therefore, this study compares the serum concentrations of IL-21, IL-17, and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) between patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 41 patients with major depressive disorder and 40 healthy age-matched controls with no history of malignancies or autoimmune disorders. The subjects were interviewed face to face according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Depression score was measured using completed Beck Depression Inventory in both groups. The serum concentrations of IL-21, IL-17, and TGF-β were assessed using ELISA. Results: The mean score of Beck Depression score in the patient and control groups was 35.4±5.5 and 11.1±2.3. IL-17 serum concentrations in the patients and the control group were 10.03±0.6 and 7.6±0.6 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.0002). TGF-β level in the patients group was significantly higher than compare to the control group; 336.7±20.19 vs. 174.8±27.20 pg/mL, (P<0.0001). However, the level of IL-21 was not statistically different between the two groups 84.30±4.57 vs. 84.12±4.15 pg/mL (P>0.05). Conclusion: Considering pro-inflammatory cytokines, current results support the association of inflammatory response and depressive disorder. So, it seems that pro-inflammatory factors profile can be used as indicator in following of depression progress and its treatment impacts. PMID:27303608

  18. Early Elevation of Serum MMP-3 and MMP-12 Predicts Protection from World Trade Center-Lung Injury in New York City Firefighters: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Naveed, Bushra; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Nolan, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective After 9/11/2001, some Fire Department of New York (FDNY) workers had excessive lung function decline. We hypothesized that early serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expression predicts World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI) years later. Methods This is a nested case-control analysis of never-smoking male firefighters with normal pre-exposure Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) who had serum drawn up to 155 days post 9/11/2001. Serum MMP-1, 2,3,7,8, 9, 12 and 13 were measured. Cases of WTC-LI (N = 70) were defined as having an FEV1 one standard deviation below the mean (FEV1≤77%) at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) which was performed 32 months (IQR 21–53) post-9/11. Controls (N = 123) were randomly selected. We modeled MMP's ability as a predictor of cases status with logistic regression adjusted for time to blood draw, exposure intensity, weight gain and pre-9/11 FEV1. Results Each log-increase in MMP-3 and MMP-12 showed reduced odds of developing WTC-LI by 73% and 54% respectively. MMP-3 and MMP-12 consistently clustered together in cases, controls, and the cohort. Increasing time to blood draw significantly and independently increased the risk of WTC-LI. Conclusions Elevated serum levels of MMP-3 and MMP-12 reduce the risk of developing WTC-LI. At any level of MMP-3 or 12, increased time to blood draw is associated with a diminished protective effect. PMID:24146820

  19. Boron Induces Early Matrix Mineralization via Calcium Deposition and Elevation of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Differentiated Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Movahedi Najafabadi, Bent-al-hoda; Abnosi, Mohammad Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Objective Boron (B) is essential for plant development and might be an essential micronutrient for animals and humans. This study was conducted to characterize the impact of boric acid (BA) on the cellular and molecular nature of differentiated rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, BMSCs were extracted and expanded to the 3rdpassage, then cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) complemented with osteogenic media as well as 6 ng/ml and 6 µg/ml of BA. After 5, 10, 15 and 21 days the viability and the level of mineralization was determined using MTT assay and alizarin red respectively. In addition, the morphology, nuclear diameter and cytoplasmic area of the cells were studied with the help of fluorescent dye. The concentration of calcium, activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as sodium and potassium levels were also evaluated using commercial kits and a flame photometer respectively. Results Although 6 µg/ml of BA was found to be toxic, a concentration of 6 ng/ml increased the osteogenic ability of the cell significantly throughout the treatment. In addition it was observed that B treatment caused the early induction of matrix mineralization compared to controls. Conclusion Although more investigation is required, we suggest the prescription of a very low concentration of B in the form of BA or foods containing BA, in groups at high risk of osteoporosis or in the case of bone fracture. PMID:27054120

  20. Elevation of serum creatine kinase during methimazole treatment of Graves disease in a 13-year-old girl and a literature review of similar cases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeseon; Kim, Jinsup; Huh, Rimm; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    We report a 13-year-old girl with Graves disease, who showed an increased level of serum creatine kinase (CK) accompanied by myalgia after methimazole (MMI) treatment. This patient developed muscular pain two weeks after MMI administration, along with increased CK levels. The level of thyroid hormone was within the normal range when she showed increased CK levels. After the MMI dose was decreased and levo-thyroxine was added, serum CK levels decreased to normal and the myalgia improved. The pathophysiologic mechanism of this effect has not yet been elucidated. An acute relatively hypothyroid state occurs secondary to antithyroid drug (ATD) administration in chronic hyperthyroidism, which may cause changes in the CK levels. In this report, we present a rare pediatric case, along with a literature review of similar cases. In the initial state of MMI treatment, myalgia should be detected and when it occurs, CK levels should be measured. The clinical strategy of monitoring CK levels with the aim of normalizing thyroid hormones is helpful in case of the development of adverse reactions, such as myalgia, during ATD treatment for Graves disease in children. PMID:26191516

  1. An approach for manganese biomonitoring using a manganese carrier switch in serum from transferrin to citrate at slightly elevated manganese concentration.

    PubMed

    Michalke, B; Aslanoglou, L; Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, M; Bergström, B; Berthele, A; Vinceti, M; Lucio, M; Lidén, G

    2015-10-01

    After high-dose-short-term exposure (usually from occupational exposure) and even more under low-dose long term exposure (mainly environmental) manganese (Mn) biomonitoring is still problematic since these exposure scenarios are not necessarily reflected by a significant increase of total Mn in blood or serum. Usually, Mn concentrations of exposed and unexposed persons overlap and individual differentiation is often not possible. In this paper Mn speciation on a large sample size (n=180) was used in order to be able to differentiate between highly Mn-exposed or low or unexposed individuals at low total Mn concentration in serum (Mn(S)). The whole sample set consisted of three subsets from Munich, Emilia Romagna region in Italy and from Sweden. It turned out that also at low total Mn(S) concentrations a change in major Mn carriers in serum takes place from Mn-transferrin (Mn-Tf(S)) towards Mn-citrate (Mn-Cit(S)) with high statistical significance (p<0.000002). This carrier switch from Mn-Tf(S) to Mn-Cit(S) was observed between Mn(S) concentrations of 1.5μg/L to ca. 1.7μg/L. Parallel to this carrier change, for sample donors from Munich where serum and cerebrospinal fluid were available, the concentration of Mn beyond neural barriers - analysed as Mn in cerebrospinal fluid (Mn(C)) - positively correlates to Mn-Cit(S) when Mn(S) concentration was above 1.7μg/L. The correlation between Mn-Cit(S) and Mn(C) reflects the facilitated Mn transport through neural barrier by means of Mn-citrate. Regional differences in switch points from Mn-Tf(S) to Mn-Cit(S) were observed for the three sample subsets. It is currently unknown whether these differences are due to differences in location, occupation, health status or other aspects. Based on our results, Mn-Cit(S) determination was considered as a potential means for estimating the Mn load in brain and CSF, i.e., it could be used as a biomarker for Mn beyond neural barrier. For a simpler Mn-Cit(S) determination than size

  2. Retrospective Study of Serum Sclerostin Measurements in Bed Rest Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, J. M.; Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Divieti, Pajevic P.; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, M. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton s response to mechanical unloading at the cellular level in part by an increase in sclerostin, an inhibitor of the anabolic Wnt pathway. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Thus, we determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men who participated in a controlled bed rest study. Seven healthy adult men (31 +/- 3 yrs old) underwent 90-day six-degree head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston's Institute for Translational Sciences - Clinical Research Center (ITS-CRC). Serum sclerostin, PTH, serum markers of bone turnover (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, RANKL/OPG, and osteocalcin), urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24 hour pooled urinary markers of bone resorption (NTX, DPD, PYD) were evaluated pre-bed rest (BL), bed rest day 28 (BR-28), bed rest day 60 (BR-60), and bed rest day 90 (BR-90). In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at BL, BR-60, and post bed rest day 5 (BR+5). Data are reported as mean +/- standard deviation. We used repeated measures ANOVA to compare baseline values to BR-28, BR-60, and BR-90. RESULTS Consistent with prior reports, BMD declined significantly (1-2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites (spine, hip, femur neck, and calcaneus). Serum sclerostin levels were elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29% +/- 20%, p = 0.003), BR-60 (+42% +/- 31%, p < 0.001), and BR-90 (22% +/- 21%, p = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (-17% +/- 16%, p = 0.02), BR-60 (-24% +/- 14%, p = 0.03), and returned to baseline at BR-90 (-21% +/- 21%, p = 0.14). Serum bone turnover markers did not change, however urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated following bed rest (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION We observed an increase of serum sclerostin

  3. Elevated serum levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and stem cell growth factor β in patients with idiopathic and systemic sclerosis associated pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Stefanantoni, K; Sciarra, I; Vasile, M; Badagliacca, R; Poscia, R; Pendolino, M; Alessandri, C; Vizza, C D; Valesini, G; Riccieri, V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can be idiopathic or secondary to autoimmune diseases, and it represents one of the most threatening complications of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine with proinflammatory functions that appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced PH. In SSc patients, high serum levels of MIF have been associated with the development of ulcers and PAH. Stem cell growth factor β (SCGF β) is a human growth factor that, together with MIF, is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic spinal cord injury. The aim of our study was to measure serum levels of MIF in patients with idiopathic and SSc-associated PAH. We enrolled 13 patients with idiopathic PAH and 15 with SSc-associated PAH. We also selected 14 SSc patients without PAH and 12 normal healthy controls, matched for sex and age. PAH was confirmed by right hearth catheterism (mPAP>25 mmHg). MIF and SCGF β levels were measured by ELISA. We found significantly higher circulating levels of MIF and of SCGF β in patients with idiopathic PAH (P=0.03 and P=0.004) and with PAH secondary to SSc (P=0.018 and P=0.023) compared to SSc patients without PAH. Higher levels of MIF were found in those patients with an higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (P=0.03). We can hypothesize that MIF and SCGF β are able to play a role in PAH, both idiopathic or secondary, and in the future they may be evaluated as useful biomarkers and prognostic factors for this serious vascular disease. PMID:25829187

  4. The individualized choice of embryo transfer timing for patients with elevated serum progesterone level on the HCG day in IVF/ICSI cycles: a prospective randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Pang, Tianshu; Li, Rong; Yang, Rui; Zhen, Xiumei; Chen, Xinna; Wang, Haiyan; Ma, Caihong; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2015-05-01

    This study analyzed the clinical outcomes of patients with elevated progesterone level on the HCG day in IVF/ICSI cycles, with different timing of embryo transfer. A total of 123 patients were involved in this prospective randomized clinical study. Group 1: blastocyst transfer group, 38 cases; Group 2: frozen-thawed embryo transfer group (first FET cycle), 42 cases; Group 3: fresh embryo transfer group, 43 cases. The basal FSH level was comparable among three groups (6.7 ± 3 versus 7.0 ± 2 versus 6.9 ± 2.4, p = 0.897). The clinical pregnancy rate was highest in group 2, lowest in group 3, with significantly difference (31.6% versus 38.1% versus 13.9%, p = 0.037). The implantation rate and live birth rate were still lowest in group 3 (21.9% versus 19.8% versus 6.7%, p = 0.016 and 18.4% versus 31% versus 11.6%, p = 0.081). In conclusion, the elevated progesterone level will affect clinical pregnancy rate in fresh embryo transfer cycles. We suggest frozen-thawed embryo transfer for these patients. However, for those patients who expressed the wish to have fresh embryo transfer, they should be suggested fresh blastocyst transfer, if they have more than five good quality embryos. PMID:25558791

  5. Serum Sclerostin Increases in Healthy Adult Men during Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Pajevic, P. Divieti; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, J. D.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton's response to mechanical unloading in part by an increase in sclerostin. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Objective: We determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men undergoing controlled bed rest. Design, Setting, and Participants: Seven healthy adult men (31 ± 3 yr old) underwent 90 d of 6° head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch Institute for Translational Sciences-Clinical Research Center. Outcomes: Serum sclerostin, PTH, vitamin D, bone resorption and formation markers, urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24-h pooled urinary markers of bone resorption were evaluated before bed rest [baseline (BL)] and at bed rest d 28 (BR-28), d 60 (BR-60), and d 90 (BR-90). Bone mineral density was measured at BL, BR-60, and 5 d after the end of the study (BR+5). Data are reported as mean ± sd. Results: Consistent with prior reports, bone mineral density declined significantly (1–2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites. Serum sclerostin was elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29 ± 20%; P = 0.003) and BR-60 (+42 ± 31%; P < 0.001), with a lesser increase at BR-90 (+22 ± 21%; P = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (−17 ± 16%; P = 0.02) and BR-60 (−24 ± 14%; P = 0.03) and remained lower than BL at BR-90 (−21 ± 21%; P = 0.14), but did not reach statistical significance. Serum bone turnover markers were unchanged; however, urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated at all time points after bed rest (P < 0.01). Conclusions: In healthy men subjected to controlled bed rest for 90 d, serum sclerostin increased, with a peak at 60, whereas serum PTH declined, and urinary calcium and bone resorption markers increased. PMID:22767636

  6. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Lane, Helen W.

    1999-01-01

    Bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight, threatening to limit the duration of human space missions. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after extended-duration missions. The hypotheses to be tested in this project are that space flight alters calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism, and that calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism will return to baseline within days to weeks of return to Earth. These hypotheses will be evidenced by elevated rates of bone mineral resorption and decreased bone mineral deposition, decreased absorption of dietary calcium, altered calcitropic endocrine profiles, elevated excretion of calcium in urine and feces, and elevated excretion of markers of bone resorption. The second hypothesis will be evidenced by return of indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism to preflight levels within days to weeks of return to Earth. Studies will be conducted on International Space Station astronauts before, during, and after extended-duration flights. Measurements of calcium kinetics, bone mass, and endocrine/biochemical markers of bone and calcium homeostasis will be conducted. Kinetic studies utilizing dual isotope tracer kinetic studies and mathematical modeling techniques will allow for determination of bone calcium deposition, bone calcium resorption, dietary calcium absorption and calcium excretion (both urinary and endogenous fecal excretion). These studies will build upon preliminary work conducted on the Russian Mir space station. The results from this project will be critical for clarifying how microgravity affects bone and calcium homeostasis, and will provide an important control point for assessment of countermeasure efficacy. These results are expected to aid in developing countermeasures for bone loss, both for space crews and for individuals on Earth who have metabolic bone diseases.

