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Sample records for elevated serum calcium

  1. Trace mineral interactions during elevated calcium consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.T.; Luhrsen, K.R.

    1986-03-01

    Elevated calcium consumption is reported to affect trace mineral bioavailability. The authors examined this phenomenon in both single dose radio-label test meals and an eight week feeding trial in rats. In the single dose studies, human milk, cows milk, and various calcium sources were examined in relation to radio-iron and radio-zinc retention. /sup 59/Fe retention was greater from human milk than cows milk. However, when the calcium content of human milk was adjusted (with CaHPO/sub 4/ or CaCO/sub 3/) to equal the level in cows milk, iron retention was depressed. Similarly, when calcium sources (CaCO/sub 3/, CaHPO/sub 4/, hydroxy-apatite, bone meal) were examined at different calcium:metal molar ratios, the degree of inhibition on metal retention varied. In general, phosphate salts were more inhibiting than carbonates. In the feeding trial, calcium was fed in diets at normal (0.5%) or elevated (1.5%) levels. Serum, liver, kidney, and bone trace mineral profiles were obtained. In general, most trace elements showed decreased levels in the tissues. Zinc and iron were most striking, followed by magnesium with minor changes in copper. A high calcium:high mineral supplemented group was also fed. Mixed mineral supplementation prevented all calcium interactions. These data indicate the importance of calcium mineral interactions in bioavailability considerations in both milk sources and in mineral supplementation.

  2. Safety of daily teriparatide treatment: a post hoc analysis of a Phase III study to investigate the possible association of teriparatide treatment with calcium homeostasis in patients with serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide elevation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takanori; Tsujimoto, Mika; Sowa, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Objective Serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), a representative marker of bone anabolic action, is strongly related to bone mineral density during teriparatide therapy. This post hoc study analyzed data from a Phase III study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00433160) to determine if there was an association between serum PINP elevation and serum calcium concentration or calcium metabolism-related disorders. Research design and methods Japanese subjects with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture were randomized 2:1 to teriparatide 20 μg/day (n=137) or placebo (n=70) for a 12-month double-blind treatment period, followed by 12 months of open-label teriparatide treatment of all subjects. Main outcome measures Serum PINP levels were measured at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of treatment. Serum calcium levels were measured at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 months of treatment. Results Serum PINP increased from baseline to 1 month of treatment and then remained high through 24 months. Twenty-eight of 195 subjects experienced PINP elevations >200 μg/L during teriparatide treatment. Serum calcium concentration in both the teriparatide and placebo groups remained within the normal range. There was no clinically relevant difference in serum calcium concentration between subjects with PINP >200 μg/L and subjects with PINP ≤200 μg/L. Two subjects experienced hypercalcemia and recovered without altering teriparatide treatment. Adverse events possibly related to calcium metabolism disorders included periarthritis calcarea (one subject) and chondrocalcinosis pyrophosphate (two subjects), but neither was accompanied with a significant increase in PINP or serum calcium concentration. Conclusion Although the moderate size of this study prevented statistical analysis of any potential association between calcium metabolism-related disorders and elevated PINP, this analysis suggests that there was no association between serum PINP elevation during daily teriparatide treatment and serum calcium concentration or calcium metabolism-related disorders in Japanese subjects. PMID:26185429

  3. Abnormalities of serum calcium and magnesium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neonatal hypocalcemia is defined as a total serum calcium concentration of <7 mg/dL or an ionized calcium concentration of <4 mg/dL (1mmol/L). In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, ionized calcium values of 0.8 to 1 mmol/L are common and not usually associated with clinical symptoms. In larger in...

  4. Rapid and precise analysis for calcium in blood serum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, R. B.; Ilcewicz, F. H.

    1969-01-01

    Differential absorption spectrophotometric technique, using murexide, gives a highly precise analysis of calcium in volumes of blood serum as small as 0.01 ml. The method of additions and proper timing allows compensation to be made for fading, variation in type of serum or plasma, and aging of the specimen.

  5. Effects of elevated lead and cadmium burdens on renal function and calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, A.; Parkinson, D.K.; Fetterolf, D.E.; Puschett, J.B.; Ellis, K.J.; Wielopolski, L.; Vaswani, A.N.; Cohn, S.H.; Landrigan, P.J.

    1986-03-01

    To assess the pathophysiologic significance of increased body burdens of lead and cadmium, detailed renal function studies and evaluation of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D metabolism were carried out in 38 industrial workers exposed to lead and cadmium for 11 to 37 yr. Body burden of lead, as assessed by x-ray fluorescence measurement of tibia lead content, was elevated in 58% of the men and, when assessed by excretion of lead after Ca-EDTA infusion, was elevated in 36%. Liver or kidney cadmium burden, as assessed by neutron activation analysis, was elevated in 31%. Creatinine clearance was normal in all workers. One worker was hyperuricemic and two were proteinuric; three had increased beta 2 microglobulin excretion and one had diminished urinary acidifying ability. Maximal urinary concentrating ability was abnormal in a significant fraction, i.e., 52% of the men. Individuals with a high lead burden had a slight decrease in mean serum phosphorus but no accompanying phosphaturia. There was no abnormality of serum calcium. Twenty-two percent of subjects were hypercalciuric and two had low vitamin D levels, but these abnormalities bore no relation to heavy metal burden. In this carefully characterized group of men with chronic lead and calcium exposure, definite, if subclinical, effects on renal function and serum phosphorus but not calcium or vitamin D metabolism were demonstrable.

  6. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C.; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S.; Irace, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk. Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods. We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women. Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  7. Variant Prostate Carcinoma and Elevated Serum CA-125

    PubMed Central

    Bilen, Mehmet Asim; Reyes, Adriana; Bhowmick, Deb; Maa, April; Bast, Robert; Pisters, Louis L.; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Tu, Shi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction About 10% of tumors derived from nongynecologic, noncoelomic tissues react with the OC125 antibody. Some patients with advanced prostate cancer were found to have elevated serum CA-125 level. Materials and Methods We examined the clinical history of 11 patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and an elevated serum CA-125 level. Pathological review and immunohistochemical staining were performed on tumors from 8 of these patients. Results Patients with advanced prostate cancer and an elevated serum CA-125 level responded to androgen ablative therapy (median duration, 27 months). They were predisposed to develop persistent or recurrent urinary symptoms and visceral metastases. Eight of 11 patients had a low or undetectable serum prostate-specific antigen level (?4 ng/ml) or an elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen level (>6 ng/ml). In 3 of 7 patients whose specimens were available for further review, the tumors contained histologic features compatible with a diagnosis of ductal or endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Conclusions Patients with prostate cancer and an elevated serum CA-125 level have unique clinical and pathologic characteristics. Some of these patients possess tumors compatible with a subtype of prostate cancer known as ductal adenocarcinoma. Additional studies need to be performed to elucidate the biologic basis of the various subtypes of prostate cancer. PMID:25347368

  8. Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate for the control of serum phosphorus in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Almirall, J; Veciana, L; Llibre, J

    1994-01-01

    Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that calcium acetate (CaAC) is a more effective phosphorus binder than, among other calcium salts, calcium carbonate (CaCO3). More efficient binding allows serum phosphorus to be controlled with a lower dose; moreover, less calcium seems to be absorbed when CaAC is used. These properties could reduce the incidence of hypercalcemia; however, in clinical practice few reports have compared these two calcium salts, and results disagree. We evaluated in a 24-week prospective cross-over study the clinical efficiency of CaCO3 and CaAC in 10 selected chronic hemodialysis patients. Only 7 patients completed the study period. The patients were randomly assigned to start treatment with one of the two calcium salts; after 12 weeks they shifted to the other treatment. Serum analytical tests included weekly control of calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase. PTH values (intact molecule) were obtained initially and at the end of every study period. The same good control of the phosphorus level (4.79 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.94 +/- 0.8 mg/dl) was obtained with CaAC (mean doses 4.1 +/- 0.3 g/day) as with CaCO3 (mean doses 4.01 +/- 0.8 g/day). The mean serum calcium levels were similar (10.36 +/- 0.5 vs. 10.20 +/- 0.5 mg/dl). The dose of elemental calcium administered was significantly less with CaAC (957 +/- 83 mg/day) than with CaCO3 (1,590 +/- 317 mg/day). However, the incidence of hypercalcemia (Ca > 11 mg/dl) was similar during the two treatment periods (13% with CaAC vs. 14% with CaCO3). Also the incidence of Ca x P products 765 was comparable (9.5 vs. 11.9%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7977479

  9. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels are elevated in South Indian patients with ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Rajasree, S; Rajpal, K; Kartha, C C; Sarma, P S; Kutty, V R; Iyer, C S; Girija, G

    2001-01-01

    Several lines of evidence point to a possible relationship between vitamin D and cardiovascular disease. Animal experiments and observational studies in humans suggest vitamin D to be arteriotoxic and an association of high intake of vitamin D with increased incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD). The major source of vitamin D in adults is vitamin D synthesized in the skin through exposure to the sun. In tropical environment there is a possibility of high level of solar exposure and enhanced serum levels of vitamin D in the population. We explored the relation between serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and IHD in a case-control study involving 143 patients with either angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease or patients with acute myocardial infarction and 70 controls, all men in the age group of 45-65 years. Fasting blood samples were collected, serum separated and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was measured by protein binding radioligand assay. Serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium, magnesium and inorganic phosphate were also determined. Prevalences of diabetes, hypertension and smoking history were noted. Statistical comparisons of variables between cases and controls were done using chi2-tests. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to examine the association of IHD with serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 controlling for selected variables. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, calcium, inorganic phosphate, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and triglycerides were elevated in a higher proportion of patients, compared to controls. Serum levels of 25-OH-D3 above 222.5 nmol/l (89 ng/ml) was observed in 59.4% of cases compared to 22.1% in controls (p < 0.001; unadjusted odds ratio (OR): 5.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.62-10.21). When controlled for age and selected variables using the multivariate logistic regression, the adjusted OR relating elevated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels (> or = 222.5 nmol/l, > or = 89 ng/ml) and IHD is 3.18 (95% CI: 1.31-7.73). Given the evidences for the arteriotoxicity of vitamin D, further investigations are warranted to probe whether the elevated serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 observed in patients with IHD in a tropical environment has any pathogenic significance. PMID:11949730

  10. Serum Calcium Concentration Is Inversely Associated With Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Gao, Shu-Guang; Li, Yu-Sheng; Luo, Wei; Xiao, Wen-Feng; Xiong, Yi-Lin; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To examine the relationship between serum calcium (Ca) concentration and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study covered a total of 2855 subjects. The serum Ca concentration was detected by the Arsenazo III method. The radiographic OA of the knee was defined as changes equivalent to Kellgren–Lawrence grade 2 on 1 side at least. The serum Ca concentration was categorized into 4 quartiles, which are ≤2.27, 2.28–2.34, 2.35–2.41, and ≥2.42 mmol/L, respectively. The relationship between serum Ca and radiographic knee OA was examined using the multivariable logistic analysis after adjusting a series of potential confounding factors. For each quartile of the relationship between serum Ca concentration and radiographic knee OA, the OR with 95% CI was calculated, and the one with the lowest value was considered to be the reference. An inverse association existed between serum Ca concentration and radiographic OA of the knee in the multivariable model and the model where the factors of age, sex, and BMI were adjusted. The multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) for radiographic knee OA in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of serum Ca concentration were 1.05 (95% CI: 0.83–1.31), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.80–1.27), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.62–1.00), respectively, in comparison with the reference (first) quartile. A trend approaching to statistical significant (P = 0.06) was observed. Meanwhile, the relative odds of radiographic OA of the knee were decreased by 0.79 times in the fourth quartile in comparison with the reference. There is likely to be an inverse association between serum Ca concentration and radiographic OA of the knee. PMID:26871857

  11. Elevated Serum S-Adenosylhomocysteine in Cobalamin Deficient Megaloblastic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Guerra-Shinohara, Elvira M.; Morita, Olga E.; Pagliusi, Regina A.; Blaia-dAvila, Vera L.; Allen, Robert H.; Stabler, Sally P.

