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Sample records for elevated serum calcium

  1. Elevated PTH with normal serum calcium level: a structured approach.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Rachel K; Gittoes, Neil J

    2016-06-01

    Normocalcaemic hyperparathyroidism is a common biochemical finding, usually identified during an assessment of bone or renal health. Hypercalcaemia must be considered by calculation of adjusted calcium, and a careful history taken to assess dietary calcium intake and for the possibility of a malabsorption syndrome. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) should be measured and replaced if indicated. The management plan for the patient is influenced by the context in which calcium and PTH were measured. In this brief review we describe the assessment of a patient with normocalcaemic hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26939669

  2. Safety of daily teriparatide treatment: a post hoc analysis of a Phase III study to investigate the possible association of teriparatide treatment with calcium homeostasis in patients with serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide elevation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takanori; Tsujimoto, Mika; Sowa, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Objective Serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), a representative marker of bone anabolic action, is strongly related to bone mineral density during teriparatide therapy. This post hoc study analyzed data from a Phase III study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00433160) to determine if there was an association between serum PINP elevation and serum calcium concentration or calcium metabolism-related disorders. Research design and methods Japanese subjects with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture were randomized 2:1 to teriparatide 20 μg/day (n=137) or placebo (n=70) for a 12-month double-blind treatment period, followed by 12 months of open-label teriparatide treatment of all subjects. Main outcome measures Serum PINP levels were measured at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of treatment. Serum calcium levels were measured at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 months of treatment. Results Serum PINP increased from baseline to 1 month of treatment and then remained high through 24 months. Twenty-eight of 195 subjects experienced PINP elevations >200 μg/L during teriparatide treatment. Serum calcium concentration in both the teriparatide and placebo groups remained within the normal range. There was no clinically relevant difference in serum calcium concentration between subjects with PINP >200 μg/L and subjects with PINP ≤200 μg/L. Two subjects experienced hypercalcemia and recovered without altering teriparatide treatment. Adverse events possibly related to calcium metabolism disorders included periarthritis calcarea (one subject) and chondrocalcinosis pyrophosphate (two subjects), but neither was accompanied with a significant increase in PINP or serum calcium concentration. Conclusion Although the moderate size of this study prevented statistical analysis of any potential association between calcium metabolism-related disorders and elevated PINP, this analysis suggests that there was no association between serum PINP elevation during daily teriparatide treatment and serum calcium concentration or calcium metabolism-related disorders in Japanese subjects. PMID:26185429

  3. Abnormalities of serum calcium and magnesium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neonatal hypocalcemia is defined as a total serum calcium concentration of <7 mg/dL or an ionized calcium concentration of <4 mg/dL (1mmol/L). In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, ionized calcium values of 0.8 to 1 mmol/L are common and not usually associated with clinical symptoms. In larger in...

  4. Serum calcium levels are not associated with coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Wang, Quanhai; Chen, Yan; Ren, Xiaohua; Tang, Hui; Song, Xiuli; Ding, Lingling; Qi, Qin; Huang, Zhiwei; Yu, Jiegen; Yao, Yingshui

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have reported that low calcium intake is related to a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between serum calcium and coronary heart disease is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare serum calcium levels in patients with coronary heart disease and those in healthy individuals. Methods This retrospective, case-control study conducted in the People’s Republic of China comprised 380 cases and 379 controls. Serum calcium levels, blood lipids, and anthropometric measurements were measured in both groups. The Student’s unpaired t-test or Chi-square test was used to compare differences between cases and controls. Pearson’s partial correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between serum calcium, blood lipids, and blood pressure in both groups. Results Our results indicate that the average level of serum calcium in cases was higher than in controls. Serum calcium levels showed no correlation with any parameter except for triglycerides in either group. Conclusion Overall, these data suggest that serum calcium has no influence on coronary heart disease or triglyceride levels in the general population. PMID:24043943

  5. Rapid and precise analysis for calcium in blood serum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, R. B.; Ilcewicz, F. H.

    1969-01-01

    Differential absorption spectrophotometric technique, using murexide, gives a highly precise analysis of calcium in volumes of blood serum as small as 0.01 ml. The method of additions and proper timing allows compensation to be made for fading, variation in type of serum or plasma, and aging of the specimen.

  6. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  7. Common variants in the calcium-sensing receptor gene are associated with total serum calcium levels

    PubMed Central

    O'Seaghdha, Conall M.; Yang, Qiong; Glazer, Nicole L.; Leak, Tennille S.; Dehghan, Abbas; Smith, Albert V.; Kao, W.H. Linda; Lohman, Kurt; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Johnson, Andrew D.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Brown, Edward M.; Siscovick, David S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Coresh, Josef; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Liu, Yong Mei; Kestenbaum, Bryan R.; Fox, Caroline S.; Köttgen, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Serum calcium levels are tightly regulated. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in population-based studies participating in the CHARGE Consortium to uncover common genetic variations associated with total serum calcium levels. GWAS of serum calcium concentrations was performed in 20 611 individuals of European ancestry for ∼2.5 million genotyped and imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The SNP with the lowest P-value was rs17251221 (P = 2.4 * 10−22, minor allele frequency 14%) in the calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR). This lead SNP was associated with higher serum calcium levels [0.06 mg/dl (0.015 mmol/l) per copy of the minor G allele] and accounted for 0.54% of the variance in serum calcium concentrations. The identification of variation in CASR that influences serum calcium concentration confirms the results of earlier candidate gene studies. The G allele of rs17251221 was also associated with higher serum magnesium levels (P = 1.2 * 10−3), lower serum phosphate levels (P = 2.8 * 10−7) and lower bone mineral density at the lumbar spine (P = 0.038), but not the femoral neck. No additional genomic loci contained SNPs associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5 * 10−8). These associations resemble clinical characteristics of patients with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, an autosomal-dominant disease arising from rare inactivating mutations in the CASR gene. We conclude that common genetic variation in the CASR gene is associated with similar but milder features in the general population. PMID:20705733

  8. Influence of thyroidectomy on postoperative serum calcium level regarding serum vitamin D status. A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Godazandeh, Gholamali; Kashi, Zahra; Godazandeh, Farnaz; Tayebi, Pouya; Bijani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypocalcemia is a well-recognized complication after total thyroidectomy. Hypovitaminosis D may have additional effect in the development of hypocalcemia. This study aimed to determine the effect of total thyroidectomy on postoperative serum calcium in patients with and without hypovitaminosis D. Methods: This prospective study was performed on patients who underwent total thyroidectomy from 2011 to 2014 in Imam Khomeini General Hospital of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Serum calcium and vitamin D values were recorded before and after surgery. The patients were classified according to serum vitamin D concentrations as less 10 ng/ml (vitamin D deficiency) or higher (control group). The mean values of postoperative calcium level for each class of serum vitamin D were determined and compared. Hypocalcemia was defined as a postoperative calcium level <8 mg/dl. Results: 125 patients due to thyroid disease underwent total thyroidectomy. The incidence of symptomatic and asymptomatic hypocalcemia after surgery was 12% (n=15) and 3.2% (n=4) respectively. 82 (65.6%) patients had vitamin D deficiency and 43 (34.4%) patients had sufficient vitamin D level. There was not any significant difference in calcium level (8.67±0.58 mg/dl vs. 8.70±0.59 mg/dl) between two vitamin D studied groups after thyroid surgery (p>0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that vitamin D deficiency had no significant effect on post-thyroidectomy serum calcium level. PMID:26221503

  9. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M.; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root–transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. Results In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15–95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein–corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. Conclusions There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. PMID:25518946

  10. Unexplained elevations of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Katz, V L; Chescheir, N C; Cefalo, R C

    1990-11-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a commonly used prenatal screening test for congenital anomalies. However, when anomalies are excluded after high resolution ultrasound and/or amniocentesis, an elevated maternal serum AFP (MSAFP) has been found to be associated with a 2- to 4-fold increase in low birthweight resulting from both preterm delivery and intrauterine growth retardation. Unexplained MSAFP elevations are also associated with up to 10-fold increase of placental abruption and a 10-fold increase in perinatal mortality. Results from studies of over 225,000 screened pregnancies indicate that 20 and 38 per cent of women with an unexplained MSAFP elevation may have an adverse pregnancy outcome. Twin gestations with MSAFP elevations greater than four multiples of the median are associated with similar constellations of pregnancy complications. Maternal serum AFP elevations in women with pregnancy complications are most likely the result of a leak of AFP across the placenta. Optimum management of women with unexplained elevations has not yet been established; however, evaluation of fetal growth throughout gestation is important in these patients. PMID:1700347

  11. Effects of oral administration of a calcium-containing gel on serum calcium concentration in postparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Queen, W G; Miller, G Y; Masterson, M A

    1993-02-15

    Various nutritious nutritional-supplement gels are being marketed for use in veterinary medicine. This study was designed to determine whether serum calcium, phosphorous, or magnesium concentrations were different between cows given a gel containing calcium chloride as its active ingredient (treated) and cows given inert carrier gel (control). The study revealed a significant (P < 0.01) increase in serum total calcium concentration within 5 minutes of administration of a calcium gel given to cows within 1 hour of parturition. Serum total calcium concentration had returned to baseline value by 24 hours after calcium gel administration. Serum inorganic phosphorus concentration also increased significantly (P < 0.05) after treatment. Significant changes in serum magnesium concentrations were not detected. PMID:8449800

  12. Sodium Oxybate Intolerance Associated with Familial Serum Acylcarnitine Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Our case describes clinical features of two families defined by joint phenotypes: sodium oxybate intolerance and elevated serum acylcarnitines. Oxybate intolerance variably presents as either cervical dystonia or sleep-related eating disorder. Our objective is to identify biological markers which predict a poor response to sodium oxybate as a treatment for disturbed sleep. Familial inheritance pattern, genotype analysis, multiorgan system involvement, and response to treatment suggest the presence of a secondary cause of fatty oxidation defect, i.e., mitochondrial disorder. Our case report supports the possible conclusion that variance in human mitochondrial metabolism may affect sodium oxybate tolerability. Citation: Berner J. Sodium oxybate intolerance associated with familial serum acylcarnitine elevation. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(1):71-72. PMID:23319908

  13. Serum Calcium Concentration Is Inversely Associated With Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Gao, Shu-Guang; Li, Yu-Sheng; Luo, Wei; Xiao, Wen-Feng; Xiong, Yi-Lin; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To examine the relationship between serum calcium (Ca) concentration and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study covered a total of 2855 subjects. The serum Ca concentration was detected by the Arsenazo III method. The radiographic OA of the knee was defined as changes equivalent to Kellgren–Lawrence grade 2 on 1 side at least. The serum Ca concentration was categorized into 4 quartiles, which are ≤2.27, 2.28–2.34, 2.35–2.41, and ≥2.42 mmol/L, respectively. The relationship between serum Ca and radiographic knee OA was examined using the multivariable logistic analysis after adjusting a series of potential confounding factors. For each quartile of the relationship between serum Ca concentration and radiographic knee OA, the OR with 95% CI was calculated, and the one with the lowest value was considered to be the reference. An inverse association existed between serum Ca concentration and radiographic OA of the knee in the multivariable model and the model where the factors of age, sex, and BMI were adjusted. The multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) for radiographic knee OA in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of serum Ca concentration were 1.05 (95% CI: 0.83–1.31), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.80–1.27), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.62–1.00), respectively, in comparison with the reference (first) quartile. A trend approaching to statistical significant (P = 0.06) was observed. Meanwhile, the relative odds of radiographic OA of the knee were decreased by 0.79 times in the fourth quartile in comparison with the reference. There is likely to be an inverse association between serum Ca concentration and radiographic OA of the knee. PMID:26871857

  14. Is there an association between elevated or low serum levels of phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and calcium and mortality in patients with end stage renal disease? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biochemical markers of altered mineral metabolism have been associated with increased mortality in end stage renal disease patients. Several studies have demonstrated non-linear (U-shaped or J-shaped) associations between these minerals and mortality, though many researchers have assumed linear relationships in their statistical modeling. This analysis synthesizes the non-linear relationships across studies. Methods We updated a prior systematic review through 2010. Studies included adults receiving dialysis and reported categorical data for calcium, phosphorus, and/or parathyroid hormone (PTH) together with all-cause mortality. We performed 2 separate meta-analyses to compare higher-than-referent levels vs referent and lower-than-referent levels vs referent levels. Results A literature review showed that when a linear relationship between the minerals and mortality was assumed, the estimated associations were more likely to be smaller or non-significant compared to non-linear models. In the meta-analyses, higher-than-referent levels of phosphorus (4 studies, RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.15-1.25), calcium (3 studies, RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.14), and PTH (5 studies, RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.07-1.16) were significantly associated with increased mortality. Although no significant associations between relatively low phosphorus or PTH and mortality were observed, a protective effect was observed for lower-than-referent calcium (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.83-0.89). Conclusions Higher-than-referent levels of PTH, calcium, and phosphorus in dialysis patients were associated with increased mortality risk in a selection of observational studies suitable for meta-analysis of non-linear relationships. Findings were less consistent for lower-than-referent values. Future analyses should incorporate the non-linear relationships between the minerals and mortality to obtain accurate effect estimates. PMID:23594621

  15. Preadipocyte proliferation is elevated by calcium sensing receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Gladys; Villalobos, Elisa; Fuentes, Cecilia; Villarroel, Pia; Reyes, Marcela; Díaz, Ximena; Mattar, Pamela; Cifuentes, Mariana

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is a major worldwide problem, despite considerable efforts against it. While excess body fat defines obesity, adipose tissue quality and functionality are key to whether cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities develop. Adipose tissue cellular composition can vary considerably, and excess adipocyte progenitors (preadipocytes) is associated with obesity. We have proposed that calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) activation in adipose tissue leads to dysfunction. This study evaluated whether CaSR activation elevates preadipocyte proliferation. Human LS14 preadipocytes were exposed to CaSR activators cinacalcet (2 µM), GdCl3 (5 µM) and spermine (1 µM), and cell viability was evaluated after 72h. CaSR activators elevated proliferation by 19-24%, and CaSR silencing (siRNA) abolished the effect. Cinacalcet elevated phospho-ERK1/2 content, and upstream inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation reverted cinacalcet-induced proliferation. Cinacalcet also elevated expression of the proinflammatory factors IL1β, IL6 and CCL2. The results suggest that CaSR induces preadipocyte proliferation, partly through ERK1/2 activation. Considering reported proinflammatory and adipogenic CaSR effects, excess preadipocyte proliferation further supports the dysfunctional effect of CaSR in obesity. PMID:25986659

  16. Acute Alcohol Consumption Elevates Serum Bilirubin, an Endogenous Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; Jatlow, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with both negative and favorable effects on health. The mechanisms responsible for reported favorable effects remain unclear. Higher (not necessarily elevated) concentrations of serum bilirubin, an antioxidant, have also been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. This study tests the hypothesis that single dose alcohol consumption elevates bilirubin providing a potential link between these observations. Methods 18 healthy individuals (8 cigarette smokers) were administered alcohol, calibrated to achieve blood concentrations of 20, 80 and 120 mg/dL, in random order in 3 laboratory sessions separated by a week. Each session was preceded by and followed by 5–7 days of alcohol abstinence. Serum bilirubin was measured at 7:45 am prior to drinking, at 2 pm, and at 7:45 the next morning. Mixed effects regression models compared baseline and 24 hr. post-drinking bilirubin concentrations. Results Total serum bilirubin (sum of indirect and direct) concentration increased significantly after drinking from baseline to 24 hours in non-smokers (from Mean=0.38, SD=0.24 to Mean=0.51 SD=0.30, F(1, 32.2) =24.24, p<.0001) but not in smokers (from Mean=0.25, SD=0.12 to Mean=0.26, SD=0.15, F(1, 31.1) =0.04, p=0.84). In nonsmokers the indirect bilirubin concentration and the ratio of indirect (unconjugated) to direct (conjugated) bilirubin also increased significantly. Conclusions Alcohol consumption leads to increases in serum bilirubin in nonsmokers. Considering the antioxidant properties of bilirubin, our findings suggest one possible mechanism for the reported association between alcohol consumption and reduced risk of some disorders that could be tested in future longitudinal studies. PMID:25707709

  17. Elevation of cytosolic calcium level triggers calcium antagonist-induced gingival overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Toshimi; Wang, Pao-Li

    2008-03-31

    Calcium (Ca2+) antagonists induce gingival overgrowth as a side effect but the pathogenic mechanism is still unknown. The Ca2+-channel activator Bay K 8644 elevates intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and enhances the cell proliferation of gingival fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Verapamil, an L-type Ca2+-channel blocker, also elevates [Ca2+]i in gingival fibroblasts, but it has no effect on other fibroblasts such as those of the lung, skin, and muscle. Moreover, verapamil enhances the proliferation of fibroblasts of the gingiva but has no effect on the proliferation of those of other tissues. These findings confirm that [Ca2+]i elevation induces the proliferation of gingival fibroblasts. PMID:18291363

  18. An Optical Method for Serum Calcium and Phosphorus Level Assessment during Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Holmar, Jana; Uhlin, Fredrik; Fernström, Anders; Luman, Merike; Jankowski, Joachim; Fridolin, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Survival among hemodialysis patients is disturbingly low, partly because vascular calcification (VC) and cardiovascular disease are highly prevalent. Elevated serum phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) levels play an essential role in the formation of VC events. The purpose of the current study was to reveal optical monitoring possibilities of serum P and Ca values during dialysis. Twenty-eight patients from Tallinn (Estonia) and Linköping (Sweden) were included in the study. The serum levels of Ca and P on the basis of optical information, i.e., absorbance and fluorescence of the spent dialysate (optical method) were assessed. Obtained levels were compared in means and SD. The mean serum level of Ca was 2.54 ± 0.21 and 2.53 ± 0.19 mmol/L; P levels varied between 1.08 ± 0.51 and 1.08 ± 0.48 mmol/L, measured in the laboratory and estimated by the optical method respectively. The levels achieved were not significantly different (p = 0.5). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement between the two methods varied from −0.19 to 0.19 for Ca and from −0.37 to 0.37 in the case of P. In conclusion, optical monitoring of the spent dialysate for assessing the serum levels of Ca and P during dialysis seems to be feasible and could offer valuable and continuous information to medical staff. PMID:25734785

  19. Effect of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum sclerostin has been inversely associated with serum 25OHD concentration, but the effect of supplementation with vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin is unknown. This study was done to determine whether supplementation altered serum sclerostin levels in healthy older adults. We measured s...

  20. Relationships between coronary heart disease risk factors and serum ionized calcium in Kennedy Space Center Cohort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Lisa Ann; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Merz, Marion P.; Alford, William R.

    1987-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) employees are reported to be at high risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Risk factors for CHD include high serum total cholesterol levels, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), elevated triglyceride, smoking, inactivity, high blood pressure, being male, and being older. Higher dietary and/or serum calcium Ca(++) may be related to a lower risk for CHD. Fifty men and 37 women participated. Subjects were tested in the morning after fasting 12 hours. Information relative to smoking and exercise habits was obtained; seated blood pressures were measured; and blood drawn. KCS men had higher risk values than KCS women as related to HDLC, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Smoking and nonsmoking groups did not differ for other risk factors or for serum Ca(++) levels. Exercise and sedentary groups differed in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Serum Ca(++) levels were related to age, increasing with age in the sedentary group and decreasing in the exercisers, equally for men and women. It is concluded that these relationships may be significant to the risk of CHD and/or the risk of bone demineralization in an aging population.

  1. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum

    PubMed Central

    Cross, James H.; Bradbury, Richard S.; Fulford, Anthony J.; Jallow, Amadou T.; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M.; Cerami, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4 h after oral supplementation with 2 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially scavenges heme iron, was unaffected. These data suggest that even modest oral supplements with highly soluble (non-physiological) iron, as typically used in low-income settings, could promote bacteremia by accelerating early phase bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses. PMID:26593732

  2. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum.

    PubMed

    Cross, James H; Bradbury, Richard S; Fulford, Anthony J; Jallow, Amadou T; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M; Cerami, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4 h after oral supplementation with 2 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially scavenges heme iron, was unaffected. These data suggest that even modest oral supplements with highly soluble (non-physiological) iron, as typically used in low-income settings, could promote bacteremia by accelerating early phase bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses. PMID:26593732

  3. A lack of association between elevated serum levels of S100B protein and autoimmunity in autistic children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background S100B is a calcium-binding protein that is produced primarily by astrocytes. Increased serum S100B protein levels reflect neurological damage. Autoimmunity may have a role in the pathogenesis of autism in some patients. Autoantibodies may cross the blood-brain barrier and combine with brain tissue antigens, forming immune complexes and resulting in neurological damage. We are the first to investigate the relationship between serum levels of S100B protein, a marker of neuronal damage, and antiribosomal P protein antibodies in autistic children. Methods Serum S100B protein and antiribosomal P antibodies were measured in 64 autistic children in comparison to 46 matched healthy children. Results Autistic children had significantly higher serum S100B protein levels than healthy controls (P < 0.001). Children with severe autism had significantly higher serum S100B protein than patients with mild to moderate autism (P = 0.01). Increased serum levels of antiribosomal P antibodies were found in 40.6% of autistic children. There were no significant correlations between serum levels of S100B protein and antiribosomal P antibodies (P = 0.29). Conclusions S100B protein levels were elevated in autistic children and significantly correlated to autistic severity. This may indicate the presence of an underlying neuropathological condition in autistic patients. Antiribosomal P antibodies may not be a possible contributing factor to the elevated serum levels of S100B protein in some autistic children. However, further research is warranted to investigate the possible link between serum S100B protein levels and other autoantibodies, which are possible indicators of autoimmunity to central nervous system in autism. PMID:22420334

  4. Nutritional impact of elevated calcium transport activity in carrots

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jay; Hawthorne, Keli M.; Hotze, Tim; Abrams, Steven A.; Hirschi, Kendal D.

    2008-01-01

    Nutrition recommendations worldwide emphasize ingestion of plant-based diets rather than diets that rely primarily on animal products. However, this plant-based diet could limit the intake of essential nutrients such as calcium. Osteoporosis is one of the world's most prevalent nutritional disorders, and inadequate dietary calcium is a known contributor to the pathophysiology of this condition. Previously, we have modified carrots to express increased levels of a plant calcium transporter (sCAX1), and these plants contain ≈2-fold-higher calcium content in the edible portions of the carrots. However, it was unproven whether this change would increase the total amount of bioavailable calcium. In randomized trials, we labeled these modified carrots with isotopic calcium and fed them to mice and humans to assess calcium bioavailability. In mice feeding regimes (n = 120), we measured 45Ca incorporation into bones and determined that mice required twice the serving size of control carrots to obtain the calcium found in sCAX1 carrots. We used a dual-stable isotope method with 42Ca-labeled carrots and i.v. 46Ca to determine the absorption of calcium from these carrots in humans. In a cross-over study of 15 male and 15 female adults, we found that when people were fed sCAX1 and control carrots, total calcium absorption per 100 g of carrots was 41% ± 2% higher in sCAX1 carrots. Both the mice and human feeding studies demonstrate increased calcium absorption from sCAX1-expressing carrots compared with controls. These results demonstrate an alternative means of fortifying vegetables with bioavailable calcium. PMID:18202180

  5. Effect of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin levels

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Harris, Susan S.; Ceglia, Lisa; Palermo, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Serum sclerostin has been inversely associated with serum 25OHD concentration, but the effect of supplementation with vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin is unknown. This study was done to determine whether supplementation altered serum sclerostin levels in healthy older adults. Design We measured serum sclerostin at baseline and after two years in 279 men and women who participated in a placebo-controlled vitamin D (700 IU per day) and calcium (500 mg per day) intervention trial in men and women age 65 years and older. Method Serum sclerostin levels were measured by MesoScale Discovery chemiluminescence assay. Results In the men, sclerostin levels increased over 2 years by 4.11 1.81 ng/L (13.1%) in the supplemented group and decreased by 3.16 1.78 ng/L (10.9%) in the placebo group (P = 0.005 for difference in change). Adjustment for season, baseline physical activity, baseline serum sclerostin and total body bone mineral content (BMC) did not substantially alter the changes. In the women, there was no significant group difference in change in serum sclerostin either before or after the above adjustments. In both sexes, supplementation significantly increased serum ionized calcium and decreased parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Conclusion In conclusion, men and women appear to have different serum sclerostin responses to supplementation with vitamin D and calcium. The reason for this difference remains to be determined. PMID:24488080

  6. Ionized calcium in normal serum, ultrafiltrates, and whole blood determined by ion-exchange electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Edward W.

    1970-01-01

    Ion-exchange calcium electrodes represent the first practical method for the direct measurement of ionized calcium [Ca++] in biologic fluids. Using both “static” and “flow-through” electrodes, serum [Ca++] was within a rather narrow range: 0.94-1.33 mmoles/liter (mean, 1.14 mmoles/liter). Within a given individual, [Ca++] varied only about 6% over a several month period. Consistent pH effects on [Ca++] were observed in serum and whole blood, [Ca++] varying inversely with pH. Less consistent pH effects were also noted in ultrafiltrates, believed to largely represent precipitation of certain calcium complexes from a supersaturated solution. Heparinized whole blood [Ca++] was significantly less than in corresponding serum at normal blood pH, related to the formation of a calcium-heparin complex. [Ca++] in ultrafiltrates represented a variable fraction (66.7-90.2%) of total diffusible calcium. There was no apparent correlation between serum ionized and total calcium concentrations. Thus, neither serum total calcium nor total ultrafiltrable calcium provided a reliable index of serum [Ca++]. Change in serum total calcium was almost totally accounted for by corresponding change in protein-bound calcium [CaProt]. About 81% of [CaProt] was estimated to be bound to albumin and about 19% to globulins. From observed pH, serum protein, and [CaProt] data, a nomogram was developed for estimating [CaProt] without ultrafiltration. Data presented elsewhere indicate that calcium binding by serum proteins obeys the mass-law equation for a monoligand association. This was indicated in the present studies by a close correspondence of observed serum [Ca++] values with those predicted by the McLean-Hastings nomogram. While these electrodes allow study of numerous problems not possible previously, they have not been perfected to the same degree of reliability obtainable with current pH electrodes. The commercial (Orion flow-through) electrode is: (a) expensive. (b) requires periodic replacement of membranes, and (c) has not yet been thermostated. As with blood pH measurements. (d) electrode response is logarithmic, i.e. small potential errors generate rather large [Ca++] errors. (e) loss of CO2 should be prevented, and (f) errors due to other cations must be considered under certain conditions. Despite these limitations, we believe the electrode represents a major advance in calcium metabolism. PMID:4983663

  7. Depressed serum erythropoietin in pregnant women with elevated blood lead.

    PubMed

    Graziano, J H; Slavkovic, V; Factor-Litvak, P; Popovac, D; Ahmedi, X; Mehmeti, A

    1991-01-01

    During the course of a prospective study of lead exposure and pregnancy outcome in 1,502 women, we tested the hypothesis that environmental lead exposure is associated with depressed serum erythropoietin concentration. At mid-pregnancy and at delivery, blood samples were stratified by hemoglobin concentration; within each hemoglobin stratum, sera of women with the lowest and highest whole blood lead concentrations were selected for serum erythropoietin analysis. Analysis of variance revealed that women with higher blood lead levels had inappropriately low serum erythropoietin at both mid-pregnancy and at delivery. Thus, depressed serum erythropoietin appears to indicate lead nephrotoxicity, and it may also be responsible for the anemia associated with lead poisoning. PMID:1772259

  8. Comparison of Serum Calcium and Magnesium Between Preeclamptic and Normotensive Pregnant Nigerian Women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwuja, EI; Famurewa, AC; Ikaraoha, CI

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests the involvement of calcium and magnesium metabolism in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. However, findings from studies are heterogenous and inconsistent. Aim: The study aimed to compare the total serum calcium and magnesium levels in preeclamptic women with that of normotensive pregnant women. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional subjects of eighty pregnant women living in Abakaliki, Ebonyi state, South-East Nigeria, were recruited into the study. The present study compared serum calcium and magnesium in forty preeclamptic (cases) and forty normotensive (control) pregnant women matched for age, parity, and socioeconomic status. Serum calcium and magnesium levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 20 statistical software. Differences between means were compared using Student's t-test with P < 0.05 considered as statistically significant. Results: While the mean serum calcium was comparable between preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women (13.99 [3.29] vs. 14.02 [5.68] μg/dl), the preeclamptic pregnant women have significantly (P < 0.001) lower serum magnesium in comparison to their normotensive counterparts (3.22 [1.05] vs. 4.15 [0.78]). Conclusion: It may be concluded that serum magnesium seems to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia in this environment. PMID:27144074

  9. Assessment of serum calcium and phosphorus in pulmonary tuberculosis patients before, during and after chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rohini, K; Bhat, Surekha; Srikumar, P S; Mahesh Kumar, A

    2014-07-01

    Our study was aimed to assess the levels of serum calcium and phosphorus in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Blood samples were collected from 40 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis before treatment (PTB-0), at the end of 2 months of intensive phase of treatment (PTB-2) and after 6 months of treatment (PTB-6). Age and weight matched normal healthy volunteers (n = 37) served as normal controls. Serum was analyzed for calcium and phosphorus. Serum calcium significantly decreased to hypocalcemic levels and serum phosphorus significantly decreased but was within normophosphatemic limits in pulmonary tuberculosis. Chemotherapy for tuberculosis managed to raise serum levels of both the ions, with hypocalcemia still persisting in majority of patients during treatment but getting resolved in a significant percentage of patients at the end of 6 months of treatment. Results indicate the need for calcium and phosphorus supplements in tuberculosis patients during chemotherapy. This study also warrants the need for regular monitoring of serum calcium and phosphorus in patients undergoing anti-tuberculosis treatment. PMID:24966490

  10. Correlation of Parathormone and the Serum Values of Acidum Uricum with Calcium Nephrolithiasis Examined by Three Different Methods of Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Milicevic, Snjezana; Bijelic, Radojka; Jakovljevic, Branislava

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Urolithiasis is a multifactorial disease. Changes in social and economic living conditions have generated changes in chemical composition of urolith too. Although calcium is a predominant crystalline constituent of kidney stones in 80% of cases, metabolic disorders are not the main reason for their formation. Hyperparathyroidism may be a cause of occurrence of calcium lithiasis, however, the biggest number of its occurrence is not a consequence of elevated values of parathormone. Acid uric has a pervasive presence in all body fluids. The serum level of acid uric is determined by its rate of synthesis, rate of excretion by kidney and gastrointestinal tract, and metabolism. Goal. The goal of our study is to determine a correlation of calcium lithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract with the parathormone values and the concomitant values of acidum uricum. Material and methods. The study was prospective and included 120 patients with calcium lithiasis of the upper part of urinary tract, divided in three age categories, 20-40 years, 40-60 years and older than 60 years. The diagnosis of calcium lithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract was made on the basis of urinary tract ultrasonography, and kidney-ureter-bladder radiography (KUB) /intravenous urography (IVU), urine culture and chemical analysis of stone with patients who had a spontaneous emission of stone or following some of the methods for active removal of stone; with some patients non-contrast (NCCT) was carried out too. All patients were subjected to the laboratory analysis of the serum level of acidum uricum and parathormone. Results. With observed 120 patients suffering from calcium urolithiasis, who belonged to adult population, no patient had an elevated value of parathormone, while three patients (2.5%) had the values of acidum uricum higher than the reference values. The average value (for both parameters) was the lowest with the youngest patients and vice versa, and only in the group of 40 to 60 years of age there were patients whose values of the acidum uricum parameter was outside the interval of reference values; the other age groups did not have such values. Based on the analysis of the variance, as a statistical method, it was determined that the average values of acidum uricum in different age groups were statistically significantly different, which is not the case for the parameter parathormone. (p>0,05). Conclusion. The biggest number of nephrolithiasis is not a consequence of elevated values of parathormone. Hyperuricosemia may be present with calcium urolithiasis, without participation in forming kidney stones, most probably as an indirect sign of the existence of the initial insulin resistance and metabolic disease. PMID:26236076

  11. Nutritional impact of elevated calcium transport activity in carrots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition recommendations worldwide emphasize ingestion of plant-based diets rather than diets that rely primarily on animal products. However, this plant-based diet could limit the intake of essential nutrients such as calcium. Osteoporosis is one of the world's most prevalent nutritional disorders...

  12. Serum Calcium Status among Pregnancies Complicated By Pre-Eclampsia in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Hoque, M R; Paul, U K; Hossain, M M

    2015-10-01

    This case control cross sectional study was carried out in the department of biochemistry, Mymensingh medical college in collaboration with the outpatient department, family planning model clinic and antenatal obstetric ward of Mymensingh medical college hospital, Mymensingh during the period of July 2003 to June 2004. The aim of the study was to explore the status of serum calcium among pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia in Bangladesh as a means to monitor the possibility of management of these patients. A total of 82 subjects were selected and were grouped as Group I (32 healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancy as control subjects) and Group II (50 pregnant women with pre-eclampsia as cases). Serum calcium was estimated by colorimetric method from each sample. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS windows package. Among the groups, meanSD (Standard Deviation) of Group I and Group II serum calcium were 8.711.00 and 10.781.44 mg/dl respectively. By comparing Group I with Group II highly significant difference were found in case of serum calcium (P<0.001). It is evident from the study that serum calcium level significantly increases among pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia in Bangladesh. PMID:26619999

  13. Low serum calcium is associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction in a Chinese population with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Ma, Heng; Hao, Xiaochen; Yang, Jun; Chen, Qiujing; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Ruiyan

    2016-01-01

    Whether serum calcium is associated with heart systolic function in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains to be elucidated. This study is aimed to assess the association between serum calcium and left ventricular systolic dysfunction in a Chinese population of CAD. The cross-sectional study included 5938 CAD patients with and without AMI in China. The factors associated with AMI and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were evaluated. The data showed that AMI patients had lower serum calcium levels (2.11 ± 0.13 vs 2.20 ± 0.10 mmol/l, P < 0.001) than those without AMI. Multiple logistic regression analysis exhibited that serum calcium (OR: 0.000, 95% CI: 0.000–0.001) was one of the independent factors correlated with AMI. CAD patients with and without AMI when LVEF <50% had lower serum calcium levels than those when LVEF ≥50% respectively. Serum calcium was independently associated with LVEF and LVEF <50% in CAD patients with and without AMI respectively using multivariate analysis. The independent association between serum calcium and LVEF still existed among CAD patients when LVEF ≥50%. Serum calcium levels are significantly decreased following AMI. Low serum calcium is independently correlated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction in CAD patients with and without AMI. PMID:26924008

  14. Benign elevations in serum aminotransferases and biomarkers of hepatotoxicity in healthy volunteers treated with cholestyramine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are currently no serum biomarkers capable of distinguishing elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) that portend serious liver injury potential from benign elevations such as those occurring during cholestyramine treatment. The aim of the research was to test the hypothesis that newly proposed biomarkers of hepatotoxicity would not significantly rise in serum during elevations in serum ALT associated with cholestyramine treatment, which has never been associated with clinically relevant liver injury. Methods In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, cholestyramine (8g) was administered for 11 days to healthy adult volunteers. Serum from subjects with elevations in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) exceeding three-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) were utilized for biomarker quantification. Results In 11 of 67 subjects, cholestyramine treatment resulted in ALT elevation by >3x ULN (mean 6.9 fold; range 3–28 fold). In these 11 subjects, there was a 22.4-fold mean increase in serum levels of miR-122 relative to baseline, supporting a liver origin of the serum ALT. Significant elevations were noted in mean levels of necrosis biomarkers sorbitol dehydrogenase (8.1 fold), cytokeratin 18 (2.1 fold) and HMGB1 (1.7 fold). Caspase-cleaved cytokeratin 18, a biomarker of apoptosis was also significantly elevated (1.7 fold). A rise in glutamate dehydrogenase (7.3 fold) may support mitochondrial dysfunction. Conclusion All toxicity biomarkers measured in this study were elevated along with ALT, confirming the liver origin and reflecting both hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis. Since cholestyramine treatment has no clinical liver safety concerns, we conclude that interpretation of the biomarkers studied may not be straightforward in the context of assessing liver safety of new drugs. PMID:25086653

  15. Elevated serum thymidine kinase activity in canine splenic hemangiosarcoma*.

    PubMed

    Thamm, D H; Kamstock, D A; Sharp, C R; Johnson, S I; Mazzaferro, E; Herold, L V; Barnes, S M; Winkler, K; Selting, K A

    2012-12-01

    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a soluble biomarker associated with DNA synthesis. This prospective study evaluated serum TK1 activity in dogs presenting with hemoabdomen and a splenic mass. An ELISA using azidothymidine as a substrate was used to evaluate TK1 activity. Sixty-two dogs with hemoabdomen and 15 normal controls were studied. Serum TK1 activity was significantly higher in dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA) than in normal dogs (mean ± SEM = 17.0 ± 5.0 and 2.01 ± 0.6, respectively), but not dogs with benign disease (mean ± SEM = 10.0 ± 3.3). Using a cut-off of 6.55 U/L, TK activity demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.52, specificity of 0.93, positive predictive value of 0.94 and negative predictive value of 0.48 for distinguishing HSA versus normal. When interval thresholds of <1.55 and >7.95 U/L were used together, diagnostic utility was increased. Serum TK1 evaluation may help to discriminate between benign disease and HSA in dogs with hemoabdomen and a splenic mass. PMID:22236280

  16. Relationship between serum calcium and CA 19-9 levels in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fuszek, Peter; Lakatos, Peter; Tabak, Adam; Papp, Janos; Nagy, Zsolt; Takacs, Istvan; Horvath, Henrik Csaba; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Speer, Gabor

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine the calcium metabolism of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with colorectal cancer and control patients. METHODS: Seventy newly diagnosed CRC patients were included. The healthy control group was age and gender matched (n = 32). Particular attention was devoted to the relationship between serum calcium of patients, and levels of AFP, CEA, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) (that could be considered as prognostic factors). Furthermore, the Ca-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene A986S polymorphism was investigated in these patients, as well as the relationship between different CaSR genotypes and the data stated above. RESULTS: A lower level of ionized calcium (also corrected for albumin) was found in the serum of CRC patients with normal 25 (OH) vitamin D levels. The ionized calcium concentration was inversely correlated with the serum level of CA 19-9. There was no difference in the distribution of CaSR genotypes, between CRC patients and general population. The genotypes did not correlate with other data examined. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, lower levels of serum calcium might be a pathogenic and prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. PMID:15222030

  17. Intestinal Calcium Absorption and Serum Vitamin D Metabolites in Normal Subjects and Osteoporotic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, J. C.; Riggs, B. Lawrence; Eisman, John; Hamstra, Alan; Arnaud, Sara B.; Deluca, Hector F.

    1979-01-01

    Intestinal calcium absorption assessed by a double-isotope method, decreased significantly with aging in 94 normal subjects (r = −0.22, P < 0.025). In 52 untreated patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, calcium absorption was significantly lower than normal when either age or habitual calcium intake was used as a covariable (P < 0.001). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) were measured in 44 normal subjects and 27 osteoporotic patients. For all normals, calcium absorption and serum 1,25(OH)2D were positively correlated (r = 0.50, P < 0.001). In nonelderly normal subjects (ages 30-65 yr), dietary calcium intake correlated inversely with both calcium absorption (r = −0.39, P < 0.01) and with serum 1,25(OH)2D (r = −0.50, P < 0.01). Both osteoporotic patients and elderly normal subjects (ages 65-90 yr) differed from nonelderly normals in that these correlations were not present. In addition although serum 25-OH-D was normal, serum 1,25(OH)2D was significantly decreased in both osteoporotic patients and elderly normals (P < 0.001). In osteoporotic patients, calcium absorption increased significantly (P < 0.001) after 7 d administration of a small dose (0.4 μg/d) of synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3. In osteoporotics mean serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone was either normal (COOH-terminal assay) or low (NH2-terminal assay) relative to age-matched controls, and mean serum phosphate was increased. The data suggest that inadequate metabolism of 25-OH-D to 1,25(OH)2D contributes significantly to decreased calcium absorption and adaptation in both osteoporotics and elderly normal subjects. In patients with osteoporosis this abnormality could result from a decrease in factors that normally stimulate 1,25(OH)2D production, such as the decreased parathyroid hormone secretion and increased serum phosphate demonstrated in this group. In elderly subjects a primary abnormality in metabolism of 25-OH-D to 1,25(OH)2D, analagous to that seen in aging rats, cannot be excluded. Images PMID:468987

  18. Elevated Serum Bisphenol A Level in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qinmei; Liu, Xiao; Shen, Yang; Yu, Peng; Chen, Sisi; Hu, Jinzhu; Yu, Jianhua; Li, Juxiang; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Hong, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine serum Bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as well as the association between serum BPA and several hormonal parameters in DCM patients compared with a healthy control group. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight DCM patients and 88 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Serum BPA levels and several hormonal parameters (including total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were measured by using corresponding ELISA Kits. The free androgen index (FAI) was calculated by the formula: total T in nmol/L × 100/SHBG in nmol/L. Results: BPA levels in the total DCM group were significantly higher compared with that in the controls (6.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL vs. 3.8 ± 1.9 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Significant difference was also observed in SHBG and FAI between DCM patients and controls, (76.9 ± 30.9 nM/L vs. 41.0 ± 15.6 nM/L and 2.9 ± 3.5 vs. 5.3 ± 2.6, respectively, both of p < 0.001). Similar trends were observed in the male and female subgroup. Mean T level was lower in DCM group than in control group (540.8 ± 186.0 pg/mL vs. 656.3 ± 112.9 pg/mL, p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis has shown that increasing serum BPA levels were statistically significantly associated with increased SHBG levels. However, no statistical difference was noted for E2. Conclusion: Our findings firstly demonstrated that BPA exposure increased in DCM patients compared with that in healthy controls, while FAI and T levels decreased. SHBG presented a positive association with BPA. It is concluded that hormone disorder induced by BPA exposure might be an environmental factor in the pathology of DCM. PMID:25996886

  19. Macrophage recognition of cells with elevated calcium is mediated by carbohydrate chains of CD43.

    PubMed

    Miki, Yuichi; Oguri, Emiri; Hirano, Kazuya; Beppu, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages remove deteriorating cells (those undergoing apoptosis and oxidation) via poly-N-acetyllactosaminyl chains on CD43 caps, a major cell-surface glycoprotein. Unusually high intracellular calcium levels are also deteriorating for cells and tissue. Here we artificially elevated calcium levels in cells and examined the mechanism by which this elevation was resolved by macrophages. Results showed that treatment with the calcium ionophore A23187 and ionomycin induces capping of CD43 on Jurkat cells, which are subsequently recognized and phagocytosed by macrophages, indicating that macrophages regard cells with elevated calcium as targets for removal. Further tests showed that A23187- and ionomycin-treated Jurkat cells did not induce apoptotic changes such as DNA fragmentation or phosphatidylserine expression, indicating that these cells were removed despite still being viable. Jurkat cells pretreated with anti-CD43 antibody or those with poly-N-acetyllactosaminyl chains containing oligosaccharides inhibited macrophage binding, indicating that macrophages recognize the poly-N-acetyllactosaminyl chains on CD43. Binding was also inhibited by treating macrophages with anti-nucleolin antibody, indicating that recognition occurs through nucleolin, a cell-surface receptor. Further, nucleolin-transfected HEK293 cells bound A23187-treated cells, and this binding was inhibited by in the presence of oligosaccharides. Taken together, these results show that elevated calcium levels induce CD43 capping, and macrophages remove the cells if their nucleolin receptors can bind to the poly-N-acetyllactosaminyl chains of capped CD43. PMID:23400223

  20. Elevated serum transaminase activities were associated with increased serum levels of iron regulatory hormone hepcidin and hyperferritinemia risk.

    PubMed

    An, Peng; Wang, Hao; Wu, Qian; Guo, Xin; Wu, Aimin; Zhang, Zhou; Zhang, Di; Xu, Xiaochen; Mao, Qianyun; Shen, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Lihong; Xiong, Zhiqi; He, Lin; Liu, Yun; Min, Junxia; Zhou, Daizhan; Wang, Fudi

    2015-01-01

    Iron imbalance is a feature of liver damage. However, the biological correlation of serum hepcidin, a key regulator of iron homeostasis, with liver malfunction is undefined. To this end, we piloted the Chinese population studies to address whether hepcidin is linked to liver functionality. The serum hepcidin, ferritin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and bilirubin were examined in two independent Chinese cohorts consisted of 3455 individuals. After adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, smoking habits, drinking categories and diabetic status, a positive association between hepcidin and alanine transaminase (ALT) (beta?=?0.18??0.01, P?elevations in hepcidin expression, serum ALT and inflammatory cytokine IL-6 were discovered during the initiation stage of liver injury. Our findings suggest that increased serum hepcidin may reflect a protective response to the iron status and elevated serum cytokines during liver injury. Additional studies are warranted to validate these findings and test their potential clinical relevance in patients. PMID:26290281

  1. [Serum osteocalcin level as a marker of the functional state of osteoblasts after oral calcium tolerance test].

    PubMed

    Milkov, V; Ivanov, I

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of an oral calcium tolerance test with 1,000 mg calcium in 20 patients with recurrent renal calcium calculosis, a woman with primary hyperparathyroidism and incipient renal failure (serum creatinine 1.8 mg%), creatinine clearance 55 ml/min) and 9 healthy persons as controls. The serum osteocalcin level was determined before and after the oral test. The results show that the serum osteocalcin level alone is of no differential diagnostic value for differentiation of the various types of hypercalciuria in patients with recurrent renal calcium calculosis. As a marker of osteoblasts functional state however the determination of serum osteocalcin level is of great importance for the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. In 3 patients with renal hypercalciuria, often leading to general osteoporosis, an acute rise of serum osteocalcin level was found after the oral calcium tolerance test. High osteocalcin level was also found in the patient with primary hyperparathyroidism and incipient renal failure. PMID:3264644

  2. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor: elevated levels in serum and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A B; Eisenbeis, C H; Carrabis, S; Brown, M C; Ip, S H

    1990-01-01

    Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels were quantitated in the serum and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and degenerative joint disease (DJD). A sandwich immunoassay, employing two monoclonal antibodies against distinct epitopes on the IL-2R, was utilized for measurement. We found a striking elevation of sIL-2R in RA SF as compared with DJD SF (RA, 1319 +/- 135; DJD, 416 +/- 59; p less than 0.001). RA serum sIL-2R levels were also significantly elevated over DJD levels. There was no interaction between rheumatoid factor (RF) and sIL-2R. RA patients with elevated sIL-2R levels had significantly longer disease duration, higher c-reactive protein (CRP) levels in serum and SF, and higher RF levels in serum and SF. The groups were similar in regard to other laboratory variables. The presence of elevated levels of sIL-2R in RA serum and SF confirms the presence of a heightened immune reactivity and in vivo activation of lymphocytes in RA. PMID:2313471

  3. A rare case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome without elevated serum creatine kinase.

    PubMed

    Nisijima, Koichi; Shioda, Katutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening adverse reaction to antipsychotic drugs. Although there is no specific examination able to diagnose NMS, serum creatine kinase (CK) elevation has been reported in over 90% of NMS patients. In this report, we describe a patient who developed NMS but had normal CK levels. The patient presented with hyperthermia of over 38°C, severe muscle rigidity, autonomic dysfunction, and altered mental status. Although serum CK levels were measured three times during the course of NMS, the levels were within the normal range. The patient died of respiratory failure 13 days after the onset of NMS symptoms. As patients without elevated serum CK levels are rarely reported, we discuss potential reasons why the serum CK was not elevated in our patient. This case shows clinicians that although serum CK elevation is a useful indicator for the early detection of NMS, the diagnosis of NMS must be determined by clinical symptoms as otherwise, the appropriate treatment procedures for NMS may be delayed. PMID:24591835

  4. A rare case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome without elevated serum creatine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Nisijima, Koichi; Shioda, Katutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening adverse reaction to antipsychotic drugs. Although there is no specific examination able to diagnose NMS, serum creatine kinase (CK) elevation has been reported in over 90% of NMS patients. In this report, we describe a patient who developed NMS but had normal CK levels. The patient presented with hyperthermia of over 38°C, severe muscle rigidity, autonomic dysfunction, and altered mental status. Although serum CK levels were measured three times during the course of NMS, the levels were within the normal range. The patient died of respiratory failure 13 days after the onset of NMS symptoms. As patients without elevated serum CK levels are rarely reported, we discuss potential reasons why the serum CK was not elevated in our patient. This case shows clinicians that although serum CK elevation is a useful indicator for the early detection of NMS, the diagnosis of NMS must be determined by clinical symptoms as otherwise, the appropriate treatment procedures for NMS may be delayed. PMID:24591835

  5. Comparison of serum copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium levels in preeclamptic and healthy pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kumru, Selahattin; Aydin, Suleyman; Simsek, Mehmet; Sahin, Kazim; Yaman, Mehmet; Ay, Gul

    2003-08-01

    Deficient or excessive levels of blood trace elements can be an adverse factor in human and animal pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate possible differences in the levels of serum magnesium, calcium, copper, and zinc in preeclamptic and healthy pregnant women. Samples were collected from 30 preeclamptic (PE) and 30 healthy pregnant (HP) women. The serum copper concentration was significantly lower in the PE group by 68% (p<0.0001) when compared to the healthy controls. The serum zinc and calcium were 43% and 10% lower in the PE women, respectively (both with p<0.0001), whereas the magnesium concentration showed nonsignificant differences between the two groups. Measurement of these elements may be useful for the early diagnosis of a preeclamptic condition. PMID:12958401

  6. Elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels in men with normal seminal fluid analyses.

    PubMed

    Karpas, A E; Matsumoto, A M; Paulsen, C A; Bremner, W J

    1983-03-01

    Three men who volunteered as normal subjects were found to have abnormally high levels of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) despite having normal seminal fluid analyses and fertility. Two of the men had a history of previous orchitis, and one had an atrophic testis. Serum luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels were normal. These cases appear to represent compensated primary testicular disease, with normal sperm counts and fertility maintained at the expense of chronically elevated FSH levels. These results imply that in certain situations, the measurement of serum FSH levels may be a more sensitive index of testicular disease than the performance of seminal fluid analyses. PMID:6402388

  7. Calcium intake, serum vitamin D and obesity in children: is there an association?

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Kelly Aparecida; Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Loureiro, Laís Monteiro Rodrigues; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; de Novaes, Juliana Farias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between calcium intake and serum vitamin D levels and childhood obesity by an integrative review. DATA SOURCE: The research was conducted in the databases PubMed/medLine, Science Direct and SciELO with 2001 to 2014 publications. We used the combined terms in English: ''children'' and ''calcium'' or ''children'' and ''vitamin D'' associated with the descriptors: ''obesity'', ''adiposity'' or ''body fat'' for all bases. Cross-sectional and cohort studies, as well as clinical trials, were included. Review articles or those that that have not addressed the association of interest were excluded. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight articles were part of this review, five of which were related to calcium and three to vitamin D. Most studies had a longitudinal design. The analyzed studies found an association between calcium intake and obesity, especially when age and sex were considered. Inverse relationship between serum vitamin D and measures of adiposity in children has been observed and this association was influenced by the sex of the patient and by the seasons of the year. CONCLUSIONS: The studies reviewed showed an association between calcium and vitamin D with childhood obesity. Considering the possible protective effect of these micronutrients in relation to childhood obesity, preventive public health actions should be designed, with emphasis on nutritional education. PMID:25890445

  8. Elevated serum digoxin levels in a patient taking digoxin and Siberian ginseng.

    PubMed Central

    McRae, S

    1996-01-01

    A 74-year-old man taking a constant dose of digoxin for many years was found to have an elevated serum digoxin level with no signs of toxic effects. Common causes of elevated serum digoxin were ruled out, and the patient's digoxin level remained high after digoxin therapy was stopped. The patient then revealed that he was taking Siberian ginseng, a popular herbal remedy. The patient stopped taking ginseng, and the serum digoxin level soon returned to an acceptable level. The digoxin therapy was resumed. The patient resumed taking ginseng several months later, and the serum digoxin level again rose. Digoxin therapy was maintained at a constant daily dose, the ginseng was stopped once more, and the serum digoxin levels again returned to within the therapeutic range. It is unclear whether some component of the ginseng was converted to digoxin in vivo, interfered with digoxin elimination or caused a false serum assay result. The author cautions physicians to be alert to the potential for herbal remedies to interact with prescribed medications and to affect biochemical analyses. PMID:8705908

  9. Effect of elevated serum prolactin concentrations on cytokine production and natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Clodi, M; Svoboda, T; Kotzmann, H; Deyssig, R; Woloszczuk, W; Zielinski, C C; Luger, A

    1992-12-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies in rodents and human suggested an immunostimulatory effect of prolactin. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of chronically elevated serum prolactin concentrations on the immune system in patients with prolactinomas. For this purpose parameters of the humoral and cellular immune system were studied in seven patients with prolactinomas on two occasions (1) when their serum prolactin concentration had been normalized through treatment with dopamine agonists and (2) when their serum prolactin concentration was high. Serum concentrations of immunoglobulines, interleukin 1, 3 and 6, TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma and the soluble interleukin 2 receptor, leukocyte subsets and the natural killer cell activity were found to be within the normal range on both occasions, i.e. at normal and at high serum prolactin concentrations. The assumption could be made that long-lasting elevation of serum prolactin concentration induces adaptive changes when the acute stimulatory effects of prolactin on several parameters of the immune system have subsided. PMID:1369584

  10. Clinical significance of elevated serum and urine amylase levels in patients with appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Swensson, E E; Maull, K I

    1981-12-01

    During the 45 month period beginning January 1977, 251 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of acute appendicitis underwent celiotomy at the Medical College of Virginia Hospital. A preoperative serum or urine amylase determination was recorded in 155 of the patients (62 percent). Of this group, 15 patients (10 percent) had elevation of serum amylase or 2 hour urine amylase. Hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria directly led to misdiagnosis or treatment delay in 5 of the 15 patients. Appendiceal rupture occurred in three patients, two of whom had prolonged (greater than 1 month) hospitalizations directly attributable to the misdiagnosis. As a result of this study, we conclude that (1) acute appendicitis and elevated amylase levels may occur concurrently, (2) hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria should not dissuade the surgeon from early operation if other clinical features suggest appendicitis, and (3) abdominal pain and elevation of amylase level define significant intraabdominal disease, not specifically pancreatic disease. PMID:6172043

  11. Pubertal progression in the presence of elevated serum gonadotropins in girls with multiple endocrine deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Lucky, A W; Rebar, R W; Blizzard, R M; Goren, E M

    1977-10-01

    Pubertal progression in the presence of abnormally elevated serum gonadotropins was followed over several years in two girls with multiple endocrine deficiencies and mucocutaneous candidiasis. Both had hypoparathyroidism and one had adrenal failure as well. A serum level of progesterone (8 ng/ml) consistent with ovulation was documented in the one girl who had regular monthly menses. High serum levels of FSH (30--60 mIU/ml) at times when serum estradiol was in the normal pubertal range (100--200 pg/ml) may indicate partial ovarian end-organ resistance or failure. Since premature menopause is associated with this syndrome, we postulate that we are observing puberty in girls whose ovaries are in the early stages of a destructive process which may eventually result in irreversible ovarian failure. A possible explanation could be the existence of increased resistance to gonadotropins at the ovarian level because of gonadotropin receptor antibodies or an inherent receptor defect. PMID:914971

  12. Elevated serum squalene and cholesterol synthesis markers in pregnant obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus1

    PubMed Central

    Miettinen, Helena E.; Rönö, Kristiina; Koivusalo, Saila; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Pöyhönen-Alho, Maritta; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hiltunen, Timo P.; Gylling, Helena

    2014-01-01

    We examined serum cholesterol synthesis and absorption markers and their association with neonatal birth weight in obese pregnancies affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Pregnant women at risk for GDM (BMI >30 kg/m2) were enrolled from maternity clinics in Finland. GDM was determined from the results of an oral glucose tolerance test. Serum samples were collected at six time-points, one in each trimester of pregnancy, and at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum. Analysis of serum squalene and noncholesterol sterols by gas-liquid chromatography revealed that in subjects with GDM (n = 22), the serum Δ8-cholestenol concentration and lathosterol/sitosterol ratio were higher (P < 0.05) than in the controls (n = 30) in the first trimester, reflecting increased cholesterol synthesis. Also, subjects with GDM had an increased ratio of squalene to cholesterol (100 × μmol/mmol of cholesterol) in the second (11.5 ± 0.5 vs. 9.1 ± 0.5, P < 0.01) and third (12.1 ± 0.8 vs. 10.0 ± 0.7, P < 0.05) trimester. In GDM, the second trimester maternal serum squalene concentration correlated with neonatal birth weight (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). In conclusion, in obesity, GDM associated with elevated serum markers of cholesterol synthesis. Correlation of maternal serum squalene with neonatal birth weight suggests a potential contribution of maternal cholesterol synthesis to newborn weight in GDM. PMID:25301963

  13. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme is elevated in association with underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.B.; Cale, W.F.; Lapp, N.L. )

    1991-10-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (SACE) and lysozyme activity were measured in a group of 40 underground coal miners and two control groups, 20 subjects with sarcoidosis and 15 normal non-dust-exposed volunteers. The miners were grouped first according to whether they had recent exposure (still actively mining or retired three years or less prior to measurement) or temporally more distant exposure (retired more than three years prior to measurement). Secondly, they were grouped as to whether or not they had coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). The subjects with sarcoidosis were grouped according to disease activity. As expected, the subjects with active sarcoidosis had elevated SACE activity compared with normal subjects. The coal miners as a group did not have elevation of their SACE activity. However, the coal miners with recent exposure had elevated SACE activity (57.1 {plus minus} 3.9 U/ml) compared with normal controls (43.8 {plus minus} 1.5 U/ml, p = 0.007). The SACE activity in miners without recent exposure was not elevated (39.8 {plus minus} 1.3 U/ml) compared with the normal controls. No increase in SACE activity was found when the miners were grouped according to the presence or absence of CWP. In contrast, the miners' serum lysozyme activity was not elevated. Since alveolar macrophages are a potential source of SACE, elevation of SACE activity in underground coal miners may reflect alveolar macrophage activation caused by increased pulmonary mixed coal mine dust burden. Furthermore, since both SACE and serum lysozyme are elevated in association with silicosis, these findings may confirm that the macrophage responses to inhaled silica and coal dust differ.

  14. An Evaluation of 1,000 Serum Calcium and Inorganic Phosphate Determinations

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, David

    1970-01-01

    Unsolicited data can be accumulated through the utilization of laboratory reports. This article gives the results of a study performed on serum calcium and inorganic phosphate determinations carried out as part of an investigative routine. Since Ca and P vary together in a set of specific diseases, we should perhaps evaluate these tests together, since they might be a more sensitive and more specific index of disease than any other single abnormal component in interrelated findings. Imagesp57-a PMID:20468596

  15. [Systemic cytomegalovirus infection: changes in serum calcium and magnesium levels with foscarnet treatment].

    PubMed

    Marzal-Alfaro, M B; Manrique-Rodríguez, S; Alcaraz Romero, A; García San Prudencio, M; Fernández-Llamazares, C M

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus infection is common in cardiac transplant patients. Foscarnet is used, with limited evidence, as second-line treatment after ganciclovir failure in these patients. We describe the case of a paediatric cardiac transplant patient who developed electrolyte disturbances during foscarnet treatment for cytomegalovirus infection. The infection resolved after 6 weeks of treatment. Low ionized calcium and magnesium levels were observed during the drug infusion, which were treated with supplements. The serum levels reverted to normal after drug withdrawal. PMID:24785445

  16. Soluble TRAIL Concentration in Serum Is Elevated in People with Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wen; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Yu-Xia; Zhang, Qunye; Jiang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a multi-functional cytokine, which is involved in the pathophysiological processes of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Previously, we demonstrated that TRAIL stimulated lipid uptake and foam cell formation in macrophages in vitro. Several clinical studies have suggested that the serum concentration of TRAIL may be increased in humans with elevated blood cholesterol; however, the current data appear to be inconclusive in this regard. In the present study, we examined the relationships between the serum TRAIL concentration and cholesterol levels in 352 generally healthy subjects undergoing the routine annual health check. We showed that there were significant correlations between TRAIL concentration and levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols. The level of TRAIL was significantly elevated in subjects with hypercholesterolemia, although this relationship might be also associated with changes of other metabolic factors. Moreover, we showed that the level of blood cholesterol was significantly higher in subjects in the upper quartile of serum TRAIL. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the serum TRAIL concentration is elevated in people with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26633016

  17. Effect of Daily Consumption of Probiotic Yoghurt on Serum Levels of Calcium, Iron and Liver Enzymes in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background: To reach fetal appropriate growth during the third trimester, the requirements for dietary calcium and iron intakes during the pregnancy increases. This study was carried out to determine the effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on serum calcium and iron levels and liver enzymes among Iranian healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 70 primigravida pregnant women carrying singleton pregnancy at their third trimester were participated. Participants were randomly divided into two groups of consuming 200 g/d of conventional (n = 33) or probiotic yogurts (n = 37) for 9 weeks. The probiotic yogurt contained Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis with a total of min 1 × 107 CFU. To measure serum calcium, iron, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, blood samples were drawn in a fasting state at baseline and after 9 weeks intervention. Results: Consumption of probiotic yogurt resulted in maintaining serum calcium levels compared with the conventional yogurt (P = 0.01). Within-group differences in the conventional yogurt group revealed a significant reduction of serum calcium levels (−1.7 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). No significant differences were found between the two yogurts in terms of their effects on serum iron, AST and ALT levels. Conclusions: Consumption of probiotic yogurt among pregnant women resulted in maintaining serum calcium levels compared with the conventional yogurt; however, it could not affect serum iron, ALT and AST levels. PMID:24049622

  18. Both serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium levels may increase the risk of incident prostate cancer in Caribbean men of African ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Maria D; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Lindsay, Carole M; Smith, Garrett; Bennett, Franklyn I; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Aiken, William; Coard, Kathleen C M

    2015-01-01

    Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with both higher and lower risk of prostate cancer (PCa), whereas elevated levels of circulating calcium has been related to higher risks. However, there are few studies that account for effects of both calcium and 25(OH)D concentrations on incident PCa in a black population. We examined these relationships in a case–control study of men 40–80 years old with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed PCa in Jamaica, a tropical country. Mean serum calcium concentrations was higher among cases (2.32 ± 0.19 mmol/L) than controls, (2.27 ± 0.30 mmol/L) (P = 0.023) however, there were no differences in 25(OH)D by cancer status (cases, 33.67 ± 12.71 ng/mL; controls (32.25 ± 12.59 ng/mL). Serum calcium was not correlated with 25(OH)D (partial correlation: r, 0.06; P = 0.287). Multivariable-adjusted models showed a positive linear relationship between PCa and serum calcium (OR, 1.12; CI, 1.00–1.25 per 0.1 nmol/L). Serum 25(OH)D concentration also showed a positive association with PCa (OR, 1.23; CI, 1.01–1.49 per 10 ng/mL). The odds of PCa in men with serum 25(OH)D tertile 2 was OR, 2.18; CI, 1.04–4.43 and OR, 2.47 CI, 1.20–4.90 for tertile 3 (Ptrend = 0.013). Dietary intakes of calcium showed no relationship with PCa. Despite the strong relationship between serum calcium and vitamin D the mechanism by which each affects prostate cancer risk in men of African ancestry needs additional investigation. PMID:25858172

  19. Dietary calcium intake, serum copper concentration and bone density in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Strause, L.; Andon, M.B.; Howard, G.; Smith, K.T.; Saltman, P. Procter and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH )

    1991-03-11

    Data from experimental animal nutrition and animal husbandry indicate that several trace minerals, including copper (Cu) are involved in bone metabolism. In addition, a large body of data suggests that low dietary calcium (Ca) intake is a risk factor for age related bone loss. The authors measured the serum (Cu), dietary Ca intake (dCa) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine of 225 postmenopausal women. The median dCa and serum (Cu) were 562 mg/d and 9.73 umoles/L, respectively. Serum (Cu) but, not dCa, was greater in subjects with a history of estrogen therapy (ERT). BMD was higher in subjects with above median dCa and serum (Cu) (group 1) compared to those with below median values (group 2). BMD was intermediate for subjects with either Low serum (Cu):High dCa or High serum (Cu):Low dCa. This relationship was observed in the subject group as a whole, as well as in subgroups partitioned according to history of ERT. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ in basic demographic characteristics such as age, age at menopause, body weight and height. These data support the hypothesis that Ca and Cu nutriture are determinants of skeletal health in postmenopausal women.

  20. Induction of rat liver alkaline phosphatase: the mechanism of the serum elevation in bile duct obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Marshall M.; Righetti, Adriana

    1970-01-01

    Bile duct ligation in the rat leads to a rapid increase in hepatic and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Within 12 hr after bile duct ligation, hepatic alkaline phosphatase has increased 7-fold and serum alkaline phosphatase activity 2½-fold. The elevation in the serum activity is completely due to an increase in an isozyme that appears to originate in the liver. This serum isozyme and liver phosphatase, both partially purified by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography, have identical Michaelis constants, pH optima, and rates of heat denaturation. These isozymes migrate identically when subjected to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and their migration rates are equally slowed after neuraminidase digestion. The data suggest that the rise in hepatic alkaline phosphatase activity is dependent on de novo protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, in a dose that inhibited incorporation of leucine-14C into protein by 68%, inhibited the rise in liver phosphatase by 98% and that in serum by 80%. The rise in liver phosphatase activity could not be accounted for by simple retention of alkaline phosphatase that would normally appear in bile. The rise in liver activity after bile duct ligation was 240 times greater than the amount of phosphatase that normally appears in bile over a similar period of time. Cycloheximide had no effect on the bile duct ligation-induced changes in the serum and liver glutamic pyruvic transaminase. Images PMID:5415676

  1. Intralobar pulmonary sequestration associated with marked elevation of serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9.

    PubMed

    Ambiru, Satoshi; Nakamura, Shunta; Fukasawa, Motoji; Mishima, Osamu; Kuwahara, Takeichiro; Takeshi, Akihiko

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a 62-year-old man who experienced elevated serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) levels (>500 U/mL) for 4 years, and was finally diagnosed with right intralobar pulmonary sequestration. Surgery confirmed the presence an aberrant artery arising from the descending thoracic aorta and entering the right lower lobe basal segment. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated markedly positive staining of CA19-9 in the ciliated cylindrical epithelia, alveoli, and mucus in the cysts. After pulmonary resection, CA19-9 levels decreased to within a normal range. Therefore, the cause of the elevated serum CA19-9 levels in this case was almost certainly due to intralobar pulmonary sequestration. PMID:19932280

  2. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Ho, Wen-Chao; Caffrey, James L.; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2014-10-15

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Elevated cadmium exposure is global public health issue and the assessment of zinc nutritional status may be an important covariate in determining its effective renal toxicity. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium was associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. • Low serum zinc may exacerbate risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction. • Both zinc deficiency and elevated cadmium exposure are global public health issues. • Nutritional status is important in the assessment of cadmium nephrotoxicity.

  3. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to bone mineral density among US adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A higher calcium intake is still the primary recommendation for the prevention of osteoporosis, while vitamin D deficiency is often not addressed. To study the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in regard to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in ...