  7. n-3 Fatty Acids Attenuate the Risk of Diabetes Associated With Elevated Serum Nonesterified Fatty Acids: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Brian T.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Zhou, Xia; Ouyang, Pamela; Weir, Natalie L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chronically high nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are a marker of metabolic dysfunction and likely increase risk of type 2 diabetes. By comparison, n-3 fatty acids (FAs) have been shown to have various health benefits and may protect against disease development. In 5,697 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we examined whether serum levels of NEFAs relate to risk of incident type 2 diabetes and further tested whether plasma n-3 FA levels may interact with this relation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS NEFAs were measured in fasting serum using an enzymatic colorimetric assay and phospholipid n-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were determined in plasma through gas chromatography-flame ionization detection in 5,697 MESA participants. Cox proportional hazards regression evaluated the association between NEFA levels and incident type 2 diabetes and whether plasma n-3 FAs modified this association adjusting for age, sex, race, education, field center, smoking, and alcohol use. RESULTS Over a mean 11.4 years of the study period, higher diabetes incidence was found across successive NEFA quartiles (Q) (hazard ratio [95% CI]): Q1, 1.0; Q2, 1.35 (1.07, 1.71); Q3, 1.58 (1.24, 2.00); and Q4, 1.86 (1.45, 2.38) (Ptrend < 0.001). A significant interaction of n-3 FAs on the relation between NEFAs and type 2 diabetes was also observed (Pinteraction = 0.03). For individuals with lower n-3 levels (<75th percentile), a higher risk of type 2 diabetes was observed across quartiles of NEFAs: Q1, 1.0; Q2, 1.41 (1.07, 1.84); Q3, 1.77 (1.35, 2.31); and Q4, 2.18 (1.65, 2.88) (Ptrend < 0.001). No significant associations were observed in those with n-3 FAs ≥75th percentile (Ptrend = 0.54). CONCLUSIONS NEFAs are a marker of type 2 diabetes and may have clinical utility for detecting risk of its development. The modifying influence of n-3 FAs suggests a protective effect against disease and/or metabolic dysfunction related to NEFAs and

  8. Establishment of Elevated Serum Levels of IL-10, IL-8 and TNF-β as Potential Peripheral Blood Biomarkers in Tubercular Lymphadenitis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Abhimanyu; Bose, Mridula; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Jain, Ashima; Sethi, Tavpritesh; Tiwari, Pradeep Kumar; Agrawal, Anurag; Banavaliker, Jayant Nagesh; Bhowmick, Kumar Tapas

    2016-01-01

    Background Tubercular lymphadenitis (TL) is the most common form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) consisting about 15–20% of all TB cases. The currently available diagnostic modalities for (TL), are invasive and involve a high index of suspicion, having limited accuracy. We hypothesized that TL would have a distinct cytokine signature that would distinguish it from pulmonary TB (PTB), peripheral tubercular lymphadenopathy (LNTB), healthy controls (HC), other lymphadenopathies (LAP) and cancerous LAP. To assess this twelve cytokines (Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)—α, Interferon (IFN) -γ, Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-18, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4, IL-1Receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-8 and TNF-β, which have a role in pathogenesis of tuberculosis, were tested as potential peripheral blood biomarkers to aid the diagnosis of TL when routine investigations prove to be of limited value. Methods and Findings A prospective observational cohort study carried out during 2010–2013. This was a multi-center study with three participating hospitals in Delhi, India where through random sampling cohorts were established. The subjects were above 15 years of age, HIV-negative with no predisposing ailments to TB (n = 338). The discovery cohort (n = 218) had LNTB (n = 50), PTB (n = 84) and HC (n = 84). The independent validation cohort (n = 120) composed of patients with cancerous LAP (n = 35), other LAP (n = 20) as well as with independent PTB (n = 30), LNTB (n = 15) and HC (n = 20). Eight out of twelve cytokines achieved statistical relevance upon evaluation by pairwise and ROC analysis. Further, variable selection using random forest backward elimination revealed six serum biosignatures including IL-12, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8 and TNF-β as optimal for classifying the LNTB status of an individual. For the sake of clinical applicability we further selected a three analyte panel (IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-β) which was subjected to multinomial modeling in the independent

  9. Adequate Intake levels of choline are sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in Mexican American men but are not optimal for minimizing plasma total homocysteine increases after a methionine load2

    PubMed Central

    Veenema, Kristin; Solis, Claudia; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Maletz, Charles V; Abratte, Christian M; Caudill, Marie A

    2009-01-01

    Background An adequate intake of 550 mg choline/d was established for the prevention of liver dysfunction in men, as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations. Objective This controlled feeding study investigated the influence of choline intakes ranging from 300 to 2200 mg/d on biomarkers of choline status. The effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype on choline status was also examined. Design Mexican American men (n = 60) with different MTHFR C677T genotypes (29 677TT, 31 677CC) consumed a diet providing 300 mg choline/d plus supplemental choline intakes of 0, 250, 800, or 1900 mg/d for total choline intakes of 300, 550, 1100, or 2200 mg/d, respectively, for 12 wk; 400 μg/d as dietary folate equivalents and 173 mg betaine/d were consumed throughout the study. Results Choline intake affected the response of plasma free choline and betaine (time × choline, P < 0.001); the highest concentrations were observed in the 2200 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine (P = 0.026) and total cholesterol (P = 0.002) were also influenced by choline intake; diminished concentrations were observed in the 300 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine was modified by MTHFR genotype (P = 0.035; 677TT < 677CC). After a methionine load (100 mg/kg body wt), choline intakes of 1100 and 2200 mg/d attenuated (P = 0.016) the rise in plasma homocysteine, as did the MTHFR 677TT genotype (P < 0.001). Serum alanine aminotransferase was not influenced by the choline intakes administered in this study. Conclusions These data suggest that 550 mg choline/d is sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in this population under the conditions of this study; higher intakes may be needed to optimize other endpoints. PMID:18779284

  10. Preeclampsia serum-induced collagen I expression and intracellular calcium levels in arterial smooth muscle cells are mediated by the PLC-γ1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rongzhen; Teng, Yincheng; Huang, Yajuan; Gu, Jinghong; Ma, Li; Li, Ming; Zhou, Yuedi

    2014-01-01

    In women with preeclampsia (PE), endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction can lead to altered secretion of paracrine factors that induce peripheral vasoconstriction and proteinuria. This study examined the hypothesis that PE sera may directly or indirectly, through human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), stimulate phospholipase C-γ1-1,4,5-trisphosphate (PLC-γ1-IP3) signaling, thereby increasing protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) activity, collagen I expression and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs). HUASMCs and HUVECs were cocultured with normal or PE sera before PLC-γ1 silencing. Increased PLC-γ1 and IP3 receptor (IP3R) phosphorylation was observed in cocultured HUASMCs stimulated with PE sera (P<0.05). In addition, PE serum significantly increased HUASMC viability and reduced their apoptosis (P<0.05); these effects were abrogated with PLC-γ1 silencing. Compared with normal sera, PE sera increased [Ca2+]i in cocultured HUASMCs (P<0.05), which was inhibited by PLC-γ1 and IP3R silencing. Finally, PE sera-induced PKC-α activity and collagen I expression was inhibited by PLC-γ1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) (P<0.05). These results suggest that vasoactive substances in the PE serum may induce deposition in the extracellular matrix through the activation of PLC-γ1, which may in turn result in thickening and hardening of the placental vascular wall, placental blood supply shortage, fetal hypoxia–ischemia and intrauterine growth retardation or intrauterine fetal death. PE sera increased [Ca2+]i and induced PKC-α activation and collagen I expression in cocultured HUASMCs via the PLC-γ1 pathway. PMID:25257609

  11. Elevated Levels of Urinary 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, Lymphocytic Micronuclei, and Serum Glutathione S-Transferase in Workers Exposed to Coke Oven Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ai-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Chen, Wei-Hong; Lu, Wen-Hong; Yuan, Jing; Nan, Pei-Hong; Sun, Jian-Ya; Zou, Ya-Lin; Zhou, Li-Hong; Zhang, Chi; Wu, Tang-Chun

    2006-01-01

    To investigate associations among occupational exposure to coke oven emissions (COEs), oxidative stress, cytogenotoxic effects, change in the metabolizing enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST), and internal levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coke oven workers, we recruited 47 male coke oven workers and 31 male control subjects from a coke oven plant in northern China. We measured the levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine, micronucleated binucleated cells (BNMNs) in peripheral blood lymphocyte, and GST in serum. Our results showed that the group exposed to COEs had significantly increased levels of 1-OHP [median 5.7; interquartile range (IQR), 1.4–12.0 μmol/mol creatinine] compared with the control group (3; 0.5–6.4 μmol/mol creatinine). In addition, the median levels (IQR) of 8-OHdG, BNMNs, and GST were markedly increased in the exposed [1.9 (1.4–15.4) μmol/mol creatinine; 6 (2–8) per thousand; 22.1 (14.9–31.2) U/L, respectively] compared with controls [1.3 (1.0–4.0) μmol/mol creatinine, 2 (0–4) per thousand; and 13.1 (9.5–16.7) U/L, respectively]. These results appeared to be modified by smoking. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to COEs had the highest odds ratio among variables analyzed and that smoking was not a significant confounder of the levels of studied biomarkers. Overall, the present findings suggest that COE exposure led to increased internal PAH burden, genetic damage, oxidative stress, and GST activity. The consequences of the changes in these biomarkers, such as risk of cancer, warrant further investigations. PMID:16675419

  12. Elevated Preoperative Serum Alanine Aminotransferase/Aspartate Aminotransferase (ALT/AST) Ratio Is Associated with Better Prognosis in Patients Undergoing Curative Treatment for Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu-Lin; Li, Jian-Pei; Li, Lin-Fang; Zeng, Tao; He, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The level of anine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio in the serum was often used to assess liver injury. Whether the ALT/AST ratio (LSR) was associated with prognosis for gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) has not been reported in the literature. Our aim was to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative LSR in patients with GA. A retrospective study was performed in 231 patients with GA undergoing curative resection. The medical records collected include clinical information and laboratory results. We investigated the correlations between the preoperative LSR and overall survival (OS). Survival analysis was conducted with the Kaplan–Meier method, and Cox regression analysis was used to determine significant independent prognostic factors for predicting survival. A p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 231 patients were finally enrolled. The median overall survival was 47 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that preoperative LSR was an independent prognostic factor in GA. Patients with LSR ≤ 0.80 had a greater risk of death than those with LSR > 0.80. The LSR was independently associated with OS in patients with GA (hazard ratio: 0.610; 95% confidence interval: 0.388–0.958; p = 0.032), along with tumor stages (hazard ratio: 3.118; 95% confidence interval: 2.044–4.756; p < 0.001) and distant metastases (hazard ratio: 1.957; 95% confidence interval: 1.119–3.422; p = 0.019). Our study first established a connection between the preoperative LSR and patients undergoing curative resection for GA, suggesting that LSR was a simple, inexpensive, and easily measurable marker as a prognostic factor, and may help to identify high-risk patients for treatment decisions. PMID:27294917

  13. Effects of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference and acidified coproducts on dry matter intake, serum calcium, and performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rezac, D J; Block, E; Weber, D; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

    2014-02-01

    Two products designed to deliver supplemental anions were evaluated for their effects on DMI, total serum Ca, and performance of transition dairy cows relative to a control diet that did not contain supplemental anions. Diets differed in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and anion source. Treatments were diets including a control (CON; DCAD +17.7 meq/100 g DM; n = 13), Bio-Chlor (BC; DCAD +2.5 meq/100 g DM; n = 14), and SoyChlor (SC, DCAD +0.4 meq/100 g DM; n = 15). Treatments began 21 d before expected calving dates and continued through parturition (mean treatment length 20.98 d); on calving, all animals received the same diet. Milk yield was measured through 21 d in milk, and milk samples were collected daily between 5 and 21 d in milk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. Prepartum DMI was 9.0, 8.5, and 7.5 ± 0.6 kg/d for CON, BC, and SC treatments, respectively, and tended to be lower for SC than CON (P = 0.07). Postpartum DMI and milk yields were similar among treatments. Milk protein, lactose, and urea nitrogen concentrations were highest for SC and lowest for BC, with CON being intermediate. Plasma glucose, measured on d 5, 10, and 21 postpartum, tended to be different among treatments (P = 0.06; 66.7, 57.1, and 63.8 ± 3.1 mg/dL for CON, BC, and SC, respectively). Serum total Ca concentrations did not differ among dietary treatments and only tended to change over time; values were not indicative of clinical hypocalcemia. With limited sample size, no significant effects of treatment were detected for incidence of postpartum health disorders or plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. Although DMI tended to be depressed in the prepartum period by SC, this intake depression was not accompanied by negative effects on performance or health in the postpartum period. Results suggest that cows were not adequately stressed to cause hypocalcemia or that DCAD values near 0 were insufficient to improve postpartum health and performance

  14. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production of ... Milk-alkali syndrome Proximal renal tubular acidosis Rickets Sarcoidosis Vitamin D Update Date 5/3/2015 Updated ...

  15. Effects of calcium chloride and calcium sulfate in an oral bolus given as a supplement to postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sampson, J D; Spain, J N; Jones, C; Carstensen, L

    2009-01-01

    An oral calcium bolus (Bovikalc, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica) supplying calcium to dairy cows in the form of calcium chloride and calcium sulfate was evaluated to determine the effect on calcium homeostasis immediately after calving. Cows in the treatment group received one bolus immediately after calving and a second bolus 12 hours later. Control cows received no calcium supplementation. Blood was analyzed for ionized calcium, and urine was collected for urinary pH determination. Postpartum supplementation with the Bovikalc bolus significantly increased serum ionized calcium levels and decreased urine pH values. PMID:20037967

  16. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the human body. It helps build and protect your teeth ... absorb calcium. You can get vitamin D from sunlight exposure to your skin and from your diet. Ask your provider whether ...

  17. Prolonged spontaneous normocalcaemia in pseudohypoparathyroidism from resorption of soft tissue calcium deposits: a cautionary tale

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Erin E; Kline, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    A 42-year-old man diagnosed with pseudohypoparathyroidism and Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy as an infant was lost to follow-up and remained, unmonitored, on calcitriol and calcium for over 20 years. He presented after having an ST-elevation myocardial infarction. In addition to coronary artery calcifications, he was found to have diffuse subcutaneous and joint calcifications. His calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were normal, and given the lack of prior documentation in the diagnosis he was instructed to discontinue calcitriol and calcium until further investigations were completed. Despite stopping the medication, his serum calcium remained normal for over 1 year. It was not until 18 months later, when his soft tissue calcium stores were depleted, that he finally developed symptomatic hypocalcaemia and an elevated PTH. This case not only emphasises the importance of long-term follow-up for patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism, but also highlights the potential complications of long-term, unmonitored, calcitriol use. PMID:24481017

  18. Improvement of calcium balance by Fructus Ligustri Lucidi extract in mature female rats was associated with the induction of serum parathyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Ming; Wong, Kwun-Kit; Che, Chun-Tao; Wong, Man-Sau

    2012-07-14

    Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) is a commonly prescribed herb in many kidney-tonifying Traditional Chinese Medicinal formulae for the treatment of osteoporosis. The present study aimed to identify the active fractions in FLL and to characterise its effects on Ca balance, calciotropic hormone levels as well as bone properties in mature female rats fed diets containing different levels of Ca. In the present study, 4-month-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were treated with either FLL ethanol extract (EE), ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of EE (EAF), water-soluble fraction of EE (WF) or their vehicle for 12 weeks on a medium-Ca diet (MCD, 0·6 % Ca, 0·65 % P). Then, the Sprague-Dawley female rats treated with WF or its vehicle for 12 weeks were fed diets containing different levels of dietary Ca (low-Ca diet (LCD), 0·1 % Ca, 0·65 % P; MCD; high-Ca diet (HCD), 1·2 % Ca, 0·65 % P). The results demonstrated that WF from EE but not EAF exerted a prominent effect on Ca balance by inhibiting urinary and faecal Ca excretion. WF significantly increased Ca balance in rats fed MCD or HCD with an associated increase in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. WF did not alter bone mineral density or bone mineral content of the tibia in all the rats fed with different levels of dietary Ca. In conclusion, WF was responsible for the positive actions of FLL on Ca absorption and balance. The regulation of Ca balance by WF might involve its action in stimulating PTH production in the mature female rats. PMID:22018100

  19. Effects of supplementation with a calcium-rich marine-derived multi-mineral supplement and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides on serum lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Barbara E; Allsopp, Philip J; Slevin, Mary M; Magee, Pamela J; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir M

    2016-02-28

    Recent literature suggests that Ca supplements have adverse effects on cardiovascular health. The effects of a Ca-rich supplement administered alone or in combination with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) on serum lipids in postmenopausal women were examined using secondary data from a 24-month double-blind randomised controlled study. A total of 300 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to daily supplements of 800 mg of Ca (2·4 g Aquamin) (Ca), 800 mg of Ca with 3 g of scFOS (CaFOS) or control (maltodextrin) (MD). A full lipid profile, body composition, blood pressure and a range of cytokines were measured at baseline and after 24 months. Intention-to-treat ANCOVA assessed treatment effects between the groups. A significant time-by-treatment effect was observed for LDL and total cholesterol for the Ca and CaFOS groups, with both groups having lower LDL and total cholesterol concentrations compared with MD after 24 months. The control group had mean (5·2 mmol/l) total cholesterol concentrations above the normal range (≤ 5 mmol/l) at 24 months, whereas values remained within the normal range in the treatment groups. There was no significant treatment effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, body composition, blood pressure or cytokine concentrations at 24 months, with the exception of IL-4, where there was a significant increase in the CaFOS group compared with the placebo. This study demonstrates a lipid-lowering effect of both the Ca-rich supplement alone and the supplement with scFOS. At the 4-year follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups for reported diagnosed cardiovascular conditions. PMID:26669430