    2007-01-01

    Impaired methylation due to accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) may contribute to the pathophysiology of cobalamin deficient anemia. We assayed serum S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), SAH, total homocysteine (tHcy), and methylmalonic acid (MMA) in 15 subjects with cobalamin deficient megaloblastic anemia and compared results to 19 subjects with anemia/pancytopenia due to other causes. Cobalamin deficient subjects had a median hematocrit of 20% and mean cell volume of 111.7 fL. The median serum cobalamin was 37 pg/mL, MMA 3030 nmol/L and tHcy 62.0 umol/L. SAH was elevated in 13 of 15 subjects (median value 42 nmol/L) and the median SAM was normal (103 nmol/L) but SAM/SAH ratio was low, 2.5. The SAH was higher and SAM/SAH ratio lower in cobalamin deficient subjects as compared to those with other anemias after excluding 4 patients with renal insufficiency. SAM concentrations were not low in cobalamin deficiency. Cobalamin injections corrected anemia, MMA, tHcy, SAM/SAH ratio and SAH. Some hematologic variables were inversely correlated with SAH and cobalamin but not tHcy or MMA. In conclusion, serum SAH is elevated in cobalamin deficient subjects with megaloblastic anemia and corrects with parenteral cobalamin therapy. PMID:17292722

  12. Preadipocyte proliferation is elevated by calcium sensing receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Gladys; Villalobos, Elisa; Fuentes, Cecilia; Villarroel, Pia; Reyes, Marcela; Daz, Ximena; Mattar, Pamela; Cifuentes, Mariana

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is a major worldwide problem, despite considerable efforts against it. While excess body fat defines obesity, adipose tissue quality and functionality are key to whether cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities develop. Adipose tissue cellular composition can vary considerably, and excess adipocyte progenitors (preadipocytes) is associated with obesity. We have proposed that calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) activation in adipose tissue leads to dysfunction. This study evaluated whether CaSR activation elevates preadipocyte proliferation. Human LS14 preadipocytes were exposed to CaSR activators cinacalcet (2?M), GdCl3 (5?M) and spermine (1?M), and cell viability was evaluated after 72h. CaSR activators elevated proliferation by 19-24%, and CaSR silencing (siRNA) abolished the effect. Cinacalcet elevated phospho-ERK1/2 content, and upstream inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation reverted cinacalcet-induced proliferation. Cinacalcet also elevated expression of the proinflammatory factors IL1?, IL6 and CCL2. The results suggest that CaSR induces preadipocyte proliferation, partly through ERK1/2 activation. Considering reported proinflammatory and adipogenic CaSR effects, excess preadipocyte proliferation further supports the dysfunctional effect of CaSR in obesity. PMID:25986659

  13. Effect of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum sclerostin has been inversely associated with serum 25OHD concentration, but the effect of supplementation with vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin is unknown. This study was done to determine whether supplementation altered serum sclerostin levels in healthy older adults. We measured s...

  14. Correlation of Serum and Ionized Calcium in Patients with Calcium Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Milicevic, Snjezana; Bijelic, Radojka; Jakovljevic, Branislava; Krivokuca, Marija; Krivokuca, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pathogenesis of kidney stones includes many factors, whereas uroliths, as a generic term for kidney stones, are of a different composition. In pathogenesis of calcium urolithiasis hypercalcemia/hypercalciuria takes a significant place. Hypercalcemia exists when the serum calcium is of increased values, along with measurement and calculation of physiologically active calcium, when there are differences in the Ph of the blood or albumin. Goal: the goal of this research is to determine the correlation of values of the serum (CaS) and ionized calcium (Ca++) in patients with the calcium nephrolithiasis, whom have been established not to have hyperparathyroidism and malign diseases. Material and methods: the research was prospective and implemented at the Clinical Center in Banja Luka, at the Urology Clinic, in the period between 1st April 2012 1st January 2013 and it included 120 patients with the calcium lithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract, divided into three age categories. Diagnosis of the calcium lithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract was established on the basis of the ultrasonography of the urinary tract as well as native urinary tract/intravenous urography and chemical analysis of the stone in patients with spontaneous stone emission or after some of the methods for active removal of the stone. Chemical laboratory analysis of the serum and ionized calcium was done for all the patients, with 3ml of blood being taken for establishing the aforementioned parameters (1-2 ml of the serum) in vacuumed test tubes or glass tubes of capillary blood. Increased parathormone values (PHT) and history of malignity were excluding factors. Results: out of the 120 patients observed, Cs(S) had the value in the reference interval with most of them, that is, in 110 patients (91.7%). Those, whose value was out of the interval, are of an older age (all above 40). Average value of this parameter amounted to 2.3017, with an average difference (the standard deviation) of 0.11391. Observing the value of Ca++, the value within the reference interval was found in 106 patients (88.3%). Out of the remaining 14 patients, only two simultaneously had the value of Ca(S) out of the permitted interval. The majority of this group consisted of older patients (a half of those whose values were outside the interval was over 60). Average value of Ca++ amounted to 1.22 mmol/L with an average difference of 0.06454. In the 2 aforementioned patients, who simultaneously had increased values of CaS and Ca++, the blood Ph was within the referential value limits, which suggests that, in line with the hyporcalcemia definition, only 2 patients with nephrolithiasis, in the total sample of 120 patients of our research sample, could have had a true hypercalcemia. Conclusion: the biggest number of patients with the calcium urolithiasis, who do not have hyperparathyroidism and history of malign diseases, do not have a real hypercalcemia. PMID:25568551

  15. Relationships between coronary heart disease risk factors and serum ionized calcium in Kennedy Space Center Cohort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Lisa Ann; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Merz, Marion P.; Alford, William R.

    1987-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) employees are reported to be at high risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Risk factors for CHD include high serum total cholesterol levels, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), elevated triglyceride, smoking, inactivity, high blood pressure, being male, and being older. Higher dietary and/or serum calcium Ca(++) may be related to a lower risk for CHD. Fifty men and 37 women participated. Subjects were tested in the morning after fasting 12 hours. Information relative to smoking and exercise habits was obtained; seated blood pressures were measured; and blood drawn. KCS men had higher risk values than KCS women as related to HDLC, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Smoking and nonsmoking groups did not differ for other risk factors or for serum Ca(++) levels. Exercise and sedentary groups differed in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Serum Ca(++) levels were related to age, increasing with age in the sedentary group and decreasing in the exercisers, equally for men and women. It is concluded that these relationships may be significant to the risk of CHD and/or the risk of bone demineralization in an aging population.

  16. Widespread foreign-body granulomas and elevated serum angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    PubMed

    Pucevich, M V; Rosenberg, E W; Bale, G F; Terzakis, J A

    1983-03-01

    A patient had extensive foreign-body granulomatous inflammation of multiple skin sites and of the inguinal lymph nodes with splenomegaly, cutaneous anergy to common skin antigens, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. The patient had an elevated serum angiotensin-converting enzyme level. Histologically, the granulomas were of the foreign-body type with lymphocytes, histiocytes, eosinophils, and giant cells, some that contained doubly refractile crystalline material. Electron-probe x-ray microanalysis identified silicon, magnesium, iron, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, titanium, and chromium in the crystalline material. These findings suggest talc, cement, and inorganic pigment as possible sources of the crystals. This case is reported for its unusual clinical, laboratory, and morphologic features. PMID:6297413

  17. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum.

    PubMed

    Cross, James H; Bradbury, Richard S; Fulford, Anthony J; Jallow, Amadou T; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M; Cerami, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4 h after oral supplementation with 2 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially scavenges heme iron, was unaffected. These data suggest that even modest oral supplements with highly soluble (non-physiological) iron, as typically used in low-income settings, could promote bacteremia by accelerating early phase bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses. PMID:26593732

  18. Oral iron acutely elevates bacterial growth in human serum

    PubMed Central

    Cross, James H.; Bradbury, Richard S.; Fulford, Anthony J.; Jallow, Amadou T.; Wegmüller, Rita; Prentice, Andrew M.; Cerami, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and routine supplementation is standard policy for pregnant mothers and children in most low-income countries. However, iron lies at the center of host-pathogen competition for nutritional resources and recent trials of iron administration in African and Asian children have resulted in significant excesses of serious adverse events including hospitalizations and deaths. Increased rates of malaria, respiratory infections, severe diarrhea and febrile illnesses of unknown origin have all been reported, but the mechanisms are unclear. We here investigated the ex vivo growth characteristics of exemplar sentinel bacteria in adult sera collected before and 4 h after oral supplementation with 2 mg/kg iron as ferrous sulfate. Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (all gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (gram-positive) showed markedly elevated growth in serum collected after iron supplementation. Growth rates were very strongly correlated with transferrin saturation (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially scavenges heme iron, was unaffected. These data suggest that even modest oral supplements with highly soluble (non-physiological) iron, as typically used in low-income settings, could promote bacteremia by accelerating early phase bacterial growth prior to the induction of immune defenses. PMID:26593732

  19. Nutritional impact of elevated calcium transport activity in carrots

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jay; Hawthorne, Keli M.; Hotze, Tim; Abrams, Steven A.; Hirschi, Kendal D.

    2008-01-01

    Nutrition recommendations worldwide emphasize ingestion of plant-based diets rather than diets that rely primarily on animal products. However, this plant-based diet could limit the intake of essential nutrients such as calcium. Osteoporosis is one of the world's most prevalent nutritional disorders, and inadequate dietary calcium is a known contributor to the pathophysiology of this condition. Previously, we have modified carrots to express increased levels of a plant calcium transporter (sCAX1), and these plants contain ?2-fold-higher calcium content in the edible portions of the carrots. However, it was unproven whether this change would increase the total amount of bioavailable calcium. In randomized trials, we labeled these modified carrots with isotopic calcium and fed them to mice and humans to assess calcium bioavailability. In mice feeding regimes (n = 120), we measured 45Ca incorporation into bones and determined that mice required twice the serving size of control carrots to obtain the calcium found in sCAX1 carrots. We used a dual-stable isotope method with 42Ca-labeled carrots and i.v. 46Ca to determine the absorption of calcium from these carrots in humans. In a cross-over study of 15 male and 15 female adults, we found that when people were fed sCAX1 and control carrots, total calcium absorption per 100 g of carrots was 41% 2% higher in sCAX1 carrots. Both the mice and human feeding studies demonstrate increased calcium absorption from sCAX1-expressing carrots compared with controls. These results demonstrate an alternative means of fortifying vegetables with bioavailable calcium. PMID:18202180

  20. Effect of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin levels

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Harris, Susan S.; Ceglia, Lisa; Palermo, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Serum sclerostin has been inversely associated with serum 25OHD concentration, but the effect of supplementation with vitamin D and calcium on serum sclerostin is unknown. This study was done to determine whether supplementation altered serum sclerostin levels in healthy older adults. Design We measured serum sclerostin at baseline and after two years in 279 men and women who participated in a placebo-controlled vitamin D (700 IU per day) and calcium (500 mg per day) intervention trial in men and women age 65 years and older. Method Serum sclerostin levels were measured by MesoScale Discovery chemiluminescence assay. Results In the men, sclerostin levels increased over 2 years by 4.11 1.81 ng/L (13.1%) in the supplemented group and decreased by 3.16 1.78 ng/L (10.9%) in the placebo group (P = 0.005 for difference in change). Adjustment for season, baseline physical activity, baseline serum sclerostin and total body bone mineral content (BMC) did not substantially alter the changes. In the women, there was no significant group difference in change in serum sclerostin either before or after the above adjustments. In both sexes, supplementation significantly increased serum ionized calcium and decreased parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Conclusion In conclusion, men and women appear to have different serum sclerostin responses to supplementation with vitamin D and calcium. The reason for this difference remains to be determined. PMID:24488080

  1. Influence of hypermagnesemia on serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels in human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Cholst, I.N.; Steinberg, S.F.; Tropper, P.J.; Fox, H.E.; Segre, G.V.; Bilezikian, J.P.