  4. A predictive algorithm for evaluating elevated serum prolactin in patients with a sellar mass.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jason S; Salinas, Ryan; Molinaro, Annette; Chang, Edward F; Kunwar, Sandeep; Blevins, Lewis; Aghi, Manish K

    2015-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia occurs in patients with a prolactinoma and in those with a sellar mass compressing the pituitary stalk. Distinguishing these two diagnostic possibilities guides treatment with dopamine agonist therapy or surgical resection. We aimed to identify a simple, predictive algorithm to aid in the diagnosis of prolactinoma in patients with an elevated serum prolactin and a sellar mass. A case-control analysis of pathologically confirmed prolactinomas and non-endocrine secreting controls from the University of California, San Francisco was performed. From 2001 to 2011, this resulted in 177 patients with prolactinomas and 87 controls. Univariate and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined the significance of demographic variables, patient symptoms, laboratory values, and radiographic findings in distinguishing pathology. Additionally, a subset of patients with mildly elevated serum prolactin (25-125 ng/ml) was independently analyzed. Prolactinomas had a mean pre-operative prolactin of 858 ng/ml versus 17.57 ng/ml in controls (p<0.01). One hundred and two (62.6%) of the prolactinomas were macroadenomas (size >10mm) compared to 74 (92.5%) of the controls (p<0.01). CART analysis identified preoperative prolactin (>41.5 ng/ml), age (<40.5 years), and size (<17 mm) as being predictive of prolactinoma with a misclassification rate of 7.9% (21/264). Similar analysis on the subset of patients with mildly elevated serum prolactin (<125 ng/ml) identified size (<2.5 cm) and pre-operative prolactin (>40 ng/ml) as key variables. These two factors correctly predicted 98.6% (69/70) of cases. Our model correctly classifies most patients with elevated serum prolactin and identifies those patients most amenable to surgical treatment. PMID:25481269

  5. Total calcium and magnesium determined in serum with an automated stopped-flow analyzer.

    PubMed

    Koupparis, M A; Diamandis, E P; Malmstadt, H V

    1982-10-01

    We describe the measurement of total calcium and magnesium in serum with an automated microcomputer-controlled stopped-flow analyzer. The calcium method is based on the cresolphthalein complexone procedure, with 2-amino-3-methyl-1-propanol as the alkalinizing agent. The assay, performed on 60-fold prediluted samples, requires 50 microL of serum. Absorbance is measured at 580 nm for 1 s, after a 5-s delay. Response is linearly related to concentration up to 5 mmol/L; analytical recovery averaged 97.8%. Within-day CVs were 0.7 to 1.5%, day-to-day CVs 1.8 to 2.5%. Results compared well with those by continuous-flow Technicon SMA II method. A sample throughput of as many as 260 samples per hour is possible. The magnesium determination, a complexometric procedure, involves magnesium/calmagite complex in an alkaline reagent mixture and ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid to eliminate calcium interference. Prediluted serum samples are used (100 microL of serum diluted 25-fold), and absorbance at 520 nm is linear with concentration to 50 mg/L. Within-run CVs were 0.5 to 1.1%, and day-to-day 1.3 to 3.8%; analytical recovery was 99.3%. Results compared well with those by atomic absorption spectrometry (r = 0.994). A delay time of 10 and a measurement time of 2.5 s allows for a throughput of as many as 180 samples per hour. PMID:7127745

  6. Evidence for increased renal tubule and parathyroid gland sensitivity to serum calcium in human idiopathic hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Worcester, Elaine M; Bergsland, Kristin J; Gillen, Daniel L; Coe, Fredric L

    2013-09-15

    Patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) have decreased renal calcium reabsorption, most marked in the postprandial state, but the mechanisms are unknown. We compared 29 subjects with IH and 17 normal subjects (N) each fed meals providing identical amounts of calcium. Urine and blood samples were collected fasting and after meals. Levels of three candidate signalers, serum calcium (SCa), insulin (I), and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH), did not differ between IH and N either fasting or fed, but all changed with feeding, and the change in SCa was greater in IH than in N. Regression analysis of fractional excretion of calcium (FECa) was significant for PTH and SCa in IH but not N. With the use of multivariable analysis, Sca entered the model while PTH and I did not. To avoid internal correlation we decomposed FECa into its independent terms: adjusted urine calcium (UCa) and UFCa molarity. Analyses using adjusted Uca and unadjusted Uca parallel those using FECa, showing a dominant effect of SCa with no effect of PTH or I. The effect of SCa may be mediated via vitamin D receptor-stimulated increased abundance of basolateral Ca receptor, which is supported by the fact PTH levels also seem more responsive to serum Ca in IH than in N. Although our data support an effect of SCa on FECa and UCa, which is more marked in IH than in N, it can account for only a modest fraction of the meal effect, perhaps 10-20%, suggesting additional mediators are also responsible for the exaggerated postprandial hypercalciuria seen in IH. PMID:23863465

  7. Elevated serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Young; Jang, Sun Hee; Kim, Song Yee; Chung, Kyung Soo; Song, Joo Han; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kang, Young Ae

    2016-01-01

    Increased serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with nonmalignant diseases have been investigated in previous reports. This study evaluates the clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease and pulmonary tuberculosis. The median CA 19-9 level was higher in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease than in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease: 13.80, tuberculosis: 5.85, p<0.001). A multivariate logistic regression analysis performed in this study showed that Mycobacterium abscessus (OR 9.97, 95% CI: 1.58, 62.80; p=0.014) and active phase of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease (OR 12.18, 95% CI: 1.07, 138.36, p=0.044) were found to be risk factors for serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. The serum CA 19-9 levels showed a tendency to decrease during successful treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease but not in pulmonary tuberculosis. These findings suggest that CA 19-9 may be a useful marker for monitoring therapeutic responses in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, although it is not pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease-specific marker. PMID:26613892

  8. Effect of zoledronic acid on serum calcium in Paget’s disease patients after educational strategies to improve calcium and vitamin D supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Henry G.; Su, Guoqin; Tan, Monique; Ozturk, Zafer E.; Aftring, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Bisphosphonates are the most effective therapeutic agents in patients with Paget’s disease of bone. As a result of their inhibition of osteoclastic activity, hypocalcemia of variable frequency and severity following intravenous bisphosphonate therapy has been reported. The present study assessed the effect of physician and patient education on adequate supplementation of calcium and vitamin D to reduce the potential risk of developing hypocalcemia following infusion of 5 mg zoledronic acid. Methods: This was an open-label, multicenter, controlled registry trial in which patients with Paget’s disease were treated with a single intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid. Physicians were provided with educational materials focusing on optimization of calcium and vitamin D supplementation following zoledronic infusion that they used to educate their patients. The primary safety variable was the percentage of patients with serum calcium level <2.07mmol/l 9–11 days after zoledronic acid infusion. Results: A total of 75 patients were evaluable in the post dose hypocalcemia safety analysis. Of these, only 1 patient had treatment-emergent hypocalcemia, with a serum calcium level of 1.92 mmol/l 4 days following therapy. Hypocalcemia-related symptoms were not reported in this patient and the serum calcium returned to normal range at 2.17 mmol/l within 1 week on oral calcium supplementation. Conclusions: These results suggest that, with optimization of calcium and vitamin D supplementation by physician and patient education, hypocalcemia is an infrequent occurrence following zoledronic acid infusion. PMID:26301065

  9. Molindone: higher doses needed to block pergolide-induced elevation of serum corticosterone than to elevate dopamine metabolites in brain.

    PubMed

    Fuller, R W; Snoddy, H D

    1983-12-01

    Molindone at a dose of 3 mg/kg i.p. in rats prevented pergolide-induced decreases in brain DOPAC (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) and HVA (homovanillic acid), causing instead significant increases in these dopamine metabolites when given in combination with pergolide. Molindone alone at 3 mg/kg caused two-fold or greater increases in DOPAC and HVA and at doses as low as 0.3 mg/kg caused significant increases in these metabolites. However, molindone at 3 mg/kg and lower doses was without effect on pergolide-induced elevation of serum corticosterone, though a higher dose of molindone, 10 mg/kg, significantly antagonized this increase in corticosterone. These data support earlier findings with molindone, suggesting it has greater affinity for presynaptic dopamine autoreceptors than for postsynaptic dopamine receptors. PMID:6645804

  10. Elevated Levels of IFN-? in CSF and Serum of Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Gao, Lina; Zang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore whether the levels of IFN-? in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and serum are elevated in ALS patients and to analyze the correlations between the IFN-? levels and disease progression. Methods CSF and serum samples were obtained from 52 ALS patients and 31 non-ALS patients. The levels of IFN-? in CSF and serum were assessed, and disease progression parameters, including the disease interval (months from onset, MFO), the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-r) score and the disease progression rate (DPR) were analyzed by registered neurologists. All samples were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analyses were performed using Prism software. Results Compared to the non-ALS patients, the ALS patients displayed significantly increased levels of IFN-? in both CSF and serum, and these values consistently correlated with disease progression. Conclusions These results demonstrated that IFN-? in CSF may serve as a biomarker of ALS differentiation and progression. CSF IFN-? was a more reliable biomarker of disease diagnosis and progression than serum IFN-?. PMID:26332465

  11. Cognitive slowing associated with elevated serum anticholinergic activity in older individuals is decreased by caffeine use

    PubMed Central

    Nebes, Robert D.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Halligan, Edythe M.; Houck, Patricia; Saxton, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The present study examined whether some of the age-associated decrements in basic cognitive resources (information-processing speed and working memory) result from anticholinergic medication use (as measured by serum anticholinergic activity) and whether such decrements are lessened by caffeine. Design Cross-sectional observational study Setting University medical center Participants 152 normal-elderly community volunteers Measurements Two tests each of information-processing speed and of working memory were administered and blood samples were drawn before and after cognitive testing to determine serum levels of anticholinergic activity and of paraxanthine - a caffeine metabolite. Results Elevated serum anticholinergic activity was associated with a significant but modest slowing in information-processing time, but only in those individuals who had low levels of serum paraxanthine. Serum anticholinergic activity did not correlate with performance on tests of working-memory. Conclusions These results suggest that anticholinergic medications are a relatively minor contributor to the decrements in basic processing resources commonly found in studies of normal aging. PMID:20808111

  12. Elevations in serum muscle enzyme activities in racehorses due to unaccustomed exercise and training.

    PubMed

    Mack, S J; Kirkby, K; Malalana, F; McGowan, C M

    2014-02-01

    Hereditary muscular disease is well described in racehorses, yet little is known about traumatic muscle disease associated with unaccustomed exercise or training. The objective of the study was to compare sedentary horses, racehorses undergoing training for the first time (unaccustomed exercise), and experienced racehorses during a training season (accustomed exercise) to investigate the effect of exercise and training on serum muscle enzyme activities and other variables. Horses were sampled prior to exercise for serum activities of aspartate amino transferase (AST), creatine kinase and other variables γ glutamyl transferase (GGT) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in a three-part study. Serum activities of AST and GGT were higher in fit racehorses (n=47) compared with sedentary horses (n=57) at a single time point (P<0.05). The monthly serum activity of AST in two-year-old racehorses (n=10) increased from month 1 to 4 of unaccustomed training (P<0.05). The serum activities of AST and GGT in three-year-old racehorses (n=12) previously accustomed to exercise sampled fortnightly to monthly showed a linear increase (P<0.05) with cumulative training days over the seven months of training, but showed minimal increase during the first four months of accustomed training. SAA was weakly correlated to cumulative training days. In conclusion, AST activity was increased by unaccustomed exercise and cumulative training stress in the racehorse. GGT appeared to be correlated to cumulative training load. Mild to moderate elevations in serum AST in racehorses may be associated with cumulative muscle damage from training or trauma associated with unaccustomed exercise. PMID:24415762

  13. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile: An Observational Study on a Large Cohort From South Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S; Irace, Concetta

    2016-02-01

    Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk.Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods.We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women.Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  14. Elevated serum IgE, eosinophilia, and lung function in rubber workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bascom, R.; Baser, M.E.; Thomas, R.J.; Fisher, J.F.; Yang, W.N.; Baker, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported an outbreak of acute respiratory illness associated with eosinophilia in a group of rubber workers who performed a thermoinjection process in which synthetic rubber was heated and then injected onto metal molds. This study was conducted to determine if persistent respiratory health effects were associated with this work area and to explore the possible allergic etiology of this syndrome. A survey was performed 1 mo after a major improvement in area ventilation and consisted of baseline, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry; diffusing capacity; serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), total eosinophil count; and skin patch testing. Baseline lung function, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry were not significantly worse in the exposed group as compared to the control group. However, either eosinophilia (greater than 450/mm3) or elevated serum IgE (greater than 470 ng/ml) were present in 44% of exposed workers vs. 11% of the control group (p = .003). Nine months later, neither eosinophilia nor elevated IgE were associated with employment in this work area. We conclude that employment in the thermoinjection process was associated with eosinophilia and elevated IgE, which suggests sensitization to one of the components of the rubber, although no effect on pulmonary function could be demonstrated.

  15. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug hypersensitivity: association with elevated basal serum tryptase?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is hypothesized that because of higher mast cell numbers and mediator release, mastocytosis predisposes patients for systemic immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions to certain drugs including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Objective To clarify whether patients with NSAID hypersensitivity show increased basal serum tryptase levels as sign for underlying mast cell disease. Methods As part of our allergy work-up, basal serum tryptase levels were determined in all patients with a diagnosis of NSAID hypersensitivity and the severity of the reaction was graded. Patients with confirmed IgE-mediated hymenoptera venom allergy served as a comparison group. Results Out of 284 patients with NSAID hypersensitivity, 26 were identified with basal serum tryptase > 10.0 ng/mL (9.2%). In contrast, significantly (P = .004) more hymenoptera venom allergic patients had elevated tryptase > 10.0 ng/mL (83 out of 484; 17.1%). Basal tryptase > 20.0 ng/mL was indicative for severe anaphylaxis only in venom allergic subjects (29 patients; 4x grade 2 and 25x grade 3 anaphylaxis), but not in NSAID hypersensitive patients (6 patients; 4x grade 1, 2x grade 2). Conclusions In contrast to hymenoptera venom allergy, NSAID hypersensitivity do not seem to be associated with elevated basal serum tryptase levels and levels > 20 ng/mL were not related to increased severity of the clinical reaction. This suggests that mastocytosis patients may be treated with NSAID without special precautions. PMID:24782901

  16. Body Fatness and Risk for Elevated Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol, and Serum Lipoprotein Ratios in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Daniel P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the relationship between body fat percent and risk for elevated blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and serum lipoprotein ratios in 1,230 African-American and 2,090 white 5-18 year olds (1,667 males and 1,653 females). Results support body fatness standards in children and adolescents as cardiovascular risk factors. (SLD)

  17. Elevated serum testosterone, hirsutism, and virilism associated with combined androgen-estrogen hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Urman, B; Pride, S M; Yuen, B H

    1991-04-01

    Nine postmenopausal women with symptoms and signs of androgen excess due to long-term use of an injectable androgen-estrogen combination were studied retrospectively. Cosmetically disturbing hirsutism was the major complaint in eight subjects. Other symptoms included hot flushes, decreased libido, mood changes, depression, and postmenopausal bleeding in the one patient with an intact uterus. Seven women had clitorimegaly; the clitoral index ranged from 45-120 mm2 (normal up to 35). Serum total testosterone levels were elevated in eight women, ranging from 5.7-14.9 nmol/L (normal up to 2.43). The androgen-estrogen combination was discontinued and oral or transdermal estrogen replacement was instituted. In five women followed serially for 16-24 months, elevated testosterone levels required 12-20 months to return to the normal premenopausal range. PMID:2002984

  18. Alcohol, metabolic risk and elevated serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in Indigenous Australians

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The interaction between overweight/obesity and alcohol intake on liver enzyme concentrations have been demonstrated. No studies have yet examined the interaction between metabolic syndrome or multiple metabolic risk factors and alcohol intake on liver enzymes. The aim of this study was to examine if alcohol consumption modifies the effect of metabolic risk on elevated serum GGT in Indigenous Australians. Methods Data were from N = 2609 Indigenous Australians who participated in a health screening program in rural far north Queensland in 1999-2000 (44.5% response rate). The individual and interactive effects of metabolic risk and alcohol drinking on elevated serum GGT concentrations (≥50 U/L) were analyzed using logistic regression. Results Overall, 26% of the population had GGT≥50 U/L. Elevated GGT was associated with alcohol drinking (moderate drinking: OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.6 - 3.2]; risky drinking: OR 6.0 [4.4 - 8.2]), and with abdominal obesity (OR 3.7 [2.5 - 5.6]), adverse metabolic risk cluster profile (OR 3.4 [2.6 - 4.3]) and metabolic syndrome (OR 2.7 [2.1 - 3.5]) after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking, physical activity and BMI. The associations of obesity and metabolic syndrome with elevated GGT were similar across alcohol drinking strata, but the association of an adverse metabolic risk cluster profile with elevated GGT was larger in risky drinkers (OR 4.9 [3.7 - 6.7]) than in moderate drinkers (OR 2.8 [1.6 - 4.9]) and abstainers (OR 1.6 [0.9 - 2.8]). Conclusions In this Indigenous population, an adverse metabolic profile conferred three times the risk of elevated GGT in risky drinkers compared with abstainers, independent of sex and ethnicity. Community interventions need to target both determinants of the population's metabolic status and alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of elevated GGT. PMID:20682033

  19. Freeze-dried strawberries lower serum cholesterol and lipid peroxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J

    2014-06-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m(2) (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (-3 ± 11 mg/dL, -3 ± 9 mg/dL, and -28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0-12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion molecules. Thus, HD-FDS exerted greater effects in lowering serum total and LDL cholesterol and NMR-derived small LDL particles vs. LD-FDS in the 12-wk study. These findings warrant additional investigation in larger trials. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01883401. PMID:24670970

  20. Freeze-Dried Strawberries Lower Serum Cholesterol and Lipid Peroxidation in Adults with Abdominal Adiposity and Elevated Serum Lipids123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M.; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)–derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (−3 ± 11 mg/dL, −3 ± 9 mg/dL, and −28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion molecules. Thus, HD-FDS exerted greater effects in lowering serum total and LDL cholesterol and NMR-derived small LDL particles vs. LD-FDS in the 12-wk study. These findings warrant additional investigation in larger trials. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01883401. PMID:24670970

  1. Chorioangioma of the placenta in association with early severe polyhydramnios and elevated maternal serum HCG: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bashiri, A; Maymon, E; Wiznitzer, A; Maor, E; Mazor, M

    1998-07-01

    We report a case of a chorioangioma of the placenta which was associated with elevated maternal serum HCG in the second trimester, severe early polyhydramnios and premature delivery. Chorioangioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an elevated HCG observed as part of the triple test. PMID:9643414

  2. Cinacalcet hydrochloride (Sensipar) in hemodialysis patients on active vitamin D derivatives with controlled PTH and elevated calcium x phosphate.

    PubMed

    Chertow, Glenn M; Blumenthal, Samuel; Turner, Stewart; Roppolo, Michael; Stern, Leonard; Chi, Eric M; Reed, John

    2006-03-01

    Active vitamin D derivatives attenuate the severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism but often increase serum calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) as a result of enhanced intestinal absorption. The calcimimetic cinacalcet HCl lowers parathyroid hormone (PTH) and tends to decrease Ca x P. A 16-wk, open-label clinical trial was conducted in adult hemodialysis patients who had controlled PTH (biointact PTH [biPTH] 80 to 160 pg/ml) and elevated Ca x P (> 55 mg2/dl2) and were receiving paricalcitol > 6 microg/wk (or an equipotent dose of an alternative active vitamin D derivative). At the start of the study, active vitamin D derivatives were decreased to a mean equivalent dose of paricalcitol 6 microg/wk, and cinacalcet was titrated from 30 mg/d to a maximum possible dose of 180 mg/d. Of the 72 study patients, 53 (74%) completed 8 wk of dose titration with cinacalcet. In response to cinacalcet, the following mean percentage changes were observed: biPTH, -1.8%; Ca, -9.7% (P < 0.0001), phosphorus, -11.1% (P < 0.0001), and Ca x P, -20.1% (P < 0.0001). At the end of the study, approximate Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative targets for biPTH (< or = 160 pg/ml) were achieved in 85% (45 of 53) of patients and for Ca x P (< or = 55 mg2/dl2) in 72% (38 of 53) of patients. Concurrent achievement of both targets occurred in 47% (25 of 53) of patients. In this open-label clinical trial, hemodialysis patients who had controlled PTH but elevated Ca x P and were taking moderate- to high-dose active vitamin D derivatives achieved improved control of mineral metabolism with a combination of low-dose active vitamin D derivatives and cinacalcet. The long-term effects of this treatment regimen on clinical outcomes should be tested prospectively. PMID:17699221

  3. Evidence that serum calcium oxalate supersaturation is a consequence of oxalate retention in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Worcester, E M; Nakagawa, Y; Bushinsky, D A; Coe, F L

    1986-01-01

    Serum oxalate rises in uremia because of decreased renal clearance, and crystals of calcium oxalate occur in the tissues of uremic patients. Crystal formation suggests that either uremic serum is supersaturated with calcium oxalate, or local oxalate production or accumulation causes regional supersaturation. To test the first alternative, we ultrafiltered uremic serum and measured supersaturation with two different methods previously used to study supersaturation in urine. First, the relative saturation ratio (RSR), the ratio of the dissolved calcium oxalate complex to the thermodynamic calcium oxalate solubility product, was estimated for 11 uremic (before and after dialysis) and 4 normal serum samples using a computer program. Mean ultrafiltrate oxalate predialysis was 89 +/- 8 microM/liter (+/- SEM), 31 +/- 4 postdialysis, and 10 +/- 3 in normals. Mean RSR was 1.7 +/- 0.1 (predialysis), 0.7 +/- 0.1 (postdialysis), and 0.2 +/- 0.1 (normal), where values greater than 1 denote supersaturation, less than 1, undersaturation. Second, the concentration product ratio (CPR), the ratio of the measured calcium oxalate concentration product before to that after incubation of the sample with calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal, was measured in seven uremic and seven normal serum ultrafiltrates. Mean oxalate was 91 +/- 11 (uremic) and 8 +/- 3 (normal). Mean CPR was 1.4 +/- 0.2 (uremic) and 0.2 +/- 0.1 (normal). Predialysis, 17 of 18 uremic ultrafiltrates were supersaturated with respect to calcium oxalate. The degree of supersaturation was correlated with ultrafiltrate oxalate (RSR, r = 0.99, r = 29, P less than 0.001; CPR, r = 0.75, n = 11, P less than 0.001). A value of ultrafiltrate oxalate of 50 microM/liter separated undersaturated from supersaturated samples and occurred at a creatinine of approximately 9.0 mg/dl. PMID:3711339

  4. Intra-abdominal sequestration of the lung and elevated serum levels of CA 19-9: a diagnostic pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Kriwanek, S; Feichtinger, H; Armbruster, C

    2004-01-01

    Background Extralobar pulmonary sequestration is an uncommon congenital abnormality that is rarely diagnosed after the age of 40 years. We describe a 64-year-old woman with an intra-abdominal sequestration of the lung and elevated carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 serum levels. Case outline On abdominal ultrasound a semi-solid cystic tumour was demonstrated that showed tight connection to the tail of the pancreas according to computed tomography. Cytological examination of the percutaneous biopsy did not lead to a definitive diagnosis. CA 19-9 serum levels were repeatedly elevated >250 IU/ml. With a tentative diagnosis of a tumour of the tail of pancreas the semi-solid cystic mass was resected. Frozen section histology suggested the diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration, which was confirmed by definitive histological examination. Immunohistochemical staining of the specimen with a specific monoclonal antibody against CA 19-9 showed strong immunoreactivity. Three months later the elevated CA 19-9 serum levels returned to normal. Discussion Elevated CA 19-9 serum levels have been described in benign pulmonary and mediastinal cystic lesions and in one case of extralobar intrathoracic lung sequestration. Although there is evidence that malignancies may arise in congenital lung cysts, CA 19-9 serum levels have not been investigated in such cases. Based on our results elevated serum values of CA 19-9 in combination with a cystic semi-solid mass in the left subphrenic space should include the differential diagnosis of extralobar pulmonary sequestration. PMID:18333047

  5. Elevated serum homocysteine level in the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, L Q; Zhang, H L; Guan, Z H; Hu, M Y; Zhang, T; Ge, S J

    2015-01-01

    The development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is always followed by changes in vascular endothelial cells that are related to the reactivity of the homocysteine (Hcy) sulfhydryl group. In this meta-analysis, we investigated the association of Hcy with the pathogenesis and progression of DPN. We screened the Embase, Ovid, PubMed, Web of Science, Wangfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. All analyses were performed by using the STATA software, version 12.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) and the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 software (Biostatic Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). The standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were further calculated. The electronic literature search identified six articles that included 603 patients with DPN and 687 healthy controls. The pooled SMD of those six studies revealed that increased serum levels of Hcy may be correlated with DPN (SMD = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.09-1.36, P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis according to ethnicity indicated that high serum Hcy levels might be an important risk factor for DPN in both Asian and Caucasian populations (Asians: SMD = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.45-0.79, P < 0.001; Caucasians: SMD = 2.32, 95%CI: 2.10-2.55, P < 0.001; respectively). Elevated serum levels of Hcy indicate the risk of development of DPN in patients, suggesting that Hcy levels could be used as a marker for new therapeutic approaches to DPN. PMID:26634502

  6. Elevated Serum IgG4 Defines Specific Clinical Phenotype of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Ying-Qian; Ma, Jian-Da; Luo, Ling; Zheng, Dong-hui; Dai, Lie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To explore the correlation of serum IgG4 (sIgG4) with clinical manifestations or therapeutic response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Consecutive 136 RA patients were recruited and followed up at regular interval. SIgG4 was detected by immunonephelometry. Serial synovial tissue sections from 46 RA patients were stained immunohistochemically for IgG4. Results. Forty-six percent of 136 RA patients had elevated sIgG4. Patients with elevated sIgG4 had higher sIgG4/sIgG ratio, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, rheumatoid factor, and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies than those with normal sIgG4 (all P < 0.05). Among 45 patients who received methotrexate and leflunomide therapy, 50% (9/18) of patients with elevated sIgG4 and 85% (23/27) of patients with normal sIgG4 reached therapeutic target (disease activity score of 28 joints < 3.2) at 6-month visit (χ2 = 6.508, P = 0.011). IgG4-positive plasma cell count correlated positively with sIgG4, total synovitis score, and CD3-, CD20-, and CD38-positive cell counts (all P < 0.05). Conclusions. Our results showed that elevated sIgG4 in RA is common and disproportional to total IgG and RA with elevated sIgG4 may be a specific clinical phenotype with higher disease activity, higher level of autoantibodies, and poor response to methotrexate and leflunomide therapy. PMID:25548435

  7. Elevated Serum Liver Enzymes in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-hypopnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Yan-Lin; Chen, Rui; Wang, Yi; Xiong, Kang-Ping; Huang, Jun-Ying; Han, Fei; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with elevated liver enzymes and fatty liver. The purpose of this study was to measure serum liver enzyme levels in patients evaluated by polysomnography (PSG) and the factors associated with liver injury in OSAS patients. Methods: All patients referred to PSG for evaluation of sleep apnea symptoms between June 2011 and November 2014 were included in this study. Demographic data and PSG parameters were recorded. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels were systematically measured. OSAS patients were divided into mild, moderate, and severe groups according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) values of 5–14 events/h, 15–29 events/h, and ≥30 events/h. Results: A total of 540 patients were enrolled in this study; among these patients, 386 were male. Elevated liver enzymes were present in 42.3% of OSAS patients (32.4% in mild/moderate group; 51.0% in severe group) and 28.1% patients without OSAS. Patients with OSAS had higher body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.01). In the bivariate correlation, the liver enzymes level was negatively correlated with age and the lowest arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), and was positively correlated with BMI, oxygen desaturation index, percent of total time with oxygen saturation level <90% (TS90%), AHI, total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG). In logistic regression analysis, Age, BMI, TS90%, TC, and TG were included in the regression equation. Conclusions: Our data suggest that OSAS is a risk factor for elevated liver enzymes. The severity of OSAS is correlated with liver enzyme levels; we hypothesize that hypoxia is one of main causes of liver damage in patients with OSAS. PMID:26608975

  8. Brief oral stimulation, but especially oral fat exposure, elevates serum triglycerides in humans.

    PubMed

    Mattes, Richard D

    2009-02-01

    Oral exposure to dietary fat results in an early initial spike, followed by a prolonged elevation, of serum triglycerides in humans. The physiological and pathophysiological implications remain unknown. This study sought to determine the incidence of the effect, the required fat exposure duration, and its reliability. Thirty-four healthy adults participated in four to six response-driven trials held at least a week apart. They reported to the laboratory after an overnight fast, a catheter was placed in an antecubital vein, and a blood sample was obtained. Participants then ingested 50 g of safflower oil in capsules with 500 ml of water within 15 min to mimic a high fat meal but without oral fat exposure. Blood was collected 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 min after capsule ingestion with different forms (full fat, nonfat, none) and durations of oral fat exposures (10 s, 5 min, 20 min, and/or 2 h). A triglyceride response (increase of triglyceride >10 mg/dl within 30 min) was observed in 88.2%, 70.5%, and 50% of participants with full-fat, nonfat, and no oral exposure, respectively. Test-retest reliability was 75% with full-fat exposure but only 45.4% with nonfat exposure. Full-fat and nonfat exposures led to comparable significant elevations of triglyceride over no oral stimulation with 10-s exposures, but full fat led to a greater rise than nonfat with 20 min of exposure. These data indicate that nutritionally relevant oral fat exposures reliably elevate serum triglyceride concentrations in most people. PMID:19074638

  9. Elevated serum 25(OH)-vitamin D levels are negatively correlated with molar-incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Kühnisch, J; Thiering, E; Kratzsch, J; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Hickel, R; Heinrich, J

    2015-02-01

    To date, the precise etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is uncertain. Vitamin D plays a key role in hard tissue formation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and dental health data obtained from 1,048 children in a 10-year follow-up of the Munich GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. The dental examination included the diagnosis of MIH and recording of (non-)cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from blood samples of the 10-year investigation and measured with a fully automated, modular system. Different logistic regression and Poisson hurdle models were calculated. MIH was diagnosed in 13.6% of the study population. Approximately 16.4% of the children demonstrated caries-related defects (D3-4MFS > 0). The mean season-adjusted concentration of 25(OH)D was 75.8 nmol/l (standard deviation 22.0 nmol/l). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, equivalent income, and television/personal computer (TV/PC) viewing hours, a 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio of having MIH (OR = 0.89; P = 0.006). Furthermore, higher 25(OH)D values were associated with a lower number of caries-affected permanent teeth. It is concluded that elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with better dental health parameters. PMID:25503610

  10. A syndrome of functional hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and sterility in a male with elevated serum estradiol.

    PubMed

    Valenta, L J

    1977-08-01

    A 36-year-old male complaining of impotence was examined. He was a genotypic male. Phenotypically, he exhibited signs of long-standing estrogen excess, such as feminine body build, gynecomastia, and varicose veins. His testes were soft and borderline small, and his prostate was small and soft. However, he had a normal-sized penis, normal male hair distribution, normal sense of smell, and normal intelligence. The laboratory data were compatible with mild hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Serum estradiol (E2) levels were consistently elevated. The patient had azoospermia and a decreased semen volume. Inappropriately low levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone responded normally to gonadotropin-releasing hormone and clomiphene citrate. Levels of both testosterone (T) and E2 increased dramatically after prolonged clomiphene medication and in response to human chorionic gonadotropin. There was no change in either T or E2 levels in response to manipulations of the pituitary-adrenal axis. It is concluded that the elevated E2 level was responsible for suppression of gonadotropins which, in turn, caused mild hypogonadism and sterility in this patient. According to the stimulation tests, the source of the elevated E2 levels was testicular. PMID:69556

  11. Serum Galectin and Renal Dysfunction in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Karetnikova, Victoria; Osokina, Anastasia; Gruzdeva, Olga; Uchasova, Evgenya; Zykov, Michael; Kalaeva, Victoria; Kashtalap, Vasily; Shafranskaya, Kristina; Hryachkova, Oksana; Barbarash, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between serum galectin levels and renal dysfunction in relation to in-hospital prognosis and unfavorable prognosis 1 year after ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI). Patients were assigned to two groups according to the cystatin C-based estimate of GFR on day 12 after STEMI: (1) STEMI patients with normal renal function (GFR based on cystatin C levels = 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and (2) those with renal dysfunction (RD) (GFR based on cystatin C levels <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). A decrease in GFR estimated from the CKD-EPI equation on day 12 was more frequently found in patients with a reduced GFR based on cystatin C levels (41.9%) compared with those without RD (21.3%). Galectin levels exceeded the cut-off value (17.8 ng/mL) in 50.6% of cases in the group with GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and in 32% of cases in the group with a normal GFR. The presence of RD and elevated galectin levels >17.8 ng/mL on day 12 after MI are independent predictors of an adverse prognosis at 1 year in STEMI patients. Elevated galectin levels are directly correlated with the presence of early postinfarction angina. PMID:26980923

  12. Serum Ionized Calcium Quantification for Staging Canine Periodontal Disease: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Miguel Carreira, L; Daniela, Dias; Pedro, Azevedo

    2015-06-01

    Periodontal diseases (PD) are infectious, inflammatory, progressive diseases of the oral cavity affecting people and dogs. PD takes 2 forms: gingivitis and periodontitis. Diagnosing or staging PD can be achieved only with dental x-rays and periodontal probing, both of which require the use of general anesthesia in dogs. This study aimed to determine whether serum ionized calcium ([iCa(2+)]) levels can be useful in preliminary PD staging in dogs. A sample of 40 dogs (n = 40) was divided into 4 groups (n = 10 each) based on the following PD stages: G1 (gingivitis), G2 (initial periodontitis), G3 (moderate periodontitis), and G4 (severe periodontitis). The groups were then subjected to [iCa(2+)] quantification. Statistically significant differences were observed between PD stages and [iCa(2+)] for all stages except G3 and G4. Therefore, this parameter can be used as an additional tool to establish and monitor preliminary PD status. PMID:26359723

  13. Solution combustion synthesis of calcium phosphate particles for controlled release of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Junjie; Qian, Yu; Zhang, Xiali; Zhou, Feifei; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Hongbin; Chen, JianHua; Wang, XuHong; Yu, Wencong

    2015-05-01

    Four different phase compositions of calcium phosphate (CaP) particles were prepared via a solution combustion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld analysis results revealed that the variations in the nominal Ca/P (molar) ratios were found to provide a favorable control in the different proportions of CaP materials. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein to study the loading and release behavior. The release profile indicated that the BSA release rates depended on the phase compositions of the CaP particles, and showed an order of TCP-BSA>BCP-1-BSA>BCP-2-BSA>HA-BSA. The results suggested that the BSA protein release rate can be controlled by varying the phase compositions of CaP carriers. Moreover, the release process involved two stages: firstly surface diffusion via ion exchange and secondly intraparticle diffusion. PMID:25746262

  14. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    PubMed

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts. PMID:20075632

  15. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  16. Rates and predictors of ACE inhibitor discontinuation subsequent to elevated serum creatinine: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Wong, Joyce; Aroustamian, Irina; Gee, Manyee; Mody, Freny Vaghaiwalla

    2014-01-01

    Objectives ACE inhibitors (ACEI) are underutilised despite cardiovascular benefits, in part due to concerns of known transient elevations in serum creatinine (SCr) after initiation. Our objectives were to evaluate rates and predictors of ACEI discontinuation after SCr elevation post-ACEI initiation since limited data are available that examine this issue. Setting Primary and tertiary Veterans healthcare system in Los Angeles, California, USA Participants 3039 outpatients initiating an ACEI with a SCr measured within 6 months prior to and approximately 3 months after initiating an ACEI. Patients were divided into three groups (SCr <1.5, 1.5–2 and >2). Primary and secondary outcome measures Rates and factors associated with ACEI discontinuation subsequent to SCr elevation after ACEI initiation and for patients with baseline SCr >2 mg/dL, the change in SCr associated with chronic use. Predictors were identified using multivariate logistic regression modelling. Results At 3 months follow-up, for those with an increase in SCr, the mean increase post-ACEI initiation was 26%, ranging from −0.01 mg/dL to 0.42 mg/dL varying according to a level of baseline renal function. ACEI discontinuation was higher in patients with elevated baseline SCr (19/165, 11.5%) compared with those with SCr <1.5 (135/2497, 5.4%), and those with SCr 1.5–2.0 (28/377, 7.4%). Male patients, and those with heart failure were less likely to discontinue ACEI after an elevation of SCr post-ACEI initiation, while those taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics and β-blockers were more likely to discontinue ACEI. Conclusions SCr increases <30% on average within 3 months of ACEI initiation, with subsequent discontinuation rates varying by baseline SCr. Elevation in SCr was not associated with ACEI discontinuation rates. In patients with SCr >2 mg/dL at baseline, despite an acute increase in SCr after ACEI initiation, chronic ACEI use was associated with a decrease in SCr in most patients. PMID:25232564

  17. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Six New Loci for Serum Calcium Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    O'Seaghdha, Conall M.; Wu, Hongsheng; Yang, Qiong; Kapur, Karen; Guessous, Idris; Zuber, Annie Mercier; Köttgen, Anna; Stoudmann, Candice; Teumer, Alexander; Kutalik, Zoltán; Mangino, Massimo; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Weihua; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Li, Guo; Tanaka, Toshiko; Portas, Laura; Lopez, Lorna M.; Hayward, Caroline; Lohman, Kurt; Matsuda, Koichi; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Firsov, Dmitri; Sorice, Rossella; Ulivi, Sheila; Brockhaus, A. Catharina; Kleber, Marcus E.; Mahajan, Anubha; Ernst, Florian D.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.; Mace, Aurelien; Boerwinckle, Eric; Arking, Dan E.; Tanikawa, Chizu; Nakamura, Yusuke; Brown, Morris J.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Siscovick, David S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Bergmann, Sven; Vollenweider, Peter; Vitart, Veronique; Wright, Alan F.; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Kolcic, Ivana; Navarro, Pau; Brown, Edward M.; Estrada, Karol; Ding, Jingzhong; Harris, Tamara B.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Hernandez, Dena; Singleton, Andrew B.; Girotto, Giorgia; Ruggiero, Daniela; d'Adamo, Adamo Pio; Robino, Antonietta; Meitinger, Thomas; Meisinger, Christa; Davies, Gail; Starr, John M.; Chambers, John C.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Huang, Jie; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H.; Campbell, Harry; Morris, Andrew P.; Franco, Oscar H.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Völker, Uwe; Hannemann, Anke; Biffar, Reiner; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Shin, So–Youn; Lescuyer, Pierre; Henry, Hughes; Schurmann, Claudia; Munroe, Patricia B.; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Nicola; Ciullo, Marina; Gieger, Christian; März, Winfried; Lind, Lars; Spector, Tim D.; Smith, Albert V.; Rudan, Igor; Wilson, James F.; Polasek, Ozren; Deary, Ian J.; Pirastu, Mario; Ferrucci, Luigi; Liu, Yongmei; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Nauck, Matthias; Kao, W. H. Linda; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Calcium is vital to the normal functioning of multiple organ systems and its serum concentration is tightly regulated. Apart from CASR, the genes associated with serum calcium are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 39,400 individuals from 17 population-based cohorts and investigated the 14 most strongly associated loci in ≤21,679 additional individuals. Seven loci (six new regions) in association with serum calcium were identified and replicated. Rs1570669 near CYP24A1 (P = 9.1E-12), rs10491003 upstream of GATA3 (P = 4.8E-09) and rs7481584 in CARS (P = 1.2E-10) implicate regions involved in Mendelian calcemic disorders: Rs1550532 in DGKD (P = 8.2E-11), also associated with bone density, and rs7336933 near DGKH/KIAA0564 (P = 9.1E-10) are near genes that encode distinct isoforms of diacylglycerol kinase. Rs780094 is in GCKR. We characterized the expression of these genes in gut, kidney, and bone, and demonstrate modulation of gene expression in bone in response to dietary calcium in mice. Our results shed new light on the genetics of calcium homeostasis. PMID:24068962

  18. Calcium absorption is not consistently enhanced by maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels > 50 or 80 nmol/L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in adults may enhance calcium absorption (Ca-abs). Targeting of 25-OHD values for the entire population has been widely advocated recently with goals of 25-OHD of at least 50 or 80 nmol/L advocated. There are few pediatric data that relate 25-OHD to Ca-a...

  19. Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in school-age children are inconsistently associated with increased calcium absorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in adults may enhance calcium absorption (Ca-abs). There are few similar pediatric data leading to uncertainty about the optimal target for 25-OHD to maximize Ca-abs.Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between 25-OHD and Ca-abs in a large coho...

  20. HFE Genotyping in Patients with Elevated Serum Iron Indices and Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Andreia Silva; de Araújo, Thiago Ferreira; Abrantes-Lemos, Clarice Pires; Deguti, Marta Mitiko; Cançado, Eduardo Luiz Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Iron abnormalities in chronic liver disease may be the result of genetic diseases or secondary factors. The present study aimed to identify subjects with HFE-HH in order to describe the frequency of clinical manifestations, identify risk factors for iron elevation, and compare the iron profile of HFE-HH to other genotypes in liver disease patients. A total of 108 individuals with hepatic disease, transferrin saturation (TS) > 45%, and serum ferritin (SF) > 350 ng/mL were tested for HFE mutations. Two groups were characterized: C282Y/C282Y or C282Y/H63D genotypes (n = 16) were the HFE hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE-HH) group; and C282Y and H63D single heterozygotes, the H63D/H63D genotype, and wild-type were considered group 2 (n = 92). Nonalcoholic liver disease, alcoholism, and chronic hepatitis C were detected more frequently in group 2, whereas arthropathy, hepatocarcinoma, diabetes, and osteoporosis rates were significantly higher in the HFE-HH group. TS > 82%, SF > 2685 ng/mL, and serum iron > 178 μg/dL were the cutoffs for diagnosis of HFE-HH in patients with liver disease. Thus, in non-Caucasian populations with chronic liver disease, HFE-HH diagnosis is more predictable in those with iron levels higher than those proposed in current guidelines for the general population. PMID:25654085

  1. Elevated Serum Creatine Phosphokinase is Associated with Mortality and Inotropic Requirement in Critically Injured Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sowards, Kendell J.; Mukherjee, Kaushik; Norris, Patrick R.; Shintani, Ayumi; Ware, Lorraine B.; Roberts, L. Jackson; May, Addison K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemeproteins such as free myoglobin can undergo autoxidation and catalyze lipid peroxidation, increasing oxidative stress. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation is a marker for free myoglobin after myocyte damage. Since oxidative injury is a key mechanism of injury-related organ dysfunction, we hypothesized that serum CPK levels correlate with mortality and need for and duration of inotropic support, i.e. shock, among critically injured patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of 17,847 patients admitted to a single Trauma Intensive Care Unit over 9 years. 2,583 patients with serum CPK levels were included in the analysis. Patient data were collected continuously into an electronic ICU repository. Univariate analysis was accomplished using Spearman correlation and the Mann Whitney U test. Propensity score adjustment models accounting for potential confounders were used to assess the independent effect of CPK level on mortality, need for inotropic support, and duration of inotropic support. Results Median CPK was significantly higher in patients who died (916 [IQR 332, 2472] vs. 711 [253, 1971], p= 0.004) and in those who required inotropic medications (950 [353, 2525] vs. 469 [188, 1220], p< 0.001). After adjusting for propensity score and potential confounders the odds of mortality increased by 1.10 (95% CI 1.02– 1.19, p= 0.020) and the odds of inotropic medication use increased by 1.30 (95% CI 1.22–1.38, p <0.001) per natural log unit increase in CPK. There was a significant association between CPK level and duration of inotropic support (Spearman’s rho .237, p< 0.001) that remained significant in a propensity score adjusted model. Conclusion In critically injured patients, elevated serum CPK level is independently associated with mortality, need for inotropic medication, and duration of inotropic support. This study is the first to evaluate the relationship of CPK level and mortality in addition to surrogate measures of shock in a population of critically injured patients. If these associations are verified prospectively, there may be a role for treatment with hemeprotein reductants, such as Paracetamol, to mitigate the effects of shock and end-organ dysfunction. PMID:25441175

  2. Elevated serum levels of human relaxin-2 in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Peng; Yu, Zhen-Tao; Xiu, Li; Wang, Mei; Liu, Hua-Min

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prognostic value of serum human relaxin 2 (H2 RLN) level in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: From October 1998 to September 2009, 146 patients with histopathologically confirmed ESCC were enrolled in this study. One hundred patients underwent en bloc esophagectomy, and 46 patients with unresectable tumors underwent palliative surgery. Five of the 146 patients died of surgical complications. Serum levels of H2 RLN were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The relationship between serum H2 RLN level and each of the clinicopathological parameters was analyzed using the ?2 test. Patients were classified into two groups according to their H2 RLN level (< 0.462 ng/mL vs ? 0.462 ng/mL). When any analysis cell had fewer than five cases, the Fishers exact test was used. The statistical difference between groups A and B in each clinicopathological category was determined by the Students t test (two-tailed) or analysis of variance. Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method. The statistical difference in survival between the different groups was compared using the log-rank test. Survival correlation with the prognostic factors was further investigated by multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model with backward stepwise likelihood ratio. RESULTS: ESCC patients tended to have significantly higher serum H2 RLN concentrations (0.48 0.17 ng/mL, n = 141) compared with the healthy control group (0.342 0.12 ng/mL, n = 112). There was a significant difference between patients with lymph node involvement (0.74 0.15 ng/mL, n = 90), distant metastasis (0.90 0.19 ng/mL, n = 32) and those without lymph node involvement (0.45 0.12 ng/mL, n = 51), and distant metastasis (0.43 0.14 ng/mL, n = 109), respectively (P < 0.01). Patients with high H2 RLN levels (? 0.462 ng/mL) had a poorer prognosis than patients with low serum H2 RLN levels (< 0.462 ng/mL; P = 0.0056). The H2 RLN level was also correlated with survival and tumor-node-metastasis staging, but not with age, tumor size, gender, lymphovascular invasion or the histological grade of tumors. Cox regression analysis showed that H2 RLN was an independent variable. CONCLUSION: Serum concentrations of H2 RLN are frequently elevated in ESCC patients and are correlated with disease metastasis and survival. Serum concentrations of H2 RLN may be an important prognostic marker in ESCC patients. PMID:23613637

  3. Relationships between serum asunaprevir concentration and alanine aminotransferase elevation during daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for chronic HCV genotype 1b infection.

    PubMed

    Akuta, Norio; Sezaki, Hitomi; Suzuki, Fumitaka; Kawamura, Yusuke; Hosaka, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Mariko; Saitoh, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Arase, Yasuji; Ikeda, Kenji; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2016-03-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations were the most frequent adverse events during all-oral combinations with daclatasvir and asunaprevir for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the underline mechanisms are unclear. Seventy patients with chronic HCV genotype 1b infection, who were introduced daclatasvir 60 mg once daily plus asunaprevir 100 mg twice daily for 24 weeks, were measured serum asunaprevir concentrations at the one point or more of 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the start of treatment. In 4 and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, asunaprevir concentrations in patients with albumin levels <3.6 g/dl at baseline were significantly higher than those in patients with albumin levels ≥3.6 g/dl. The baseline factors did not affect to ALT severe elevations (≥300 IU/l). At 2 weeks after the start of treatment, ALT severe elevations with asunaprevir concentrations of ≥800 ng/ml (54.5%) tended to indicate the higher rates than those of <800 ng/ml (17.6%). Furthermore, the discontinuation or reduction of asunaprevir improved ALT levels, regardless the significant decrease of serum asunaprevir concentrations. In conclusion, serum albumin levels affected to serum asunaprevir concentrations, and serum asunaprevir concentrations might partly affect to ALT severe elevations. Further large-scale prospective studies are needed to investigate the impact of the discontinuation or reduction of asunaprevir to help in the design of more effective therapeutic regimens. PMID:26292191

  4. Elevated serum alpha-linolenic acid levels are associated with decreased chance of pregnancy after in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Jungheim, Emily S.; Macones, George A.; Odem, Randall R.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Moley, Kelle H.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective To analyze relationships between serum free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations and pregnancy. Design Prospective cohort Setting University hospital Patients 91 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) Interventions Serum was analyzed for total and specific serum FFAs including myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids. Main outcome measures Univariate analyses were used to identify specific FFAs and other factors associated with pregnancy after IVF. Logistic regression was performed modeling relationships between identified factors and chance of pregnancy. Results In unadjusted analyses, women with elevated serum α-linolenic (ALA) levels (highest quartile) demonstrated a decreased chance of pregnancy compared to women with the lowest levels (OR:0.24, 95% CI:0.052–0.792, p=0.022). No associations between other FFAs and pregnancy were identified. In a multivariable regression model, associations between elevated serum ALA levels and decreased chance of pregnancy remained after adjusting for patient age, body mass index, and history of endometriosis or previous live birth (adjusted OR:0.139, 95% CI:0.028–0.686, p=0.015). Conclusions Elevated serum ALA levels are associated with decreased chance of pregnancy in women undergoing IVF. Further work is needed to determine if ALA is involved in early reproductive processes and if the relationship between ALA and pregnancy is associated with excess ALA intake, impaired ALA metabolism or both. PMID:21840520

  5. Strong Negative Interference by Calcium Dobesilate in Sarcosine Oxidase Assays for Serum Creatinine Involving the Trinder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiuzhi; Hou, Li'an; Cheng, Xinqi; Zhang, Tianjiao; Yu, Songlin; Fang, Huiling; Xia, Liangyu; Qi, Zhihong; Qin, Xuzhen; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Qian; Liu, Li; Chi, Shuling; Hao, Yingying; Qiu, Ling

    2015-06-01

    The vasoprotective drug calcium dobesilate is known to interfere with creatinine (Cr) quantifications in sarcosine oxidase enzymatic (SOE) assays. The aim of this study was to investigate this interference in 8 different commercially available assays and to determine its clinical significance. In in vitro experiments, interference was evaluated at 3 Cr levels. For this, Cr was quantified by SOE assays in pooled serum supplemented with calcium dobesilate at final concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64??g/mL. Percent bias was calculated relative to the drug-free specimen. For in vivo analyses, changes in serum concentrations of Cr, cystatin C (CysC; a renal function marker), and calcium dobesilate were monitored in healthy participants of group I before and after oral calcium dobesilate administration. In addition, variations in interference were also examined among different SOE assays using serum obtained from healthy participants of group II. Lastly, Cr levels from the 10 patients treated with calcium dobesilate were measured using 4 SOE assays and liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS/MS) for comparison. Our in vitro analyses indicated that the presence of 8??g/mL calcium dobesilate resulted in a -4.4% to -36.3% reduction in Cr serum concentration compared to drug-free serum for 8 SOE assays examined. In vivo, Cr values decreased relative to the baseline level with increasing drug concentration, with the lowest Cr levels obtained at 2 or 3?hours after drug administration in participants of group I. The observed Cr concentrations for participants in group II were reduced by -28.5% to -3.1% and -60.5% to -11.6% at 0 and 2?hours after administration related to baseline levels. The Cr values of 10 patients measured by Roche, Beckman, Maker, and Merit Choice SOE assays showed an average deviation of -20.0%, -22.4%, -14.2%, and -29.6%, respectively, compared to values obtained by LC-IDMS/MS. These results revealed a clinically significant negative interference with calcium dobesilate in all sarcosine oxidase-based Cr assays, but the degree of interference varied greatly among the assays examined. Thus, extra care should be taken in evaluating Cr quantification obtained by SOE assays in patients undergoing calcium dobesilate therapy. PMID:26061311

  6. Activation of the calcium sensing receptor with cinacalcet increases serum gastrin levels in healthy older subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acidity is postulated to enhance calcium absorption since calcium is better dissolved at low pH. Extracellular calcium stimulates gastrin and gastric acid secretion in humans. Ex vivo studies indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), which is expressed on the surface of human G cells...

  7. Elevated brain lesion volumes in older adults who use calcium supplements: a cross sectional clinical observational study

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Martha E.; McQuoid, Douglas R.; Steffens, David C.; Anderson, John J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated calcium supplements with elevated vascular risk, and therefore these supplements may also relate to the occurrence of brain lesions (or hyperintensities) in older adults. These lesions represent damage to brain tissue that is caused by ischaemia. This cross sectional clinical observational study examined the association between use of calcium-containing dietary supplements and lesion volumes in a sample of 227 older adults (60 years and older). Food and supplemental calcium intakes were assessed with a Block 1998 FFQ; participants with supplemental calcium intakes above zero were categorized as supplement users. Lesion volumes were determined from cranial MRI (1.5 Tesla) using a semi-automated technique; volumes were log-transformed because they were non-normal. An ANCOVA model showed that supplement users had greater lesion volumes than non-users, even after controlling for dietary food calcium, age, sex, race, education, energy intake, depression and hypertension (Calcium supplement use: β = 0.34, SE = 0.10, F1,217 = 10.98, p = 0.0011). The influence of supplemental calcium use on lesion volume was of similar magnitude to that of hypertension, a well-established risk factor for lesions. Among supplement users, the amount of supplemental calcium was not related to lesion volume (β = −0.000035, SE = 0.00015, F1,139 = 0.06, p = 0.81). This study indicates that the use of calcium-containing dietary supplements, even low dose supplements, by older adults may be associated with greater lesion volumes. Evaluation of randomised, controlled trials is warranted to determine if this relationship is a causal one. PMID:24787048

  8. Irisin Is Elevated in Skeletal Muscle and Serum of Mice Immediately after Acute Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brenmoehl, Julia; Albrecht, Elke; Komolka, Katrin; Schering, Lisa; Langhammer, Martina; Hoeflich, Andreas; Maak, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings regarding the response of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (Fndc5) and irisin to exercise are partly controversial. While the 25 kDa form of Fndc5 can be observed in muscle and serum of different species, the ~12 kDa irisin band was not detectable up to now. The present study aimed to clarify whether irisin exists in its theoretical size of ~12 kDa in mice and if it is affected by exercise. Male mice were randomly assigned to a sedentary control group (CO), a group with free access to running wheels (RW), and a treadmill group (TM). Blood and leg muscles were collected to investigate the regulatory cascade including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (Ppargc1a) and Fndc5. In western blot analysis, antibodies were used capable of differentiation between full-length Fndc5 and irisin. This enabled us to demonstrate that irisin exists in muscle and serum of mice independent of exercise and that it is increased immediately after acute exercise. Different transcripts of Ppargc1a mRNA, but not Fndc5 mRNA, were up-regulated in the TM group. Furthermore, neither Fndc5 (25 kDa) nor Ppargc1a protein was elevated in muscle tissue. The Ppargc1a-Fndc5/irisin pathway did not clearly respond to mild exercise in the RW group. Our results provide evidence for the existence of irisin and for its immediate response to acute exercise in mice. PMID:24644429

  9. Elevated Serum PCT in Septic Shock With Endotoxemia Is Associated With a Higher Mortality Rate.

    PubMed

    Adamik, Barbara; Smiechowicz, Jakub; Jakubczyk, Dominika; Kübler, Andrzej

    2015-07-01

    To examine the effect of endotoxemia on the procalcitonin (PCT) serum levels and mortality rates of adult patients with septic shock diagnosed on the day of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU).A retrospective observational study was performed over a 2-year period. Levels of PCT were compared for septic shock patients with and without endotoxemia on admission to the ICU. Endotoxemia was identified with an Endotoxin Activity Assay.One hundred fifty-seven patients with septic shock were enrolled into the study. Group 1 consisted of patients with elevated endotoxin activity (EA) (n = 95, EA = 0.57 endotoxin activity unit [EAU] [0.46-0.67]) and Group 2 consisted of patients with low EA (n = 62, EA = 0.27 EAU [0.17-0.36]). Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score and SOFA score were similar in both groups (APACHE II = 23 [16-29] and 19 [16-25]; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA] = 10 [7-13] and 11 [8-12] in Groups 1 and 2, respectively) (nonsignificant). The PCT level was 6 times higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (19.6 ng/mL vs. 3.1 ng/mL, P < 0.001). There was a strong correlation between EA and serum PCT (P < 0.001, R = 0.5). The presence of endotoxemia on admission to the ICU was associated with an increased mortality rate: 52% in the group of patients with endotoxemia and 25% in the group without endotoxemia. EA in survivors was 0.39 EAU (0.26-0.57) and 0.53 EAU (0.4-0.61) in nonsurvivors (P = 0.004). The median PCT level in survivors was 6.7 ng/mL (2.3-28.0), compared with 16.7 ng/mL (5.3-31.0) in nonsurvivors (P = 0.04).This observational study revealed that endotoxemia in patients with septic shock on admission to the ICU was frequently found and was associated with an elevated PCT level and a high mortality rate. Endotoxemia was a common occurrence in patients with septic shock, regardless of the infecting microorganism. PMID:26166090

  10. Elevated serum CA125 and CA19-9 due to the spontaneous rupture of ovarian endometrioma.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Masaru; Kase, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Aoki, Yoichi; Tanaka, Kenichi

    2002-10-10

    A 23-year-old woman was suffered from ruptured ovarian endometrioma with an elevated CA125 and CA19-9 concentration; 9537 and 15,653IU/ml, respectively. Rapid decrease in serum CA125 and CA19-9 was recognized before surgery. Such high levels of both antigens have not been reported in a patient with endometriosis. PMID:12270571

  11. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition-induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria ?-oxidation. PMID:23142471

  12. Elevated baseline serum glutamate as a pharmacometabolomic biomarker for acamprosate treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nam, H W; Karpyak, V M; Hinton, D J; Geske, J R; Ho, A M C; Prieto, M L; Biernacka, J M; Frye, M A; Weinshilboum, R M; Choi, D-S

    2015-01-01

    Acamprosate has been widely used since the Food and Drug Administration approved the medication for treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in 2004. Although the detailed molecular mechanism of acamprosate remains unclear, it has been largely known that acamprosate inhibits glutamate action in the brain. However, AUD is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. Thus, biomarkers are required to prescribe this medication to patients who will have the highest likelihood of responding positively. To identify pharmacometabolomic biomarkers of acamprosate response, we utilized serum samples from 120 alcohol-dependent subjects, including 71 responders (maintained continuous abstinence) and 49 non-responders (any alcohol use) during 12 weeks of acamprosate treatment. Notably, baseline serum glutamate levels were significantly higher in responders compared with non-responders. Importantly, serum glutamate levels of responders are normalized after acamprosate treatment, whereas there was no significant glutamate change in non-responders. Subsequent functional studies in animal models revealed that, in the absence of alcohol, acamprosate activates glutamine synthetase, which synthesizes glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. These results suggest that acamprosate reduces serum glutamate levels for those who have elevated baseline serum glutamate levels among responders. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that elevated baseline serum glutamate levels are a potential biomarker associated with positive acamprosate response, which is an important step towards development of a personalized approach to treatment for AUD. PMID:26285131

  13. Elevated baseline serum glutamate as a pharmacometabolomic biomarker for acamprosate treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    Nam, H W; Karpyak, V M; Hinton, D J; Geske, J R; Ho, A M C; Prieto, M L; Biernacka, J M; Frye, M A; Weinshilboum, R M; Choi, D-S

    2015-01-01

    Acamprosate has been widely used since the Food and Drug Administration approved the medication for treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in 2004. Although the detailed molecular mechanism of acamprosate remains unclear, it has been largely known that acamprosate inhibits glutamate action in the brain. However, AUD is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. Thus, biomarkers are required to prescribe this medication to patients who will have the highest likelihood of responding positively. To identify pharmacometabolomic biomarkers of acamprosate response, we utilized serum samples from 120 alcohol-dependent subjects, including 71 responders (maintained continuous abstinence) and 49 non-responders (any alcohol use) during 12 weeks of acamprosate treatment. Notably, baseline serum glutamate levels were significantly higher in responders compared with non-responders. Importantly, serum glutamate levels of responders are normalized after acamprosate treatment, whereas there was no significant glutamate change in non-responders. Subsequent functional studies in animal models revealed that, in the absence of alcohol, acamprosate activates glutamine synthetase, which synthesizes glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. These results suggest that acamprosate reduces serum glutamate levels for those who have elevated baseline serum glutamate levels among responders. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that elevated baseline serum glutamate levels are a potential biomarker associated with positive acamprosate response, which is an important step towards development of a personalized approach to treatment for AUD. PMID:26285131

  14. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus metabolism, and parathyroid-calcitonin function during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2 concentrations on submarines.

    PubMed

    Messier, A A; Heyder, E; Braithwaite, W R; McCluggage, C; Peck, A; Schaefer, K E

    1979-01-01

    Studies of calcium and phosphorus metabolism and acid-base balance were carried out on three Fleet Ballistic Missile (FBM) submarines during prolonged exposure to elevated concentrations of CO2. The average CO2 concentration in the submarine atmosphere during patrols ranged from 0.85% to 1% CO2. In the three studies, in which 9--15 subjects participated, the urinary excretion of calcium and phosphate fell during the first three weeks to a level commensurate with a decrease in plasma calcium and increase in phosphorus. In the fourth week of one patrol, a marked increase was found in urinary calcium excretion, associated with a rise in blood PCO2 and bicarbonate. Urinary calcium excretion decreased again during the 5th to 8th week, with a secondary decrease in blood pH and plasma calcium. During the third patrol, the time course of acid-base changes corresponded well with that found during the second patrol. There was a trend toward an increase in plasma calcium between the fourth and fifth week commensurate with the transient rise in pH and bicarbonate. Plasma parathyroid and calcitonin hormone activities were measured in two patrols and no significant changes were found. Hydroxyproline excretion decreased in the three-week study and remained unchanged in the second patrol, which lasted 57 days. It is suggested that during prolonged exposure to low levels of CO2 (up to 1% CO2), calcium metabolism is controlled by the uptake and release of CO2 in the bones. The resulting phases in bone buffering, rather than renal regulation, determine acid-base balance. PMID:505630

  15. Effects of vitamin D3 and calcium supplementation on serum levels of tocopherols, retinol, and specific vitamin D metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Weiwen; Bostick, Roberd M.; Ahearn, Thomas U.; Franke, Adrian A.; Custer, Laurie J.; Cooney, Robert V.

    2013-01-01

    γ-Tocopherol (γT) protects against DNA-damaging effects of nitrogen oxides, yet its physiologic regulation in vivo is unknown. Observational studies indicate inverse associations of 25[OH]-vitamin D with γT and leptin. To determine whether vitamin D3 supplementation alters levels of lipid-soluble micronutrients, serum samples (N=85 subjects) from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of vitamin D3 (800 IU) and calcium (2 g) alone and in combination were analyzed for lipid micronutrients and specific vitamin D metabolites at baseline and after 6-months of supplementation. Serum 25[OH]-vitaminD3 levels increased 55% (P < 0.0001) and 48% (P = 0.0005), whereas 25[OH]-vitaminD2 levels were lower by 48% (P = 0.26) and 21% (P = 0.36) in the vitamin D3 and vitamin D3 plus calcium groups, respectively. At baseline, γT levels were inversely associated with 25[OH]D (r = −0.31, P = 0.004). With vitamin D3 plus calcium treatment, serum α-tocopherol decreased 14% (P = 0.04), while similar changes in γT (19% decrease, P = 0.14) were observed. No significant effects were observed for D3 supplementation on leptin or retinol levels. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that vitamin D3 +/− calcium affects serum tocopherol and 25[OH]D2 levels, however, studies utilizing larger populations are warranted. PMID:22149065

  16. Sonic hedgehog stimulates the proliferation of rat gastric mucosal cells through ERK activation by elevating intracellular calcium concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Osawa, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Hirohide . E-mail: hohnishi@jichi.ac.jp; Takano, Koji; Noguti, Takasi; Mashima, Hirosato; Hoshino, Hiroko; Kita, Hiroto; Sato, Kiichi; Matsui, Hirofumi; Sugano, Kentaro

    2006-06-02

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a member of hedgehog peptides family, is expressed in gastric gland epithelium. To elucidate Shh function to gastric mucosal cells, we examined the effect of Shh on the proliferation of a rat normal gastric mucosal cell line, RGM-1. RGM-1 cells express essential components of Shh receptor system, patched-1, and smoothened. Shh enhanced DNA synthesis in RGM-1 cells and elevated intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}). In addition, Shh as well as calcium ionophore A32187 rapidly activated ERK. However, Shh failed to activate ERK under calcium-free culture condition. Pretreatment of cells with PD98059 attenuated the DNA synthesis promoted by Shh. Moreover, when cells were pretreated with cyclopamine, Shh could not elevate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}, activate ERK or promote DNA synthesis. On the other hand, although Shh induced Gli-1 nuclear accumulation in RGM-1 cells, Shh activated ERK even in cells pretreated with actinomycin D. These results indicate that Shh promotes the proliferation of RGM-1 cells through an intracellular calcium- and ERK-dependent but transcription-independent pathway via Patched/Smoothened receptor system.

  17. Multicommutated flow analysis system based on fluorescence microdetectors for simultaneous determination of phosphate and calcium ions in human serum.

    PubMed

    Fiedoruk-Pogrebniak, Marta; Koncki, Robert

    2015-11-01

    A bianalyte multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA) system allowing simultaneous determination of calcium and phosphate ions is developed. The detection of ions is based on measurements of fluorescence of calcein and rhodamine B, respectively. For such measurements performed under flow analysis conditions two dedicated detectors made of three integrated light emitting diodes each and operating according to fluorometric paired emitter detector diode (FPEDD) principle, have been used. The developed 2FPEDD-MCFA system has been applied for serum analysis. The system provides low detection limits (16 µM and 3.6 µM for calcium and phosphate ions, respectively) and therefore small consumption of sample (8 µL) for analysis. The throughput of the system allows about 20 bianalyte determinations per hour. The presented system was validated using human serum samples. The analysis results show good correlation with those from the clinical laboratory obtained using reference photometric methods. The results of real samples analysis show that it is necessary to determine both calcium and phosphate ions simultaneously because their levels is serum are rather weakly correlated. PMID:26452808

  18. Chronic bronchitis with fungal infection presenting with marked elevation of serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ping; Yan, Wei; Luo, Yi; Tu, Wei; He, Jia-Yi; Liu, Jing-Mei; Gong, Jin; Wang, Yun-Wu; Li, Meng-Ke; Tian, De-An; Huang, Huan-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is the most frequently applied serum tumor marker for diagnosis of cancers in the digestive organs. However, some patients with benign diseases can have elevated serum levels of CA19-9 as well. The current study presents a 55-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital for further evaluation of a nodular cavity shadow in the right lower lobe and clarification of the cause of the marked elevation of serum CA19-9 levels. Abdominal MRI and gastrointestinal endoscopy did not find any malignancy. As lung cancer cannot be excluded in this patient, a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was carried, intraoperative and postoperative biopsy analysis both suggested chronic bronchitis with fungal infection (due to Histoplasma capsulatum or Penicillium marneffei) and organization. Immunohistochemistry showed marked positive staining for CA19-9 in the damaged lung tissue. The CA19-9 levels quickly returned to the normal range following lobe resection. Therefore, the marked elevation of serum CA19-9 levels, in this case, may have resulted from the chronic bronchitis with fungal infection. PMID:25337284

  19. Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and ionised calcium in relation to lung function and allergen skin tests

    PubMed Central

    Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Williams, Dylan; Henderson, John; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that higher levels of vitamin D and calcium are associated with greater lung function and that vitamin D is inversely associated with atopic sensitisation. It is unknown whether the associations of vitamin D and calcium with lung function are independent of each other or mediated by atopic sensitisation. Objective To study the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and ionised calcium levels with lung function and specific allergen sensitisation in adolescents (12-19 years) and adults (20-59 years) and to assess whether the associations with lung function are due to altered atopic sensitisation. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of the data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with forced vital capacity in adolescents [0.035(95 %CI: 0.007-0.064) standard deviations;SD in model adjusted for multiple confounders]. This association and the previously reported association between higher serum levels of 25(OH)D and better lung function in adults were independent of serum calcium levels, which were not associated with lung function. In adults, calcium was associated with sensitisation to grass allergens [OR per SD,1.17(1.03-1.32), 1.15(1.01-1.31) and 1.18 (1.06-1.32) for white oak, Bermuda grass and short ragweed, respectively] and peanut OR 1.21 (95%CI 1.02-1.43) after adjusting for age, gender and race/ethnicity, but these associations attenuated towards the null after adjusting for additional confounders. The associations were independent of 25(OH)D levels, which were not associated with allergen sensitisation. Conclusions Circulating levels of 25(OH)D are positively associated with lung function and this does not appear to be driven by allergen sensitisation or influenced by calcium levels. PMID:21326268

  20. Marked elevation of serum interleukin-6 in patients with cholangiocarcinoma: validation of utility as a clinical marker.