  20. Serum vitamin A levels and associated abnormalities in patients on regular dialysis treatment.

    PubMed

    Werb, R; Clark, W F; Lindsay, R M; Jones, E O; Linton, A L

    1979-08-01

    Multivitamin preparations are commonly administered to regular dialysis treatment (RDT) patients. Serum Vitamin A was measured in 72 patients on RDT. Elevated serum Vitamin A levels (102.29 +/- 26.95 microgram/dl [3.57 +/- 0.94 mumoles/l]) were found in the dialysis population (normal 40.98 +/- 6.71 microgram/dl [1.43 +/- 0.23 mumoles/l]; P less than 0.0005). Serum Vitamin A levels increased with duration (months) of dialysis but not with frequency of dialysis (twice or thrice weekly). Patients taking a VitaminA-containing multivitamin preparation had higher serum Vitamin A levels than those on a non-Vitamin A supplemented diet. Bilaterally nephrectomized patients had the highest serum Vitamin A levels while patients with obstructive uropathy had the lowest levels. Serum Vitamin A levels did not correlate with symptoms of uremia. Positive correlations were found with serum levels of calcium, cholesterol and triglycerides. Patients receiving a Vitamin A supplement had higher serum cholesterol levels than non-supplemented patients. Vitamin A might be a factor in the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in RDT patients. We therefore advise discontinuing the long-term administration of Vitamin A-containing multivitamin supplements to patients on RDT. PMID:527272

  1. Effect of Acute and Chronic Calcium Administration on Plasma Renin

    PubMed Central

    Kotchen, Theodore A.; Mauli, Kimball I.; Luke, Robert; Rees, Douglas; Flamenbaum, Walter

    1974-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of Ca++ on renin release, plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured after acute and chronic Ca++ administration. 1% CaCl2 was infused into one renal artery of 10 anesthetized dogs (0.3 mg/kg/min). The excreted fraction of filtered calcium (EFca++) and EFNa+ from the infused kidney were elevated (P < 0.04) during three successive 15-min infusion periods. Serum calcium concentration was significantly elevated (P < 0.001). Creatinine clearance, systemic arterial pressure, and renal blood flow did not change (P > 0.10). Compared to control (45 ng/ml/h±5.2 SE), renal venous PRA was suppressed (P < 0.0001) after infusion of Ca++ for 15, 30, and 45 min (20 ng/ml/h±4.6, 16 ng/ml/h±4.0, and 13 ng/ml/h±2.7, respectively). 15 and 30-min after infusion, PRA did not differ from control (P > 0.20). Chronic Ca++ loading was achieved in Sprague-Dawley rats by replacing drinking water with 1% CaCl2 for 17 days. At sacrifice, serum Ca++, Na+, and K+ of controls (n = 12) did not differ (P > 0.60) from Ca++-loaded rats (n = 12). Ca++ excretion (467 μeq/24 h±51) was elevated (P < 0.001) compared to controls (85 μeq/24 h±12). PRA (8.6 ng/ml/h±1.4) and renal renin content of Ca++-loaded rats did not differ from controls (P > 0.80). However, after 8 days of sodium deprivation, both PRA and renal renin content of calcium-loaded animals were significantly lower than the respective values in pair-fed controls (P < 0.005). During the period of sodium deprivation, calcium-drinking animals were in greater negative sodium balance than controls (P < 0.005). The data are consistent with the hypothesis that acute and chronic calcium administration inhibit renin secretion. PMID:4436432

  2. Comparison of Serum Uric Acid, Bilirubin, and C-Reactive Protein as Prognostic Biomarkers of In-Hospital MACE Between Women and Men With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Stefan; Huseynov, Aydin; Koepp, Johanna; Jabbour, Claude; Behnes, Michael; Becher, Tobias; Renker, Matthias; Lang, Siegfried; Borggrefe, Martin; Lehmann, Ralf; Akin, Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid (UA), and total bilirubin (TB) are associated with coronary artery disease and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We retrospectively included 1167 patients with STEMI who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and routine blood sampling. The study cohort consisted of 803 patients (73.1% male, mean age 62.5 ± 13.4 years). In men, the levels of CRP, TB, and UA were significantly higher in the MACE than in the non-MACE group (P < .05). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis shows that CRP (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53-0.66; P = .014) and TB (AUC: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.51-0.65; P = .019) are significantly associated with MACE but not UA (AUC: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.42-0.76; P = .083). Logistic regression revealed CRP (odds ratio [OR] 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00-1.01; P = .006) and TB (OR 2.03; 95% CI: 1.12-3.40; P = .007) as an independent predictor for MACE. In women, none of the biomarkers was associated with MACE by ROC analysis or logistic regression analysis. This study demonstrated that high CRP and TB serum levels have a prognostic association with in-hospital MACE in male patients with STEMI. PMID:26032849

  3. Circulating calcium concentrations, vascular disease and mortality: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Reid, I R; Gamble, G D; Bolland, M J

    2016-06-01

    Associations between serum calcium and vascular disease have been reported, but the consistency of these findings is unknown. We conducted a systematic review to determine whether circulating calcium concentrations are associated with risks of cardiovascular disease and death in normocalcaemic populations. We conducted PubMed searches up to 18 December 2014 and scrutinized reference lists of papers. Eligible studies related serum calcium to mortality or cardiovascular events in humans. A follow-up of at least one year was required for longitudinal studies. Studies in populations selected on the basis of renal disease or abnormal serum calcium were excluded. Two investigators performed independent data extraction. The results were tabulated and, where possible, meta-analysed. Five of 11 studies reported a statistically significant positive association between serum calcium and mortality. Meta-analysis of eight of these studies showed a hazard ratio of death of 1.13 (1.09, 1.18) per standard deviation of serum calcium. Eight of 13 studies reported a statistically significant positive association between serum calcium and cardiovascular disease. Meta-analysis of eight studies showed a hazard ratio of cardiovascular disease of 1.08 (1.04, 1.13) per standard deviation of serum calcium. For two studies reporting odds ratios, the pooled odds ratio per standard deviation was 1.22 (1.11, 1.32). When hazard ratios adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors were meta-analysed, the pooled hazard ratio was 1.04 (1.01, 1.08). Other studies demonstrated associations between serum calcium and stroke and between serum calcium and direct measurements of arterial disease and calcification. These observational data indicate that serum calcium is associated with vascular disease and death, but they cannot determine causality. PMID:26749423

  4. Calcium and sodium transport and vitamin D metabolism in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed Central

    Schedl, H P; Miller, D L; Pape, J M; Horst, R L; Wilson, H D

    1984-01-01

    Serum ionized calcium levels are lower and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone levels are higher in the spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat than in the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKy) control. We postulated that there is either a defect in the regulation of vitamin D metabolism by parathyroid hormone or that the gut target organ for vitamin D in the SH rat is unresponsive. To test these hypotheses we measured serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and intestinal transport of calcium and sodium. Compared with that of WKy controls, in vitro calcium transport by duodenal sacs of the SH rat was decreased (P less than 0.001) at 5 wk, before the development of hypertension, and at 12 wk, after hypertension was well established. When measured in vivo in the most proximal 20 cm of small intestine, maximum velocity (Vmax) for calcium transport was decreased (P less than 0.05) and net absorption of sodium and water was increased (P less than 0.05) in SH rats as compared with WKy rats. Vmax for calcium transport was also decreased (P less than 0.05) in the most distal 20 cm of small intestine of SH rats, but net sodium and water transport were the same in SH and WKy rats. At 12 wk, serum concentration of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(OH)2D3] was the same in both SH and WKy groups, but its precursor, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, was increased (P less than 0.05) in the SH rat. We conclude that in the SH rat: (a) the concentration of 1,25-(OH)2D3 is inappropriately low in relation to the elevated immunoreactive parathyroid hormone and the depressed calcium absorption, suggesting a defect in the regulation of vitamin D metabolism; and (b) the depressed calcium absorption, in the setting of normal concentrations of [1,25-(OH)2D3], demonstrates unresponsiveness of the gut to vitamin D and may explain in part the low serum ionized calcium found in earlier studies. The presence of these abnormalities before we found a significant difference in blood pressure suggests that

  5. Correlation between Left Ventricular Mass Index and Calcium Metabolism in Patients with Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Helvacı, Ayşen; Çopur, Besime; Adaş, Mine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation between left ventricular mass index and calcium metabolism in patients with essential hypertension. Study Design: Cross sectional case-control study. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with essential hypertension and 20 healthy individuals were compared with respect to calciotropic hormones, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and urinary and serum biochemical parameters. The correlations between parathormone, vitamin D, and calcitonin levels and LVMI and blood pressure elevation were determined. Results: The parathormone level was significantly higher (p=0.006) and vitamin D level was significantly lower (p=0.01) in the patient group compared with the control group. However, the two groups were similar in terms of albumin-corrected calcium levels, which were within the normal range (p=0.988). The serum sodium (p=0.014) and urinary calcium (p=0.003) levels and LVMI (p<0.01) were also significantly higher in the patient group. No significant correlations were determined between ambulatory blood pressure and parathormone and vitamin D levels, but a significant correlation was found between LVMI and parathormone level (p=0.06) in hypertensive patients. Conclusion: Essential hypertension alters calcium metabolism, causing calciuresis by hypernatremia. Parathormone release increases to compensate for this, and leads to protein synthesis, which in turn provokes the development of myocardial hypertrophy. PMID:25207075

  6. Altered Calcium and Vitamin D Homeostasis in First-Time Calcium Kidney Stone-Formers

    PubMed Central

    Ketha, Hemamalini; Singh, Ravinder J.; Grebe, Stefan K.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Rule, Andrew D.; Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations have been reported among cohorts of recurrent calcium (Ca) kidney stone-formers and implicated in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria. Variations in Ca and vitamin D metabolism, and excretion of urinary solutes among first-time male and female Ca stone-formers in the community, however, have not been defined. Methods In a 4-year community-based study we measured serum Ca, phosphorus (P), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) concentrations in first-time Ca stone-formers and age- and gender frequency-matched controls. Results Serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D were increased in Ca stone-formers compared to controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001). Stone-formers had a lower serum 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D ratio compared to controls (P = 0.008). Serum PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were similar in the groups. Urine Ca excretion was similar in the two groups (P = 0.82). In controls, positive associations between serum 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D, FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and negative associations between serum Ca and PTH, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D were observed. In SF associations between FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D, were not observed. 1,25(OH)2D concentrations associated more weakly with FGF-23 in SF compared with C (P <0.05). Conclusions Quantitative differences in serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D and reductions in 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D metabolites are present in first-time SF and might contribute to first-time stone risk. PMID:26332888

  7. The Role of Calcium in Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance. PMID:25713787

  8. The role of calcium in human aging.

    PubMed

    Beto, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance. PMID:25713787

  9. Effect of regular and decaffeinated coffee on serum gastrin levels.

    PubMed

    Acquaviva, F; DeFrancesco, A; Andriulli, A; Piantino, P; Arrigoni, A; Massarenti, P; Balzola, F

    1986-04-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that the noncaffeine gastric acid stimulant effect of coffee might be by way of serum gastrin release. After 10 healthy volunteers drank 50 ml of coffee solution corresponding to one cup of home-made regular coffee containing 10 g of sugar and 240 mg/100 ml of caffeine, serum total gastrin levels peaked at 10 min and returned to basal values within 30 min; the response was of little significance (1.24 times the median basal value). Drinking 100 ml of sugared water (as control) resulted in occasional random elevations of serum gastrin which were not statistically significant. Drinking 100 ml of regular or decaffeinated coffee resulted in a prompt and lasting elevation of total gastrin; mean integrated outputs after regular or decaffeinated coffee were, respectively, 2.3 and 1.7 times the values in the control test. Regular and decaffeinated coffees share a strong gastrin-releasing property. Neither distension, osmolarity, calcium, nor amino acid content of the coffee solution can account for this property, which should be ascribed to some other unidentified ingredient. This property is at least partially lost during the process of caffeine removal. PMID:3745848

  10. Angiotensin II reduces calcium uptake into bone.

    PubMed

    Schurman, Scott J; Bergstrom, William H; Shoemaker, Lawrence R; Welch, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    Children with neonatal Bartter syndrome (NBS) have hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and osteopenia. A complex of basic-fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan has been identified in the serum and urine of NBS patients. This complex increases bone resorption in a bone disc bioassay system. Angiotensin II (AT II), which is increased in Bartter syndrome, increases the synthesis of b-FGF by cultured endothelial cells. Addition of 10(-8) M AT II to the bioassay, a concentration reported in Bartter syndrome patients, significantly decreased calcium uptake into bone discs [E/C 0.60 (0.04), P < 0.001 compared with buffer, normal E/C >0.90]. Adding b-FGF monoclonal antibody at 10 microg/ml [E/C 0.90 (0.06), P=NS] or indomethacin [E/C 1.00 (0.03), P=NS] to 10(-8 )M AT II neutralized this effect. In separate experiments, newborn rats were given intraperitoneal injections of AT II. Bone discs from these animals were used in the bioassay system and calcium uptake was markedly reduced compared with discs from rats injected with phosphate-buffered saline [AT II 6.6 x 10(-9), E/C 0.10 (0.04), P<0.001, AT II 3.3 x 10(-8), E/C 0.10 (0.05), P<0.001]. AT II decreases calcium uptake in the bone disc bioassay system. This effect can be abrogated by antibody to b-FGF or prostaglandin synthetase inhibition. These results support the hypothesis that in children with NBS, elevated levels of AT II stimulate local skeletal b-FGF synthesis, with a resultant increase in bone resorption via a prostaglandin-dependent pathway. PMID:14648327

  11. Calcium antagonists.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ehud; Messerli, Franz H

    2004-01-01

    Calcium antagonists were introduced for the treatment of hypertension in the 1980s. Their use was subsequently expanded to additional disorders, such as angina pectoris, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardias, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Raynaud phenomenon, pulmonary hypertension, diffuse esophageal spasms, and migraine. Calcium antagonists as a group are heterogeneous and include 3 main classes--phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and dihydropyridines--that differ in their molecular structure, sites and modes of action, and effects on various other cardiovascular functions. Calcium antagonists lower blood pressure mainly through vasodilation and reduction of peripheral resistance. They maintain blood flow to vital organs, and are safe in patients with renal impairment. Unlike diuretics and beta-blockers, calcium antagonists do not impair glucose metabolism or lipid profile and may even attenuate the development of arteriosclerotic lesions. In long-term follow-up, patients treated with calcium antagonists had development of less overt diabetes mellitus than those who were treated with diuretics and beta-blockers. Moreover, calcium antagonists are able to reduce left ventricular mass and are effective in improving anginal pain. Recent prospective randomized studies attested to the beneficial effects of calcium antagonists in hypertensive patients. In comparison with placebo, calcium antagonist-based therapy reduced major cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death significantly in elderly hypertensive patients and in diabetic patients. In several comparative studies in hypertensive patients, treatment with calcium antagonists was equally effective as treatment with diuretics, beta-blockers, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. From these studies, it seems that a calcium antagonist-based regimen is superior to other regimens in preventing stroke, equivalent in preventing ischemic heart disease, and inferior in preventing congestive heart failure

  12. Serum electrolyte levels in relation to macrovascular complications in Chinese patients with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diabetes in China is increasing rapidly. However, scarce data are available on serum electrolyte levels in Chinese adults with diabetes, especially in those with cardiovascular complications. This study measured serum electrolyte levels and examined their relationship with macrovascular complications in Chinese adults with diabetes. Methods The three gender- and age-matched groups were enrolled into this analysis, which were 1,170 subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR), 389 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and 343 with diabetes. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour post-load plasma glucose (2hPG), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and serum electrolyte levels were measured. Data collection included ankle brachial index results. Results Serum sodium and magnesium levels in the diabetes group were significantly decreased compared to the NGR group (sodium: 141.0 ± 2.4 vs. 142.1 ± 2.0 mmol/l; magnesium: 0.88 ± 0.08 vs. 0.91 ± 0.07 mmol/l, all P < 0.01), while the serum calcium level was significantly increased (2.36 ± 0.11 vs. 2.33 ± 0.09 mmol/l, P < 0.01). Multiple linear regression showed that serum sodium and magnesium levels in the diabetes group were negatively correlated with FPG, 2hPG and HbA1c (sodium: Std β = −0.35, -0.19, -0.25; magnesium: Std β = −0.29, -0.17, -0.34, all P < 0.01), while the serum calcium level was positively correlated with HbA1c (Std β = 0.17, P < 0.05). In diabetic subjects, serum sodium, magnesium and potassium levels were decreased in the subjects with the elevation of estimated glomerular filtration rates (P < 0.05). ANCOVA analysis suggested that serum magnesium level in subjects with diabetic macrovascular complications was significantly decreased compared with diabetic subjects without macrovascular complications after the effect of some possible confounding being removed (P < 0.05). Conclusions Serum sodium and

  13. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... of calcium dietary supplements include calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is the more expensive form of ... the body on a full or empty stomach. Calcium carbonate is less expensive. It is absorbed better by ...