    1984-05-10

    Serum concentrations of calcium and parathyroid hormone were measured in seven pregnant women who were receiving intravenous magnesium sulfate for the suppression of premature labor. After administration of magnesium sulfate, the mean (+/- S.E.M.) serum magnesium level rose rapidly from the normal base-line level of 2.0 +/- 0.2 mg per deciliter to 6.1 +/- 0.4 mg per deciliter (0.8 +/- 0.1 to 2.5 +/- 0.2 mmol per liter) at 30 minutes and remained markedly elevated. Concentrations of total and ionized calcium fell gradually in all subjects from normal base-line concentrations, 8.6 +/- 0.2 and 4.4 +/- 0.1 mg per deciliter (2.2 +/- 0.1) and 1.1 +/- 0.03 mmol per liter), respectively, into the hypocalcemic range, reaching a nadir of 7.6 +/- 0.2 and 3.9 +/- 0.1 mg per deciliter (1.9 +/- 0.1 and 0.98 +/- 0.03 mmol per liter), respectively, at three hours. Parathyroid hormone levels fell rapidly in response to magnesium infusion, from 13.1 +/- 2.5 to 7.8 +/- 0.7 pg per milliliter at 30 minutes, and were significantly below base-line levels for two hours despite frank hypocalcemia. These results suggest that hypermagnesemia rapidly decreases the secretion of parathyroid hormone in vivo in human subjects and that parathyroid hormone levels remain depressed despite concomitant hypocalcemia. The results also suggest that the hypocalcemia associated with hypermagnesemia may be due in part to the suppressive effects of hypermagnesemia on parathyroid hormone secretion.

  2. Effects of storage time and temperature on ionized calcium concentration in equine blood, plasma, and serum.

    PubMed

    Szenci, O; Nmeth, F; Stollr, Z; Brydl, E

    1994-04-15

    Stability of ionized calcium (Ca2+) concentrations and pH values in equine venous samples (n = 12 in each group) stored at 4 C for 3, 9, 24, and 48 hours (blood, plasma, and serum) or for 240 hours (plasma and serum), and at -20 C for 240 hours (plasma and serum), was studied. Storage of equine blood, plasma, and serum samples at 4 C for up to 48 hours and of serum samples at 4 C for up to 240 hours, despite appreciable pH changes, was associated with < 1.5% change in blood, plasma, and serum Ca2+ concentrations. Therefore, Ca2+ concentration in equine blood, plasma, and serum samples stored up to 48 hours and in serum samples stored up to 240 hours at 4 C is of diagnostic use. PMID:8014093

  3. Correlation of Parathormone and the Serum Values of Acidum Uricum with Calcium Nephrolithiasis Examined by Three Different Methods of Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Milicevic, Snjezana; Bijelic, Radojka; Jakovljevic, Branislava

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Urolithiasis is a multifactorial disease. Changes in social and economic living conditions have generated changes in chemical composition of urolith too. Although calcium is a predominant crystalline constituent of kidney stones in 80% of cases, metabolic disorders are not the main reason for their formation. Hyperparathyroidism may be a cause of occurrence of calcium lithiasis, however, the biggest number of its occurrence is not a consequence of elevated values of parathormone. Acid uric has a pervasive presence in all body fluids. The serum level of acid uric is determined by its rate of synthesis, rate of excretion by kidney and gastrointestinal tract, and metabolism. Goal. The goal of our study is to determine a correlation of calcium lithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract with the parathormone values and the concomitant values of acidum uricum. Material and methods. The study was prospective and included 120 patients with calcium lithiasis of the upper part of urinary tract, divided in three age categories, 20-40 years, 40-60 years and older than 60 years. The diagnosis of calcium lithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract was made on the basis of urinary tract ultrasonography, and kidney-ureter-bladder radiography (KUB) /intravenous urography (IVU), urine culture and chemical analysis of stone with patients who had a spontaneous emission of stone or following some of the methods for active removal of stone; with some patients non-contrast (NCCT) was carried out too. All patients were subjected to the laboratory analysis of the serum level of acidum uricum and parathormone. Results. With observed 120 patients suffering from calcium urolithiasis, who belonged to adult population, no patient had an elevated value of parathormone, while three patients (2.5%) had the values of acidum uricum higher than the reference values. The average value (for both parameters) was the lowest with the youngest patients and vice versa, and only in the group of 40 to 60 years of age there were patients whose values of the acidum uricum parameter was outside the interval of reference values; the other age groups did not have such values. Based on the analysis of the variance, as a statistical method, it was determined that the average values of acidum uricum in different age groups were statistically significantly different, which is not the case for the parameter parathormone. (p>0,05). Conclusion. The biggest number of nephrolithiasis is not a consequence of elevated values of parathormone. Hyperuricosemia may be present with calcium urolithiasis, without participation in forming kidney stones, most probably as an indirect sign of the existence of the initial insulin resistance and metabolic disease. PMID:26236076

  4. Nutritional impact of elevated calcium transport activity in carrots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition recommendations worldwide emphasize ingestion of plant-based diets rather than diets that rely primarily on animal products. However, this plant-based diet could limit the intake of essential nutrients such as calcium. Osteoporosis is one of the world's most prevalent nutritional disorders...

  5. Serum Calcium Status among Pregnancies Complicated By Pre-Eclampsia in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Hoque, M R; Paul, U K; Hossain, M M

    2015-10-01

    This case control cross sectional study was carried out in the department of biochemistry, Mymensingh medical college in collaboration with the outpatient department, family planning model clinic and antenatal obstetric ward of Mymensingh medical college hospital, Mymensingh during the period of July 2003 to June 2004. The aim of the study was to explore the status of serum calcium among pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia in Bangladesh as a means to monitor the possibility of management of these patients. A total of 82 subjects were selected and were grouped as Group I (32 healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancy as control subjects) and Group II (50 pregnant women with pre-eclampsia as cases). Serum calcium was estimated by colorimetric method from each sample. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS windows package. Among the groups, meanSD (Standard Deviation) of Group I and Group II serum calcium were 8.711.00 and 10.781.44 mg/dl respectively. By comparing Group I with Group II highly significant difference were found in case of serum calcium (P<0.001). It is evident from the study that serum calcium level significantly increases among pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia in Bangladesh. PMID:26619999

  6. Low serum calcium is associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction in a Chinese population with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Ma, Heng; Hao, Xiaochen; Yang, Jun; Chen, Qiujing; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Ruiyan

    2016-01-01

    Whether serum calcium is associated with heart systolic function in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains to be elucidated. This study is aimed to assess the association between serum calcium and left ventricular systolic dysfunction in a Chinese population of CAD. The cross-sectional study included 5938 CAD patients with and without AMI in China. The factors associated with AMI and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were evaluated. The data showed that AMI patients had lower serum calcium levels (2.11 ± 0.13 vs 2.20 ± 0.10 mmol/l, P < 0.001) than those without AMI. Multiple logistic regression analysis exhibited that serum calcium (OR: 0.000, 95% CI: 0.000–0.001) was one of the independent factors correlated with AMI. CAD patients with and without AMI when LVEF <50% had lower serum calcium levels than those when LVEF ≥50% respectively. Serum calcium was independently associated with LVEF and LVEF <50% in CAD patients with and without AMI respectively using multivariate analysis. The independent association between serum calcium and LVEF still existed among CAD patients when LVEF ≥50%. Serum calcium levels are significantly decreased following AMI. Low serum calcium is independently correlated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction in CAD patients with and without AMI. PMID:26924008

  7. Calcium acetate control of serum phosphorus in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Emmett, M; Sirmon, M D; Kirkpatrick, W G; Nolan, C R; Schmitt, G W; Cleveland, M B

    1991-05-01

    Calcium acetate has many characteristics of an ideal phosphorus binder. It is a readily soluble salt that avidly binds phosphorus in vitro at pH 5 and above. One-dose/one-meal balance studies show it to be more potent than calcium carbonate or calcium citrate. We studied chronic (3-month) phosphorus binding with calcium acetate in 91 hyperphosphatemic dialysis patients at four different centers. All phosphorus binders were stopped for 2 weeks. Calcium acetate at an initial dose of 8.11 mmol (325 mg Ca2+) per meal was then used as the only phosphorus binder. Dose was adjusted to attempt control of predialysis phosphorus level less than 1.78 mmol/L (5.5 mg/100 mL). Final calcium acetate dose was 14.6 mmol (586 mg) Ca2+ per meal. Sixteen patients developed mild transient hypercalcemia (mean, 2.84 mmol/L [11.4 mg/dL]. Initial phosphorus values in mmol/L (mg/dL) were 2.39 (7.4); at 1 month, 1.91 (5.9); and at 3 months, 1.68 (5.2). Initial calcium values in mmol/L (mg/dL) were 2.22 (8.9); at 1 month, 2.37 (9.5); and at 3 months, 2.42 (9.7). Initial aluminum values in mumol/L (micrograms/L) were 2.99 (80.7); and at 3 months were 2.54 (68.4). Initial C-terminal parathyroid hormone (C-PTH) values in ng/mL were 14.6; at 1 month, 11.9; and at 3 months, 13.2. Sixty-nine patients then entered a double-blind study. Phosphorus binders were stopped for 1 week. Calcium acetate (at a dose established in a prior study) or placebo was then administered for 2 weeks. Next, patients were crossed to the opposite regimen for 2 weeks. Initial phosphorus was 2.36 mmol/L (7.3 mg/100 mL) and calcium 2.22 mmol/L (8.9 mg/100 mL).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2024656

  8. Benign elevations in serum aminotransferases and biomarkers of hepatotoxicity in healthy volunteers treated with cholestyramine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are currently no serum biomarkers capable of distinguishing elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) that portend serious liver injury potential from benign elevations such as those occurring during cholestyramine treatment. The aim of the research was to test the hypothesis that newly proposed biomarkers of hepatotoxicity would not significantly rise in serum during elevations in serum ALT associated with cholestyramine treatment, which has never been associated with clinically relevant liver injury. Methods In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, cholestyramine (8g) was administered for 11 days to healthy adult volunteers. Serum from subjects with elevations in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) exceeding three-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) were utilized for biomarker quantification. Results In 11 of 67 subjects, cholestyramine treatment resulted in ALT elevation by >3x ULN (mean 6.9 fold; range 3–28 fold). In these 11 subjects, there was a 22.4-fold mean increase in serum levels of miR-122 relative to baseline, supporting a liver origin of the serum ALT. Significant elevations were noted in mean levels of necrosis biomarkers sorbitol dehydrogenase (8.1 fold), cytokeratin 18 (2.1 fold) and HMGB1 (1.7 fold). Caspase-cleaved cytokeratin 18, a biomarker of apoptosis was also significantly elevated (1.7 fold). A rise in glutamate dehydrogenase (7.3 fold) may support mitochondrial dysfunction. Conclusion All toxicity biomarkers measured in this study were elevated along with ALT, confirming the liver origin and reflecting both hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis. Since cholestyramine treatment has no clinical liver safety concerns, we conclude that interpretation of the biomarkers studied may not be straightforward in the context of assessing liver safety of new drugs. PMID:25086653

  9. Chikungunya Virus Infection and Acute Elevation of Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, William Derval; Anzinger, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    A man with prostate cancer on a regime of active surveillance had a laboratory-confirmed acute Chikungunya virus infection. The patient experienced a sudden increase in serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) during the acute illness that caused him anxiety and confounded interpretation of the PSA test. Six weeks after the onset of Chikungunya Fever symptoms, the elevated serum PSA returned to baseline. The association of Chikungunya Fever and elevated serum PSA may result in misinterpretation of the PSA test, triggering unnecessary prostate biopsy or other management errors. PMID:26167328

  10. Low frequency of elevated serum transferrin saturation in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Franzini, C; Berlusconi, A; Favarelli, C; Brambilla, S

    2000-08-01

    Serum transferrin saturation (TS) values were calculated on the basis of serum iron and transferrin (protein) measurements in a total of 2425 serum samples from six groups of subjects: individuals applying for selection as blood donors (M and F, median age 34 and 32 years); patients referring to the hospital laboratory for routine testing (M and F, median age 45 and 48 years); and elderly subjects living in a specialized institute (M and F, median age 76 and 82 years). In the first four groups the frequency of TS values <15% and >62% respectively, was substantially as expected, considering the average health conditions and sex. These results indirectly support the reliability of the measurement procedure. In the elderly group, however, the frequency of TS values >62% was zero. Mean TS values in the elderly group (males and females) were significantly lower (P<0. 0001) than in the blood donors group and in the hospital patients one. This observation suggests a shortened survival in the presence of (unrecognized) iron overload, pointing out at the usefulness of iron overload screening using simple biochemical tests. PMID:10876014

  11. Changes in Serum and Urinary Calcium during Treatment with Hydrochlorothiazide: Studies on Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Brickman, Arnold S.; Massry, Shaul G.; Coburn, Jack W.