    PubMed Central

    Goydos, J S; Brumfield, A M; Frezza, E; Booth, A; Lotze, M T; Carty, S E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if the serum level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was elevated in patients with hepatic malignancies or correlated with radiologic tumor burden. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: High serum levels of IL-6 signify an adverse prognosis in many patients with cancer. IL-6 is a growth factor for bile duct epithelium. METHODS: Using bioactive and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, serum level of IL-6 was measured in 35 healthy adults and in 60 patients presenting for definitive management of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) (15 patients), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (14), metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC) (26), and benign biliary disease (BBD) (5). Patients with clinical conditions known to raise the serum level of IL-6 were excluded. Tumor burden was calculated from concurrent computed tomography scans. IL-6 levels were measured 2 weeks after resection in 3 CC patients. Secretion of IL-6 was examined in 3 human CC cell lines. RESULTS: An elevated level of bioactive IL-6 was detected in every patient with CC and in 13 of 14 patients with HCC, 14 of 26 patients with MCRC, 2 of 5 patients with BBD, and 3 of 35 healthy adults. Median and mean levels of bioactive IL-6 were higher in CC than in other neoplasms (p < 0.026) and for all tumor groups differed from healthy adults (p < or = 0.026). IL-6 level was elevated more often in primary than in secondary liver neoplasms (p = 0.02), distinguished patients with CC or MCRC from BBD (p = 0.014 and 0.031, respectively), correlated with tumor burden in CC (p < 0.001), and dropped sharply after CC resection. CC line SG231 secreted bioactive IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: In selected patients, a high serum level of IL-6 marks patients with CC and correlates with tumor burden both before and after resection. IL-6 levels are elevated in patients with other liver neoplasms and may distinguish patients with hepatic malignancies from those with benign disease. PMID:9527063

  1. Elevated serum haptoglobin in pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Asai, T; Mori, M; Okada, M; Uruno, K; Yazawa, S; Shibata, I

    1999-09-01

    We examined the two acute phase proteins, alpha (alpha)-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) and haptoglobin (HP), in serum of pigs following experimental porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infection. Increased levels of serum HP, but not AGP, were observed from 7 to 21 days post-inoculation in the infected pigs. Furthermore, serum IL-6 increased in the infected pigs, but TNF-alpha did not. The increase of serum IL-6 in pigs following PRRS virus infection may induce production of HP. Also, in the field investigation, serum HP in pigs was dramatically increased after exposure to the PRRS virus. PMID:10507295

  2. Elevation of serum immunoglobulin free light chains during the pre-clinical period of rheumatoid arthritis: impact on mortality

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaoli; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Dispenzieri, Angela; Larson, Dirk R.; Therneau, Terry M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Kyle, Robert A.; Katzmann, Jerry; Gabriel, Sherine E.; Davis, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs) represent biomarkers of B-cell activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are associated with all-cause mortality in the general population. Our objective was to evaluate the relationships of serum FLCs to pre-clinical disease, RA characteristics, and mortality in RA compared to non-RA subjects. Methods A population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, was performed by cross-linking a large cohort in the general population having available serum FLC measurements with established RA incidence and prevalence cohorts. Serum κ, λ, and total FLCs and their trends relative to RA incidence were compared between RA and non-RA subjects. Regression models were used to determine the associations between FLCs, disease characteristics and mortality, testing for differential effects of FLCs on mortality in RA. Results Among 16,609 subjects, 270 fulfilled the criteria for RA at the time of FLC measurement. Mean total FLCs were significantly higher in RA compared to non-RA subjects (4.2 vs. 3.3 mg/dL; p<0.001). FLCs became elevated 3 – 5 years before the clinical onset of RA and remained elevated during follow-up. Polyclonal FLCs were found to predict higher mortality in persons with RA, though elevation to the highest decile had a relatively lower impact on mortality in RA compared to non-RA subjects. Conclusions Elevation of serum FLCs precedes the development of RA and may be useful in monitoring B-cell activity and disease progression. FLCs are confirmed predictors of mortality, though the highest elevations of FLCs have a lower impact on mortality in RA than the general population. PMID:25593227

  3. Study of Denosumab in the Treatment of Hypercalcemia of Malignancy in Subjects With Elevated Serum Calcium

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-18

    Breast Cancer; Hypercalcemia of Malignancy; Colon Cancer; Endocrine Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Lung Cancer; Lymphoma; Metastatic Cancer; Multiple Myeloma; Parathyroid Neoplasms; Renal Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  4. Ursolic Acid-Induced Elevation of Serum Irisin Augments Muscle Strength During Resistance Training in Men

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun Seok; Seo, Dae Yun; Chung, Yong Min; Oh, Kyoung-Mo; Park, Jung Jun; Arturo, Figueroa; Jeong, Seung-Hun; Kim, Nari

    2014-01-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), a type of pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid purified from natural plants, can promote skeletal muscle development. We measured the effect of resistance training (RT) with/without UA on skeletal muscle development and related factors in men. Sixteen healthy male participants (age, 29.37±5.14 years; body mass index=27.13±2.16 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to RT (n=7) or RT with UA (RT+UA, n=9) groups. Both groups completed 8 weeks of intervention consisting of 5 sets of 26 exercises, with 10~15 repetitions at 60~80% of 1 repetition maximum and a 60~90-s rest interval between sets, performed 6 times/week. UA or placebo was orally ingested as 1 capsule 3 times/day for 8 weeks. The following factors were measured pre-and post-intervention: body composition, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), irisin, and skeletal muscle strength. Body fat percentage was significantly decreased (p<0.001) in the RT+UA group, despite body weight, body mass index, lean body mass, glucose, and insulin levels remaining unchanged. IGF-1 and irisin were significantly increased compared with baseline levels in the RT+UA group (p<0.05). Maximal right and left extension (p<0.01), right flexion (p<0.05), and left flexion (p<0.001) were significantly increased compared with baseline levels in the RT+UA group. These findings suggest that UA-induced elevation of serum irisin may be useful as an agent for the enhancement of skeletal muscle strength during RT. PMID:25352765

  5. Circadian rhythms of osteocalcin in equine serum. Correlation with alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphate and total protein levels.

    PubMed Central

    Lepage, O M; DesCôteaux, L; Marcoux, M; Tremblay, A

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether there were circadian variations in serum osteocalcin in normal horses and to determine whether it was important to regulate the time of blood sampling in clinical investigations. Osteocalcin or bone Gla-protein (BGP), alkaline phosphatase, total calcium, phosphate and total protein were studied over a 24 h period. Blood samples were taken every 60 min from nine adult Standardbred horses. There was a correlation between serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.3, p less than 0.01), phosphate (r = 0.42, p less than 0.01) and serum osteocalcin levels. There was a very marked individual effect on serum levels of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (p less than 0.01). This effect was present for phosphate levels but not significant for total calcium. The individual effect was lower and time effect was higher for serum osteocalcin if the subjects were divided into two age groups, one of horses of five years or less (n = 4) and a second group older than five years (n = 5). In both groups a circadian rhythmicity was observed. Serum osteocalcin showed a biphasic pattern. Levels were constant during daytime (light period) and underwent significant variations during the night (dark period), going through a nadir at 2000 h and through a maximum peak at 0500 h. It was concluded that in normal horses the blood osteocalcin level follows a circadian variation. Also daytime (light period) seems to be the more appropriate period for blood sampling. PMID:1884284

  6. Elevated serum level of IL-27 and VEGF in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and associate with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian-Tian; Lu, Jing; Qi, Chen-Yue; Yuan, Lin; Li, Xiao-Lin; Xia, Li-Ping; Shen, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-27 is an IL-12 family cytokine and exerts a critical role in immune regulation in the context of infection, autoimmunity, and angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible pathophysiological role of IL-27 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred and forty AS patients and 90 healthy controls were included in the current study. The levels of IL-27 and VEGF in serum and synovial fluid (SF) samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 were measured by standard laboratory techniques. Disease activity in AS was scored with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Hip involvement, peripheral arthritis, and eye involvement were also recorded. The serum levels of IL-27 were remarkably higher in AS patients than healthy groups and significantly correlated with serum levels of VEGF. Furthermore, the serum levels of IL-27 were correlated with BASDAI independent of other markers of inflammation. Elevated serum levels of IL-27 and VEGF were detected in AS patients with peripheral arthritis and HLA-B27 positive. The SF levels of IL-27 and VEGF were significantly higher than serum levels in AS patients with peripheral arthritis. By contrast, levels of IL-27 and VEGF were not increased in AS patients with hip involvement and eye involvement. IL-27 may regulate the immunological or inflammatory process of AS. PMID:24710630

  7. Elevated serum immunoinflammation-related protein complexes are associated with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujie; Zhang, Dan; Cheng, Yuhang; Li, Zhili

    2015-11-30

    Emerging evidence suggests an underlying immune and inflammatory response for a variety of psychiatric disorders. Herein, we employed an optimized native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to isolate psychosis-related serum immunoinflammation-related protein complexes (IIRPCs) from 147 patients with schizophrenia (SCH), 158 patients with bipolar disorder (BPD), 132 patients with other psychosis, and 145 normal controls. All participants could be classified into four categories based on serum IIRPCs, which correspond to 290, 215, 70, and 7 serum samples, correspondingly. For each category, significantly enhanced levels of serum IIRPCs in patients with SCH, BPD, and other psychosis groups were observed compared with normal controls. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that serum IIRPCs have excellent diagnostic performance to differentiate SCH, BPD, and other psychosis groups from normal controls, with high sensitivities and specificities of >85%. Total serum amounts of IgG, IgA, and IgM in all patients were significantly decreased compared with normal controls. PMID:26337482

  8. Unusual presentation of retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma mimicking an adnexal tumor with highly elevated serum CA-19-9.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong Hyu; Lee, Jeong Heon; Oh, Byung Chan

    2014-01-01

    When retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma develops in pelvic cavity, it often presents similar symptoms and radiological findings to adnexal tumor, therefore obscures diagnostic approaches until an exploratory laparotomy is performed. We report an unusual presentation of retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma mimicking an adnexal tumor with extremely elevated serum CA-19-9. Though the most of the prominent mass was removed during surgery, there was massive bleeding due to tearing of internal iliac vein while dissecting the ureter close to vessels. This case focuses on the significance of considering retroperitoneal tumor even if the mass is located in ovarian fossa and has highly elevated serum level of CA-19-9. And in attempt of tumor removal, the excision needs to be clean-cut without damaging nerves or vessels around the mass and avoid causing any prospective complications. PMID:24596823

  9. Serum Metabolite Profiles and Target Tissue Gene Expression Define the Effect of Cholecalciferol Intake on Calcium Metabolism in Rats and Mice1,2

    PubMed Central

    Fleet, James C.; Gliniak, Christy; Zhang, Zhentao; Xue, Yingben; Smith, Kathleen B.; McCreedy, Rebecca; Adedokun, Sunday A.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effect of cholecalciferol (VD3) intake on VD3 status and markers of calcium (Ca) homeostasis in mice and rats. Serum 25 hydroxycholecalciferol (25OH-VD3) concentrations were increased in animals fed diets containing 40020,000 international units (IU) VD3/kg (37 nmolL?11000 IU VD3?1), but body weight, serum Ca, and duodenal gene expression were not altered. High-VD3 intake decreased serum 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2-VD3] and renal 25 hydroxycholecalciferol-1ahydroxylase (CYP27B1) mRNA, suggesting that rodents tolerate high-VD3 intake by suppressing the activity of the VD3 endocrine system. Serum 25OH-VD3 declined when animals were fed diets containing 1000 to 25 IU VD3/kg (911 wk, inflection at 200 IU/kg, 4-fold steeper slope below this). Neither body weight nor serum Ca were influenced by low-VD3 intake. However, mice fed the 25-IU/kg diet had lower serum 1,25(OH)2-VD3, duodenal calbindin D9k mRNA, bone mineral density, and renal 25 hydroxycholecalciferol-24 hydroxylase mRNA, whereas renal CYP27B1 mRNA was elevated when rodents were fed ,200 IU VD3/kg. These data reveal a stress on VD3 and Ca metabolism at low dietary VD3 intake. Dietary Ca restriction (0.25 vs. 0.5%, 9 wk) increased serum 1,25(OH)2-VD3 and was 30% greater in rats fed a 10,000-IU VD3/kg diet. High-VD3 intake did not prevent Ca restriction-induced bone loss. Our data show that modeling human VD3 status requires lower intake than the current NRC rodent requirement (1000-IU/kg diet). Also, although rodents are very tolerant of high-VD3 intake, it cannot compensate for moderate Ca restriction. PMID:18492843

  10. Elevated serum interleukin-38 level at baseline predicts virological response in telbivudine-treated patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Fang; Wang, Xin-Rui; Zhang, Man-Li; Gao, Pu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate serum interleukin (IL)-38 level and its clinical role in predicting virological response (VR) to telbivudine (LdT) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: The study participants were divided into two groups; one group consisted of 43 healthy controls (HCs) and the other group consisted of 46 patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive CHB. All patients were administered 600 mg of oral LdT daily for 52 wk, and they visited physicians every 12 wk for physical examination and laboratory tests. Serum IL-38 levels were determined using ELISA. The concentrations of serum Th1- and Th2-type cytokines were measured using the cytometric bead array (CBA) method. RESULTS: Serum levels of IL-38 at baseline in all patients were higher than those in HCs [306.97 (123.26-492.79) pg/mL vs 184.50 (135.56-292.16) pg/mL, P = 0.019]; the levels returned to normal after the first 12 wk of treatment with LdT [175.51 (103.90-331.91) pg/mL vs 184.50 (135.56-292.16) pg/mL, P > 0.05]. Serum IL-38 levels at baseline were positively associated with serum aspartate aminotransferase levels in patients with CHB (r = 0.311, P = 0.036). Higher levels of serum IL-38 at baseline were associated with a greater probability of VR to LdT treatment at 24 wk (48.15% vs 15.79%, P = 0.023) and 52 wk (66.67% vs 36.84%, P = 0.044). The levels of serum IL-38 in patients with primary non-response at week 12 after treatment initiation were lower than those in patients with primary response [64.44 (49.85-172.08) pg/mL vs 190.54 (121.35-355.28) pg/mL, P = 0.036]. Serum IL-38 levels were correlated with serum IL-6 and IL-12 levels in patients with CHB during treatment with LdT. CONCLUSION: Elevated serum IL-38 levels in untreated CHB patients reflect ongoing liver injury. Higher serum IL-38 levels before treatment indicate a greater probability of VR to LdT treatment. PMID:27182162

  11. Serum CEACAM1 Elevation Correlates with Melanoma Progression and Failure to Respond to Adoptive Cell Transfer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ortenberg, R.; Sapoznik, S.; Zippel, D.; Shapira-Frommer, R.; Itzhaki, O.; Kubi, A.; Zikich, D.; Besser, M. J.; Schachter, J.; Markel, G.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a devastating disease whose incidences are continuously rising. The recently approved antimelanoma therapies carry new hope for metastatic patients for the first time in decades. However, the clinical management of melanoma is severely hampered by the absence of effective screening tools. The expression of the CEACAM1 adhesion molecule on melanoma cells is a strong predictor of poor prognosis. Interestingly, a melanoma-secreted form of CEACAM1 (sCEACAM1) has recently emerged as a potential tumor biomarker. Here we add novel evidences supporting the prognostic role of serum CEACAM1 by using a mice xenograft model of human melanoma and showing a correlation between serum CEACAM1 and tumor burden. Moreover, we demonstrate that serum CEACAM1 is elevated over time in progressive melanoma patients who fail to respond to immunotherapy as opposed to responders and stable disease patients, thus proving a correlation between sCEACAM1, response to treatment, and clinical deterioration. PMID:26688824

  12. How the use of creatine supplements can elevate serum creatinine in the absence of underlying kidney pathology.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Lydia; New, David

    2014-01-01

    Serum creatinine is a widely used marker in the assessment of renal function. Elevated creatinine levels suggest kidney dysfunction, prompting the need for further investigation. This report describes a case in which the consumption of the bodybuilding supplement creatine ethyl ester resulted in raised serum creatinine in the absence of true underlying kidney pathology. The abnormalities reversed after discontinuation of the supplement. A case of pseudo renal failure was recognised and kidney function was concluded to be normal. This report aims to address the mechanisms by which the ingestion of creatine ethyl ester can mimic the blood results expected in advanced renal failure, and confronts the problems faced when relying on serum creatinine as a diagnostic tool. PMID:25239988

  13. The effect on perilymph of the alteration of serum glucose or calcium concentration.

    PubMed

    Juhn, S K; Youngs, J N

    1976-02-01

    In the experimentally-induced hyper- or hypoglycemic state, perilymph glucose concentration paralleled the blood concentration, although a delay of about one hour was observed between the time of maximum concentration of glucose in perilymph and its concentration in blood. In hypercalcemia, perilymph calcium concentration steadily increased over a three-hour period, although blood calcium concentration fluctuated during this time. After an initial increase in the CSF calcium concentration, there were insignificant changes during the second and third hours. In animals with thyrocalcitonin-induced hypocalcemia, although blood calcium concentration steadily decreased, its concentration in perilymph and CSF remained practically constant. The present findings suggest that the chemical composition of perilymph can be altered by changing the blood concentration of glucose or calcium. The marked difference of behavior noted between glucose and calcium in these experiments would indicate the existence of different mechanisms for maintaining the homeostatic state for these two substances. PMID:1053375

  14. Determinants of serum levels of vitamin D: a study of life-style, menopausal status, dietary intake, serum calcium, and PTH

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low blood levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxy D3, 25OHD3) in women have been associated with an increased risk of several diseases. A large part of the population may have suboptimal 25OHD3 levels but high-risk groups are not well known. The aim of the present study was to identify determinants for serum levels of 25OHD3 in women, i.e. factors such as lifestyle, menopausal status, diet and selected biochemical variables. Methods The study was based on women from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), a prospective, population-based cohort study in Malmö, Sweden. In a previous case–control study on breast cancer, 25OHD3 concentrations had been measured in 727 women. In these, quartiles of serum 25OHD3 were compared with regard to age at baseline, BMI (Body Max Index), menopausal status, use of oral contraceptives or menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) , life-style (e.g. smoking and alcohol consumption), socio-demographic factors, season, biochemical variables (i.e. calcium, PTH, albumin, creatinine, and phosphate), and dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. In order to test differences in mean vitamin D concentrations between different categories of the studied factors, an ANOVA test was used followed by a t-test. The relation between different factors and 25OHD3 was further investigated using multiple linear regression analysis and a logistic regression analysis. Results We found a positive association between serum levels of 25OHD3 and age, oral contraceptive use, moderate alcohol consumption, blood collection during summer/ autumn, creatinine, phosphate, calcium, and a high intake of vitamin D. Low vitamin D levels were associated with obesity, being born outside Sweden and high PTH levels. Conclusions The present population-based study found a positive association between serum levels of 25OHD3 and to several socio-demographic, life-style and biochemical factors. The study may have implications e. g. for dietary recommendations. However, the analysis is a cross-sectional and it is difficult to suggest Lifestyle changes as cause- effect relationships are difficult to assess. PMID:23945218

  15. Impact of Elevated Hemoglobin and Serum Protein on Vasovagal Reaction from Blood Donation.

    PubMed

    Odajima, Takeshi; Takanashi, Minoko; Sugimori, Hiroki; Tanba, Taiko; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Motoji, Toshiko; Munakata, Masaya; Nakajima, Kazunori; Minami, Mutsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate factors contributing to vasovagal reaction (VVR), the most frequent side effect following whole blood and apheresis donations. Complications recorded at the collection sites after voluntary donations by the Japanese Red Cross Tokyo Blood Center (JRC), in the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years, were analyzed by both univariate analysis and the multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Of 1,119,716 blood donations over the full two years, complications were recorded for 13,320 donations (1.18%), among which 67% were VVR. There were 4,303 VVR cases which had sufficient information and could be used for this study. For each VVR case, two sex- and age-matched controls (n = 8,606) were randomly selected from the donors without complications. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), predonation blood pressure, pulse and blood test results, including total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin, were compared between the VVR group and the control group. In univariate analysis, the VVR group was significantly younger, with a lower BMI, higher blood pressure and higher blood protein and hemoglobin levels than the control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, blood protein and hemoglobin levels showed dose-dependent relationships with VVR incidences by the Cochran-Armitage trend test (p<0.01). For both sexes, after adjusting for confounders with the multivariate conditional logistic regression model, the higher than median groups for total protein (male: OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.76,-2.21; female: OR 2.29; 95%CI 2.05-2.56), albumin (male: 1.75; 1.55-1.96; female: 1.76; 1.57-1.97) and hemoglobin (male: 1.98; 1.76-2.22; female: 1.62; 1.45-1.81) had statistically significant higher risk of VVR compared to the lower than median groups. These elevated serum protein and hemoglobin levels might offer new indicators to help understand VVR occurrence. PMID:26894814

  16. Impact of Elevated Hemoglobin and Serum Protein on Vasovagal Reaction from Blood Donation

    PubMed Central

    Tanba, Taiko; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Motoji, Toshiko; Munakata, Masaya; Nakajima, Kazunori; Minami, Mutsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate factors contributing to vasovagal reaction (VVR), the most frequent side effect following whole blood and apheresis donations. Complications recorded at the collection sites after voluntary donations by the Japanese Red Cross Tokyo Blood Center (JRC), in the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years, were analyzed by both univariate analysis and the multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Of 1,119,716 blood donations over the full two years, complications were recorded for 13,320 donations (1.18%), among which 67% were VVR. There were 4,303 VVR cases which had sufficient information and could be used for this study. For each VVR case, two sex- and age-matched controls (n = 8,606) were randomly selected from the donors without complications. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), predonation blood pressure, pulse and blood test results, including total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin, were compared between the VVR group and the control group. In univariate analysis, the VVR group was significantly younger, with a lower BMI, higher blood pressure and higher blood protein and hemoglobin levels than the control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, blood protein and hemoglobin levels showed dose-dependent relationships with VVR incidences by the Cochran-Armitage trend test (p<0.01). For both sexes, after adjusting for confounders with the multivariate conditional logistic regression model, the higher than median groups for total protein (male: OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.76,-2.21; female: OR 2.29; 95%CI 2.05–2.56), albumin (male: 1.75; 1.55–1.96; female: 1.76; 1.57–1.97) and hemoglobin (male: 1.98; 1.76–2.22; female: 1.62; 1.45–1.81) had statistically significant higher risk of VVR compared to the lower than median groups. These elevated serum protein and hemoglobin levels might offer new indicators to help understand VVR occurrence. PMID:26894814

  17. Nicotinamide treatment in a murine model of familial tumoral calcinosis reduces serum Fgf23 and raises heart calcium.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Austin M; Gray, Amie K; Moe, Sharon M; Ichikawa, Shoji

    2014-10-01

    Mutations in the GALNT3 gene result in familial tumoral calcinosis, characterized by persistent hyperphosphatemia and ectopic calcific masses in soft tissues. Since calcific masses often recur after surgical removal, a more permanent solution to the problem is required. Nicotinamide is reported to lower serum phosphate by decreasing sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters in the gut and kidney. However, its effectiveness in tumoral calcinosis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated nicotinamide as a potential therapy for tumoral calcinosis, using a murine model of the disease-Galnt3 knockout mice. Initially, five different doses of nicotinamide were given to normal heterozygous mice intraperitoneally or orally. Treatment had no effect on serum phosphate levels, but serum levels of a phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (Fgf23), decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequently, high-dose nicotinamide (40mM) was tested in Galnt3 knockout mice fed a high phosphate diet. The radiographic data pre- and post-treatment showed that nicotinamide did not reverse the calcification. However, the treatment retarded calcification growth after 4weeks, while in the untreated animals, calcifications increased in size. The therapy did not affect serum phosphate levels, but intact Fgf23 decreased in the treated mice. The treated mice also had increased calcium in the heart. In summary, nicotinamide did not alter serum phosphate levels, likely due to compensatory decrease in Fgf23 to counteract the phosphate lowering effect of nicotinamide. Although increased calcium accumulation in the heart is a concern, the therapy appears to slow down the progression of ectopic calcifications. PMID:25007710

  18. Nicotinamide treatment in a murine model of familial tumoral calcinosis reduces serum Fgf23 and raises heart calcium

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Austin M.; Gray, Amie K.; Moe, Sharon M.; Ichikawa, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the GALNT3 gene result in familial tumoral calcinosis, characterized by persistent hyperphosphatemia and ectopic calcific masses in soft tissues. Since calcific masses often recur after surgical removal, a more permanent solution to the problem is required. Nicotinamide is reported to lower serum phosphate by decreasing sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters in the gut and kidney. However, its effectiveness in tumoral calcinosis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated nicotinamide as a potential therapy for tumoral calcinosis, using a murine model of the disease–Galnt3 knockout mice. Initially, five different doses of nicotinamide were given to normal heterozygous mice intraperitoneally or orally. Treatment had no effect on serum phosphate levels; however, serum levels of a phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (Fgf23), decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequently, high-dose nicotinamide (40 mM) was tested in Galnt3 knockout mice fed a high phosphate diet. The radiographic data pre- and post-treatment showed that nicotinamide did not reverse the calcification. However, the treatment retarded calcification growth after four weeks, while in the untreated animals, calcifications increased in size. The therapy did not affect serum phosphate levels, but intact Fgf23 decreased in the treated mice. The treated mice also had increased calcium in the heart. In summary, nicotinamide did not alter serum phosphate levels, likely due to compensatory decrease in Fgf23 to counteract the phosphate lowering effect of nicotinamide. Although increased calcium accumulation in the heart is a concern, the therapy appears to slow down the progression of ectopic calcifications. PMID:25007710

  19. Elevated Preoperative Serum Hs-CRP Level as a Prognostic Factor in Patients Who Underwent Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Bin; Ying, Jie; Kuang, Su-Juan; Jin, Hao-Sheng; Yin, Zi; Chang, Liang; Yang, Hui; Ou, Ying-Liang; Zheng, Jiang-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Li, Chuan-Sheng; Jian, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of preoperative highly sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) in serum on the prognostic outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following hepatic resection in Chinese samples.From January 2004 to December 2008, a total of 624 consecutive HCC patients who underwent hepatic resection were incorporated. Serum levels of Hs-CRP were tested at preoperation via a collection of venous blood samples. Survival analyses adopted the univariate and multivariate analyses.In our study, among the 624 screened HCC patients, 516 patients were eventually incorporated and completed follow-up. Positive correlations were found regarding preoperative serum Hs-CRP level and tumor size, Child-Pugh class, or tumor stage (all P < 0.0001). Patients with recurrence outcomes and nonsurvivors had increased Hs-CRP levels at preoperation (both P < 0.0001). When compared to the Hs-CRP-normal group, the overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival rates were evidently decreased in the Hs-CRP-elevated group. Further, preoperative serum Hs-CRP level might be having possible prediction effect regarding survival and recurrence of HCC patients after hepatic section in the multivariate analysis.Preoperative increased serum Hs-CRP level was an independent prognostic indicator in patients with HCC following hepatic resection in Chinese samples. PMID:26656354

  20. Elevated Levels of SOX10 in Serum from Vitiligo and Melanoma Patients, Analyzed by Proximity Ligation Assay

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsdottir, Sigrun M.; Vuu, Jimmy; Ullenhag, Gustav; Kämpe, Olle; Landegren, Ulf; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood; Hedstrand, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of malignant melanoma currently relies on clinical inspection of the skin surface and on the histopathological status of the excised tumor. The serum marker S100B is used for prognostic estimates at later stages of the disease, but analyses are marred by false positives and inadequate sensitivity in predicting relapsing disorder. Objectives To investigate SOX10 as a potential biomarker for melanoma and vitiligo. Methods In this study we have applied proximity ligation assay (PLA) to detect the transcription factor SOX10 as a possible serum marker for melanoma. We studied a cohort of 110 melanoma patients. We further investigated a second cohort of 85 patients with vitiligo, which is a disease that also affects melanocytes. Results The specificity of the SOX10 assay in serum was high, with only 1% of healthy blood donors being positive. In contrast, elevated serum SOX10 was found with high frequency among vitiligo and melanoma patients. In patients with metastases, lack of SOX10 detection was associated with treatment benefit. In two responding patients, a change from SOX10 positivity to undetectable levels was seen before the response was evident clinically. Conclusions We show for the first time that SOX10 represents a promising new serum melanoma marker for detection of early stage disease, complementing the established S100B marker. Our findings imply that SOX10 can be used to monitor responses to treatment and to assess if the treatment is of benefit at stages earlier than what is possible radiologically. PMID:27110718

  1. Elevation of serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels in androgen-treated and ultraviolet-irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Ohata, M; Sakagami, Y; Fujita, T

    1977-10-01

    Administration of 4-8 mg testosterone propionate significantly raised 25-hydroxycalciferol levels in the ultraviolet irradiated rats compared to the ultraviolet irradiated controls, but failed to influence serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels in the non-irradiated animals. Estradiol benzoate and progesterone did not influence serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels regardless of the ultraviolet irradiation. These findings implicate that testosterone enhances vitamin D biosynthesis induced by ultraviolet irradiation in rats, in accordance with the clinical observation that males often show higher levels of serum 25-hydroxycalciferol than females. PMID:303993

  2. Impact of calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies on serum parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density: analysis of the 4th & 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative contributions of calcium and vitamin D to calcium metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) have been examined previously, but not in a population with very low calcium intake. To determine the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concent...

  3. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR α mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR α and ACO mRNA expression. Expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the ovariectomized control group. Rats administered low-dose olive leaf extract showed significantly elevated adiponectin mRNA expression compared with rats in the ovariectomized control group. Even though dose-dependent effects were not observed in most of the measurements, these results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism may be regulated by olive leaf extract administration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25714618

  4. Serum elevation of B lymphocyte stimulator does not increase regulatory B cells in glioblastoma patients undergoing immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Saraswathula, Anirudh; Reap, Elizabeth A; Choi, Bryan D; Schmittling, Robert J; Norberg, Pamela K; Sayour, Elias J; Herndon, James E; Healy, Patrick; Congdon, Kendra L; Archer, Gerald E; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Sampson, John H

    2016-02-01

    Regulatory B cells that secrete IL-10 (IL-10(+) Bregs) represent a suppressive subset of the B cell compartment with prominent anti-inflammatory capacity, capable of suppressing cellular and humoral responses to cancer and vaccines. B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a key regulatory molecule in IL-10(+) Breg biology with tightly controlled serum levels. However, BLyS levels can be drastically altered upon chemotherapeutic intervention. We have previously shown that serum BLyS levels are elevated, and directly associated, with increased antigen-specific antibody titers in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) undergoing lymphodepletive temozolomide chemotherapy and vaccination. In this study, we examined corresponding IL-10(+) Breg responses within this patient population and demonstrate that the IL-10(+) Breg compartment remains constant before and after administration of the vaccine, despite elevated BLyS levels in circulation. IL-10(+) Breg frequencies were not associated with serum BLyS levels, and ex vivo stimulation with a physiologically relevant concentration of BLyS did not increase IL-10(+) Breg frequency. However, BLyS stimulation did increase the frequency of the overall B cell compartment and promoted B cell proliferation upon B cell receptor engagement. Therefore, using BLyS as an adjuvant with therapeutic peptide vaccination could promote humoral immunity with no increase in immunosuppressive IL-10(+) Bregs. These results have implications for modulating humoral responses in human peptide vaccine trials in patients with GBM. PMID:26759007

  5. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS. PMID:26663940

  6. Characterization of Granulations of Calcium and Apatite in Serum as Pleomorphic Mineralo-Protein Complexes and as Precursors of Putative Nanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Young, John D.; Young, Andrew; Hung, Chin-Ming; Young, Lena; Chao, Ying-Jie; Young, James; Wu, Cheng-Yeu

    2009-01-01

    Calcium and apatite granulations are demonstrated here to form in both human and fetal bovine serum in response to the simple addition of either calcium or phosphate, or a combination of both. These granulations are shown to represent precipitating complexes of protein and hydroxyapatite (HAP) that display marked pleomorphism, appearing as round, laminated particles, spindles, and films. These same complexes can be found in normal untreated serum, albeit at much lower amounts, and appear to result from the progressive binding of serum proteins with apatite until reaching saturation, upon which the mineralo-protein complexes precipitate. Chemically and morphologically, these complexes are virtually identical to the so-called nanobacteria (NB) implicated in numerous diseases and considered unusual for their small size, pleomorphism, and the presence of HAP. Like NB, serum granulations can seed particles upon transfer to serum-free medium, and their main protein constituents include albumin, complement components 3 and 4A, fetuin-A, and apolipoproteins A1 and B100, as well as other calcium and apatite binding proteins found in the serum. However, these serum mineralo-protein complexes are formed from the direct chemical binding of inorganic and organic phases, bypassing the need for any biological processes, including the long cultivation in cell culture conditions deemed necessary for the demonstration of NB. Thus, these serum granulations may result from physiologically inherent processes that become amplified with calcium phosphate loading or when subjected to culturing in medium. They may be viewed as simple mineralo-protein complexes formed from the deployment of calcification-inhibitory pathways used by the body to cope with excess calcium phosphate so as to prevent unwarranted calcification. Rather than representing novel pathophysiological mechanisms or exotic lifeforms, these results indicate that the entities described earlier as NB most likely originate from calcium and apatite binding factors in the serum, presumably calcification inhibitors, that upon saturation, form seeds for HAP deposition and growth. These calcium granulations are similar to those found in organisms throughout nature and may represent the products of more general calcium regulation pathways involved in the control of calcium storage, retrieval, tissue deposition, and disposal. PMID:19412552

  7. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... and drink lactose-reduced or lactose-free milk. Vegans (vegetarians who eat no animal products) and ovo- ... osteoporosis and bone fractures. Symptoms of serious calcium deficiency include numbness and tingling in the fingers, convulsions, ...

  8. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with soft bones that you eat, such as canned sardines and salmon Calcium-enriched foods such as breakfast cereals, fruit juices, soy and rice drinks, and tofu. Check ...

  9. Glibenclamide decreases ATP-induced intracellular calcium transient elevation via inhibiting reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial activity in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo-ling; Ma, Zhi-yong; Fu, Zhi-jie; Ling, Ming-ying; Yan, Chuan-zhu; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence has revealed that glibenclamide has a wide range of anti-inflammatory effects. However, it is unclear whether glibenclamide can affect the resting and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) handling in Raw 264.7 macrophages. In the present study, [Ca(2+)]i transient, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial activity were measured by the high-speed TILLvisION digital imaging system using the indicators of Fura 2-am, DCFDA and rhodamine-123, respectively. We found that glibenclamide, pinacidil and other unselective K(+) channel blockers had no effect on the resting [Ca(2+)]i of Raw 264.7 cells. Extracellular ATP (100 µM) induced [Ca(2+)]i transient elevation independent of extracellular Ca(2+). The transient elevation was inhibited by an ROS scavenger (tiron) and mitochondria inhibitor (rotenone). Glibenclamide and 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) also decreased ATP-induced [Ca(2+)]i transient elevation, but pinacidil and other unselective K(+) channel blockers had no effect. Glibenclamide also decreased the peak of [Ca(2+)]i transient induced by extracellular thapsigargin (Tg, 1 µM). Furthermore, glibenclamide decreased intracellular ROS and mitochondrial activity. When pretreated with tiron and rotenone, glibenclamide could not decrease ATP, and Tg induced maximal [Ca(2+)]i transient further. We conclude that glibenclamide may inhibit ATP-induced [Ca(2+)]i transient elevation by blocking mitochondria KATP channels, resulting in decreased ROS generation and mitochondrial activity in Raw 264.7 macrophages. PMID:24558474

  10. No effects of low and high consumption of dairy products and calcium supplements on body composition and serum lipids in Puerto Rican obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Cristina; Bertrán, José J.; Ríos, Ruth E.; Soltero, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective Epidemiologic studies have shown that a high calcium intake is related to lower body weight, fat, and serum lipids in obese individuals. However, clinical studies have shown inconclusive results. The present study was conducted to determine if dairy or calcium supplementation alters body composition or serum lipids in Puerto Rican obese adults without dietary energy restriction or exercise. Methods A 21-wk randomized clinical trial was conducted in 30 obese adults, aged 21–50 y, with usual calcium intakes <700 mg/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to the following: high dairy (~1300 mg/d of calcium from dairy products by substituting foods); high calcium (~1300 mg/d of calcium; ~700 mg/d from diet and 600 mg/d from a supplement); or placebo. Subjects were asked to continue their established dietary intake (except for the high dairy group) and their physical activity during the study. Body weight was measured monthly; body fat, bone, and serum lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triacylglycerol) were measured at baseline and at 21 wk. Pairwise differences in study endpoints among the groups were assessed using ANOVA and post-hoc analysis. Results Grand mean calcium intake was 1200 ± 370 (median 1187) mg/d in the high dairy group, 1171 ± 265 (median 1165) mg/d in the high calcium group, and 668 ± 273 (median 691) mg/d in the control group, which was significantly lower compared to the two treatment groups (P < 0.001). There were no significant group effects in any of the outcome variables. Conclusion A high dairy or calcium diet alone did not alter body composition or serum lipids profile in a sample of Puerto Rican obese adults. PMID:20579848

  11. Alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-induced elevation of serum bile acids: lack of causative effect on bile acid transport.

    PubMed

    Neghab, M; Stacey, N H

    1996-01-01

    In recent years chemicals including chlorinated solvents have been found to interfere with the transport of bile acids (BA) by hepatocytes, which probably accounts for the raised serum bile acids (SBA) after exposure. However, the known cholestatic agent, alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) has never been fully examined for its effect on these processes. Accordingly, the direct effects in vitro and the effects of in vivo treatment on bile acid transport have been investigated in this study. Direct addition of ANIT (5-100 microns) to hepatocytes isolated from untreated rats did not result in any change in uptake or efflux of taurocholic acid (TC), one of the most obviously elevated SBA in ANIT-treated rats. Additionally, accumulation of TC over an extended incubation period was not affected by ANIT. In vivo treatment with ANIT (50 mumol/kg i.p. on each of 3 consecutive days) resulted in a marked elevation of total serum bile acids (TSBA) and a slight increase in the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and a very mild hyperbilirubinemia, while other markers of liver injury were unaltered. In hepatocytes isolated from these rats, Km and Vmax for uptake and V0 for efflux were no different between ANIT and vehicle-treated animals. In conclusion, ANIT showed no effects on transport of BA on in vitro exposure or after treatment in vivo where SBA were clearly elevated. The lack of effects of ANIT on transport of bile acids is consistent with other postulated mechanisms of action. Furthermore, this indicates that the effects noted with solvents are not necessarily replicated by substances known to cause histopathological cholestasis. PMID:8620567

  12. Elevated serum lactoferrin and neopterin are associated with postoperative infectious complications in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Du, Gang; Wei, Chengshou; Gu, Song; Tang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have shown that lactoferrin (LF) and neopterin (NT) are correlated with infection. The aim of this study is to determine whether serum levels of LF and NT are associated with postoperative infectious complications in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury. Material and methods A total of 268 patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury who underwent spinal surgery were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of LF, NT, and C-reactive protein (CRP), in addition to white blood cell count (WBC) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), were measured preoperatively and 24 h postoperatively. Results In total, 22 of 268 patients (8.2%) developed postoperative infectious complications. The levels of serum LF, NT, and CRP were significantly higher in the infected patients than in the non-infected patients. No significant differences were observed in postoperative WBC count and ESR between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that LF (OR: 1.004 (1.002–1.007)), NT (OR: 1.137 (1.054–1.227)), and CRP (OR: 1.023 (1.002–1.044)) were significantly associated with the presence of postoperative infectious complications. The area under receiver operating characteristic curves for LF, NT, and CRP was 0.709, 0.779, and 0.629, respectively. Conclusions Elevated serum concentrations of LF and NT are associated with early infection after surgery. Compared to CRP, elevated levels of LF and NT are better indicators for predicting postoperative infectious complications in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury. PMID:24273571

  13. Joint Effect of Hypertension and Elevated Serum Phosphorus on the Risk of Mortality in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-III

    PubMed Central

    Vart, Priya; Nigatu, Yeshambel T; Jaglan, Ajay; van Zon, Sander K R; Shafique, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum phosphorus might aggravate the effect of hypertension on mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the joint effect of hypertension and serum phosphorus on the risk of mortality. Methods and Results A large prospective (n=15 833), population-based cohort of participants from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III was examined to test potential synergism between hypertension, elevated serum phosphorus, and the risk of mortality. Interaction on additive scale and multiplicative scale was estimated. After a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 1691 cases of cardiovascular mortality and 3875 cases of all-cause mortality were identified. Interaction was observed between hypertension and elevated serum phosphorus on the additive scale for cardiovascular mortality (relative excess risk due to interaction, 0.99, 95% CI: 0.06; 1.92, adjusted for age, gender, race, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). No statistically significant interaction was found between hypertension and serum phosphorus for all-cause mortality on the additive scale. No significant interaction was detected on the multiplicative scale. In sensitivity analysis, excluding participants who died in first 2 years and adjustment for additional confounders resulted in essentially similar findings. Conclusions The joint effect of hypertension and elevated serum phosphorus was larger than the sum of the independent effects on cardiovascular mortality but not on all-cause mortality. Future studies should investigate whether controlling elevated serum phosphorus in hypertensive individuals helps in prevention of extra risk of cardiovascular mortality. PMID:25994440

  14. Steroid-responsive IgG4-related disease with isolated prostatic involvement: An unusual presentation with elevated serum PSA

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vikas; Pandey, Praveen Kumar; Bihari, Chhagan

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune prostatitis is known to occur as a part of multisystem fibro-inflammatory disorder known as IgG4 related disease (IgG4 RD). The usual presentation is with symptoms of gastro-intestinal disease with prostatic involvement presenting as lower urinary tract symptoms. The disease responds to corticosteroids. We report an asymptomatic young man who was diagnosed to have IgG4 related prostatitis on TRUS-guided prostate biopsy done for elevated serum PSA, in the absence of any other systemic involvement. The treatment with steroid resulted in normalization of S PSA levels.

  15. Steroid-responsive IgG4-related disease with isolated prostatic involvement: An unusual presentation with elevated serum PSA.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vikas; Pandey, Praveen Kumar; Bihari, Chhagan

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune prostatitis is known to occur as a part of multisystem fibro-inflammatory disorder known as IgG4 related disease (IgG4 RD). The usual presentation is with symptoms of gastro-intestinal disease with prostatic involvement presenting as lower urinary tract symptoms. The disease responds to corticosteroids. We report an asymptomatic young man who was diagnosed to have IgG4 related prostatitis on TRUS-guided prostate biopsy done for elevated serum PSA, in the absence of any other systemic involvement. The treatment with steroid resulted in normalization of S PSA levels. PMID:27127365

  16. Patients with elevated triglyceride and cholesterol serum levels have a prolonged survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dorst, J; Khnlein, P; Hendrich, C; Kassubek, J; Sperfeld, A D; Ludolph, A C

    2011-04-01

    Weight loss is a common phenomenon and an independent prognostic factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Several potential causal mechanisms, including intrinsic hypermetabolism and deficient food intake, have been discussed. We investigated the influence of fasting serum glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels at time of diagnosis on survival in ALS. Serum cholesterol (LDL, HDL, and LDL/HDL ratio), triglycerides, and glucose were investigated in 488 patients (age of onset = 57.6 12.6 years) in relation to survival and revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALS-FRS) data. High serum levels of both fasting cholesterol and triglycerides had a significantly positive effect on survival (p < 0.05). We found a median prolonged life expectancy by 14 months for patients with serum triglyceride levels above the median of 1.47 mmol/l. The results suggest that the lipid metabolism and the nutritional status of ALS patients are important prognostic factors. These parameters should be thoroughly monitored during the clinical management of these patients. In case of progressive loss of body weight, a diet rich in lipids and calories should be considered. However, the final decision whether a lipid-rich diet should be recommended to ALS patients can only be based on a double-blind placebo-controlled interventional trial. Our results further imply that lipid-lowering drugs, e.g., statins, should be applied carefully in ALS patients although individual risk considerations must be made. PMID:21128082

  17. Elevated levels of thymidine kinase 1 peptide in serum from patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Anders; Lindman, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Thymidine kinase (TK) has an important role in DNA synthesis and is thus related to cell proliferation and turn-over. Traditionally, TK has been measured by enzymatic activity or radioimmunoassays. These assays are difficult to adapt to random access instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new immunological sandwich assay for detection of TK peptides in serum from breast cancer patients. Material and methods Serum samples were collected from patients with breast cancer and stored frozen at −70°C. The samples were collected after surgery, after metastatic tumor recurrence and after chemotherapy due to tumour recurrence. Patients’ serum samples were analysed by the TK enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results In receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses of TK1 for diagnosis of breast cancer, the area under the curve (AUC) collected four weeks after surgery was 0.56 (95% CI 0.47–0.65), for samples collected postsurgically after tumour recurrence 0.73 (95% CI 0.65–0.80), and after chemotherapy 0.64 (95% CI 0.56–0.72). Conclusions This study indicates that the tumour proliferation marker TK has a potential as a serum marker in breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to verify this observation. PMID:19396699

  18. Removal of the uropygial gland does not affect serum lipids, cholesterol and calcium levels in the rock pigeon Columba livia.

    PubMed

    Montalti, D; Gutiérrez, Ana María; Reboredo, G R; Salibián, A

    2006-09-01

    The uropygial gland is an organ typical of birds, over which no agreement regarding its function has been attained yet. Authors attribute to the gland an hydrophobic action. The function of the gland is herein explored in rock pigeon, Columba livia, was used as experimental model for trials. The study was focused on the physiological role of the gland in relation to biochemical parameters. Pigeons were separated in groups of six birds each: a) intact control, b) surgical control, c) ablationed. Comparing control specimens with gland-removed specimens, recorded serum levels after 32 days were the following (mean+/-SD): cholesterol (g/l), 3.7+/-0.6 vs. 4.1+/-0.6; total lipids (g/l), 15.7+/-2.0 vs. 13.7+/-2.7; calcium (mg/l), 100.5 +/- 24.3 vs. 99.1 +/- 9.2. None of the differences were statistically significant. Thus, no alterations of basic biochemical parameters associated with metabolism of lipids were registered. In one group of birds the calcium and cholesterol levels were determined 122 days after surgery; in this case values remained unchanged related to the beginning of the trials. Results suggest that the uropygial gland is not physiologically related to either the homeostasis of total lipids, cholesterol or the regulation of calcium metabolism. PMID:17048693

  19. Ionized calcium measurement in serum and plasma by ion selective electrodes: comparison of measured and calculated parameters.

    PubMed

    Jafri, Lena; Khan, Aysha Habib; Azeem, Saba

    2014-07-01

    To determine the concentration of ionized calcium (iCa) collected in lithium heparin and gel tubes and to correlate the measured iCa with calculated iCa. Anaerobic fasting blood samples were simultaneously collected from healthy laboratory workers in lithium-heparin and gel tubes. iCa, pH, total calcium (CaT), total protein and albumin were measured. Ionized Ca was calculated with albumin and globulin values using an appropriate formula. Mean iCa in gel tubes showed a positive constant bias of 0.08 mmol/L (p < 0.001) when compared to lithium heparin results. The mean pH of blood taken in lithium heparin and gel tubes was non-significant (p = 0.3). Measured iCa poorly correlated with CaT (r = 0.2, p = 0.1) and calculated iCa (r = 0.2, p = 0.2). To evaluate the calcium status direct measurement of iCa must be done rather than using the formulae for iCa determination. In addition serum is recommended as the choice of sample for iCa determination in comparison to plasma samples. PMID:24966481

  20. Neurotensin and neuromedin N elevate the cytosolic calcium concentration via transiently appearing neurotensin binding sites in cultured rat cortex cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Shiosaka, S; Tohyama, M

    1991-01-15

    Through assessment of the changes in the intracellular free-calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), which was measured using the calcium sensitive dye, fura-2, the character of the neurotensin (NT) binding sites which appeared transiently during the early ontogenetic stage in the rat cerebral cortex was analyzed in primary cultures of cerebral cortex cells from neonatal rats. NT (1-1000 nM) elevated [Ca2+]i of the cells even when extracellular calcium was chelated with 1 mM ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). These findings suggest that the transiently appearing NT-binding sites in the cortex are receptors for NT and that some of the NT-induced increase in [Ca2+]i is due to mobilization from the intracellular calcium store. Further application of NT after 10 min washing caused an increase in [Ca2+]i again. This is in contrast to the findings for cortical slices from adult rats and mRNA-injected oocytes; desensitization due to NT was of long duration and further application of NT failed to activate the neurons which had responded the first time to NT. These facts suggest that the character of the NT-binding sites in the cerebral cortex differs between neonatal and adult rats. In addition, we showed that neuromedin N had a similar property to NT as to mobilization of [Ca2+]i and acted only on NT-responsive cells, suggesting the interaction between NT and neuromedin N at the postsynaptic level via the same receptor. PMID:1849803

  1. An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in intracellular calcium elevation is sensitive to biotic and abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ca2+, a versatile intracellular second messenger in various signaling pathways, initiates many responses involved in growth, defense and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. Endogenous and exogenous signals induce cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) elevation, which are responsible for the appropriate downstream responses. Results Here we report on an ethyl-methane sulfonate-mediated Arabidopsis mutant that fails to induce [Ca2+]cyt elevation in response to exudate preparations from the pathogenic mibrobes Alternaria brassicae, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The cytoplasmic Ca2+elevation mutant1 (cycam1) is susceptible to infections by A. brassicae, its toxin preparation and sensitive to abiotic stress such as drought and salt. It accumulates high levels of reactive oxygen species and contains elevated salicylic acid, abscisic acid and bioactive jasmonic acid iso-leucine levels. Reactive oxygen species- and phytohormone-related genes are higher in A. brassicae-treated wild-type and mutant seedlings. Depending on the analysed response, the elevated levels of defense-related compounds are either caused by the cycam mutation and are promoted by the pathogen, or they are mainly due to the pathogen infection or application of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Furthermore, cycam1 shows altered responses to abscisic acid treatments: the hormone inhibits germination and growth of the mutant. Conclusions We isolated an Arabidopsis mutant which fails to induce [Ca2+]cyt elevation in response to exudate preparations from various microbes. The higher susceptibility of the mutant to pathogen infections correlates with the higher accumulation of defense-related compounds, such as phytohormones, reactive oxygen-species, defense-related mRNA levels and secondary metabolites. Therefore, CYCAM1 couples [Ca2+]cyt elevation to biotic, abiotic and oxidative stress responses. PMID:24920452

  2. Serum Apelin Level Predicts the Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Patients With ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Receiving Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Chen, Mai; Yu, Jin; Li, Wei-Jie; Tao, Ling; Li, Yan; Guo, Wen-Yi; Wang, Hai-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cardiovascular profile of the apelin makes it a promising therapeutic target for heart failure and ischemic heart disease. However, it remains unknown whether apelin affect the clinical outcome of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We enrolled a total of 120 patients with acute STEMI who underwent primary PCI. Serum apelin was detected. After PCI procedure, all patients were followed for 12 months. The follow-up end-point was occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE). Lower serum apelin levels (<0.54 ng/mL) was significantly associated with higher serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, higher peak creatine kinase MB fraction (CK-MB) and peak troponin-I (TNI) levels, the number of obstructed vessels, and need for inotropic support. The incidence of MACE was significantly higher in the low apelin group (23 patients out of 67) than in the high apelin group (10 patients out of 75, P < 0.001). Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that the MACE-free rate was significantly lower in the patients with low apelin than those with high apelin (P < 0.001, log rank test). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted with the clinical and angiographic characteristic reveals that the serum low apelin is a predictor for MACE incidence (hazard ratio = 2.36, 95% confidence interval: 1.83–3.87, P = 0.004). The finding of this study suggests that the serum apelin may be used as a marker to predict the MACE after PCI in patients with STEMI. PMID:25634182

  3. Central dopamine receptors mediating pergolide-induced elevation of serum corticosterone in rats. Characterization by the use of antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fuller, R W; Snoddy, H D

    1984-12-01

    Fourteen dopamine antagonists were compared for their ability to antagonize the elevation of the concentration of serum corticosterone in rats by pergolide, a dopamine agonist. Clozapine did not antagonize the effect of pergolide at the largest dose (10 mg/kg) that could be tested without alteration of basal levels of corticosterone. For the other antagonists, calculation of ED50 values [dose antagonizing by 50% the elevation of corticosterone caused by a 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.) dose of pergolide mesylate] revealed the following order of potency: spiperone greater than loxapine greater than fluphenazine greater than perphenazine greater than flupentixol greater than haloperidol greater than cyclophenazine greater than zotepine greater than flumezapine greater than molindone greater than metoclopramide greater than chlorpromazine greater than sulpiride. All of these compounds caused increases in the concentration of the dopamine metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), in the brains of rats. The dose that increased the concentration of DOPAC to 200% of the control value (ED200) was calculated for each compound. The ratio of the ED50 value for antagonism of the elevation of corticosterone induced by pergolide to the ED200 value for the elevation of DOPAC in brain varied, probably related to differing selectivity for pre- versus postsynaptic dopamine receptors between the compounds.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6527743

  4. Mildly Elevated Serum Bilirubin Levels Are Negatively Associated with Carotid Atherosclerosis among Elderly Persons

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in atherosclerosis. Limited information is available on whether serum total bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis {for example, intima-media thickness (IMT), plaque} measured noninvasively by B-mode ultrasonography only among elderly persons. The study subjects were 325 men aged 79±8 (mean ± standard deviation) years and 509 women aged 81±8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients aged ≥60 years in the medical department. Carotid IMT and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that in men age (β = 0.199, p = 0.002), smoking status (β = 0.154, p = 0.006), GGT (β = -0.139, p = 0.039), and GGT (β = -0.133, p = 0.022) were significantly and independently associated with carotid IMT, and in women age (β = 0.186, p<0.001), systolic blood pressure (β = 0.104, p = 0.046), diastolic blood pressure (β = -0.148, p = 0.004), prevalence of antihypertensive medication (β = 0.126, p = 0.004), fasting plasma glucose (β = 0.135, p = 0.003), GGT (β = -0.104, p = 0.032), estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum bilirubin (β = -0.119, p = 0.006), and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (β = 0.103, p = 0.017) were also independently associated with carotid IMT. The odds ratios (ORs) {95% confidence interval (CI)} of increasing serum bilirubin category were negatively associated with carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm and plaque in both genders. Compared to subjects with a serum bilirubin of Quartile-1, the multivariate-OR (95% CI) of carotid plaque was 0.25 (0.11–0.57) in the Quartile-4 male group, and 0.41 (0.21–0.78) in the Quartile-2 female group, 0.51 (0.26–0.98) in the Quartile-3 female group, and 0.46 (0.24–0.89) in the Quartile-4 female group. Our data demonstrated an independently negative association between serum bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis in both genders. PMID:25479598

  5. Elevation of serum surfactant protein-A with exacerbation in canine eosinophilic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Sone, Katsuhito; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Hayashi, Akiyoshi; Ohashi, Fumihito

    2016-02-01

    A 7-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was admitted to our hospital, because of cough with sputum. She was diagnosed as having canine eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) based on blood eosinophilia, bronchial pattern and infiltrative shadow observed on thoracic radiography, bronchiolar obstruction and air-space consolidation predominantly affecting the right caudal lung lobe, as revealed by computed tomography (CT), predominant eosinophils in CT-guided fine needle aspiration and the clinical course. She exhibited a good response to steroid therapy, and the cough disappeared. The serum surfactant protein (SP)-A level increased with the aggravated symptom and decreased markedly with improvement compared with the C-reactive protein level and the number of eosinophils. We propose that serum SP-A level is a good biomarker in CEP. PMID:26300438

  6. Elevation of serum surfactant protein-A with exacerbation in canine eosinophilic pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    SONE, Katsuhito; AKIYOSHI, Hideo; HAYASHI, Akiyoshi; OHASHI, Fumihito

    2015-01-01

    A 7-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was admitted to our hospital, because of cough with sputum. She was diagnosed as having canine eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) based on blood eosinophilia, bronchial pattern and infiltrative shadow observed on thoracic radiography, bronchiolar obstruction and air-space consolidation predominantly affecting the right caudal lung lobe, as revealed by computed tomography (CT), predominant eosinophils in CT-guided fine needle aspiration and the clinical course. She exhibited a good response to steroid therapy, and the cough disappeared. The serum surfactant protein (SP)-A level increased with the aggravated symptom and decreased markedly with improvement compared with the C-reactive protein level and the number of eosinophils. We propose that serum SP-A level is a good biomarker in CEP. PMID:26300438

  7. Elevated levels of serum sICAM-1 in asphyxiated low birth weight newborns.

    PubMed

    Huseynova, Saadat; Panakhova, Nushaba; Orujova, Pusta; Hasanov, Safikhan; Guliyev, Mehman; Orujov, Agil

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxia results in neuronal and endothelial cell damage. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) expression and peripheral blood changes in perinatal asphyxia with neuronal injury markers in low birth weight (LBW) neonates. We compared the concentrations of serum sICAM-1, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and antibodies specific for NR2 glutamate receptors in 29 asphyxiated and 20 control infants using standard enzyme immunoassay procedures. The mean total concentrations of sICAM-1 and neuron-specific proteins (NSE and NR2-specific antibodies) were higher in the asphyxiated infants than in the control infants. The serum sICAM-1 concentrations significantly correlated with Apgar scoring and with the pH and lactate data from capillary or arterial cord blood. No significant correlation between serum concentrations of neuron specific proteins and blood changes of asphyxia was found. Therefore, endothelial sICAM-1 expression levels might be accepted as an indicator of the severity of perinatal asphyxia in LBW infants. PMID:25358349

  8. Elevated serum uric acid in nondiabetic people mark pro-inflammatory state and HDL dysfunction and independently predicts coronary disease.

    PubMed

    Onat, Altan; Can, Günay; Örnek, Ender; Altay, Servet; Yüksel, Murat; Ademoğlu, Evin

    2013-12-01

    We explored the association of serum uric acid (UA) concentrations with pro-inflammatory state and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) dysfunction. UA tertiles in tracked 1,508 nondiabetic participants were analyzed cross-sectionally for associations with inflammation biomarkers and protective proteins over a mean follow-up of 4.9 years for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) using Cox proportional hazards regression. In the absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), UA tertiles significantly distinguished, in each sex, increasing categories of three MetS components (inflammation/oxidation markers, apolipoprotein (apo)B) and (inversely) current smoking (but not protective proteins such as HDL, apoA-I, and adiponectin). Distinctions attenuated in the presence of MetS. Linear regression model revealed fasting triglycerides (1.86 mg/dl variance), male sex, and gamma-glutamyl transferase and age as covariates of UA levels in women. In Cox analysis, incident CHD (n = 137) was predicted by mid and upper UA tertile in men alone at significant hazard ratios of 2.7, additively to conventional risk factors. Elevated serum UA levels, linked to triglycerides, mark in nondiabetic people pro-inflammatory state, and, notably, HDL dysfunction. CHD risk is independently predicted by elevated UA levels in nondiabetic men and is modulated by MetS and gender. PMID:23934383

  9. Activation of the calcium sensing receptor stimulates serum gastrin and gastric acid secretion in healthy subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acid secretion is a complex process regulated by neuronal and hormonal pathways. Ex vivo studies in human gastric tissues indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), expressed on the surface of G and parietal cells, may be involved in this regulation. We sought to determine whether cin...

  10. Activiation of the calcium sensing receptor stimulates serum gastrin and gastric acid secretion in healthy subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acid secretion is a complex process regulated by neuronal and hormonal pathways. Ex vivo studies in human gastric tissues indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), expressed on the surface of G and parietal cells, may be involved in this regulation. We sought to determine whether cin...

  11. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor are elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and severe nighttime hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Richard; Hummel, Christoph; Heinemann, Sabine; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich

    2002-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; however, some patients with OSA do not develop cardiovascular disease even in the presence of severe nocturnal oxygen desaturations. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a hypoxia-sensitive glycoprotein stimulating neoangiogenesis. We hypothesized that VEGF production is increased in OSA because of repetitive nocturnal hypoxia. Three different groups were investigated: 10 OSA patients with severe nighttime hypoxia (Group A), 10 OSA patients with moderate hypoxia (Group B), and 10 healthy volunteers (Group C). Serum levels of VEGF were measured by ELISA from peripheral venous blood samples obtained at 7 AM. Group A had significantly (p < 0.01) increased VEGF serum levels when compared with Group B and Group C (mean +/- SEM: 410 +/- 77 pg/ml versus 224 +/- 38 pg/ml and 245 +/- 61 pg/ml). The degree of nocturnal oxygen desaturation in OSA significantly correlated with the VEGF concentrations (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). In conclusion, serum levels of VEGF are elevated in severely hypoxic patients with OSA and are related to the degree of nocturnal oxygen desaturation. This might constitute an adaptive mechanism to counterbalance the emergence of OSA-related cardiovascular disease. PMID:11779732

  12. Elevation of Serum Aminotransferase Levels and Future Risk of Death from External Causes: A Prospective Cohort Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jungwoo; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Cho, Jaelim; Choi, Yoon Jung; Suh, Il

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The association between liver enzymes and death from external causes has not been examined. We investigated the association between serum aminotransferase levels and external-cause mortality in a large prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods A total of 142322 subjects of 35-59 years of age who completed baseline examinations in 1990 and 1992 were enrolled. Mortalities were identified using death certificates. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were categorized into quintiles. Sub-distribution hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a competing risks regression model in which deaths from other causes were treated as competing risks. Results Of 8808 deaths, 1111 (12.6%) were due to external causes. Injury accounted for 256 deaths, and suicide accounted for 255. After adjusting for covariates, elevated ALT and AST were significantly associated with an increased risk of all external-cause mortalities, as well as suicide and injury. Sub-distribution hazards ratios (95% CIs) of the highest versus the lowest quintiles of serum ALT and AST were, respectively, 1.57 (1.26-1.95) and 1.45 (1.20-1.76) for all external causes, 2.73 (1.68-4.46) and 1.75 (1.15-2.66) for suicide, and 1.79 (1.10-2.90) and 1.85 (1.21-2.82) for injury. The risk of external-cause mortality was also significantly higher in the fourth quintile of ALT (21.6-27.5 IU/L) than in its first quintile. Conclusion Elevated aminotransferase levels, even within the normal range, were significantly associated with increased risk of all external-cause mortalities, including suicide, and injury. PMID:26446640

  13. Elevated serum creatinine and low albumin are associated with poor outcomes in patients with liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Panotopoulos, Joannis; Posch, Florian; Funovics, Philipp T; Willegger, Madeleine; Scharrer, Anke; Lamm, Wolfgang; Brodowicz, Thomas; Windhager, Reinhard; Ay, Cihan

    2016-03-01

    Low serum albumin levels and impaired kidney function have been associated with decreased survival in patients with a variety of cancer types. In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed 84 patients with liposarcoma treated at from May 1994 to October 2011. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models and competing risk analyses were performed to evaluate the association between putative biomarkers with disease-specific and overall survival. The median age of the study population was 51.7 (range 19.6-83.8) years. In multivariable analysis adjusted for AJCC tumor stage, serum creatinine was highly associated with disease-specific survival (Subdistribution Hazard ratio (SHR) per 1 mg/dl increase = 2.94; 95%CI 1.39-6.23; p = 0.005). High albumin was associated with improved overall and disease-specific survival (Hazard Ratio (HR) per 10 units increase = 0.50; 95%CI 0.26-0.95; p = 0.033 and SHR = 0.64; 95%CI 0.42-1.00; p = 0.049). The serum albumin-creatinine-ratio emerged to be associated with both overall and disease-specific survival after adjusting for AJCC tumor stage (HR = 0.95; 95%CI 0.92-0.99; p = 0.011 and SHR = 0.96; 95%CI 0.93-0.99; p = 0.08). Our study provides evidence for a tumor-stage-independent association between higher creatinine and lower albumin with worse disease-specific survival. Low albumin and a high albumin-creatinine-ratio independently predict poor overall survival. Our work identified novel prognostic biomarkers for prognosis of patients with liposarcoma. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:533-538, 2016. PMID:26222652

  14. [A case of hydronephrosis caused by renal stones with elevated serum levels of CA-19-9 and CA-125].

    PubMed

    Ito, S; Nishikawa, K; Goto, T; Tsujita, M; Takegaki, Y; Kishimoto, T

    1994-10-01

    A case of hydronephrosis caused by renal stones with elevated serum levels of carbohydrate antigens 19-9 (CA-19-9) and 125 (CA-125) is reported. A 74-year-old woman was hospitalized with pyelonephritis. The results of computerized tomography and endoscopy suggested that the patient did not have pancreatic or ovarian cancer, but laboratory tests were significant for serum CA-19-9 greater than 1,000 U/ml (normal less than 37) and serum CA-125 78 U/ml (normal less than 35), which are markers for such tumors. Abdominal X-ray films showed stones in the pelvis of the right kidney. Excretory urography showed that the right kidney was not functioning. Computerized tomography showed severe right hydronephrosis with a thin renal cortex. Complete obstruction of the ureteropelvic junction of the kidney was seen by retrograde pyelography. During percutaneous pyelography, aspiration of the pelvic urine was done, and the sample had a high concentration of CA-19-9 (250,000 U/ml), but no cancer cells. The patients underwent right nephrectomy. The pelvic urine was tested for both CA-19-9 and CA-125 this time, and both were high (190,000 U/ml and 5,100 U/ml, respectively). Pathological evaluation showed no evidence of a malignant tumor. The epithelium lining the renal pelvis was stained for both CA-19-9 and CA-125 using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Serum levels of the markers returned to normal after nephrectomy. PMID:7992702

  15. Effect of curing conditions on the dimensional and thermal stability of calcium phosphate cement for elevated temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Blom, Johan; Rahier, Hubert; Wastiels, Jan

    2014-12-15

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are attractive materials for elevated temperature applications, like moulds to process thermoplastics up to 300 °C. The CPC resulting from the reaction of wollastonite with phosphoric acid cured at room temperature however contains hydrated phases like brushite, and is thus not stable when exposed to temperatures above 200 °C. A non-contact method based on digital image correlation demonstrated that isothermal curing at 60 °C reduces the thermal shrinkage up to 300 °C by 25%. This curing method results in the direct formation of the more stable monetite in a shorter curing time. The correlated results of TGA, pH of the filtration water, and DSC analysis on partially cured material indicate this. XRD diffractograms and SEM images in combination with EDX show the evolution of the transformation of wollastonite into monetite, and the structure and morphology of the formed material.