  14. ELEVATING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Frederick, H.S.; Kinsella, M.A.

    1959-02-24

    An elevator is described, which is arranged for movement both in a horizontal and in a vertical direction so that the elevating mechanism may be employed for servicing equipment at separated points in a plant. In accordance with the present invention, the main elevator chassis is suspended from a monorail. The chassis, in turn supports a vertically moveable carriage, a sub- carriage vertically moveable on the carriage, and a turntable carried by the sub- carriage and moveable through an arc of 90 with the equipment attached thereto. In addition, the chassis supports all the means required to elevate or rotate the equipment.

  15. Elevated BP after AKI.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Hsu, Raymond K; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP-defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit-during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization. PMID:26134154

  16. Calcium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... as thyroid disease , parathyroid disorder , malabsorption , cancer, or malnutrition An ionized calcium test may be ordered when ... albumin , which can result from liver disease or malnutrition , both of which may result from alcoholism or ...

  17. Calcium Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Sarcopenia Skeletal Rare Disorders Data & Publications Facts and Statistics Vitamin D map Fracture Risk Map Hip Fracture ... Training Courses Working Groups Regional Audits Reports Facts and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What ...

  18. Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, M M H; Rashid, I S; Qinna, N A; Jaber, A M; Badwan, A A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables. PMID:26940168

  19. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  20. Calcium Hydroxylapatite

    PubMed Central

    Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in today’s market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

  1. Red Liriope platyphylla stimulated the insulin secretion through the regulation of calcium concentration in rat insulinoma cells and animal models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Young-Ju; Kwak, Moon-Hwa; Im, Dong-Soon; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Red L. platyphylla (RLP) on calcium and glucose levels during insulin secretion. To achieve this, alteration of insulin and calcium concentrations was measured in rat insulinoma-1 (INS-1) cells and animal models in response to RLP treatment. In INS-1 cells, maximum secretion of insulin was detected upon treatment with 200 µg/mL of RLP for 20 min. Nifedipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, effectively inhibited insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. Regarding calcium levels, the maximum concentration of intracellular calcium in INS-1 cells was obtained by treatment with 100 µg/mL of RLP, whereas this level was reduced under conditions of 200 µg/mL of RLP. Further, RLP-treated INS-1 cells showed a higher level of intracellular calcium than that of L. platyphylla (LP), Korea White Ginseng (KWG), or Korea Red Ginseng (KRG)-treated cells. This RLP-induced increase in intracellular calcium was abrogated but not completely abolished upon treatment with 40 µM nifedipine in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the insulin level was dramatically elevated upon co-treatment with high concentrations of glucose and RLP, whereas it was maintained at a low level in response to glucose and RLP co-treatment at low concentrations. In an animal experiment, the serum concentration of calcium increased or decreased upon RLP treatment according to glucose level compared to vehicle treatment. Therefore, these results suggest that insulin secretion induced by RLP treatment may be tightly correlated with calcium regulation, which suggests RLP is an excellent candidate for diabetes treatment. PMID:23825481

  2. Red Liriope platyphylla stimulated the insulin secretion through the regulation of calcium concentration in rat insulinoma cells and animal models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Young-Ju; Kwak, Moon-Hwa; Im, Dong-Soon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Red L. platyphylla (RLP) on calcium and glucose levels during insulin secretion. To achieve this, alteration of insulin and calcium concentrations was measured in rat insulinoma-1 (INS-1) cells and animal models in response to RLP treatment. In INS-1 cells, maximum secretion of insulin was detected upon treatment with 200 µg/mL of RLP for 20 min. Nifedipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, effectively inhibited insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. Regarding calcium levels, the maximum concentration of intracellular calcium in INS-1 cells was obtained by treatment with 100 µg/mL of RLP, whereas this level was reduced under conditions of 200 µg/mL of RLP. Further, RLP-treated INS-1 cells showed a higher level of intracellular calcium than that of L. platyphylla (LP), Korea White Ginseng (KWG), or Korea Red Ginseng (KRG)-treated cells. This RLP-induced increase in intracellular calcium was abrogated but not completely abolished upon treatment with 40 µM nifedipine in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the insulin level was dramatically elevated upon co-treatment with high concentrations of glucose and RLP, whereas it was maintained at a low level in response to glucose and RLP co-treatment at low concentrations. In an animal experiment, the serum concentration of calcium increased or decreased upon RLP treatment according to glucose level compared to vehicle treatment. Therefore, these results suggest that insulin secretion induced by RLP treatment may be tightly correlated with calcium regulation, which suggests RLP is an excellent candidate for diabetes treatment. PMID:23825481

  3. The Abnormal Phenotypes of Cartilage and Bone in Calcium-Sensing Receptor Deficient Mice Are Dependent on the Actions of Calcium, Phosphorus, and PTH

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chunxiang; Ding, Guoxian; Karaplis, Andrew; Brown, Edward; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2011-01-01

    Patients with neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) are homozygous for the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) mutation and have very high circulating PTH, abundant parathyroid hyperplasia, and severe life-threatening hypercalcemia. Mice with homozygous deletion of CaR mimic the syndrome of NSHPT. To determine effects of CaR deficiency on skeletal development and interactions between CaR and 1,25(OH)2D3 or PTH on calcium and skeletal homeostasis, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of homozygous CaR–deficient (CaR−/−) mice to those of double homozygous CaR– and 1α(OH)ase–deficient [CaR−/−1α(OH)ase−/−] mice or those of double homozygous CaR– and PTH–deficient [CaR−/−PTH−/−] mice at 2 weeks of age. Compared to wild-type littermates, CaR−/− mice had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and severe skeletal growth retardation. Chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression in growth plates were reduced significantly, whereas trabecular volume, osteoblast number, osteocalcin-positive areas, expression of the ALP, type I collagen, osteocalcin genes, and serum ALP levels were increased significantly. Deletion of 1α(OH)ase in CaR−/− mice resulted in a longer lifespan, normocalcemia, lower serum phosphorus, greater elevation in PTH, slight improvement in skeletal growth with increased chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression, and further increases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Deletion of PTH in CaR−/− mice resulted in rescue of early lethality, normocalcemia, increased serum phosphorus, undetectable serum PTH, normalization in skeletal growth with normal chondrocyte proliferation and enhanced PTHrP expression, and dramatic decreases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Our results indicate that reductions in hypercalcemia play a critical role in preventing the early lethality of CaR−/− mice and that defects in endochondral bone formation in CaR−/− mice result from effects of the

  4. The abnormal phenotypes of cartilage and bone in calcium-sensing receptor deficient mice are dependent on the actions of calcium, phosphorus, and PTH.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingning; Lv, Fangqiao; Sun, Wen; Tao, Chunxiang; Ding, Guoxian; Karaplis, Andrew; Brown, Edward; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2011-09-01

    Patients with neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) are homozygous for the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) mutation and have very high circulating PTH, abundant parathyroid hyperplasia, and severe life-threatening hypercalcemia. Mice with homozygous deletion of CaR mimic the syndrome of NSHPT. To determine effects of CaR deficiency on skeletal development and interactions between CaR and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) or PTH on calcium and skeletal homeostasis, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of homozygous CaR-deficient (CaR(-/-)) mice to those of double homozygous CaR- and 1α(OH)ase-deficient [CaR(-/-)1α(OH)ase(-/-)] mice or those of double homozygous CaR- and PTH-deficient [CaR(-/-)PTH(-/-)] mice at 2 weeks of age. Compared to wild-type littermates, CaR(-/-) mice had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and severe skeletal growth retardation. Chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression in growth plates were reduced significantly, whereas trabecular volume, osteoblast number, osteocalcin-positive areas, expression of the ALP, type I collagen, osteocalcin genes, and serum ALP levels were increased significantly. Deletion of 1α(OH)ase in CaR(-/-) mice resulted in a longer lifespan, normocalcemia, lower serum phosphorus, greater elevation in PTH, slight improvement in skeletal growth with increased chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression, and further increases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Deletion of PTH in CaR(-/-) mice resulted in rescue of early lethality, normocalcemia, increased serum phosphorus, undetectable serum PTH, normalization in skeletal growth with normal chondrocyte proliferation and enhanced PTHrP expression, and dramatic decreases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Our results indicate that reductions in hypercalcemia play a critical role in preventing the early lethality of CaR(-/-) mice and that defects in endochondral bone formation in CaR(-/-) mice result from effects of the marked elevation in serum

  5. The Role of Calcium Correction during Normal Pregnancy at Third Trimester in Mosul

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Bassam

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To assess calcium status in healthy pregnant women during limited sun exposure time in winter, and to demonstrate the possible effect of serum albumin alterations on serum total calcium level and the role of albumin adjusted calcium concentration. Methods Subjects enrolled in the study included 160 apparently healthy women divided equally into four groups (I - IV), group I was considered as the control group, composed of non-pregnant women. Groups II-IV were composed of pregnant women in the first, second and third trimesters respectively. Semiquantitative urine protein determination and measurement of serum total calcium, ionized calcium, albumin, phosphorous and creatinine with calculation of corrected calcium were performed in all groups. The results were statistically evaluated by standard statistical methods. Results There was no significant difference in serum ionized calcium, corrected calcium and phosphorous during pregnancy. However, there was a significant reduction of serum total calcium, albumin and creatinine in pregnant women at second and third trimesters. In each group, a significant positive correlation was observed between total calcium with corrected and ionized calcium. Conclusion In healthy pregnant women even during limited sun exposure time in winter, there was no need for calcium supplementation in spite of the continuous and progressive reduction of serum measured total calcium during the second and third trimesters due to dilutional hypoalbuminemia. During pregnancy, measured calcium is parallel to both corrected and ionized calcium and since there was no significant difference between measured and corrected calcium, therefore, measured calcium is a useful test in assessing calcium status and suggests the need to establish a reference range for pregnant women. PMID:22224183

  6. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  7. Calcitonin control of calcium metabolism during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, Karam F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this proposal is to elucidate calcitonin role in calcium homeostasis during weightlessness. In this investigation our objectives are to study: the effect of weightlessness on thyroid and serum calcitonin, the effect of weightlessness on the circadian variation of calcitonin in serum and the thyroid gland, the role of light as zeitgeber for calcitonin circadian rhythm, the circadian pattern of thyroid sensitivity to release calcitonin in response to calcium load, and the role of serotonin and norepinephrine in the control of calcitonin release. The main objective of this research/proposal is to establish the role of calcitonin in calcium metabolism during weightlessness condition. Understanding the mechanism of these abnormalities will help in developing therapeutic means to counter calcium imbalance in spaceflights.

  8. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePlus

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  9. Get Enough Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  10. Calcium carbonate overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  11. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  12. Blood serum atherogenicity and coronary artery calcification.

    PubMed

    Sobenin, Igor A; Myasoedova, Veronica A; Anisimova, Elena V; Pavlova, Xenia N; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Schmermund, Axel; Seibel, Rainer; Berenbein, Sina; Lehmann, Nils; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, KarlHeinz; Orekhov, Alexander N; Erbel, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of blood serum atherogenicity was described as the ability of human serum to induce lipid accumulation in cultured cells. The results of recent two-year prospective study in asymptomatic men provided the evidence for association between the changes in serum atherogenicity and dynamics of carotid intima-media thickness progression. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that blood serum atherogenicity and its changes in dynamics may be associated with accumulation of coronary calcium in subclinical atherosclerosis. It was performed in 782 CHD-free participants of The Heinz Nixdorf RECALL (Risk Factors, Evaluation of Coronary Calcium and Lifestyle) Study, in whom blood samples have been taken at the baseline and at the end of 5-year follow-up. Opposite to the previous findings, the changes in serum atherogenicity did not correlate neither with the extent of coronary artery calcification, nor with the changes in Agatston CAC score. There was a moderate but significant rise in serum atherogenicity after 5-year followup period, and the same dynamics was observed for Agatston CAC score, but not for convenient lipid-related risk factors. The absence of association of the changes in serum atherogenicity with the changes in Agatston CAC score, along with previous findings, provides a point of view that serum-induced intracellular cholesterol accumulation is not related to the processes of calcium deposition in arterial wall, since the last one reflects the progression of already existing subclinical atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24533940

  13. The salutary effect of dietary calcium on bone mass in a rat model of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Whether supplementation of dietary calcium reduces the differences in bone mass of unweighed limbs and normally weighted limbs, and whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) respond differently to dietary calcium in unweighted animals in comparison with pair-fed controls was studied. The hind limbs of rats were unweighted by a tail suspension method and diets containing 0.1% to 2.4% calcium. After 2 weeks serum calcium, phosphorus, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D intestinal calcium transport were determined and bone mass, ash weight, and calcium in the tibia, L-1 vertebra, and humerus were measured. No significant differences in body weights were observed among the various groups. Suspended rats maintained constant levels of serum calcium and phosphate over the wide range of dietary calcium. Serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and intestinal calcium transport fell as dietary calcium was increased. Bone calcium in the tibia and vertebra from suspended rats remained less than that from pair-fed control. It is suggested that although no striking difference between suspended and control animals was observed in response to dieteary calcium, increasing dietary calcium may reduce the negative impact of unloading on the calcium content of the unweighted bones. The salutary effect of high dietary calcium appears to be due to inhibition of bone resorption rather than to stimulation of bone formation.

  14. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are associated with inorganic phosphate-induced osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-rong; Bai, Jing; Yuan, Shuai-jun; Yu, Cai-xia; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Tian-lan; Wang, Kui

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we demonstrated that calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles formed in cell culture media were implicated in the process of high inorganic phosphate (Pi) mediated osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Exposure of BMSCs in vitro to high Pi-containing media reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expressions of osteoblast-specific genes. The sediments of CaP nanoparticles were observed at the cell surface and some of them were concomitantly found inside cells at high Pi concentration. In addition, treatment the cells with pyrophosphate (PPi), an inhibitor of calcium crystal formation, abrogated the ALP activity induced by high Pi, suggesting the contribution of CaP nanoparticles. Moreover, for isolated CaP nanoparticles, there was a trend of conversion from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite with elevated Pi. The particle size of CaP increased and the surface morphology changed from spherical to irregular due to increased concentrations of serum proteins incorporated into CaP nanoparticles. The study demonstrated that those physicochemical properties of CaP nanoparticles played an important role in modulating BMSCs differentiation. Furthermore, the addition of Pi in the osteogenic media resulted in a dose-dependent increase in matrix mineralization, while treatment of the cells with PPi suppressed Pi-induced calcium deposition. The findings indicated that calcium deposition in the matrix partly came from the spontaneous precipitation of CaP nanoparticles. PMID:26111760

  15. Calcium Fructoborate for Bone and Cardiovascular Health.

    PubMed

    Mogoşanu, George Dan; Biţă, Andrei; Bejenaru, Ludovic Everard; Bejenaru, Cornelia; Croitoru, Octavian; Rău, Gabriela; Rogoveanu, Otilia-Constantina; Florescu, Dan Nicolae; Neamţu, Johny; Scorei, Iulia Daria; Scorei, Romulus Ion

    2016-08-01

    Calcium fructoborate (CF), a natural sugar-borate ester found in fresh fruits and vegetables, is a source of soluble boron. CF contains three forms of borate (diester, monoester, and boric acid) and all are biologically active, both at the intracellular (as free boric acid) and extracellular level (as fructose-borate diester and monoester). At the cellular and molecular level, CF is superior to the boric acid/borate, exhibiting a complex "protective" effect against inflammatory response. CF is commercially available in the USA as a "nature-identical" complex, an active compound for dietary supplements. It provides effective and safe support against the discomfort and lack of flexibility associated with osteoarticular conditions (arthritis and joint degeneration), and improves Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) and McGill indexes. In addition, orally administered CF is effective in ameliorating symptoms of physiological response to stress, including inflammation of the mucous membranes, discomfort associated with osteoarthritis disorders, and bone loss, and also for supporting cardiovascular health. Clinical studies have exhibited the ability of CF to significantly modulate molecular markers associated with inflammatory mechanisms, mainly on the elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). PMID:26686846

  16. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? ...