    1972-01-01

    Studies were undertaken in man to evaluate the roles of volume depletion and of the parathyroid glands in mediating the changes in serum and urinary calcium which follow the administration of hydrochlorothiazide, 100 mg twice daily, for 4 days, 42 studies were carried out in 16 normal subjects, 9 patients with hyperparathyroidism, and 7 vitamin D-treated subjects with hypoparathyroidism. In six studies in normal subjects, daily sodium losses during thiazide administration were quantitatively replaced, and in six other studies the effect of equivalent sodium losses produced by furosemide was evaluated. Although the magnitude of sodium losses was similar in three groups during therapy with thiazides, urinary calcium fell and urinary phosphorus increased significantly only in normal subjects and those with hyperparathyroidism; no change occurred in patients with hypoparathyroidism. With the replacement of the thiazide-induced sodium losses by NaCl in normals, urinary calcium did not change as urinary sodium increased 4- to 5-fold. Furosemide administration produced similar sodium losses while urinary calcium remained at or above control levels. After correction for changes in plasma protein concentration caused by thiazide-induced hemoconcentration, mean levels of serum calcium were significantly increased only in subjects with hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D-treated patients with hypoparathyroidism. The results indicate that both depletion of extracellular fluid volume and the presence of the parathyroid glands are necessary for the decrease in urinary calcium in response to thiazide therapy. Both the reduction in urinary calcium and increase in urinary phosphate after the use of thiazides may be due, in part, to potentiation of the action of the parathyroid hormone on the nephron. The rise in serum calcium could be due to thiazide-induced release of calcium from bone into extracellular fluid, particularly in states where bone resorption may be augmented, i.e., vitamin D therapy or hyperparathyroidism. PMID:4552338

  12. Elevated Serum Bisphenol A Level in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qinmei; Liu, Xiao; Shen, Yang; Yu, Peng; Chen, Sisi; Hu, Jinzhu; Yu, Jianhua; Li, Juxiang; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Hong, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine serum Bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as well as the association between serum BPA and several hormonal parameters in DCM patients compared with a healthy control group. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight DCM patients and 88 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Serum BPA levels and several hormonal parameters (including total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were measured by using corresponding ELISA Kits. The free androgen index (FAI) was calculated by the formula: total T in nmol/L × 100/SHBG in nmol/L. Results: BPA levels in the total DCM group were significantly higher compared with that in the controls (6.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL vs. 3.8 ± 1.9 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Significant difference was also observed in SHBG and FAI between DCM patients and controls, (76.9 ± 30.9 nM/L vs. 41.0 ± 15.6 nM/L and 2.9 ± 3.5 vs. 5.3 ± 2.6, respectively, both of p < 0.001). Similar trends were observed in the male and female subgroup. Mean T level was lower in DCM group than in control group (540.8 ± 186.0 pg/mL vs. 656.3 ± 112.9 pg/mL, p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis has shown that increasing serum BPA levels were statistically significantly associated with increased SHBG levels. However, no statistical difference was noted for E2. Conclusion: Our findings firstly demonstrated that BPA exposure increased in DCM patients compared with that in healthy controls, while FAI and T levels decreased. SHBG presented a positive association with BPA. It is concluded that hormone disorder induced by BPA exposure might be an environmental factor in the pathology of DCM. PMID:25996886

  13. Elevated serum transaminase activities were associated with increased serum levels of iron regulatory hormone hepcidin and hyperferritinemia risk.

    PubMed

    An, Peng; Wang, Hao; Wu, Qian; Guo, Xin; Wu, Aimin; Zhang, Zhou; Zhang, Di; Xu, Xiaochen; Mao, Qianyun; Shen, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Lihong; Xiong, Zhiqi; He, Lin; Liu, Yun; Min, Junxia; Zhou, Daizhan; Wang, Fudi

    2015-01-01

    Iron imbalance is a feature of liver damage. However, the biological correlation of serum hepcidin, a key regulator of iron homeostasis, with liver malfunction is undefined. To this end, we piloted the Chinese population studies to address whether hepcidin is linked to liver functionality. The serum hepcidin, ferritin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and bilirubin were examined in two independent Chinese cohorts consisted of 3455 individuals. After adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, smoking habits, drinking categories and diabetic status, a positive association between hepcidin and alanine transaminase (ALT) (beta?=?0.18??0.01, P?elevations in hepcidin expression, serum ALT and inflammatory cytokine IL-6 were discovered during the initiation stage of liver injury. Our findings suggest that increased serum hepcidin may reflect a protective response to the iron status and elevated serum cytokines during liver injury. Additional studies are warranted to validate these findings and test their potential clinical relevance in patients. PMID:26290281

  14. Significantly Elevated Serum Lipase in Pregnancy with Nausea and Vomiting: Acute Pancreatitis or Hyperemesis Gravidarum?

    PubMed Central

    Hooshvar, Nina; Tice, Daphne; Kao, Elaine; Nawabi, Suhalia; Jones, Steven; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is a severe manifestation of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and it is associated with weight loss and metabolic abnormalities. It is known that abnormal laboratory values, including mildly elevated serum lipase level, could be associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. However, in this case report details of two women with hyperemesis gravidarum but with significantly elevated serum lipase levels were discussed. These patients presented with severe nausea and vomiting but without abdominal pain. They were found to have severely elevated lipase levels over 1,000 units/liter. In the absence of other findings of pancreatitis, they were treated with conservative measures for hyperemesis gravidarum, with eventual resolution to normal lipase levels. Although significantly elevated lipase level in pregnant patients with nausea and vomiting is a concern for acute pancreatitis, these two cases of significantly elevated serum lipase without other clinical findings of pancreatitis led to this report that serum lipase could be quite elevated in hyperemesis gravidarum and that it might not be an accurate biochemical marker for acute pancreatitis. Imaging studies are thus necessary to establish the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25709846

  15. [Serum osteocalcin level as a marker of the functional state of osteoblasts after oral calcium tolerance test].

    PubMed

    Milkov, V; Ivanov, I

    1988-01-01

    The results are presented of an oral calcium tolerance test with 1,000 mg calcium in 20 patients with recurrent renal calcium calculosis, a woman with primary hyperparathyroidism and incipient renal failure (serum creatinine 1.8 mg%), creatinine clearance 55 ml/min) and 9 healthy persons as controls. The serum osteocalcin level was determined before and after the oral test. The results show that the serum osteocalcin level alone is of no differential diagnostic value for differentiation of the various types of hypercalciuria in patients with recurrent renal calcium calculosis. As a marker of osteoblasts functional state however the determination of serum osteocalcin level is of great importance for the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. In 3 patients with renal hypercalciuria, often leading to general osteoporosis, an acute rise of serum osteocalcin level was found after the oral calcium tolerance test. High osteocalcin level was also found in the patient with primary hyperparathyroidism and incipient renal failure. PMID:3264644

  16. Elevation of serum lactate dehydrogenase in patients with pectus excavatum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital chest wall deformity and the depression of the anterior chest wall, which compresses the internal organs. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of pectus excavatum on blood laboratory findings. Material and Methods From March 2011 to December 2011, 71 patients with pectus excavatum who visited Seoul Saint Mary Hospital for Nuss procedure were reviewed and analyzed. The blood samples were routinely taken at the day before surgery and pectus bar removal was usually performed in 2 to 3years after Nuss procedure. To investigate the effects on blood laboratory findings, preoperative routine blood laboratory data and postoperative changes of abnormal laboratory data were analyzed. Results Only lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), one of 26 separate routine laboratory tests, was abnormal and significantly elevated than normal value (age <10, p?=?0.008; age ?10, p?elevated than normal value, which was thought to be caused by etiologies of pectus excavatum and the compression of the internal organs. Further studies on LDH including isoenzyme studies in patients with pectus excavatum will be needed, and these studies will provide a deeper and wider comprehension of pectus excavatum. PMID:24779631

  17. Creatinine elevation in patients receiving amiodarone correlates with serum amiodarone concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, P T; Sharma, A D; Carruthers, S G

    1993-01-01

    Serum creatinine and drug concentrations were measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months in 30 consecutive patients started on amiodarone. In 28 of these patients with no obvious cause for altered renal function, mean serum creatinine increased to 11% above baseline (P < 0.005). Rising creatinine concentrations correlated with amiodarone concentrations (y = 93.9 + 8.6x, r = 0.51, P < 0.0001). When assessing elevation of serum creatinine in a patient receiving amiodarone, physicians should be aware that it may be related to this drug. PMID:8398580

  18. Evaluation of postmortem serum calcium and magnesium levels in relation to the causes of death in forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Quan, Li; Li, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Dong; Michiue, Tomomi; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2005-12-01

    There appears to be very poor investigation of postmortem serum calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) for diagnostic evidence to determine the cause of death. The aim of the present study was a comprehensive analysis of the serum levels in relation to the causes of death in routine casework. Autopsy cases (total, n=360; 5-48 h postmortem), including blunt injury (n=76), sharp injury (n=29), asphyxiation (n=42), drownings (n=28: freshwater, n=11; saltwater, n=17), fire fatalities (n=79), methamphetamine (MA) poisoning (n=8), delayed death from traumas (n=37), and acute myocardial infarction/ischemia (AMI, n=61), were examined. In total cases, there was no significant postmortem time-dependent rise in serum Ca and Mg. Both Ca and Mg levels in the heart and peripheral blood were significantly higher in saltwater drowning compared with those of the other groups. In addition, a significant elevation in the Ca level was observed in freshwater drowning and fire fatalities, and in the Mg level in fatal MA intoxication and asphyxiation. Topographic analyses suggested a rise in serum Ca and Mg due to aspirated saltwater in drowning, that in serum Ca in freshwater drowning and fire fatalities of peripheral skeletal muscle origin and that in serum Mg in MA fatality and asphyxiation of myocardial and/or peripheral origin. These markers may be useful especially for diagnosis and differentiation of salt- and freshwater drownings and may be also helpful to determine the causes of death involving skeletal muscle damage, including burns and MA intoxication. PMID:16216707

  19. Serum levels of CXCL13 are elevated in active multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Festa, Eugene D; Hankiewicz, Karolina; Kim, Soyeon; Skurnick, Joan; Wolansky, Leo J; Cook, Stuart D; Cadavid, Diego

    2009-11-01

    There is increasing recognition of the important role that B cells play in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Recently it was reported that the B cell chemokine CXCL13 is elevated in MS serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Here we study whether serum levels of CXCL13 are associated with active MS. We measured serum levels of CXCL13 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 74 patients with relapsing MS randomized to interferon beta 1b or glatiramer acetate and examined with monthly 3 T brain MRI scans optimized for detection of gadolinium-enhancement for up to 2 years. The median (range) serum levels of CXCL13 pre-treatment were 40 (3-171) pg/ml. Serum levels of CXCL13 were significantly higher at times of active brain MRI scans (p < 0.01). Furthermore, serum levels were higher in patients who never reached MRI remission compared with those in complete (p < 0.01) or partial (p = 0.01) remission. There was a significant positive correlation between the pattern of serum levels of CXCL13 and MRI activity during the first (r = 0.33, p < 0.05) and the full 2 years (r = 0.35, p < 0.01) of the study. Treatment with interferon beta 1b or glatiramer acetate did not affect serum CXCL13. We conclude that the serum levels of the B cell chemokine CXCL13 are associated with active MS. PMID:19805441