  16. Unique Responsiveness of Angiosperm Stomata to Elevated CO2 Explained by Calcium Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Brodribb, Timothy J.; McAdam, Scott A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperm and conifer tree species respond differently when exposed to elevated CO2, with angiosperms found to dynamically reduce water loss while conifers appear insensitive. Such distinct responses are likely to affect competition between these tree groups as atmospheric CO2 concentration rises. Seeking the mechanism behind this globally important phenomenon we targeted the Ca2+-dependent signalling pathway, a mediator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2, as a possible explanation for the differentiation of stomatal behaviours. Sampling across the diversity of vascular plants including lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms we show that only angiosperms possess the stomatal behaviour and prerequisite genetic coding, linked to Ca2+-dependent stomatal signalling. We conclude that the evolution of Ca2+-dependent stomatal signalling gives angiosperms adaptive benefits in terms of highly efficient water use, but that stomatal sensitivity to high CO2 may penalise angiosperm productivity relative to other plant groups in the current era of soaring atmospheric CO2. PMID:24278470

  17. Elevation of cytosolic calcium precedes anoxic gene expression in maize suspension-cultured cells.

    PubMed Central

    Subbaiah, C C; Bush, D S; Sachs, M M

    1994-01-01

    Based on pharmacological evidence, we previously proposed that intracellular Ca2+ mediates the perception of O2 deprivation in maize seedlings. Herein, using fluorescence imaging and photometry of Ca2+ in maize suspension-cultured cells, the proposal was further investigated. Two complementary approaches were taken: (1) real time analysis of anoxia-induced changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca]i) and (2) experimental manipulation of [Ca]i and then assay of the resultant anoxia-specific responses. O2 depletion caused an immediate increase in [Ca2+]i, and this was reversible within a few seconds of reoxygenation. The [Ca]i elevation proceeded independent of extracellular Ca2+. The kinetics of the Ca2+ response showed that it occurred much earlier than any detectable changes in gene expression. Ruthenium red blocked the anoxic [Ca]i elevation and also the induction of adh1 (encoding alcohol dehydrogenase) and sh1 (encoding sucrose synthase) mRNA. Ca2+, when added along with ruthenium red, prevented the effects of the antagonist on the anoxic responses. Verapamil and bepridil failed to block the [Ca]i rise induced by anoxia and were equally ineffective on anoxic gene expression. Caffeine induced an elevation of [Ca]i as well as ADH activity under normoxia. The data provide direct evidence for [Ca]i elevation in maize cells as a result of anoxia-induced mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Furthermore, any manipulation that modified the [Ca]i rise brought about a parallel change in the expression of two anoxia-inducible genes. Thus, these results corroborate our proposal that [Ca]i is a physiological transducer of anoxia signals in plants. PMID:7866021

  18. Achievement of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative: recommended serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone values with parathyroidectomy in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Hoon Yub; Woo, Sang Uk; Son, Gil Soo; Bae, Jeoung Won

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-K/DOQI) 2003 has established guidelines for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients with chronic kidney disease - minerals and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). This study evaluated parathyroidectomy in SHPT patients for the achievement of the NKF-K/DOQI-recommended values of serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Methods Between January 2005 and December 2010, parathyroidectomy was performed as recommended by the NKF-K/DOQI guidelines in 81 patients with SHPT and CKD-MBD. Serum PTH, calcium, and phosphate levels were measured prior to and 6, 12, 36, and 60 months after parathyroidectomy. Results Calcium, phosphate, and PTH levels dropped shortly after parathyroidectomy; however, a slight increase showed in the long term. Calcium levels increased for up to 60 months. Phosphate and PTH levels increased for up to 36 months but tended to decrease slightly at 60 months. The mean values were within the target ranges, except for PTH at 36 months. The target parameters of serum phosphate (42.9-61.1% of patients) and serum calcium (a peak of 61.1% of patients at 36 months, but only 28.6% at 60 months) were achieved the most. Less than 34% of patients achieved the recommended range for PTH. Conclusion Parathyroidectomy was not an optimal procedure for achieving all the biochemical parameters recommended by the NKF-K/DOQI. Although it was helpful in attaining the recommended values for serum calcium and phosphate in SHPT patients resistant to medical therapy, the PTH levels did not fall within the recommended range. PMID:23833757

  19. Is elevated serum ceruloplasmin level associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease?

    PubMed Central

    Göçmen, Ayşe Yeşim; Şahin, Emel; Semiz, Ender; Gümüşlü, Saadet

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An imbalance between the lipid peroxidation process and antioxidative protection is associated with the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease (CAD). The authors aimed to determine the relationship between the contributors of antioxidant protection, such as paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, albumin, vitamin C and ceruloplasmin (CP) levels, and lipid peroxidation indicators. METHODS: In the present study, the activity of PON1 was measured, together with serum concentrations of a variety of lipid constituents, albumin, vitamin C and CP levels, and lipid peroxidation indicators (conjugated dienes [CDs] and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]). Data were gathered from 26 nondiabetic, angiographically proven, Turkish CAD patients and 26 healthy controls living in the Antalya region (Turkey). RESULTS: CAD patients had significantly lower PON1 activity, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, vitamin C and albumin concentrations, and higher CP, CD and TBARS concentrations than the controls. In the entire study population (n=52), serum CP levels were positively correlated with TBARS and CD levels, and negatively correlated with albumin and vitamin C levels, as well as with PON1 activity. On multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors associated with CAD included high CP and low albumin levels. CONCLUSIONS: CAD patients and controls were matched for age and sex, and high CP and low albumin levels were found to be independent risk factors for CAD. The present data gathered from the study group living in the Antalya region verifies that in CAD patients, CP impairs the oxidant-antioxidant balance in favour of the oxidants. PMID:18340391

  20. Elevation of total homocysteine in the serum of patients with cobalamin or folate deficiency detected by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Stabler, S P; Marcell, P D; Podell, E R; Allen, R H; Savage, D G; Lindenbaum, J

    1988-01-01

    To determine if levels of serum total homocysteine are elevated in patients with either cobalamin or folate deficiency, we utilized a new capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique to measure total homocysteine in the serum of 78 patients with clinically confirmed cobalamin deficiency and 19 patients with clinically confirmed folate deficiency. Values ranged from 11 to 476 mumol/liter in the cobalamin-deficient patients and 77 of the 78 patients had values above the normal range of 7-22 mumol/liter as determined for 50 normal blood donors. In the cobalamin-deficient patients, serum total homocysteine was positively correlated with serum folate, mean corpuscular volume, serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum methylmalonic acid, and the degree of neurologic involvement, and inversely correlated with platelets and hematocrit. In the folate-deficient patients, values for serum total homocysteine ranged from 17 to 185 mumol/liter and 18 of the 19 patients had values above the normal range. Some patients with pernicious anemia who were intermittently treated with cyanocobalamin were found to have elevated serum levels of total homocysteine while they were free of hematologic and neurologic abnormalities. The measurement of serum total homocysteine will help define the incidence of cobalamin deficiency and folate deficiency in various patient populations. PMID:3339129

  1. Effect of soluble calcium and lactose on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The tendency of calcium to promote microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling is well documented, but the role of lactose has not been studied. Milk protein concentrate that is 85% protein on a dry basis (MPC85) contains less calcium and lactose than skim milk. Our objectives were to determine the effects of skim milk soluble calcium and lactose concentrations on the limiting fluxes (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal factors of 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability membranes. The MF was fed with 3 different milks: skim milk, liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein content of skim milk with reverse osmosis water (MPC), and liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein and lactose contents of skim milk with reverse osmosis water and lactose monohydrate (MPC+L). Retentate and permeate were continuously recycled to the feed tank. The LF for each feed was determined by increasing flux once per hour from 55 kg·m(-2)·h(-1) until flux did not increase with increasing transmembrane pressure. Temperature, pressure drop across the membrane length, and protein concentration in the retentate recirculation loop were maintained at 50°C, 220 kPa, and 8.77 ± 0.2%, respectively. Experiments were replicated 3 times and the Proc GLM procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis. An increase in LF between skim milk (91 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) and MPC+L (124 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) was associated with a reduction in soluble calcium. The LF of MPC+L was lower than the LF of MPC (137 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) due to the higher viscosity contributed by lactose. Permeates produced from the MPC and MPC+L contained more protein than the skim milk permeate due to the transfer of caseins from the micelles into the reduced-calcium sera of the MPC and MPC+L. A SP removal factor was calculated by dividing true protein in the permeate by SP in the permeate portion of the feed to describe the ease of SP passage through the membrane. No differences in SP removal factors were detected among the 3 feeds below the LF. As the fluxes approached the LF, SP removal factors decreased due to fouling. Feeding a MF system with MPC instead of skim milk will reduce the required membrane surface area, but the permeate protein composition will be slightly higher in casein content. PMID:26298759

  2. Hydrochlorothiazide inhibits bone resorption in men despite experimentally elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lemann, J; Gray, R W; Maierhofer, W J; Cheung, H S

    1985-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of hydrochlorothiazide administration in relation to Ca balance, the PTH and vitamin D endocrine systems, acid-base balance, and bone. We studied six healthy men fed constant diets providing only 5.1 +/- 0.7 SD mmoles Ca/day. Three of the men were also given calcitriol, 0.5 microgram 6-hrly throughout their studies. All subjects were observed during 18 control days and then during 18 days of hydrochlorothiazide (HTZ) administration, 25 mg 12-hrly. Observations during control days 11 through 16 were compared to those during days 7 through 18 of HTZ administration, inclusively. Directional changes during HTZ did not differ among subjects not given or given calcitriol. For all six subjects, control net intestinal Ca absorption, serum 1,25-(OH)2-D concentrations, serum iPTH concentrations, and daily urine cAMP excretion averaged 0.5 +/- 2.2 mmoles/day, 162 +/- 51 pM, 4.3 +/- 2.2 microliter Eq/ml and 4.2 +/- 0.9 mumoles/day, respectively; none changed during HTZ. As expected, HTZ administration was accompanied by a fall in urinary Ca excretion, averaging -1.4 +/- 0.8 mmoles/day; P less than 0.01. HTZ administration was also accompanied by less negative Ca balances, averaging +1.6 +/- 1.0 mmoles/day; P less than 0.025, and by a fall in daily urinary hydroxyproline excretion averaging -0.13 +/- 0.09 mmoles/day; P less than 0.025. We interpret these data to indicate that HTZ administration is accompanied by an inhibition of bone resorption. HTZ administration also raised serum HCO3 concentrations by +2.7 +/- 0.5 mEq/liter; P less than 0.001 and blood pH by + 0.05 +/- 0.02 units; P less than 0.005.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3003445

  3. [Investigating patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and elevated serum thyroglobulin but negative whole-body scan].

    PubMed

    Rosário, Pedro Weslley S; Maia, Flávia Coimbra P; Barroso, Alvaro Luís; Purisch, Saulo

    2005-04-01

    Findings of elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) and a negative whole-body scan (WBS) are not uncommon during the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In 12% of our patients submitted to thyroidectomy and radioiodine with Tg >10 ng/ml during hypothyroidism had a negative diagnostic WBS. This finding generally corresponds to a false-negative WBS. Inadequate preparation in terms of iodine exposure and insufficient elevation of TSH should be excluded. Micrometastases which do not accumulate sufficient iodine to be detected by low radioiodine activity and the loss of the capacity to express the sodium/iodine symporter explain many cases. In patients with elevated Tg, metastases can be identified after the administration of a therapeutic radioiodine dose, with this procedure being indicated in cases with Tg >10 ng/ml during hypothyroidism or >5 ng/ml after recombinant TSH, after exclusion of lung and cervical macrometastases. In the present study, 5 of 7 patients with these criteria showed ectopic uptake on post-therapy WBS. If the post-therapy scan is negative or reveals discrete uptake in the thyroid bed, other methods (e.g. FDG PET) can be performed, and the physician should not insist on radioiodine therapy. If WBS detect lymph node metastases, surgery is indicated, while in cases of diffuse lung metastases radioiodine is indicated until the occurrence of a negative WBS or normalization of stimulated Tg levels. Patients with a positive post-therapy scan may show a significant reduction in Tg, with even complete remission in some cases after radioiodine, but the impact of this treatment on mortality remains controversial. PMID:16184253

  4. Falsely elevated serum creatinine levels secondary to the presence of 5-fluorocytosine.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, R T; Marshall, L H; Lefkowitz, L B; Stratton, C W

    1985-08-01

    The Kodak Ektachem (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) is a new clinical chemistry analyzer that uses an enzymatic method to measure creatinine. The authors report the case of a patient with falsely elevated creatinine levels that were caused by the presence of 5-fluorocytosine. A review of the literature confirmed that this can occur, but well documented reports are not found. In order to determine the magnitude of this interference, the authors plotted creatinine levels versus 5-FC concentration. Significant interference is seen with therapeutic levels of 5-FC. Both clinicians and pathologists should be aware of this phenomenon. PMID:4025232

  5. Highly elevated serum levels of CA 19-9 in choledocholithiasis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Marcouizos, Georgios; Ignatiadou, Eleftheria; Ziogas, Dimosthenis; Fatouros, Michail

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of a 79-year-old woman admitted to our hospital with pain in the right upper abdominal quadrate radiated to the back, jaundice, fever and chills. The laboratory tests showed serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels of 99.070 U/ml (normal values: 0-37 U/ml). The rest of the biochemistry showed alkaline phosphatase of 550 IU/l, direct bilirubin: 17.5 mg/dl, total bilirubin: 28.4 mg/dl. Abdominal sonography demonstrated dilated common bile duct. Two weeks postoperatively, the carbohydrate antigen 19-9 fell to 970 U/ml and returned within normal range (31 U/ml) two months later. Furthermore, the magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography performed postoperatively demonstrated normal configuration of the biliary tree and the common bile duct. PMID:19829841

  6. Diabetes and Pancreas: Why So Difficult? Potential Mechanisms of Elevated Serum Pancreatic Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, Elena; Giampietro, Ottavio

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been associated with a higher risk of exocrine pancreas disorders despite inconsistencies among studies, presumably due to the presence of several (often unmeasured) confounding factors. As a direct consequence of this uncertainty, the relationship between anti-diabetic therapies and pancreatic adverse reactions is difficult to evaluate and remains far from being clarified. Indeed, the on going debate on the safety of incretin-based therapies does not lie in any definite conclusion. Serum level of amylases and lipase reflects the balance between production from different tissues and clearance, but it may be also influenced by numerous molecular, cellular, and systems mechanisms. The present review tries to provide an overview of potential biochemical pathways that may underlie pancreatic hyperenzymemia in health and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26639098

  7. Prognostic Value of Elevated Serum Ceruloplasmin Levels in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Hammadah, Muhammad; Fan, Yiying; Wu, Yuping; Hazen, Stanley L.; Wilson Tang, W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a copper-binding acute-phase protein that is increased in inflammatory states and deficient in Wilson’s disease. Recent studies demonstrate increased levels of Cp are associated with increased risk of developing heart failure. Our objective is to test the hypothesis that serum Cp provides incremental and independent prediction of survival in stable patients with heart failure. Methods and Results We measured serum Cp levels in 890 patients with stable heart failure undergoing elective cardiac evaluation that included coronary angiography. We examine the role of Cp levels in predicting survival over 5-years of follow-up. Mean Cp level was 26.6±6.9 mg/dL, and demonstrated relatively weak correlation with BNP (r=0.187, p<0.001). Increased Cp levels were associated with increased 5 year all-cause mortality (Q4 vs Q1 HR 1.9, 95%CI 1.4–2.8, p<0.001). When controlled for coronary disease traditional risk factors, creatinine clearance, dialysis, body mass index, medications, history of myocardial infarction, BNP, LVEF, heart rate, QRS duration, left bundle branch blockage and ICD, higher Cp remained an independent predictor of increased mortality (Q4 vs Q1 HR1.7, 95%CI 1.1 – 2.6, p<0.05). Model quality was improved with addition of Cp to aforementioned co-variables (NRI of 9.3%, p<0.001) Conclusions Ceruloplasmin is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure. Use of Cp may help to identify patients at heightened mortality risk. PMID:25128745

  8. Contribution of elevated intracellular calcium to pulmonary arterial myocyte alkalinization during chronic hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Trevor; Shimoda, Larissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the lung, exposure to chronic hypoxia (CH) causes pulmonary hypertension, a debilitating disease. Development of this condition arises from increased muscularity and contraction of pulmonary vessels, associated with increases in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). In this study, we explored the interaction between pHi and [Ca2+]i in PASMCs from rats exposed to normoxia or CH (3 weeks, 10% O2). PASMC pHi and [Ca2+]i were measured with fluorescent microscopy and the dyes BCECF and Fura-2. Both pHi and [Ca2+]i levels were elevated in PASMCs from hypoxic rats. Exposure to KCl increased [Ca2+]i and pHi to a similar extent in normoxic and hypoxic PASMCs. Conversely, removal of extracellular Ca2+ or blockade of Ca2+ entry with NiCl2 or SKF 96365 decreased [Ca2+]i and pHi only in hypoxic cells. Neither increasing pHi with NH4Cl nor decreasing pHi by removal of bicarbonate impacted PASMC [Ca2+]i. We also examined the roles of Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX) and Na+/H+ exchange (NHE) in mediating the elevated basal [Ca2+]i and Ca2+-dependent changes in PASMC pHi. Bepridil, dichlorobenzamil, and KB-R7943, which are NCX inhibitors, decreased resting [Ca2+]i and pHi only in hypoxic PASMCs and blocked the changes in pHi induced by altering [Ca2+]i. Exposure to ethyl isopropyl amiloride, an NHE inhibitor, decreased resting pHi and prevented changes in pHi due to changing [Ca2+]i. Our findings indicate that, during CH, the elevation in basal [Ca2+]i may contribute to the alkaline shift in pHi in PASMCs, likely via mechanisms involving reverse-mode NCX and NHE. PMID:27076907

  9. Influence of the assay for measuring serum albumin on corrected total calcium in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kato, Akihiko; Takita, Takako; Furuhashi, Mitsuyoshi; Fujimoto, Taiki; Suzuki, Hiroo; Hakamada, Masahiro; Maruyama, Yukitaka

    2011-12-01

    The Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy guideline for secondary hyperparathyroidism recommends the use of albumin-corrected serum Ca as a therapeutic target in chronic hemodialysis patients; however, the assay used for albumin measurement may affect the corrected Ca level. In this study, we examined the impact of the albumin assay on corrected Ca levels in hemodialysis patients. We measured serum albumin using bromocresol green (BCG) and modified bromocresol purple (BCP) assays, and corrected Ca for albumin using Payne's formula in 422 hemodialysis patients (age 66±13 years; time on hemodialysis 116±111 months). Serum albumin values were 3.7±0.4 (1.4-4.6) g/dL by BCG and 3.3±0.4 (1.0-4.3) g/dL by modified BCP, with the differences between the two assays ranging from 0.0 to 0.6 with a mean of 0.35±0.09 g/dL. Serum C-reactive protein and globulin values were significantly higher in patients with differences in albumin greater than 0.5 g/dL (P<0.01). Based on the BCG method, 71 patients (16.8%) were classified with hypocalcemia, 51 (12.1%) with hypercalcemia, and 300 (70.0%) as normocalcemic. In contrast, when using modified BCP, 33 patients (7.9%) were labeled as hypocalcemic, while 92 (21.8%) were hypercalcemic. Depending on the use of either BCG or modified BCP, a discrepancy of classification was observed in 79 patients (18.7%): 41 patients were re-classified from normocalcemic to hypercalcemic, and 38 patients were re-classified from hypocalcemic to normocalcemic by selecting the modified BCP assay. These findings suggest that the type of assay used for albumin measurement has an impact on albumin-corrected Ca levels. PMID:22107690

  10. KEY COMPARISON: CCQM-K14: Calcium amount content in serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Nevel, L.; Aregbe, Y.; Taylor, P. D. P.

    2004-01-01

    This key comparison 'Ca in Serum' is a follow-up to the pilot study P14. The aim of the study is to demonstrate and document the capability of national metrology institutes to measure the Ca amount content in a serum sample. The comparison was an activity of the Inorganic Analysis Working Group of CCQM and was piloted by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, Geel, Belgium). The following laboratories participated in this key comparison (in alphabetical order): CENAM (Mexico) CSIR-NML (South Africa) IAEA (International Organization) IRMM (European Union) KRISS (South Korea) LGC (United Kingdom) NIST (United States of America) NMi -VSL (The Netherlands) PTB (Germany) The majority of participants applied isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) using thermal ionization MS (TIMS), sector field or quadrupole inductively coupled plasma MS (ICP-MS) as the analytical technique. IAEA reported a combined result of AAS and ICP-OES for the Ca amount content in the serum. The Key Comparison Reference Value (KCRV) was agreed upon during the IAWG meeting in October 2003 at EMPA/St-Gallen as the weighted mean of the reported participants' results. Accordingly the equivalence statements were calculated. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  11. Impacts of UVB provision and dietary calcium content on serum vitamin D3 , growth rates, skeletal structure and coloration in captive oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Michaels, C J; Antwis, R E; Preziosi, R F

    2015-04-01

    Many amphibian species are dependent on ex situ conservation interventions for their long-term persistence. However, projects have been jeopardised by husbandry issues involving poor calcium metabolism and nutritional metabolic bone disease (NMBD). Healthy calcium metabolism requires appropriate dietary calcium content and access to vitamin D3 . In many animals, vitamin D3 can be photobiosynthesised in skin exposed to UVB radiation, as well as extracted from the diet, but the extent of vitamin D3 photobiosynthesis in amphibians is poorly known. Additionally, prey insects for captive amphibians are deficient in calcium and calcium content must be artificially increased, but the effects of different levels of augmentation and their interaction with UVB exposure are also little understood. We fed captive fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) with crickets augmented to contain 5% and 10% calcium and housed them with and without UVB exposure. Despite additional dietary vitamin D3 supplementation, we found that toads exposed to UVB radiation exhibited significantly higher serum vitamin D3 levels, indicating that this species may partly rely on photobiosynthesis sources of vitamin D3 . These data are the first to show a direct link between UVB exposure and serum vitamin D3 in an amphibian. We found significant positive effects of UVB exposure and 10% dietary calcium content on skeletal structure, as well as complex interactions between treatments. We also found UVB radiation exposure resulted in more rapid natural coloration acquisition. Together, this indicates that standard calcium plus vitamin D3 supplementation methods may not fully substitute for UVB exposure and for increased feeder insect calcium content. This may have implications for the success of ex situ amphibian conservation, as well as for the welfare of captive amphibians in general. Our data lend support for the provision of UVB radiation for captive, basking amphibians. PMID:24810567

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma of the colon with an elevated serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen responding to combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Copur, S; Ledakis, P; Novinski, D; Mleczko, K L; Frankforter, S; Bolton, M; Fruehling, R M; VanWie, E; Norvell, M; Muhvic, J

    2001-05-01

    Primary squamous cell colorectal carcinomas are uncommon, and their characteristics are not well known. They seem to occur most commonly in the fifth decade of life with a slight predominance for men. The most commonly reported anatomic locations are the rectum and the proximal colon. Clinical features and common diagnostic methods do not easily differentiate squamous cell colorectal carcinomas from adenocarcinomas. Because of their extremely rare occurrence, it is difficult to study their natural course, clinical behavior, and response to therapy. This report presents the case of a pure squamous cell colorectal cancer and provides a brief review of the literature, which includes 60 previously published cases. The case of a patient with T3N2M0 primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectosigmoid colon, which was initially treated with abdominoperineal resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation, is presented. During the follow-up, an elevated squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) level led to restaging computed tomography scans, which confirmed recurrent metastatic disease in the liver. Response to chemotherapy with a decrease in tumor size correlated with a decrease in the serum SCC Ag level. Although SCC Ag has been used as a tumor marker for squamous cell cancers of the lung, head and neck, uterine cervix, and esophagus, this is the first reported case of a squamous cell colon carcinoma presenting with an elevated SCC Ag at the time of recurrence. In addition, this patient showed an objective partial response to combination chemotherapy, with a decrease in the serum level of this tumor marker. PMID:12445380

  13. Elevated serum anti-flagellin antibodies implicate subclinical bowel inflammation in ankylosing spondylitis: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) share genetic and clinical features. IBD is associated with the presence of antibodies to a variety of commensal microorganisms including anti-Saccharomyces cerevesiae antibodies (ASCA), antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), anti-I2 (associated with anti-Pseudomonas activity), anti-Eschericia coli outer membrane porin C (anti-OmpC) and anti-flagellin antibodies (anti-CBir1). Subclinical intestinal inflammation may be present in up to 65% of patients with AS. This study evaluated the presence of antimicrobial antibodies in patients with AS alone, patients with AS and concomitant IBD (AS-IBD) and a control group of patients with mechanical back pain (MBP). Methods Sera were tested by ELISA for ASCA IgG and IgA, anti-OmpC, anti-CBir1 and ANCA in 76 patients with AS alone, 77 patients with AS-IBD and 48 patients with MBP. Antibody positivity rates, median quantitative antibody levels and the proportion of patients with antibody levels in the 4th quartile of a normal distribution were compared between the three groups of patients. Results Patients with AS alone demonstrated higher anti-CBir1 antibody positivity rates and median antibody levels than MBP patients. Anti-CBir1 positivity in AS was associated with elevation of acute phase reactants. AS-IBD patients demonstrated elevated responses when compared to AS alone for ASCA, anti-OmpC and anti-CBir1. Quartile analysis confirmed the findings. Conclusions These data suggest that adaptive immune responses to microbial antigens occur in AS patients without clinical IBD and support the theory of mucosal dysregulation as a mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of AS. PMID:24286190

  14. Secretory IgA are elevated in both saliva and serum of patients with various types of primary glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Rostoker, G; Terzidis, H; Petit-Phar, M; Meillet, D; Lang, P; Dubert, J M; Lagrue, G; Weil, B

    1992-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) was determined by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (using as capture antibody an MoAb specific for secretory component) in saliva and serum from 46 patients with IgA mesangial nephritis (IgAGN), 36 with an idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), 30 with an idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MGN) and 40 healthy controls. Secretory IgA levels were elevated in both saliva and serum of patients with primary glomerulonephritis (P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney test) regardless of the histological type of the primary glomerulonephritis. Salivary IgA1 and IgA2 levels were increased in the saliva of patients with IgAGN, INS and MGN (P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney test). The monomeric/total IgA ratio, and interferon-gamma and soluble IL-2 receptor levels, in saliva did not differ between the patients and controls (P > 0.05; Mann-Whitney test). We conclude that the mucosal immune system is activated in forms of glomerulonephritis other than IgAGN. PMID:1424290

  15. Elevated Serum Levels of Soluble CD30 in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients and Its Association with Disease Severity-Related Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rongfen; Sun, Wei; Chen, Yu; Su, Yuying; Wang, Chenqiong; Dong, Lingli

    2015-01-01

    Soluble CD30 (sCD30), a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, has been shown to be associated with various pathological conditions. This study was designed to measure the levels of serum sCD30 in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to evaluate the relationships between serum sCD30 levels and other disease severity-related indexes, including bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (ASDAS), and bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI). Our results demonstrated significantly elevated sCD30 levels in AS patients compared to healthy controls (HCs) with mean values of 32.0 ± 12.2 and 24.9 ± 8.0 ng/mL, respectively (P** = 0.007), suggesting a potential role of sCD30 in the pathogenesis of AS. However, no significant correlations of sCD30 with BASDAI, ASDAS, or BASFI were detected in our study (P > 0.05). Therefore, sCD30 cannot be used as a reliable marker for reflecting disease activity and functional ability of AS patients. PMID:26273636

  16. Elevated Serum Interleukin-18 Level Is Associated with All-Cause Mortality in Stable Hemodialysis Patients Independently of Cardiac Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yen-Wen; Su, Chi-Ting; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Tsai, Wei-Chuan; Su, Yu-Ru; Wang, Saprina P. H.; Yang, Chun-Shin; Tsai, Liang-Miin; Chen, Jyh-Hong; Sung, Junne-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background High circulating interleukin (IL)-18 level predicts a higher hospitalization rate among dialysis patients, possibly through cardiovascular mechanisms; however, whether higher IL-18 level is associated with mortality in dialysis patients is less clear. In addition, its impacts on left ventricular (LV) function are also unknown. We conducted a cohort study to examine the impacts of IL-18 level on LV function and prognosis among clinically stable hemodialysis patients. Methods Clinically stable patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (?3 months) were prospectively enrolled from December 2008 to January 2009, and were followed up for 31 months. The enrolled patients (41% male, 66.410.9 years of age) received 2-dimensional echocardiography and myocardial deformation (strain) analysis, including LV peak systolic longitudinal strain (GLS) and circumferential strain (CS). Laboratory measurements were also performed. Cox regression analysis was used to investigate prognostic factors. Results Seventy-five patients were stratified into 2 groups by the median value of IL-18 (654.2 pg/ml). Between these 2 groups, there was no significant difference in baseline characteristics including LV ejection fraction. The high IL-18 group had a worse LV systolic function as demonstrated by reduced GLS and CS. Seventeen patients (22.7%) died during the follow-up period. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that low serum albumin, the presence of hypertension, high serum IL-18, and less negative GLS (>?15%) were independently associated with all-cause mortality. No significant interaction between IL-18 and less negative GLS was noted in the final Cox model. Conclusion Hemodialysis patients with high IL-18 levels tend to have worse LV systolic function and higher mortality rate. However, elevated serum IL-18 level is predictive of poor prognosis among stable hemodialysis patients, independently of LV dysfunction. This suggests an additional value of IL-18 to echocardiographic study in predicting all-cause mortality, and IL-18 may be helpful in early risk stratification of hemodialysis patients. PMID:24599060

  17. Elevated levels of serum cholesterol are associated with better performance on tasks of episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Leritz, Elizabeth C; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H; Milberg, William P

    2016-04-01

    We examined how serum cholesterol, an established risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD), relates to cognitive function in healthy middle-older aged individuals with no neurologic or CVD history. A complete lipid panel was obtained from a cohort of one hundred twenty individuals, ages 43-85, who also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. In order to reduce the number of variables and empirically identify broad cognitive domains, scores from neuropsychological tests were submitted into a factor analysis. This analysis revealed three explainable factors: Memory, Executive Function and Memory/Language. Three separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted using individual cholesterol metrics (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein; LDL, high density lipoprotein; HDL, and triglycerides), as well as age, education, medication status (lipid lowering agents), ApoE status, and additional risk factors for CVD to predict neuropsychological function. The Memory Factor was predicted by a combination of age, LDL, and triglyceride levels; both age and triglycerides were negatively associated with factor score, while LDL levels revealed a positive relationship. Both the Executive and Memory/Language factor were only explained by education, whereby more years were associated with better performance. These results provide evidence that individual cholesterol lipoproteins and triglycerides may differentially impact cognitive function, over and above other common CVD risk factors and ApoE status. Our findings demonstrate the importance of consideration of vascular risk factors, such as cholesterol, in studies of cognitive aging. PMID:26873100

  18. Regulation of calbindin-D28K gene expression in the chick intestine: effects of serum calcium status and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Hall, A K; Norman, A W

    1990-04-01

    Calbindin-D28K is a member of a superfamily of calcium binding proteins that share a common avidity for the divalent calcium ion. The ambient concentration of calcium in the blood circulation is thought to orchestrate the release of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin and to govern the activity of renal 1-hydroxylase and thereby synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. We report here the results of experiments designed to assess the possible contribution of dietary calcium status upon calbindin-D28K gene expression in the intestine of vitamin D-deficient chicks. The actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] and dietary calcium intake upon intestinal calbindin-D28K and calbindin-D28K mRNA were monitored by ELISA and dot-blot hybridization analyses, respectively. Vitamin D3-deficient chicks were fed either a calcium-supplemented diet (3% w/w) or a diet containing low calcium (0.4% w/w). These dietary manipulations evoked a highly significant change in serum calcium status. However, the levels of calbindin-D28K protein and its corresponding mRNA were unaffected. Administration of 1,25-(OH)2D3 (1-16 nmol per animal) to both "normocalcemic" and hypocalcemic vitamin D-deficient chicks resulted in an equivalent stimulation of duodenal calbindin-D28K accumulation of calbindin-D28K mRNA. Intestinal calbindin-D28K was stimulated 20- to 28-fold (above control levels) by 6-8 nmol 1,25-(OH)2D3 in both dietary treatment groups when measured 48 h after the single injection. Hence, despite the existence of a relatively large difference in serum calcium levels, the molecular actions of 1,25-(OH)2D3 in the vitamin D-deficient animal are apparently well insulated from serum calcium chemistry. These observations support the notion that, in the absence of vitamin D3, the calcium ion per se is unable to modulate the calbindin-D28K gene in vivo. PMID:1693035

  19. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio might help prediction of acute myocardial infarction in patients with elevated serum creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Nalbant, Ahmet; Cinemre, Hakan; Kaya, Tezcan; Varim, Ceyhun; Varim, Perihan; Tamer, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Diagnostic performance of troponin assays is affected by renal insufficiency. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio(NLR) is an independent predictor of acute coronary syndrome. Our objective was to evaluate performance of NLR in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among patients with elevated serum creatinine. Methods: Patients with elevated creatinine levels evaluated for coronary artery disease were included (n=284). Patients were divided into two groups according to having AMI or non-specific chest pain. AMI diagnosis was made based on clinical and laboratory data, including serial EKG and cardiac enzymes, ECHO and coronary angiography. Results: Troponin, neutrophil, and NLR were found to be higher in patients with AMI, compared to patients without AMI (P= 0.001, P= 0.001 and P=0.028, respectively). ROC curve analysis for NLR in diagnosing AMI was significant (AUC: 0.607; P=0.003). Sensitivity, specificity, LR +, LR-, PPV and NPV for NLR>7.4 were found as 42.3%, 74.7%, 1.68%, 0.77%, 77% and 40%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that patients whose NLR>7.4 were 2.18 times as likely to have AMI. Conclusions: NLR can be used as an independent predictor of AMI in patients with renal insufficiency. This seems to get more important in the era of high sensitivity troponin assays. Our results might also help in early diagnosis of AMI in this high risk population while serial cardiac enzyme results are pending.

  20. Elevated serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 may associate with the development of ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Ya; Xue, Bin; Wang, Yi; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Qiao; Kwang, Hou-Wen; Wu, Dong-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A meta-analysis was undertaken to examine the correlation between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) progression and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-17 (IL-17) in AS patients. Methods: PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane Library database, Ovid, Springer link, WANFANG, China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) and VIP databases(last updated search in October, 2014) were exhaustively searched for published case-control studies using keywords related to IL-6, IL-17 and AS. The search results were screened using stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the data from selected high-quality studies was analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 software. Results: Thirteen case-control studies were selected for this meta-analysis and contained a pooled total of 514 AS patients and 358 healthy controls. Our main result revealed strikingly higher serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 in AS patients, compared to healthy controls (IL-6: SMD = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.33~3.70, P = 0.01; IL-17: SMD = 3.05, 95% CI = 2.09~4.02, P < 0.001). Ethnicity-based subgroup analysis showed a statistically correlation of high IL-6 and IL-17 serum levels with AS both in Asian (IL-6: SMD = 3.15, 95% CI = 0.75~5.55, P < 0.001; IL-17: SMD = 3.30, 95% CI = 1.93~4.66, P < 0.001) and Caucasian populations (IL-6: SMD = 1.34, 95% CI = 0.33~2.35, P = 0.009; IL-17: SMD = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.06~3.98, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Meta-analysis of pooled data from thirteen high-quality studies revealed a strong correlation between elevated IL-6 and IL-17 serum levels and the development of AS. Therefore, IL-6 and IL-17 could be used as markers for diagnosis and assessment of treatment outcomes in AS patients. PMID:26770328

  1. Elevated Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Alteration of Thyroid Hormones in Children from Guiyu, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xijin; Liu, Junxiao; Zeng, Xiang; Lu, Fangfang; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. This study explored whether there is an association between PBDEs, heavy metal and key growth- and development-related hormones in children from Guiyu, an e-waste area in southern China. We quantified eight PBDE congeners using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry, lead and cadmium utilizing graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, three thyroids with radioimmunoassay and two types of growth hormones by an enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) in 162 children, 4 to 6 years old, from Guiyu. In blood, median total PBDE was 189.99 ng/g lipid. Lead and cadmium concentrations in blood averaged 14.53±4.85 µg dL−1 and 0.77±0.35 µg L−1, respectively. Spearman partial correlation analysis illustrated that lead was positively correlated with BDE153 and BDE183. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was positively correlated with almost all PBDE congeners and negatively correlated with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), whereas free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) were negatively correlated with BDE154. However, no correlation between the hormones and blood lead or cadmium levels was found in this study. Adjusted multiple linear regression analysis showed that total PBDEs was negatively associated with FT3 and positively associated with TSH. Notably, FT4 was positively correlated with FT3, house functions as a workshop, and father's work involved in e-waste recycling and negatively correlated with vitamin consumptions. TSH was negatively related with FT4, paternal residence time in Guiyu, working hours of mother, and child bean products intake. IGFBP-3 was positively correlated with IGF-1 and house close to an e-waste dump. These results suggest that elevated PBDEs and heavy metals related to e-waste in Guiyu may be important risk factors for hormone alterations in children. PMID:25415336

  2. DETERMINATION OF MATERNAL SERUM ZINC, IRON, CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM DURING PREGNANCY IN PREGNANT WOMEN AND UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Khoushabi, Fahimeh; Shadan, Mohammad Reza; Miri, Ali; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trace elements and specially minerals are critical for the development of fetus. Many minerals are transferred to the fetus for fetal stores in the latter part of the pregnancy. It has been shown that various trace elements such as Zinc, Iron, Calcium and Magnesium are metabolically interrelated and there is alteration in their concentration during pregnancy. Beyond pregnancy is associated with increased demand of all the nutrients and deficiency of any of these could affect pregnancy, delivery and outcome of pregnancy. Aim: To study the levels of trace elements namely zinc, iron, magnesium and calcium in maternal and umbilical cord blood and their association with pregnancy outcome. Methods: Sixty pregnant women in Zabol, Iran were selected from those who had registered their names for the prenatal care and who had followed up till the 3rd trimester of pregnancy ending in child birth. Biochemical parameters analyzed with help of the biochemical laboratory. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: The mean biochemical profile such, serum calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron in the pregnant women were as follow: in the 1st trimester 8.3, 1.9, 74.9 and 74.4 µg/dl respectively; in the 2nd trimester 8.5, 1.9, 73.1 and 79.3 µg/dl, respectively; in the 3rd trimester 8.6, 1.9, 68.4, and 82.2 µg/dl, respectively. In the umbilical cord blood, the mean serum calcium, magnesium, zinc and iron were 8.5, 1.9, 84.1, and 89.8 µg/dl, respectively. The mean serum calcium and magnesium during the three trimesters of pregnancy were not significantly different from that in the umbilical cord blood, while the mean serum zinc and iron in the umbilical cord blood were significantly different (p<0.05) in the three trimester of pregnancy. The mean birth weight of neonates was 3.1 kg and 12% of neonates showed low birth weight. Our findings showed that, except magnesium, the profile of other biochemical variables, namely, calcium, zinc and iron in the umbilical cord blood of the neonates with normal birth weight (NBW) were significantly higher than in the umbilical cord blood of neonates with low birth weight (LBW). Conclusion: The results suggest that maternal serum zinc, iron and calcium concentration influenced the birth weight of neonates as outcome of pregnancy, and however, there is need for proper, adequate and balanced micronutrient during pregnancy to affect neonates as healthy outcome. PMID:27147914

  3. [Increased serum levels of vitamin D and calcium in young men after replacement of butter with soft margarine in usual diet].

    PubMed

    Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Makarewicz-Wujec, Magdalena; Nowicka, Grazyna

    2002-10-01

    Osteoporosis features include reduction of bone mass and increased predisposition to fractures. Osteoporosis is considered as one of frequent diseases developing in menopausal women and old men. The values of peak bone mass are the determinant of osteoporosis development. It is estimated that the peak bone mass is reached at the age between 16 and 30 years. (NIH Consensus, 2001). Insufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D in diet, with reduced sun exposure, low physical activity, low body weight are well documented risk factors for this disease in human. For that reason, in osteoporosis prevention it should be tried to ensure adequate supply of calcium in diet from early life, with adequate supply of vitamin D, as factors determining adequate mineralization of osseous tissue. The study was carried out for assessing changes of the levels of calcium and 25-OH cholecalciferol in serum replacing butter in usual diet with margarine enriched with vitamin D. After a period of diet stabilization the study group received first diet with butter, followed by diet with margarine in place of butter. Throughout the whole experiment the diet contained unchanged amounts of dairy products as a source of alimentary calcium. In the experiment 41 young healthy men aged 22.6 +/- 1.2 years participated. Every subject consumed in a period of 4 weeks 30 g of butter daily, and during the following 4 weeks margarine 30 g daily. Substitution of margarine for butter in usual diet raised 25-OH cholecalciferol level in serum by 5.56 ng/ml, that is 32.4% (p < 0.001), with consequent 0.12 mg (5%) rise of serum calcium level (p < 0.05). The intake of calcium with diet from dairy products was unchanged throughout the experiment 576-581 mg daily, that is 72% of the recommended intake. The obtained results suggest that independently of the amount of vitamin D intake with food and calcium with diet substitution of margarine enriched with vitamin D for butter was beneficial raising serum vitamin D level, and at the same time increasing calcium absorption from food. It can be accepted that the obtained results could support the opinion on beneficial effects of the consumption of high-quality margarine in daily diet as prevention of the development not only of atherosclerosis but also osteoporosis. PMID:12642939

  4. Platelet Activating Factor Enhances Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis Via PKC, Elevated Intracellular Calcium, and Modulation of Synapsin 1 Dynamics and Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Jennetta W.; Lu, Shao-Ming; Gelbard, Harris A.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is an inflammatory phospholipid signaling molecule implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory and neurotoxicity during neuroinflammation. However, little is known about the intracellular mechanisms mediating PAF’s physiological or pathological effects on synaptic facilitation. We show here that PAF receptors are localized at the synapse. Using fluorescent reporters of presynaptic activity we show that a non-hydrolysable analog of PAF (cPAF) enhances synaptic vesicle release from individual presynaptic boutons by increasing the size or release of the readily releasable pool and the exocytosis rate of the total recycling pool. cPAF also activates previously silent boutons resulting in vesicle release from a larger number of terminals. The underlying mechanism involves elevated calcium within presynaptic boutons and protein kinase C activation. Furthermore, cPAF increases synapsin I phosphorylation at sites 1 and 3, and increases dispersion of synapsin I from the presynaptic compartment during stimulation, freeing synaptic vesicles for subsequent release. These findings provide a conceptual framework for how PAF, regardless of its cellular origin, can modulate synapses during normal and pathologic synaptic activity. PMID:26778968

  5. Assessment and diagnostic relevance of novel serum biomarkers for early decision of ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Yoon-Seok; Seo, Suk Min; Park, Won Sang; Lee, Jung Young; Chang, Kiyuk; Seung, Ki Bae; Kim, Pum-Joon; Nam, Suk Woo

    2015-01-01

    Blood transcriptome reflects the status of diseases, and characteristic molecular signature provides a novel window on gene expression preceding acute coronary events. We aim to determine blood transcriptome-based molecular signature of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and to identify novel serum biomarkers for early stage ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We obtained peripheral blood from the patients with ACS who visited emergency department within 4 hours after the onset of chest pain: STEMI (n = 10), Non-ST-segment-elevation MI (NSTEMI, n = 10) and unstable angina (UA, n = 11). Blood transcriptome scans revealed that a characteristic gene expression change exists in STEMI, resulting in 531 outlier genes as STEMI molecular signature (Welch's t test, P < 0.05). Another analysis with a set of blood samples of patients with STEMI (n = 7) before and 7 days after the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 7) and normal control (n = 10) evidenced that STEMI molecular signature directly reflects the onset of STEMI pathogenesis. From the two sets of transcriptome-based STEMI signatures, we identified 10 genes encoding transmembrane or secretory proteins that are highly expressed in STEMI. We validated blood protein expression levels of these 10 putative biomarkers in 40 STEMI and 32 healthy subjects by ELISA. Data suggested that PGLYRP1, IRAK3 and VNN3 are more specific and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers for STEMI than traditional CK-MB or troponin. Blood transcriptome scans of ACS evidenced early stage molecular markers for STEMI. Here, we report novel biomarkers to diagnose STEMI at emergency department in hospitals by a simple ELISA method. PMID:26025919

  6. Calcium sensing receptor activators: calcimimetics.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Paul E; Fotsch, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The calcium sensing receptor (CaR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays a fundamental role in serum calcium homeostasis. The CaR is expressed on the chief cells of the parathyroid gland and is responsible for controlling the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH acts on several organs including the bone, kidney, and intestine to tightly regulate the concentration of serum calcium. Substances other than calcium that activate the CaR are referred to as calcimimetics. Calcimimetics that bind to the CaR as agonists are referred to as type I. Type II calcimimetics bind to a site that is distinct from the physiological ligand and function as positive allosteric modulators of the CaR. Type II calcimimetics amplify the sensitivity of the CaR to serum calcium and are thus able to lower the concentration of serum PTH. Calcimimetics are being pursued as therapeutics for the treatment of disorders that are characterized by elevated levels of PTH such as primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism (primary HPT and secondary HPT). In this review, we provide an overview of key results in the discovery of cinacalcet HCl (Sensipar in the US, Mimpara in Europe). In addition, other recently disclosed type II calcimimetics are discussed. PMID:18220738

  7. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) Mutation in Breast Adenocarcinoma Is Associated With Elevated Levels of Serum and Urine 2-Hydroxyglutarate

    PubMed Central

    Sadrzadeh, Hossein; Comander, Amy H.; Higgins, Michaela J.; Bardia, Aditya; Perry, Ashley; Burke, Meghan; Silver, Regina; Matulis, Christina R.; Straley, Kimberly S.; Yen, Katharine E.; Agresta, Sam; Kim, Hyeryun; Schenkein, David P.; Borger, Darrell R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase) genes have been discovered across a range of solid-organ and hematologic malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia, glioma, chondrosarcoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. An intriguing aspect of IDH-mutant tumors is the aberrant production and accumulation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which may play a pivotal oncogenic role in these malignancies. We describe the first reported case of an IDH1 p.R132L mutation in a patient with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast adenocarcinoma. This patient was initially treated for locally advanced disease, but then suffered a relapse and metastasis, at which point an IDH1-R132 mutation was discovered in an affected lymph node. The mutation was subsequently found in the primary tumor tissue and all metastatic sites, but not in an uninvolved lymph node. In addition, the patient’s serum and urine displayed marked elevations in the concentration of 2-HG, significantly higher than that measured in six other patients with metastatic HR+ breast carcinoma whose tumors were found to harbor wild-type IDH1. In summary, IDH1 mutations may impact a rare subgroup of patients with breast adenocarcinoma. This may suggest future avenues for disease monitoring through noninvasive measurement of 2-HG, as well as for the development and study of targeted therapies against the aberrant IDH1 enzyme. PMID:24760710

  8. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation in breast adenocarcinoma is associated with elevated levels of serum and urine 2-hydroxyglutarate.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Amir T; Sadrzadeh, Hossein; Comander, Amy H; Higgins, Michaela J; Bardia, Aditya; Perry, Ashley; Burke, Meghan; Silver, Regina; Matulis, Christina R; Straley, Kimberly S; Yen, Katharine E; Agresta, Sam; Kim, Hyeryun; Schenkein, David P; Borger, Darrell R

    2014-06-01

    Mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase) genes have been discovered across a range of solid-organ and hematologic malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia, glioma, chondrosarcoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. An intriguing aspect of IDH-mutant tumors is the aberrant production and accumulation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which may play a pivotal oncogenic role in these malignancies. We describe the first reported case of an IDH1 p.R132L mutation in a patient with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast adenocarcinoma. This patient was initially treated for locally advanced disease, but then suffered a relapse and metastasis, at which point an IDH1-R132 mutation was discovered in an affected lymph node. The mutation was subsequently found in the primary tumor tissue and all metastatic sites, but not in an uninvolved lymph node. In addition, the patient's serum and urine displayed marked elevations in the concentration of 2-HG, significantly higher than that measured in six other patients with metastatic HR+ breast carcinoma whose tumors were found to harbor wild-type IDH1. In summary, IDH1 mutations may impact a rare subgroup of patients with breast adenocarcinoma. This may suggest future avenues for disease monitoring through noninvasive measurement of 2-HG, as well as for the development and study of targeted therapies against the aberrant IDH1 enzyme. PMID:24760710

  9. Spontaneously Ruptured Giant Splenic Cyst with Elevated Serum Levels of CA 19-9, CA 125 and Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Inokuma, Takamitsu; Minami, Shigeki; Suga, Kazuo; Kusano, Yoshiteru; Chiba, Kenya; Furukawa, Masato

    2010-01-01

    Splenic cyst is a relatively rare disease; however, the occurrence of complications associated with its rupture is even more rare. A 20-year-old female patient who had severe abdominal and left shoulder pain was admitted to our hospital. The patient's abdomen was hard and tender to the touch and she presented with a high fever. The patient's serum levels of the tumor markers carbohydrate antigen 19-9, cancer antigen 125 and carcinoembryonic antigen were high. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of the abdomen showed an 11-cm multilocular cystic lesion in the spleen and the presence of free intraperitoneal fluid. Peritonitis with ruptured splenic cyst was diagnosed, and the patient underwent an emergency laparotomy. The abdominal cavity was filled with purulent fluid. The cyst was localized to the spleen and had already ruptured. Total splenectomy and cyst resection were performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient was discharged on day 9 following surgery. The histological findings showed the lesion to be a benign epidermoid cyst completely lined with inner stratified squamous epithelium with a capsule of connective tissue. In the immunostaining analyses, the squamous epithelium was positive for carcinoembryonic antigen. A ruptured splenic cyst causes sudden onset of severe peritonitis and elevation of serous tumor markers. An emergency operation is indicated as the treatment for a ruptured splenic cyst with peritonitis, after which a favorable outcome can be expected. PMID:20805943

  10. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  11. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),

  12. Elevated serum monoclonal and polyclonal free light chains and interferon inducible protein-10 predicts inferior prognosis in untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Witzig, Thomas E; Maurer, Matthew J; Stenson, Mary J; Allmer, Cristine; Macon, William; Link, Brian; Katzmann, Jerry A; Gupta, Mamta

    2014-04-01

    The detection of serum free light (FLC) is useful in the diagnosis of several hematological diseases. The role and biological relevance of monoclonal or polyclonal FLC elevations in predicting long-term outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is unknown. We determined the relationship of the type of FLC elevations to outcome, tumor genotype, and pattern of serum cytokine elevations in 276 patients with untreated DLBCL. Elevated FLC was an adverse prognostic factor through 6 years of follow-up (monoclonal, Event free survival (EFS) HR = 3.56, 95% CI: 1.88-6.76, P <0.0001; polyclonal, EFS HR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.50-4.38, P = 0.0006). About 73% of DLBCL tumors with monoclonal FLC elevations were activated B-cell type (ABC) versus 33% from patients with normal FLC. Only ABC-DLBCL lines secreted kappa FLC in vitro and this secretion could be inhibited by the NF-κB inhibitor bortezomib. Patients with monoclonal FLC had significantly (all P <0.001) increased serum levels of IL-12, sIL-2Rα, IL-1R, and IP-10. Patients with polyclonal elevations of FLC had higher levels of IL-6 (P = 0.033), IL-8 (P =0.025), sIL2Rα (P = 0.011), and IL-1R1 (P = 0.041). The combination of elevated FLC and a CXC superfamily chemokine IP-10 predicted a particularly inferior outcome characterized by late relapse. These increased abnormal FLC and cytokines are potentially useful biomarkers for prognosis and selecting agents for untreated DLBCL. PMID:24382707

  13. Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Indicator of Plant Stress in Conifers at two elevations on Mount Moosilauke, NH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. N.; Rock, B. N.; Hale, S. R.; Graham, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The research presented was conducted as part of Watershed Watch, a two-week hands-on summer program for undeclared entry-level undergraduates, designed to recruit and retain students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. The research was conducted on needles of red spruce (Picea rubens) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) at the University of New Hampshire. The presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) in the cell walls of spruce mesophyll cells has been reported as an indicator of environmental stress. To assess this, first and third year needles of both species were collected from Mt. Moosilauke (Woodstock, NH) at two elevations (790m and 960m). Needles were analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Estimates of chlorophyll and water were made using the Red Edge Inflection Point and the Moisture Stress Index. These were compared to SEM images of needle sections to visually correlate the amount of CaOx with the reflectance indices. Balsam fir from 790m have a higher occurrence of CaOx in their first and third year needles than from the 960m site, while spectroscopy results indicated less stress (i.e., higher chlorophyll and more water) at the lower site. This does not support a correlation between CaOx and stress factors in balsam fir. In red spruce, those needles with fewest CaOx had higher estimates of chlorophyll and water, supporting the correlation. Based on these results, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between CaOx and plant stress in different species of conifers.

  14. Elevation of serum interleukins 8, 4, and 1β levels in patients with gastrointestinal low-grade B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Toji, Tomohiro; Goto, Naoe; Kasahara, Senji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Tari, Akira; Noujima-Harada, Mai; Miyata, Takafumi; Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines that are produced by helper T cells (Th) regulate immune reactions, facilitate class switching of B cells, and prolong the lifespan of B and T cells. Eradication therapy using antibiotics is sometimes effective against gastrointestinal (GI) malignant lymphoma, suggesting that the tumor development or progression is affected by the inflammatory microenvironment. In the present study, serum samples from 148 patients with various subtypes of malignant lymphoma were tested for 11 proinflammatory Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the comparison by subtype or GI lesions, serum interleukin (IL)-8 (P = 6.7E−05), IL-4 (P = 7.5E−05), and IL-1β (P = 0.0043) levels showed significant differences among subtypes, being particularly elevated in follicular lymphomas (FL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Serum IL-8 levels were elevated in GI-FL and MALT lymphomas, and serum IL-4 and IL-1 β levels were elevated in MALT lymphomas. These findings show that GI low-grade B-cell lymphoma could develop against the background of an inflammatory microenvironment. Thus, these cytokines may be useful as diagnostic markers and could provide new insights into tumor development. PMID:26674732

  15. Elevation of serum interleukins 8, 4, and 1β levels in patients with gastrointestinal low-grade B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Toji, Tomohiro; Goto, Naoe; Kasahara, Senji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Tari, Akira; Noujima-Harada, Mai; Miyata, Takafumi; Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines that are produced by helper T cells (Th) regulate immune reactions, facilitate class switching of B cells, and prolong the lifespan of B and T cells. Eradication therapy using antibiotics is sometimes effective against gastrointestinal (GI) malignant lymphoma, suggesting that the tumor development or progression is affected by the inflammatory microenvironment. In the present study, serum samples from 148 patients with various subtypes of malignant lymphoma were tested for 11 proinflammatory Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the comparison by subtype or GI lesions, serum interleukin (IL)-8 (P = 6.7E-05), IL-4 (P = 7.5E-05), and IL-1β (P = 0.0043) levels showed significant differences among subtypes, being particularly elevated in follicular lymphomas (FL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Serum IL-8 levels were elevated in GI-FL and MALT lymphomas, and serum IL-4 and IL-1 β levels were elevated in MALT lymphomas. These findings show that GI low-grade B-cell lymphoma could develop against the background of an inflammatory microenvironment. Thus, these cytokines may be useful as diagnostic markers and could provide new insights into tumor development. PMID:26674732

  16. The viability of mouse spermatogonial germ cells on a novel scaffold, containing human serum albumin and calcium phosphate nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yadegar, Mona; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyed Hossein; Nezami Saridar, Saeide; Jebali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: In spermatogenesis, spermatogonial cells differentiate to the haploid gametes. It has been shown that spermatogenesis can be done at in vitro condition. In vitro spermatogenesis may provide an open window to treat male infertility. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel scaffold containing human serum albumin (HSA)/tri calcium phosphate nanoparticles (TCP NPs) on the mouse spermatogonial cell line (SCL). Materials and Methods: First, TCP NPs were synthesized by reaction of calcium nitrate and diammonium phosphate at pH 13. Then, serial concentrations of TCP NPs were separately added to 500 mg/mL HSA, and incubated in the 100oC water for 30 min. In the next step, each scaffold was cut (2×2mm), placed into sterile well of microplate, and then incubated for 1, 2, and 3 days at 37oC with mouse SCL. After incubation, the cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was evaluated by different tests including 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, vital staining, and cell counting. On the other hand, the release of TCP NPs and HSA from the scaffolds was measured. Results: Based on microscopic observation, the size of cavities for all scaffolds was near 200-500 µm, and the size of TCP NPs was near 50-100 nm. All toxicity tests showed that the increase of TCP concentration in the scaffold did not affect mouse SCL. It means that the percentage of cell viability, LDH release, vital cells, and cell quantity was 85%, 105%, 90%, and 110%, respectively. But, the increase of incubation time led to increase of LDH release (up to 115%) and cell count (up to 115%). Also, little decrease of cell viability and vital cells was seen when incubation time was increased. Here, no release of TCP NPs and HSA was seen after increase of TCP concentration and incubation time. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the increase of TCP concentration in HSA/ TCP NPs scaffold does not lead to cytotoxicity. On the other hand, the increase of incubation time leads to increase of mouse SCL cell death. In this study, it was found that TCP NPs and HSA could not release from the scaffolds. In future, both proliferation and differentiation of mouse SCL on HSA/TCP NPs scaffold must be checked over more wide incubation times. PMID:26000004

  17. Elevated Levels of Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I in Serum Rescue the Severe Growth Retardation of IGF-I Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, YingJie; Sun, Hui; Yakar, Shoshana; LeRoith, Derek

    2009-01-01

    IGF-I plays a vital role in growth and development and acts in an endocrine and an autocrine/paracrine fashion. The purpose of the current study was to clarify whether elevated levels of IGF-I in serum can rescue the severe growth retardation and organ development and function of igf-I null mice. To address that, we overexpressed a rat igf-I transgene specifically in the liver of igf-I null mice. We found that in the total absence of tissue IGF-I, elevated levels of IGF-I in serum can support normal body size at puberty and after puberty but are insufficient to fully support the female reproductive system (evident by irregular estrous cycle, impaired development of ovarian corpus luteum, reduced number of uterine glands and endometrial hypoplasia, all leading to decreased number of pregnancies and litter size). We conclude that most autocrine/paracrine actions of IGF-I that determine organ growth and function can be compensated by elevated levels of endocrine IGF-I. However, in mice, full compensatory responses are evident later in development, suggesting that autocrine/paracrine IGF-I is critical for neonatal development. Furthermore, we show that tissue IGF-I is necessary for the development of the female reproductive system and cannot be compensated by elevated levels of serum IGF-I. PMID:19497975

  18. Auranofin, an anti-rheumatic gold compound, modulates apoptosis by elevating the intracellular calcium concentration ([ca2+]I) in mcf-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Elizabeth; Bsselberg, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Auranofin, a transition metal complex is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but is also an effective anti-cancer drug. We investigate the effects of Auranofin in inducing cell death by apoptosis and whether these changes are correlated to changes of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Cytotoxicity of Auranofin was evaluated using MTS assay and the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. With fluorescent dyes SR-FLICA and 7-AAD apoptotic death and necrotic death were differentiated by Flow cytometry. A concentration dependent decrease in the viability occurred and cells were shifted to the apoptotic phase. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) was recorded using florescence microscopy and a calcium sensitive dye (Fluo-4 AM) with a strong negative correlation (r = -0.713) to viability. Pharmacological modulators 2-APB (50 ?M), Nimodipine (10 ?M), Caffeine (10 mM), SKF 96365(20 ?M) were used to modify calcium entry and release. Auranofin induced a sustained increase of [Ca2+]i in a concentration and time dependent manner. The use of different blockers of calcium channels did not reveal the source for the rise of [Ca2+]i. Overall, elevation of [Ca2+]i by Auranofin might be crucial for triggering Ca2+-dependent apoptotic pathways. Therefore, in anti-cancer therapy, modulating [Ca2+]i should be considered as a crucial factor for the induction of cell death in cancer cells. PMID:25383481

  19. Elevated Serum Levels of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Are Associated with Progressive Chronic Cardiomyopathy in Patients with Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cutrullis, Romina A.; Petray, Patricia B.; Schapachnik, Edgardo; Sánchez, Rubén; Postan, Miriam; González, Mariela N.; Martín, Valentina; Corral, Ricardo S.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical symptoms of chronic Chagas disease occur in around 30% of the individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and are characterized by heart inflammation and dysfunction. The pathogenesis of chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) is not completely understood yet, partially because disease evolution depends on complex host-parasite interactions. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that promotes numerous pathophysiological processes. In the current study, we investigated the link between MIF and CCC progression. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated MIF overexpression in the hearts from chronically T. cruzi-infected mice, particularly those showing intense inflammatory infiltration. We also found that MIF exogenously added to parasite-infected murine macrophage cultures is capable of enhancing the production of TNF-α and reactive oxygen species, both with pathogenic roles in CCC. Thus, the integrated action of MIF and other cytokines and chemokines may account for leukocyte influx to the infected myocardium, accompanied by enhanced local production of multiple inflammatory mediators. We further examined by ELISA the level of MIF in the sera from chronic indeterminate and cardiomyopathic chagasic patients, and healthy subjects. CCC patients displayed significantly higher MIF concentrations than those recorded in asymptomatic T. cruzi-infected and uninfected individuals. Interestingly, increased MIF levels were associated with severe progressive Chagas heart disease, in correlation with elevated serum concentration of high sensitivity C-reactive protein and also with several echocardiographic indicators of left ventricular dysfunction, one of the hallmarks of CCC. Our present findings represent the first evidence that enhanced MIF production is associated with progressive cardiac impairment in chronic human infection with T. cruzi, strengthening the relationship between inflammatory response and parasite-driven pathology. These observations contribute to unravel the elements involved in the pathogenesis of CCC and may also be helpful for the design of novel therapies aimed to control long-term morbidity in chagasic patients. PMID:23451183

  20. Velcalcetide (AMG 416), a novel peptide agonist of the calcium-sensing receptor, reduces serum parathyroid hormone and FGF23 levels in healthy male subjects

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kevin J.; Bell, Gregory; Pickthorn, Karen; Huang, Saling; Vick, Andrew; Hodsman, Peter; Peacock, Munro

    2014-01-01

    Context Velcalcetide, also known as AMG 416, is a novel, long-acting selective peptide agonist of the calcium sensing receptor. It is being developed as an intravenous treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease—mineral and bone disorder. Objective To assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of velcalcetide in healthy male volunteers. Methods The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-dose, dose-escalation study in healthy males aged 18–45 years conducted at a single center. Each cohort included eight subjects randomized 6:2 to velcalcetide or placebo. Intervention Velcalcetide at 0.5, 2, 5 and 10 mg or placebo was administered intravenously. Outcomes Measurements included plasma ionized calcium (iCa), serum total calcium, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), phosphorus and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, calcitonin and urine creatinine, calcium and phosphorus and plasma pharmacokinetics for velcalcetide. Vital signs, safety biochemical and hematological indices, and adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Results Intravenous administration of velcalcetide was well tolerated with no adverse reaction of nausea, vomiting or diarrhea reported. Velcalcetide mediated dose-dependent decreases in serum iPTH at 30 min, FGF23 at 24 h and iCa at 12 h post dose (P < 0.05) and in urine fractional excretion of phosphorus and increases in tubular reabsorption of phosphorus. Velcalcetide plasma exposure increased in a dose-related manner and the terminal elimination of half-life was comparable across the dose range evaluated and ranged from 18.4 to 20.0 h. Conclusion Single IV doses of velcalcetide were well tolerated and associated with rapid, sustained, dose-dependent reductions in serum PTH. The results support further evaluation of velcalcetide as a treatment for SHPT in hemodialysis patients. PMID:24235081

  1. [Cystic mass of the pancreatic region associated with elevated CA 19-9 serum levels revealing a colonic duplication in an adult].

    PubMed

    Legros, Jean-Rémy; Duclaut, Isabelle; Michot, Francis; Ténière, Paul; Scotté, Michel

    2004-12-01

    Intestinal duplications are rare embryologic malformations, especially in adults. We report a case of cystic duplication located near the pancreas revealed by unusual symptoms and associated with marked elevation of serum CA 19-9 levels. Although the physiopathology of the expression of CA 19-9 in duplications is unclear, this feature has been recently reported in adults and could be of interest in the diagnosis and management of intestinal duplications. PMID:15671942

  2. Pulmonary sequestration presenting with left upper abdominal bloating and marked elevation of serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9: A case report

    PubMed Central

    HAN, PING; LUO, YI; TIAN, DEAN; YAN, WEI; LIU, JINGMEI; CHANG, YING; XIE, HUAPING; WEI, WANG; HUANG, HUANJUN

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is widely accepted as a tumor marker for cancers of the biliary, pancreatic and gastrointestinal tracts. Occasionally, CA19-9 is markedly elevated in the serum of patients with benign diseases. Pulmonary sequestration is a rare malformation that is characterized by the presence of lung tissue with abnormal or absent communication with the bronchi, to which blood is supplied by the systemic arteries. The current study presents a 48-year-old male who presented with upper left abdominal bloating and marked elevation of serum CA19-9 levels. The patient was referred to the Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China) with suspected hepato-biliary-pancreatic disease and, following surgery, was diagnosed with intralobar pulmonary sequestration. Immunohistochemistry showed marked positive staining for CA19-9 in the sequestrated lung tissue. The patient’s symptoms improved and the CA19-9 levels returned to the normal range following surgery. Therefore, the symptoms of upper left abdominal bloating and marked elevation of serum CA19-9 levels, in this case, may have resulted from the intralobar pulmonary sequestration. PMID:24765162

  3. A Japanese child with asymptomatic elevation of serum creatine kinase shows PTRF-CAVIN mutation matching with congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4.

    PubMed

    Dwianingsih, Ery Kus; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Itoh, Kyoko; Yamauchi, Yumiko; Awano, Hiroyuki; Malueka, Rusdy Ghazali; Nishida, Atsushi; Ota, Mitsunori; Yagi, Mariko; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL), characterized by generalized absence of adipose tissue, has heterogeneous causes. Recently, a novel type of CGL complicated by muscular dystrophy was categorized as CGL4 caused by PTRF-CAVIN deficiency. However, it is unknown whether CGL4 exhibits clinical abnormalities during the infantile period. Here, we describe the youngest Japanese case of CGL4-a Japanese girl with asymptomatic high serum creatine kinase (CK) levels at 3months old. She was referred to our hospital at 5months of age because of her elevated serum CK (2528IU/L). Generalized absence of adipose tissue was first recognized at 2years of age. Mutation analysis of genes known to be responsible for CGL1-3 failed to disclose any abnormalities. Instead, analysis of the PTRF-CAVIN gene encoding PTRF-CAVIN revealed compound heterozygous mutations, one allele contained an insertion (c.696_697insC) and the other allele harbored a novel nonsense mutation (c.512C>A). Our patient had low serum leptin and adiponectin levels and insulin resistance. Pathological studies on biopsied muscle disclosed mild dystrophic change and highly reduced expression of PTRF-CAVIN. It was concluded that our PTRF-CAVIN deficient patient showed not only CGL but also asymptomatic elevation of serum CK because of her mild muscle dystrophic change. PMID:20638880

  4. Chronic immune activation in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is associated with elevated serum levels of soluble CD14 and CD25 but not endotoxaemia.