  17. How to manage an isolated elevated PTH?

    PubMed

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Cavalier, Etienne; Cormier, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the diagnostic approach of an increased serum PTH concentration in a normocalcemic, normophosphatemic patient. Detection of this biological presentation is frequent in routine practice all the more that PTH reference values established in vitamin D replete subjects with a normal renal function are used by the clinical laboratories. The first step in this diagnostic approach will be to rule out a cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Among these, the most frequent are vitamin D deficiency, very low calcium intake, impaired renal function, malabsorptions, drugs interfering with calcium/bone metabolism, such as lithium salts and antiresorptive osteoporosis therapies, hypercalciuria due to a renal calcium leak. If no cause of SHPT are evidenced, the diagnosis of normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) should be considered. A calcium load test is a very useful tool for this diagnosis if it shows that serum PTH is not sufficiently decreased when calcemia rises frankly above the upper normal limit. In a normocalcemic patient with hypercalciuria and a high serum PTH concentration, a thiazide challenge test may help to differentiate SHPT due to a renal calcium leak from normocalcemic PHPT. Beyond the discussion of this diagnostic flowchart, we also discuss some points about the merits and the difficulties of measuring and interpreting ionized calcemia and 24-h calciuria. PMID:25882890

  18. Intestinal calcium absorption of women during lactation and after weaning.

    PubMed

    Kalkwarf, H J; Specker, B L; Heubi, J E; Vieira, N E; Yergey, A L

    1996-04-01

    We investigated whether intestinal calcium absorption and serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) concentrations are higher in women during lactation and after weaning to compensate for calcium lost in breast milk. Measurements were obtained at 4.6 mo postpartum in 24 lactating women and 24 nonlactating women, at 9.6 mo postpartum in 24 lactating women (2.6 mo after complete weaning) and 24 nonlactating women. One-half of the women in each group were randomly assigned to receive 1 g supplemental Ca/d as calcium carbonate. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by using stable isotopic tracers 42Ca and 44Ca. Fractional absorption was 0.32+/-0.02 (+/-SEM) in both lactating and nonlactating women, but was higher in lactating women after weaning (0.37+/-0.02) compared with nonlactating postpartum control subjects (0.31+/-0.02). These effects were independent of calcium intake. Changes in serum calcitriol paralleled changes in fractional absorption. There were no differences in calcitriol concentrations between lactating and nonlactating women, but calcitriol was greater in women after weaning compared with postpartum control subjects. Lactating women who had resumed menses had higher fractional absorption and serum calcitriol than did lactating women who had not. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were greater in lactating compared with nonlactating women; there were no differences between groups after weaning. We conclude that lactation stimulates increases in fractional calcium absorption and serum calcitriol, but the responses are only apparent after weaning or the resumption of menses. PMID:8599316

  19. Is ionized calcium a reliable predictor of hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy? A before and after study

    PubMed Central

    TARTAGLIA, F.; GIULIANI, A.; SGUEGLIA, M.; PATRIZI, G.; DI ROCCO, G.; BLASI, S.; RUSSO, G.; TORTORELLI, G.; GIANNOTTI, D.; REDLER, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Wanting to find a way of identifying patients suitable for early discharge after thyroidectomy, we set out to establish whether ionized calcium concentration is a better predictor of post-surgical hypocalcemia than total serum calcium. Data were analyzed to establish whether serum ionized calcium concentrations are correlated with total serum calcium levels and symptomatic hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy. Sixty-two patients undergoing total thyroidectomy at the Department of Surgical Sciences of the “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy, in 2010. Ionized calcium was measured before (day 0) and after surgery (days 1, 2 and 60) in all the patients. These measurements were compared with preoperative (day 0) and postoperative total serum calcium levels (days 1, 2 and 60). The preoperative ionized calcium levels differed from the ionized calcium levels recorded on days 1 and 2; this pattern was not observed for the total calcium concentrations. Conversely, total calcium on days I and II correlated significantly with the various ionized calcium measurements. The presence of parathyroid glands in the surgical specimen did not seem to affect suitability for discharge. The statistical analysis showed that ionized calcium measurements are more reliable than total calcium measurements in the immediate and long-term follow-up of total thyroidectomy patients. Applying a 95% confidence interval we established reference values for both total serum calcium and ionized calcium, below which all patients develop postoperative symptomatic hypocalcemia. In conclusion, measurement of ionized calcium, as opposed to total calcium, should be strongly recommended in the immediate and long-term follow-up of total thyroidectomy patients. PMID:24690338

  20. Is ionized calcium a reliable predictor of hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy? A before and after study.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, F; Giuliani, A; Sgueglia, M; Patrizi, G; Di Rocco, G; Blasi, S; Russo, G; Tortorelli, G; Giannotti, D; Redler, A

    2014-01-01

    Wanting to find a way of identifying patients suitable for early discharge after thyroidectomy, we set out to establish whether ionized calcium concentration is a better predictor of post-surgical hypocalcemia than total serum calcium. Data were analyzed to establish whether serum ionized calcium concentrations are correlated with total serum calcium levels and symptomatic hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy. Sixty-two patients undergoing total thyroidectomy at the Department of Surgical Sciences of the "Sapienza" University of Rome, Italy, in 2010. Ionized calcium was measured before (day 0) and after surgery (days 1, 2 and 60) in all the patients. These measurements were compared with preoperative (day 0) and postoperative total serum calcium levels (days 1, 2 and 60). The preoperative ionized calcium levels differed from the ionized calcium levels recorded on days 1 and 2; this pattern was not observed for the total calcium concentrations. Conversely, total calcium on days I and II correlated significantly with the various ionized calcium measurements. The presence of parathyroid glands in the surgical specimen did not seem to affect suitability for discharge. The statistical analysis showed that ionized calcium measurements are more reliable than total calcium measurements in the immediate and long-term follow-up of total thyroidectomy patients. Applying a 95% confidence interval we established reference values for both total serum calcium and ionized calcium, below which all patients develop postoperative symptomatic hypocalcemia. In conclusion, measurement of ionized calcium, as opposed to total calcium, should be strongly recommended in the immediate and longterm follow-up of total thyroidectomy patients. PMID:24690338

  1. Calcium plus vitamin D and the risk of fractures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-awaited WHI results reveal that calcium and vitamin D supplementation (1000 mg/400 IU) didn't lower fracture rates but did increase risk of kidney stones in calcium-replete (1150 mg/d mean intake) but vitamin D insufficient (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 46 nmol/L) postmenopausal women. How sho...

  2. Elevated Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Serum Levels and Altered Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression, Nitric Oxide, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Denise Maciel; Garcia, Fernanda Gonçalves; Terra, Ana Paula Sarreta; Lopes Tosta, Ana Cristina; Silva, Luciana de Almeida; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto; Silva Teixeira, David Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Background. During dengue virus (DV) infection, monocytes produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) which might be critical to immunopathogenesis. Since intensity of DV replication may determine clinical outcomes, it is important to know the effects of viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) on innate immune parameters of infected patients. The present study investigates the relationships between dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) serum levels and innate immune response (TLR4 expression and TNF-α/NO production) of DV infected patients presenting different clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings. We evaluated NO, NS1 serum levels (ELISA), TNF-α production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and TLR4 expression on CD14+ cells from 37 dengue patients and 20 healthy controls. Early in infection, increased expression of TLR4 in monocytes of patients with dengue fever (DF) was detected compared to patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Moreover, PBMCs of DHF patients showed higher NS1 and lower NO serum levels during the acute febrile phase and a reduced response to TLR4 stimulation by LPS (with a reduced TNF-α production) when compared to DF patients. Conclusions/Significance. During DV infection in humans, some innate immune parameters change, depending on the NS1 serum levels, and phase and severity of the disease which may contribute to development of different clinical outcomes. PMID:25580138

  3. Development of a swine specific 9-plex Luminex cytokine assay and assessment of immunity after porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination: Elevated serum IL-12 levels are not predictive of protect

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Luminex multiplex swine cytokine assay was developed to measure 9 cytokines simultaneously in pig serum and tested in a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine/challenge study. This assay detects innate (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IFNa, TNFa); regulatory (IL-10), Th1 (IL-12, I...

  4. Decreased microRNA miR-181c expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlates with elevated serum levels of IL-7 and IL-17 in patients with myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Guo, Mingfeng; Xin, Ning; Shao, Zhen; Zhang, Xiuying; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Jing; Zheng, Shuangshuang; Fu, Linlin; Wang, YuZhong; Zhou, Dongmei; Chen, Hao; Huang, Yan; Dong, Ruiguo; Xiao, Chenghua; Liu, Yonghai; Geng, Deqin

    2016-08-01

    miR-181c is a newly identified negative regulator of immune cell activation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression and functional role of miR-181c in myasthenia gravis (MG). miR-181c showed significant downregulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from MG patients compared with healthy controls, with lower expression in generalized patients than in ocular ones. MG patients also had increased serum IL-7 and IL-17 levels. Additionally, serum IL-7 level presents a positive correlation with the serum IL-17 level. miR-181c levels were negatively correlated with serum levels of IL-7 and IL-17 in either generalized patients or ocular patients. A luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-181c could directly bind to the 3'-UTR of interleukin-7. Forced expression of miR-181c led to decreased IL-7 and IL-17 release in cultured PBMCs, while depletion of miR-181c increased the secretion of these two proinflammatory cytokines. The results from our study suggested for the first time that miR-181c was able to negatively regulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-7 and IL-17 in MG patients, and it is a novel potential therapeutic target for MG. PMID:25962782

  5. D-galactosamine induced hepatocyte apoptosis is inhibited in vivo and in cell culture by a calcium calmodulin antagonist, chlorpromazine, and a calcium channel blocker, verapamil.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Shigeki; Itagaki, Shin-ichi; Kawamura, Seiji; Harada, Ken-ichi; Karaki, Hideaki; Doi, Kunio; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Studies were conducted in C57BL/6N Crj male mice and in cultured hepatocytes to clarify the relationship between galactosamine (GaIN) induced apoptosis and [Ca2+]i kinetics. Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a Ca(2+)-calmodulin antagonist, and verapamil (VR), a Ca(2+)-channel blocker each inhibited GaIN-induced DNA fragmentation and the appearance of apoptotic bodies. The kinetics of calcium uptake were evaluated using a calcium analyzer with the acetoxymethyl ester of fura-PE3 (fura-PE3/AM, 2.5 microM) as the calcium reporter. An increase in [Ca2+]i was detected in the cultured hepatocytes within 3 hours after treatment with 20 mM GaIN; this increase was inhibited by pretreatment with either 20 microM CPZ or 30 microM VR. Ca2+ imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that increase in [Ca2+]i after treatment with GaIN was initially localized around nuclei, while [Ca2+]i signals were later diffuse and observed throughout the cytoplasm. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (sGPT), used as indicators of plasma membrane damage and leakage, however, were not reduced by pretreatment with CPZ or VR. From these findings, we infer that the DNA fragmentation in GaIN-induced hepatocyte apoptosis is associated with an elevation in the perinuclear concentration of Ca2+, but GaIN-induced necrotic cell death is triggered through pathway(s) that are insensitive to blockage of Ca2+ influx and therefore appear to occur independently of elevation in [Ca2+]i. These results help to clarify the role of calcium flux in hepatocyte apoptosis and necrosis induced by exposure to hepatotoxins in vivo and in vitro. PMID:12638236

  6. Asante Calcium Green and Asante Calcium Red--novel calcium indicators for two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Karolina; Hille, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    For a comprehensive understanding of cellular processes and potential dysfunctions therein, an analysis of the ubiquitous intracellular second messenger calcium is of particular interest. This study examined the suitability of the novel Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes Asante Calcium Red (ACR) and Asante Calcium Green (ACG) for two-photon (2P)-excited time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Both dyes displayed sufficient 2P fluorescence excitation in a range of 720-900 nm. In vitro, ACR and ACG exhibited a biexponential fluorescence decay behavior and the two decay time components in the ns-range could be attributed to the Ca(2+)-free and Ca(2+)-bound dye species. The amplitude-weighted average fluorescence decay time changed in a Ca(2+)-dependent way, unraveling in vitro dissociation constants K(D) of 114 nM and 15 nM for ACR and ACG, respectively. In the presence of bovine serum albumin, the absorption and steady-state fluorescence behavior of ACR was altered and its biexponential fluorescence decay showed about 5-times longer decay time components indicating dye-protein interactions. Since no ester derivative of ACG was commercially available, only ACR was evaluated for 2P-excited fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2P-FLIM) in living cells of American cockroach salivary glands. In living cells, ACR also exhibited a biexponential fluorescence decay with clearly resolvable short (0.56 ns) and long (2.44 ns) decay time components attributable to the Ca(2+)-free and Ca(2+)-bound ACR species. From the amplitude-weighted average fluorescence decay times, an in situ K(D) of 180 nM was determined. Thus, quantitative [Ca(2+)]i recordings were realized, unraveling a reversible dopamine-induced [Ca(2+)]i elevation from 21 nM to 590 nM in salivary duct cells. It was concluded that ACR is a promising new Ca(2+) indicator dye for 2P-FLIM recordings applicable in diverse biological systems. PMID:25140519

  7. Asante Calcium Green and Asante Calcium Red—Novel Calcium Indicators for Two-Photon Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Karolina; Hille, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    For a comprehensive understanding of cellular processes and potential dysfunctions therein, an analysis of the ubiquitous intracellular second messenger calcium is of particular interest. This study examined the suitability of the novel Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes Asante Calcium Red (ACR) and Asante Calcium Green (ACG) for two-photon (2P)-excited time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Both dyes displayed sufficient 2P fluorescence excitation in a range of 720–900 nm. In vitro, ACR and ACG exhibited a biexponential fluorescence decay behavior and the two decay time components in the ns-range could be attributed to the Ca2+-free and Ca2+-bound dye species. The amplitude-weighted average fluorescence decay time changed in a Ca2+-dependent way, unraveling in vitro dissociation constants KD of 114 nM and 15 nM for ACR and ACG, respectively. In the presence of bovine serum albumin, the absorption and steady-state fluorescence behavior of ACR was altered and its biexponential fluorescence decay showed about 5-times longer decay time components indicating dye-protein interactions. Since no ester derivative of ACG was commercially available, only ACR was evaluated for 2P-excited fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2P-FLIM) in living cells of American cockroach salivary glands. In living cells, ACR also exhibited a biexponential fluorescence decay with clearly resolvable short (0.56 ns) and long (2.44 ns) decay time components attributable to the Ca2+-free and Ca2+-bound ACR species. From the amplitude-weighted average fluorescence decay times, an in situ KD of 180 nM was determined. Thus, quantitative [Ca2+]i recordings were realized, unraveling a reversible dopamine-induced [Ca2+]i elevation from 21 nM to 590 nM in salivary duct cells. It was concluded that ACR is a promising new Ca2+ indicator dye for 2P-FLIM recordings applicable in diverse biological systems. PMID:25140519

  8. Serum sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... passive immunization. It gives you immediate, but temporary, protection while your body develops an active immune response against the toxin or germ. During serum sickness, the immune system falsely identifies a protein in antiserum as a ...