  20. Calcium intake, serum vitamin D and obesity in children: is there an association?

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Kelly Aparecida; Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Loureiro, Laís Monteiro Rodrigues; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; de Novaes, Juliana Farias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between calcium intake and serum vitamin D levels and childhood obesity by an integrative review. DATA SOURCE: The research was conducted in the databases PubMed/medLine, Science Direct and SciELO with 2001 to 2014 publications. We used the combined terms in English: ''children'' and ''calcium'' or ''children'' and ''vitamin D'' associated with the descriptors: ''obesity'', ''adiposity'' or ''body fat'' for all bases. Cross-sectional and cohort studies, as well as clinical trials, were included. Review articles or those that that have not addressed the association of interest were excluded. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight articles were part of this review, five of which were related to calcium and three to vitamin D. Most studies had a longitudinal design. The analyzed studies found an association between calcium intake and obesity, especially when age and sex were considered. Inverse relationship between serum vitamin D and measures of adiposity in children has been observed and this association was influenced by the sex of the patient and by the seasons of the year. CONCLUSIONS: The studies reviewed showed an association between calcium and vitamin D with childhood obesity. Considering the possible protective effect of these micronutrients in relation to childhood obesity, preventive public health actions should be designed, with emphasis on nutritional education. PMID:25890445

  1. Aqueous and serum-based materials compared for use as simulated calibrators for three ionized calcium analyzers.

    PubMed

    Toffaletti, J; Bird, C; Berg, C; Abrams, B

    1986-08-01

    To determine if bias between different ionized calcium analyzers could be decreased, we analyzed 10 control fluids during a study in which ionized calcium was measured in more than 150 serum and whole-blood samples. After calibrating three ionized calcium analyzers (Radiometer ICA 1, Nova 8, and AVL 980) with the manufacturers' respective calibrators, we used the between-instrument differences of the control fluids to simulate recalibration of the analyzers during each analytical run. A filtered human serum pool containing ionized calcium at 1 mmol/L concentration, with CO2 removed and having no added buffer, was the only material that consistently decreased between-analyzer bias of both serum and whole blood. Another human serum pool containing about 1.3 mmol of ionized calcium and about 10 mmol of bicarbonate per liter was even better at minimizing analyzer biases for serum samples, but was not as effective for whole-blood samples. Some additives used to buffer pH apparently adversely affected both the accuracy and precision of some, but not other, calcium ion electrodes. We conclude that if a reference material is developed for calibration of ionized calcium analyzers, it should be tested on several analyzers for use with both serum and whole blood, and it should be at least as effective as a human serum material, such as that used here. PMID:3731449

  2. Clinical significance of elevated serum and urine amylase levels in patients with appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Swensson, E E; Maull, K I

    1981-12-01

    During the 45 month period beginning January 1977, 251 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of acute appendicitis underwent celiotomy at the Medical College of Virginia Hospital. A preoperative serum or urine amylase determination was recorded in 155 of the patients (62 percent). Of this group, 15 patients (10 percent) had elevation of serum amylase or 2 hour urine amylase. Hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria directly led to misdiagnosis or treatment delay in 5 of the 15 patients. Appendiceal rupture occurred in three patients, two of whom had prolonged (greater than 1 month) hospitalizations directly attributable to the misdiagnosis. As a result of this study, we conclude that (1) acute appendicitis and elevated amylase levels may occur concurrently, (2) hyperamylasemia or hyperamylasuria should not dissuade the surgeon from early operation if other clinical features suggest appendicitis, and (3) abdominal pain and elevation of amylase level define significant intraabdominal disease, not specifically pancreatic disease. PMID:6172043

  3. New agent to treat elevated phosphate levels: magnesium carbonate/calcium carbonate tablets.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Caitlin; Cameron, Karen; Battistella, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    In summary, Binaphos CM, a magnesium carbonate/calcium carbonate combination phosphate binder, is marketed for treating elevated phosphate levels in dialysis patients. Although studies using magnesium/calcium carbonate as a phosphate binder are short term with small numbers of patients, this phosphate binder has shown some promising results and may provide clinicians with an alternative for phosphate binding. Using a combination phosphate binder may reduce pill burden and encourage patient compliance. In addition to calcium and phosphate, it is imperative to diligently monitor magnesium levels in patients started on this medication, as magnesium levels may increase with longer duration of use. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary to evaluate long-term efficacy and safety of this combination phosphate binder. PMID:23413537

  4. Elevated serum squalene and cholesterol synthesis markers in pregnant obese women with gestational diabetes mellitus1

    PubMed Central

    Miettinen, Helena E.; Rönö, Kristiina; Koivusalo, Saila; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Pöyhönen-Alho, Maritta; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hiltunen, Timo P.; Gylling, Helena

    2014-01-01

    We examined serum cholesterol synthesis and absorption markers and their association with neonatal birth weight in obese pregnancies affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Pregnant women at risk for GDM (BMI >30 kg/m2) were enrolled from maternity clinics in Finland. GDM was determined from the results of an oral glucose tolerance test. Serum samples were collected at six time-points, one in each trimester of pregnancy, and at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum. Analysis of serum squalene and noncholesterol sterols by gas-liquid chromatography revealed that in subjects with GDM (n = 22), the serum Δ8-cholestenol concentration and lathosterol/sitosterol ratio were higher (P < 0.05) than in the controls (n = 30) in the first trimester, reflecting increased cholesterol synthesis. Also, subjects with GDM had an increased ratio of squalene to cholesterol (100 × μmol/mmol of cholesterol) in the second (11.5 ± 0.5 vs. 9.1 ± 0.5, P < 0.01) and third (12.1 ± 0.8 vs. 10.0 ± 0.7, P < 0.05) trimester. In GDM, the second trimester maternal serum squalene concentration correlated with neonatal birth weight (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). In conclusion, in obesity, GDM associated with elevated serum markers of cholesterol synthesis. Correlation of maternal serum squalene with neonatal birth weight suggests a potential contribution of maternal cholesterol synthesis to newborn weight in GDM. PMID:25301963

  5. Effect of Daily Consumption of Probiotic Yoghurt on Serum Levels of Calcium, Iron and Liver Enzymes in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Zatollah; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background: To reach fetal appropriate growth during the third trimester, the requirements for dietary calcium and iron intakes during the pregnancy increases. This study was carried out to determine the effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on serum calcium and iron levels and liver enzymes among Iranian healthy pregnant women. Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 70 primigravida pregnant women carrying singleton pregnancy at their third trimester were participated. Participants were randomly divided into two groups of consuming 200 g/d of conventional (n = 33) or probiotic yogurts (n = 37) for 9 weeks. The probiotic yogurt contained Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis with a total of min 1 × 107 CFU. To measure serum calcium, iron, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, blood samples were drawn in a fasting state at baseline and after 9 weeks intervention. Results: Consumption of probiotic yogurt resulted in maintaining serum calcium levels compared with the conventional yogurt (P = 0.01). Within-group differences in the conventional yogurt group revealed a significant reduction of serum calcium levels (−1.7 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). No significant differences were found between the two yogurts in terms of their effects on serum iron, AST and ALT levels. Conclusions: Consumption of probiotic yogurt among pregnant women resulted in maintaining serum calcium levels compared with the conventional yogurt; however, it could not affect serum iron, ALT and AST levels. PMID:24049622

  6. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme is elevated in association with underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.B.; Cale, W.F.; Lapp, N.L. )

    1991-10-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (SACE) and lysozyme activity were measured in a group of 40 underground coal miners and two control groups, 20 subjects with sarcoidosis and 15 normal non-dust-exposed volunteers. The miners were grouped first according to whether they had recent exposure (still actively mining or retired three years or less prior to measurement) or temporally more distant exposure (retired more than three years prior to measurement). Secondly, they were grouped as to whether or not they had coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). The subjects with sarcoidosis were grouped according to disease activity. As expected, the subjects with active sarcoidosis had elevated SACE activity compared with normal subjects. The coal miners as a group did not have elevation of their SACE activity. However, the coal miners with recent exposure had elevated SACE activity (57.1 {plus minus} 3.9 U/ml) compared with normal controls (43.8 {plus minus} 1.5 U/ml, p = 0.007). The SACE activity in miners without recent exposure was not elevated (39.8 {plus minus} 1.3 U/ml) compared with the normal controls. No increase in SACE activity was found when the miners were grouped according to the presence or absence of CWP. In contrast, the miners' serum lysozyme activity was not elevated. Since alveolar macrophages are a potential source of SACE, elevation of SACE activity in underground coal miners may reflect alveolar macrophage activation caused by increased pulmonary mixed coal mine dust burden. Furthermore, since both SACE and serum lysozyme are elevated in association with silicosis, these findings may confirm that the macrophage responses to inhaled silica and coal dust differ.

  7. Soluble TRAIL Concentration in Serum Is Elevated in People with Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wen; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Yu-Xia; Zhang, Qunye; Jiang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a multi-functional cytokine, which is involved in the pathophysiological processes of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Previously, we demonstrated that TRAIL stimulated lipid uptake and foam cell formation in macrophages in vitro. Several clinical studies have suggested that the serum concentration of TRAIL may be increased in humans with elevated blood cholesterol; however, the current data appear to be inconclusive in this regard. In the present study, we examined the relationships between the serum TRAIL concentration and cholesterol levels in 352 generally healthy subjects undergoing the routine annual health check. We showed that there were significant correlations between TRAIL concentration and levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols. The level of TRAIL was significantly elevated in subjects with hypercholesterolemia, although this relationship might be also associated with changes of other metabolic factors. Moreover, we showed that the level of blood cholesterol was significantly higher in subjects in the upper quartile of serum TRAIL. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the serum TRAIL concentration is elevated in people with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:26633016

  8. Both serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium levels may increase the risk of incident prostate cancer in Caribbean men of African ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Maria D; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Lindsay, Carole M; Smith, Garrett; Bennett, Franklyn I; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Aiken, William; Coard, Kathleen C M

    2015-01-01

    Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with both higher and lower risk of prostate cancer (PCa), whereas elevated levels of circulating calcium has been related to higher risks. However, there are few studies that account for effects of both calcium and 25(OH)D concentrations on incident PCa in a black population. We examined these relationships in a case–control study of men 40–80 years old with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed PCa in Jamaica, a tropical country. Mean serum calcium concentrations was higher among cases (2.32 ± 0.19 mmol/L) than controls, (2.27 ± 0.30 mmol/L) (P = 0.023) however, there were no differences in 25(OH)D by cancer status (cases, 33.67 ± 12.71 ng/mL; controls (32.25 ± 12.59 ng/mL). Serum calcium was not correlated with 25(OH)D (partial correlation: r, 0.06; P = 0.287). Multivariable-adjusted models showed a positive linear relationship between PCa and serum calcium (OR, 1.12; CI, 1.00–1.25 per 0.1 nmol/L). Serum 25(OH)D concentration also showed a positive association with PCa (OR, 1.23; CI, 1.01–1.49 per 10 ng/mL). The odds of PCa in men with serum 25(OH)D tertile 2 was OR, 2.18; CI, 1.04–4.43 and OR, 2.47 CI, 1.20–4.90 for tertile 3 (Ptrend = 0.013). Dietary intakes of calcium showed no relationship with PCa. Despite the strong relationship between serum calcium and vitamin D the mechanism by which each affects prostate cancer risk in men of African ancestry needs additional investigation. PMID:25858172