    PubMed

    Litzman, J; Nechvatalova, J; Xu, J; Ticha, O; Vlkova, M; Hel, Z

    2012-12-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most frequent symptomatic immunoglobulin primary immunodeficiency, is associated with chronic T cell activation and reduced frequency of CD4(+) T cells. The underlying cause of immune activation in CVID is unknown. Microbial translocation indicated by elevated serum levels of lipopolysaccharide and soluble CD14 (sCD14) has been linked previously to systemic immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV-1/AIDS), alcoholic cirrhosis and other conditions. To address the mechanisms of chronic immune activation in CVID, we performed a detailed analysis of immune cell populations and serum levels of sCD14, soluble CD25 (sCD25), lipopolysaccharide and markers of liver function in 35 patients with CVID, 53 patients with selective immunoglobulin (Ig)A deficiency (IgAD) and 63 control healthy subjects. In CVID subjects, the concentration of serum sCD14 was increased significantly and correlated with the level of sCD25, C-reactive protein and the extent of T cell activation. Importantly, no increase in serum lipopolysaccharide concentration was observed in patients with CVID or IgAD. Collectively, the data presented suggest that chronic T cell activation in CVID is associated with elevated levels of sCD14 and sCD25, but not with systemic endotoxaemia, and suggest involvement of lipopolysaccharide-independent mechanisms of induction of sCD14 production. PMID:23121673

  5. A High-Calcium and Phosphate Rescue Diet and VDR-Expressing Transgenes Normalize Serum Vitamin D Metabolite Profiles and Renal Cyp27b1 and Cyp24a1 Expression in VDR Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Martin; Lee, Seong Min; Pike, J Wesley; Jones, Glenville

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)-dependent gene expression is compromised in the VDR null mouse. The biological consequences include: hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25(OH)2D3, and consequential skeletal abnormalities. CYP24A1 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved in the side chain oxidation and destruction of both 1,25(OH)2D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3). In the current studies, we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology to compare the metabolic profiles of VDR null mice fed either a normal or a calcium and phosphate-enriched rescue diet and to assess the consequence of transgenic expression of either mouse or human VDR genes in the same background. Serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels in VDR null mice on normal chow were highly elevated (>3000 pg/mL) coincident with undetectable levels of catabolites such as 24,25-(OH)2D3 and 25-OH-D3-26,23-lactone normally observed in wild-type mice. The rescue diet corrected serum Ca(++), PTH, and 1,25(OH)2D3 values and restored basal expression of Cyp24a1 as evidenced by both renal expression of Cyp24a1 and detection of 24,25-(OH)2D3 and the 25-OH-D3-26,23-lactone. Unexpectedly, this diet also resulted in supranormal levels of 3-epi-24,25-(OH)2D3 and 3-epi-25-OH-D3-26,23-lactone. The reappearance of serum 24,25-(OH)2D3 and renal Cyp24a1 expression after rescue suggests that basal levels of Cyp24a1 may be repressed by high PTH. Introduction of transgenes for either mouse or human VDR also normalized vitamin D metabolism in VDR null mice, whereas this metabolic pattern was unaffected by a transgene encoding a ligand binding-deficient mutant (L233S) human VDR. We conclude that liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling is an ideal analytical method to study mouse models with alterations in calcium/phosphate homeostasis. PMID:26441239

  6. Peripheral insulin resistance in obese girls with hyperandrogenism is related to oxidative phosphorylation and elevated serum free fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, Bradley R.; Coe, Gregory; Newnes, Lindsey; Baumgartner, Amy; Brown, Mark S.; Pyle, Laura; Reusch, Jane E.; Nadeau, Kristen J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperandrogenic syndrome (HAS) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Muscle IR in type 2 diabetes is linked with defects in mitochondrial oxidative capacity. In vivo muscle mitochondrial function has not been studied in HAS, especially in youth, who are early in the disease process. Our goal was to measure muscle mitochondrial oxidative function and peripheral IR in obese youth with HAS. Obese girls without HAS [n = 22, age 15(13,17) yr, BMI Z-score 2.05 ± 0.37] and with HAS [n = 35, age 15(14,16) yr, BMI Z-score 2.18 ± 0.30] were enrolled. Mitochondrial function was assessed with 31phosphorus MR spectroscopy before, during, and after near-maximal isometric calf exercise, and peripheral IR was assessed with an 80 mU·m−2·min−1 hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Girls with HAS had higher androgens [free androgen index 7.9(6.6,15.5) vs. 3.5(3.0,4.0), P < 0.01] and more IR [glucose infusion rate 9.4(7.0, 12,2) vs. 14.5(13.2,15.8) mg·kg lean−1·min−1, P < 0.01]. HAS girls also had increased markers of inflammation including CRP, platelets, and white blood cell count and higher serum free fatty acids during hyperinsulinemia. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was lower in HAS [0.11(0.06,0.19) vs. 0.18(0.12,0.23) mmol/s, P < 0.05], although other spectroscopy markers of mitochondrial function were similar between groups. In multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, IR related to androgens, oxidative phosphorylation, and free fatty acid concentrations during hyperinsulinemia. These relationships were present in just the HAS cohort as well. Obese girls with HAS have significant peripheral IR, which is related to elevated androgens and free fatty acids and decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. These may provide future options as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25714677

  7. Peripheral insulin resistance in obese girls with hyperandrogenism is related to oxidative phosphorylation and elevated serum free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cree-Green, Melanie; Newcomer, Bradley R; Coe, Gregory; Newnes, Lindsey; Baumgartner, Amy; Brown, Mark S; Pyle, Laura; Reusch, Jane E; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2015-05-01

    Hyperandrogenic syndrome (HAS) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Muscle IR in type 2 diabetes is linked with defects in mitochondrial oxidative capacity. In vivo muscle mitochondrial function has not been studied in HAS, especially in youth, who are early in the disease process. Our goal was to measure muscle mitochondrial oxidative function and peripheral IR in obese youth with HAS. Obese girls without HAS [n = 22, age 15(13,17) yr, BMI Z-score 2.05 ± 0.37] and with HAS [n = 35, age 15(14,16) yr, BMI Z-score 2.18 ± 0.30] were enrolled. Mitochondrial function was assessed with (31)phosphorus MR spectroscopy before, during, and after near-maximal isometric calf exercise, and peripheral IR was assessed with an 80 mU·m(-2)·min(-1) hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Girls with HAS had higher androgens [free androgen index 7.9(6.6,15.5) vs. 3.5(3.0,4.0), P < 0.01] and more IR [glucose infusion rate 9.4(7.0, 12,2) vs. 14.5(13.2,15.8) mg·kg lean(-1)·min(-1), P < 0.01]. HAS girls also had increased markers of inflammation including CRP, platelets, and white blood cell count and higher serum free fatty acids during hyperinsulinemia. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was lower in HAS [0.11(0.06,0.19) vs. 0.18(0.12,0.23) mmol/s, P < 0.05], although other spectroscopy markers of mitochondrial function were similar between groups. In multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, IR related to androgens, oxidative phosphorylation, and free fatty acid concentrations during hyperinsulinemia. These relationships were present in just the HAS cohort as well. Obese girls with HAS have significant peripheral IR, which is related to elevated androgens and free fatty acids and decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. These may provide future options as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25714677

  8. Elevated Serum ADA Activity as a Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Indian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R.; Pandey, Raj K.; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V. N. R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2016-01-01

    Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL. PMID:27186641

  9. Elevated Levels of Serum Fibrin and Fibrinogen Degradation Products Are Independent Predictors of Larger Coronary Plaques and Greater Plaque Necrotic Core

    PubMed Central

    Corban, Michel T; Hung, Olivia Y; Mekonnen, Girum; Eshtehardi, Parham; Eapen, Danny J; Rasoul-Arzrumly, Emad; Kassem, Hatem Al; Manocha, Pankaj; Ko, Yi-An; Sperling, Laurence S; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Samady, Habib

    2016-01-01

    Background Co-existence of vulnerable plaque and pro-thrombotic state may provoke acute coronary events. It was hypothesized that elevated serum levels of fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) are associated with larger total plaque and necrotic core (NC) areas. Methods and Results Seventy-five patients presenting with stable anginal symptoms (69%) or stabilized acute coronary syndrome (ACS; 31%), and found to have non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) with a fractional flow reserve >0.8, were studied. Invasive virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) was performed in 68 LAD arteries, 6 circumflex arteries, and 1 right coronary artery. Serum FDP levels were measured using ELISA technique. Plaque volumetrics and composition were assessed in each VH-IVUS frame and averaged. The median age of patients was 56 (47–63) years; 52% were men and 23% had diabetes. The average length of coronary artery studied was 62 mm. After adjustment for systemic risk factors, medications, CRP levels and ACS, male gender (P<0.001) and serum FDP levels (P=0.02) were independent predictors of a larger NC area. Older age (P<0.001), male gender (P<0.0001) and increased serum FDP level (P=0.03) were associated with a larger plaque area. Conclusions In patients with CAD, a higher serum level of FDP is independently associated with larger plaques and greater plaque NC. PMID:26911453

  10. Elevated Serum ADA Activity as a Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Indian Patients.

    PubMed

    Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R; Pandey, Raj K; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V N R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2016-01-01

    Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL. PMID:27186641

  11. Elevated Serum Levels of NSE and S-100β Correlate with Increased Risk of Acute Cerebral Infarction in Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Jia, JianJun; Wang, ZhenFu; Zhang, ShanChun

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated the clinical value of serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and human soluble protein-100β (S-100β) in acute cerebral infarction (ACI) patients. Material/Methods A literature search of electronic databases identified relevant case-control studies that examined the correlations between NSE and S-100β serum levels, and ACI. The retrieved studies were screened based on our strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, and high-quality studies were subsequently selected for meta-analysis. STATA software (Version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) was utilized for statistical analysis. Results A total of 13 case-control studies, containing 911 ACI patients and 686 healthy controls, were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that serum levels of NSE and S-100β in ACI patients were significantly higher than the control group. Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed that the serum levels of NSE and S-100β in ACI patients were significantly higher than the control group in Asian population. In Caucasian population, the serum levels of NSE in case group was significantly higher than the control group, but no significant differences in serum levels of S-100β were observed between ACI patients and the control group. Conclusions Based on our results, we conclude that serum levels of NSE and S-100β strongly correlate with ACI in Asian population, and may be important clinical markers for diagnosis and treatment of ACI. PMID:26124190

  12. Serum hyperchloremia as a risk factor for acute kidney injury in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nachiket; Baker, Sarah M; Walters, Ryan W; Kaja, Ajay; Kandasamy, Vimalkumar; Abuzaid, Ahmed; Modrykamien, Ariel M

    2016-01-01

    A high serum chloride concentration has been associated with the development of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. However, the association between hyperchloremia and acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients admitted with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of STEMI and treated with PCI was performed. Subjects were classified as having hyper- or normochloremia based upon their admission serum chloride level. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed for the primary and secondary outcomes. The primary analysis evaluated whether high serum chloride on admission was associated with the development of AKI after adjusting for age, diabetes mellitus, admission systolic blood pressure, contrast volume used during angiography, Killip class, and need for vasopressor therapy or intraaortic balloon pump. The secondary analyses evaluated whether high serum chloride was associated with sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Of 291 patients (26.1% female, mean age of 59.9 12.6 years, and mean body mass index of 29.3 6.1 kg/m(2)), 25 (8.6%) developed AKI. High serum chloride on admission did not contribute significantly to the development of AKI (odds ratio, 95%; confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.24). In addition, serum chloride on admission was not significantly associated with sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation after adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. In conclusion, our study demonstrated no association between baseline serum hyperchloremia and an increased risk of AKI in patients admitted with STEMI treated with PCI. PMID:26722155

  13. Serum hyperchloremia as a risk factor for acute kidney injury in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nachiket; Baker, Sarah M.; Walters, Ryan W.; Kaja, Ajay; Kandasamy, Vimalkumar; Abuzaid, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    A high serum chloride concentration has been associated with the development of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. However, the association between hyperchloremia and acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients admitted with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of STEMI and treated with PCI was performed. Subjects were classified as having hyper- or normochloremia based upon their admission serum chloride level. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed for the primary and secondary outcomes. The primary analysis evaluated whether high serum chloride on admission was associated with the development of AKI after adjusting for age, diabetes mellitus, admission systolic blood pressure, contrast volume used during angiography, Killip class, and need for vasopressor therapy or intraaortic balloon pump. The secondary analyses evaluated whether high serum chloride was associated with sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Of 291 patients (26.1% female, mean age of 59.9 ± 12.6 years, and mean body mass index of 29.3 ± 6.1 kg/m2), 25 (8.6%) developed AKI. High serum chloride on admission did not contribute significantly to the development of AKI (odds ratio, 95%; confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.24). In addition, serum chloride on admission was not significantly associated with sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation after adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. In conclusion, our study demonstrated no association between baseline serum hyperchloremia and an increased risk of AKI in patients admitted with STEMI treated with PCI. PMID:26722155

  14. Do Negative 124I Pretherapy Positron Emission Tomography Scans in Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels Predict Negative 131I Posttherapy Scans?

    PubMed Central

    Khorjekar, Gauri R.; Garcia, Carlos; O'Neil, Jeffrey; Moreau, Shari; Atkins, Francis B.; Mete, Mihriye; Orquiza, Michael H.; Burman, Kenneth; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Background: The management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) who have elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and negative 131I or 123I scans is problematic, and the decision regarding whether or not to administer 131I therapy (a “blind” therapy) is also problematic. While 124I positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been shown to detect more foci of residual thyroid tissue and/or metastases secondary to DTC than planar 131I images, the utility of a negative 124I PET scan in deciding whether or not to consider performing blind 131I therapy is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether a negative 124I pretherapy PET scan in patients with elevated serum Tg levels and negative 131I or 123I scans predicts a negative 131I posttherapy scan. Methods: Several prospective studies have been performed to compare the radiopharmacokinetics of 124I PET versus 131I planar imaging in patients who 1) had histologically proven DTC, 2) were suspected to have metastatic DTC (e.g., elevated Tg, positive recent fine-needle aspiration cytology, suspicious enlarging mass), and 3) had 131I planar and 124I PET imaging performed. Using these criteria, we retrospectively identified patients who had an elevated Tg, a negative diagnostic 131I/123I scan, a negative diagnostic 124I PET scan, therapy with 131I, a post-therapy 131I scan, and a prior 131I therapy with a subsequent positive post-131I therapy scan. For each scan, two readers categorized every focus of 131I and 124I uptake as positive for thyroid tissue/metastases or physiological. Results: Twelve patients met the above criteria. Ten of these 12 patients (83%) had positive foci on 131I posttherapy scan. Conclusion: In our selected patient population, 131I posttherapy scans are frequently positive in patients with elevated serum Tg levels, a negative diagnostic 131I or 123I scan, and a negative 124I PET scan. Thus, for a patient with elevated serum Tg level, negative diagnostic 131I planar scan, and a prior post-131I therapy scan that was positive, a negative 124I PET scan will have a low predictive value for a negative post-131I therapy scan and should not be used to exclude the option of blind 131I therapy. PMID:24820222

  15. Circadian rhythm of serum 25 (OH) vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus levels in the treatment and management of type-2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Masood, Tariq; Kushwaha, Rajeev S; Singh, Ranjana; Sailwal, Shivani; Pandey, Himanshu; Varma, Amit; Singh, Raj K; Cornelissen, Germaine

    2015-02-01

    The circadian time structure of serum 25 (OH) vitamin D (25-OHD), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) may prove to be helpful in prevention, efficacy and management of diabetes mellitus. Ten newly diagnosed patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (6 men and 4 women), 30-65 years of age, and 10 age-matched clinically healthy volunteers (7 men and 3 women) were synchronized for one week with diurnal activity from about 06:00 to about 22:00 and nocturnal rest. Breakfast was served around 08:00, lunch around 13:30 and dinner around 20:00. Drugs/nutraceuticals known to affect the vitamin D-calcium metabolism and status were not taken. Blood samples were collected at 6-h intervals for 24 h under standardized, 24-h synchronized conditions. Serum 25-OHD, Ca, P, Ca-P product and Ca-P ratio were determined. A marked circadian variation was demonstrated for 25-OHD in healthy volunteers (p = 0.030) and of borderline statistical significance in the diabetic patients (p = 0.083) by population-mean cosinor analysis. Similarly, healthy volunteers showed borderline significance for serum Ca, P and Ca-P ratio. The circadian acrophase of Ca occurred later in the patients as compared to healthy controls. Mapping the circadian rhythm (an important component of the broader time structure or chronome, which includes a.o., trends with age and extra-circadian components) of vitamin D and calcium is needed for exploring their role as markers in the treatment and management of diabetic patients. PMID:25788054

  16. [Therapeutic agents for disorders of bone and calcium metabolism. The calcimimetic cinacalcet HCl].

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Shohei; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2007-01-01

    Calcimimetics drug such as cinacalcet suppress the secretion of parathyroid hormone by sensitizing parathyroid calcium receptors to extracellular ionized calcium. Standard treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with the risk of hypercalcemia, but cinacalcet don't induce elevation of serum calcium. And some studies were reported the use of cinacalcet not only to manage primary hyperparathyroidism, but also secondary hyperparathyroidism in nondialyzed stage, renal transplant patients and parathyroid carcinoma. PMID:17211098

  17. Elevated serum leptin levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction; correlation with coronary angiographic and echocardiographic findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the relationship between serial serum leptin levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who received thrombolysis and the degree of coronary atherosclerosis, coronary reperfusion, echocardiographic findings, and clinical outcome. 51 consecutive patients presenting with AMI were studied. Clinical characteristics including age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Serial serum leptin levels at the time of admission and subsequently at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 60 hours afterwards were obtained. Coronary angiography was performed in 34 patients; the relation between serum leptin levels and evidence of coronary reperfusion as well as the extent of coronary atherosclerosis according to the coronary artery surgery study classification (CASS) were evaluated. Echocardiographic evaluation was performed in all patients. 36 matched patients were enrolled as control group who had serum leptin level 9.4??6.5?ng/ml. Results The patients mean age was 50.5??10.6?years. There were 47 males and 3 females. 37.1% were diabetics, 23.5% were hypertensive, 21.6% were dyslipidemic and 22.7% were obese (BMI???30). Leptin concentrations (ng/ml) increased and peaked at the 4th sample (36?hrs) after admission (mean??SD) sample (1) =9.55??7.4, sample (2) =12.9??8.4, sample (3) =13.8??10.4, sample (4) =18.9??18.1, sample (5) =11.4??6.5, sample (6) =10.8??8.9?ng/ml. There was a significant correlation between serum leptin and BMI (r?=?0.342; p?=?0.03). Leptin levels correlated significantly to creatine kinase level on the second day (r?=?0.43, p???0.01). Significant correlation of mean serum leptin with the ejection fraction (P?serum leptin between patients who achieved coronary reperfusion vs. those who did not (p?=?0.8). There was a trend for an increase in the mean serum leptin levels with increasing number of diseased vessels. There was no correlation between serum leptin levels and outcome neither during the hospitalization nor at 9?months follow up. Conclusion Serum leptin levels increase after myocardial infarction. Serum leptin level may be a predictor of the left ventricular ejection fraction and the degree of atherosclerosis but not of coronary reperfusion. PMID:22642879

  18. Are elevated serum amyloid A levels and amyloid-enhancing factor sufficient to induce inflammation-associated amyloid deposition?

    PubMed

    Kisilevsky, R; Tan, R; Subrahmanyan, L; Snow, A

    1984-01-01

    During inflammation-associated amyloidosis two coincident factors, serum amyloid A (SAA) and amyloid-enhancing factor (AEF) are apparently necessary for amyloid A (AA) deposition. It is shown by passive transfer of cytokines, which stimulate SAA production, and AEF that these are not sufficient. A further factor(s) is necessary, which stems from the acute inflammatory response. Potential candidates are serum or tissue glycosaminoglycans. PMID:6400464

  19. The Effects of Serum from Prostate Cancer Patients with Elevated Body Mass Index on Prostate Cancer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Benjamin C; Fleshner, Neil E; Klotz, Laurence H; Venkateswaran, Vasundara

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether serum from obese, compared to non-obese, PCa (prostate cancer) patients creates a growth-enhancing tumor micro-environment in vitro. Serum from 80 subjects was divided into four groups: normal weight men with and without PCa and overweight/obese men with and without PCa. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were measured in LNCaP, and PC3 cells treated with patient serum were obtained from the above groups. The results reveal that proliferation of LNCaP cells was significantly (P = 0.05) greater with serum from non-obese (mean = 1.26 ± 0.20) compared to that from obese patients (mean = 1.16 ± 0.19). Serum from obese PCa patients compared to non-obese PCa patients induced significantly greater amounts of cell migration (P < 0.01) in PC3 cells. Serum from obese patients induced significantly (P < 0.01) lower amounts of cell invasion (mean = 8.2 ± 4.5) compared to non-obese patients (mean = 18.1 ± 5.0) when treated on PC3 cells. Serum TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha) levels correlated with LNCaP cell proliferation in vitro in non-obese PCa (P < 0.01) and non-obese control groups (P = 0.05). All statistical calculations controlled for age, since the PCa patient groups were significantly older than the control groups (P < 0.01). In conclusion, serum from obese PCa patients induced greater PCa cell migration and lower cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. PMID:25987846

  20. Serum concentration of calcium, magnesium and zinc in normotensive versus preeclampsia pregnant women: A descriptive study in women of Kerman province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Homeira; Dalili, Maryam; Hashemi, Seyed Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy without any specific reasons that characterized by high blood pressure and large amounts of protein in the urine. This disorder is caused by multiple factors and finding any factor related to this disorder can help on time prevention of this disease. Objective: In this study, serum levels of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) were evaluated in preeclampsia women and compared to normotensive ones. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study on 40 normotensive pregnancies as controls, 20 mild and 20 severe preeclamptic pregnancies as case groups. The women were studied in their 28-40 weeks of pregnancy. Simple random sampling was done based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and data were collected by blood sampling. Results: The serum Ca levels of 4.96±0.62, 4.89±0.34, 5.05±0.35 mg/dL, Mg levels of 0.83±0.08, 0.85±0.11, 0.84±0.11 mg/dL and Zn levels of 107.55±22.74, 108.00±22.40, 107.50±22.30 mg/dL was detected in normotensive, mild and severe preeclampsia, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that there were no significant differences between three groups in serum levels of Ca (p=0.6), Mg (p=0.827) and Zn (p=0.997). Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the assessment of serum Ca, Mg and Zn levels does not have any clinical values for predicting and/or managing of preeclampsia. However, based on the positive relationship between serum Ca and Mg concentration and the severity of preeclampsia in this study, we recommend assessment of serum levels of these two mineral elements as indices of the severity of preeclampsia. PMID:25653672

  1. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety. PMID:26847149

  2. Peripheral Blood Cells from Patients with Autoimmune Addison's Disease Poorly Respond to Interferons In Vitro, Despite Elevated Serum Levels of Interferon-Inducible Chemokines.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Kine; Bjånesøy, Trine; Hellesen, Alexander; Breivik, Lars; Bakke, Marit; Husebye, Eystein S; Bratland, Eirik

    2015-10-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is a disorder caused by an immunological attack on the adrenal cortex. The interferon (IFN)-inducible chemokine CXCL10 is elevated in serum of AAD patients, suggesting a peripheral IFN signature. However, CXCL10 can also be induced in adrenocortical cells stimulated with IFNs, cytokines, or microbial components. We therefore investigated whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from AAD patients display an enhanced propensity to produce CXCL10 and the related chemokine CXCL9, after stimulation with type I or II IFNs or the IFN inducer poly (I:C). Although serum levels of CXCL10 and CXCL9 were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls, IFN stimulated patient PBMC produced significantly less CXCL10/CXCL9 than control PBMC. Low CXCL10 production was not significantly associated with medication, disease duration, or comorbidities, but the low production of poly (I:C)-induced CXCL10 among patients was associated with an AAD risk allele in the phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene. PBMC levels of total STAT1 and -2, and IFN-induced phosphorylated STAT1 and -2, were not significantly different between patients and controls. We conclude that PBMC from patients with AAD are deficient in their response to IFNs, and that the adrenal cortex itself may be responsible for the increased serum levels of CXCL10. PMID:25978633

  3. Peripheral Blood Cells from Patients with Autoimmune Addison's Disease Poorly Respond to Interferons In Vitro, Despite Elevated Serum Levels of Interferon-Inducible Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Bjånesøy, Trine; Hellesen, Alexander; Breivik, Lars; Bakke, Marit; Husebye, Eystein S.; Bratland, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is a disorder caused by an immunological attack on the adrenal cortex. The interferon (IFN)-inducible chemokine CXCL10 is elevated in serum of AAD patients, suggesting a peripheral IFN signature. However, CXCL10 can also be induced in adrenocortical cells stimulated with IFNs, cytokines, or microbial components. We therefore investigated whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from AAD patients display an enhanced propensity to produce CXCL10 and the related chemokine CXCL9, after stimulation with type I or II IFNs or the IFN inducer poly (I:C). Although serum levels of CXCL10 and CXCL9 were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls, IFN stimulated patient PBMC produced significantly less CXCL10/CXCL9 than control PBMC. Low CXCL10 production was not significantly associated with medication, disease duration, or comorbidities, but the low production of poly (I:C)-induced CXCL10 among patients was associated with an AAD risk allele in the phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene. PBMC levels of total STAT1 and -2, and IFN-induced phosphorylated STAT1 and -2, were not significantly different between patients and controls. We conclude that PBMC from patients with AAD are deficient in their response to IFNs, and that the adrenal cortex itself may be responsible for the increased serum levels of CXCL10. PMID:25978633

  4. Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin and Low Iodine Intake Are Associated with Nontoxic Nodular Goiter among Adults Living near the Eastern Mediterranean Coast

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Yaniv S.; Gefel, Dov; Turkot, Svetlana; Aharoni, Dorit; Fytlovich, Shlomo; Troen, Aron M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Information about iodine intake is crucial for preventing thyroid diseases. Inadequate iodine intake can lead to thyroid diseases, including nontoxic nodular goiter (NNG). Objective. To estimate iodine intake and explore its correlation with thyroid diseases among Israeli adults living near the Mediterranean coast, where iodine-depleted desalinated water has become a major source of drinking water. Methods. Cross-sectional study of patients attending Barzilai Medical Center Ashkelon. Participants, who were classified as either NNG (n = 17), hypothyroidism (n = 14), or control (n = 31), provided serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and completed a semiquantitative iodine food frequency questionnaire. Results. Elevated serum Tg values (Tg > 60 ng/mL) were significantly more prevalent in the NNG group than in the other groups (29% versus 7% and 0% for hypothyroidism and controls, resp., P < 0.05). Mean estimated iodine intake was significantly lower in the NNG group (65 ± 30 μg/d) than in controls (115 ± 60 μg/d) (P < 0.05) with intermediate intake in the hypothyroid group (73 ± 38 μg/d). Conclusions. Elevated serum Tg values and low dietary iodine intake are associated with NNG among adult patients in Ashkelon District, Israel. Larger studies are needed in order to expand on these important initial findings. PMID:25610705

  5. TRPC6 is required for hypoxia-induced basal intracellular calcium concentration elevation, and for the proliferation and migration of rat distal pulmonary venous smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QINGJIE; WANG, DONG; YAN, GAOLING; SUN, LING; TANG, CHENGCHUN

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia induces pulmonary vasoconstriction and reconstruction in the pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins (PVs), and elevation of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is a primary factor of these processes. In the present study, the role of transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPCs) in mediating the hypoxia-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i in rat distal pulmonary venous smooth muscle cells (PVSMCs) was investigated. Rats with chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (CHPH) were used for in vivo experiments, and PVSMCs were isolated for in vitro experiments. [Ca2+]i was measured using fura-2-based fluorescence calcium imaging. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of TRPCs. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium and Transwell assays were used to investigate the proliferation and migration of PVSMCs, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrated that TRPC6 was increased in the distal PVs of CHPH rats, and in PVSMCs exposed to hypoxic conditions (4% O2, 72 h); however, TRPC1 was not. The 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol-induced [Ca2+]i elevation was increased in PVSMCs isolated from CHPH rats and in PVSMCs cultured under hypoxic conditions (4% O2, 72 h). Hypoxia induced PVSMC [Ca2+]i elevation, proliferation and migration. These alterations were inhibited following TRPC6 knockdown. Results from the present study suggest that TRPC6 expression is increased during chronic hypoxia, which contributes to Ca2+ entry into the cell, thus promoting proliferation and migration of PVSMCs. PMID:26718737

  6. Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen allergen induces elevation of intracellular calcium in human keratinocytes and impairs epidermal barrier function of human skin ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Junichi; Tsutsumi, Moe; Goto, Makiko; Nagayama, Masaharu; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Cry j1 is the major peptide allergen of Japanese cedar (Sugi), Cryptomeria japonica. Since some allergens disrupt epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis, we hypothesized that Cry j1 might have a similar effect. Intracellular calcium level in cultured human keratinocytes was measured with a ratiometric fluorescent probe, Fura-2 AM. Application of Cry j1 significantly increased the intracellular calcium level of keratinocytes, and this increase was inhibited by trypsin inhibitor or a protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) antagonist. We found that Cry j1 itself did not show protease activity, but application of Cry j1 to cultured keratinocytes induced a rapid (within 30 s) and transient increase of protease activity in the medium. This transient increase was blocked by trypsin inhibitor or PAR-2 antagonist. The effect of Cry j1 on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) of cultured human skin was measured in the presence and absence of a trypsin inhibitor and PAR-2 antagonist. Cry j1 significantly impaired the barrier function of human skin ex vivo, and this action was blocked by co-application of trypsin inhibitor or PAR-2 antagonist. Our results suggested that interaction of Cry j1 with epidermal keratinocytes leads to the activation of PAR-2, which induces elevation of intracellular calcium and disruption of barrier function. Blocking the interaction of Cry j1 with epidermal keratinocytes might ameliorate allergic reaction and prevent disruption of epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. PMID:26498292

  7. Effect of Calcium Soap of Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Biochemical Parameters and Ovarian Activity during Out-of-the-Breeding Season in Crossbred Ewes

    PubMed Central

    El-Nour, Hayat H. M.; Nasr, Soad M.; Hassan, Walid R.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of calcium soap of fatty acid (CSFA) supplementation on serum biochemical and hormones and ovarian activity during out-of-the-breeding season in ewes. Twelve crossbred ewes, 2-3 years of age and weighting 45–55 kg, were allocated into two equal groups. The first group was control and the other was treated with 50 g/head of CSFA. All ewes were fed basal diet and treated with 60 mg of medroxy progesterone acetate intravaginal sponge for 12 day. At the third day of sponge removal, the CSFA-treated group was given 50 g/head of CSFA daily for two estrous cycles. During the estrus phase, ovarian activity was detected using ultrasonography in both groups. All ewes were then subjected to natural breeding and conception rate. Blood samples were collected from all ewes during treatment period. Results revealed significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and progesterone levels with decrease in calcium and phosphorous levels in treated group. In treated group, normal-size ovaries and more than one follicle on the ovaries were detected and pregnancy rate increased. In conclusion, CSFA supplementation was effective to maintain the reproductive performance when ewes were out of the breeding season. PMID:22629155

  8. Fetuin-A/Albumin-Mineral Complexes Resembling Serum Calcium Granules and Putative Nanobacteria: Demonstration of a Dual Inhibition-Seeding Concept

    PubMed Central

    Young, David; Young, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB) are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend to block apatite nuclei formation or to stabilize the nascent nuclei as amorphous or semi-crystalline spherical nanoparticles, until the same inhibitory influences are overwhelmed or de-repressed, whereby the apatite nuclei grow in size to coalesce into crystalline spindles and films—a mechanism that may explain not only the formation of calcium granules in nature but also normal or ectopic calcification in the body. PMID:19956594

  9. Drastic elevation of serum CA125, CA72-4 and CA19-9 levels during menses in a patient with probable endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Imai, A; Horibe, S; Takagi, A; Takagi, H; Tamaya, T

    1998-05-01

    Levels of CA125, CA72-4 and CA19-9, serum markers for ovarian cancer, were measured throughout menstrual cycles in a patient with probable pelvic endometriosis. The patient had CA125 levels >1000 U ml(-1), CA72-4>10 U ml(-1) and CA19-9>150 U ml(-1) during but not after menses (P<0.01). In luteal phase and premenstrual phase, the levels of these markers seemed to return normal ranges, although CA125 remained over the upper normal limit. Knowledge that a physiological elevation of these markers may occur during menses might avoid misinterpretation. PMID:9605454

  10. Changes of Serum Calcium Concentration, Frequency of Ruminal Contraction and Feed Intake Soon after Parturition of Dairy Cows Fed Difructose Anhydride III

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, S.; Teramura, M.; Sato, T.; Hanada, M.

    2015-01-01

    Requirements to control the large decrease in serum calcium (Ca) due to parturition and to increase the feed intake soon after parturition have been well accepted in dairy cows. This study was aimed to investigate the feed intake affected by serum Ca concentration with difructose anhydride (DFA) III supplement in dairy cows soon after parturition. Fourteen transition Holstein cows were divided into DFA and control (CONT) groups within 1 to 5 parity variations in each group. Measurement schedule for an individual cow was from 14 d before parturition to 7 d following parturition. The cows in DFA group were supplied 0.2 kg/head/d of DFA III feed containing 40 g of pure DFA III while the cows in CONT group received no DFA III. Other feeding procedures were the same for all cows in both groups. At parturition (d 0), serum Ca concentration sharply declined in both groups (p<0.05). Time interval for recovery from decreased serum Ca to its normal range (>9.0 mg/dL) tended to be faster in DFA group (12 h) than in the CONT group (48 h), but the differences were not significant. Active ruminal contraction was observed in DFA group at following parturition of d 1 (p<0.05), d 3 (p<0.05), and d 5 (p<0.01). Dry matter (DM) intake did not differ between the groups. However, positive correlations were observed between serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction (p<0.001), and between ruminal contraction and DM intake (p<0.001) during following parturition. According to multiple regression analysis (R2 = 0.824, p<0.001), the DM intake was positively affected by serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction. These results suggest that feed intake soon after parturition in dairy cows can be increased by improvement of serum Ca concentration and active ruminal contraction, but DFA III supplementation in this study did not improve the lower serum Ca concentration due to parturition. PMID:25557676

  11. Time and dose relationships between schisandrin B- and schisandrae fructus oil-induced hepatotoxicity and the associated elevations in hepatic and serum triglyceride levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Nan; Zhu, Pei-Li; Chu, Zhu-Sheng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Schisandrin B (Sch B), a dibenzocyclooctadiene compound, is isolated from schisandrae fructus (SF). This study was conducted to compare the time- and dose-response between Sch B- and SF oil (SFO)-induced changes in hepatic and serum parameters in mice. Methods Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were given a single oral dose of Sch B (0.125–2 g/kg) or SFO (0.3–5 g/kg). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, hepatic malondialdehyde, and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured at increasing time intervals within 6–120 hours postdosing. Results Serum ALT activity was elevated by 60%, with maximum effect (Emax) =45.77 U/L and affinity (KD) =1.25 g/kg at 48–96 hours following Sch B, but not SFO, treatment. Sch B and SFO treatments increased hepatic malondialdehyde level by 70% (Emax =2.30 nmol/mg protein and KD =0.41 g/kg) and 22% (Emax =1.42 nmol/mg protein and KD =2.56 g/kg) at 72 hours postdosing, respectively. Hepatic index was increased by 16%–60% (Emax =11.01, KD =0.68 g/kg) and 8%–32% (Emax =9.88, KD =4.47 g/kg) at 12–120 hours and 24–120 hours after the administration of Sch B and SFO, respectively. Hepatic TG level was increased by 40%–158% and 35%–85%, respectively, at 12–96 hours and 6–48 hours after Sch B and SFO treatment, respectively. The values of Emax and KD for Sch B/SFO-induced increase in hepatic TG were estimated to be 22.94/15.02 μmol/g and 0.78/3.03 g/kg, respectively. Both Sch B and SFO increased serum TG (up to 427% and 123%, respectively), with the values of Emax =5.50/4.60 mmol/L and KD =0.43/2.84 g/kg, respectively. Conclusion The findings indicated that Sch B/SFO-induced increases in serum/hepatic parameters occurred in a time-dependent manner, with the time of onset being serum TG level < hepatic TG level < hepatic index < serum ALT activity. However, the time of recovery of these parameters to normal values varied as follow: serum TG level < hepatic TG level and liver injury < hepatic index. The Emax and affinity of Sch B on tissue/enzyme/receptor were larger than those of SFO. PMID:25278745

  12. Association of elevated serum ferritin concentration with insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism in Korean men and women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Hee; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Bae, Sung Jin; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

    2011-03-01

    Increased serum ferritin concentrations in nonpathologic conditions, reflecting subclinical iron overload, have been reported to be associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, serum ferritin concentrations differ significantly according to sex and ethnicity; and data concerning the relationship between serum ferritin concentrations and glucose metabolism abnormalities in Asian men and women are conflicting. This cross-sectional study investigated the association of serum ferritin concentrations with insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism in a large number of subjects with normal fasting glucose (NFG) level, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) level, or type 2 DM. We analyzed clinical and laboratory data from 12 090 subjects (6378 men and 5712 women; age, 20-89 years) who underwent general medical checkups. The study population included 1054 subjects with type 2 DM, 3783 subjects with IFG level, and 7253 subjects with NFG level. Serum ferritin, hemoglobin A(1c), fasting glucose, lipid, and insulin levels were measured. Insulin resistance and β-cell function indices were derived from a homeostasis model assessment. Serum ferritin concentrations were highest in the DM group, followed by the IFG group and the NFG group, in both men and women (186 ± 127, 176 ± 108, and 156 ± 92 ng/mL, respectively, in men; 85 ± 62, 75 ± 55, and 59 ± 47 ng/mL, respectively, in women). After adjustment for other variables using multiple regression analysis, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was independently associated with serum ferritin concentration in men, but not in women. When the fourth quartile of ferritin was compared with the first quartile, the age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for type 2 DM was 1.71 (95% confidence interval, 1.38-2.12) in men and 1.50 (1.05-2.13) in women. The OR in men was attenuated to 1.27 (1.01-1.60) but remained significant after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, serum lipids, liver enzymes, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). In nondiabetic subjects, the age-adjusted OR for IFG in the fourth quartile of ferritin was 1.82 (1.56-2.13) in men and 1.68 (1.40-2.02) in women. The OR was attenuated to 1.31 (1.11-1.55) in men and 1.45 (1.19-1.78) in women after adjustment for BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, serum lipids, liver enzymes, and hsCRP. In NFG subjects, the age-adjusted OR for metabolic syndrome in the fourth quartile of ferritin concentration was 2.85 (1.99-4.07) in men and 1.21 (0.82-1.79) in women. In men, the OR was attenuated to 1.58 (1.06-2.37) after adjustment for BMI, liver enzymes, and hsCRP. Increased serum concentrations of ferritin are associated with insulin resistance, type 2 DM, IFG, and metabolic syndrome in men, but only with IFG in women. These results suggest that iron overload is associated with insulin resistance in men, but not in women. PMID:20423745

  13. The possible relationship between allergic manifestations and elevated serum levels of brain specific auto-antibodies in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Gehan Ahmed; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Yousef

    2013-08-15

    Etiology of autism has become an area of a significant controversy. Allergy induced autism is an area of research wherein immune responses to some allergens may play a pathogenic role in autism. Allergy may induce the production of brain specific auto-antibodies in a subgroup of autistic children. We are the first to investigate the possible link between allergic manifestations and serum levels of both anti-myelin basic protein (anti-MBP) and anti-myelin associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) brain-specific auto-antibodies, which were measured by ELISA method, in 42 autistic children in comparison to 42 healthy-matched children. Allergic manifestations (bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and/or allergic rhinitis) were found in 47.6% of autistic patients. Increased serum levels of anti-MBP and anti-MAG auto-antibodies were found in 57.1% and 66.7%, respectively of autistic children. In addition, 78.5% of autistic children had increased serum levels of both anti-MBP and/or anti-MAG auto-antibodies. Autistic patients with allergic manifestations had significantly higher serum levels of anti-MBP and anti-MAG auto-antibodies than those without these manifestations (P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively). In conclusion, allergy may be a contributing factor to the increased serum levels of anti-MBP and anti-MAG auto-antibodies in some autistic children. Indeed, we need to know more about the links between allergy, immune system and brain in autism for finding new therapeutic modalities in autism. PMID:23726766

  14. A novel dietary supplement containing multiple phytochemicals and vitamins elevates hepatorenal and cardiac antioxidant enzymes in the absence of significant serum chemistry and genomic changes

    PubMed Central

    Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J

    2010-01-01

    A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S, sage; T, tea; G, guarana) and assessed changes in target organ antioxidant enzymes (liver, kidneys and heart), serum chemistry profiles and organ histopathology in Fisher 344 rats. Adult male and female Fisher 344 rats were fed control (no STG) or STG containing (1X and 7X, 1X = daily human dose) diets and sacrificed after 2 and 4 months. Serum chemistry analysis and histopathological examination of three vital target organs disclosed no adverse influence on protein, lipid and carbohydrate profiles, genomic integrity of the liver and/or the tissue architecture. However, analysis of the most important antioxidant components in the liver, kidney and heart homogenates revealed a dramatic increase in total glutathione concentrations, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Concomitantly, oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde accumulation) in these three organs were less than control. Organ specific serum markers (ALT/AST for the liver; CPK/AST/LDH for the heart; BUN/creatinine for kidneys) and the genomic integrity disclosed no STG-induced alteration. Some of the serum components (lipid and protein) showed insignificant changes. Overall, STG-exposed rats were more active, and the results suggest that STG exposure produces normal serum chemistry coupled with elevated antioxidant capacity in rats fed up to seven times the normal human dose and does not adversely influence any of the vital target organs. Additionally, this study reiterates the potential benefits of exposure to a pharmacologically relevant combination of phytochemicals compared to a single phytochemical entity. PMID:20716937

  15. Related effects of calcium and serum on the G1 phase of the human W138 fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Tupper, J T; Kaufman, L; Bodine, P V

    1980-07-01

    Deprivation of extracellular Ca or serum inhibits the proliferation of WI38 human diploid fibroblasts. Under these conditions, the cells become quiescent at a point in the cell cycle typical of early G1 or G0 phase-arrested cells. Exit of the cells from this point in the cycle appears to require both the presence of serum and Ca simultaneously. If quiescent cells are serum-stimulated in low Ca medium (0.01 mM), they do not progress through G1 to the S phase, which normally requires 14-18 hr. However, they remain competent to do so. Addition of Ca for up to 48 hr after serum stimulation results in an equal fraction of the cells progressing G1 phase as compared to the presence of Ca at the time of serum addition. In contrast, if quiescent cells are serum-stimulated in the presence of Ca, which is then removed, the cells can remain competent to enter S phase for only 10-12 hr. Re-addition of Ca beyond this time does not allow G1 progression on a normal schedule. These data suggest that Ca and serum are both required to trigger, in whole or in part, the pleiotypic response. Ca appears also to render the cells competent to enter S phase, but this competence is labile; an observation consistent with the PDGF-induced competence observed previously in the 3T3 cell. These observations are in contrast to previous data from other cell types which suggest that Ca is required only in late G1 phase for successful entrance to S phase. PMID:7440649

  16. Blood transcript immune signatures distinguish a subset of people with elevated serum ALT from others given acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Fannin, R D; Gerrish, K; Sieber, S O; Bushel, P R; Watkins, P B; Paules, R S

    2016-04-01

    The diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury is hindered by the limited utility of clinical chemistries. We have shown that hepatotoxicants can produce peripheral blood transcriptome "signatures" (PBTS) in rodents and humans. In this study, 42 adults were treated with acetaminophen (APAP; 1 g every 6 hours) for seven days, followed by three days of placebo. Eleven subjects received only placebo. After five days, 12 subjects (30%) had increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels ("responders"). PBTS of 707 and 760 genes, respectively, could distinguish responders and nonresponders from placebos. Functional analysis of the responder PBTS revealed increased expression of genes involved in TH2-mediated and innate immune responses, whereas the nonresponders demonstrated increased gene expression consistent with a tolerogenic immune response. Taken together, these observations suggest that the clinical subjects with transient increases in serum ALT failed to maintain or intensify a hepatic tolerogenic immune response. PMID:26690555

  17. Insulin resistance is associated with elevated serum pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) levels in morbidly obese patients.

    PubMed

    Gattu, Arijeet K; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jornayvaz, Francois; Dziura, James; Li, Fangyong; Crawford, Susan E; Chu, Xin; Still, Christopher D; Gerhard, Glenn S; Chung, Chuhan; Samuel, Varman

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for developing diabetes. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has been identified by experimental and clinical studies as both a causative and counter-regulatory factor in the metabolic syndrome. We set out to determine whether serum PEDF levels correlated with the degree of insulin resistance in morbidly obese patients. Sera from 53 patients who were evaluated prior to gastric bypass surgery were analyzed for PEDF levels using a commercial ELISA. None of the patients were on diabetes medications prior to enrollment. Baseline data included BMI, serum glucose and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) scores. Patients were stratified based on HOMA score and glucose levels into three groups: insulin sensitive (IS): HOMA <2 and glucose <126; insulin resistant (IR): HOMA >2 and glucose ≤126; and diabetes mellitus (DM): HOMA >2 and glucose >126. Pre- and post-gastric bypass sera from 12 patients were obtained for serial assessment of metabolic parameters and PEDF levels. PEDF secretion was assessed in primary human hepatocytes, HCC cells, and cultured adipocytes in the absence and presence of high glucose media. No significant differences in age, gender, and BMI were found among the three groups. PEDF levels were similar between IR patients and the other groups, but were significantly higher in DM compared to IS patients (p = 0.01). Serum PEDF in individual patients declined significantly after gastric bypass (p = 0.006). High glucose media led to significantly higher PEDF release by human hepatocytes in vitro (p = 0.016). These data demonstrate that serum PEDF concentrations better relate to insulin resistance than to adiposity and suggest that PEDF expression is closely linked to the development of insulin resistance. PMID:22547263

  18. Elevated serum P1NP predicts development of bone metastasis and survival in early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dean-Colomb, Windy; Hess, Kenneth R; Young, Elliana; Gornet, Terrie G; Handy, Beverly C; Moulder, Stacy L; Ibrahim, Nuhad; Pusztai, Lajos; Booser, Daniel; Valero, Vicente; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Esteva, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Bone is the most common site of metastasis of breast cancer, affecting most women with advanced disease. Procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), osteocalcin, CTX, and IL-6 are markers of bone turnover. Our objective was to determine whether serum levels of these proteins have clinical utility as predictors of breast cancer metastasis to bone. Blood was collected before treatment from 164 patients with stage I-III breast cancer from September 2001 to December 2008. Serum levels of P1NP, CTX, IL-6, and OC were measured using an automated immunoassay system. Correlations of the levels of these markers with time to bone metastasis development and with overall survival (OS) rate were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and the Kaplan-Meier method. Fifty-five patients with stage I-III disease at the time of blood sample collection subsequently experienced metastasis to bone. A baseline P1NP level of at least 75 ng/mL predicted increased risk of bone metastasis (hazard ratio, 2.7 [95 % confidence interval, 1.2-6.0]; P = 0.031) and a poor OS rate (P = 0.031). Serum P1NP levels at or above 75 ng/mL correlate with a short time to development of bone metastasis and low overall survival in patients with stage I-III breast cancer. PMID:23242617

  19. Elevated Serum Levels of Cysteine and Tyrosine: Early Biomarkers in Asymptomatic Adults at Increased Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohorko, Nina; Petelin, Ana; Jurdana, Mihaela; Biolo, Gianni; Jenko-Pražnikar, Zala

    2015-01-01

    As there is effective intervention for delaying or preventing metabolic diseases, which are often present for years before becoming clinically apparent, novel biomarkers that would mark metabolic complications before the onset of metabolic disease should be identified. We investigated the role of fasting serum amino acids and their associations with inflammatory markers, adipokines, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components in subjects prior to the onset of insulin resistance (IR). Anthropometric measurements, food records, adipokines, biochemical markers, and serum levels of amino acids were determined in 96 asymptomatic subjects aged 25–49 years divided into three groups according to the number of MetS components present. Cysteine and tyrosine were significantly higher already in group with one component of MetS present compared to subjects without MetS components. Serum amino acid levels correlated with markers of inflammation and adipokines. Alanine and glycine explained 10% of insulin resistance variability. The role of tyrosine and cysteine, that were higher already with 1 component of MetS present, should be further investigated as they might point to future insulin disturbances. PMID:25821801

  20. Normal results of post-race thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging in marathon runners with elevated serum MB creatine kinase levels

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, A.J.; Silverman, L.M.; Holman, B.L.

    1985-10-01

    Elevated cardiac enzyme values in asymptomatic marathon runners after competition can arise from skeletal muscle through exertional rhabdomyolysis, silent injury to the myocardium, or a combined tissue source. Peak post-race levels of the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase are similar to values in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Previously reported normal results of infarct-avid myocardial scintigraphy with technetium 99m pyrophosphate in runners after competition suggest a non-cardiac source but cannot exclude silent injury to the myocardium. Therefore, thallium 201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in runners immediately after competition together with determination of sequential cardiac enzyme levels. Among 15 runners tested, the average peak in serum MB creatine kinase 24 hours after the race was 128 IU/liter with a cumulative MB creatine kinase release of 117 IU/liter; these values are comparable to those in patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction. Thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphic results were normal in five runners randomly selected from those who volunteered for determination of sequential blood levels. It is concluded that elevations of serum MB creatine kinase in marathon runners arise from a skeletal muscle source and that thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy is useful to assess runners for myocardial injury when clinical questions arise.

  1. Influence of pre-, post-, and simultaneous perfusion of elevated calcium on the effect of ascending concentrations of lead on digoxin-induced cardiac arrest in isolated frog heart

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, M.S.; Muthu, P.; Parthiban, N.

    1995-10-01

    Cardiotoxicity of lead, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has already been documented as a potentially lethal, although rarely recognized, complication of lead intoxication. Further, it has already been reported from this laboratory that lead acetate (LA) preperfusion potentiated cardiotoxicity of digoxin (DGN) in isolated frog heart preparation and that exposure to elevated calcium (elev. Ca{sup 2+}) prior to, and simultaneously with LA at 10{sup {minus}7} M concentration, attenuated this potentiation. As an extension of this work, it was considered of interest to study the effect of perfusion of elev. Ca{sup 2+} (6.5 mM) prior to, after and simultaneously with ascending concentrations of lead (10{sup {minus}9}, 10{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}5}M) on DGN induced cardiac arrest (CA) in isolated frog heart, since Pb{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions are known to compete with each other for the same target sites at the cellular level, an instance of competitive mass action effect. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Elevated serum neurotensin and CRH levels in children with autistic spectrum disorders and tail-chasing Bull Terriers with a phenotype similar to autism.

    PubMed

    Tsilioni, I; Dodman, N; Petra, A I; Taliou, A; Francis, K; Moon-Fanelli, A; Shuster, L; Theoharides, T C

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by defects in communication and social interactions, as well as stereotypic behaviors. Symptoms typically worsen with anxiety and stress. ASD occur in early childhood, often present with regression and have a prevalence of 1 out of 68 children. The lack of distinct pathogenesis or any objective biomarkers or reliable animal models hampers our understanding and treatment of ASD. Neurotensin (NT) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are secreted under stress in various tissues, and have proinflammatory actions. We had previously shown that NT augments the ability of CRH to increase mast cell (MC)-dependent skin vascular permeability in rodents. CRH also induced NT receptor gene and protein expression in MCs, which have been implicated in ASD. Here we report that serum of ASD children (4-10 years old) has significantly higher NT and CRH levels as compared with normotypic controls. Moreover, there is a statistically significant correlation between the number of children with gastrointestinal symptoms and high serum NT levels. In Bull Terriers that exhibit a behavioral phenotype similar to the clinical presentation of ASD, NT and CRH levels are also significantly elevated, as compared with unaffected dogs of the same breed. Further investigation of serum NT and CRH, as well as characterization of this putative canine breed could provide useful insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of ASD. PMID:25313509

  3. In Situ 13C NMR at Elevated-Pressures and -Temperatures Investigating the Conversion of CO2 to Magnesium and Calcium Carbonate Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surface, J. A.; Conradi, M. S.; Skemer, P. A.; Hayes, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    We have constructed specialized NMR hardware to conduct in situ elevated-pressure, elevated-temperature 13C NMR studies of unmixed heterogeneous mixtures of solids, liquids, gases, and supercritical fluids. Specifically, our aim is to monitor CO2 uptake in both ultramafic rocks and in more porous geological materials to understand the mechanisms of chemisorption as a function of temperature, pressure and pH. In this in situ NMR probe, we are able to simulate processes at geologically relevant fluid pressures and temperatures, monitoring the kinetics of CO2 conversion to carbonates. The in situ NMR experiments consist of heterogeneous mixtures of rock, salty brine solution, and moderate pressure CO2 gas at elevated temperatures. The purpose of studying these reactions is to determine efficacy of carbonate formation in various geological reservoirs. Via 13C NMR, we have spectroscopically characterized and quantified the conversion of CO2 to magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate minerals. When CO2 reacts with the calcium or magnesium in a mineral or rock sample, the 13C chemical shift, linewidth, lineshape, and relaxation times change dramatically. This change can be monitored in situ and provide instantaneous and continuous characterization that maps the chemistry that is taking place. For example, on the pathway to MgCO3 formation, there are a number of phases of Mg(OH)x(H2O)y(CO3)z that are apparent via NMR spectroscopy. We will demonstrate that NMR can be used for quantitative characterization of multiple metastable mineral phases in pure forms and in mixtures. Results are confirmed via powder XRD and Raman spectroscopy of aquo- hydro- carbonato- magnesium species and calcium carbonate species. We also have monitored the 13C spectroscopy to analyze the phase of CO2 (liquid, supercritical, or gas) and its conversion into other forms, such as bicarbonate and carbonate species, providing a "window" into the in situ pH of the reacting system. Reference: 'In Situ Measurement of Magnesium Carbonate Formation from CO2 Using Static High-Pressure and -Temperature 13C NMR' J. Andrew Surface, Philip Skemer, Sophia E. Hayes, and Mark S. Conradi, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013, 47, 119-125. DOI: 10.1021/es301287n

  4. Maxillary sinus floor elevation using a tissue-engineered bone with calcium-magnesium phosphate cement and bone marrow stromal cells in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Deliang; Xia, Lunguo; Zhang, Wenjie; Huang, Hui; Wei, Bin; Huang, Qingfeng; Wei, Jie; Liu, Changsheng; Jiang, Xinquan

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of maxillary sinus floor elevation with a tissue-engineered bone constructed with bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs) and calcium-magnesium phosphate cement (CMPC) material. The calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and phosphorus (P) ions released from calcium phosphate cement (CPC), magnesium phosphate cement (MPC), and CMPC were detected by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bMSCs seeded on CPC, MPC, and CMPC or cultured in CPC, MPC, and CMPC extracts were measured by MTT analysis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, alizarin red mineralization assay, and real-time PCR analysis of the osteogenic genes ALP and osteocalcin (OCN). Finally, bMSCs were combined with CPC, MPC, and CMPC and used for maxillary sinus floor elevation in rabbits, while CPC, MPC, or CMPC without cells served as control groups. The new bone formation in each group was detected by histological finding and fluorochrome labeling at weeks 2 and 8 after surgical operation. It was observed that the Ca ion concentrations of the CMPC and CPC scaffolds was significantly higher than that of the MPC scaffold, while the Mg ions concentration of CMPC and MPC was significantly higher than that of CPC. The bMSCs seeded on CMPC and MPC or cultured in their extracts proliferated more quickly than the cells seeded on CPC or cultured in its extract, respectively. The osteogenic differentiation of bMSCs seeded on CMPC and CPC or cultured in the corresponding extracts was significantly enhanced compared to that of bMSCs seeded on MPC or cultured in its extract; however, there was no significant difference between CMPC and CPC. As for maxillary sinus floor elevation in vivo, CMPC could promote more new bone formation and mineralization compared to CPC and MPC, while the addition of bMSCs could further enhance its new bone formation ability significantly. Our data suggest that CMPC possesses moderate biodegradability and excellent osteoconductivity, which may be attributed to its Ca and Mg ion composition, and the tissue-engineered bone constructed of CMPC and bMSCs might be a potential alterative graft for maxillofacial bone regeneration. PMID:22066969

  5. Elevated extracellular calcium increases expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene via a calcium channel and ERK pathway in human dental pulp cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Eiji; Kanaya, Sousuke; Hamaji, Nozomu; Sato, Hisae; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2010-04-16

    Dental pulp cells, which have been shown to share phenotypical features with osteoblasts, are capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and generating a dentin-like mineral structure. Elevated extracellular Ca{sup 2+}Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} has been implicated in osteogenesis by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} signaling in odontogenesis remains unclear. We found that elevated Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} increases bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 gene expression in human dental pulp cells. The increase was modulated not only at a transcriptional level but also at a post-transcriptional level, because treatment with Ca{sup 2+} increased the stability of BMP-2 mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. A similar increase in BMP-2 mRNA level was observed in other human mesenchymal cells from oral tissue; periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts. However, the latter cells exhibited considerably lower expression of BMP-2 mRNA compared with dental pulp cells and periodontal ligament cells. The BMP-2 increase was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD98059, and partially inhibited by the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channels inhibitor, nifedipine. However, pretreatment with nifedipine had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation triggered by Ca{sup 2+}, suggesting that the Ca{sup 2+} influx from Ca{sup 2+} channels may operate independently of ERK signaling. Dental pulp cells do not express the transcript of Ca{sup 2+}-sensing receptors (CaSR) and only respond slightly to other cations such as Sr{sup 2+} and spermine, suggesting that dental pulp cells respond to Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} to increase BMP-2 mRNA expression in a manner different from CaSR and rather specific for Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} among cations.