  9. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

  10. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  11. Calcium source (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  12. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  13. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  14. The Incidence and Clinical Characteristics of Acute Serum Creatinine Elevation more than 1.5 mg/dL among the Patients Treated with Tenofovir/Emtricitabine-containing HAART Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung Hi; Park, Jung Hwa; Jung, Hye Jin; Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Jong Myung; Kim, Sujeong

    2015-01-01

    Background The combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) has been the first choice nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) according to many reliable antiretroviral treatment (ART) guidelines because of its high efficacy. However, TDF-related renal toxicity reported in Western countries is a challenging issue regarding clinical use. We conducted this study to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of an acute increase in serum creatinine (Cr) level > 1.5 mg/dL among TDF/FTC-based highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)-treated patients. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 205 HIV-infected patients treated with TDF/FTC-containing regimens between 1 February 2010 and 30 April 2014. Three groups of TDF/FTC + ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r), TDF/FTC + non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and TDF/FTC + integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), and three PI/r subgroups of TDF/FTC + lopinavir (LPV)/r, TDF/FTC + atazanavir (ATV)/r, TDF/FTC + darunavir (DRV)/r were evaluated. Results A total 136 patients (91 in the TDF/FTC + PI/r group, 20 in the TDF/FTC + NNRTI group and 25 in the TDF/FTC + INSTI group) were included in the statistical analysis. Four cases (4.9%; all in the TDF/FTC + PI/r group) among 136 patients showed an acute increase in serum Cr more than 1.5 mg/dL, so the overall incidence was 2.8 cases per 100 patient-years. One case was a patient treated with TDF/FTC + LPV/r, and the others were treated with TDF/FTC + ATV/r. No case of an acute increase in serum Cr was observed in the TDF/FTC + DRV/r group. The incidence of serum Cr increase more than 1.5 mg/dL in TDF/FTC + PI/r group was 4.0 cases per 100 patient-years. Conclusion Although only a small number of patients were evaluated retrospectively from a single center, the TDF/FTC + PI/r regimen may have been related with relatively higher tendency of increment of serum Cr level. These

  15. Evaluation of Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Behçet's Disease by Using Noninvasive Radiological Methods such as Intima-Media Thickness of the Carotid, Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index, Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring, and Their Relation to Serum Fetuin-A Levels: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Aynur; Genç, Berhan; Akyıldız, Muhittin; Şahin, Neslin; Uyar, İhsan Sami; Saklamaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory systemic vasculitis. Evidence for increased atherosclerosis in BD has been observed. The relation between cardiovascular risk factors and increased atherosclerosis in patients with BD is still controversial. Objective We performed this study to evaluate arterial stiffness in patients with BD by using noninvasive radiological methods such as carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI), coronary artery calcium score (CACaS), and their relation to serum fetuin-A levels, which was recently found to be important in vascular calcification. Methods This prospective study included 26 patients with BD and 25 control subjects. In all patients, the CIMT, ABPI, CACaS, and serum fetuin-A levels were examined. Results The CIMT and CACaS were statistically higher and the ABPI was statistically lower in BD patients than in the control group. All p-values were <0.001. Positive correlations were found between the CACaS and CIMT, and negative correlations were found between the CACaS and ABPI. Although the values of fetuin-A were higher in BD, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.064). However, the correlations found between fetuin-A levels and CIMT and between fetuin-A levels and CACaS were significant. Conclusion The CIMT, CACaS, and ABPI are all useful in detecting structural and functional vascular damage in BD. PMID:26719639

  16. Insufficient filling of vacuum tubes as a cause of microhemolysis and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. Use of a data-mining technique in evaluation of questionable laboratory test results.

    PubMed

    Tamechika, Yoshie; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Tohyama, Kaoru; Ichihara, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Experienced physicians noted unexpectedly elevated concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase in some patient samples, but quality control specimens showed no bias. To evaluate this problem, we used a "latent reference individual extraction method", designed to obtain reference intervals from a laboratory database by excluding individuals who have abnormal results for basic analytes other than the analyte in question, in this case lactate dehydrogenase. The reference interval derived for the suspected year was 264-530 U/L, while that of the previous year was 248-495 U/L. The only change we found was the introduction of an order entry system, which requests precise sampling volumes rather than complete filling of vacuum tubes. The effect of vacuum persistence was tested using ten freshly drawn blood samples. Compared with complete filling, 1/5 filling resulted in average elevations of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartic aminotransferase, and potassium levels of 8.0%, 3.8%, and 3.4%, respectively (all p<0.01). Microhemolysis was confirmed using a urine stick method. The length of time before centrifugation determined the degree of hemolysis, while vacuum during centrifugation did not affect it. Microhemolysis is the probable cause of the suspected pseudo-elevation noted by the physicians. Data-mining methodology represents a valuable tool for monitoring long-term bias in laboratory results. PMID:16681441

  17. Serum Dickkopf-1 Level in Postmenopausal Females: Correlation with Bone Mineral Density and Serum Biochemical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Fouda, Neveen; Abbas, Amal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess serum level of Dickkopf-1 in postmenopausal females and its correlation with bone mineral density and serum biochemical markers. Methods. Bone densitometry, serum Dickkopf-1, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were done in sixty postmenopausal females. Patients were divided according to T score into osteoporosis (group I), osteopenia (group II), and normal bone mineral density that served as controls. Results. There was highly significant increase in serum Dickkopf-1 levels in postmenopausal females with abnormal T score versus controls (P < 0.001). Serum DKK-1 levels correlated negatively with both lumbar T score (r = −0.69, P < 0.001) and femur T score (r = −0.64, P < 0.001) and correlated positively with duration of menopause (r = 0.61, P < 0.001), while there was no significant correlation between serum levels of either calcium, phosphorus or alkaline phosphatase, and both serum Dickkopf-1 levels and the level of bone mineral density (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Postmenopausal females may suffer from osteoporosis as evidenced by bone densitometry. Postmenopausal women with significantly increased serum Dickkopf-1 had more significant osteoporosis. Prolonged duration of menopause and increased serum Dickkopf-1 are important risk factors for the development and severity of osteoporosis. PMID:23878759

  18. Unique form of rickets with low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in two normally nourished children.

    PubMed

    Asami, T; Kawasaki, T; Uchiyama, M

    1995-04-01

    We present an unusual type of rickets involving two children: a 2 year old boy and a 15 month old boy, who presented with marked bowing of the lower extremities and bulging of costochondral junctions. Both children had normal growth, with their height and body weight greater than the 50th and 97th percentile for age. Roentgenograms of their extremities showed the typical changes of vitamin D refractory rickets. Serum alkaline phosphatase levels were elevated and serum levels of calcium and phosphate were both within the normal range. No primary cause for the rickets, including nutritional deficiencies, was found in the two patients. Characteristic findings were persistently low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) and normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2-D). Improvements in clinical and X-ray findings were observed after either oral administration of 1 alpha-(OH)-D3 (9-15 micrograms per day) or massive vitamin D2 therapy (600,000 IU single injection). The low serum levels of 25-OH-D did not increase unless massive vitamin D2 therapy was also given. These two cases represent a unique form of rickets that does not meet the criteria for any type of previously known rickets. PMID:7793252

  19. Vitamin D does not increase calcium absorption in young women: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J Christopher; Jindal, Prachi S; Smith, Lynette M

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly said that vitamin D should be used to increase calcium absorption. We tested this statement in a dose-response study of vitamin D on calcium absorption. A total of 198 white and African American women, aged 25 to 45 years, with vitamin D insufficiency, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) <20 ng/mL, were randomized in a double-blind study to vitamin D3 400, 800, 1600, 2400 IU, or placebo. A calcium supplement was given to increase mean calcium intake at baseline from 706 mg/d to 1031 mg/d. Calcium absorption was measured at baseline and after 12 months using a single isotope method with radiocalcium45 and 100 mg of calcium. Mean baseline serum 25OHD was 13.4 ng/mL (33.5 nmol/L) and increased to 40 ng/mL (100 nmol/L) on the highest dose of 2400 IU. Using a multivariate regression analysis with significant predictors, baseline absorption, calcium intake, and weight, there was no increase in 12-month calcium absorption compared with baseline on any dose of vitamin D in either whites or African Americans. There was no significant relationship between 12-month calcium absorption and final serum 25OHD. In an analysis of calcium absorption and serum 25OHD at baseline, serum 25OHD levels were divided into groups: 0 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 15, or 16 to 20 ng/mL. There was no evidence of a threshold decrease in calcium absorption or serum 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2 D) amongst the lowest groups. Vitamin D doses up to 2400 IU daily did not increase calcium absorption. No threshold level of serum 25OHD for calcium absorption was found at baseline or in the longitudinal study, suggesting that active transport of calcium is saturated at very low serum 25OHD levels <5 ng/mL. There is no need to recommend vitamin D for increasing calcium absorption in normal subjects. Very efficient calcium absorption at very low levels of serum 25OHD explains why people do not develop osteomalacia provided that dietary intakes of calcium and phosphorus are adequate

  20. Measurement of acetol in serum.

    PubMed

    Casazza, J P; Fu, J L

    1985-08-01

    A method for the derivatization of acetol (1-hydroxyacetone) with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and for the measurement of the acetol dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative (acetol-DNPH) by high-performance liquid chromatography is presented. The chromatographic separation described here resulted in baseline resolution of the acetol-DNPH peak. Peak integration was proportional to serum acetol concentration over a 5- to 500-nmol/ml range. No other method for the determination of acetol in serum currently exists. Serum from rats in diabetic ketoacidosis was found to contain 11.2 +/- 1.1 nmol acetol/ml serum (N = 3). Serum from a 21-day-fasted human contained 16 nmol/ml acetol. Serum from rats maintained on drinking water containing 1% acetone (v:v) for 6 days contained 152 +/- 31 nmol/ml acetol (N = 5). The presence of acetol in serum under conditions where acetoacetate and acetone are chronically elevated suggests that acetoacetate may be converted to glucose through the conversion of acetone to acetol and L-1,2-propanediol. PMID:3933378

  1. A Novel Aerosol Foam Formulation of Calcipotriol and Betamethasone Has No Impact on HPA Axis and Calcium Homeostasis in Patients With Extensive Psoriasis Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Taraska, Victoria; Tuppal, Raj; Olesen, Martin; Bang Pedersen, Claus; Papp, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fixed combination calcipotriol 50 µg/g (Cal; as hydrate) plus betamethasone 0.5 mg/g (as dipropionate; BD) has been formulated in an innovative aerosol foam. Objective: To assess systemic safety of Cal/BD aerosol foam. Methods: In a multicentre, single-arm, open-label, maximal-use systemic-exposure trial, adult patients with moderate to severe, extensive psoriasis (15%-30% of body surface area, including ≥30% of scalp) applied Cal/BD foam once daily. Endpoints were week 4 abnormal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge test and change in albumin-corrected serum calcium, 24-hour urinary calcium excretion, and urinary calcium-creatinine ratio. Results: 35 patients reaching week 4 exhibited normal ACTH responses. At week 4, changes in calcium homeostasis were minor and not clinically relevant; no patients experienced elevations above normal. Disease severity generally improved, and 49% of patients achieved treatment success according to the Physician’s Global Assessment of Disease Severity. Conclusion: No clinically relevant HPA axis or calcium homeostasis impact was observed with 4 weeks of once-daily Cal/BD foam in patients with extensive psoriasis vulgaris. PMID:26224733

  2. Voltage-gated and calcium-gated calcium release during depolarization of skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Jacquemond, V; Csernoch, L; Klein, M G; Schneider, M F

    1991-01-01

    The role of elevated intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]) in activating calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was studied in skeletal muscle fibers microinjected with strong calcium buffers. After the injection of 3.8 +/- 0.5 mM (mean +/- S.E. of mean, n = 16) BAPTA (1,2-bis[o-aminophenoxy]ethane- N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) or 2.2-2.8 mM fura-2 the normal increase in [Ca2+] during a depolarizing pulse was virtually eliminated. Even though calcium was released from the SR the kinetics of this release were markedly altered: the extensive buffering selectively eliminated the early peak component of SR calcium release with no effect on the maintained steady level. Microinjections of similar volumes but with low concentrations of fura-2 had no significant effect on the release waveform. The calcium released by voltage-dependent activation during depolarization may thus be involved in activating further calcium release, that is, in a calcium-induced calcium release mechanism. PMID:1660317

  3. The effect of the calcium-antagonist nitrendipine on intracellular calcium concentration in endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, A.; Schomecker, G.; Breitkopf, K.; Dhein, S.; Klaus, W.

    1996-01-01

    1. Nitrendipine induces NO-release from coronary vascular endothelium presumably by activating endothelial NO-synthase. We have investigated whether this effect may be mediated by an influence on the intracellular calcium in endothelial cells. 2. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were incubated with Fura-2/AM (1 microM) for 30 min and Fura-2 fluorescence was measured at 510 nm in response to chopped excitation with both 340 and 380 nm. The ratio 340/380 nm (known to reflect changes in intracellular calcium) was calculated from these data. 3. Nitrendipine (0.1 to 100 microM) led to a significant, concentration-dependent, monophasic increase in [Ca2+]i in suspended BAEC by 11 +/- 2 nM (0.1 microM), 23 +/- 3 nM (1 microM), 34 +/- 4 nM (10 microM) and by 47 +/- 5 nM (100 microM) from a control levels of 118 +/- 10 nM. 4. This elevation of intracellular calcium was prevented by pretreatment of BAECs with gadolinium (100 microM) or by incubation with calcium free saline solution. In contrast, the application of 0.3 microM thapsigargin did not abolish the nitrendipine-induced calcium signal. In additional experiments it was shown that the nitrendipine-induced NO-release (as measured with the oxy-haemoglobin-method could also be inhibited by gadolinium and was absent in calcium-free solution. 5. Thus, nitrendipine elevates intracellular calcium in suspended BAECs in a concentration-dependent manner. This elevation is mainly due to a gadolinium-sensitive calcium influx from the extracellular space rather than a calcium release from intracellular stores. Images Figure 5 PMID:8864521

  4. Astrocyte calcium signaling: the third wave.

    PubMed

    Bazargani, Narges; Attwell, David

    2016-02-01

    The discovery that transient elevations of calcium concentration occur in astrocytes, and release 'gliotransmitters' which act on neurons and vascular smooth muscle, led to the idea that astrocytes are powerful regulators of neuronal spiking, synaptic plasticity and brain blood flow. These findings were challenged by a second wave of reports that astrocyte calcium transients did not mediate functions attributed to gliotransmitters and were too slow to generate blood flow increases. Remarkably, the tide has now turned again: the most important calcium transients occur in fine astrocyte processes not resolved in earlier studies, and new mechanisms have been discovered by which astrocyte [Ca(2+)]i is raised and exerts its effects. Here we review how this third wave of discoveries has changed our understanding of astrocyte calcium signaling and its consequences for neuronal function. PMID:26814587

  5. Dietary calcium requirements do not differ between Mexican-American boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Cristina; Martin, Berdine R; McCabe, George P; McCabe, Linda; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M

    2014-08-01

    Mexican Americans are an understudied ethnic group for determinants of bone health, although the risk of age-related osteoporosis is high in this rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population. Thus, the objective of the present study was to establish the dietary calcium requirements for bone health in Mexican-American adolescents by measuring calcium retention calculated from balance in response to a range of dietary calcium intakes and to determine predictors of skeletal calcium retention. Adolescents aged 12-15 y were studied twice on paired calcium intakes ranging from 600 to 2300 mg/d using randomized-order, crossover 3-wk balance studies. Skeletal calcium retention was calculated as dietary calcium intake minus calcium excreted in feces and urine over the last 2 wk of balance. A linear model was developed to explain the variation in calcium retention. Boys (n = 20) were taller and had higher lean mass, usual dietary calcium intake, bone mineral content, and serum alkaline phosphatase compared with girls, whereas girls (n = 20) had higher Tanner scores and greater fat mass. Calcium retention increased with calcium intake (P < 0.0001) and did not differ by sex (P = 0.66). In boys and girls considered together, calcium intake explained 33% of the variation in calcium retention. Serum alkaline phosphatase explained an additional 11% of the variation in calcium retention. Other variables measured, including the urine N-telopeptide of type I collagen/creatinine ratio, Tanner score, serum parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D, weight, height, and body mass index, did not contribute to the variance in calcium retention. In adolescence, calcium retention in both Mexican-American boys and girls was higher than determined previously in adolescent nonHispanic white girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01277185. PMID:24872223

  6. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10616.001 PMID:26613410

  7. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC. PMID:26613410

  8. CD163 and c-Met expression in the lymph node and the correlations between elevated levels of serum free light chain and the different clinicopathological parameters of advanced classical Hodgkin's lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bedewy, Magdy; El-Maghraby, Shereen