  9. Serum hepcidin-20 is elevated during the acute phase of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Toba, Ken; Kato, Kiminori; Ozawa, Takuya; Tomosugi, Naohisa; Higuchi, Masato; Kusuyama, Taro; Iso, Yoshitaka; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Yokoyama, Sin-ichiro; Fukuda, Noboru; Saitoh, Hideki; Akazawa, Kohei; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2009-06-01

    Hepcidin, a key iron-regulator secreted from the liver, consists of 25 amino acids (hepcidin-25), blocks iron release from macrophages via internalization and degradation of cellular iron exporter ferroportin, and restrains the use of iron in organs. Hepcidin mRNA and protein are also expressed in the human heart. A short form of hepcidin that lacks 5 amino-acid residues in the N-terminus (hepcidin-20) has been found in human serum, although its physiological role is unknown. Here, we successfully measured the serum levels of hepcidin-25 and hepcidin-20 in 12 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Among the selected 10 patients, whose blood samples were taken within 4 hours after a heart attack, all the patients showed elevated serum levels of hepcidin-20 [between 31.7 and 285.1 arbitrary unit (AU); normal level < 9.3 AU], while 8 patients showed high levels of hepcidin-25 (9.3-271.4; normal < 25.5 AU). The hepcidin-20 level was decreased to nearly the normal level on day 7 (range of 2.9 to 12.5 AU) in the 12 patients, whereas the hepcidin-25 level remained high on day 7 in 8 patients. Furthermore, the elevated levels of hepcidin-25 and hepcidin-20 were not correlated with the serum levels of markers for inflammation, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein, in the patients with AMI. In conclusion, the serum hepcidin-20 is transiently elevated in response to acute cardiac ischemia. Measurement of serum hepcidin-20, rather than hepcidin-25, is helpful for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:19478464

  10. Dietary calcium intake, serum copper concentration and bone density in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Strause, L.; Andon, M.B.; Howard, G.; Smith, K.T.; Saltman, P. Procter and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH )

    1991-03-11

    Data from experimental animal nutrition and animal husbandry indicate that several trace minerals, including copper (Cu) are involved in bone metabolism. In addition, a large body of data suggests that low dietary calcium (Ca) intake is a risk factor for age related bone loss. The authors measured the serum (Cu), dietary Ca intake (dCa) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine of 225 postmenopausal women. The median dCa and serum (Cu) were 562 mg/d and 9.73 umoles/L, respectively. Serum (Cu) but, not dCa, was greater in subjects with a history of estrogen therapy (ERT). BMD was higher in subjects with above median dCa and serum (Cu) (group 1) compared to those with below median values (group 2). BMD was intermediate for subjects with either Low serum (Cu):High dCa or High serum (Cu):Low dCa. This relationship was observed in the subject group as a whole, as well as in subgroups partitioned according to history of ERT. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ in basic demographic characteristics such as age, age at menopause, body weight and height. These data support the hypothesis that Ca and Cu nutriture are determinants of skeletal health in postmenopausal women.

  11. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to bone mineral density among US adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A higher calcium intake is still the primary recommendation for the prevention of osteoporosis, while vitamin D deficiency is often not addressed. To study the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in regard to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in ...

  12. Low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Ho, Wen-Chao; Caffrey, James L.; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2014-10-15

    Background: Despite animal evidence suggests that zinc modulates cadmium nephrotoxicity, limited human data are available. Objective: To test the hypothesis that low serum zinc concentrations may increase the risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction in humans. Methods: Data from 1545 subjects aged 20 or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011–2012 were analyzed. Renal function was defined as impaired when estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) fell below 60 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and/or the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio surpassed 2.5 in men and 3.5 mg/mmol in women. Results: Within the study cohort, 117 subjects had reduced eGFR and 214 had elevated urinary albumin. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with elevated blood cadmium (>0.53 μg/L) were more likely to have a reduced eGFR (odds ratio [OR]=2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–4.50) and a higher urinary albumin (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.13–3.69) than their low cadmium (<0.18 μg/L) peers. In addition, for any given cadmium exposure, low serum zinc is associated with elevated risk of reduced eGFR (OR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.39–8.28). A similar increase in the odds ratio was observed between declining serum zinc and albuminuria but failed to reach statistical significance. Those with lower serum zinc/blood cadmium ratios were likewise at a greater risk of renal dysfunction (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study results suggest that low serum zinc concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Elevated cadmium exposure is global public health issue and the assessment of zinc nutritional status may be an important covariate in determining its effective renal toxicity. - Highlights: • Blood cadmium was associated with increased risk of nephrotoxicity. • Low serum zinc may exacerbate risk of cadmium-mediated renal dysfunction. • Both zinc deficiency and elevated cadmium exposure are global public health issues. • Nutritional status is important in the assessment of cadmium nephrotoxicity.

  13. Elevation of serum apelin-13 associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jun-Hui; Li, Xia; Li, Rong; Xu, Lin; Ma, Ran-Ran; Liu, Song-Fang; Zhang, Zhong; Sun, Hong-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    AIM To compare apelin-13, a ligand of G-protein-coupled receptor which has been shown to be involved in retinal angiogenesis, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) serum levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with or without retinopathy, and to investigate the relationship between the serum concentration of apelin-13 and diabetes retinopathy. METHODS Sixty-nine patients with T2DM were enrolled. Of the 69 patients, 16 had proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR group), 23 had non-PDR (NPDR group) and 30 had no retinopathy (T2DM group). Subjects' information, including demographics, medical history, and use of medications were recorded. Their serum samples were collected for measuring the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum lipid and glycosylated hemoglobin. Apelin-13 and VEGF serum levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Kruskal-Wallis test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the differences among these groups. Chi-square test was used to assess categorical variables. Correlations between variables were investigated by Spearman rho correlation test and stepwise regression analysis. All statistical analyses were performed through SPSS 17.0 software. RESULTS Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, CRP, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) have no significantly difference in the three groups. Serum level of apelin-13 was significantly elevated in PDR group as compared with T2DM group (P=0.041). Differences of VEGF serum concentration in the three groups were statistically significant (P=0.007, P=0.007 and P<0.001, respectively). Spearman rho correlation test showed that serum apelin-13 was positively correlated with BMI, serum triglycerides, VEGF, but not with age, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, CRP, HbA1c and total-cholesterol. Stepwise regression analysis showed that BMI also significantly associated with serum apelin-13 (P=0.002), while VEGF and serum triglycerides were irrelevant. CONCLUSION This study elucidated a positive association of apelin-13 serum level with PDR, but not with VEGF. Apelin-13 may influence the promotion of PDR but unrelated with VEGF. PMID:25540748

  14. Effect of zoledronic acid on serum calcium in Pagets disease patients after educational strategies to improve calcium and vitamin D supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Henry G.; Su, Guoqin; Tan, Monique; Ozturk, Zafer E.; Aftring, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Bisphosphonates are the most effective therapeutic agents in patients with Pagets disease of bone. As a result of their inhibition of osteoclastic activity, hypocalcemia of variable frequency and severity following intravenous bisphosphonate therapy has been reported. The present study assessed the effect of physician and patient education on adequate supplementation of calcium and vitamin D to reduce the potential risk of developing hypocalcemia following infusion of 5 mg zoledronic acid. Methods: This was an open-label, multicenter, controlled registry trial in which patients with Pagets disease were treated with a single intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid. Physicians were provided with educational materials focusing on optimization of calcium and vitamin D supplementation following zoledronic infusion that they used to educate their patients. The primary safety variable was the percentage of patients with serum calcium level <2.07mmol/l 911 days after zoledronic acid infusion. Results: A total of 75 patients were evaluable in the post dose hypocalcemia safety analysis. Of these, only 1 patient had treatment-emergent hypocalcemia, with a serum calcium level of 1.92 mmol/l 4 days following therapy. Hypocalcemia-related symptoms were not reported in this patient and the serum calcium returned to normal range at 2.17 mmol/l within 1 week on oral calcium supplementation. Conclusions: These results suggest that, with optimization of calcium and vitamin D supplementation by physician and patient education, hypocalcemia is an infrequent occurrence following zoledronic acid infusion. PMID:26301065

  15. Elevated serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ji Young; Jang, Sun Hee; Kim, Song Yee; Chung, Kyung Soo; Song, Joo Han; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kang, Young Ae

    2016-01-01

    Increased serum CA 19-9 levels in patients with nonmalignant diseases have been investigated in previous reports. This study evaluates the clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease and pulmonary tuberculosis. The median CA 19-9 level was higher in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease than in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease: 13.80, tuberculosis: 5.85, p<0.001). A multivariate logistic regression analysis performed in this study showed that Mycobacterium abscessus (OR 9.97, 95% CI: 1.58, 62.80; p=0.014) and active phase of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease (OR 12.18, 95% CI: 1.07, 138.36, p=0.044) were found to be risk factors for serum CA 19-9 elevation in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. The serum CA 19-9 levels showed a tendency to decrease during successful treatment of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease but not in pulmonary tuberculosis. These findings suggest that CA 19-9 may be a useful marker for monitoring therapeutic responses in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, although it is not pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease-specific marker. PMID:26613892

  16. Elevated serum levels of neopterin and soluble interleukin-2 receptor in patients with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gadducci, A; Ferdeghini, M; Malagnino, G; Prontera, C; Fanucchi, A; Annicchiarico, C; Bianchi, R; Fioretti, P; Facchini, V

    1994-03-01

    Preoperative serum neopterin, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), and CA125 levels were assayed in 47 patients with ovarian cancer and 113 patients with benign ovarian disease undergoing laparotomy. The cutoff limits of the antigens for the preoperative evaluation of ovarian cancer were fixed according to the Youden plot, using the patients with benign ovarian disease as controls. These limits were 7.9 nmole/liter for neopterin, 71 U/ml for sIL-2R, and 83 U/ml for CA125. The preoperative mean values of serum neopterin and sIL-2R were significantly higher in patients with ovarian cancer than in those with benign ovarian disease. Therefore these tests would seem to be useful in distinguishing benign from malignant ovarian masses. Serum levels of neopterin, sIL-2R, and CA125 above the cutoff limits were detected in 66.0, 78.7, and 76.6% of patients with ovarian cancer. Patients with advanced-stage disease (FIGO > or = III) were significantly more likely to have a higher percentage of elevated values of sIL-2R and CA125, but not neopterin, compared to patients with early-stage disease. However, neopterin was the antigen most often raised in early disease. As for advanced ovarian cancer, preoperative serum sIL-2R levels were higher in patients who developed progressive disease than in those who were progression-free (P = 0.02) after a median follow-up time of 18 months. Furthermore, a trend to higher preoperative serum neopterin values was found in the former patients (P = 0.08). Tumor progression occurred in 3 of 8 (37.5%) patients with low serum preoperative neopterin (< 7.9 nmole/liter) and in 16 of 19 (84.2%) patients with elevated serum neopterin, respectively (P = 0.027). Multivariate analysis on a larger number of patients followed for a longer time is warranted to elucidate the prognostic relevance of these immunologic markers in ovarian cancer. Changes in serum neopterin, sIL-2R, and CA125 levels correlated with the disease course in 50.0, 54.8, and 92.9% of 42 instances, respectively. Moreover, serum CA125 was more sensitive than the other two antigens in the early detection of tumor progression. Therefore serial neopterin and sIL-2R measurements seem to be of limited value in monitoring the disease course in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:8157196

  17. Molindone: higher doses needed to block pergolide-induced elevation of serum corticosterone than to elevate dopamine metabolites in brain.