  6. Mechanistic analysis for time-dependent effects of cinacalcet on serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone levels in 5/6 nephrectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Wong, J Ruth; Nakane, Masaki; Chen, Yung-wu; Mizobuchi, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the time-dependent effects of cinacalcet on serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) rats with experimental chronic renal insufficiency. In this study, 5/6 NX male, Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with vehicle or cinacalcet (10 mg/kg, oral, 1× daily). On Day 0 (before treatment), Day 12 and 13 after treatment (to approximate the clinical practice), and also at 0, 1, 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours after the last dosing, blood was collected for analysis. After 12 or 13 days of cinacalcet treatment, modest changes were observed in serum Ca and phosphorus (Pi), while PTH decreased by >45% to Sham levels (152 ± 15 pg/mL). Detailed mapping found that cinacalcet caused a significant time-dependent decrease in serum Ca following dosing, reaching a lowest point at 8 hours (decrease by 20% to 8.43 ± 0.37 mg/dL), and then returning to normal at 24 hours. Cinacalcet also caused a significant increase in serum Pi levels (by 18%). To investigate the potential mechanism of action, a broad approach was taken by testing cinacalcet in a panel of 77 protein-binding assays. Cinacalcet interacted with several channels, transporters, and neurotransmitter receptors, some of which are involved in brain and heart, and may impact Ca homeostasis. Cinacalcet dose-dependently increased brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) mRNA expression by 48% in cardiomyocytes, but had no significant effects on left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac function. The results suggest that cinacalcet's hypocalcemic effect may be due to its nonspecific interaction with other receptors in brain and heart. PMID:24303131

  7. Elevated serum 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D levels are associated with risk of TB progression in Gambian adults

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Olumuyiwa; Agbla, Schadrac; Owiafe, Patrick; Donkor, Simon; Togun, Toyin; Sillah, Abdou K.; Ota, Martin O.C.; Sutherland, Jayne S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Vitamin D is essential in the host defence against tuberculosis (TB) as an immune modulator. The aim of this study was to determine the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) from adult TB index cases before and after treatment and their exposed household contacts (HHC) in The Gambia. Methods Serum from adult index TB cases and their TB-exposed household contacts (HHC) was analysed for 25(OH) D and Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) concentrations. Tuberculin skin test (TST) status was used as a measure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infectivity in the HHC. In addition, HHC who later progressed to active TB (incident cases) were assessed alongside non-progressors to determine the influence of 25 (OH) D levels on TB risk. Results Eighty-three TB cases, 46 TST+ and 52 TST− HHC were analysed. Generally levels of 25(OH) D were considered insufficient in all subjects. However, median levels of 25(OH) D and VDBP were significantly higher in TB cases compared to both TST+ and TST− HHC at recruitment and were significantly reduced after TB therapy (p < 0.0001 for all). In addition, levels of serum 25(OH) D at recruitment were significantly higher in TB progressors compared to non-progressors (median (IQR): 25.0(20.8–29.2) in progressors and 20.3 (16.3–24.6) ng/ml in non-progressors; p = 0.007). Conclusion In The Gambia, an equatorial country, 25(OH) D levels are higher in serum of TB progressors and those with active disease compared to latently infected and uninfected subjects. These results contrast to findings in non-equatorial countries. PMID:27156622

  8. Elevated Serum Uric Acid Is Associated with Greater Bone Mineral Density and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    He, Juan; Wang, Chen; Qiu, Rui; Chen, Yu-ming

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Previous studies have suggested a positive link between serum uric acid (UA) and bone mineral density (BMD). In this study, we re-examined the association between UA and BMD and further explored whether this was mediated by skeletal muscle mass in a general Chinese population. Method This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 3079 (963 men and 2116 women) Chinese adults aged 40–75 years. Face-to-face interviews and laboratory analyses were performed to determine serum UA and various covariates. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess the BMD and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = ASM/Height2, kg/m2) for the total limbs, arms, and legs was then calculated. Results The serum UA was graded and, in general, was significantly and positively associated with the BMD and muscle mass, after adjustment for multiple covariates in the total sample. Compared with participants in lowest quartile of UA, those participants in highest quartile showed a 2.3%(whole body), 4.1%(lumbar spine), 2.4%(total hip), and 2.0% (femoral neck) greater BMDs. The mean SMIs in the highest (vs. lowest) quartile increased by 2.7% (total), 2.5% (arm), 2.7% (leg) respectively. In addition, path analysis suggested that the favorable association between UA and BMD might be mediated by increasing SMI. Conclusion The elevated serum UA was associated with a higher BMD and a greater muscle mass in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population and the UA-BMD association was partly mediated by muscle mass. PMID:27144737

  9. Ca2+ Content and Expression of an Acidocalcisomal Calcium Pump Are Elevated in Intracellular Forms of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hong-Gang; Zhong, Li; de Souza, Wanderley; Benchimol, Marlene; Moreno, Silvia; Docampo, Roberto

    1998-01-01

    The survival of a eukaryotic protozoan as an obligate parasite in the interior of a eukaryotic host cell implies its adaptation to an environment with a very different ionic composition from that of its extracellular habitat. This is particularly important in the case of Ca2+, the intracellular concentration of which is 3 orders of magnitude lower than the extracellular value. Ca2+ entry across the plasma membrane is a widely recognized mechanism for Ca2+ signaling, needed for a number of intracellular processes, and obviously, it would be restricted in the case of intracellular parasites. Here we show that Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes possess a higher Ca2+ content than the extracellular stages of the parasite. This correlates with the higher expression of a calcium pump, the gene for which was cloned and sequenced. The deduced protein product (Tca1) of this gene has a calculated molecular mass of 121,141 Da and exhibits 34 to 38% identity with vacuolar Ca2+-ATPases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Dictyostelium discoideum, respectively. The tca1 gene suppresses the Ca2+ hypersensitivity of a mutant of S. cerevisiae that has a defect in vacuolar Ca2+ accumulation. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy analysis indicate that Tca1 colocalizes with the vacuolar H+-ATPase to the plasma membrane and to intracellular vacuoles of T. cruzi. These vacuoles were shown to have the same size and distribution as the calcium-containing vacuoles identified by the potassium pyroantimoniate-osmium technique and as the electron-dense vacuoles observed in whole unfixed parasites by transmission electron microscopy and identified in a previous work (D. A. Scott, R. Docampo, J. A. Dvorak, S. Shi, and R. D. Leapman, J. Biol. Chem. 272:28020–28029, 1997) as being acidic and possessing a high calcium content (i.e., acidocalcisomes). Together, these results suggest that acidocalcisomes are distinct from other previously recognized organelles present in these parasites and underscore the ability of intracellular parasites to adapt to the hostile environment of their hosts. PMID:9528801

  10. The effect of injectable butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on postpartum serum beta-hydroxybutyrate, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Rollin, E; Berghaus, R D; Rapnicki, P; Godden, S M; Overton, M W

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of an injection of 10% butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin (Catosal, Bayer, Shawnee Mission, KS) on the day of calving and 1 d later on the prevalence of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle in the early postpartum period. Cows from 4 herds (n=1,122) were randomized to receive either 25mL of 10% butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin or 25mL of sterile water subcutaneously on both days. Each milliliter of Catosal contained 0.05mg of cyanocobalamin and 100mg of butaphosphan, which provided 17.3mg of P in the form of [1-(butylamino)-1-methylethyl]-phosphonic acid. Serum was sampled for beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration at calving (pretreatment) and again between 3 and 10 d in milk. A subset of samples from mature cows was also evaluated for serum Ca and P concentrations. When cows from all age groups were included in the analysis, there was no difference between the median serum BHBA concentrations of cows in the 2 treatment groups, and no difference in the proportion of hyperketonemic cows (serum BHBA >or=1,200micromol/L) during the first week postpartum. When the analysis was restricted to mature cows (lactation >or=3), both the median BHBA concentration and the proportion of hyperketonemic cows were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the placebo group. Serum Ca and P concentrations did not differ between treatment groups. Our results suggest that injection of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin on the day of calving and 1 d later may decrease the prevalence of subclinical ketosis during the week after calving in mature dairy cows, but not in first- and second-lactation animals. PMID:20172218

  11. Calcium metabolism in adult outpatients with epilepsy receiving long-term anticonvulsant therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pylypchuk, G.; Oreopoulos, D.G.; Wilson, D.R.; Harrison, J.E.; McNeill, K.G.; Meema, H.E.; Ogilvie, R.; Sturtridge, W.C.; Murray, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term anticonvulsant drug therapy may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism resulting in osteomalacia. The prevalence and severity of altered calcium metabolism was studied in an adult outpatient population of persons with epilepsy receiving anticonvulsant therapy for a minimum of 2 years. Assessment of calcium metabolism was based on serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and of plasma parathyroid hormone, intestinal absorption of isotopic calcium and skeletal bone mineral mass as determined by in vivo neutron activation or x-ray photodensitometry. Thirty-nine patients who had been receiving anticonvulsant therapy for an average of 20 years were studied; none had clinical evidence of metabolic bone disease. Decreased serum calcium concentration was noted in 10%, decreased serum phosphorus concentration in 10% and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase concentration in 44%. The mean serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration was significantly lower (P < 0.001) than in a control group (11.6 v. 19.6 mg/mL). None of 18 patients studied had an increased plasma concentration of parathyroid hormone, and only 1 of 17 patients had decreased intestinal absorption of isotopic calcium. Bone mineral mass was decreased in 44% of 32 patients studied. It was concluded that long-term treatment with anticonvulsant drugs leads to mild abnormalities of calcium metabolism and decreased bone mineral mass in a substantial percentage of adult outpatients with epilepsy. These abnormalities probably predispose the patients to the development of clinically significant metabolic bone disease. PMID:418865

  12. [Effects of humanin on elevation of intracellular calcium concentration induced by beta-amyloid peptide(31-35) in cultured cortical neurons.].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Li LM; Qiao JT; Zhang C

    2009-04-25

    The disruption of the intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis has been reported to be one of the mechanisms of beta-amyloid (Abeta) neurotoxicity in Alzheimeros disease (AD). Abeta(31-35), a small active fragment of Abeta, is believed to possess the similar biological activities of full-length Abeta molecule. Humanin (HN) is a recently identified peptide that suppresses neuronal death initiated by AD-related insults. The present study was to investigate the effects of HN on Abeta(31-35)-induced elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in cultured cortical neurons by real-time fluorescence imaging technique using the Ca(2+)-sensitive dye, Fura-2/AM. The elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) was observed in cultured neurons exposed to Abeta(31-35) (25 mumol/L) (F340/F380: 1 042.56+/- 83.54, compared with control group: 804.73+/- 48.230, P<0.05, n=10). Pretreatment of HN (10 mumol/L) for 10 min significantly decreased the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) induced by Abeta(31-35) (25 mumol/L) (F340/F380: 918.788+/- 50.73, compared with Abeta(31-35) group, P<0.05, n=10). When neurons were treated with HN and Abeta(31-35) simultaneously, HN (10 mumol/L) could not change the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) induced by Abeta(31-35) (F340/F380: 1 036.68+/- 88.96, compared with Abeta(31-35) group, P>0.05, n=10), while HN (20 mumol/L) diminished the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) induced by Abeta(31-35) (25 mumol/L) significantly (F340/F380: 898.56+/- 76.46, compared with Abeta(31-35) group, P<0.05, n=10). The findings imply that: (1) the disruption of the calcium homeostasis induced by Abeta(31-35) is possibly the basis of the neurotoxicity of Abeta(31-35) in cultured cortical neurons; (2) HN suppresses the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) induced by Abeta(31-35) in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  13. Repeated spurious elevation of serum prostate-specific antigen values solved by chemiluminescence analysis: A possible interference by heterophilic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bayó, Miquel; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Jesús; Bellido, Jose Antonio; Abascal-Junquera, Jose María; Hannaoui, Naim; Banús, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heterophilic antibodies are human immunoglobulins directed against various animal antigens. They can produce false-positive results in the analysis of different tumor markers, including prostate-specific antigen. This interference can lead to misdiagnosis, unnecessary tests, and overtreatment in some cases. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old man with repeated spurious elevation of prostate-specific antigen, reaching levels of 108.7 ng/mL, that were suspected to be caused by heterophilic antibodies. The interference was solved by changing the analysis technique. Real values of prostate-specific antigen were less than 1 ng/mL. PMID:26568798

  14. A comparative study of serum proteins, lipids, calcium and inorganic phosphorus between Japanese and Dutch university students.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Y; Hirai, K; Higuchi, H

    1998-01-01

    The levels of serum proteins, lipids and minerals in Japanese and Dutch students measured by biochemical methods were compared and their correlation with the nutritional status were investigated. The mean values of serum total proteins (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin (Glb) and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio in the Japanese students (7.8±0.5, 4.7±0.3 and 3.2±0.4g/dl, and 1.5±0.2, respectively) were similar to those of the Dutch students (7.8±0.5, 4.7±0.3 and 3.0±0.3g/dl, and 1.6±0.2, respectively). However, the mean value of TP in males (8.0±0.5g/dl for the Japanese and 8.0±0.4g/dl for the Dutch) was significantly higher than this in females (7.7±0.3g/dl for the Japanese and 7.5±0.5g/dl for the Dutch) in the each group (p<0.01) and the mean value of Alb of male Dutch students (4.9±0.2g/dl) was higher than that in females (4.5±0.3g/dl, p<0.01). No significant differences were found between the two groups in serum lipid and mineral levels. The serum phospholipid (PL) level in female Dutch students (217±37mg/dl) was significantly higher than that in males (188±25mg/dl, p<0.01), while the serum triglyceride (TG) level in female Japanese students (60±25mg/dl) was significantly lower than that in males (74±33mg/dl, p<0.05), which agreed with the frequency distribution patterns of these lipids. Comparing the two student groups of both countries, there were significant positive correlations between TP and Alb (p<0.001 for both groups), TP and Glb (p<0.001 for both groups) and Alb and A/G ratio (p<0.001 for the Japanese and p<0.01 for the Dutch) in each group. A significant negative correlation between Glb and A/G ratio (p<0.001) was also found in each group. Significant positive correlations were also observed between PL and TG (p<0.01 for the Japanese and p<0.05 for the Dutch), PL and total cholesterol (TC) (p<0.001 for each group) and TG and TC (p<0.01 for the Dutch). The serum PL and TC increased significantly with the serum TP in the Japanese students (p<0.01 for PL and TP, p<0.05 for TG and TP) but not in the Dutch students. The authors concluded that serum protein, lipid and mineral profiles between the two groups did not differ much in spite of their different eating patterns. PMID:21432534

  15. Intra-uterine infection and cord immunoglobulin M II. Clinical analysis of infants with elevated cord serum immunoglobulin M *

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Annette; Dent, P. B.; Emrich, W. H.; Gent, M.; Rahim, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    Cord blood immunoglobulin M was measured in 3474 consecutive newborn infants. A group of 147 infants with elevated IgM values (?19.0 mg./100 ml.) were compared with 92 unselected newborn infants with normal IgM values. One infant with clinically unsuspected congenital rubella was detected in the study group while no cases of intra-uterine infection were found among the controls. A greater proportion of mothers in the study group had a history of viral infection. The study group also contained a larger number of mothers who might be considered to be at greater risk of infection with agents known to cause intra-uterine disease. Follow-up studies at 6 months of age revealed no differences between the two groups aside from an increased incidence of minor motor abnormalities in the study group. While it is recognized that infants with cord blood IgM levels truly in excess of 30 mg./100 ml. may represent a high-risk group with respect to proved or subclinical intra-uterine infection, it is concluded that routine cord blood screening for elevated IgM values is not a high-yield procedure for the detection of intra-uterine infection in our population. PMID:4203457

  16. Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether photodynamic damage on HeLa cells by means of reactive oxygen species production and cytosolic free calcium concentration elevation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xinmin; Xu, Qinzhi; Liu, Fanguang; Zhou, Pingkun; Gu, Ying; Zeng, Jing; An, Jing; Dai, Weide; Li, Xiaosong

    2004-12-01

    Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) is a novel and promising porphyrin-related photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). HMME-PDT-induced cell death and its mechanisms were investigated in HeLa cells. We demonstrated that HMME-PDT could induce cell death through both necrosis and apoptosis. Sodium azide (the singlet oxygen quencher) or D-mannitol (the hydroxyl radical scavenger) could protect HeLa cells from the apoptosis and necrosis induced by HMME-PDT, showing that reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical, played a decisive role in HMME-PDT-induced HeLa cells death. Sodium azide or D-mannitol also inhibited HMME-PDT-mediated [Ca2+]i elevation. Cytochrome C (Cyto C) release from mitochondria into cytosol and Caspase-3 activation after HMME-PDT were inhibited by BAPTA/AM (an intracellular calcium chelator). These results demonstrated that ROS generated in HeLa cells by HMME-PDT-induced apoptosis may be through [Ca2+]i elevation which mediates Cyto C release and Caspase-3 activition and initiates the subsequent late stages of apoptosis. PMID:15500948

  17. Elevated expressions of serum miR-15a, miR-16, and miR-17-5p are associated with acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jin; Du, Kang; Lu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as potential biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of multiple human diseases including AIS. In this study, serum expression levels of miR-15a, miR-16, and miR-17-5p were detected in AIS patients (n = 106) and healthy controls (n = 120) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Statistical analyses were performed to investigate the associations between miRNA levels and AIS risk. The serum expression levels of miR-15a, miR-16, and miR-17-5p increased by 8.3 fold (P = 0.0104), 42 fold (P < 0.0001), and 9.9 fold (P = 0.0002) in AIS patients compared to controls, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that serum miR-17-5p level was a significant and independent predictor for determining the presence of AIS. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed areas under the curves (AUCs) of 0.698 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.559-0.837, P = 0.01), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.71-0.931, P < 0.001), and 0.784 (95% CI: 0.666-0.903, P < 0.001) for miR-15a, miR-16, and miR-17-5p, respectively, while the AUC increased to 0.845 (95% CI: 0.74-0.949, P < 0.001) for the combination of these three micoRNAs. Our findings indicate that elevated serum expression of miR-15a, miR-16, and miR-17-5p is strongly associated with AIS and that the combination of these three microRNAs may be a promising serum biomarker for AIS. PMID:26885038

  18. Cancer-associated myositis associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma arising in Barrett's oesophagus without serum myogenic enzymes elevation: an example suggesting the importance of MRI.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yosuke; Shimizu, Hiroshige; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Urita, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    The strong association between myositis and malignancy has been well recognised. Cancer-associated myositis (CAM) is thought to be a cross-reaction to regenerating muscle tissue similar to tumour antigen. We report a case of CAM due to oesophageal adenocarcinoma arising in Barrett's oesophagus without elevation of myogenic enzymes, diagnosed by MRI and repeated endoscopy. Elderly onset, prominent symptoms, lack of interstitial pneumonia, poorer response to immunosuppressive therapies, and the combination of negative conventional myositis-related antibodies and positive anti-p155/140 antibody may help to distinguish CAM from idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. As the prognosis of patients with CAM depends on the malignancy, aggressive diagnosis of CAM and the causative malignancy is required. Our experience underscores the importance of avoiding the over-reliance on serum myogenic enzymes for excluding CAM and recognising MRI as a useful diagnostic tool of myositis. PMID:27102418

  19. Role of elevated serum uric acid levels at the onset of overt nephropathy in the risk for renal function decline in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kentaro; Hara, Shigeko; Hattori, Masakazu; Sakai, Ken; Onishi, Yukiko; Yoshida, Yoko; Kawazu, Shoji; Kushiyama, Akifumi

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Despite the use of intensive therapies, declining renal function is often observed during the overt nephropathy stage of type 2 diabetes. We aimed at investigating the role of serum uric acid (SUA) levels at the onset of overt nephropathy in the risk of renal function decline in type 2 diabetes patients. Materials and Methods The present cohort study included 290 type 2 diabetes patients who were followed from the onset of overt nephropathy. The relationship between SUA and declining renal function was assessed using Cox regression models after adjusting for known risk factors. Results Over a median 4.8-year follow-up period, 85 patients (4.9/100 person-years) showed serum creatinine (Cr) doubling with a total cumulative incidence of 71.9% at 20 years of follow up. The highest SUA tertile resulted in significantly a higher incidence (7.7/100 person-years) and cumulative incidence at 20 years (85.7%) than the middle (3.9/100 person-years, 54.2%) and lowest (3.0/100 person-years, 55.5%) tertiles. The univariate Cox hazard model resulted in significant risks for Cr doubling related to female sex, short diabetes duration, smoking and elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), glycated hemoglobin and SUA tertiles. SUA tertiles remained statistically significant in the multivariate model (highest vs lowest hazard ratio 2.68, 95% confidence interval 1.48−5.00, P = 0.0009). Conclusions Elevated SUA levels within the normal range (men >6.3 mg/dL, women >5.1) at the onset of overt nephropathy resulted in an increased risk for declining renal function in type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:25621139

  20. Cellular Hypertrophy and Increased Susceptibility to Spontaneous Calcium-Release of Rat Left Atrial Myocytes Due to Elevated Afterload

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifei; Cannell, Mark B.; Kim, Shang Jin; Watson, Judy J.; Norman, Ruth; Calaghan, Sarah C.; Orchard, Clive H.; James, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Atrial remodeling due to elevated arterial pressure predisposes the heart to atrial fibrillation (AF). Although abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function has been associated with AF, there is little information on the effects of elevated afterload on atrial Ca2+-handling. We investigated the effects of ascending aortic banding (AoB) on Ca2+-handling in rat isolated atrial myocytes in comparison to age-matched sham-operated animals (Sham). Myocytes were either labelled for ryanodine receptor (RyR) or loaded with fluo-3-AM and imaged by confocal microscopy. AoB myocytes were hypertrophied in comparison to Sham controls (P<0.0001). RyR labeling was localized to the z-lines and to the cell edge. There were no differences between AoB and Sham in the intensity or pattern of RyR-staining. In both AoB and Sham, electrical stimulation evoked robust SR Ca2+-release at the cell edge whereas Ca2+ transients at the cell center were much smaller. Western blotting showed a decreased L-type Ca channel expression but no significant changes in RyR or RyR phosphorylation or in expression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, SR Ca2+ ATPase or phospholamban. Mathematical modeling indicated that [Ca2+]i transients at the cell center were accounted for by simple centripetal diffusion of Ca2+ released at the cell edge. In contrast, caffeine (10 mM) induced Ca2+ release was uniform across the cell. The caffeine-induced transient was smaller in AoB than in Sham, suggesting a reduced SR Ca2+-load in hypertrophied cells. There were no significant differences between AoB and Sham cells in the rate of Ca2+ extrusion during recovery of electrically-stimulated or caffeine-induced transients. The incidence and frequency of spontaneous Ca2+-transients following rapid-pacing (4 Hz) was greater in AoB than in Sham myocytes. In conclusion, elevated afterload causes cellular hypertrophy and remodeling of atrial SR Ca2+-release. PMID:26713852

  1. Cellular Hypertrophy and Increased Susceptibility to Spontaneous Calcium-Release of Rat Left Atrial Myocytes Due to Elevated Afterload.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifei; Cannell, Mark B; Kim, Shang Jin; Watson, Judy J; Norman, Ruth; Calaghan, Sarah C; Orchard, Clive H; James, Andrew F

    2015-01-01

    Atrial remodeling due to elevated arterial pressure predisposes the heart to atrial fibrillation (AF). Although abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function has been associated with AF, there is little information on the effects of elevated afterload on atrial Ca2+-handling. We investigated the effects of ascending aortic banding (AoB) on Ca2+-handling in rat isolated atrial myocytes in comparison to age-matched sham-operated animals (Sham). Myocytes were either labelled for ryanodine receptor (RyR) or loaded with fluo-3-AM and imaged by confocal microscopy. AoB myocytes were hypertrophied in comparison to Sham controls (P<0.0001). RyR labeling was localized to the z-lines and to the cell edge. There were no differences between AoB and Sham in the intensity or pattern of RyR-staining. In both AoB and Sham, electrical stimulation evoked robust SR Ca2+-release at the cell edge whereas Ca2+ transients at the cell center were much smaller. Western blotting showed a decreased L-type Ca channel expression but no significant changes in RyR or RyR phosphorylation or in expression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, SR Ca2+ ATPase or phospholamban. Mathematical modeling indicated that [Ca2+]i transients at the cell center were accounted for by simple centripetal diffusion of Ca2+ released at the cell edge. In contrast, caffeine (10 mM) induced Ca2+ release was uniform across the cell. The caffeine-induced transient was smaller in AoB than in Sham, suggesting a reduced SR Ca2+-load in hypertrophied cells. There were no significant differences between AoB and Sham cells in the rate of Ca2+ extrusion during recovery of electrically-stimulated or caffeine-induced transients. The incidence and frequency of spontaneous Ca2+-transients following rapid-pacing (4 Hz) was greater in AoB than in Sham myocytes. In conclusion, elevated afterload causes cellular hypertrophy and remodeling of atrial SR Ca2+-release. PMID:26713852

  2. Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.

    PubMed

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium. PMID:21448562

  3. Obesity and Hepatic Steatosis Are Associated with Elevated Serum Amyloid Beta in Metabolically Stressed APPswe/PS1dE9 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chih-Wen; Lin, Chien-Hung; Tzeng, Tsai-Teng; Hsu, Hao-Chieh; Huang, Fong-Lee; Tsay, Huey-Jen; Liu, Hui-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Diabesity-associated metabolic stresses modulate the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). For further insights into the underlying mechanisms, we examine whether the genetic background of APPswe/PS1dE9 at the prodromal stage of AD affects peripheral metabolism in the context of diabesity. We characterized APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice treated with a combination of high-fat diet with streptozotocin (HFSTZ) in the early stage of AD. HFSTZ-treated APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice exhibited worse metabolic stresses related to diabesity, while serum β-amyloid levels were elevated and hepatic steatosis became apparent. Importantly, two-way analysis of variance shows a significant interaction between HFSTZ and genetic background of AD, indicating that APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice are more vulnerable to HFSTZ treatment. In addition, body weight gain, high hepatic triglyceride, and hyperglycemia were positively associated with serum β-amyloid, as validated by Pearson’s correlation analysis. Our data suggests that the interplay between genetic background of AD and HFSTZ-induced metabolic stresses contributes to the development of obesity and hepatic steatosis. Alleviating metabolic stresses including dysglycemia, obesity, and hepatic steatosis could be critical to prevent peripheral β-amyloid accumulation at the early stage of AD. PMID:26244977

  4. Increased severity of respiratory infections associated with elevated anti-LPS IgG2 which inhibits serum bactericidal killing.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy J; Whitters, Deborah; Sevastsyanovich, Yanina R; Heath, Jennifer N; Pravin, John; Goodall, Margaret; Browning, Douglas F; O'Shea, Matthew K; Cranston, Amy; De Soyza, Anthony; Cunningham, Adam F; MacLennan, Calman A; Henderson, Ian R; Stockley, Robert A

    2014-08-25

    Although specific antibody induced by pathogens or vaccines is a key component of protection against infectious threats, some viruses, such as dengue, induce antibody that enhances the development of infection. In contrast, antibody-dependent enhancement of bacterial infection is largely unrecognized. Here, we demonstrate that in a significant portion of patients with bronchiectasis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, antibody can protect the bacterium from complement-mediated killing. Strains that resist antibody-induced, complement-mediated killing produce lipopolysaccharide containing O-antigen. The inhibition of antibody-mediated killing is caused by excess production of O-antigen-specific IgG2 antibodies. Depletion of IgG2 to O-antigen restores the ability of sera to kill strains with long-chain O-antigen. Patients with impaired serum-mediated killing of P. aeruginosa by IgG2 have poorer respiratory function than infected patients who do not produce inhibitory antibody. We suggest that excessive binding of IgG2 to O-antigen shields the bacterium from other antibodies that can induce complement-mediated killing of bacteria. As there is significant sharing of O-antigen structure between different Gram-negative bacteria, this IgG2-mediated impairment of killing may operate in other Gram-negative infections. These findings have marked implications for our understanding of protection generated by natural infection and for the design of vaccines, which should avoid inducing such blocking antibodies. PMID:25113975

  5. Increased severity of respiratory infections associated with elevated anti-LPS IgG2 which inhibits serum bactericidal killing

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Timothy J.; Whitters, Deborah; Sevastsyanovich, Yanina R.; Heath, Jennifer N.; Pravin, John; Goodall, Margaret; Browning, Douglas F.; O’Shea, Matthew K.; Cranston, Amy; De Soyza, Anthony; Cunningham, Adam F.; MacLennan, Calman A.; Stockley, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Although specific antibody induced by pathogens or vaccines is a key component of protection against infectious threats, some viruses, such as dengue, induce antibody that enhances the development of infection. In contrast, antibody-dependent enhancement of bacterial infection is largely unrecognized. Here, we demonstrate that in a significant portion of patients with bronchiectasis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, antibody can protect the bacterium from complement-mediated killing. Strains that resist antibody-induced, complement-mediated killing produce lipopolysaccharide containing O-antigen. The inhibition of antibody-mediated killing is caused by excess production of O-antigen–specific IgG2 antibodies. Depletion of IgG2 to O-antigen restores the ability of sera to kill strains with long-chain O-antigen. Patients with impaired serum-mediated killing of P. aeruginosa by IgG2 have poorer respiratory function than infected patients who do not produce inhibitory antibody. We suggest that excessive binding of IgG2 to O-antigen shields the bacterium from other antibodies that can induce complement-mediated killing of bacteria. As there is significant sharing of O-antigen structure between different Gram-negative bacteria, this IgG2-mediated impairment of killing may operate in other Gram-negative infections. These findings have marked implications for our understanding of protection generated by natural infection and for the design of vaccines, which should avoid inducing such blocking antibodies. PMID:25113975

  6. Development of status epilepticus, sustained calcium elevations and neuronal injury in a rat survival model of lethal paraoxon intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Laxmikant S.; Carter, Dawn S.; Phillips, Kristin F.; Blair, Robert E.; DeLorenzo, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Paraoxon (POX) is an active metabolite of organophosphate (OP) pesticide parathion that has been weaponized and used against civilian populations. Exposure to POX produces high mortality. OP poisoning is often associated with chronic neurological disorders. In this study, we optimize a rat survival model of lethal POX exposures in order to mimic both acute and long-term effects of POX intoxication. Male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with POX (4 mg/kg, ice-cold PBS, s.c.) produced a rapid cholinergic crisis that evolved into status epilepticus (SE) and death within 6–8 min. The EEG profile for POX induced SE was characterized and showed clinical and electrographic seizures with 7–10 Hz spike activity. Treatment of 100% lethal POX intoxication with an optimized three drug regimen (atropine, 2 mg/kg, i.p., 2-PAM, 25 mg/kg, i.m. and diazepam, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) promptly stopped SE and reduced acute mortality to 12% and chronic mortality to 18%. This model is ideally suited to test effective countermeasures against lethal POX exposure. Animals that survived the POX SE manifested prolonged elevations in hippocampal [Ca2+]i (Ca2+ plateau) and significant multifocal neuronal injury. POX SE induced Ca2+ plateau had its origin in Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores since inhibition of ryanodine/ IP3 receptor lowered elevated Ca2+ levels post SE. POX SE induced neuronal injury and alterations in Ca2+ dynamics may underlie some of the long term morbidity associated with OP toxicity. PMID:24785379

  7. miR-181b Promotes hepatic stellate cells proliferation by targeting p27 and is elevated in the serum of cirrhosis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Baocan; Li, Wenxi; Guo, Kun; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Yuqin; Fan, Jiangao

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181a and miR-181b, especially, miR-181b could be induced by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) in hepatic stellate cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181b could promote HSC-T6 cell proliferation by directly targeting the negative cell regulator-p27 in HSC-T6 cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181b was identified as potential serum diagnostic marker for liver cirrhosis patients. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs, as a kind of negative gene regulators, were demonstrated to be involved in many types of diseases. In this study, we found that transforming growth factor-beta 1 could induce the expression of miR-181a and miR-181b, and miR-181b increased in the much higher folds than miR-181a. Because of the important role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in HSC activation and liver cirrhosis, we investigate the effect of miR-181a and miR-181b on HSC proliferation. The results showed that miR-181b could promote HSC-T6 cell proliferation by regulating cell cycle. Further study showed p27, the cell cycle regulator, was the direct target of miR-181b in HSC-T6 cell. But miR-181a had no effects on HSC-T6 cell proliferation and cell cycle, and did not target p27. Interestingly, miR-181b is elevated significantly in serum of liver cirrhosis cases comparing to that of normal persons, whereas miR-181a expression was in the similar level with that of normal persons. These results suggested that miR-181b could be induced by TGF-{beta}1 and promote the growth of HSCs by directly targeting p27. The elevation of miR-181b in serum suggested that it may be potential diagnostic biomarkers for cirrhosis. As for miR-181a, it may work in TGF-{beta}1 pathway by a currently unknown mechanism.

  8. Serum α-hydroxybutyrate (α-HB) predicts elevated 1 h glucose levels and early-phase β-cell dysfunction during OGTT

    PubMed Central

    Varvel, Stephen A; Pottala, James V; Thiselton, Dawn L; Caffrey, Rebecca; Dall, Tara; Sasinowski, Maciek; McConnell, Joseph P; Warnick, G Russell; Voros, Szilard; Graham, Timothy E

    2014-01-01

    Objective Serum α-hydroxybutyrate (α-HB) is elevated in insulin resistance and diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that the α-HB level predicts abnormal 1 h glucose levels and β-cell dysfunction inferred from plasma insulin kinetics during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Research design and methods This cross-sectional study included 217 patients at increased risk for diabetes. 75 g OGTTs were performed with multiple postload glucose and insulin measurements over a 30–120 min period. OGTT responses were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict 1 h glucose ≥155 mg/dL with α-HB added to traditional risk factors. Results Mean±SD age was 51±15 years (44% male, 25% with impaired glucose tolerance). Fasting glucose and insulin levels, but not age or body mass index (BMI), were significantly higher in the second/third α-HB tertiles (>3.9 µg/mL) than in the first tertile. Patients in the second/third α-HB tertiles exhibited a higher glucose area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) and reduced initial slope of insulin response during OGTT. The AUC for predicting 1 h glucose ≥155 mg/dL was 0.82 for a base model that included age, gender, BMI, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and insulin, and increased to 0.86 with α-HB added (p=0.015), with a net reclassification index of 52% (p<0.0001). Conclusions Fasting serum α-HB levels predicted elevated 1 h glucose during OGTT, potentially due to impaired insulin secretion kinetics. This association persisted even in patients with an otherwise normal insulin–glucose homeostasis. Measuring serum α-HB could thus provide a rapid, inexpensive screening tool for detecting early subclinical hyperglycemia, β-cell dysfunction, and increased risk for diabetes. PMID:25452875

  9. The Severity of Visceral Leishmaniasis Correlates with Elevated Levels of Serum IL-6, IL-27 and sCD14

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Priscila L.; de Oliveira, Fabrícia A.; Santos, Micheli Luize B.; Cunha, Luana Celina S.; Lino, Michelle T. B.; de Oliveira, Michelle F. S.; Bomfim, Manuela O. M.; Silva, Angela Maria; de Moura, Tatiana R.; de Jesus, Amélia R.; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Reed, Steven G.; de Almeida, Roque P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe disease caused by infection with protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Classic VL is characterized by a systemic infection of phagocytic cells and an intense activation of the inflammatory response. It is unclear why 90% of infected individuals do not develop the disease while a minority develop the classical form. Furthermore, among those that develop disease, a small group progresses to more severe form that is unresponsive to treatment. The presence of inflammatory mediators in serum could theoretically help to control the infection. However, there is also a release of anti-inflammatory mediators that could interfere with the control of parasite multiplication. In this study, we took advantage of the spectrum of outcomes to test the hypothesis that the immune profile of individuals infected with Leishmania (L.) infantum is associated with the development and severity of disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera from patients with confirmed diagnosis of VL were evaluated for the presence of numerous molecules, and levels compared with healthy control and asymptomatic infected individuals. Conclusions/Principal Findings Although differences were not observed in LPS levels, higher levels of sCD14 were detected in VL patients. Our data suggest that L. infantum may activate the inflammatory response via CD14, stimulating a generalized inflammatory response with production of several cytokines and soluble molecules, including IFN-γ, IL-27, IL-10, IL-6 and sCD14. These molecules were strongly associated with hepatosplenomegaly, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. We also observed that IL-6 levels greater than 200 pg/ml were strongly associated with death. Together our data reinforce the close relationship of IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-27 in the immune dynamics of VL and suggest the direct participation of sCD14 in the activation of the immune response against L. infantum. PMID:26814478

  10. Motor restlessness, sleep disturbances, thermal sensory alterations and elevated serum iron levels in Btbd9 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    DeAndrade, Mark P; Johnson, Russell L; Unger, Erica L; Zhang, Li; van Groen, Thomas; Gamble, Karen L; Li, Yuqing

    2012-09-15

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is a sensory-motor neurological disorder with a circadian component. RLS is characterized by uncomfortable sensations in the extremities, generally at night or during sleep, which often leads to an uncontrollable urge to move them for relief. Recently, genomic studies identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms in BTBD9, along with three other genes, as being associated with a higher risk of RLS. Little is known about the function of BTBD9 or its potential role in the pathophysiology of RLS. We therefore examined a line of Btbd9 mutant mice we recently generated for phenotypes similar to symptoms found in RLS patients. We observed that the Btbd9 mutant mice had motor restlessness, sensory alterations likely limited to the rest phase, and decreased sleep and increased wake times during the rest phase. Additionally, the Btbd9 mutant mice had altered serum iron levels and monoamine neurotransmitter systems. Furthermore, the sensory alterations in the Btbd9 mutant mice were relieved using ropinirole, a dopaminergic agonist widely used for RLS treatment. These results, taken together, suggest that the Btbd9 mutant mice model several characteristics similar to RLS and would therefore be the first genotypic mouse model of RLS. Furthermore, our data provide further evidence that BTBD9 is involved in RLS, and future studies of the Btbd9 mutant mice will help shine light on its role in the pathophysiology of RLS. Finally, our data argue for the utility of Btbd9 mutant mice to discover and screen novel therapeutics for RLS. PMID:22678064

  11. Reduced hydration status characterized by disproportionate elevation of blood urea nitrogen to serum creatinine among the patients with cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Tetsu; Ito, Chiharu; Kato, Maki; Ogura, Manabu; Muto, Shigeaki; Kusano, Eiji

    2011-10-01

    The significance of fluid metabolism among the patients with cerebral infarction has barely mentioned in the literature despite the several reports suggesting the potential risk of reduced hydration status for the development of cerebral infarction. The aim of the this study is to explore the validity of the presumable relationship between hydration status and cerebral infarction. Ninety-seven patients with cerebral infarction from April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009 were retrospectively investigated, and their hydration status were evaluated by using several clinical parameters such as a blood urea nitrogen to serum creatinine (BUN/Cr) ratio of >25 and plasma osmolality. Subjects with active infection, congestive heart failure, hepatic failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, or a malignancy were excluded since these conditions should modulate the absolute value of BUN/Cr ratio without a change in hydration status. Twenty-eight patients (29%) were considered as having reduced hydration status. The BUN/Cr ratio decreased significantly after the initiation of medical support (median 21.3; IR: 18.1-24.6), including oral or parenteral fluid supplementation, in comparison to the values at the time of patient admission (median 30.0; IR: 26.8-40.7; p<0.0001). Similar decreases were also observed in the hematocrit, hemoglobin, and plasma osmolality. The group considered to have reduced hydration status had a significantly higher prevalence of cardioembolic stroke than the other subjects. The hydration status may be a contributing factor to subtypes of cerebral infarction. Whether our findings are also the case with overall patients with cerebral infarction should be evaluated in greater detail. PMID:21778021

  12. Motor restlessness, sleep disturbances, thermal sensory alterations and elevated serum iron levels in Btbd9 mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    DeAndrade, Mark P.; Johnson, Russell L.; Unger, Erica L.; Zhang, Li; van Groen, Thomas; Gamble, Karen L.; Li, Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis–Ekbom disease, is a sensory–motor neurological disorder with a circadian component. RLS is characterized by uncomfortable sensations in the extremities, generally at night or during sleep, which often leads to an uncontrollable urge to move them for relief. Recently, genomic studies identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms in BTBD9, along with three other genes, as being associated with a higher risk of RLS. Little is known about the function of BTBD9 or its potential role in the pathophysiology of RLS. We therefore examined a line of Btbd9 mutant mice we recently generated for phenotypes similar to symptoms found in RLS patients. We observed that the Btbd9 mutant mice had motor restlessness, sensory alterations likely limited to the rest phase, and decreased sleep and increased wake times during the rest phase. Additionally, the Btbd9 mutant mice had altered serum iron levels and monoamine neurotransmitter systems. Furthermore, the sensory alterations in the Btbd9 mutant mice were relieved using ropinirole, a dopaminergic agonist widely used for RLS treatment. These results, taken together, suggest that the Btbd9 mutant mice model several characteristics similar to RLS and would therefore be the first genotypic mouse model of RLS. Furthermore, our data provide further evidence that BTBD9 is involved in RLS, and future studies of the Btbd9 mutant mice will help shine light on its role in the pathophysiology of RLS. Finally, our data argue for the utility of Btbd9 mutant mice to discover and screen novel therapeutics for RLS. PMID:22678064

  13. Elevated serum complement factors 3 and 4 are strong inflammatory markers of the metabolic syndrome development: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenfang; Tang, Qin; Wen, Jing; Tang, Yan; Huang, DaMin; Huang, Yuzhen; Xie, Jinling; Luo, Yawen; Liang, Min; Wu, Chunlei; Lu, Zheng; Tan, Aihua; Gao, Yong; Wang, Qiuyan; Jiang, Yonghua; Yao, Ziting; Lin, Xinggu; Zhang, Haiying; Mo, Zengnan; Yang, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological design, consisting of cross-sectional (n = 2376) and cohort (n = 976) studies, was adopted to investigate the association between complement factors 3 (C3) and 4, and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) development. In the cross-sectional study, the C3 and C4 concentrations in the MetS group were higher than those in the non-MetS group (all P < 0.001), and the levels of immune globulin M (IgM), IgA, IgE, and IgG exhibited no significant differences between MetS and non-MetS (all P > 0.050). After multi-factor adjustment, the odds ratios (ORs) in the highest quartile of C3 and C4 concentrations were 7.047 (4.664, 10.648) and 1.961 (1.349, 2.849), respectively, both Ptrend < 0.050. After a 4 years follow-up, total 166 subjects were diagnosed with MetS, and the complement baseline levels from 2009 were used to predict the MetS risk in 2013. In the adjusted model, the relative risks (RRs) in the highest quartile of C3 and C4 levels were 4.779 (2.854, 8.003) and 2.590 (1.567, 4.280), respectively, both Ptrend < 0.001. Activation of complement factors may be an important part of inflammatory processes, and our results indicated that the elevated C3 and C4 levels were independent risk factors for MetS development. PMID:26726922

  14. Biomimetic synthesis of hollow calcium carbonate with the existence of the agar matrix and bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianhua; Wu, Gang; Qing, Chengsong

    2016-01-01

    Proteins play important roles in the process of biomineralization. Vaterite and calcite have been synthesized by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2 in the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and agar system. The samples have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The shape of CaCO3 crystal has been analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results show that calcite is a single product in the absence of BSA, but the product is a mixture of calcite and vaterite in the presence of BSA. The spheral shell of CaCO3 crystal was obtained when the concentration of BSA increased to 9.0mg/mL. PMID:26478327

  15. A calcium-binding protein with similarity to serum albumin localized to the ER-Golgi network and cell walls of spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    PubMed

    Lait, Cameron G.; Zwiazek, Janusz J.

    2001-08-01

    Using polyclonal antibodies raised against human serum albumin (HSA), a 70-kDa microsomal protein with an isoelectric point of approximately 6.5 was detected in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The protein was purified by selective ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion exchange HPLC. The protein shared 100% identity with the first 15 amino acids at the NH2 terminus of HSA, including the X-X-H amino acid region, which was identified in HSA as being responsible for binding of copper, zinc, indole derivatives and calcium. Blue staining of the protein with the cationic carbocyanine dye 'Stains-all' and 45Ca overlay following SDS-PAGE also suggest that the 70-kDa plant protein binds calcium. The protein reacted positively with carbohydrate specific thymol stain, and the carbohydrates associated with the protein were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as galactose and galacturonic acid. The 70-kDa plant protein was present in the detergent-poor phase following Triton X-114 extraction of the microsomal proteins. Cell fractionation using continuous sucrose gradients showed that the protein is present in membrane fractions with high activity of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi marker enzymes. Using nitrocellulose tissue prints probed with anti-HSA antibodies, we demonstrated that the protein is present in the apoplastic space of petioles, suggesting that the protein is secreted to the apoplast of cortex cells in plants. Localization and binding properties suggest that the plant protein identified in the present study may participate in secretion processes, possibly involved with the transport of precursors required for cell-wall synthesis. PMID:11473705

  16. (Z)3,4,5,4‧-trans-tetramethoxystilbene, a new analogue of resveratrol, inhibits gefitinb-resistant non-small cell lung cancer via selectively elevating intracellular calcium level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xing-Xing; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Su Wei; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; He, Jian-Xing; Ding, Jian; Xue, Wei-Wei; Mujtaba, Tahira; Michelangeli, Francesco; Huang, Min; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Da-Kai; Jiang, Ze-Bo; Zhou, Yan-Ling; Kin-Ting Kam, Richard; Liu, Liang; Lai-Han Leung, Elaine

    2015-11-01

    Calcium is a second messenger which is required for regulation of many cellular processes. However, excessive elevation or prolonged activation of calcium signaling would lead to cell death. As such, selectively regulating calcium signaling could be an alternative approach for anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we have identified an effective analogue of resveratrol, (Z)3,4,5,4‧-trans-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) which selectively elevated the intracellular calcium level in gefitinib-resistant (G-R) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. TMS exhibited significant inhibitory effect on G-R NSCLC cells, but not other NSCLC cells and normal lung epithelial cells. The phosphorylation and activation of EGFR were inhibited by TMS in G-R cells. TMS induced caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy by directly binding to SERCA and causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and AMPK activation. Proteomics analysis also further confirmed that mTOR pathway, which is the downstream of AMPK, was significantly suppressed by TMS. JNK, the cross-linker of ER stress and mTOR pathway was significantly activated by TMS. In addition, the inhibition of JNK activation can partially block the effect of TMS. Taken together, TMS showed promising anti-cancer activity by mediating calcium signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis as well as autophagy in G-R NSCLC cells, providing strategy in designing multi-targeting drug for treating G-R patients.

  17. (Z)3,4,5,4′-trans-tetramethoxystilbene, a new analogue of resveratrol, inhibits gefitinb-resistant non-small cell lung cancer via selectively elevating intracellular calcium level

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xing-Xing; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Su Wei; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; He, Jian-Xing; Ding, Jian; Xue, Wei-Wei; Mujtaba, Tahira; Michelangeli, Francesco; Huang, Min; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Da-Kai; Jiang, Ze-Bo; Zhou, Yan-Ling; Kin-Ting Kam, Richard; Liu, Liang; Lai-Han Leung, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is a second messenger which is required for regulation of many cellular processes. However, excessive elevation or prolonged activation of calcium signaling would lead to cell death. As such, selectively regulating calcium signaling could be an alternative approach for anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we have identified an effective analogue of resveratrol, (Z)3,4,5,4′-trans-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) which selectively elevated the intracellular calcium level in gefitinib-resistant (G-R) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. TMS exhibited significant inhibitory effect on G-R NSCLC cells, but not other NSCLC cells and normal lung epithelial cells. The phosphorylation and activation of EGFR were inhibited by TMS in G-R cells. TMS induced caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy by directly binding to SERCA and causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and AMPK activation. Proteomics analysis also further confirmed that mTOR pathway, which is the downstream of AMPK, was significantly suppressed by TMS. JNK, the cross-linker of ER stress and mTOR pathway was significantly activated by TMS. In addition, the inhibition of JNK activation can partially block the effect of TMS. Taken together, TMS showed promising anti-cancer activity by mediating calcium signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis as well as autophagy in G-R NSCLC cells, providing strategy in designing multi-targeting drug for treating G-R patients. PMID:26542098

  18. Utility of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Kamaleshwaran, K. K.; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, 99mTc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. 18F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. 18F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. PMID:26097420

  19. Utility of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels.

    PubMed

    Shinto, Ajit S; Kamaleshwaran, K K; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. (18)F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. (18)F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. PMID:26097420

  20. A new missense mutation in the L ferritin coding sequence associated with elevated levels of glycosylated ferritin in serum and absence of iron overload

    PubMed Central

    Kannengiesser, Caroline; Jouanolle, Anne-Marie; Hetet, Gilles; Mosser, Annick; Muzeau, Françoise; Henry, Dominique; Bardou-Jacquet, Edouard; Mornet, Martine; Brissot, Pierre; Deugnier, Yves; Grandchamp, Bernard; Beaumont, Carole

    2009-01-01

    Background Elevated serum ferritin levels are frequently encountered in clinical situations and once iron overload or inflammation has been ruled out, many cases remain unexplained. Genetic causes of hyperferritinemia associated to early cataract include mutations in the iron responsive element in the 5’ untranslated region of the L ferritin mRNA, responsible for the hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome. Design and Methods We studied 91 probands with hyperferritinemia comprising 25 family cases belonging to families with at least two cases of unexplained hyperferritinemia, and 66 isolated cases. In the families, we also analyzed 30 relatives. Hyperferritinemia was considered as unexplained when transferrin saturation was below 45% and/or serum iron below 25 μmol/L and/or no tissue iron excess was detected, when inflammation had been ruled out and when iron responsive element mutation was absent. We carried out sequencing analysis of the FTL gene coding the L ferritin. Results A novel heterozygous p.Thr30Ile mutation in the NH2 terminus of L ferritin subunit was identified in 17 probands out of the cohort. The mutation was shown to cosegregate with hyperferritinemia in all the 10 families studied. No obvious clinical symptom was found associated with the presence of the mutation. This unique mutation is associated with an unusually high percentage of ferritin glycosylation. Conclusions This missense mutation of FTL represents a new cause of genetic hyperferritinemia without iron overload. We hypothesized that the mutation increases the efficacy of L ferritin secretion by increasing the hydrophobicity of the N terminal “A” α helix. PMID:19176363

  1. Should HFE p.C282Y homozygotes with moderately elevated serum ferritin be treated? A randomised controlled trial comparing iron reduction with sham treatment (Mi-iron)

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sim Yee; Dolling, Lara; Dixon, Jeannette L; Nicoll, Amanda J; Gurrin, Lyle C; Wolthuizen, Michelle; Wood, Erica M; Anderson, Greg J; Ramm, Grant A; Allen, Katrina J; Olynyk, John K; Crawford, Darrell; Kava, Jennifer; Ramm, Louise E; Gow, Paul; Durrant, Simon; Powell, Lawrie W; Delatycki, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HFE p.C282Y homozygosity is the most common cause of hereditary haemochromatosis. There is currently insufficient evidence to assess whether non-specific symptoms or hepatic injury in homozygotes with moderately elevated iron defined as a serum ferritin (SF) of 300–1000 µg/L are related to iron overload. As such the evidence for intervention in this group is lacking. We present here methods for a study that aims to evaluate whether non-specific symptoms and hepatic fibrosis markers improve with short-term normalisation of SF in p.C282Y homozygotes with moderate elevation of SF. Methods and analysis Mi-iron is a prospective, multicentre, randomised patient-blinded trial conducted in three centres in Victoria and Queensland, Australia. Participants who are HFE p.C282Y homozygotes with SF levels between 300 and 1000 μg/L are recruited and randomised to either the treatment group or to the sham treatment group. Those in the treatment group have normalisation of SF by 3-weekly erythrocytapheresis while those in the sham treatment group have 3-weekly plasmapheresis and thus do not have normalisation of SF. Patients are blinded to all procedures. All outcome measures are administered prior to and following the course of treatment/sham treatment. Patient reported outcome measures are the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS-primary outcome), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form V.2 (SF36v2) and Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale 2 short form (AIMS2-SF). Liver injury and hepatic fibrosis are assessed with transient elastography (TE), Fibrometer and Hepascore, while oxidative stress is assessed by measurement of urine and serum F2-isoprostanes. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of Austin Health, Royal Melbourne Hospital and Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial registration Trial identifier: NCT01631708; Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov PMID:26270952

  2. SETX mutations are a frequent genetic cause of juvenile and adult onset cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/background Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia defines a group of genetically distinct recessive ataxias including ataxia-telangectasia (A-T, ATM gene), ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1, APTX gene) and type 2 (AOA2, SETX gene). Although, a few unique clinical features differentiate each of these forms, the patients also share common clinical signs, such as the presence of cerebellar atrophy, sensorimotor axonal neuropathy, and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum level. Materials and methods We selected 22 Italian patients from 21 families, presenting progressive cerebellar ataxia, axonal neuropathy, and elevated serum AFP. We screened the coding regions of ATM, APTX and SETX genes for point mutations by direct sequencing or DHPLC, and searched genomic rearrangements in SETX by MLPA analysis. In selected cases, quantification of ATM and senataxin proteins was performed by Western blot. Clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging data were collected. Results Thirteen patients (12 families) carried SETX mutations (AOA2, 57%), two were mutated in ATM (A-T), and three in APTX (AOA1). In three remaining patients, we could not find pathogenic mutations, and in one case we found, in homozygosis, the SETX p.K992R polymorphism (population frequency 1-2%). In AOA2 cases, we identified 14 novel and three reported SETX mutations. Signs at onset were gait ataxia and facial dyskinesia, and the age ranged between 11 and 18 years. None had obvious oculomotor apraxia at the latest examination (age 14–45 years). The patient carrying the p.K992R SETX polymorphism had a phenotype similar to that of the diagnosed AOA2 patients, while the other three undiagnosed subjects had a very late onset and a few distinguishing clinical features. Discussion and conclusions We describe a large series of 13 AOA2 Italian patients. The phenotype was consistent with previous descriptions of AOA2, except for a higher frequency of strabism, and for the absence of oculomotor apraxia. In our survey ~60% of juvenile-to-adult cases with cerebellar ataxia, sensorimotor neuropathy and increased AFP are due to mutations in the SETX gene, and a smaller percentage to APTX and ATM gene mutations. PMID:23941260

  3. Elevated on-treatment levels of serum IFN-gamma is associated with treatment failure of peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Ying; Huang, Ching-I; Dai, Chia-Yen; Wang, Shu-Chi; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Liang, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Hung; Hou, Nai-Jen; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Huang, Chung-Feng; Lin, Zu-Yau; Chen, Shinn-Cherng; Huang, Jee-Fu; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection had been associated with cytokine imbalance. Cytokine dynamics in response to peginterferon/ribavirin therapy have an impact on the treatment efficacy for HCV patients. Ninety-two treatment-naive chronic hepatitis C patients were treated with 24 or 48 weeks of peginterferon/ribavirin therapy according to their viral genotypes. Sustained virologic response (SVR) is defined as undetectable HCV RNA throughout a 24-week post-treatment follow-up period. Dynamic serum levels of the following cytokines: (1) Th1-mediated cytokines: IFN-γ, interleukin-2, and TNF-alpha; (2)Th2-mediated cytokines: interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 and (3)immuno-modulatory cytokines: interleukin-1β, interleukin-8, and interleukin-12 were determined by Fluorescent Bead immunoassay. Serial dynamic cytokine expression demonstrated that not only elevated IFN-γ concentrations at specific time points but also the total IFN-γ amount was strongly linked to non-response in peginterferon/ribavirin therapy. IFN-γ levels could serve as an independent predictor for SVR analyzed by multivariate logistic regression test. The accuracy of discriminating responders from non-responders was acceptable when IFN-γ cut-off levels were set at 180, 120, and 40 pg/ml at the 4th week, 12th week, and end-of-treatment of therapy, respectively. Elevated on-treatment IFN-γ concentration was significantly associated with treatment failure among interleukin-28B rs8099917TT carriers and those patients failed to achieve rapid virologic response. PMID:26965318

  4. Liver Fat Content Is Associated with Elevated Serum Uric Acid in the Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations: Shanghai Changfeng Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojing; Ma, Hui; Xia, Mingfeng; Wang, Dan; Li, Xiaoming; Wu, Jiong; Zhao, Naiqing; Pan, Baishen; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Although many studies have indicated a relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hyperuricemia, a few studies specifically examining the effects of the severity of liver fat content (LFC) on serum uric acid (SUA) and the presence of hyperuricemia because of the limitation of the examination methods for NAFLD. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the NAFLD and SUA levels in the Chinese population using standardized quantitative ultrasound. Methods A community-based study was conducted from May 2010 to December 2012. A total of 4,305 people aged 45 years and above without excessive drinking were enrolled. A standard interview and anthropometric and laboratory blood parameters were collected for each person. The standardized ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio and hepatic attenuation rate was used to quantify LFC. Results The prevalence of NAFLD and hyperuricemia was 33.1% and 17.1%, respectively. A total of 23.5% of the NAFLD subjects had hyperuricemia, and their SUA was higher than that of non-NAFLD subjects (327.2±76.8 vs 301.9±77.4 μmol/L, P<0.001). The LFC was positively correlated with SUA (r = 0.130, P<0.001) and an independent factor for SUA (standardized β = 0.054, P<0.001). The OR for the presence of hypreuricemia was 1.175 (95% CI 1.048–1.318; P<0.001) with a 1 SD increase in the log LFC. LFC greater than 10% was related to elevated SUA and an increased presence of hyperuricemia. Conclusions LFC accumulation was associated with an increase in the prevalence of hyperuricemia and elevated SUA in our community-based population. LFC greater than 10% is related to the risk for hyperuricemia. PMID:26473493

  5. Elevated on-treatment levels of serum IFN-gamma is associated with treatment failure of peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Ying; Huang, Ching-I; Dai, Chia-Yen; Wang, Shu-Chi; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Liang, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Hung; Hou, Nai-Jen; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Huang, Chung-Feng; Lin, Zu-Yau; Chen, Shinn-Cherng; Huang, Jee-Fu; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection had been associated with cytokine imbalance. Cytokine dynamics in response to peginterferon/ribavirin therapy have an impact on the treatment efficacy for HCV patients. Ninety-two treatment-naive chronic hepatitis C patients were treated with 24 or 48 weeks of peginterferon/ribavirin therapy according to their viral genotypes. Sustained virologic response (SVR) is defined as undetectable HCV RNA throughout a 24-week post-treatment follow-up period. Dynamic serum levels of the following cytokines: (1) Th1-mediated cytokines: IFN-γ, interleukin-2, and TNF-alpha; (2)Th2-mediated cytokines: interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 and (3)immuno-modulatory cytokines: interleukin-1β, interleukin-8, and interleukin-12 were determined by Fluorescent Bead immunoassay. Serial dynamic cytokine expression demonstrated that not only elevated IFN-γ concentrations at specific time points but also the total IFN-γ amount was strongly linked to non-response in peginterferon/ribavirin therapy. IFN-γ levels could serve as an independent predictor for SVR analyzed by multivariate logistic regression test. The accuracy of discriminating responders from non-responders was acceptable when IFN-γ cut-off levels were set at 180, 120, and 40 pg/ml at the 4th week, 12th week, and end-of-treatment of therapy, respectively. Elevated on-treatment IFN-γ concentration was significantly associated with treatment failure among interleukin-28B rs8099917TT carriers and those patients failed to achieve rapid virologic response. PMID:26965318

  6. Moderate hypocalcemia due to normal serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in an asymptomatic kindred with familial hypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Nolten, W E; Chesney, R W; Dabbagh, S; Lemann, J; Slatopolsky, E; Klingensmith, G J; DeLuca, H F

    1987-06-01

    Hypoparathyroidism was diagnosed in nine members of a kindred of three generations. This study investigated why these persons were asymptomatic and without developmental abnormalities, in contrast to the common presentation of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism. In the hypocalcemic subjects, serum calcium level was 7.4 +/- 0.8 mg/dl (mean +/- SD) and ionized serum calcium level was 3.48 +/- 0.21 mg/dl. Immunoreactive parathyroid hormone values were inappropriately low. Injection of EDTA in one patient lowered ionized calcium levels, but immunoreactive parathyroid hormone values did not rise. Serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and other vitamin D metabolites were normal or elevated and substantially higher than in other hypoparathyroid states. The normally observed positive correlation between the fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D that reflects the dependence of net bone resorption on 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was upheld in hypoparathyroid patients. It is proposed that the subjects with familial hypoparathyroidism in this kindred had moderate asymptomatic hypocalcemia without developmental abnormalities because normal or elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels enhanced intestinal calcium absorption. This may represent one point in the spectrum of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism. Alternately, both the moderate degree of hypocalcemia and the normal serum calcitriol values could have been related to mild, partial hypoparathyroidism, which could have been inherited in this kindred. PMID:3111255

  7. Direct Bone Formation during Distraction Osteogenesis does not require TNFα Receptors and Elevated Serum TNFα Fails to Inhibit Bone Formation in TNFR1 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Elizabeth C.; Aronson, James; Liu, Lichu; Skinner, Robert A.; Miller, Mike J.; Cockrell, Gael E.; Fowlkes, John L; Thrailkill, Kathryn M.; Bunn, Robert C.; Ronis, Martin J.J.; Lumpkin, Charles K.

    2009-01-01

    Distraction Osteogenesis (DO) is a process which induces direct new bone formation as a result of mechanical distraction. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) is a cytokine that can modulate osteoblastogenesis. The direct effects of TNF on direct bone formation in rodents are hypothetically mediated through TNF receptor 1 and/or 2 (TNFR1/2) signaling. We utilized a unique model of mouse DO to assess the effects of 1) TNFR homozygous null gene alterations on direct bone formation and 2) rmTNF on wild type (WT), TNFR1 -/- (R1KO), and TNR2 -/- (R2KO) mice. Radiological and histological analyses of direct bone formation in the distraction gaps demonstrated no significant differences between the WT, R1KO, R2KO, or TNFR1 -/- & R2 -/- (R1&2KO) mice. R1&2KO mice had elevated levels of serum TNF but demonstrated no inhibition of new bone formation. Systemic administration by osmotic pump of rmTNF during DO (10 ug/ kg/day) resulted in significant inhibition of gap bone formation measures in WT and R2KO mice, but not in R1KO mice. We conclude that exogenous rmTNF and/or endogenous TNF act to inhibit new bone formation during DO by signaling primarily through TNFR1. PMID:19772956

  8. Microdeletions of 3p21.31 characterized by developmental delay, distinctive features, elevated serum creatine kinase levels, and white matter involvement.

    PubMed

    Eto, Kaoru; Sakai, Norio; Shimada, Shino; Shioda, Mutsuki; Ishigaki, Keiko; Hamada, Yusuke; Shinpo, Michiko; Azuma, Junji; Tominaga, Koji; Shimojima, Keiko; Ozono, Keiichi; Osawa, Makiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2013-12-01

    Interstitial deletions of chromosome 3 are rare, and only one patient with a microdeletion of 3p21.31 has been reported to date. We identified two additional cases of patients with microdeletions of 3p21.31. The characteristic clinical features of developmental delay and distinctive facial features (including arched eyebrows, hypertelorism, epicanthus, and micrognathia) were seen both in the previously reported patient and in the two newly identified patients. In these two new cases, additional features, including elevated serum creatine kinase levels and characteristic neuroradiological features with white matter involvement, were seen. These features had not been described in the previous case in which the patient was examined during infancy, suggesting an age-dependent mechanism. The shortest region of overlap among the three deletions narrowed down the candidate genes that may be responsible for the common neurological features to the bassoon (presynaptic cytomatrix protein) gene (BSN), which has an important function in neuronal synapses. In this study, we confirmed common phenotypic features in the patients with microdeletions of 3p21.31 and identified additional features that have not been reported previously. Because the constellation of such characteristic features is quite unique, clinical manifestations of the patients with microdeletions of 3p21.31 would be clinically recognizable as a contiguous gene deletion syndrome. PMID:24039031

  9. Elevated levels of endothelial-derived microparticles, and serum CXCL9 and SCGF-β are associated with unstable asymptomatic carotid plaques.

    PubMed

    Schiro, Andrew; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Weston, Ria; Smyth, J Vincent; Serracino-Inglott, Ferdinand; Alexander, M Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are released from dysfunctional endothelial cells. We hypothesised that patients with unstable carotid plaque have higher levels of circulating microparticles compared to patients with stable plaques, and may correlate with serum markers of plaque instability and inflammation. Circulating EMPs, platelet MPs (PMPs) and inflammatory markers were measured in healthy controls and patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. EMP/PMPs were quantified using flow cytometry. Bioplex assays profiled systemic inflammatory and bone-related proteins. Immunohistological analysis detailed the contribution of differentially-regulated systemic markers to plaque pathology. Alizarin red staining showed calcification. EMPs and PMPs were significantly higher in patients with carotid stenosis (≥ 70%) compared to controls, with no differences between asymptomatic vs symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients with unstable plaques exhibited higher levels of EMPs, CXCL9 and SCGF-β compared to those with stable plaques. CXCL9, and SCGF-β were detected within all plaques, suggesting a contribution to both localised and systemic inflammation. Osteopontin and osteoprotegerin were significantly elevated in the symptomatic vs asymptomatic group, while osteocalcin was higher in asymptomatic patients with stable plaque. All plaques exhibited calcification, which was significantly greater in asymptomatic patients. This may impact on plaque stability. These data could be important in identifying patients at most benefit from intervention. PMID:26564003

  10. Elevated levels of endothelial-derived microparticles, and serum CXCL9 and SCGF-β are associated with unstable asymptomatic carotid plaques.

    PubMed Central

    Schiro, Andrew; Wilkinson, Fiona L.; Weston, Ria; Smyth, J. Vincent; Serracino-Inglott, Ferdinand; Alexander, M. Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are released from dysfunctional endothelial cells. We hypothesised that patients with unstable carotid plaque have higher levels of circulating microparticles compared to patients with stable plaques, and may correlate with serum markers of plaque instability and inflammation. Circulating EMPs, platelet MPs (PMPs) and inflammatory markers were measured in healthy controls and patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. EMP/PMPs were quantified using flow cytometry. Bioplex assays profiled systemic inflammatory and bone-related proteins. Immunohistological analysis detailed the contribution of differentially-regulated systemic markers to plaque pathology. Alizarin red staining showed calcification. EMPs and PMPs were significantly higher in patients with carotid stenosis (≥70%) compared to controls, with no differences between asymptomatic vs symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients with unstable plaques exhibited higher levels of EMPs, CXCL9 and SCGF-β compared to those with stable plaques. CXCL9, and SCGF-β were detected within all plaques, suggesting a contribution to both localised and systemic inflammation. Osteopontin and osteoprotegerin were significantly elevated in the symptomatic vs asymptomatic group, while osteocalcin was higher in asymptomatic patients with stable plaque. All plaques exhibited calcification, which was significantly greater in asymptomatic patients. This may impact on plaque stability. These data could be important in identifying patients at most benefit from intervention. PMID:26564003

  11. Effect Modifying Role of Serum Calcium on Mortality-Predictability of PTH and Alkaline Phosphatase in Hemodialysis Patients: An Investigation Using Data from the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System from 2005 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Chung; Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Chiao-Ying; Kao, Chih-Chin; Chang, Fan-Chi; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Hsu, Chi-Cheng; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2015-01-01

    Predicting mortality in dialysis patients based on low intact parathyroid hormone levels is difficult, because aluminum intoxication, malnutrition, older age, race, diabetes, or peritoneal dialysis may influence these levels. We investigated the clinical implications of low parathyroid hormone levels in relation to the mortality of dialysis patients using sensitive, stratified, and adjusted models and a nationwide dialysis database. We analyzed data from 2005 to 2012 that were held on the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System, and 94,983 hemodialysis patients with valid data regarding their intact parathyroid levels were included in this study. The patient cohort was subdivided based on the intact parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase levels. The mean hemodialysis duration within this cohort was 3.5 years. The mean (standard deviation) age was 62 (14) years. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, the hemodialysis duration, serum albumin levels, hematocrit levels, calcium levels, phosphate levels, and the hemodialysis treatment adequacy score, the single-pool Kt/V, the crude and adjusted all-cause mortality rates increased when alkaline phosphatase levels were higher or intact parathyroid hormone levels were lower. In general, at any given level of serum calcium or phosphate, patients with low intact parathyroid hormone levels had higher mortality rates than those with normal or high iPTH levels. At a given alkaline phosphatase level, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.33 (p < 0.01, 95% confidence interval 1.27–1.39) in the group with intact parathyroid hormone levels < 150 pg/mL and serum calcium levels > 9.5 mg/dL, but in the group with intact parathyroid hormone levels > 300 pg/mL and serum calcium levels > 9.5 mg/dL, the hazard ratio was 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.01). Hence, maintaining albumin-corrected high serum calcium levels at > 9.5 mg/dL may correlate with poor prognoses for patients with low intact parathyroid hormone levels. PMID:26107510

  12. Secretory Phospholipase A2 Is Associated with the Odds of Acute Coronary Syndromes through Elevation of Serum Amyloid-A Protein

    PubMed Central

    Santoso, Anwar; Kaniawati, Marita; Bakri, Syakib; Yusuf, Irawan

    2013-01-01

    In coronary heart disease (CHD), levels of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) are commonly increased. Serum amyloid-A (SAA) is increased in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) as well. It is needed to verify the hypotheses that sPLA2 is associated with the odds of ACS through elevation of SAA. We conducted a case–control study with 57 male patients with ACS and 30 controls matched by gender category. Levels of sPLA2, SAA, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured by immunoreactive assay on the basis of a double-antibody sandwich technique. Levels of sPLA2, MPO, and SAA were significantly higher in patients than those in controls (11,359.0 ± 10,372.4 pg/mL vs. 1,320.5 ± 654.5 pg/mL, p = 0.00; 438.6 ± 310.7 ng/mL vs. 271.1 ± 176.8 ng/mL, p = 0.01; 10,995.2 ± 2,842.6 ng/mL vs. 3,861.7 ± 3,173.5 ng/mL, p = 0.00). There were significant correlations between age, visceral obesity, MPO, sPLA2, and SAA (r = 0.43; p = 0.00; r = 0.30; p = 0.00; r = 0.28; p = 0.00 and r = 0.53; p = 0.00). On multivariate logistic regression analyses, there were significant and independent associations between sPLA2 and SAA with odds of ACS [OR (95% CI) = 14.2 (2.1 to 98.6), p = 0.00; OR (95% CI) = 44.9 (6.9 to 328.4), p = 0.00]. Our findings suggest that sPLA2 may be associated with the odds of ACS compared with controls through increased inflammation, represented by elevated SAA. PMID:24436584

  13. Secretory Phospholipase A2 Is Associated with the Odds of Acute Coronary Syndromes through Elevation of Serum Amyloid-A Protein.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Anwar; Kaniawati, Marita; Bakri, Syakib; Yusuf, Irawan

    2013-03-01

    In coronary heart disease (CHD), levels of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) are commonly increased. Serum amyloid-A (SAA) is increased in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) as well. It is needed to verify the hypotheses that sPLA2 is associated with the odds of ACS through elevation of SAA. We conducted a case-control study with 57 male patients with ACS and 30 controls matched by gender category. Levels of sPLA2, SAA, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured by immunoreactive assay on the basis of a double-antibody sandwich technique. Levels of sPLA2, MPO, and SAA were significantly higher in patients than those in controls (11,359.0 ± 10,372.4 pg/mL vs. 1,320.5 ± 654.5 pg/mL, p = 0.00; 438.6 ± 310.7 ng/mL vs. 271.1 ± 176.8 ng/mL, p = 0.01; 10,995.2 ± 2,842.6 ng/mL vs. 3,861.7 ± 3,173.5 ng/mL, p = 0.00). There were significant correlations between age, visceral obesity, MPO, sPLA2, and SAA (r = 0.43; p = 0.00; r = 0.30; p = 0.00; r = 0.28; p = 0.00 and r = 0.53; p = 0.00). On multivariate logistic regression analyses, there were significant and independent associations between sPLA2 and SAA with odds of ACS [OR (95% CI) = 14.2 (2.1 to 98.6), p = 0.00; OR (95% CI) = 44.9 (6.9 to 328.4), p = 0.00]. Our findings suggest that sPLA2 may be associated with the odds of ACS compared with controls through increased inflammation, represented by elevated SAA. PMID:24436584

  14. Neonatal hypocalcemic seizures due to excessive maternal calcium ingestion.

    PubMed

    Borkenhagen, Jenna F; Connor, Ellen L; Stafstrom, Carl E

    2013-06-01

    Hypocalcemia is a common, treatable cause of neonatal seizures. A term girl neonate with no apparent risk factors developed seizures on day 5 of life, consisting of rhythmic twitching of all extremities in a migrating pattern. Physical examination was normal except for jitteriness. Laboratory evaluation was unremarkable except for decreased total and ionized serum calcium levels and an elevated serum phosphorus level. The mother had ingested 3-6 g of calcium carbonate daily during the final 4 months of pregnancy to control morning sickness. The baby's electroencephalogram showed multifocal interictal sharp waves and intermittent electrographic seizures consisting of focal spikes in the left hemisphere accompanied by rhythmic jerking of the right arm and leg. Treatment with intravenous calcium gluconate over several days resulted in cessation of seizures and normalization of serum calcium. The child has remained seizure free and is normal developmentally at 9 years of age. Hypocalcemic seizures in this newborn were likely secondary to excessive maternal calcium ingestion, which led to transient neonatal hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia. Inquiry about perinatal maternal medication use should include a search for over-the-counter agents that might not be thought of as "drugs," as in this case, antacids. PMID:23668874

  15. Elevated Serum Transforming Growth Factor β1 Levels in Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Diseases and Their Correlation with Virus-Specific Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingwu; Ahmad, Ali; Jones, James F.; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Vaccher, Emanuela; Prasad, Umapati; Menezes, José

    2000-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is an immunosuppressive cytokine which can induce immunoglobulin A (IgA) switch and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication in latently infected cells. Here we report elevated serum levels of TGF-β in various EBV-associated diseases correlating positively with EBV-specific IgA titers and negatively with IgM titers, suggesting a role for this cytokine in the pathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:10666277

  16. Elevated granulocyte strontium in inflammatory arthritides is related to the inflammatory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haellgren, R.; Svensson, K.; Johansson, E.; Lindh, U.