    2013-01-01

    Background Advances in the understanding of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) show various functions of infiltrating immune cells and cytokines in relation to clinical outcomes. The expression of CD163 and c-Met has been suggested to have a role in lymphoid malignancy. Thus, we evaluated the expressions of CD163, c-Met, and serum free light chain (sFLC) in relation to the clinicopathological features of patients with advanced classical HL (cHL). Methods We assessed the expression of CD163 and c-Met in 34 patients with cHL through immunohistochemistry on the lymph node biopsy sections and the levels of pretreatment sFLC were estimated using ELISA. Results High CD163 expression correlated with increased age, B symptoms, International Prognostic Score (IPS) ≥3, mixed cellularity subtype, and low response to treatment. Further, high c-Met expression correlated with increased age at diagnosis, leukocytosis, B symptoms, and lower chance to achieve complete remission. The sFLC levels correlated with increased age at diagnosis, lymphopenia, IPS ≥3, B symptoms, and lower complete remission rates. Conclusion In advanced cHL, increased expression of CD163 and c-Met showed a significant association with adverse prognostic parameters and poor response to treatment. Pretreatment high sFLC level also correlated with poor risk factors, suggesting its use as a candidate prognostic marker. A comprehensive approach for prognostic markers might represent a step towards developing a tailored therapeutic approach for HL. PMID:23826581

  9. Levels of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in serum among atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Yokoyama, Naokata; Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Sposto, R.; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Shiraki, Mastaka

    1994-01-01

    To examines the potential causes of increased levels of calcium in serum with increasing dose of atomic bomb radiation, which was obtained from the previous preliminary analysis, levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in serum were examined among 1459 subjects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A significant effect of radiation on levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin in serum was found, even after patients with hyperparathyroidism were excluded. The level of calcium in serum increased with radiation dose; this can be explained partly by the increase in the level of PTH with radiation dose. However, the dose effect on calcium remained even after adjustment for PTH, calcitonin and confounding factors such as renal function, serum albumin level and medication. Parathyroid hormone increased initially by 6.8% per gray, but the dose response leveled off after about 1 Gy. The level of calcitonin increased with radiation dose, probably in part due to feedback mechanisms stimulated by the increase in calcium. However, after adjustment for the level of calcium, the increase in the level of calcitonin with dose was still found. Although the etiological mechanisms of the effect of radiation on serum levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin are unclear, radiation exposure may affect secretion of PTH and calcitonin and regulation of calcium a long time after atomic bomb exposure. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. The Impact of Admission Serum Creatinine Derived Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate on Major Adverse Cardiac Events in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Uluganyan, Mahmut; Karaca, Gurkan; Ulutas, Turker Kemal; Ekmekci, Ahmet; Tusun, Eyup; Murat, Ahmet; Koroglu, Bayram; Uyarel, Huseyin; Bakhshaliyev, Nijad; Eren, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Background The impact of Cockroft-Gault (C-G) derived estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was assessed. Methods A total of 884 patients were classified into four categories according to admission creatine derived eGFR: < 60, 60 - < 90, 90 - < 120, and ≥ 120 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results In-hospital and long-term MACEs were significantly higher in eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 subgroup (P < 0.001 and P = 0.028). Multivariate analysis demonstrated 7.78-fold (95% CI: 0.91 - 66.8) higher mortality risk in eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 subgroup. Conclusion As an easily applicable bedside method, C-G derived eGFR could be important for prediction of in-hospital and long-term mortality and MACE in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. PMID:26985253

  11. Is there a link between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and primary hyperparathyroidism? A study of serum parathormone and anti-TPO antibodies in 2267 patients.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Vesna D; Matovic, Milovan D; Vukomanovic, Vladimir R; Jankovic, Slobodan M; Džodić, Radan R

    2013-01-01

    According to various authors, thyroid disorders like Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), diffuse goiter or multinodular goiter, Graves' disease, medullary or papillary carcinoma could be found in a number of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). This association is more common in elderly women. Neck irradiation, lithium treatment and elevated TSH levels have been suggested as some of the possible causes of this co-existance. The aim of this study was to investigate and determine the prevalence of patients having both HT and PHPT, and the possible relation between these two diseases. We conducted a prospective study during three and a half years. This study included 45,231 patients, which were referred by their general practitioner or endocrinologist, under suspicion of having thyroid and/or parathyroid disease. In these patients we measured serum levels of the following parameters: anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (antiTPO-Ab), anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab), anti-TSH-receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium (Ca). In 2,267 of these 45,231 patients (5.01%) we noticed elevated antiTPO-Ab (3542±3407IU/mL), with statistical significant difference from normal values (normal range 0-70IU/mL), P<0.05, and normal levels of other antithyroid antibodies (Tg-Ab, TSHR-Ab). All patients with elevated antiTPO-Ab were assumed to have HT. Within this group, 43 patients (1.89%) also had elevated serum levels of PTH (112.4±33.2pg/mL, normal range 8-76pg/mL) as well as elevated serum levels of calcium (2.92±0.06mmol/L, normal range 2.2-2.65mmol/L). These laboratory findings, accompanied with clinical symptoms, satisfied the criteria for PHPT. The mean age in this subgroup was 60.5±12.2 years. All 2,267 patients had normal or slightly elevated TSH levels. In conclusion, although the reported rate of prevalence of PHPT in the general population is about 0.3%, our results indicated a 1.89% occurrence of

  12. Calcium and Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your weekly shopping list. Produce Serving Size Estimated Calcium* Collard greens, frozen 8 oz 360 mg ... Oranges 1 whole 55 mg Seafood Serving Size Estimated Calcium* Sardines, canned with bones 3 oz 325 ...

  13. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  14. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium channel blockers are a type of medicine used ...

  15. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It is a prescription pain medicine used to relieve symptoms of arthritis . Fenoprofen calcium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  16. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human body. Bones, like other tissues in the body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their ...

  17. Calcium, phosphorus, and bone metabolism in the fetus and newborn.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    The placenta actively transports minerals whereas the intestines and kidneys may be nonessential for fetal mineral homeostasis. Mineral concentrations are higher in fetal blood than in adults in order for the developing skeleton to accrete adequate mineral content. Fetal bone development and serum mineral regulation are dependent upon parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP), but not calcitriol, fibroblast growth factor-23, calcitonin, or the sex steroids. After birth, a switch from fetal to neonatal regulatory mechanisms is triggered by loss of the placental calcium infusion, onset of a breathing, and a postnatal fall in serum calcium and rise in phosphorus. This is followed by an increase in PTH, then a rise in calcitriol, and developmental changes in kidneys and intestines. Serum calcium increases and phosphorus declines over days. The intestines become the main source of mineral, while kidneys reabsorb mineral, and bone turnover contributes additional mineral to the circulation. PMID:26363942

  18. Calcium and magnesium disorders.

    PubMed

    Goff, Jesse P

    2014-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a clinical disorder that can be life threatening to the cow (milk fever) and predisposes the animal to various other metabolic and infectious disorders. Calcium homeostasis is mediated primarily by parathyroid hormone, which stimulates bone calcium resorption and renal calcium reabsorption. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to enhance diet calcium absorption. High dietary cation-anion difference interferes with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Hypomagnesemia reduces tissue response to parathyroid hormone. PMID:24980727

  19. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  20. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the roles of calcium and vitamin D in bone health. Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling and it also affects bone mass through its impact on the remodeling rate. Typically, about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and ...

  1. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePlus

    Bone strength and calcium ... or if your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ... injury. As you age, your body still needs calcium to keep your bones dense and strong. Most experts recommend at least ...

  2. Activation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Sensor STIM1 and Store-Operated Calcium Entry by Rotavirus Requires NSP4 Viroporin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hyser, Joseph M.; Utama, Budi; Crawford, Sue E.; Broughman, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) induces dramatic changes in cellular calcium homeostasis. These include increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) permeability, resulting in decreased ER calcium stores and activation of plasma membrane (PM) calcium influx channels, ultimately causing a 2- to 4-fold elevation in cytoplasmic calcium. Elevated cytoplasmic calcium is absolutely required for virus replication, but the underlying mechanisms responsible for calcium influx remain poorly understood. NSP4 is an ER-localized viroporin, whose activity depletes ER calcium, which ultimately leads to calcium influx. We hypothesized that NSP4-mediated depletion of ER calcium activates store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) through activation of the ER calcium sensor stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). We established and used a stable yellow fluorescent protein-expressing STIM1 cell line (YFP-STIM1) as a biosensor to assess STIM1 activation (puncta formation) by rotavirus infection and NSP4 expression. We found that STIM1 is constitutively active in rotavirus-infected cells and that STIM1 puncta colocalize with the PM-localized Orai1 SOCE calcium channel. Expression of wild-type NSP4 activated STIM1, resulting in PM calcium influx, but an NSP4 viroporin mutant failed to induce STIM1 activation and did not activate the PM calcium entry pathway. Finally, knockdown of STIM1 significantly reduced rotavirus yield, indicating STIM1 plays a critical role in virus replication. These data demonstrate that while rotavirus may ultimately activate multiple calcium channels in the PM, calcium influx is predicated on NSP4 viroporin-mediated activation of STIM1 in the ER. This is the first report of viroporin-mediated activation of SOCE, reinforcing NSP4 as a robust model to understand dysregulation of calcium homeostasis during virus infections. PMID:24109210

  3. Low Serum Lysosomal Acid Lipase Activity Correlates with Advanced Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shteyer, Eyal; Villenchik, Rivka; Mahamid, Mahmud; Nator, Nidaa; Safadi, Rifaat

    2016-01-01

    Fatty liver has become the most common liver disorder and is recognized as a major health burden in the Western world. The causes for disease progression are not fully elucidated but lysosomal impairment is suggested. Here we evaluate a possible role for lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) activity in liver disease. To study LAL levels in patients with microvesicular, idiopathic cirrhosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Medical records of patients with microvesicular steatosis, cryptogenic cirrhosis and NAFLD, diagnosed on the basis of liver biopsies, were included in the study. Measured serum LAL activity was correlated to clinical, laboratory, imaging and pathological data. No patient exhibited LAL activity compatible with genetic LAL deficiency. However, serum LAL activity inversely predicted liver disease severity. A LAL level of 0.5 was the most sensitive for detecting both histologic and noninvasive markers for disease severity, including lower white blood cell count and calcium, and elevated γ-glutamyltransferase, creatinine, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, uric acid and coagulation function. Serum LAL activity <0.5 indicates severe liver injury in patients with fatty liver and cirrhosis. Further studies should define the direct role of LAL in liver disease severity and consider the possibility of replacement therapy. PMID:26927097

  4. Low Serum Lysosomal Acid Lipase Activity Correlates with Advanced Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Shteyer, Eyal; Villenchik, Rivka; Mahamid, Mahmud; Nator, Nidaa; Safadi, Rifaat

    2016-01-01

    Fatty liver has become the most common liver disorder and is recognized as a major health burden in the Western world. The causes for disease progression are not fully elucidated but lysosomal impairment is suggested. Here we evaluate a possible role for lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) activity in liver disease. To study LAL levels in patients with microvesicular, idiopathic cirrhosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Medical records of patients with microvesicular steatosis, cryptogenic cirrhosis and NAFLD, diagnosed on the basis of liver biopsies, were included in the study. Measured serum LAL activity was correlated to clinical, laboratory, imaging and pathological data. No patient exhibited LAL activity compatible with genetic LAL deficiency. However, serum LAL activity inversely predicted liver disease severity. A LAL level of 0.5 was the most sensitive for detecting both histologic and noninvasive markers for disease severity, including lower white blood cell count and calcium, and elevated γ-glutamyltransferase, creatinine, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, uric acid and coagulation function. Serum LAL activity <0.5 indicates severe liver injury in patients with fatty liver and cirrhosis. Further studies should define the direct role of LAL in liver disease severity and consider the possibility of replacement therapy. PMID:26927097

  5. Membrane associated complexes in calcium dynamics modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szopa, Piotr; Dyzma, Michał; Kaźmierczak, Bogdan

    2013-06-01

    Mitochondria not only govern energy production, but are also involved in crucial cellular signalling processes. They are one of the most important organelles determining the Ca2+ regulatory pathway in the cell. Several mathematical models explaining these mechanisms were constructed, but only few of them describe interplay between calcium concentrations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cytoplasm and mitochondria. Experiments measuring calcium concentrations in mitochondria and ER suggested the existence of cytosolic microdomains with locally elevated calcium concentration in the nearest vicinity of the outer mitochondrial membrane. These intermediate physical connections between ER and mitochondria are called MAM (mitochondria-associated ER membrane) complexes. We propose a model with a direct calcium flow from ER to mitochondria, which may be justified by the existence of MAMs, and perform detailed numerical analysis of the effect of this flow on the type and shape of calcium oscillations. The model is partially based on the Marhl et al model. We have numerically found that the stable oscillations exist for a considerable set of parameter values. However, for some parameter sets the oscillations disappear and the trajectories of the model tend to a steady state with very high calcium level in mitochondria. This can be interpreted as an early step in an apoptotic pathway.

  6. In vivo and in vitro effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field on net calcium flux in rat calvarial bone.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, J A; Bergstrom, W H

    2002-06-01

    Although PEMF's have been found to promote fracture healing and to modulate the activity of bone cells in vitro, effects on bone metabolism are largely unexplored. A bioassay using neonatal rat calvarial bone was used to determine the early effects of a pulsing electromagnetic field (PEMF) exposure in vivo and in vitro on bone metabolic calcium exchange. Bone discs taken from whole body exposed animals (0-4 hours) show a log exposure time-dependent average increase in net Ca uptake in the 0-50% range (r2 = 0.83). This increase could be detected immediately after exposure and also after 24 hours, but not 48 hours later. Animals given whole body PEMF exposure also showed a decrease in serum calcium and did not elevate serum Ca after administration of exogenous parathyroid hormone (PTH). Bone discs from untreated rats, exposed to PEMF for 15 minutes in vitro and then assayed, showed net Ca uptake increases of a similar magnitude and also were refractory to the Ca-releasing effect of PTH. Unexposed discs responded normally to PTH by decreasing net Ca uptake. Treatment of calvarial discs with calcitonin or acetazolamide, both of which inactivate osteoclasts, made the bone refractory to further increases in Ca uptake by PEMF. These results suggest that PEMF exposure produces PTH-refractory osteoclastics and has a relatively rapid effect on increasing net bone Ca uptake, putatively due to a decrease in PTH/paracrine-mediated bone resorption. PMID:11976773

  7. Reducing Iron Deficiency in 18-36-months-old US Children: Is the Solution Less Calcium?

    PubMed

    Kerling, Elizabeth H; Souther, Laura M; Gajewski, Byron J; Sullivan, Debra K; Georgieff, Michael K; Carlson, Susan E

    2016-09-01

    Objectives National surveys consistently identify iron deficiency (ID) in US children between 1 and 3 years of age, when the brain is rapidly developing and vulnerable to the effects of ID. However, controversy remains as to how best to recognize and prevent ID in young children, in part because of the multiple potential etiologies. The objective of this project was to assess ID in children and identify potential individual dietary predictors of status. Methods We examined three biomarkers of ID [soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and serum ferritin (SF), and body iron (calculated from sTfR and SF)] against parent-provided dietary calcium and iron intake for eight-three 18-36 month old children from middle class families. Results Using literature-based cutoffs, fourteen children (16.9 %) had at least one indicator of ID: low SF(<10 μg/l, 7.2 %), negative body iron (<0 mg/kg, 7.2 %) or elevated sTfR (>8.4 μg/ml, 13.2 %). All children consumed more than the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) Estimated Average Requirement of 3 mg/d iron. The mean iron intake of children identified with ID approximated the Recommended Dietary Allowance of 7 mg/d. Most children (81 %) consumed above the DRI Adequate Intake of 500 mg/d of calcium. Calcium intakes were generally high and predicted lower body iron (p = 0.0005), lower SF (p = 0.0086) and higher sTfR (p = 0.0176). Conclusions for Practice We found rates of ID similar to US national averages. Dietary calcium intake predicted lower iron status more than deficits in iron intake. Teaching parents to balance calcium and iron intake in toddlers could be a strategy to prevent ID. PMID:26987860