    PubMed

    Fuller, R W; Snoddy, H D

    1983-12-01

    Molindone at a dose of 3 mg/kg i.p. in rats prevented pergolide-induced decreases in brain DOPAC (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) and HVA (homovanillic acid), causing instead significant increases in these dopamine metabolites when given in combination with pergolide. Molindone alone at 3 mg/kg caused two-fold or greater increases in DOPAC and HVA and at doses as low as 0.3 mg/kg caused significant increases in these metabolites. However, molindone at 3 mg/kg and lower doses was without effect on pergolide-induced elevation of serum corticosterone, though a higher dose of molindone, 10 mg/kg, significantly antagonized this increase in corticosterone. These data support earlier findings with molindone, suggesting it has greater affinity for presynaptic dopamine autoreceptors than for postsynaptic dopamine receptors. PMID:6645804

  18. Elevated Levels of IFN-? in CSF and Serum of Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Gao, Lina; Zang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore whether the levels of IFN-? in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and serum are elevated in ALS patients and to analyze the correlations between the IFN-? levels and disease progression. Methods CSF and serum samples were obtained from 52 ALS patients and 31 non-ALS patients. The levels of IFN-? in CSF and serum were assessed, and disease progression parameters, including the disease interval (months from onset, MFO), the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-r) score and the disease progression rate (DPR) were analyzed by registered neurologists. All samples were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analyses were performed using Prism software. Results Compared to the non-ALS patients, the ALS patients displayed significantly increased levels of IFN-? in both CSF and serum, and these values consistently correlated with disease progression. Conclusions These results demonstrated that IFN-? in CSF may serve as a biomarker of ALS differentiation and progression. CSF IFN-? was a more reliable biomarker of disease diagnosis and progression than serum IFN-?. PMID:26332465

  19. Serum calcium and vitamin D regulate 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor concentration in rat kidney in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Sandgren, M E; DeLuca, H F

    1990-01-01

    The effects of vitamin D status, serum calcium, and serum phosphorus levels on 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D receptor levels in kidney were investigated. Weanling rats were fed for 4 weeks on a diet with various levels of calcium and phosphorus with or without vitamin D. The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor concentration in kidney was determined by an immunoradiometric assay. In the absence of vitamin D, total receptor concentration is increased 2-fold by an increase in serum calcium concentration. At normal serum calcium levels, the administration of vitamin D resulted in a 5-fold increase in receptor concentration. In hypocalcemic animals, however, vitamin D did not change receptor levels. Serum phosphorus levels could not be linked to any changes in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor concentration. This study demonstrates that serum calcium levels and vitamin D regulate 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor concentration in vivo in kidney. On the other hand, vitamin D is unable to exert control of receptor levels in kidney under hypocalcemic conditions. PMID:2161536

  20. Serum Calcium Increase Correlates With Worsening of Lipid Profile: An Observational Study on a Large Cohort From South Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Luigia; Faniello, Maria C; Canino, Giovanni; Tripolino, Cesare; Gnasso, Agostino; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco S; Irace, Concetta

    2016-02-01

    Despite the well-documented role of calcium in cell metabolism, its role in the development of cardiovascular disease is still under heavy debate. Several studies suggest that calcium supplementation might be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, whereas others underline a significant effect on lowering high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a large nonselected cohort from South Italy, if serum calcium levels correlate with lipid values and can therefore be linked to higher individual cardiovascular risk.Eight-thousand-six-hundred-ten outpatients addressed to the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Magna Græcia, Catanzaro, Italy from January 2012 to December 2013 for routine blood tests, were enrolled in the study. Total HDL-, LDL- and non-HDL colesterol, triglycerides, and calcium were determined with standard methods.We observed a significant association between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and serum calcium in men and postmenopause women. Interestingly, in premenopause women, we only found a direct correlation between serum calcium, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol. Calcium significantly increased while increasing total cholesterol and triglycerides in men and postmenopause women.Our results confirm that progressive increase of serum calcium level correlates with worsening of lipid profile in our study population. Therefore, we suggest that a greater caution should be used in calcium supplement prescription particularly in men and women undergoing menopause, in which an increase of serum lipids is already known to be associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:26937904

  1. Effects of storage time and temperature on ionized calcium concentration in bovine and ovine blood, plasma, and serum.

    PubMed

    Szenci, O; Nmeth, F; Stollr, Z; Brydl, E

    1994-04-15

    Stability of ionized calcium (Ca2+) concentration and pH values in bovine and ovine venous samples (n = 12 in each group) stored at 4 C for 3, 9, 24, and 48 hours (blood, plasma, and serum) or for 240 hours (plasma and serum), and at -20 C for 240 hours (plasma and serum), was studied. Storage of bovine and ovine blood, plasma, and serum samples at 4 C for up to 48 hours and of ovine serum samples at 4 C for up to 240 hours, despite appreciable pH changes, was associated with < 2.0% change in blood, plasma, and serum Ca2+ concentrations. Therefore, Ca2+ concentration in bovine and ovine venous blood, plasma, and serum samples stored up to 48 hours, and in ovine serum samples stored up to 240 hours, at 4 C is of diagnostic use. PMID:8014097

  2. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and calcium intake affect rates of bone calcium deposition during pregnancy and the early postpartum period123

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Kimberly O; Donangelo, Carmen M; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Gildengorin, Ginny; Abrams, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Background: Factors affecting bone calcium deposition across pregnancy and lactation are not well characterized. Objective: The impact of maternal age, calcium intake, race-ethnicity, and vitamin D status on the rate of bone calcium deposition (VO+) was assessed across pregnancy and lactation. Design: Stable calcium isotopes were given to 46 women at pre- or early pregnancy (trimester 1), late pregnancy (trimester 3), and 310 wk postpartum. Three cohorts were included: 23 adolescents from Baltimore (MD), aged 16.5 1.4 y (mean SD; Baltimore cohort); 13 adults from California, aged 29.5 2.6 y (California cohort); and 10 adults from Brazil, aged 30.4 4.0 y (Brazil cohort). The total exchangeable calcium pool, VO+, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], parathyroid hormone, and calcium intake were evaluated. Results: At trimester 3, inverse associations between 1,25(OH)2D and VO+ were evident in the Baltimore (P = 0.059) and Brazil (P = 0.008) cohorts and in the whole group (P = 0.029); calcium intake was not a significant determinant of VO+ in any group during pregnancy. At postpartum, a significant positive association was evident between VO+ and calcium intake (P ? 0.002) and between VO+ and African ethnicity (P ? 0.004) in the whole group and within the Baltimore and Brazil cohorts. Conclusions: Elevated 1,25(OH)2D was associated with decreased rates of bone calcium deposition during late pregnancy, a finding that was particularly evident in pregnant adolescents and adult women with low calcium intakes. Higher dietary calcium intakes and African ethnicity were associated with elevated rates of bone calcium deposition in the postpartum period. PMID:22648718

  3. Elevated serum IgE, eosinophilia, and lung function in rubber workers

    SciTech Connect

    Bascom, R.; Baser, M.E.; Thomas, R.J.; Fisher, J.F.; Yang, W.N.; Baker, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported an outbreak of acute respiratory illness associated with eosinophilia in a group of rubber workers who performed a thermoinjection process in which synthetic rubber was heated and then injected onto metal molds. This study was conducted to determine if persistent respiratory health effects were associated with this work area and to explore the possible allergic etiology of this syndrome. A survey was performed 1 mo after a major improvement in area ventilation and consisted of baseline, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry; diffusing capacity; serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), total eosinophil count; and skin patch testing. Baseline lung function, cross-shift, and cross-week spirometry were not significantly worse in the exposed group as compared to the control group. However, either eosinophilia (greater than 450/mm3) or elevated serum IgE (greater than 470 ng/ml) were present in 44% of exposed workers vs. 11% of the control group (p = .003). Nine months later, neither eosinophilia nor elevated IgE were associated with employment in this work area. We conclude that employment in the thermoinjection process was associated with eosinophilia and elevated IgE, which suggests sensitization to one of the components of the rubber, although no effect on pulmonary function could be demonstrated.

  4. Association between pruritus and serum concentrations of parathormone, calcium and phosphorus in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Tajbakhsh, Ramin; Joshaghani, Hamid Reza; Bayzayi, Faranak; Haddad, Mahboobeh; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2013-07-01

    Chronic renal disorders have a progressive course in most cases, and finally result in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hemodialysis (HD) is one of the mainstays in the treatment of these patients. Disturbance in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolism and alteration of serum levels of parathormone (PTH) are observed in these patients. One of the most common cutaneous manifestations in patients on HD is pruritus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between pruritus and serum concentrations of Ca, P and PTH in patients with chronic renal disease. This analytic, descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed on 120 patients on HD at the Fifth-Azar Hospital in Gorgan, Iran, in 2010. Information related to the patients, including age, gender, pruritus, time of pruritus and duration on dialysis, was extracted from questionnaires. Serum concentrations of intact PTH, Ca and P were measured. Data were analyzed by the chi-square test and SPSS-16 software. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the 120 study patients, 50% were male and the mean age (SD) was 49 12.3 years. Sixty percent of the patients had pruritus, of whom 33.3% had PTH levels above the normal range. Among the 40% of the patients who did not have pruritus, 39.6% had PTH levels higher than the normal levels. The mean serum Ca and P levels were 8.44 1.65 mg/dL and 5.48 1.81 mg/dL, respectively. The mean (SD) Ca-P product was 55.46 47.16 and the mean PTH concentration was 274.34 286.53 pg/mL. No significant association was found between pruritus and age, sex, serum PTH and P levels as well as Ca-P product. However, the association between serum Ca levels and pruritus was significant (P = 0.03). Our study showed that most patients with pruritus had serum Ca levels in the abnormal range (lower or higher), and there was no significant correlation between serum iPTH level and pruritis. Thus, good control of serum Ca levels is important to reduce pruritus in these patients. PMID:23816717

  5. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug hypersensitivity: association with elevated basal serum tryptase?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is hypothesized that because of higher mast cell numbers and mediator release, mastocytosis predisposes patients for systemic immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions to certain drugs including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Objective To clarify whether patients with NSAID hypersensitivity show increased basal serum tryptase levels as sign for underlying mast cell disease. Methods As part of our allergy work-up, basal serum tryptase levels were determined in all patients with a diagnosis of NSAID hypersensitivity and the severity of the reaction was graded. Patients with confirmed IgE-mediated hymenoptera venom allergy served as a comparison group. Results Out of 284 patients with NSAID hypersensitivity, 26 were identified with basal serum tryptase > 10.0 ng/mL (9.2%). In contrast, significantly (P = .004) more hymenoptera venom allergic patients had elevated tryptase > 10.0 ng/mL (83 out of 484; 17.1%). Basal tryptase > 20.0 ng/mL was indicative for severe anaphylaxis only in venom allergic subjects (29 patients; 4x grade 2 and 25x grade 3 anaphylaxis), but not in NSAID hypersensitive patients (6 patients; 4x grade 1, 2x grade 2). Conclusions In contrast to hymenoptera venom allergy, NSAID hypersensitivity do not seem to be associated with elevated basal serum tryptase levels and levels > 20 ng/mL were not related to increased severity of the clinical reaction. This suggests that mastocytosis patients may be treated with NSAID without special precautions. PMID:24782901

  6. Body Fatness and Risk for Elevated Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol, and Serum Lipoprotein Ratios in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Daniel P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the relationship between body fat percent and risk for elevated blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and serum lipoprotein ratios in 1,230 African-American and 2,090 white 5-18 year olds (1,667 males and 1,653 females). Results support body fatness standards in children and adolescents as cardiovascular risk factors. (SLD)

  7. Mesoporous calcium silicate for controlled release of bovine serum albumin protein.

    PubMed

    Xue, Weichang; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to synthesize mesoporous calcium silicate (CS or wollastonite, CaSiO(3)) and evaluate its possible application in protein/drug delivery. First, calcium silicate was synthesized by wet chemical method and then mesoporosity was created by acid modification of the synthesized CS particle using hydrochloric acid at pH 7, 4.5, and 0.5. The results showed that a hydrated silica gel with abundant Si-OH functional group formed on the surface of calcium silicate due to acid modification. This surface layer had mesoporous structure, with pore diameter between 4 and 5 nm. BET specific average surface area increased to 221, 333, and 356 m(2) g(-1) due to acid modification at pH 7, 4.5, and 0.5, respectively, whereas the surface area for unmodified CS particles was 65 m(2) g(-1). Protein adsorption studies indicated that mesoporous CS has higher ability to adsorb bovine serum albumin and lysozyme compared to unmodified particles. The release kinetics showed that proteins on mesoporous CS released sequentially over one week, whereas the proteins on unmodified particle followed burst release kinetics within a few hours. Human osteoblast cell-material interaction study showed that these materials were biocompatible and promoted excellent bone cell proliferation. In summary, this work has demonstrated the potential to produce mesoporous CS as a carrier for protein/drug delivery for bone regeneration and other biomedical applications. PMID:19249262