    1984-12-01

    Total cellular strontium and calcium were measured by the nuclear microprobe technique. Increased mass fraction of both elements was found in granulocytes isolated from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and other kinds of inflammatory arthritides. Increased granulocyte calcium but only marginally elevated granulocyte strontium was demonstrated in patients with scleroderma. The granulocyte accumulation of strontium and calcium seems to be linked to the degree of inflammatory activity, because the granulocyte content of both elements was positively correlated to the plasma concentration of acute-phase proteins. Corticosteroid therapy induced a marked reduction of granulocyte strontium but a more modest decrease of granulocyte calcium. The serum levels of strontium and calcium were within the normal ranges in all patients and were not significantly altered by corticosteroids. 21 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  17. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting. PMID:18429501

  18. Exposure to lithium through drinking water and calcium homeostasis during pregnancy: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Harari, Florencia; Åkesson, Agneta; Casimiro, Esperanza; Lu, Ying; Vahter, Marie

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing evidence of adverse health effects due to elevated lithium exposure through drinking water but the impact on calcium homeostasis is unknown. This study aimed at elucidating if lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the maternal calcium homeostasis. In a population-based mother-child cohort in the Argentinean Andes (n=178), with elevated lithium concentrations in the drinking water (5-1660μg/L), blood lithium concentrations (correlating significantly with lithium in water, urine and plasma) were measured repeatedly during pregnancy by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and used as exposure biomarker. Markers of calcium homeostasis included: plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in serum and urine. The median maternal blood lithium concentration was 25μg/L (range 1.9-145). In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models, blood lithium was inversely associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (-6.1nmol/L [95%CI -9.5; -2.6] for a 25μg/L increment in blood lithium). The estimate increased markedly with increasing percentiles of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. In multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models, the odds ratio of having 25-hydroxyvitamin D3<30nmol/L (19% of the women) was 4.6 (95%CI 1.1; 19.3) for a 25μg/L increment in blood lithium. Blood lithium was also positively associated with serum magnesium, but not with serum calcium and PTH, and inversely associated with urinary calcium and magnesium. In conclusion, our study suggests that lithium exposure through drinking water during pregnancy may impair the calcium homeostasis, particularly vitamin D. The results reinforce the need for better control of lithium in drinking water, including bottled water. PMID:26828622

  19. Elevating your elevator talk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  20. Clinical significance of elevated serum soluble CD40 ligand levels as a diagnostic and prognostic tumor marker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interaction is considered to contribute to the promotion of prothrombotic responses and production of angiogenesis-associated factor in addition to adaptive immune responses. Recently, the role of soluble CD40L (sCD40L) has gained interest in cancer, although its exact functions remain unknown. This study evaluated the clinical significance of sCD40L in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and validated its utility as a PDAC diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. Methods Serum sCD40L levels were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay and compared among normal, chronic pancreatitis (CP, high-risk), and PDAC group in both training (n = 25 per group) and independent validation (n = 30, 30, and 55, respectively) datasets through one-way ANOVA test with the post-hoc Bonferroni method. To evaluate the diagnostic potential of serum sCD40L for PDAC, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and logistic regression analysis was conducted. To investigate the sCD40L-assoicated cytokines/chemokines in PDAC, cytokines/chemokines levels were analyzed by a MILLIPLEX MAP Human Cytokine/Chemokine Kit. To assess the prognostic potentials of sCD40L, Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis were applied. Results Serum sCD40L levels were significantly higher in PDAC group compared with non-cancer groups in both training (p < 0.05) and validation (p < 0.05) datasets. Clinically, serum sCD40L closely correlated with unresectability (γs = 0.342, p = 0.011) and distant metastasis (γs = 0.294, p = 0.030) of PDAC. ROC curve and logistic regression analysis demonstrated the remarkable predictive potentials of serum sCD40L for PDAC (80.0% sensitivity and 85.5% specificity at cut-off point, 0.45; logistic regression), superior to those of CA19-9 and CEA. According to cytokines/chemokines assay, serum sCD40L levels were closely correlated with serum levels of pro-angiogenic cytokines (EGF, VEGF, IL-8) and immunosuppressive cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-1RA). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated patients with high-serum sCD40L (> 35,000 ng/ml) had a poorer prognosis than those with low-serum sCD40L (log-rank, p = 0.015). Multivariate Cox regression analysis yielded a hazard ratio of 2.509 (95% CI, 1.038–6.067, p = 0.041) for mortality in the high-serum sCD40L group. Conclusions Serum sCD40L is correlated with immunosuppression and angiogenesis in PDAC carcinogenesis/progression, and is a promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for PDAC superior to CA19-9 and CEA. PMID:24745825

  1. Long-term consumption of a raw food diet is associated with favorable serum LDL cholesterol and triglycerides but also with elevated plasma homocysteine and low serum HDL cholesterol in humans.

    PubMed

    Koebnick, Corinna; Garcia, Ada L; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Strassner, Carola; Lindemans, Jan; Katz, Norbert; Leitzmann, Claus; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2005-10-01

    High consumption of vegetables and fruits is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. However, little information is available about diets based predominantly on consumption of fruits and their health consequences. We investigated the effects of an extremely high dietary intake of raw vegetables and fruits (70-100% raw food) on serum lipids and plasma vitamin B-12, folate, and total homocysteine (tHcy). In a cross-sectional study, the lipid, folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy status of 201 adherents to a raw food diet (94 men and 107 women) were examined. The participants consumed approximately 1500-1800 g raw food of plant origin/d mainly as vegetables or fruits. Of the participants, 14% had high serum LDL cholesterol concentrations, 46% had low serum HDL cholesterol, and none had high triglycerides. Of raw food consumers, 38% were vitamin B-12 deficient, whereas 12% had an increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Plasma tHcy concentrations were correlated with plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations (r = -0.450, P < 0.001), but not with plasma folate. Plasma tHcy and MCV concentrations were higher in those in the lowest quintile of consumption of food of animal origin (P(trend) < 0.001). This study indicates that consumption of a strict raw food diet lowers plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, but also lowers serum HDL cholesterol and increases tHcy concentrations due to vitamin B-12 deficiency. PMID:16177198

  2. THE EFFECT OF HIGH-DOSE VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION ON SERUM VITAMIN D LEVELS AND MILK CALCIUM CONCENTRATION IN LACTATING WOMEN AND THEIR INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Improve vitamin D status in lactating women and their recipient infants, and measure breast milk calcium concentration ([Ca]) as a function of vitamin D regimen. Design/Methods: Fully breastfeeding mothers were randomized at one month postpartum to 2,000 (n = 12) or 4,000 (n = 13) IU/d...

  3. Elevated hepcidin serum level in response to inflammatory and iron signals in exercising athletes is independent of moderate supplementation with vitamin C and E

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Víctor; Peinado, Ana B; Barba-Moreno, Laura; Altamura, Sandro; Butragueño, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Alteheld, Birgit; Stehle, Peter; Zapico, Augusto G; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Gassmann, Max

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency among endurance athletes is of major concern for coaches, physicians, and nutritionists. Recently, it has been observed that hepcidin, the master regulator of iron metabolism, was upregulated after exercise and was found to be related to interleukin-6 (IL-6) elevation. In this study performed on noniron deficient and well-trained runners, we observed that hepcidin concentrations remain elevated in response to inflammatory and iron signals despite a 28-days supplementation period with vitamins C (500 mg/day) and E (400 IU/day). PMID:26243212

  4. Elevated serum IL-35 and increased expression of IL-35-p35 or -EBI3 in CD4+CD25+ T cells in patients with active tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Bin; Liu, Gan-Bin; Zhang, Jun-Ai; Fu, Xiao-Xia; Xiang, Wen-Yu; Gao, Yu-Chi; Lu, Yuan-Bin; Wu, Xian-Jing; Qiu, Feng; Wang, Wan-Dang; Yi, Lai-Long; Zhong, Ji-Xin; Chen, Zheng W; Xu, Jun-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent appreciation of interleukin 35 (IL-35) function in inflammatory diseases, little is known for IL-35 response in patients with active tuberculosis (ATB). In the current study, we demonstrated that ATB patients exhibited increases in serum IL-35 and in mRNA expression of both subunits of IL-35 (p35 and EBI3) in white blood cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Consistently, anti-TB drug treatment led to reduction in serum IL-35 level and p35 or EBI3 expression. TB infection was associated with expression of p35 or EBI3 protein in CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells. Most p35+CD4+ T cells and EBI3+CD4+ T cells expressed Treg-associated marker CD25. Our findings may be important in understanding immune pathogenesis of TB. IL-35 in the blood may potentially serve as a biomarker for immune status and prognosis in TB. PMID:27158354

  5. Chemotherapy-Induced Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Damage: a Cause of Falsely Elevated Serum 1,3-Beta-d-Glucan Levels?

    PubMed

    Prattes, Juergen; Raggam, Reinhard B; Vanstraelen, Kim; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Hoegenauer, Christoph; Krause, Robert; Prüller, Florian; Wölfler, Albert; Spriet, Isabel; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Blood citrulline and intestinal fatty acid binding protein were determined as biomarkers for intestinal mucositis. Biomarker levels were correlated with corresponding serum 1,3-beta-d-glucan levels in 56 samples obtained from 33 cases with underlying hematological malignancies receiving induction chemotherapy. No correlation between biomarkers of intestinal mucositis and BDG levels was observed. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01576653.). PMID:26719433

  6. ACTH promotes chondrogenic nodule formation and induces transient elevations in intracellular calcium in rat bone marrow cell cultures via MC2-R signaling

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jodi F.; Rodriguez, Sylvana; Ragolia, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is among the several melanocortin peptide hormones that are derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC). ACTH has been found to enhance osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. We show that in the presence of dexamethasone, ACTH dose-dependently increases chondrogenic nodule formation in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) from the Wystar Kyoto (WKY) rat. The nodules consist of condensed cells highly expressing alkaline phosphatase, Sox9 and type II collagen transcripts, and a proteoglycan rich matrix. Immunoblot analysis of crude membrane fractions was used to determine that these cells express three melanocortin receptors (MC-R); MC2-R, MC3-R and MC5-R, as well as the melanocortin 2-receptor accessory protein (MRAP). To determine which of these receptors mediate ACTH-induced effects, we used MC-R specific peptides and the known agonist profiles of the receptors. Neither ?-MSH, a strong agonist of the MC5-R nor ?2-MSH, a strong agonist of the MC3-R, duplicates ACTH effects in rat BMSC. In addition, calcium flux was examined as a mechanism for ACTH action at the MC2-R. Consistent with MC2-R and MRAP expression patterns in the BMSC cultures, ACTH-induced transient increases in intracellular calcium were increased with dexamethasone treatment. Neither ?-MSH nor ?2-MSH affected calcium flux. Dexamethasone increased MC2-R and MRAP expression as well as POMC peptide expression and cleavage to increase the production of the lipolytic ?-LPH product. Therefore the effects of ACTH in rat BMSC enriched for mesenchymal progenitors are consistent with an MC2-R signaling mechanism and dexamethasone is capable of regulating components of the melanocortin system in these cells. PMID:23358747

  7. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injection of calcium-containing heparin in a chronic kidney injury patient.

    PubMed

    Fatma, Lilia Ben; El Ati, Zohra; Azzouz, Haifa; Rais, Lamia; Krid, Madiha; Smaoui, Wided; Maiz, Hédi Ben; Béji, Soumaya; Zouaghi, Karim; Zitouna, Moncef; Moussa, Fatma Ben

    2014-09-01

    Subcutis calcinosis, characterized by abnormal calcium deposits in the skin, is a rare complication of using calcium-containing heparin occurring in patients with advanced renal failure. We report the case of an 83-year-old female, a known case of chronic kidney disease (CKD) for four years with recent worsening of renal failure requiring hospitalization and hemodialysis. She developed subcutis calcinosis following injection of calcium-containing heparin. Biochemical tests showed serum parathormone level at 400 pg/dL, hypercalcemia, elevated calcium-phosphate product and monoclonal gammopathy related to multiple myeloma. She developed firm subcutaneous nodules in the abdomen and the thighs, the injection sites of Calciparin ® (calcium nadroparin) that was given as a preventive measure against deep vein thrombosis. The diagnosis of subcutis calcinosis was confirmed by the histological examination showing calcium deposit in the dermis and hypodermis. These lesions completely disappeared after discontinuing calcium nadroparin injections. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injections of calcium-containing heparin is rare, and, to the best our knowledge, not more than 12 cases have been reported in the literature. Pathogenesis is not well established but is attributed to the calcium disorders usually seen in advanced renal failure. Diagnosis is confirmed by histological tests. Outcome is mostly favorable. The main differential diagnosis is calciphylaxis, which has a poor prognosis. Even though rarely reported, we should be aware that CKD patients with elevated calcium-phosphorus product can develop subcutis calcinosis induced by calcium-containing heparin. When it occurs, fortunately and unlike calciphylaxis, outcome is favorable. PMID:25193911

  8. Bulk- and surface-modified combinable PDMS capillary sensor array as an easy-to-use sensing device with enhanced sensitivity to elevated concentrations of multiple serum sample components.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yuji; Henares, Terence G; Kawamura, Kunio; Endo, Tatsuro; Hisamoto, Hideaki

    2012-04-21

    To enhance sensitivity and facilitate easy sample introduction into a combinable poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) capillary (CPC) sensor array, PDMS was modified in bulk and on its surface to prepare "black" PDMS coated with a silver layer and self-assembled monolayer (SAM). India ink, a traditional Japanese black ink, was added to the PDMS pre-polymer for bulk modification. The surface was modified by a silver mirror reaction followed by SAM formation using cysteine. These modifications enhanced the fluorescence signals by reflecting them from the surface and reducing background interference. A decrease in the water contact angle led to enhanced sensitivity and easy sample introduction. Furthermore, a CPC sensor array for multiplex detection of serum sample components was prepared that could quantify the analytes glucose, potassium, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). When serum samples were introduced by capillary action, the CPC sensor array showed fluorescence responses for each analyte and successfully identified the components with elevated concentrations in the serum samples. PMID:22395813

  9. Low Serum Testosterone Levels Are Associated with Elevated Urinary Mandelic Acid, and Strontium Levels in Adult Men According to the US 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Héroux, Paul; Zhang, Qunwei; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Gu, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the effects of environmental exposure of chemicals on androgenic system in the general population. We studied 5,107 subjects included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011–2012). Methods Urinary, serum, and blood levels of 15 subclasses comprising 110 individual chemicals were analyzed for their association with serum testosterone levels. The subjects were divided into high and low testosterone groups according to the median testosterone concentration (374.51 ng/dL). Odds ratios (ORs) of individual chemicals in association with testosterone were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for age, ethnicity, cotinine, body mass index, creatinine, alcohol, and the poverty income ratio. Results Adjusted ORs for the highest versus lowest quartiles of exposure were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.07, 4.21; Ptrend = 0.044), 1.84 (95% CI: 1.02, 3.34; Ptrend = 0.018) for the association between urinary mandelic acid, and strontium quartiles with low testosterone concentrations in adult men, respectively. However, no association was observed for the remaining chemicals with testosterone. Conclusions The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data suggest that elevations in urinary mandelic acid, and strontium levels are negatively related to low serum testosterone levels in adult men. PMID:25996772

  10. IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with only lymphadenopathy and without elevated serum IgG4 or renal imaging abnormalities: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xi; Wang, Lihua; Wang, Chen; Gao, Lifang; Yao, Shulei; Wu, Liran; Zhang, Xiaoqin

    2015-01-01

    IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN) is the most common renal manifestation of IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) and may cause acute or chronic renal dysfunction. Imaging often shows heterogeneous densities in the kidneys, such as a mass or multiple nodules. Serology usually demonstrates high levels of serum IgG4 and total IgG. Most patients have other organs involvement by IgG4 related disease. Although lymphadenopathy is frequently observed in patients with IgG4-TIN, it is rarely presented as the only extrarenal lesion. Herein, we present a rare case of IgG4-TIN associated with only lymphadenopathy and without elevated serum IgG4 or renal imaging abnormalities. A 61-year-old Chinese man was admitted to our hospital with seven months history of generalized lymphadenopathy and five months history of renal dysfunction. His renal imaging was normal. He had no current or previous clinical, radiographic, and/or histologic evidence of other organ involvement except for the lymphadenopathy. Renal biopsy indicated plasma cell-rich TIN with an increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells and storiform fibrosis. Repeated lymph nodes biopsy revealed IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. However, he did not have elevated serum IgG4 or total IgG levels. Oral prednisone therapy improved his renal function and lymphadenopathy. These findings supported our final diagnosis of IgG4-TIN. Clinicians should be aware of this condition and steroid therapy should be considered for such patients. An early diagnosis and appropriate therapy can induce remission and preserve renal function. PMID:26770608

  11. Calcium bioavailability from calcium fortified food products.

    PubMed

    Kohls, K

    1991-08-01

    The calcium balance of 12 presumed healthy human young adult subjects was assessed. Subjects consumed a constant laboratory-controlled diet supplemented with one of four calcium-fortified food products: orange juice (OJ), milk (M), experimental pasteurized processed cheese (T), soda (S), or a calcium carbonate plus vitamin D tablet (CC). Study length was 6 weeks with seven-day experimental periods (2-days allowed for adjustment with 5-days combined for purposes of analysis). All urine and fecal samples were collected by the subjects for the duration of the study. Blood samples were drawn at the end of each experimental period. Urine and fecal calcium contents were determined. Blood samples were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase. Results of this study indicate a higher fecal calcium content (mg/day) when subjects consumed CC and T, and when subjects consumed self-selected diets, than when given S, M, or OJ. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly lower when subjects consumed OJ than when they consumed M, T, or their self-selected diets. A significantly larger positive calcium balance was demonstrated when subjects consumed OJ as compared to T. Fecal transmit time did not vary significantly. Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly lower when subjects consumed T than when they consumed self-selected diets. PMID:1765836

  12. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; Orwoll, Shiela; McCarron, David A.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P < 0.001), elevated parathyroid hormone levels (P < 0.001), reduced calcitonin levels (P < 0.05), unchanged 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, and elevated skull (P < 0.01) and reduced femur bone mineral density. Basal and thrombin-stimulated platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for indirect systolic BP to be reduced in conscious flight animals (P = 0.057). However, mean arterial pressure was elevated (P < 0.001) after anesthesia. Dietary calcium altered all aspects of calcium metabolism (P < 0.001), as well as BP (P < 0.001), but the only interaction with flight was a relatively greater increase in ionized calcium in flight animals fed low- compared with high-calcium diets (P < 0.05). The results indicate that 1) flight-induced disruptions of calcium metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  13. Calcium Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent; Bird, Gary S.; Putney, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium signaling results from a complex interplay between activation and inactivation of intracellular and extracellular calcium permeable channels. This complexity is obvious from the pattern of calcium signals observed with modest, physiological concentrations of calcium-mobilizing agonists, which typically present as sequential regenerative discharges of stored calcium, a process referred to as calcium oscillations. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanism of calcium oscillations through the power of mathematical modeling. We also summarize recent findings on the role of calcium entry through store-operated channels in sustaining calcium oscillations and in the mechanism by which calcium oscillations couple to downstream effectors. PMID:21421924

  14. Elevated serum miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 are noninvasive biomarkers for the presence and progression of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Song, Jiaxi; Bu, Xiaomin; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Jia; Cai, Jialu; Wan, Shujun; Fan, Chunli; Zhang, Chunni; Wang, Junjun

    2016-04-01

    The levels of miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 have been reported to be up-regulated in the tissues of experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) rat models. However, the clinical diagnostic and prognostic values of the serum signatures of these 3 miRNAs in TBI remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression levels of these 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in the sera of TBI patients and to evaluate their relationships with the severity and clinical outcome of TBI. The serum levels of these miRNAs were assessed in TBI patients (n = 76) and healthy controls (n = 38) by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. The severities and clinical outcomes of the TBI patients were evaluated with the Glasgow coma scale and the Glasgow outcome scale. The serum miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 levels were significantly increased in the TBI patients compared with the controls at all examined time points, and these levels were significantly higher in the patients with severe TBI than in those with moderate or mild TBI (p < 0.05). The serum miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 levels were significantly higher in the patients with a poor outcome than in those with a good outcome (p < 0.05). The AUCs of miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 for distinguishing the TBI patients from the healthy controls were 1.000 (p < 0.001), 0.727 (p < 0.001) and 0.801 (p < 0.001), respectively. Interestingly, the AUCs of miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 for distinguishing the mild TBI patients from the healthy controls were 1.000 (p < 0.001), 0.742 (p < 0.001) and 0.819 (p < 0.001), respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 are potentially valuable indicators of the diagnosis, severity, and prognosis of TBI. Our study showed that the serum levels of miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 are all increased in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Their serum levels are associated with TBI severity and outcome, which suggest that these miRNAs play important roles in the pathogenesis and progression of TBI. We think these findings should provide a new strategy for the diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment of TBI. PMID:26756543

  15. Early Elevation of Serum MMP-3 and MMP-12 Predicts Protection from World Trade Center-Lung Injury in New York City Firefighters: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Naveed, Bushra; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Nolan, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective After 9/11/2001, some Fire Department of New York (FDNY) workers had excessive lung function decline. We hypothesized that early serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expression predicts World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI) years later. Methods This is a nested case-control analysis of never-smoking male firefighters with normal pre-exposure Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) who had serum drawn up to 155 days post 9/11/2001. Serum MMP-1, 2,3,7,8, 9, 12 and 13 were measured. Cases of WTC-LI (N = 70) were defined as having an FEV1 one standard deviation below the mean (FEV1≤77%) at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) which was performed 32 months (IQR 21–53) post-9/11. Controls (N = 123) were randomly selected. We modeled MMP's ability as a predictor of cases status with logistic regression adjusted for time to blood draw, exposure intensity, weight gain and pre-9/11 FEV1. Results Each log-increase in MMP-3 and MMP-12 showed reduced odds of developing WTC-LI by 73% and 54% respectively. MMP-3 and MMP-12 consistently clustered together in cases, controls, and the cohort. Increasing time to blood draw significantly and independently increased the risk of WTC-LI. Conclusions Elevated serum levels of MMP-3 and MMP-12 reduce the risk of developing WTC-LI. At any level of MMP-3 or 12, increased time to blood draw is associated with a diminished protective effect. PMID:24146820

  16. An approach for manganese biomonitoring using a manganese carrier switch in serum from transferrin to citrate at slightly elevated manganese concentration.

    PubMed

    Michalke, B; Aslanoglou, L; Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, M; Bergström, B; Berthele, A; Vinceti, M; Lucio, M; Lidén, G

    2015-10-01

    After high-dose-short-term exposure (usually from occupational exposure) and even more under low-dose long term exposure (mainly environmental) manganese (Mn) biomonitoring is still problematic since these exposure scenarios are not necessarily reflected by a significant increase of total Mn in blood or serum. Usually, Mn concentrations of exposed and unexposed persons overlap and individual differentiation is often not possible. In this paper Mn speciation on a large sample size (n=180) was used in order to be able to differentiate between highly Mn-exposed or low or unexposed individuals at low total Mn concentration in serum (Mn(S)). The whole sample set consisted of three subsets from Munich, Emilia Romagna region in Italy and from Sweden. It turned out that also at low total Mn(S) concentrations a change in major Mn carriers in serum takes place from Mn-transferrin (Mn-Tf(S)) towards Mn-citrate (Mn-Cit(S)) with high statistical significance (p<0.000002). This carrier switch from Mn-Tf(S) to Mn-Cit(S) was observed between Mn(S) concentrations of 1.5μg/L to ca. 1.7μg/L. Parallel to this carrier change, for sample donors from Munich where serum and cerebrospinal fluid were available, the concentration of Mn beyond neural barriers - analysed as Mn in cerebrospinal fluid (Mn(C)) - positively correlates to Mn-Cit(S) when Mn(S) concentration was above 1.7μg/L. The correlation between Mn-Cit(S) and Mn(C) reflects the facilitated Mn transport through neural barrier by means of Mn-citrate. Regional differences in switch points from Mn-Tf(S) to Mn-Cit(S) were observed for the three sample subsets. It is currently unknown whether these differences are due to differences in location, occupation, health status or other aspects. Based on our results, Mn-Cit(S) determination was considered as a potential means for estimating the Mn load in brain and CSF, i.e., it could be used as a biomarker for Mn beyond neural barrier. For a simpler Mn-Cit(S) determination than size exclusion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS), ultrafiltration (UF) of serum samples was tested for suitability, the latter possibly being a preferred choice for routine occupational medicine laboratories. Our results revealed that UF could be an alternative if methodical prerequisites and limitations are carefully considered. These prerequisites were determined to be a thorough cleaning procedure at a minimum Mn(S) concentration >1.5μg/L, as at lower concentrations a wide scattering of the measured concentrations in comparison to the standardized SEC-ICP-MS results were observed. PMID:26302922

  17. Retrospective Study of Serum Sclerostin Measurements in Bed Rest Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, J. M.; Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Divieti, Pajevic P.; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, M. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton s response to mechanical unloading at the cellular level in part by an increase in sclerostin, an inhibitor of the anabolic Wnt pathway. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Thus, we determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men who participated in a controlled bed rest study. Seven healthy adult men (31 +/- 3 yrs old) underwent 90-day six-degree head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston's Institute for Translational Sciences - Clinical Research Center (ITS-CRC). Serum sclerostin, PTH, serum markers of bone turnover (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, RANKL/OPG, and osteocalcin), urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24 hour pooled urinary markers of bone resorption (NTX, DPD, PYD) were evaluated pre-bed rest (BL), bed rest day 28 (BR-28), bed rest day 60 (BR-60), and bed rest day 90 (BR-90). In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at BL, BR-60, and post bed rest day 5 (BR+5). Data are reported as mean +/- standard deviation. We used repeated measures ANOVA to compare baseline values to BR-28, BR-60, and BR-90. RESULTS Consistent with prior reports, BMD declined significantly (1-2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites (spine, hip, femur neck, and calcaneus). Serum sclerostin levels were elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29% +/- 20%, p = 0.003), BR-60 (+42% +/- 31%, p < 0.001), and BR-90 (22% +/- 21%, p = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (-17% +/- 16%, p = 0.02), BR-60 (-24% +/- 14%, p = 0.03), and returned to baseline at BR-90 (-21% +/- 21%, p = 0.14). Serum bone turnover markers did not change, however urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated following bed rest (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION We observed an increase of serum sclerostin associated with decreased serum PTH and elevated bone resorption markers in otherwise healthy men subjected to long-term immobilization.

  18. Elevated serum levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and stem cell growth factor β in patients with idiopathic and systemic sclerosis associated pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Stefanantoni, K; Sciarra, I; Vasile, M; Badagliacca, R; Poscia, R; Pendolino, M; Alessandri, C; Vizza, C D; Valesini, G; Riccieri, V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can be idiopathic or secondary to autoimmune diseases, and it represents one of the most threatening complications of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine with proinflammatory functions that appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced PH. In SSc patients, high serum levels of MIF have been associated with the development of ulcers and PAH. Stem cell growth factor β (SCGF β) is a human growth factor that, together with MIF, is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic spinal cord injury. The aim of our study was to measure serum levels of MIF in patients with idiopathic and SSc-associated PAH. We enrolled 13 patients with idiopathic PAH and 15 with SSc-associated PAH. We also selected 14 SSc patients without PAH and 12 normal healthy controls, matched for sex and age. PAH was confirmed by right hearth catheterism (mPAP>25 mmHg). MIF and SCGF β levels were measured by ELISA. We found significantly higher circulating levels of MIF and of SCGF β in patients with idiopathic PAH (P=0.03 and P=0.004) and with PAH secondary to SSc (P=0.018 and P=0.023) compared to SSc patients without PAH. Higher levels of MIF were found in those patients with an higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (P=0.03). We can hypothesize that MIF and SCGF β are able to play a role in PAH, both idiopathic or secondary, and in the future they may be evaluated as useful biomarkers and prognostic factors for this serious vascular disease. PMID:25829187

  19. The individualized choice of embryo transfer timing for patients with elevated serum progesterone level on the HCG day in IVF/ICSI cycles: a prospective randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Pang, Tianshu; Li, Rong; Yang, Rui; Zhen, Xiumei; Chen, Xinna; Wang, Haiyan; Ma, Caihong; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2015-05-01

    This study analyzed the clinical outcomes of patients with elevated progesterone level on the HCG day in IVF/ICSI cycles, with different timing of embryo transfer. A total of 123 patients were involved in this prospective randomized clinical study. Group 1: blastocyst transfer group, 38 cases; Group 2: frozen-thawed embryo transfer group (first FET cycle), 42 cases; Group 3: fresh embryo transfer group, 43 cases. The basal FSH level was comparable among three groups (6.7 ± 3 versus 7.0 ± 2 versus 6.9 ± 2.4, p = 0.897). The clinical pregnancy rate was highest in group 2, lowest in group 3, with significantly difference (31.6% versus 38.1% versus 13.9%, p = 0.037). The implantation rate and live birth rate were still lowest in group 3 (21.9% versus 19.8% versus 6.7%, p = 0.016 and 18.4% versus 31% versus 11.6%, p = 0.081). In conclusion, the elevated progesterone level will affect clinical pregnancy rate in fresh embryo transfer cycles. We suggest frozen-thawed embryo transfer for these patients. However, for those patients who expressed the wish to have fresh embryo transfer, they should be suggested fresh blastocyst transfer, if they have more than five good quality embryos. PMID:25558791

  20. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Laffray, Sophie; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca2+ homeostasis. The low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms) play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca2+ channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations. PMID:24672455

  1. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Laffray, Sophie; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca(2+) homeostasis. The low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms) play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca(2+) channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations. PMID:24672455

  2. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH. PMID:25755701

  3. Non-Specific Inhibition of Ischemia- and Acidosis-Induced Intracellular Calcium Elevations and Membrane Currents by α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, Butylated Hydroxytoluene and Trolox

    PubMed Central

    Katnik, Christopher; Cuevas, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose) and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0) produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the spin trapping molecule α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) were used to determine the role of free radicals in these responses. PBN and BHT inhibited the initial transient increases in [Ca2+]i, produced by ischemia, acidosis and acidic ischemia and increased steady state levels in response to acidosis and the acidic ischemia. BHT and PBN also potentiated the rate at which [Ca2+]i increased after the initial transients during acidic ischemia. Trolox inhibited peak and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i during ischemia. BHT inhibited ischemia induced initial inward currents and trolox inhibited initial inward currents activated by acidosis and acidic ischemia. Given the inconsistent results obtained using these antioxidants, it is unlikely their effects were due to elimination of free radicals. Instead, it appears these compounds have non-specific effects on the ion channels and exchangers responsible for these responses. PMID:24583849

  4. Non-specific inhibition of ischemia- and acidosis-induced intracellular calcium elevations and membrane currents by α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, butylated hydroxytoluene and trolox.

    PubMed

    Katnik, Christopher; Cuevas, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose) and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0) produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the spin trapping molecule α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) were used to determine the role of free radicals in these responses. PBN and BHT inhibited the initial transient increases in [Ca2+]i, produced by ischemia, acidosis and acidic ischemia and increased steady state levels in response to acidosis and the acidic ischemia. BHT and PBN also potentiated the rate at which [Ca2+]i increased after the initial transients during acidic ischemia. Trolox inhibited peak and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i during ischemia. BHT inhibited ischemia induced initial inward currents and trolox inhibited initial inward currents activated by acidosis and acidic ischemia. Given the inconsistent results obtained using these antioxidants, it is unlikely their effects were due to elimination of free radicals. Instead, it appears these compounds have non-specific effects on the ion channels and exchangers responsible for these responses. PMID:24583849

  5. Contribution of calcium-activated chloride channel to elevated pulmonary artery pressure in pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Chuansi; Ma, Jianfa; Lao, Jinquan; Pang, Yusheng

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow remains uncertain. In this study, we investigated the possible role and effects of CaCC in this disease. Sixty rats were randomly assigned to normal, sham, and shunt groups. Rats in the shunt group underwent abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt surgery. The pulmonary artery pressure was measured by catheterization. Pathological changes, right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI), arterial wall area/vessel area (W/V), and arterial wall thickness/vessel external diameter (T/D) were analyzed by optical microscopy. Electrophysiological characteristics of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were investigated using patch clamp technology. After 11 weeks of shunting, PAH and pulmonary vascular structural remodeling (PVSR) developed, accompanied by increased pulmonary pressure and pathological interstitial pulmonary changes. Compared with normal and sham groups, pulmonary artery pressure, RVHI, W/V, and T/D of the shunt group rats increased significantly. Electrophysiological results showed primary CaCC characteristics. Compared with normal and sham groups, membrane capacitance and current density of PASMCs in the shunt group increased significantly, which were subsequently attenuated following chloride channel blocker niflumic acid (NFA) treatment. To conclude, CaCC contributed to PAH induced by high pulmonary blood flow and may represent a potential target for treatment of PAH. PMID:25755701

  6. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... calcium: Drink more fluids. Eat high-fiber foods Switch to another form of calcium if the diet ... Washington, DC, 2010. Moyer VA; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation to prevent ...

  7. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... best treatment for the most common type of kidney stone , which is made of calcium. This type of ... the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production ...

  8. Establishment of Elevated Serum Levels of IL-10, IL-8 and TNF-β as Potential Peripheral Blood Biomarkers in Tubercular Lymphadenitis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Abhimanyu; Bose, Mridula; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Jain, Ashima; Sethi, Tavpritesh; Tiwari, Pradeep Kumar; Agrawal, Anurag; Banavaliker, Jayant Nagesh; Bhowmick, Kumar Tapas

    2016-01-01

    Background Tubercular lymphadenitis (TL) is the most common form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) consisting about 15–20% of all TB cases. The currently available diagnostic modalities for (TL), are invasive and involve a high index of suspicion, having limited accuracy. We hypothesized that TL would have a distinct cytokine signature that would distinguish it from pulmonary TB (PTB), peripheral tubercular lymphadenopathy (LNTB), healthy controls (HC), other lymphadenopathies (LAP) and cancerous LAP. To assess this twelve cytokines (Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)—α, Interferon (IFN) -γ, Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-18, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4, IL-1Receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-8 and TNF-β, which have a role in pathogenesis of tuberculosis, were tested as potential peripheral blood biomarkers to aid the diagnosis of TL when routine investigations prove to be of limited value. Methods and Findings A prospective observational cohort study carried out during 2010–2013. This was a multi-center study with three participating hospitals in Delhi, India where through random sampling cohorts were established. The subjects were above 15 years of age, HIV-negative with no predisposing ailments to TB (n = 338). The discovery cohort (n = 218) had LNTB (n = 50), PTB (n = 84) and HC (n = 84). The independent validation cohort (n = 120) composed of patients with cancerous LAP (n = 35), other LAP (n = 20) as well as with independent PTB (n = 30), LNTB (n = 15) and HC (n = 20). Eight out of twelve cytokines achieved statistical relevance upon evaluation by pairwise and ROC analysis. Further, variable selection using random forest backward elimination revealed six serum biosignatures including IL-12, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8 and TNF-β as optimal for classifying the LNTB status of an individual. For the sake of clinical applicability we further selected a three analyte panel (IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-β) which was subjected to multinomial modeling in the independent validation cohort which was randomised into training and test cohorts, achieving an overwhelming 95.9% overall classifying accuracy for correctly classifying LNTB cases with a minimal (7%) misclassification error rate in the test cohort. Conclusions In our study, a three analyte serum biosignatures and probability equations were established which can guide the physician in their clinical decision making and step wise management of LNTB patients. This set of biomarkers has the potential to be a valuable adjunct to the diagnosis of TL in cases where AFB positivity and granulomatous findings elude the clinician. PMID:26784906

  9. Adequate Intake levels of choline are sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in Mexican American men but are not optimal for minimizing plasma total homocysteine increases after a methionine load2

    PubMed Central

    Veenema, Kristin; Solis, Claudia; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Maletz, Charles V; Abratte, Christian M; Caudill, Marie A

    2009-01-01

    Background An adequate intake of 550 mg choline/d was established for the prevention of liver dysfunction in men, as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations. Objective This controlled feeding study investigated the influence of choline intakes ranging from 300 to 2200 mg/d on biomarkers of choline status. The effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype on choline status was also examined. Design Mexican American men (n = 60) with different MTHFR C677T genotypes (29 677TT, 31 677CC) consumed a diet providing 300 mg choline/d plus supplemental choline intakes of 0, 250, 800, or 1900 mg/d for total choline intakes of 300, 550, 1100, or 2200 mg/d, respectively, for 12 wk; 400 μg/d as dietary folate equivalents and 173 mg betaine/d were consumed throughout the study. Results Choline intake affected the response of plasma free choline and betaine (time × choline, P < 0.001); the highest concentrations were observed in the 2200 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine (P = 0.026) and total cholesterol (P = 0.002) were also influenced by choline intake; diminished concentrations were observed in the 300 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine was modified by MTHFR genotype (P = 0.035; 677TT < 677CC). After a methionine load (100 mg/kg body wt), choline intakes of 1100 and 2200 mg/d attenuated (P = 0.016) the rise in plasma homocysteine, as did the MTHFR 677TT genotype (P < 0.001). Serum alanine aminotransferase was not influenced by the choline intakes administered in this study. Conclusions These data suggest that 550 mg choline/d is sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in this population under the conditions of this study; higher intakes may be needed to optimize other endpoints. PMID:18779284

  10. Serum levels of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, TIMP-1, are elevated in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders: relevance to vascular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Jublanc, C; Beaudeux, J L; Aubart, F; Raphael, M; Chadarevian, R; Chapman, M J; Bonnefont-Rousselot, D; Bruckert, E

    2011-10-01

    Serum levels of ICAM-1 (Inter Cellular Adhesion Molecule-1), VCAM-1 (Vascular cell Adhesion Molecule-1-I), TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1) and MMP-9 (Metalloproteinase 9) are well established markers of inflammation. The physiopathological link between inflammation, atherosclerosis and autoimmunity is well demonstrated. However, serum levels of these biomarkers in patients with autoimmune-mediated dysthyroidism, including their evolution after improvement of the thyroid disorder have not been assessed. So, we evaluated the circulating levels of these markers in autoimmune and in non-autoimmune-mediated dysthyroid patients, and their evolution after treatment of thyroid disease. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate these markers before and after treatment in hyperthyroid patients (n = 33; 28 patients with autoimmune disease), hypothyroid patients (n = 38; 33 patients with autoimmune disease) and euthyroid subjects (n = 33). At baseline, serum levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and TIMP-1 were significantly elevated in patients with hyperthyroidism as compared to euthyroid and hypothyroid patients (respectively p = 0.0005 and p < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, the differences remained significant for VCAM-1 and TIMP-1. Median levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and TIMP-1 were significantly higher in patients with autoimmune-mediated dysthyroidism compared to euthyroid patients (respectively p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002). In hyperthyroid patients, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and TIMP-1 concentrations fell significantly after they had become euthyroid (respectively p = 0.0006; p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0009), although VCAM-1 values remained higher than those observed in the control group (p = 0.005). We found that autoimmune-mediated dysthyroidism were associated with increased peripheral blood concentrations of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and TIMP-1. Whether these biological abnormalities translate into increase intima remodelling and atherosclerosis remains to be studied. PMID:20685094

  11. Elevated serum CA 19-9 level associated with a splenic cyst: which is the actual clinical management? Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bresadola, Vittorio; Pravisani, Riccardo; Terrosu, Giovanni; Risaliti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Splenic cysts are relatively rare entities. The differential diagnosis for these lesions includes parasite infections, results of previous trauma or infarction, congenital forms, primitive splenic neoplasm or cystic metastasis. They can be either symptomatic, causing mainly abdominal pain, or asymptomatic, thus being diagnosed as in incidental finding during radiological examination for other clinical reasons: among these a raised serum level of CA 19-9 can be a case. It has been demonstrated that epidermoid and mesothelial congenital cyst can be associated with a pathological level of this tumor marker which is usually correlated to biliopancreatic and colonic carcinomas. The aim of the present study is to present the case of an asymptomatic epidermoid splenic cyst associated with a continuous increase of CA 19-9 and to describe the applied clinical workup and surgical management by laparoscopic total splenectomy. Moreover, to analyze the demographics, clinical and pathological features of these infrequent lesions and to confront our therapeutic management with that of the other reported cases, we conducted a systematic review of the literature. PMID:25819406

  12. Boron Induces Early Matrix Mineralization via Calcium Deposition and Elevation of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Differentiated Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Movahedi Najafabadi, Bent-al-hoda; Abnosi, Mohammad Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Objective Boron (B) is essential for plant development and might be an essential micronutrient for animals and humans. This study was conducted to characterize the impact of boric acid (BA) on the cellular and molecular nature of differentiated rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, BMSCs were extracted and expanded to the 3rdpassage, then cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) complemented with osteogenic media as well as 6 ng/ml and 6 µg/ml of BA. After 5, 10, 15 and 21 days the viability and the level of mineralization was determined using MTT assay and alizarin red respectively. In addition, the morphology, nuclear diameter and cytoplasmic area of the cells were studied with the help of fluorescent dye. The concentration of calcium, activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as sodium and potassium levels were also evaluated using commercial kits and a flame photometer respectively. Results Although 6 µg/ml of BA was found to be toxic, a concentration of 6 ng/ml increased the osteogenic ability of the cell significantly throughout the treatment. In addition it was observed that B treatment caused the early induction of matrix mineralization compared to controls. Conclusion Although more investigation is required, we suggest the prescription of a very low concentration of B in the form of BA or foods containing BA, in groups at high risk of osteoporosis or in the case of bone fracture. PMID:27054120

  13. Activation of the gut calcium-sensing receptor by peptide agonists reduces rapid elevation of plasma glucose in response to oral glucose load in rats.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Maya; Hira, Tohru; Mitsunaga, Arimi; Sato, Eri; Nakajima, Shingo; Kitahara, Yoshiro; Eto, Yuzuru; Hara, Hiroshi

    2014-06-15

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in various tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. To investigate the role of gut CaSR on glycemic control, we examined whether single oral administration of CaSR agonist peptides affected the glycemic response in rats. Glucose tolerance tests were performed under oral or duodenal administration of various CaSR agonist peptides (?Glu-Cys, protamine, and poly-d-lysine hydrobromide) in conscious rats. Involvement of CaSR was determined by using a CaSR antagonist. Signaling pathways underlying CaSR agonist-modified glycemia were investigated using gut hormone receptor antagonists. The gastric emptying rate after the administration of CaSR agonist peptides was measured by the phenol red recovery method. Oral and duodenal administration of CaSR agonist peptides attenuated glycemic responses under the oral glucose tolerance test, but the administration of casein did not. The promotive effect on glucose tolerance was weakened by luminal pretreatment with a CaSR antagonist. Treatment with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist partially diminished the glucose-lowering effect of peptides. Furthermore, the gastric emptying rate was decreased by duodenal administration of CaSR agonist peptides. These results demonstrate that activation of the gut CaSR by peptide agonists promotes glucose tolerance in conscious rats. 5-HT3 receptor and the delayed gastric emptying rate appear to be involved in the glucose-lowering effect of CaSR agonist peptides. Thus, activation of gut CaSR by dietary peptides reduces glycemic responses so that gut CaSR may be a potential target for the improvement of postprandial glycemia. PMID:24812056

  14. Effect of vitamin D3, other drugs altering serum calcium or phosphorus concentrations, and desoxycorticosterone on the distribution of Tc-99m pyrophosphate between target and nontarget tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.

    1981-06-01

    Radioactive imaging agents are chemically designed for selective distribution. Another approach to selectivity is to find stable compounds that favorably influence this distribution. Using a rat model of myocardial necrosis, we studied effects of various stable compounds (as a single, large dose or fractionated into short series) on the ratio, uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PPi) by the target lesion/uptake by the principal nontarget, bone (L/B). Vitamin D3s ability to increase L/B was mediated by the hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia that it caused. The hypercalcemia was accompanied by increased (Ca) in the lesion. In contrast, pulse doses of desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) at 7 and 6 hr before killing increased uptake by lesion, increasing L/B from 0.19 +/- 0.03 to 0.45 +/- 0.08 (p less than 0.01), with no change in serum (Ca) and minimal changes in serum (P), (Na), and (K). DOCA also increased the lesion-to-blood ratio from 6.5 +/- 0.07 to 15.4 +/- 3.9 (p less than 0.05). These results encourage further study of DOCA's effect and investigation of other stable drugs that may influence distribution of other imaging agents.

  15. Calcium absorption and calcium bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Charles, P

    1992-02-01

    Calcium is important for bone health. It has been customary to focus on dietary calcium intake, but of central importance for the body needs in the individual patient is the actual calcium absorption. This absorption consists of an active vitamin D-mediated component and a passive diffusional component. A number of different methods are available for the evaluation of calcium absorption. At present the calcium absorption tests using calcium isotopes (radioactive or stable) appear to be the most reproducible way of determining calcium absorption. The major nutrient sources for calcium are milk and milk products, whereas some of the green vegetables have a low bioavailability of calcium. When deciding whether an increased calcium intake is advisable, the following questions must be answered. What is the calcium absorptive status of the patient? How should the calcium supplement be dispensed? What calcium salt should be used? When should calcium supplements be taken? What is the compliance of the patient? When should the treatment be evaluated? The calcium supplement might be taken as milk (or milk products) or, in patients with lactose intolerance, as calcium supplements. Quite a number of calcium supplements are available on the market, and many of them are marketed without proper knowledge of the bioavailability of the actual preparation. For the benefit of our patients it is now reasonable to demand such investigations before marketing calcium supplements. PMID:1541940

  16. Preeclampsia serum-induced collagen I expression and intracellular calcium levels in arterial smooth muscle cells are mediated by the PLC-γ1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rongzhen; Teng, Yincheng; Huang, Yajuan; Gu, Jinghong; Ma, Li; Li, Ming; Zhou, Yuedi

    2014-01-01

    In women with preeclampsia (PE), endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction can lead to altered secretion of paracrine factors that induce peripheral vasoconstriction and proteinuria. This study examined the hypothesis that PE sera may directly or indirectly, through human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), stimulate phospholipase C-γ1-1,4,5-trisphosphate (PLC-γ1-IP3) signaling, thereby increasing protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) activity, collagen I expression and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs). HUASMCs and HUVECs were cocultured with normal or PE sera before PLC-γ1 silencing. Increased PLC-γ1 and IP3 receptor (IP3R) phosphorylation was observed in cocultured HUASMCs stimulated with PE sera (P<0.05). In addition, PE serum significantly increased HUASMC viability and reduced their apoptosis (P<0.05); these effects were abrogated with PLC-γ1 silencing. Compared with normal sera, PE sera increased [Ca2+]i in cocultured HUASMCs (P<0.05), which was inhibited by PLC-γ1 and IP3R silencing. Finally, PE sera-induced PKC-α activity and collagen I expression was inhibited by PLC-γ1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) (P<0.05). These results suggest that vasoactive substances in the PE serum may induce deposition in the extracellular matrix through the activation of PLC-γ1, which may in turn result in thickening and hardening of the placental vascular wall, placental blood supply shortage, fetal hypoxia–ischemia and intrauterine growth retardation or intrauterine fetal death. PE sera increased [Ca2+]i and induced PKC-α activation and collagen I expression in cocultured HUASMCs via the PLC-γ1 pathway. PMID:25257609

  17. Preeclampsia serum-induced collagen I expression and intracellular calcium levels in arterial smooth muscle cells are mediated by the PLC-γ1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rongzhen; Teng, Yincheng; Huang, Yajuan; Gu, Jinghong; Ma, Li; Li, Ming; Zhou, Yuedi

    2014-01-01

    In women with preeclampsia (PE), endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction can lead to altered secretion of paracrine factors that induce peripheral vasoconstriction and proteinuria. This study examined the hypothesis that PE sera may directly or indirectly, through human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), stimulate phospholipase C-γ1-1,4,5-trisphosphate (PLC-γ1-IP3) signaling, thereby increasing protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) activity, collagen I expression and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs). HUASMCs and HUVECs were cocultured with normal or PE sera before PLC-γ1 silencing. Increased PLC-γ1 and IP3 receptor (IP3R) phosphorylation was observed in cocultured HUASMCs stimulated with PE sera (P<0.05). In addition, PE serum significantly increased HUASMC viability and reduced their apoptosis (P<0.05); these effects were abrogated with PLC-γ1 silencing. Compared with normal sera, PE sera increased [Ca(2+)]i in cocultured HUASMCs (P<0.05), which was inhibited by PLC-γ1 and IP3R silencing. Finally, PE sera-induced PKC-α activity and collagen I expression was inhibited by PLC-γ1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) (P<0.05). These results suggest that vasoactive substances in the PE serum may induce deposition in the extracellular matrix through the activation of PLC-γ1, which may in turn result in thickening and hardening of the placental vascular wall, placental blood supply shortage, fetal hypoxia-ischemia and intrauterine growth retardation or intrauterine fetal death. PE sera increased [Ca(2+)]i and induced PKC-α activation and collagen I expression in cocultured HUASMCs via the PLC-γ1 pathway. PMID:25257609

  18. Absolute rate data for reactions of ground-state atomic calcium, Ca(4s sup 2 sup 1 S sub 0 ), at elevated temperatures determined by time-resolved atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Clay, R.S.; Husain, D. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on reactions of ground-state atomic calcium, Ca(4s{sup 2}{sup 1}S{sub 0}), with a large number of collision partners investigated by direct spectroscopic measurement using atomic resonance absorption spectroscopy in the time-domain. Ca(4{sup 1}S{sub 0}) was generated by the pulsed irradiation of CaI{sub 2} vapor at elevated temperatures and monitored photoelectrically in the single-shot mode using the resonance transition at {lambda} = 422.7 nm Ca(4{sup 1}P{sub 1}) {l arrow} Ca(4{sup 1}S{sub 0}). Decay profiles in the presence of the gases CH{sub 3}Cl, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Cl, CF{sub 3}Cl, CF{sub 3}Br, CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}F, CF{sub 3}H, CR{sub 4}, SF{sub 6}, HCl, HBr, N{sub 2}O with excess helium buffer gas were captured in a transient recorder and transferred either directly to a microcomputer or mainly to an XY-recorder for subsequent kinetic analysis. The development of the present method was principally feasible because of the construction here of an extremely intense, high-current hollow cathode atomic resonance source for the calcium transition employed in the investigation. Although the kinetic measurements for the removal of Ca(4{sup 1}S{sub 0}) with H{sub 2}O showed consistent plots, these yielded a value of k{sub R}(T = 911 K) = (3.4 {plus minus} 0.2) {times} 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}, which is viewed with caution as it implies a bond dissociation energy of D(Ca-OH) of a magnitude at the extreme limits of the largest value reported from various analyses on calcium in premixed H{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} flames.

  19. Effects of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference and acidified coproducts on dry matter intake, serum calcium, and performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rezac, D J; Block, E; Weber, D; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

    2014-02-01

    Two products designed to deliver supplemental anions were evaluated for their effects on DMI, total serum Ca, and performance of transition dairy cows relative to a control diet that did not contain supplemental anions. Diets differed in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and anion source. Treatments were diets including a control (CON; DCAD +17.7 meq/100 g DM; n = 13), Bio-Chlor (BC; DCAD +2.5 meq/100 g DM; n = 14), and SoyChlor (SC, DCAD +0.4 meq/100 g DM; n = 15). Treatments began 21 d before expected calving dates and continued through parturition (mean treatment length 20.98 d); on calving, all animals received the same diet. Milk yield was measured through 21 d in milk, and milk samples were collected daily between 5 and 21 d in milk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. Prepartum DMI was 9.0, 8.5, and 7.5 ± 0.6 kg/d for CON, BC, and SC treatments, respectively, and tended to be lower for SC than CON (P = 0.07). Postpartum DMI and milk yields were similar among treatments. Milk protein, lactose, and urea nitrogen concentrations were highest for SC and lowest for BC, with CON being intermediate. Plasma glucose, measured on d 5, 10, and 21 postpartum, tended to be different among treatments (P = 0.06; 66.7, 57.1, and 63.8 ± 3.1 mg/dL for CON, BC, and SC, respectively). Serum total Ca concentrations did not differ among dietary treatments and only tended to change over time; values were not indicative of clinical hypocalcemia. With limited sample size, no significant effects of treatment were detected for incidence of postpartum health disorders or plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. Although DMI tended to be depressed in the prepartum period by SC, this intake depression was not accompanied by negative effects on performance or health in the postpartum period. Results suggest that cows were not adequately stressed to cause hypocalcemia or that DCAD values near 0 were insufficient to improve postpartum health and performance or both. PMID:24398835

  20. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Lane, Helen W.

    1999-01-01

    Bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight, threatening to limit the duration of human space missions. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after extended-duration missions. The hypotheses to be tested in this project are that space flight alters calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism, and that calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism will return to baseline within days to weeks of return to Earth. These hypotheses will be evidenced by elevated rates of bone mineral resorption and decreased bone mineral deposition, decreased absorption of dietary calcium, altered calcitropic endocrine profiles, elevated excretion of calcium in urine and feces, and elevated excretion of markers of bone resorption. The second hypothesis will be evidenced by return of indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism to preflight levels within days to weeks of return to Earth. Studies will be conducted on International Space Station astronauts before, during, and after extended-duration flights. Measurements of calcium kinetics, bone mass, and endocrine/biochemical markers of bone and calcium homeostasis will be conducted. Kinetic studies utilizing dual isotope tracer kinetic studies and mathematical modeling techniques will allow for determination of bone calcium deposition, bone calcium resorption, dietary calcium absorption and calcium excretion (both urinary and endogenous fecal excretion). These studies will build upon preliminary work conducted on the Russian Mir space station. The results from this project will be critical for clarifying how microgravity affects bone and calcium homeostasis, and will provide an important control point for assessment of countermeasure efficacy. These results are expected to aid in developing countermeasures for bone loss, both for space crews and for individuals on Earth who have metabolic bone diseases.

  1. Effects of supplementation with a calcium-rich marine-derived multi-mineral supplement and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides on serum lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Barbara E; Allsopp, Philip J; Slevin, Mary M; Magee, Pamela J; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir M

    2016-02-01

    Recent literature suggests that Ca supplements have adverse effects on cardiovascular health. The effects of a Ca-rich supplement administered alone or in combination with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) on serum lipids in postmenopausal women were examined using secondary data from a 24-month double-blind randomised controlled study. A total of 300 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to daily supplements of 800 mg of Ca (24 g Aquamin) (Ca), 800 mg of Ca with 3 g of scFOS (CaFOS) or control (maltodextrin) (MD). A full lipid profile, body composition, blood pressure and a range of cytokines were measured at baseline and after 24 months. Intention-to-treat ANCOVA assessed treatment effects between the groups. A significant time-by-treatment effect was observed for LDL and total cholesterol for the Ca and CaFOS groups, with both groups having lower LDL and total cholesterol concentrations compared with MD after 24 months. The control group had mean (52 mmol/l) total cholesterol concentrations above the normal range (?5 mmol/l) at 24 months, whereas values remained within the normal range in the treatment groups. There was no significant treatment effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, body composition, blood pressure or cytokine concentrations at 24 months, with the exception of IL-4, where there was a significant increase in the CaFOS group compared with the placebo. This study demonstrates a lipid-lowering effect of both the Ca-rich supplement alone and the supplement with scFOS. At the 4-year follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups for reported diagnosed cardiovascular conditions. PMID:26669430

  2. Serum vitamin A levels and associated abnormalities in patients on regular dialysis treatment.

    PubMed

    Werb, R; Clark, W F; Lindsay, R M; Jones, E O; Linton, A L

    1979-08-01

    Multivitamin preparations are commonly administered to regular dialysis treatment (RDT) patients. Serum Vitamin A was measured in 72 patients on RDT. Elevated serum Vitamin A levels (102.29 +/- 26.95 microgram/dl [3.57 +/- 0.94 mumoles/l]) were found in the dialysis population (normal 40.98 +/- 6.71 microgram/dl [1.43 +/- 0.23 mumoles/l]; P less than 0.0005). Serum Vitamin A levels increased with duration (months) of dialysis but not with frequency of dialysis (twice or thrice weekly). Patients taking a VitaminA-containing multivitamin preparation had higher serum Vitamin A levels than those on a non-Vitamin A supplemented diet. Bilaterally nephrectomized patients had the highest serum Vitamin A levels while patients with obstructive uropathy had the lowest levels. Serum Vitamin A levels did not correlate with symptoms of uremia. Positive correlations were found with serum levels of calcium, cholesterol and triglycerides. Patients receiving a Vitamin A supplement had higher serum cholesterol levels than non-supplemented patients. Vitamin A might be a factor in the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in RDT patients. We therefore advise discontinuing the long-term administration of Vitamin A-containing multivitamin supplements to patients on RDT. PMID:527272

  3. Effects of calcium chloride and calcium sulfate in an oral bolus given as a supplement to postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sampson, J D; Spain, J N; Jones, C; Carstensen, L

    2009-01-01

    An oral calcium bolus (Bovikalc, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica) supplying calcium to dairy cows in the form of calcium chloride and calcium sulfate was evaluated to determine the effect on calcium homeostasis immediately after calving. Cows in the treatment group received one bolus immediately after calving and a second bolus 12 hours later. Control cows received no calcium supplementation. Blood was analyzed for ionized calcium, and urine was collected for urinary pH determination. Postpartum supplementation with the Bovikalc bolus significantly increased serum ionized calcium levels and decreased urine pH values. PMID:20037967

  4. Comparison of Serum Uric Acid, Bilirubin, and C-Reactive Protein as Prognostic Biomarkers of In-Hospital MACE Between Women and Men With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Stefan; Huseynov, Aydin; Koepp, Johanna; Jabbour, Claude; Behnes, Michael; Becher, Tobias; Renker, Matthias; Lang, Siegfried; Borggrefe, Martin; Lehmann, Ralf; Akin, Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid (UA), and total bilirubin (TB) are associated with coronary artery disease and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We retrospectively included 1167 patients with STEMI who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and routine blood sampling. The study cohort consisted of 803 patients (73.1% male, mean age 62.5 13.4 years). In men, the levels of CRP, TB, and UA were significantly higher in the MACE than in the non-MACE group (P < .05). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis shows that CRP (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53-0.66; P = .014) and TB (AUC: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.51-0.65; P = .019) are significantly associated with MACE but not UA (AUC: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.42-0.76; P = .083). Logistic regression revealed CRP (odds ratio [OR] 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00-1.01; P = .006) and TB (OR 2.03; 95% CI: 1.12-3.40; P = .007) as an independent predictor for MACE. In women, none of the biomarkers was associated with MACE by ROC analysis or logistic regression analysis. This study demonstrated that high CRP and TB serum levels have a prognostic association with in-hospital MACE in male patients with STEMI. PMID:26032849

  5. Prolonged spontaneous normocalcaemia in pseudohypoparathyroidism from resorption of soft tissue calcium deposits: a cautionary tale

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Erin E; Kline, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    A 42-year-old man diagnosed with pseudohypoparathyroidism and Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy as an infant was lost to follow-up and remained, unmonitored, on calcitriol and calcium for over 20 years. He presented after having an ST-elevation myocardial infarction. In addition to coronary artery calcifications, he was found to have diffuse subcutaneous and joint calcifications. His calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were normal, and given the lack of prior documentation in the diagnosis he was instructed to discontinue calcitriol and calcium until further investigations were completed. Despite stopping the medication, his serum calcium remained normal for over 1 year. It was not until 18 months later, when his soft tissue calcium stores were depleted, that he finally developed symptomatic hypocalcaemia and an elevated PTH. This case not only emphasises the importance of long-term follow-up for patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism, but also highlights the potential complications of long-term, unmonitored, calcitriol use. PMID:24481017

  6. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... All cells need calcium in order to work. Calcium helps build strong bones and teeth. It is important for heart function. It also helps with muscle contraction, nerve signaling, and blood clotting. This article discusses ...

  7. Calcium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corry, Ben; Hool, Livia

    Ion channels underlie the electrical activity of cells. Calcium channels have a unique functional role, because not only do they participate in this activity, they form the means bywhich electrical signals are converted to responses within the cell. Calcium concentrations in the cytoplasm of cells are maintained at a low level, and calcium channels activate quickly such that the opening of ion channels can rapidly change the cytoplasmic environment. Once inside the cell, calcium acts as a "second messenger" prompting responses by binding to a variety of calcium sensitive proteins. Calcium channels are known to play an important role in stimulating muscle contraction, in neurotransmitter secretion, gene regulation, activating other ion channels, controlling the shape and duration of action potentials and many other processes. Since calcium plays an integral role in cell function, and since excessive quantities can be toxic, its movement is tightly regulated and controlled through a large variety of mechanisms.

  8. [Aortic calcification and calcium].

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Motoo

    2010-11-01

    Vascular calcification occurred as the last step of arteriosclerosis makes a lot of disturbances on vascular function and should influence on the worsening of the vascular diseases. Calcium is the main component of the vascular calcification like bone, and one of causes of vascular calcification should be the hypoparathyroidism due to the lowering of serum calcium and the following calcium paradox seen in osteoporosis. Bone calcium must shift to the arterial wall from the bone. Medial calcification could be formed under the molecular regulatory control like in bone by differentiated osteoblast or chondroblast from pericyte like cell origin smooth muscle cell. Many substances such as osteopontine, osteocalcine, bone morphogenetic protein 2, matrix Gla protein and alkaliphosphatase were found in calcified area. In intimal calcification, degenerated elastin and macrophage originated calcification were found. In the process of degeneration of elastin polypentapeptide structure in elastin can be easily conbined to Ca(2+), elastin-Ca(2+) complex is neutralized by PO4(2-) and calcium phosphate is accumulated in degenerated elastin. PMID:21037382

  9. Serum S100β

    PubMed Central

    Kanner, Andrew A.; Marchi, Nicola; Fazio, Vincent; Mayberg, Marc R.; Koltz, Michael T.; Siomin, Vitaly; Stevens, Glen H. J.; Masaryk, Thomas; Ayumar, Barbara; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Barnett, Gene H.; Janigro, Damir

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND S100β protein is expressed constitutively by brain astrocytes. Elevated S100β levels in cerebrospinal fluid and serum reported after head trauma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke were correlated with the extent of brain damage. Because elevated serum S100β also was shown to indicate blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in the absence of apparent brain injury, it remains unclear whether elevation of serum levels of S100β reflect BBB dysfunction, parenchymal damage, or both. METHODS The authors conducted a prospective study of serum S100β levels in six patients who underwent hyperosmotic BBB disruption (BBBD) with intraarterial chemotherapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma. In addition, 53 serum S100β samples were measured in 51 patients who had a variety of primary or metastatic brain lesions at the time of neuroimaging. RESULTS S100β was correlated directly with the degree of clinical and radiologic signs of BBBD in patients who were enrolled in the hyperosmotic study. In patients with neoplastic brain lesions, gadolinium enhancement on a magnetic resonance image was correlated with elevated S100β levels (n = 45 patients; 0.16 ± 0.1 μg/L; mean ± standard error of the mean) versus nonenhancing scans (n = 8 patients; 0.069 ± 0.04 μg/L). Primary brain tumors (n = 8 patients; 0.12 ± 0.08) or central nervous system metastases also presented with elevated serum S100β levels (n = 27 patients; 0.14 ± 0.34). Tumor volume was correlated with serum S100β levels only in patients with vestibular schwannoma (n = 6 patients; 0.13 ± 0.10 μg/L) but not in patients with other brain lesions. CONCLUSIONS S100β was correlated directly with the extent and temporal sequence of hyperosmotic BBBD, further suggesting that S100β is a marker of BBB function. Elevated S100β levels may indicate the presence of radiologically detectable BBB leakage. Larger prospective studies may better determine the true specificity of S100β as a marker for BBB function and as an early detection or follow-up marker of brain tumors. PMID:12767094

  10. Serum sickness

    MedlinePlus

    Serum sickness is a reaction that is similar to an allergy. The immune system reacts to medications ... immune response against the toxin or germ. During serum sickness, the immune system falsely identifies a protein ...

  11. Correlation between Left Ventricular Mass Index and Calcium Metabolism in Patients with Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Helvacı, Ayşen; Çopur, Besime; Adaş, Mine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation between left ventricular mass index and calcium metabolism in patients with essential hypertension. Study Design: Cross sectional case-control study. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with essential hypertension and 20 healthy individuals were compared with respect to calciotropic hormones, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and urinary and serum biochemical parameters. The correlations between parathormone, vitamin D, and calcitonin levels and LVMI and blood pressure elevation were determined. Results: The parathormone level was significantly higher (p=0.006) and vitamin D level was significantly lower (p=0.01) in the patient group compared with the control group. However, the two groups were similar in terms of albumin-corrected calcium levels, which were within the normal range (p=0.988). The serum sodium (p=0.014) and urinary calcium (p=0.003) levels and LVMI (p<0.01) were also significantly higher in the patient group. No significant correlations were determined between ambulatory blood pressure and parathormone and vitamin D levels, but a significant correlation was found between LVMI and parathormone level (p=0.06) in hypertensive patients. Conclusion: Essential hypertension alters calcium metabolism, causing calciuresis by hypernatremia. Parathormone release increases to compensate for this, and leads to protein synthesis, which in turn provokes the development of myocardial hypertrophy. PMID:25207075

  12. Altered Calcium and Vitamin D Homeostasis in First-Time Calcium Kidney Stone-Formers

    PubMed Central

    Ketha, Hemamalini; Singh, Ravinder J.; Grebe, Stefan K.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Rule, Andrew D.; Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations have been reported among cohorts of recurrent calcium (Ca) kidney stone-formers and implicated in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria. Variations in Ca and vitamin D metabolism, and excretion of urinary solutes among first-time male and female Ca stone-formers in the community, however, have not been defined. Methods In a 4-year community-based study we measured serum Ca, phosphorus (P), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) concentrations in first-time Ca stone-formers and age- and gender frequency-matched controls. Results Serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D were increased in Ca stone-formers compared to controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001). Stone-formers had a lower serum 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D ratio compared to controls (P = 0.008). Serum PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were similar in the groups. Urine Ca excretion was similar in the two groups (P = 0.82). In controls, positive associations between serum 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D, FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and negative associations between serum Ca and PTH, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D were observed. In SF associations between FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D, were not observed. 1,25(OH)2D concentrations associated more weakly with FGF-23 in SF compared with C (P <0.05). Conclusions Quantitative differences in serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D and reductions in 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D metabolites are present in first-time SF and might contribute to first-time stone risk. PMID:26332888

  13. Demonstration of a difference in urinary calcium, not calcium absorption, in black and white adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bell, N H; Yergey, A L; Vieira, N E; Oexmann, M J; Shary, J R

    1993-09-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) of the forearm, lumbar spine, and femoral neck is greater in black than in white children. Studies were performed to determine whether differences in intestinal absorption of calcium or urinary calcium or both account for an assumed more positive calcium balance and greater bone mass in black children. Normal black and white boys and girls were admitted to a metabolic ward and given a constant daily diet containing 1000 mg calcium, 60% as calcium carbonate, for 2 1/2 days (study I) or 3 1/2 days (study II). Fasting blood and 24 h urine collections were obtained, and in study II, unidirectional fractional absorption of calcium (alpha) was determined with stable isotopes of calcium. It was found that (1) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and urinary calcium were lower and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D] was higher in black than in white children, and (2) alpha was higher in boys than in girls with no racial difference, and (3) there were significant positive correlations between alpha and urinary calcium in the blacks and in the black and white children together. It is concluded that (1) alpha is higher in boys than in girls and (2) a lower urinary calcium, not increased intestinal absorption of calcium, is the means for a more positive calcium balance in blacks that accounts for the racial difference in BMD. PMID:8237481

  14. The role of calcium in human aging.

    PubMed

    Beto, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance. PMID:25713787

  15. The Role of Calcium in Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance. PMID:25713787

  16. A mathematical model of calcium and phosphorus metabolism in two forms of hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Raposo, J F; Pires, A; Yokota, H; Ferreira, H G

    2012-04-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a critical role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Interestingly, in two forms of hyperparathyroidism (excessive amount of PTH in the serum), the metabolic disturbances in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) significantly differ from those with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). Since an intuitive understanding of these PTH-linked regulatory mechanisms are hardly possible, we developed a mathematical model using clinical data (1586 CKD and 40 PHP patients). The model was composed of a set of ordinary differential equations, in which the regulatory mechanism of PTH together with other key factors such as 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)₂D) and calcium was described in the tissues including bone, the kidney, the serum, and the parathyroid glands. In this model, an increase in PTH was induced by its autonomous production in PHP, while PTH in CKD was elevated by a decrease in feedback inhibition of 1,25(OH)₂D in the serum, as well as an increase in stimulation by phosphorus in the serum. The model-based analysis revealed characteristic differences in the outcomes of hyperparathyroidism in CKD and PHP. The calcium exchange in bone, for instance, was predicted significantly higher in PHP than CKD. Furthermore, we evaluated the observed and predicted responses to the administration of calcimimetics, a recently developed synthetic drug that modulated efficacy of calcium-sensing receptors. The results herein support the notion that the described model would enable us to pose testable hypotheses about the actions of PTH, providing a quantitative analytical tool for evaluating treatment strategies of PHP and CKD. PMID:21874319

  17. ELEVATING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Frederick, H.S.; Kinsella, M.A.

    1959-02-24

    An elevator is described, which is arranged for movement both in a horizontal and in a vertical direction so that the elevating mechanism may be employed for servicing equipment at separated points in a plant. In accordance with the present invention, the main elevator chassis is suspended from a monorail. The chassis, in turn supports a vertically moveable carriage, a sub- carriage vertically moveable on the carriage, and a turntable carried by the sub- carriage and moveable through an arc of 90 with the equipment attached thereto. In addition, the chassis supports all the means required to elevate or rotate the equipment.