  8. Pharmacokinetic interactions with calcium channel antagonists (Part I).

    PubMed

    Schlanz, K D; Myre, S A; Bottorff, M B

    1991-11-01

    Calcium channel antagonists are a diverse class of drugs widely used in combination with other therapeutic agents. The potential exists for many clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between these and other concurrently administered drugs. The mechanisms of calcium channel antagonist-induced changes in drug metabolism include altered hepatic blood flow and impaired hepatic enzyme metabolising activity. Increases in serum concentrations and/or reductions in clearance have been reported for several drugs used with a number of calcium channel antagonists. A number of reports and studies of calcium channel antagonist interactions have yielded contradictory results and the clinical significance of pharmacokinetic changes seen with these agents is ill-defined. The first part of this article deals with interactions between calcium antagonists and marker compounds, theophylline, midazolam, lithium, doxorubicin, oral hypoglycaemics and cardiac drugs. PMID:1773549

  9. Effect of vitamin D and calcium on periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Hildebolt, Charles F

    2005-09-01

    The anthropological record indicates that we are exposed to considerably less ultraviolet radiation (required for the synthesis of vitamin D) and consume considerably less calcium than did our early ancestors. Most U.S. citizens have calcium intakes and serum levels of vitamin D far below recommended values. This is despite there having been extensive evidence that optimal calcium and vitamin D intakes not only benefit our postcranial bone health but also have many other health benefits. Numerous articles indicate that vitamin D and calcium deficiencies result in bone loss and increased inflammation, which are well recognized symptoms of periodontal disease. For more than 40 years, investigators have suggested that calcium intake may be associated with alveolar bone resorption, and more recently there have been a number of studies in which investigators have suggested that calcium and vitamin D may benefit periodontal health, and it has been suggested that calcium deficiency may be a risk factor for periodontal disease. There has not, however, been a vitamin-D-calcium-periodontitis clinical trial in which randomization and masking were carefully controlled, the periodontal disease status of patients known, periodontal disease measures were the primary outcomes, and levels of intake optimized to produce maximal effects. Such research might demonstrate that calcium and vitamin D are important adjuncts to standard treatments for preventing and treating periodontal disease. PMID:16171451

  10. Calcium-deficiency rickets in a four-year-old boy with milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Davidovits, M; Levy, Y; Avramovitz, T; Eisenstein, B

    1993-02-01

    A 4-year-old boy was found to have rickets associated with normal serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and high serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. These findings were thought to be the result of dietary calcium deficiency caused by the prolonged elimination from his diet of cow milk and milk products because of allergy. Adequate intake of calcium resulted in rapid improvement. PMID:8429441

  11. Cannabidiol induces intracellular calcium elevation and cytotoxicity in oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Mato, Susana; Victoria Sánchez-Gómez, María; Matute, Carlos

    2010-11-01

    Heavy marijuana use has been linked to white matter histological alterations. However, the impact of cannabis constituents on oligodendroglial pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the in vitro effects of cannabidiol, the main nonpsychoactive marijuana component, on oligodendrocytes. Exposure to cannabidiol induced an intracellular Ca(2+) rise in optic nerve oligodendrocytes that was not primarily mediated by entry from the extracellular space, nor by interactions with ryanodine or IP(3) receptors. Application of the mitochondrial protonophore carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP; 1 μM) completely prevented subsequent cannabidiol-induced Ca(2+) responses. Conversely, the increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels elicited by FCCP was reduced after previous exposure to cannabidiol, further suggesting that the mitochondria acts as the source of cannabidiol-evoked Ca(2+) rise in oligodendrocytes. n addition, brief exposure to cannabidiol (100 nM-10 μM) led to a concentration-dependent decrease of oligodendroglial viability that was not prevented by antagonists of CB(1), CB(2), vanilloid, A(2A) or PPARγ receptors, but was instead reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). The oligodendrotoxic effect of cannabidiol was partially blocked by inhibitors of caspase-3, -8 and -9, PARP-1 and calpains, suggesting the activation of caspase-dependent and -independent death pathways. Cannabidiol also elicited a concentration-dependent alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential, and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Finally, cannabidiol-induced cytotoxicity was partially prevented by the ROS scavenger trolox. Together, these results suggest that cannabidiol causes intracellular Ca(2+) dysregulation which can lead to oligodendrocytes demise. PMID:20645411

  12. Calcium-Vitamin D Co-supplementation Affects Metabolic Profiles, but not Pregnancy Outcomes, in Healthy Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Zatollah; Samimi, Mansooreh; Siavashani, Mehrnush Amiri; Mazloomi, Maryam; Tabassi, Zohreh; Karamali, Maryam; Jamilian, Mehri; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy is associated with unfavorable metabolic profile, which might in turn result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of calcium plus Vitamin D administration on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in healthy pregnant women. Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 42 pregnant women aged 18–40 years who were at week 25 of gestation. Subjects were randomly allocated to consume either 500 mg calcium-200 IU cholecalciferol supplements (n = 21) or placebo (n = 21) for 9 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at the onset of the study and after 9-week trial to determine related markers. Post-delivery, the newborn's weight, length, and head circumference were measured during the first 24 h after birth. Results: Consumption of calcium-Vitamin D co-supplements resulted in a significant reduction of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels compared with placebo (−1856.8 ± 2657.7 vs. 707.1 ± 3139.4 μg/mL, P = 0.006). We also found a significant elevation of plasma total antioxidant capacity (89.3 ± 118.0 vs. −9.4 ± 164.9 mmol/L, P = 0.03), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (2.5 ± 3.5 vs. −1.7 ± 1.7 ng/mL, P < 0.0001), and calcium levels (0.6 ± 0.6 vs. −0.1 ± 0.4 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). The supplementation led to a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure (−1.9 ± 8.3 vs. 3.1 ± 5.2 mmHg, P = 0.02) compared with placebo. No significant effect of calcium-Vitamin D co-supplements was seen on other metabolic profiles. We saw no significant change of the co-supplementation on pregnancy outcomes as well. Conclusions: Although calcium-Vitamin D co-supplementation for 9 weeks in pregnant women resulted in improved metabolic profiles, it did not affect pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27076887

  13. Influence of serum and necrotic soft tissue on the antimicrobial effects of intracanal medicaments.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Julio C Machado de; Alves, Flávio R F; Uzeda, Milton de; Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of serum and necrotic soft tissue on the antimicrobial activity of intracanal medicaments. The medicaments tested were: calcium hydroxyde/glycerin paste, calcium hydroxide/chlorhexidine paste, calcium hydroxide/camphorated paramonochlorophenol/glycerin paste, and chlorhexidine/zinc oxide paste. Survival of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans exposed to the medicaments tested in the presence or absence of serum or necrotic tissue was monitored in three in vitro experiments where samples for culturing were taken at different time periods. The overall results demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity of all intracanal medicaments tested was slowed down in the presence of necrotic tissue. Calcium hydroxide pastes in glycerin or chlorhexidine were significantly affected by serum. Of the medicaments tested in this study, the least affected was the calcium hydroxide/camphorated paramonochlorophenol/glycerin paste. PMID:20976377

  14. IL-8 and cathepsin B as melanoma serum biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongtao; Fu, Ting; McGettigan, Suzanne; Kumar, Suresh; Liu, Shujing; Speicher, David; Schuchter, Lynn; Xu, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma accounts for only a small portion of skin cancer but it is associated with high mortality. Melanoma serum biomarkers that may aid early diagnosis or guide therapy are needed clinically. However, studies of serum biomarkers have often been hampered by the serum interference that causes false readouts in immunological tests. Here we show that, after using a special buffer to eliminate the serum interference, IL-8 and cathepsin B levels were significantly elevated in melanoma patients (p < 0.05). More importantly, the combination of IL-8 and cathepsin B were also studied as a prognosis marker for melanoma mortality. Our study provides a novel approach to examine serum biomarkers. PMID:21673904

  15. IL8 and Cathepsin B as Melanoma Serum Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongtao; Fu, Ting; McGettigan, Suzanne; Kumar, Suresh; Liu, Shujing; Speicher, David; Schuchter, Lynn; Xu, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma accounts for only a small portion of skin cancer but it is associated with high mortality. Melanoma serum biomarkers that may aid early diagnosis or guide therapy are needed clinically. However, studies of serum biomarkers have often been hampered by the serum interference that causes false readouts in immunological tests. Here we show that, after using a special buffer to eliminate the serum interference, IL-8 and cathepsin B levels were significantly elevated in melanoma patients (p < 0.05). More importantly, the combination of IL-8 and cathepsin B were also studied as a prognosis marker for melanoma mortality. Our study provides a novel approach to examine serum biomarkers. PMID:21673904

  16. Effects of Lowering Dialysate Calcium Concentration on Mineral and Bone Disorders in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: Conversion from 3.0 mEq/L to 2.75 mEq/L.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Ueki, Kenji; Tokumoto, Masanori; Suehiro, Takaichi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Masatomo; Fujimi, Satoru; Kitazono, Takanari; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko

    2016-02-01

    Selection of a lower dialysate calcium concentration (DCa) can reduce calcium burden and prevent vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients. However, decreased DCa can worsen mineral and bone disorders. This 1-year retrospective observational study evaluated 121 hemodialysis patients at Fukuoka Renal Clinic who underwent conversion of DCa from 3.0 mEq/L to 2.75 mEq/L. The primary outcomes were changes in serum levels of calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). The effects of baseline serum calcium and PTH levels on changes in biochemical parameters were also determined. One year after DCa conversion, mean serum calcium level decreased, while serum phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, and PTH concentrations increased. The rate of achievement of target PTH was higher in patients with lower serum PTH level at baseline, while patients with higher baseline serum PTH level tended to exceed the upper limit of the PTH target range. Patients with higher baseline serum calcium concentration showed a greater decrease in serum calcium level and a greater increase in serum PTH level at 1 year. Patients with a lower baseline serum PTH level can benefit from optimal PTH control following conversion of DCa from 3.0 mEq/L to 2.75 mEq/L. However, secondary hyperparathyroidism may be exacerbated in some patients with higher baseline serum calcium (Ca) and PTH levels. These results indicate that an individualized approach can maximize the benefits of Ca unloading after conversion to lower DCa. PMID:26482334

  17. Serum estrogen levels in men with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M; Haffajee, C I; Hochman, J S; Sacks, G M; Dalen, J E

    1982-12-01

    Serum estradiol and serum estrone levels were assessed in 29 men in 14 men in whom myocardial infarction was ruled out; in 12 men without apparent coronary heart disease but hospitalized in an intensive care unit; and in 28 men who were not hospitalized and who acted as control subjects. (The 12 men who were hospitalized but who did not have coronary heart disease were included to control for physical and emotional stress of a severe medical illness.) Ages ranged from 21 to 56 years. Age, height, and weight did not differ significantly among groups. Blood samples were obtained in the patient groups on each of the first three days of hospitalization. The serum estrone level was significantly elevated in all four patient groups when compared with that in the control group. Estrone level, then, did not differentiate patients with and without coronary heart disease. Serum estradiol levels were significantly elevated in the groups with myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and in the group in whom myocardial infarction was ruled out. However, estradiol levels were not significantly elevated in the group in the intensive care unit without coronary heart disease when compared to the level in the normal control group. Serum estradiol levels, then, were elevated in men with confirmed or suspected coronary heart disease but were not elevated in men without coronary heart disease even under the stressful conditions found in an intensive care unit. Serum estradiol levels were significantly and positively correlated (p less than 0.03) with serum total creatine phosphokinase levels in the patients with myocardial infarction. The five patients with myocardial infarction who died within 10 days of admission had markedly elevated serum estradiol levels. The potential significance of these serum estradiol elevations is discussed in terms of estradiol's ability to enhance adrenergic neural activity and the resultant increase in myocardial oxygen demand. PMID:7148879

  18. Compromised zinc status of experimental rats as a consequence of prolonged iron & calcium supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Jayalakshmi, S.; Platel, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Iron supplementation is usually given to pregnant and lactating women who may also have marginal deficiency of zinc. The negative impact of supplemental iron and calcium on zinc status is a cause of concern. The present investigation was undertaken to examine the effect of inclusion of iron and calcium in the diet at supplementary levels on zinc status of experimental rats. Methods: Groups of experimental rats were maintained on diets supplemented with iron (Molar ratio - Zn:Fe 1:30) and calcium (Molar ratio - Zn:Ca 1:667) both individually and in combination for six weeks. Zinc status of these rats was assessed by determining zinc concentration in circulation and in organs, and the activities of zinc containing enzymes in serum and liver. Results: The zinc status of experimental rats receiving supplemental levels of iron and calcium was significantly compromised. Zinc concentration in serum, kidney, spleen and liver was reduced significantly by both these minerals. Six weeks of supplementation of iron and calcium individually, significantly reduced the activity of liver and serum superoxide dismutase and alkaline phosphatase. Activity of liver alcohol dehydrogenase was lowered in calcium supplemented group and in calcium + iron supplemented group, while that of carbonic anhydrase was significantly reduced by iron, calcium and their combination. Interpretation & conclusions: Supplemental levels of iron and calcium, both individually and in combination, significantly compromised the zinc status of experimental rats. This negative effect of these two minerals was more prominent when these were supplemented for a period of six weeks. PMID:27121523

  19. Effects of dietary calcium on lead absorption, distribution, and elimination kinetics in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Aungst, B.J.; Fung, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    A pharmacokinetic analysis of lead absorption, distribution, and elimination was conducted in rats maintained on calcium-deficient, control, and calcium-supplemented diets. Dietary calcium affected lead disposition in a number of ways. Systematic lead clearance after a 10-mg/kg intracardiac lead dose was approximately 25% lower than control in rats administered dietary calcium supplements. In rats maintained on a calcium-deficient diet, systemic lead clearance was estimated to be 40% less than control. The apparent volume of lead distribution was increased. The apparent systemic availability of 1-, 10-, and 100-mg.kg oral lead doses was three- to fourfold greater than control in calcium-deficient rats. The percentage absorption was dose-dependent in control and calcium-deficient rats. The observed changes in lead absorption and systemic clearance associated with the calcium-deficient diet represent synergistic effects that could elevate blood lead accumulation and thus potentially influence susceptibility to lead toxicity.

  20. Vitamin D supplementation increases calcium absorption without a threshold effect

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maximal calcium absorption in response to vitamin D has been proposed as a biomarker for vitamin D sufficiency. Our objective was to determine whether there is a threshold beyond which increasing doses of vitamin D, or concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], no longer increase cal...

  1. Calcium absorption and vitamin D status in school age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D) in adults may enhance calcium absorption (Ca-Abs). There are few similar pediatric data. We evaluated the relationship between 25-D and Ca-Abs by pooling data from 439 Ca-Abs measurements over a 15-yr period at our center in 251 healthy children 4.9 to 16....

  2. Serum Protein Profile Alterations in Hemodialysis Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G A; Davies, R W; Choi, M W; Perkins, J; Turteltaub, K W; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Langlois, R G; Curzi, M P; Trebes, J E; Fitch, J P; Dalmasso, E A; Colston, B W; Ying, Y; Chromy, B A

    2003-11-18

    Background: Serum protein profiling patterns can reflect the pathological state of a patient and therefore may be useful for clinical diagnostics. Here, we present results from a pilot study of proteomic expression patterns in hemodialysis patients designed to evaluate the range of serum proteomic alterations in this population. Methods: Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOFMS) was used to analyze serum obtained from patients on periodic hemodialysis treatment and healthy controls. Serum samples from patients and controls were first fractionated into six eluants on a strong anion exchange column, followed by application to four array chemistries representing cation exchange, anion exchange, metal affinity and hydrophobic surfaces. A total of 144 SELDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained from each serum sample. Results: The overall profiles of the patient and control samples were consistent and reproducible. However, 30 well-defined protein differences were observed; 15 proteins were elevated and 15 were decreased in patients compared to controls. Serum from one patient exhibited novel protein peaks suggesting possible additional changes due to a secondary disease process. Conclusion: SELDI-TOF-MS demonstrated dramatic serum protein profile differences between patients and controls. Similarity in protein profiles among dialysis patients suggests that patient physiological responses to end-stage renal disease and/or dialysis therapy have a major effect on serum protein profiles.

  3. Influence of betel quid on effect of calcium channel blockers on isoprenaline induced myocardial necrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Asdaq, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin; Asad, Mohammed

    2009-09-01

    It is known that chewing Betel quid with tobacco (BQT) or without tobacco (BQ) is a major etiological factor for cardiovascular complications and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are the major class of drugs prescribed widely for myocardial disturbances. The possible pharmacodynamic interaction between CCBs (verapamil, amlodipine and diltiazem) and BQ/BQT was studied on isoproterenol (I