  18. Elevated BP after AKI.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Hsu, Raymond K; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP-defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit-during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization. PMID:26134154

  19. [Evaluation of Payne's formula for the correction of calcium: comparison with improved calcium and albumin measurement methods].

    PubMed

    Ohbal, Takashi; Shiraishi, Takeko; Kabaya, Takashi; Watanabe, Shinichiro

    2014-02-01

    The ionized or free fraction of serum calcium is physiologically important for cellular function, but we most often measure total serum calcium. There are a number of correction formulas that can be used to estimate whether low total serum calcium can be attributed simply to low albumin or serum protein. In Japan, Payne's formula has been widely used to correct calcium concentration. However, there are some problems in the measurement methods of total calcium and serum albumin which were used to establish Payne's formula with respect to specificity, calibration curve and stability. Recently, improved measurement methods of calcium and albumin have been adopted at clinical laboratories. Here we evaluated Payne's formula by comparing it with improved measurement methods of total calcium and serum albumin. For the total calcium measurement, o-CPC (o-cresolphthaleincomplexone), CPZ(chlorophosphonazo) III, and enzymatic methods were used. For the serum albumin measurement, BCG (bromocresol green) and improved BCP(bromocresol purple) methods were used. The results of this comparison study suggest that the calcium correction equation is not affected by changes in total calcium concentration, but the assay used for albumin may affect the calcium correction equation. Using multiple linear regression, the following equations were derived: BCG between CPZ III [corrected Ca(mg/dL) = total Ca-0.76ALB + 3.2], and improved BCP between CPZ III [corrected Ca = total Ca-0.7ALB + 2.6]. These formulas are simplified respectively as [corrected Ca = total Ca + 0.8(4-ALB], and [corrected Ca = total Ca + 0.7 (4-ALB)]. We conclude that Payne's formula is valid with the BCG method, but with the improved BCP method, our formula is more suitable for correcting calcium. PMID:24800488

  20. Annexin-Mediated Calcium Signalling in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-permeable channels underpin elevations of free calcium that encode specific signals in stress adaptation, development and immunity. Identifying the genes encoding these channels remains a central goal of plant signalling research. Evidence now suggests that members of the plant annexin family function as unconventional calcium-permeable channels, with roles in development and stress signalling. Arabidopsis annexin 1 mediates a plasma membrane calcium-permeable conductance in roots that is activated by reactive oxygen species. Recombinant annexin 1 forms a very similar conductance in planar lipid bilayers, indicating that this protein could facilitate the in vivo conductance directly. The annexin 1 mutant is impaired in salinity-induced calcium signalling. Protein–protein interactions, post-translational modification and dynamic association with membranes could all influence annexin-mediated calcium signalling and are reviewed here. The prospect of annexins playing roles in calcium signalling events in symbiosis and immunity are considered. PMID:27135495

  1. The Relation between Renal Function and Serum Sclerostin in Adult Patients with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Dubourg, Laurence; Carlier, Marie-Christine; Hadj-Aissa, Aoumeur; Fouque, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Sclerostin, a bone antianabolic peptide involved in osteoporosis, is elevated in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis. However, there are no data for patients with early CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Between January and July 2010, serum sclerostin and GFR (calculated by inulin clearance) were measured in 90 patients with CKD. Fasting blood samples were also drawn for determination of calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, bone alkaline phosphatase, and 25-OH vitamin D. Results Median GFR was 66.5 (interquartile range, 40.0–88.3) ml/min per 1.73 m2. Median sclerostin level was 53.5 (interquartile range, 37.5–77.2) pmol/L, was higher in patients with a GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and was highest in those with ESRD. Sclerostin levels were significantly more elevated in men than women (P<0.05). An inverse relationship was found between sclerostin and GFR (r=−0.58; P<0.001), and a positive correlation was seen with age (r=0.34; P<0.01) and serum phosphate (r=0.26; P=0.02). In multiple regression analyses, GFR, sex, and serum phosphate were the only variables associated with serum sclerostin (P<0.001). Age lost its relationship with sclerostin level. Conclusions This is the first study reporting higher serum sclerostin levels starting at CKD stage III. GFR, sex, and serum phosphate were the only measures associated with sclerostin level, suggesting that the effect of age reported in the literature might instead be attributable to the altered renal function in the elderly. Correcting the serum phosphorus level may be associated with lower sclerostin levels. PMID:23430206

  2. Disturbance of Serum Viscosity in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Donald E.

    1974-01-01

    The serum viscosity of diabetic patients has been found to be increased. The elevation averaged 8% above healthy subjects and 6% above nondiabetic patients. The serum viscosity elevation was greater when diabetic sequelae associated with microangiopathy were present. No relation of serum viscosity to age, sex, obesity, duration of disease, or type of treatment was demonstrated. Serum total protein and glucose levels were found to be correlated with serum viscosity, and increases in their serum concentrations were observed in diabetes. Analysis demonstrated that their elevation did not explain either the viscosity increase or the difference in viscosity between diabetics with and without sequelae. Intrinsic viscosity, abbreviated [η], is a concentration-independent solute property related to molecular shape. [η] was found to be 7% higher in diabetic than in normal serum. The [η] difference accounted for at least half of the serum viscosity elevation. The rest of the increase was due to increased serum protein level and increased nonprotein solids, presumably glucose and lipid. Associated with increased [η] was a decline in albumin: globulin ratio and elevation of the acute phase reactant proteins, α1-acid glycoprotein, α1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, and ceruloplasmin. Studies comparing diabetic and normal serum fractionated by using 21.5% sodium sulfate showed that changes in [η] were attributable to changes in serum protein composition rather than an inherent qualitative disturbance of protein present in one of the fractions. Since serum viscosity is elevated in early diabetes, it may be a part of the metabolic disturbance of diabetes and could play a role in the development of diabetic microangiopathy. PMID:4205523

  3. Calcium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related tests: Phosphorus ; Vitamin D Tests ; PTH ; Magnesium ; Albumin ; Comprehensive Metabolic Panel ; Basic Metabolic Panel ; Kidney Stone ... and people with blood protein abnormalities like low albumin . Large fluctuations in ionized calcium can cause the ...

  4. The Abnormal Phenotypes of Cartilage and Bone in Calcium-Sensing Receptor Deficient Mice Are Dependent on the Actions of Calcium, Phosphorus, and PTH

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chunxiang; Ding, Guoxian; Karaplis, Andrew; Brown, Edward; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2011-01-01

    Patients with neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) are homozygous for the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) mutation and have very high circulating PTH, abundant parathyroid hyperplasia, and severe life-threatening hypercalcemia. Mice with homozygous deletion of CaR mimic the syndrome of NSHPT. To determine effects of CaR deficiency on skeletal development and interactions between CaR and 1,25(OH)2D3 or PTH on calcium and skeletal homeostasis, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of homozygous CaRdeficient (CaR?/?) mice to those of double homozygous CaR and 1?(OH)asedeficient [CaR?/?1?(OH)ase?/?] mice or those of double homozygous CaR and PTHdeficient [CaR?/?PTH?/?] mice at 2 weeks of age. Compared to wild-type littermates, CaR?/? mice had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and severe skeletal growth retardation. Chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression in growth plates were reduced significantly, whereas trabecular volume, osteoblast number, osteocalcin-positive areas, expression of the ALP, type I collagen, osteocalcin genes, and serum ALP levels were increased significantly. Deletion of 1?(OH)ase in CaR?/? mice resulted in a longer lifespan, normocalcemia, lower serum phosphorus, greater elevation in PTH, slight improvement in skeletal growth with increased chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression, and further increases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Deletion of PTH in CaR?/? mice resulted in rescue of early lethality, normocalcemia, increased serum phosphorus, undetectable serum PTH, normalization in skeletal growth with normal chondrocyte proliferation and enhanced PTHrP expression, and dramatic decreases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Our results indicate that reductions in hypercalcemia play a critical role in preventing the early lethality of CaR?/? mice and that defects in endochondral bone formation in CaR?/? mice result from effects of the marked elevation in serum calcium concentration and the decreases in serum phosphorus concentration and skeletal PTHrP levels, whereas the increased osteoblastic bone formation results from direct effects of PTH. PMID:21966280

  5. Red Liriope platyphylla stimulated the insulin secretion through the regulation of calcium concentration in rat insulinoma cells and animal models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Young-Ju; Kwak, Moon-Hwa; Im, Dong-Soon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Red L. platyphylla (RLP) on calcium and glucose levels during insulin secretion. To achieve this, alteration of insulin and calcium concentrations was measured in rat insulinoma-1 (INS-1) cells and animal models in response to RLP treatment. In INS-1 cells, maximum secretion of insulin was detected upon treatment with 200 g/mL of RLP for 20 min. Nifedipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, effectively inhibited insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. Regarding calcium levels, the maximum concentration of intracellular calcium in INS-1 cells was obtained by treatment with 100 g/mL of RLP, whereas this level was reduced under conditions of 200 g/mL of RLP. Further, RLP-treated INS-1 cells showed a higher level of intracellular calcium than that of L. platyphylla (LP), Korea White Ginseng (KWG), or Korea Red Ginseng (KRG)-treated cells. This RLP-induced increase in intracellular calcium was abrogated but not completely abolished upon treatment with 40 M nifedipine in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the insulin level was dramatically elevated upon co-treatment with high concentrations of glucose and RLP, whereas it was maintained at a low level in response to glucose and RLP co-treatment at low concentrations. In an animal experiment, the serum concentration of calcium increased or decreased upon RLP treatment according to glucose level compared to vehicle treatment. Therefore, these results suggest that insulin secretion induced by RLP treatment may be tightly correlated with calcium regulation, which suggests RLP is an excellent candidate for diabetes treatment. PMID:23825481

  6. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  7. Calcium Hydroxylapatite

    PubMed Central

    Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in today’s market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

  8. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the older ...

  9. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, H.L.; Elford, R.W.; Shumak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Reflotron dry chemistry reflectance photometer was studied as a case-finding method in physicians' offices. A total of 713 adult patients had their risk factor profiles determined along with fingerprick blood cholesterol measurements. Blood cholesterol levels were classified into three categories, (<5.2 mmol/L), 51%; borderline high (5.2 to 6.1 mmol/L), 28%; and high (?6.2 mmol/L), 21%. The physicians' predictions from clinical risk factor profiles of which patients had elevated serum cholesterol levels were inaccurate. PMID:21229051

  10. Comparison of the antiatherosclerotic effects of dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor on hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Makoto; Matsubara, Masahiro; Arakawa, Emi; Takada, Chie; Ina, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Kazuhide; Yao, Kozo

    2007-04-01

    The antiatherosclerotic effects of the dihydropyridine-type calcium channel blocker, benidipine hydrochloride (benidipine), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, pravastatin sodium (pravastatin), were compared in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Male, New Zealand white rabbits were fed a 0.5% cholesterol diet. Pravastatin (10 mg/kg) or benidipine (10 mg/kg) was orally administered once daily after start of feeding. After 8 weeks of cholesterol feeding, serum cholesterol was increased and endothelial function of thoracic aorta was impaired. Pravastatin prevented elevation of serum cholesterol and aortic tunica intima hyperplasia. Although benidipine had little effect on serum cholesterol, it significantly inhibited aortic tunica intima hyperplasia and impairment of endothelial function. Expression levels of the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) mRNA in aorta of hypercholesterolemic rabbit were higher than those of normal rabbit. Benidipine significantly prevented upregulation of VCAM-1 mRNA expression and showed a tendency to inhibit elevation of LOX-1 mRNA expression. Pravastatin significantly prevented upregulation of both VCAM-1 and LOX-1 mRNA expression. The results demonstrate that pravastatin inhibits increase of serum cholesterol and vascular dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbit. Benidipine is effective in preventing vascular hyperplasia without altering serum cholesterol levels and this may be due to inhibition of expression of VCAM-1. PMID:17197250

  11. The importance of urinary calcium in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Miguel Angel Ochoa-Hortal; Cano-Garca, Mara del Carmen; Arrabal-Martn, Miguel; Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Calcium stones are associated with osteoporosis and manifested mainly by elevated fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the presence of abnormal metabolism of calcium and calciuria in women with osteoporotic fracture with no previously known renal lithiasis compared to women without osteoporosis and without renal lithiasis. Methods: In total, 87 women were included in the study. They were divided into two groups: Group 1 with 55 postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture and without renal lithiasis; and Group 2 with 32 postmenopausal women without osteoporosis and without history of renal lithiasis. The following parameters of phospho-calcium metabolism were analyzed: calciuria 24-hour, oxaluria 24-hour, uricosuria 24-hour, and citraturia 24-hour. The presence of hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, and hypocitraturia was compared between groups. Statistical significance was set at p ? 0.05. Results: The mean age was 70.1 13.8 in Group 1 and 56.7 6.4 in Group 2 (p = 0.0001). Women in Group 1 had higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.05) and fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (p < 0.05). The percentage of patients with hypercalciuria in Group 1 (40%) was higher compared to Group 2 (18.8%) and statistically significant (p = 0.04). There were no statistically significant differences in the percentage of hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, and hypocitraturia between groups. This study has its limitations including its cross-sectional nature at a unique centre and its low number of patients. Conclusion: The determination of urinary calcium and fasting calcium/creatinine ratio in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture without renal lithiasis may facilitate individualization of medical therapy and decreasing lithogenic risk. PMID:26085877

  12. Calcium Regulates FGF-23 Expression in Bone

    PubMed Central

    David, Valentin; Dai, Bing; Martin, Aline; Huang, Jinsong; Han, Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    Calcium has recently been shown to regulate fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), a bone-derived phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone. To better understand the regulation of FGF-23 by calcium, phosphorus, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D], and PTH, we examined FGF-23 expression under basal conditions and in response to PTH, doxercalciferol, or high-calcium diet treatment in Gcm2−/− and Cyp27b1−/− mutant mice. Gcm2−/− mice exhibited low serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia, whereas Cyp27b1−/− mice had high PTH, undetectable 1,25(OH)2D, hypocalcemia, and hypophosphatemia. Serum FGF-23 levels were decreased in both mutant models. Doxercalciferol administration increased serum FGF-23 levels in both mutant models. PTH administration to Gcm2−/− mice also increased serum FGF-23 levels, in association with an increase in both 1,25(OH)2D and calcium concentrations. Multiple regression analysis of pooled data indicated that changes in FGF-23 were positively correlated with serum calcium and 1,25(OH)2D but not related to changes in serum phosphate concentrations. A high-calcium diet also increased serum FGF-23 concentrations in Cyp27b1−/− mice in the absence of 1,25(OH)2D and in Gcm2−/− mice with low PTH. The addition of calcium to the culture media also stimulated FGF-23 message expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. In addition, FGF-23 promoter activity in cultured osteoblasts was inhibited by the L-calcium-channel inhibitor nifedipine and stimulated by calcium ionophores. The effects of chronic low calcium to prevent 1,25(OH)2D and PTH stimulation of FGF-23 in these mutant mouse models suggest that suppression of FGF-23 plays an important physiological adaptive response to hypocalcemia. PMID:24140714

  13. Calcitonin control of calcium metabolism during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, Karam F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this proposal is to elucidate calcitonin role in calcium homeostasis during weightlessness. In this investigation our objectives are to study: the effect of weightlessness on thyroid and serum calcitonin, the effect of weightlessness on the circadian variation of calcitonin in serum and the thyroid gland, the role of light as zeitgeber for calcitonin circadian rhythm, the circadian pattern of thyroid sensitivity to release calcitonin in response to calcium load, and the role of serotonin and norepinephrine in the control of calcitonin release. The main objective of this research/proposal is to establish the role of calcitonin in calcium metabolism during weightlessness condition. Understanding the mechanism of these abnormalities will help in developing therapeutic means to counter calcium imbalance in spaceflights.

  14. Elevated Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Serum Levels and Altered Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression, Nitric Oxide, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Denise Maciel; Garcia, Fernanda Gonçalves; Terra, Ana Paula Sarreta; Lopes Tosta, Ana Cristina; Silva, Luciana de Almeida; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto; Silva Teixeira, David Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Background. During dengue virus (DV) infection, monocytes produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) which might be critical to immunopathogenesis. Since intensity of DV replication may determine clinical outcomes, it is important to know the effects of viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) on innate immune parameters of infected patients. The present study investigates the relationships between dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) serum levels and innate immune response (TLR4 expression and TNF-α/NO production) of DV infected patients presenting different clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings. We evaluated NO, NS1 serum levels (ELISA), TNF-α production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and TLR4 expression on CD14+ cells from 37 dengue patients and 20 healthy controls. Early in infection, increased expression of TLR4 in monocytes of patients with dengue fever (DF) was detected compared to patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Moreover, PBMCs of DHF patients showed higher NS1 and lower NO serum levels during the acute febrile phase and a reduced response to TLR4 stimulation by LPS (with a reduced TNF-α production) when compared to DF patients. Conclusions/Significance. During DV infection in humans, some innate immune parameters change, depending on the NS1 serum levels, and phase and severity of the disease which may contribute to development of different clinical outcomes. PMID:25580138

  15. Development of a swine specific 9-plex Luminex cytokine assay and assessment of immunity after porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination: Elevated serum IL-12 levels are not predictive of protect

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Luminex multiplex swine cytokine assay was developed to measure 9 cytokines simultaneously in pig serum and tested in a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine/challenge study. This assay detects innate (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IFNa, TNFa); regulatory (IL-10), Th1 (IL-12, I...

  16. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePlus

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  17. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  18. How to manage an isolated elevated PTH?

    PubMed

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Cavalier, Etienne; Cormier, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the diagnostic approach of an increased serum PTH concentration in a normocalcemic, normophosphatemic patient. Detection of this biological presentation is frequent in routine practice all the more that PTH reference values established in vitamin D replete subjects with a normal renal function are used by the clinical laboratories. The first step in this diagnostic approach will be to rule out a cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Among these, the most frequent are vitamin D deficiency, very low calcium intake, impaired renal function, malabsorptions, drugs interfering with calcium/bone metabolism, such as lithium salts and antiresorptive osteoporosis therapies, hypercalciuria due to a renal calcium leak. If no cause of SHPT are evidenced, the diagnosis of normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) should be considered. A calcium load test is a very useful tool for this diagnosis if it shows that serum PTH is not sufficiently decreased when calcemia rises frankly above the upper normal limit. In a normocalcemic patient with hypercalciuria and a high serum PTH concentration, a thiazide challenge test may help to differentiate SHPT due to a renal calcium leak from normocalcemic PHPT. Beyond the discussion of this diagnostic flowchart, we also discuss some points about the merits and the difficulties of measuring and interpreting ionized calcemia and 24-h calciuria. PMID:25882890

  19. The salutary effect of dietary calcium on bone mass in a rat model of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Whether supplementation of dietary calcium reduces the differences in bone mass of unweighed limbs and normally weighted limbs, and whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) respond differently to dietary calcium in unweighted animals in comparison with pair-fed controls was studied. The hind limbs of rats were unweighted by a tail suspension method and diets containing 0.1% to 2.4% calcium. After 2 weeks serum calcium, phosphorus, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D intestinal calcium transport were determined and bone mass, ash weight, and calcium in the tibia, L-1 vertebra, and humerus were measured. No significant differences in body weights were observed among the various groups. Suspended rats maintained constant levels of serum calcium and phosphate over the wide range of dietary calcium. Serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and intestinal calcium transport fell as dietary calcium was increased. Bone calcium in the tibia and vertebra from suspended rats remained less than that from pair-fed control. It is suggested that although no striking difference between suspended and control animals was observed in response to dieteary calcium, increasing dietary calcium may reduce the negative impact of unloading on the calcium content of the unweighted bones. The salutary effect of high dietary calcium appears to be due to inhibition of bone resorption rather than to stimulation of bone formation.

  20. Regulation of calcium metabolism during prolonged antiorthostatic hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigoryev, A. I.; Morukov, B. V.; Dorokhova, B. R.; Rustamyan, L. A.

    1988-01-01

    Characteristics of the regulation of calcium exchange in healthy persons exposed to 182 days of antiorthostatic hypokinesia are investigated. Total calcium concentrations, ionized calcium activities and parathyroid hormone concentrations in blood serum were determined, before, during, and up to 15 days after a 182-day period of strict bed rest at a head down tilt of 4 deg; and tests of blood urine responses to a calcium lactate stress were performed to study the role of the kidneys. An increase in calcium ion activity is observed during the period of hypokinesia, while total calcium concentrations changed to a lesser degree. Plasma parathyroid hormone levels are found to significantly exceed background levels during hypokinesia and in the recovery period immediately following. Finally, the increase in calcium excretion in the urine during prolonged limitations of muscular activity is found to be connected with both an enhancement of calcium filtration and a decrease in its reabsorption in the kidneys, possibly due to changes in hormonal regulation.

  1. The Incidence and Clinical Characteristics of Acute Serum Creatinine Elevation more than 1.5 mg/dL among the Patients Treated with Tenofovir/Emtricitabine-containing HAART Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung Hi; Park, Jung Hwa; Jung, Hye Jin; Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Jong Myung; Kim, Sujeong

    2015-01-01

    Background The combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) has been the first choice nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) according to many reliable antiretroviral treatment (ART) guidelines because of its high efficacy. However, TDF-related renal toxicity reported in Western countries is a challenging issue regarding clinical use. We conducted this study to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of an acute increase in serum creatinine (Cr) level > 1.5 mg/dL among TDF/FTC-based highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)-treated patients. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 205 HIV-infected patients treated with TDF/FTC-containing regimens between 1 February 2010 and 30 April 2014. Three groups of TDF/FTC + ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r), TDF/FTC + non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and TDF/FTC + integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), and three PI/r subgroups of TDF/FTC + lopinavir (LPV)/r, TDF/FTC + atazanavir (ATV)/r, TDF/FTC + darunavir (DRV)/r were evaluated. Results A total 136 patients (91 in the TDF/FTC + PI/r group, 20 in the TDF/FTC + NNRTI group and 25 in the TDF/FTC + INSTI group) were included in the statistical analysis. Four cases (4.9%; all in the TDF/FTC + PI/r group) among 136 patients showed an acute increase in serum Cr more than 1.5 mg/dL, so the overall incidence was 2.8 cases per 100 patient-years. One case was a patient treated with TDF/FTC + LPV/r, and the others were treated with TDF/FTC + ATV/r. No case of an acute increase in serum Cr was observed in the TDF/FTC + DRV/r group. The incidence of serum Cr increase more than 1.5 mg/dL in TDF/FTC + PI/r group was 4.0 cases per 100 patient-years. Conclusion Although only a small number of patients were evaluated retrospectively from a single center, the TDF/FTC + PI/r regimen may have been related with relatively higher tendency of increment of serum Cr level. These findings reinforce the importance of close follow-ups of HIV-infected patients treated with the TDF/FTC + PI/r regimens. PMID:26788407

  2. [The comprehensive examination of patients with recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, I I; Tsvetkov, M Ts; Ormanov, I D; Mladenov, D D; Drenski, O G; Gruev, I S; Kumanov, Kh N

    1991-01-01

    Hypercalciuria is one of the main causes of recurrent generation of urinary calcium-containing calculi. 107 patients with recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis were examined and results presented. Concentrations of potassium, sodium, chlorides, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid and creatinine were investigated in serum and urine, as well as indices of acid-base balance in arterial blood. pH-metry, "preliminary" and oral calcium tolerance test were also carried out. The microcomputer data analysis established that the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism may be identified in case of increased serum calcium level before and after calcium load test, the same of parathyroid, and increased urinary cAMP excretion. Renal hypercalciuria is characterized by low blood calcium level in both periods of the oral test, high basal calciuria, increased urinary cAMP excretion and its slight decrease after the oral calcium load test, by a tendency to lower serum magnesium levels in high magnesuria. The patients with absorptive hypercalciuria had an upper normal or increased blood calcium level, a significant calcemic and calciuric "response" to the calcium load, reduction in urinary cAMP elimination and more severe decrease (close to 0) of these indices after oral calcium load and normal magnesium levels in blood and urine. On a base of the "preliminary" test data the patients with relapsing calcium nephrolithiasis and metabolic disorders may be differed from those without calcium and phosphorus metabolic deteriorations. The "preliminary" test defines indications for the oral calcium tolerance test, automatic diagnosis and computer data storage facilitate physician to work and to solve problems of the patients' survey. PMID:1858197

  3. location plan, floor plan, west elevation, north elevation, north elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, west elevation, north elevation, north elevation with porch removed - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Staff Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  4. location plan, floor plan, west elevation, south elevation, south elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, west elevation, south elevation, south elevation with porch removed - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Infirmary, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  5. Evaluation of Serum Magnesium, Lipid Profile and Various Biochemical Parameters as Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ramavataram, DVSS; Patel, Payal A.; Rupani, Mihir P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is chronic inflammatory disease, associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) than the general population. Chronic inflammatory conditions are likely to alter magnesium level and various biochemical parameters. Objectives To study the probable changes in serum magnesium, lipid profile and various biochemical parameters and to assess risk factors of CVD in newly diagnosed RA patients compared to controls. Materials and Methods We studied 50 newly diagnosed RA adult patients and 50 healthy individuals as controls. Serum magnesium, calcium, lipid profile, uric acid and other biochemical parameters were measured in study subjects. Results were expressed as Mean ± SD and compared between RA subjects and controls by Independent sample t-test and Pearson correlation. Results We found decreased serum magnesium and calcium in RA subjects compared to the controls (p < 0.001). RA subjects had atherogenic lipid profile characterized by elevated total cholesterol (p = 0.054), LDL cholesterol (p = 0.008) and decreased HDL cholesterol (p <0.001). Serum uric acid was higher in RA cases compared to controls (p = 0.025). Serum magnesium was negatively correlated with total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and positively correlated with HDL cholesterol in RA cases. Conclusion Decreased magnesium level, dyslipidemia and increased uric acid observed in our study together may be more potent risk factors for CVD in newly diagnosed RA subjects. We recommend that serum magnesium should be investigated as a part of cardiovascular risk management in RA. We suggest that decreased serum magnesium and increased serum uric acid may be considered as nontraditional risk factors of CVD in RA. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the impact of inflammation on various biochemical parameters and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with RA. PMID:26023546

  6. Calcium plus vitamin D and the risk of fractures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-awaited WHI results reveal that calcium and vitamin D supplementation (1000 mg/400 IU) didn't lower fracture rates but did increase risk of kidney stones in calcium-replete (1150 mg/d mean intake) but vitamin D insufficient (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 46 nmol/L) postmenopausal women. How sho...

  7. Correlation between maternal milk and infant serum levels of chlorinated pesticides (CP) and the impact of elevated CP on bleeding tendency and immune status in some infants in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Schaalan, Mona F; Abdelraouf, Sahar M; Mohamed, Waleed A; Hassanein, Fetouh S

    2012-01-01

    Chlorinated pesticides (CP) are environmentally persistent pollutants that (prenatally through the placenta and post-natally via breastfeeding) are transferred from mother to child. Considering the significant bleeding tendency noted in infants of CP-intoxicated mothers in Egypt, this study aimed to investigate any correlation between levels of these xenobiotics in mothers' milk and bleeding tendencies of their infants, as well as a possible role of any related immunosuppression in this phenomenon. This study examined 180 newborns presenting with altered bleeding tendencies and their mothers, and 180 normal newborns and their mothers (serving as a controls), selected from the Breastfeeding Unit, Center for Social and Preventive Medicine at the Cairo University Pediatric Hospital. Chlorinated pesticides (e.g., hexachlorocyclohexane, DDT, hepta-chloroepoxide, α- and β-endosulfan, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin) levels and their derivatives were measured in mothers' milk as well as in serum of neonates using gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. To link bleeding tendency with lactational intoxication of neonates by CP, newborns' blood was assessed for: platelet count, bleeding and prothrombin time, liver enzymes, Vitamin K, TNFα, and IL-10. Breast milk CP levels were associated with a higher incidence of bleeding in infants. Interference with the coagulation cascade was supported by changes in prothrombin time (prolonged), platelet counts (decreased), liver enzymes (increased), and serum vitamin K concentrations (decreased). Moreover, the significant decrease in WBC count and lymphocytes added to depressed cytokine secretion, i.e., TNFα and IL-10, suggested an organochlorine-induced immunotoxicity in infants developmentally exposed to the agents. We conclude that maternal transfer of CP, via breastfeeding or across the placenta, was sufficient to achieve similar CP levels in the serum of their infants; this correlated with a manifesting of altered bleeding tendencies and perturbed cytokine biology in these infants. PMID:21962179

  8. Gastric bypass in obese rats causes bone loss, vitamin D deficiency, metabolic acidosis, and elevated peptide YY

    PubMed Central

    Canales, Benjamin K.; Schafer, Anne L.; Shoback, Dolores M.; Carpenter, Thomas O.

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic bone disease and bariatric surgery have long been interconnected. The objective of this study is to better understand the mechanisms of bone mass loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. We evaluated mineral homeostasis and bone mass in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats after RYGB or sham surgery. Methods Twelve DIO male Sprague Dawley rats underwent RYGB (n = 8) or sham (n = 4) surgery at 21 weeks of age. Postoperatively, animals ate an ad libitum 40% fat, normal calcium diet and were euthanized 22 weeks later. Serum and urine chemistries, insulin, leptin, bone turnover markers (BTM), and calciotropic and gut hormones were measured before and 22 weeks after surgery. Femurs were analyzed using microcomputed tomography (CT). Results Compared to sham, RYGB animals had lower serum bicarbonate, calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, insulin, and leptin levels with higher serum parathyroid hormone, peptide YY, and urinary calcium at 43 weeks of age. Sham control rats gained weight and had coupled decreases in formation (P1 NP and OC) and unchanged resorption (CTX) BTMs. Comparatively, RYGB animals had higher serum CTX and OC but even lower P1 NP levels than controls. CT revealed lower trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness and lower cortical bone volume, thickness, and moment of inertia relative to controls. Conclusion In rats with DIO, long-term RYGB-associated bone resorption appears to be driven in part by vitamin D malabsorption and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Other mechanisms, such as chronic acidosis, changes in fat-secreted hormones, and persistently elevated gut-derived hormone peptide YY, may also contribute to observed bone mass differences. Further investigation of these potential contributors to bone loss may lead to new targets for skeletal maintenance after RYGB. PMID:24969093

  9. ST elevation without myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Zouheir Ibrahim; Swede, Mohammad; Almerri, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocarditis may mimic myocardial infarction because the affected patients report ‘classical’ chest pain; the ECG changes and echocardiography are identical to those observed in acute coronary syndromes, and serum markers are increased. We describe a case with ST segment elevation on admission ECG, and coronary angiography was normal. Cardiac magnetic resonance with myocardial delayed enhancement sequences is a non-invasive alternative for diagnosing myocarditis. PMID:24711464

  10. ST elevation without myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bitar, Zouheir Ibrahim; Swede, Mohammad; Almerri, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocarditis may mimic myocardial infarction because the affected patients report 'classical' chest pain; the ECG changes and echocardiography are identical to those observed in acute coronary syndromes, and serum markers are increased. We describe a case with ST segment elevation on admission ECG, and coronary angiography was normal. Cardiac magnetic resonance with myocardial delayed enhancement sequences is a non-invasive alternative for diagnosing myocarditis. PMID:24711464

  11. Calcium Acetate or Calcium Carbonate for Hyperphosphatemia of Hemodialysis Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Han; Yang, Bo; Mao, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Background High levels of serum phosphorus both at baseline and during follow-up are associated with increased mortality in dialysis patients, and administration of phosphate binders was independently associated with improved survival among hemodialysis population. Calcium-based phosphate binders are the most commonly used phosphate binders in developing countries for their relatively low costs. Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety between calcium carbonate and calcium acetate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Google scholar and Chinese databases (Wanfang, Weipu, National Knowledge Infrastructure of China) were searched for relevant studies published before March 2014. Reference lists of nephrology textbooks and review articles were checked. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that assessed the effects and adverse events of calcium acetate and calcium carbonate in adult patients with MHD was performed using Review Manager 5.0. Results A total of ten studies (625 participants) were included in this meta-analysis. There was insufficient data in all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events for meta-analysis. Compared with calcium carbonate group, the serum phosphorus was significantly lower in calcium acetate group after4 weeks’ administration (MD -0.15 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.01) and after 8 weeks’ administration (MD -0.25 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.11). There was no difference in serum calcium levels or the incidence of hypercalcemia between two groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks. No statistical difference was found in parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels or serum calcium by phosphorus (Ca x P) product. There was significantly higher risk of intolerance with calcium acetate treatment (RR 3.46, 95% CI 1.48 to 8.26). Conclusions For hyperphosphatemia treatment, calcium acetate showed better efficacy and with a higher incidence of intolerance compared with calcium carbonate. There are insufficient data to establish the comparative superiority of the two calcium-based phosphate binders on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular end-points in hemodialysis patients. PMID:25799184

  12. Effect of vitamin D/sub 3/, other drugs altering serum calcium or phosphorus concentrations, and desoxycorticosterone on the distribution of Tc-99m pyrophosphate between target and nontarget tissues. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.

    1981-06-01

    Radioactive imaging agents are chemically designed for selective distribution. Another approach to selectivity is to find stable compounds that favorably influence this distribution. Using a rat model of myocardial necrosis, the effects of various stable compounds on the ratio, uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PPi) by the target lesion/uptake by the principal nontarget, bone (L/B) were studied. Vitamin D/sub 3/s ability to increase L/B was mediated by the hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia that it caused. In contrast, pulse doses of desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) at 7 and 6 h before killing increased uptake by lesion, with no change in serum (Ca) and minimal changes in serum (P), (Na), and (K). DOCA also increased the lesion-to-blood ratio. These results encourage further study of DOCA's effect and investigation of other stable drugs that may influence distribution of other imaging agents.

  13. Changes in calcium kinetics in adolescent girls induced by high calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Wastney, M E; Martin, B R; Peacock, M; Smith, D; Jiang, X Y; Jackman, L A; Weaver, C M

    2000-12-01

    To identify the mechanism/s whereby calcium retention is increased by calcium intake in adolescent girls, kinetic studies were performed using stable calcium isotope tracers. Girls (n = 10; 12 +/- 1 yr old, mean +/- SD) were studied while on a controlled diet containing a low (21.2 mmol/day) and a high (47.4 mmol/day) calcium intake, in randomized order, using a cross-over design. Studies were separated by 1 month. Calcium tracers were administered after 1 week on the study diet, orally and iv; and serum, urine, and feces were collected for the following 14 days. Tracers were measured using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, and kinetic data were analyzed by compartmental modeling. Biochemical markers of bone turnover were measured in serum and urine samples. On high (compared with low) calcium intake, fractional absorption did not differ, absorbed calcium increased (19.6 +/- 7.5 vs. 8.0 +/- 2.5 mmol/day, mean +/- SD, P: < 0.001), calcium excreted in urine increased (2.8 +/- 1.7 vs. 2.1 +/- 1.1 mmol/day, P: < 0.01), calcium retained in bone increased (14.5 +/- 8.9 vs. 3.2 +/- 3.6 mmol/day, P: < 0.001), bone formation did not change, and bone resorption decreased by 32%. These changes, measured by kinetics, were corroborated by changes in markers of bone turnover. We conclude that increased bone retention of calcium, with high calcium intake in adolescent girls, is attributable to an increase in absorption and a decrease in bone resorption. PMID:11134095

  14. Evaluation of Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Behçet's Disease by Using Noninvasive Radiological Methods such as Intima-Media Thickness of the Carotid, Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index, Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring, and Their Relation to Serum Fetuin-A Levels: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Aynur; Genç, Berhan; Akyıldız, Muhittin; Şahin, Neslin; Uyar, İhsan Sami; Saklamaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory systemic vasculitis. Evidence for increased atherosclerosis in BD has been observed. The relation between cardiovascular risk factors and increased atherosclerosis in patients with BD is still controversial. Objective We performed this study to evaluate arterial stiffness in patients with BD by using noninvasive radiological methods such as carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI), coronary artery calcium score (CACaS), and their relation to serum fetuin-A levels, which was recently found to be important in vascular calcification. Methods This prospective study included 26 patients with BD and 25 control subjects. In all patients, the CIMT, ABPI, CACaS, and serum fetuin-A levels were examined. Results The CIMT and CACaS were statistically higher and the ABPI was statistically lower in BD patients than in the control group. All p-values were <0.001. Positive correlations were found between the CACaS and CIMT, and negative correlations were found between the CACaS and ABPI. Although the values of fetuin-A were higher in BD, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.064). However, the correlations found between fetuin-A levels and CIMT and between fetuin-A levels and CACaS were significant. Conclusion The CIMT, CACaS, and ABPI are all useful in detecting structural and functional vascular damage in BD. PMID:26719639

  15. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

  16. [Calcium intake and glucose and lipids concetrations in overweight and obese patients].

    PubMed

    Pachocka, Lucyna M; Nowak, Agnieszka; Targosz, Urszula; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina; Stolarska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    Well-balanced diet is one of the determinants of the health and wellbeing. Inadequate nutrients' intake can promote disease development. The purpose of this study was to assess the intake of calcium, phosphorus and protein and relation between calcium intake and lipids and glucose serum concentration in patients with obesity. The studied group consisted of 57 subjects, aged 21-63 years. Dietary assessment was based on 3-d dietary record. Serum lipids concentrations were assessed by enzymatic methods, serum calcium concentrations were assessed by Vitros 250. The mean calcium intake in men was 588.8 mg/d, in women 549.3 mg/d. Calcium intake was statistically significant correlated with glucose concentration in women and men, but not with lipids concentrations. Dietary calcium intake in studied group was below the RDA. Calcium intake could be one of determinants of glucose concentration in obese persons. PMID:17711128

  17. Calcium source (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  18. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  19. Calcium and Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... A calcium-rich diet (including dairy, nuts, leafy greens and fish) helps to build and protect your ... yogurt and cheese are high in calcium. Certain green vegetables and other foods contain calcium in smaller ...

  20. Phenotype and function of CXCR5+CD45RA−CD4+ T cells were altered in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma and elevated serum CXCL13 predicted better prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Liang, Hua; Huang, Xiangbo; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Yu; Shen, Tao; Lu, Fengmin

    2015-01-01

    The present study reveals an immunological characterization of circulating and tumor-infiltrating T follicular helper cells (Tfh), namely CXCR5+CD45RA−CD4+ T cells, and their related cytokines in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. In HCC patients, circulating Tfh cells showed a CCR7+ and/or ICOS+ phenotype with increased Th2-like cells and decreased Th1-like and Th17-like subsets. Although the bulk frequency of circulating Tfh cells was not altered in HCC patients, the frequency of infiltrated CXCR5+CD45RA−CD4+ CD3+cells was higher in tumor than in para-tumor tissues, and Th1-like cells were the predominant phenotype. Circulating Tfh cells in HCC patients were defective in the production of IL-21 in vitro, which was in accordance with lower IL-21 levels in tumor tissues than in para-tumor tissues. Serum CXCL13 was increased in HCC patients and associated with recurrence-free survival after hepatectomy. This was confirmed in an additional HCC cohort of 111 patients with up to 5 years follow-up. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that the percentage of CXCR5+ or CXCL13+ cells was higher in poorly differentiated than in well-differentiated tumors. In conclusion, patients with HBV-related HCC showed altered phenotypes and impaired function of Tfh cells or subpopulations. CXCL13 could be a potential biomarker for predicting recurrence in HCC patients after hepatectomy. PMID:26517519

  1. Elevated resting [Ca(2+)](i) in myotubes expressing malignant hyperthermia RyR1 cDNAs is partially restored by modulation of passive calcium leak from the SR.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianzhong; Esteve, Eric; Pessah, Isaac N; Molinski, Tadeusz F; Allen, Paul D; Lpez, Jos R

    2007-05-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle triggered in susceptible individuals by inhalation anesthetics and depolarizing skeletal muscle relaxants. This syndrome has been linked to a missense mutation in the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) in more than 50% of cases studied to date. Using double-barreled Ca(2+) microelectrodes in myotubes expressing wild-type RyR1 ((WT)RyR1) or RyR1 with one of four common MH mutations ((MH)RyR1), we measured resting intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Changes in resting [Ca(2+)](i) produced by several drugs known to modulate the RyR1 channel complex were investigated. We found that myotubes expressing any of the (MH)RyR1s had a 2.0- to 3.7-fold higher resting [Ca(2+)](i) than those expressing (WT)RyR1. Exposure of myotubes expressing (MH)RyR1s to ryanodine (500 microM) or (2,6-dichloro-4-aminophenyl)isopropylamine (FLA 365; 20 microM) had no effects on their resting [Ca(2+)](i). However, when myotubes were exposed to bastadin 5 alone or to a combination of ryanodine and bastadin 5, the resting [Ca(2+)](i) was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the percent decrease in resting [Ca(2+)](i) in myotubes expressing (MH)RyR1s was significantly greater than that for (WT)RyR1. From these data, we propose that the high resting myoplasmic [Ca(2+)](i) in (MH)RyR1 expressing myotubes is due in part to a related structural conformation of (MH)RyR1s that favors "passive" calcium leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. PMID:17182726

  2. A Novel Aerosol Foam Formulation of Calcipotriol and Betamethasone Has No Impact on HPA Axis and Calcium Homeostasis in Patients With Extensive Psoriasis Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Taraska, Victoria; Tuppal, Raj; Olesen, Martin; Bang Pedersen, Claus; Papp, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fixed combination calcipotriol 50 µg/g (Cal; as hydrate) plus betamethasone 0.5 mg/g (as dipropionate; BD) has been formulated in an innovative aerosol foam. Objective: To assess systemic safety of Cal/BD aerosol foam. Methods: In a multicentre, single-arm, open-label, maximal-use systemic-exposure trial, adult patients with moderate to severe, extensive psoriasis (15%-30% of body surface area, including ≥30% of scalp) applied Cal/BD foam once daily. Endpoints were week 4 abnormal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge test and change in albumin-corrected serum calcium, 24-hour urinary calcium excretion, and urinary calcium-creatinine ratio. Results: 35 patients reaching week 4 exhibited normal ACTH responses. At week 4, changes in calcium homeostasis were minor and not clinically relevant; no patients experienced elevations above normal. Disease severity generally improved, and 49% of patients achieved treatment success according to the Physician’s Global Assessment of Disease Severity. Conclusion: No clinically relevant HPA axis or calcium homeostasis impact was observed with 4 weeks of once-daily Cal/BD foam in patients with extensive psoriasis vulgaris. PMID:26224733

  3. The Impact of Admission Serum Creatinine Derived Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate on Major Adverse Cardiac Events in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Uluganyan, Mahmut; Karaca, Gurkan; Ulutas, Turker Kemal; Ekmekci, Ahmet; Tusun, Eyup; Murat, Ahmet; Koroglu, Bayram; Uyarel, Huseyin; Bakhshaliyev, Nijad; Eren, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Background The impact of Cockroft-Gault (C-G) derived estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was assessed. Methods A total of 884 patients were classified into four categories according to admission creatine derived eGFR: < 60, 60 - < 90, 90 - < 120, and ≥ 120 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results In-hospital and long-term MACEs were significantly higher in eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 subgroup (P < 0.001 and P = 0.028). Multivariate analysis demonstrated 7.78-fold (95% CI: 0.91 - 66.8) higher mortality risk in eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 subgroup. Conclusion As an easily applicable bedside method, C-G derived eGFR could be important for prediction of in-hospital and long-term mortality and MACE in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. PMID:26985253

  4. Levels of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in serum among atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Yokoyama, Naokata; Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Sposto, R.; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Shiraki, Mastaka

    1994-01-01

    To examines the potential causes of increased levels of calcium in serum with increasing dose of atomic bomb radiation, which was obtained from the previous preliminary analysis, levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in serum were examined among 1459 subjects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A significant effect of radiation on levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin in serum was found, even after patients with hyperparathyroidism were excluded. The level of calcium in serum increased with radiation dose; this can be explained partly by the increase in the level of PTH with radiation dose. However, the dose effect on calcium remained even after adjustment for PTH, calcitonin and confounding factors such as renal function, serum albumin level and medication. Parathyroid hormone increased initially by 6.8% per gray, but the dose response leveled off after about 1 Gy. The level of calcitonin increased with radiation dose, probably in part due to feedback mechanisms stimulated by the increase in calcium. However, after adjustment for the level of calcium, the increase in the level of calcitonin with dose was still found. Although the etiological mechanisms of the effect of radiation on serum levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin are unclear, radiation exposure may affect secretion of PTH and calcitonin and regulation of calcium a long time after atomic bomb exposure. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Calcium channelopathies.

    PubMed

    Felix, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) is highly regulated in eukaryotic cells. The free [Ca2+]i is approximately four orders of magnitude less than that in the extracellular environment. It is, therefore, an electrochemical gradient favoring Ca2+ entry, and transient cellular activation increasing Ca2+ permeability will lead to a transient increase in [Ca2+]i. These transient rises of [Ca2+]i trigger or regulate diverse intracellular events, including metabolic processes, muscle contraction, secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters, cell differentiation, and gene expression. Hence, changes in [Ca2+]i act as a second messenger system coordinating modifications in the external environment with intracellular processes. Notably, information on the molecular genetics of the membrane channels responsible for the influx of Ca2+ ions has led to the discovery that mutations in these proteins are linked to human disease. Ca2+ channel dysfunction is now known to be the basis for several neurological and muscle disorders such as migraine, ataxia, and periodic paralysis. In contrast to other types of genetic diseases, Ca2+ channelopathies can be studied with precision by electrophysiological methods, and in some cases, the results have been highly rewarding with a biophysical phenotype that correlates with the ultimate clinical phenotype. This review outlines recent advances in genetic, molecular, and pathophysiological aspects of human Ca2+ channelopathies. PMID:16775382

  6. Astrocyte calcium signaling: the third wave.

    PubMed

    Bazargani, Narges; Attwell, David

    2016-02-01

    The discovery that transient elevations of calcium concentration occur in astrocytes, and release 'gliotransmitters' which act on neurons and vascular smooth muscle, led to the idea that astrocytes are powerful regulators of neuronal spiking, synaptic plasticity and brain blood flow. These findings were challenged by a second wave of reports that astrocyte calcium transients did not mediate functions attributed to gliotransmitters and were too slow to generate blood flow increases. Remarkably, the tide has now turned again: the most important calcium transients occur in fine astrocyte processes not resolved in earlier studies, and new mechanisms have been discovered by which astrocyte [Ca(2+)]i is raised and exerts its effects. Here we review how this third wave of discoveries has changed our understanding of astrocyte calcium signaling and its consequences for neuronal function. PMID:26814587

  7. Calcium entry via connexin hemichannels in lens epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Amritlal; Shahidullah, Mohammad; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to hyposmotic solution causes release of ATP from lens cells via hemichannels. Because hemichannel opening feasibly could swamp the cells with calcium, we carried out studies to measure the magnitude of the increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration caused by hemichannel opening. In studies on porcine lens epithelial cells in primary culture, propidium iodide (PI) uptake was measured as an index of hemichannel opening. PI uptake was increased significantly in cells exposed to hyposmotic solution. The PI increase under hyposmotic conditions was suppressed by GAP 27, a connexin inhibitor peptide. In studies on cells loaded with Fura-2, continuous exposure to hyposmotic solution caused a cytoplasmic calcium concentration increase that peaked within ~30 sec then remained elevated at or below the peak response for more than 60 min. The peak calcium concentration was 186 2.3 nM compared to a baseline value of 98.0 1.4 nM. The calcium concentration increased a lot further in cells exposed to A23187 (2.5 M) or the sodium-calcium exchange inhibitor SN-6 (10 M) added after the onset of the calcium rise in hyposmotic solution. The cytoplasmic calcium increase in hyposmotic solution was abolished by GAP 27. Calcium returned to baseline in cells exposed to hyposmotic solution then treated with GAP 27 starting 2 min after the onset of the calcium rise. The calcium increase in hyposmotic solution did not occur when calcium was eliminated from the bathing medium. The responses to hyposmotic and hyperosmotic stress were different. There was no detectable increase in calcium or PI entry in cells exposed to hyperosmotic solution (500 mOsm). In summary, GAP 27-sensitive accumulation of PI by cultured lens epithelium points to connexin hemichannel opening and associated calcium entry. Even though connexins form channels with a large carrying capacity, calcium entry does not increase the cytoplasmic calcium concentration beyond a tolerable physiological range. PMID:25597520

  8. Low Serum Lysosomal Acid Lipase Activity Correlates with Advanced Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shteyer, Eyal; Villenchik, Rivka; Mahamid, Mahmud; Nator, Nidaa; Safadi, Rifaat

    2016-01-01

    Fatty liver has become the most common liver disorder and is recognized as a major health burden in the Western world. The causes for disease progression are not fully elucidated but lysosomal impairment is suggested. Here we evaluate a possible role for lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) activity in liver disease. To study LAL levels in patients with microvesicular, idiopathic cirrhosis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Medical records of patients with microvesicular steatosis, cryptogenic cirrhosis and NAFLD, diagnosed on the basis of liver biopsies, were included in the study. Measured serum LAL activity was correlated to clinical, laboratory, imaging and pathological data. No patient exhibited LAL activity compatible with genetic LAL deficiency. However, serum LAL activity inversely predicted liver disease severity. A LAL level of 0.5 was the most sensitive for detecting both histologic and noninvasive markers for disease severity, including lower white blood cell count and calcium, and elevated γ-glutamyltransferase, creatinine, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, uric acid and coagulation function. Serum LAL activity <0.5 indicates severe liver injury in patients with fatty liver and cirrhosis. Further studies should define the direct role of LAL in liver disease severity and consider the possibility of replacement therapy. PMID:26927097

  9. Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Different Calcium—Regulating Mechanisms Depending on External Calcium Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhi; Avila, Andrew; Gollahon, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an “Enhanced Calcium Efflux” mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxel’s stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. PMID:24549172

  10. Calcium transients during early development in single starfish (Asterias forbesi) oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, A.; Reynolds, G.T.

    1984-11-01

    Maturation and fertilization of the starfish oocyte are putative calcium-dependent events. The authors have investigated the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of this calcium dependence in single oocytes of Asterias forbesi. They used the calcium photoprotein, aequorin, in conjunction with a microscope-photomultiplier and microscope-image intensifier. Surprisingly, in contrast to earlier work with Marasthenias glacialis, there is no detectable increase in intracellular-free calcium in the oocyte of A. forbesi in response to the maturation hormone 1-methyl adenine. During fertilization of the same, matured, A. forbesi oocyte there is a large increase in intracellular-free calcium. The calcium concentration increases to approx.1 ..mu..M at the point of insemination and the region of elevated free calcium expands across the oocyte in approx.20 s (17-19/sup 0/C). After the entire oocyte reaches an elevated concentration of free calcium, the concentration decreases uniformly throughout the oocyte over the next several minutes.

  11. Acute biochemical variations induced by two different calcium salts in healthy perimenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gonnelli, S; Cepollaro, C; Camporeale, A; Nardi, P; Rossi, S; Gennari, C

    1995-09-01

    Despite the potential utility of calcium supplementation and the availability of many calcium supplements in the market, there are few data concerning the absorbability of different calcium salts in different conditions. We have compared the acute metabolic responses following oral administration of calcium citrate (CC) or calcium gluconolactate and carbonate (CGC) given to 20 healthy perimenopausal women (aged 48-55 years). Ten women received two effervescent tablets of CC (each containing 500 mg of calcium) and 10 women received two effervescent tablets of CGC (each containing 500 mg of calcium). Before and on an hourly basis for 6 hours, serum total and ionized calcium, phosphate, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured. Urinary calcium and creatinine were also measured. Both calcium salts induced significant increase in serum total and ionized calcium and in urinary calcium excretion; they also significantly reduced circulating levels of iPTH. The analysis of ionized calcium and iPTH response curves to CC and CGC administration revealed a significantly greater bioavailability of CC compared with CGC. Our data suggest that CC could be prefered to CGC for its characteristics of absorbability and bioavailability. PMID:8574932

  12. Serum globulin electrophoresis

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels of proteins called globulins in the fluid (serum) part of a blood sample. Other electrophoresis tests that measure proteins in the serum include: Immunoelectrophoresis Immunfixation Protein electrophoresis

  13. Effects of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate on toxicity in ICR mice and on bone mineral density in an ovariectomized mice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Sherry; Chen, Jin Ching; Hsu, Chin Wei; Chang, Walter H.

    2009-09-01

    Taking calcium supplements can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are not readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is expected to resolve this problem. In the present study, we examined whether the bioavailability of calcium carbonate and calcium citrate can be improved by reducing the particle size. The morphology of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate was characterized by dynamic laser-light scattering (DLS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The measurements obtained from DLS, FE-SEM and TEM were comparable. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity tests were performed to establish the safety of these products after oral administration. The no-observed-adverse-effect levels of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate were 1.3 and 2.3 g kg-1 body weight, respectively. The results of our in vivo studies indicate that administering nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate can enhance the serum calcium concentration and maintain the whole-body bone mineral density in ovariectomized mice. These data suggest that nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate are more bioavailable than micro calcium carbonate and micro calcium citrate, respectively.

  14. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  15. Oral phosphate binders in CKD - is calcium the (only) answer?

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, David; Covic, Adrian

    2014-06-01

    All-cause mortality and cardiovascular- related mortality have both been linked to abnormal serum phosphate concentrations in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Aberrant serum phosphate concentration in patients with CKD has also been associated with adverse cardiac and renal outcomes. Early prevention or management of rising or high serum phosphate concentrations in patients with CKD is now considered to be an important intervention to prevent downstream complications resulting from the poor management of serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH). It is widely considered that starting phosphate binder therapy early, with concurrent dietary management of serum phosphate, constitutes an effective course of interventions, although normalization of serum phosphate in dialysis patients remains atypical, unless specific dialytic measures are also undertaken. Calcium- based phosphate binders are often the first type of binders prescribed due to their low cost. Evidence shows that most phosphate binders are roughly equally effective in lowering serum phosphate concentrations in adults compared to placebo, with a small probability that sevelamer hydrochloride is better than calcium acetate or lanthanum carbonate. However, not all binders are created equal in regards to their safety profiles. The potential for accumulations and toxicities does exist with very long-term continuous exposure. We discuss these issues in the course of this review. PMID:25017668

  16. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... calcium, but dairy products are the best source. Milk and dairy products such as yogurt, cheeses, and ... calcium that your body can easily absorb. Whole milk (4% fat) is recommended for children ages 1 ...

  17. Calcium and magnesium disorders.

    PubMed

    Goff, Jesse P

    2014-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a clinical disorder that can be life threatening to the cow (milk fever) and predisposes the animal to various other metabolic and infectious disorders. Calcium homeostasis is mediated primarily by parathyroid hormone, which stimulates bone calcium resorption and renal calcium reabsorption. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to enhance diet calcium absorption. High dietary cation-anion difference interferes with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Hypomagnesemia reduces tissue response to parathyroid hormone. PMID:24980727

  18. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  19. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the roles of calcium and vitamin D in bone health. Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling and it also affects bone mass through its impact on the remodeling rate. Typically, about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and ...

  20. Lasting effects of glutamate on nuclear calcium concentration in cultured rat hippocampal neurons: regulation by calcium stores.

    PubMed Central

    Korkotian, E; Segal, M

    1996-01-01

    1. Changes in free intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) were measured in the nucleus and perinuclear regions of cultured rat hippocampal neurons using either fura-2 or fluo-3 calcium indicators. 2. Brief application of glutamate caused a transient rise of [Ca2+]i in all cell compartments, which recovered to pre-drug levels in all but the nuclear region. The new, higher level of nuclear calcium ([Ca2+]n) was sustained for as long as the cell was monitored. 3. The new level of [Ca2+]n was dependent on the magnitude of the calcium transient, and was higher in older cells in culture, but it did not affect responses to subsequent applications of glutamate. 4. The sustained elevation of [Ca2+]n was prevented by drugs which affect calcium stores (caffeine, ryanodine and Ruthenium Red), indicating that an extranuclear calcium store interacts with [Ca2+]n. Images Figure 1 Figure 8 PMID:8910194

  1. SERUM CHEMISTRY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF BROWN BULLHEADS (AMEIURUS NEBULOSUS) FROM THE BUFFALO AND NIAGARA RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH). ignificant increases in serum BUN, uric acid, triglycerides inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL, calcium and iron and ...

  2. Serum Iron Markers in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vagu, Codruta; Sultana, Camelia; Ruta, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) often have elevated serum iron markers, which may worsen liver injury. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlations between iron metabolism serum markers, HCV viral load, and liver disease severity in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Patients and Methods Eighty five patients with untreated hepatitis C chronic infection were investigated. Results Twenty one patients (24.7%) had elevated serum iron levels, and 29 subjects (34.1%) had severe liver fibrosis. Significantly elevated levels of serum iron (P < 0.05) and ferritin (P < 0.001), associated with lower levels of TIBC (P < 0.05) were detected in patients with severe fibrosis compared to no/mild fibrosis. Severe necroinflammatory activity was also significantly correlated with serum iron (P < 0.001), TIBC (P < 0.05), and ferritin levels (P < 0.001). Using multiple linear regression analysis, serum levels of ferritin and transferrin were the independent variables selected as being good predictors for advanced fibrosis and severe necroinflammatory activity. No significant correlations were detected between HCV viral load and iron markers. Conclusions This study revealed that serum iron markers (especially ferritin and transferrin) might be used as surrogate markers for both liver fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity.Patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) often have elevated serum iron markers, which may worsen liver injury. PMID:24348638

  3. Membrane associated complexes in calcium dynamics modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szopa, Piotr; Dyzma, Michał; Kaźmierczak, Bogdan

    2013-06-01

    Mitochondria not only govern energy production, but are also involved in crucial cellular signalling processes. They are one of the most important organelles determining the Ca2+ regulatory pathway in the cell. Several mathematical models explaining these mechanisms were constructed, but only few of them describe interplay between calcium concentrations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cytoplasm and mitochondria. Experiments measuring calcium concentrations in mitochondria and ER suggested the existence of cytosolic microdomains with locally elevated calcium concentration in the nearest vicinity of the outer mitochondrial membrane. These intermediate physical connections between ER and mitochondria are called MAM (mitochondria-associated ER membrane) complexes. We propose a model with a direct calcium flow from ER to mitochondria, which may be justified by the existence of MAMs, and perform detailed numerical analysis of the effect of this flow on the type and shape of calcium oscillations. The model is partially based on the Marhl et al model. We have numerically found that the stable oscillations exist for a considerable set of parameter values. However, for some parameter sets the oscillations disappear and the trajectories of the model tend to a steady state with very high calcium level in mitochondria. This can be interpreted as an early step in an apoptotic pathway.

  4. Role of the calcium-sensing receptor in calcium regulation of epidermal differentiation and function

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Chia-Ling; Bikle, Daniel D

    2013-01-01

    The epidermis is a stratified squamous epithelium composed of proliferating basal and differentiated suprabasal keratinocytes. It serves as the body’s major physical and chemical barrier against infection and harsh environmental insults, as well as preventing excess water loss from the body into the atmosphere. Calcium is a key regulator of the proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes. Elevated extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o) raises the levels of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i), promotes cell-cell adhesion, and activates differentiation-related genes. Keratinocytes deficient in the calcium-sensing receptor fail to respond to [Ca2+]o stimulation and to differentiate, indicating a role for the calcium-sensing receptor in transducing the [Ca2+]o signal during differentiation. The concepts derived from in vitro gene knockdown experiments have been evaluated and confirmed in three mouse models in vivo. PMID:23856269

  5. [Chronic kidney disease and cellular calcium homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Lajdová, I; Okša, A; Spustová, A; Dzúrik, R

    2012-01-01

    Free intracellular calcium represents a critical signaling mediator in a number of biological systems. Calcium cations (Ca2+) are an important ubiquitous messenger, controlling a broad range of cellular processes. Free cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is controlled by mechanisms that regulate Ca2+ entry from the extracellular space and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, and by the activity of ATP-dependent Ca2+ pumps and antiporters that move Ca2+ back into stores or out of cells. Chronic kidney disease is associated with a significant elevation in [Ca2+]i which is toxic to the cells and may be responsible for a multiple organ dysfunction. Disturbances in cellular calcium homeostasis in patients with chronic kidney disease represent a complex process. Our studies elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms of altered cellular calcium homeostasis in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells which represent the model of nonexcitable cells in patients with chronic kidney disease. The results demonstrate that [Ca2+]i is significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells already in early stages of chronic kidney disease. The calcium concentration of intracellular stores and the capacitative calcium entry into the cells of these patients are significantly higher in comparison with healthy volunteers. Also the pore-forming P2X7 receptors participate in increased [Ca2+]i in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic kidney disease. An altered P2X7 receptor function and increased P2X7 receptor expression may contribute to the complex disturbances in intracellular calcium homeostasis in chronic kidney disease. On the other hand, the activity of plasmatic membrane Ca2+-ATPases which is responsible for removing excessive calcium out of the cell, was found to be decreased by 25 % when compared to healthy subjects. It means that not only the mechanisms of entry, but also of the removal are impaired by the disease. All these alterations in calcium signaling are contributing very likely to the elevated [Ca2+]i from early stages of chronic kidney disease. PMID:23067162

  6. Serum Klotho Levels in Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mostafidi, Elmira; Moeen, Akbar; Nasri, Hamid; Ghorbani Hagjo, Amir; Ardalan, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Klotho is an anti-aging protein that is predominantly secreted by the kidneys. Objectives: The aim of the study was to measure and compare the circulating Klotho levels in the serum of trained athletes and in healthy, non-athlete controls. Materials and Methods: Thirty trained football players were enrolled and their serum Klotho levels were measured the morning after their last evening exercise training. Results: The plasma free Klotho concentration was significantly higher in the athlete group (3.375 ± 1.48 ng/mL) compared to the non-athletes (1.39 ± 0.43 ng/mL) (P < 0.05). Serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, and phosphorus were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions: Regular aerobic exercise could increase plasma Klotho levels, and this could be an explanation for exercise-related anti-aging effects. PMID:26981496

  7. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A.

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  8. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  9. Effect of vitamin D and calcium on periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Hildebolt, Charles F

    2005-09-01

    The anthropological record indicates that we are exposed to considerably less ultraviolet radiation (required for the synthesis of vitamin D) and consume considerably less calcium than did our early ancestors. Most U.S. citizens have calcium intakes and serum levels of vitamin D far below recommended values. This is despite there having been extensive evidence that optimal calcium and vitamin D intakes not only benefit our postcranial bone health but also have many other health benefits. Numerous articles indicate that vitamin D and calcium deficiencies result in bone loss and increased inflammation, which are well recognized symptoms of periodontal disease. For more than 40 years, investigators have suggested that calcium intake may be associated with alveolar bone resorption, and more recently there have been a number of studies in which investigators have suggested that calcium and vitamin D may benefit periodontal health, and it has been suggested that calcium deficiency may be a risk factor for periodontal disease. There has not, however, been a vitamin-D-calcium-periodontitis clinical trial in which randomization and masking were carefully controlled, the periodontal disease status of patients known, periodontal disease measures were the primary outcomes, and levels of intake optimized to produce maximal effects. Such research might demonstrate that calcium and vitamin D are important adjuncts to standard treatments for preventing and treating periodontal disease. PMID:16171451

  10. Effects of Lowering Dialysate Calcium Concentration on Mineral and Bone Disorders in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: Conversion from 3.0 mEq/L to 2.75 mEq/L.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Ueki, Kenji; Tokumoto, Masanori; Suehiro, Takaichi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Masatomo; Fujimi, Satoru; Kitazono, Takanari; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko

    2016-02-01

    Selection of a lower dialysate calcium concentration (DCa) can reduce calcium burden and prevent vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients. However, decreased DCa can worsen mineral and bone disorders. This 1-year retrospective observational study evaluated 121 hemodialysis patients at Fukuoka Renal Clinic who underwent conversion of DCa from 3.0 mEq/L to 2.75 mEq/L. The primary outcomes were changes in serum levels of calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). The effects of baseline serum calcium and PTH levels on changes in biochemical parameters were also determined. One year after DCa conversion, mean serum calcium level decreased, while serum phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, and PTH concentrations increased. The rate of achievement of target PTH was higher in patients with lower serum PTH level at baseline, while patients with higher baseline serum PTH level tended to exceed the upper limit of the PTH target range. Patients with higher baseline serum calcium concentration showed a greater decrease in serum calcium level and a greater increase in serum PTH level at 1 year. Patients with a lower baseline serum PTH level can benefit from optimal PTH control following conversion of DCa from 3.0 mEq/L to 2.75 mEq/L. However, secondary hyperparathyroidism may be exacerbated in some patients with higher baseline serum calcium (Ca) and PTH levels. These results indicate that an individualized approach can maximize the benefits of Ca unloading after conversion to lower DCa. PMID:26482334

  11. Calcium-Vitamin D Co-supplementation Affects Metabolic Profiles, but not Pregnancy Outcomes, in Healthy Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Zatollah; Samimi, Mansooreh; Siavashani, Mehrnush Amiri; Mazloomi, Maryam; Tabassi, Zohreh; Karamali, Maryam; Jamilian, Mehri; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy is associated with unfavorable metabolic profile, which might in turn result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of calcium plus Vitamin D administration on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in healthy pregnant women. Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed among 42 pregnant women aged 18–40 years who were at week 25 of gestation. Subjects were randomly allocated to consume either 500 mg calcium-200 IU cholecalciferol supplements (n = 21) or placebo (n = 21) for 9 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at the onset of the study and after 9-week trial to determine related markers. Post-delivery, the newborn's weight, length, and head circumference were measured during the first 24 h after birth. Results: Consumption of calcium-Vitamin D co-supplements resulted in a significant reduction of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels compared with placebo (−1856.8 ± 2657.7 vs. 707.1 ± 3139.4 μg/mL, P = 0.006). We also found a significant elevation of plasma total antioxidant capacity (89.3 ± 118.0 vs. −9.4 ± 164.9 mmol/L, P = 0.03), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (2.5 ± 3.5 vs. −1.7 ± 1.7 ng/mL, P < 0.0001), and calcium levels (0.6 ± 0.6 vs. −0.1 ± 0.4 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). The supplementation led to a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure (−1.9 ± 8.3 vs. 3.1 ± 5.2 mmHg, P = 0.02) compared with placebo. No significant effect of calcium-Vitamin D co-supplements was seen on other metabolic profiles. We saw no significant change of the co-supplementation on pregnancy outcomes as well. Conclusions: Although calcium-Vitamin D co-supplementation for 9 weeks in pregnant women resulted in improved metabolic profiles, it did not affect pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27076887

  12. Effects of exposure to cadmium on calcium metabolism: a population study.

    PubMed Central

    Staessen, J; Amery, A; Bernard, A; Bruaux, P; Buchet, J P; Claeys, F; De Plaen, P; Ducoffre, G; Fagard, R; Lauwerys, R R

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may affect