  8. Association of serum parathyrine and calcium levels with primary aldosteronism: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyun; Feng, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) represents major cause of secondary hypertension, strongly associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Aldosterone excess may influence mineral homeostasis, through higher urinary calcium (Ca) excretion reducing calcium plasma levels and leading to secondary increase of parathyrine (PTH). The purpose of the present study is to clarify the association of serum PTH and Ca levels with PA using a metaanalysis approach. We searched articles indexed in the PubMed, OVID and Sciencedirect published as of September 2014 that met our predefined criteria. Six articles with 748 subjects from 8 case-control studies were identified. Overall, pooled analysis indicated that subjects with PA had higher serum PTH concentrations and lower Ca levels than controls with essential hypertension (EH) (PTH: SMD = 1.146, 95% CI = [0.774, 1.518]; Ca: SMD = -0.698, 95% CI = [-1.102,-0.294]). Further subgroup analysis stratified by geological location found a similar pattern both in Italy and Austria (Italy: for PTH, SMD = 1.176, 95% CI = [0.758, 1.593], for Ca, SMD = -0.669, 95% CI = [-1.119,-0.219]; Austria: for PTH, SMD = 1.004, 95% CI = [0.359, 1.648], for Ca, SMD = -0.900, 95% CI = [-1.543,-0.257]). In addition, the subgroup analysis stratified by type of Ca measurement also found a similar pattern by spectrophotometry (SMD = -1.078, 95% CI = [-1.532, -0.623]), but not by ion selective electrode (SMD = -0.248, 95% CI = [-0.810, 0.315]). Sensitivity analysis showed that excluding any one study from the pooled analysis did not vary the results substantially. No evidence of publication bias was observed. In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports a significant association of PTH and Ca concentration with PA. Therefore, the high levels of PTH and low Ca concentrations in serum can be used as a variable predictor for PA. PMID:26628945

  9. Freeze-Dried Strawberries Lower Serum Cholesterol and Lipid Peroxidation in Adults with Abdominal Adiposity and Elevated Serum Lipids123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M.; Nguyen, Angel; Newman, Emily D.; Fu, Dongxu; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary flavonoid intake, especially berry flavonoids, has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in large prospective cohorts. Few clinical studies have examined the effects of dietary berries on CVD risk factors. We examined the hypothesis that freeze-dried strawberries (FDS) improve lipid and lipoprotein profiles and lower biomarkers of inflammation and lipid oxidation in adults with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. In a randomized dose-response controlled trial, 60 volunteers [5 men and 55 women; aged 49 ± 10 y; BMI: 36 ± 5 kg/m2 (means ± SDs)] were assigned to consume 1 of the following 4 beverages for 12 wk: 1) low-dose FDS (LD-FDS; 25 g/d); 2) low-dose control (LD-C); 3) high-dose FDS (HD-FDS; 50 g/d); and 4) high-dose control (HD-C). Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Blood draws, anthropometrics, blood pressure, and dietary data were collected at screening (0 wk) and after 12-wk intervention. Dose-response analyses revealed significantly greater decreases in serum total and LDL cholesterol and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)–derived small LDL particle concentration in HD-FDS [33 ± 6 mg/dL, 28 ± 7 mg/dL, and 301 ± 78 nmol/L, respectively (means ± SEMs)] vs. LD-FDS (−3 ± 11 mg/dL, −3 ± 9 mg/dL, and −28 ± 124 nmol/L, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Compared with controls, only the decreases in total and LDL cholesterol in HD-FDS remained significant vs. HD-C (0.7 ± 12 and 1.4 ± 9 mg/dL, respectively) over 12 wk (0–12 wk; all P < 0.05). Both doses of strawberries showed a similar decrease in serum malondialdehyde at 12 wk (LD-FDS: 1.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-FDS: 1.2 ± 0.1 μmol/L) vs. controls (LD-C: 2.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L; HD-C: 2.3 ± 0.2 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). In general, strawberry intervention did not affect any measures of adiposity, blood pressure, glycemia, and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, C-reactive protein, and adhesion molecules. Thus, HD-FDS exerted greater effects in lowering serum total and LDL cholesterol and NMR-derived small LDL particles vs. LD-FDS in the 12-wk study. These findings warrant additional investigation in larger trials. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01883401. PMID:24670970

  10. Chorioangioma of the placenta in association with early severe polyhydramnios and elevated maternal serum HCG: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bashiri, A; Maymon, E; Wiznitzer, A; Maor, E; Mazor, M

    1998-07-01

    We report a case of a chorioangioma of the placenta which was associated with elevated maternal serum HCG in the second trimester, severe early polyhydramnios and premature delivery. Chorioangioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an elevated HCG observed as part of the triple test. PMID:9643414

  11. Elevated serum levels of neutrophil elastase in patients with influenza virus-associated encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guilian; Ota, Chiharu; Kitaoka, Setsuko; Chiba, Yoko; Takayanagi, Masaru; Kitamura, Taro; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Fujie, Hiromi; Mikami, Hitoshi; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Munakata, Mitsutoshi; Kure, Shigeo; Haginoya, Kazuhiro

    2015-02-15

    We examined serum levels of various cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and adhesion molecules in patients with uncomplicated influenza (n=20) and influenza virus-associated encephalopathy (IE) (n=18) to understand the underlying mechanism of IE. We found that IL-1?, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, G-CSF, GM-CSF, TNF-?, TIMP-1, MMP-9, sE-selectin, and neutrophil elastase were elevated significantly in sera from patients with uncomplicated influenza and those with IE, compared with normal controls (n=20). Of note, neutrophil elastase, sE-selectin, IL-8, and IL-13 were elevated significantly in IE as compared with uncomplicated influenza. In the present study, for the first time, we found that serum levels of neutrophil elastase were increased in patients with IE compared with uncomplicated influenza, which suggested that cerebral endothelial damage in the development of IE was mediated by neutrophil elastase. The present study implied that anti-elastase agents are possibly an effective therapeutic protocol for IE, but this needs further elucidation. PMID:25626769

  12. Extensive serum biomarker analysis in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Lin, Peiyi; Jiang, Huilin; Xu, Jieling; Luo, Shuhong; Mo, Junrong; Li, Yunmei; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-12-01

    ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and some characteristics of STEMI are poorly understood. The aim of the present study is to detect protein expression profiles in the serum of STEMI patients, and to identify biomarkers for this disease. Cytokine profiles of serum from STEMI patients and healthy controls were analyzed with a semi-quantitative human antibody array for 174 proteins, and the results showed blood serum concentrations of 21 cytokines differed considerably between STEMI patients and healthy subjects. In the next phase, a sandwich ELISA kit individually validated eight biomarker results from 21 of the microarray experiments. Clinical validation demonstrated a significant increase of BNDF, PDGF-AA and MMP-9 in patients with AMI. Meanwhile, BNDF, PDGF-AA and MMP-9 distinguished AMI patients from healthy controls with a mean area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of 0.870, 0.885, and 0.81, respectively, with diagnostic cut-off points of 0.688ng/mL, 297.86ng/mL and 690.066ng/mL. Our study indicated that these three cytokines were up-regulated in STEMI samples, and may hold promise for the assessment of STEMI. PMID:26153394

  13. Elevated house dust and serum concentrations of PBDEs in California: unintended consequences of furniture flammability standards?

    PubMed

    Zota, Ami R; Rudel, Ruthann A; Morello-Frosch, Rachel A; Brody, Julia Green

    2008-11-01

    Studies show higher house dust and body burden levels of PBDE flame retardants in North America than Europe; but little is known about exposure variation within North America, where California's furniture flammability standard affects PBDE use. We compared dust samples from 49 homes in two California communities with 120 Massachusetts homes and with other published studies. Dust concentrations [median (range) ng/g] in California homes of BDE-47, -99, and -100 were 2700 (112-107,000), 3800 (102-170,000), and 684 (serum PBDE levels were also higher in California compared to other North American regions by analyzing the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the only data set available with serum from a representative sample of the U.S. population (n=2040). California residence was significantly associated with nearly 2-fold higher sigma PBDE serum levels [least square geometric mean (LSGM) ng/g lipid, 73.0 vs 38.5 (p = 0.002)]. Elevated PBDE exposures in California may result from the state's furniture flammability standards; our results suggest the need for further research in a larger representative sample. PMID:19031918

  14. Elevated serum homocysteine level in the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, L Q; Zhang, H L; Guan, Z H; Hu, M Y; Zhang, T; Ge, S J

    2015-01-01

    The development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is always followed by changes in vascular endothelial cells that are related to the reactivity of the homocysteine (Hcy) sulfhydryl group. In this meta-analysis, we investigated the association of Hcy with the pathogenesis and progression of DPN. We screened the Embase, Ovid, PubMed, Web of Science, Wangfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. All analyses were performed by using the STATA software, version 12.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) and the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 software (Biostatic Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). The standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were further calculated. The electronic literature search identified six articles that included 603 patients with DPN and 687 healthy controls. The pooled SMD of those six studies revealed that increased serum levels of Hcy may be correlated with DPN (SMD = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.09-1.36, P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis according to ethnicity indicated that high serum Hcy levels might be an important risk factor for DPN in both Asian and Caucasian populations (Asians: SMD = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.45-0.79, P < 0.001; Caucasians: SMD = 2.32, 95%CI: 2.10-2.55, P < 0.001; respectively). Elevated serum levels of Hcy indicate the risk of development of DPN in patients, suggesting that Hcy levels could be used as a marker for new therapeutic approaches to DPN. PMID:26634502

  15. Elevated Serum IgG4 Defines Specific Clinical Phenotype of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Ying-Qian; Ma, Jian-Da; Luo, Ling; Zheng, Dong-hui; Dai, Lie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To explore the correlation of serum IgG4 (sIgG4) with clinical manifestations or therapeutic response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Consecutive 136 RA patients were recruited and followed up at regular interval. SIgG4 was detected by immunonephelometry. Serial synovial tissue sections from 46 RA patients were stained immunohistochemically for IgG4. Results. Forty-six percent of 136 RA patients had elevated sIgG4. Patients with elevated sIgG4 had higher sIgG4/sIgG ratio, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, rheumatoid factor, and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies than those with normal sIgG4 (all P < 0.05). Among 45 patients who received methotrexate and leflunomide therapy, 50% (9/18) of patients with elevated sIgG4 and 85% (23/27) of patients with normal sIgG4 reached therapeutic target (disease activity score of 28 joints < 3.2) at 6-month visit (χ2 = 6.508, P = 0.011). IgG4-positive plasma cell count correlated positively with sIgG4, total synovitis score, and CD3-, CD20-, and CD38-positive cell counts (all P < 0.05). Conclusions. Our results showed that elevated sIgG4 in RA is common and disproportional to total IgG and RA with elevated sIgG4 may be a specific clinical phenotype with higher disease activity, higher level of autoantibodies, and poor response to methotrexate and leflunomide therapy. PMID:25548435

  16. Elevated Serum 25(OH)-Vitamin D Levels Are Negatively Correlated with Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Thiering, E.; Kratzsch, J.; Heinrich-Weltzien, R.; Hickel, R.; Heinrich, J.; Wichmann, HE; Heinrich, J

    2015-01-01

    To date, the precise etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is uncertain. Vitamin D plays a key role in hard tissue formation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and dental health data obtained from 1,048 children in a 10-year follow-up of the Munich GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. The dental examination included the diagnosis of MIH and recording of (non-)cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from blood samples of the 10-year investigation and measured with a fully automated, modular system. Different logistic regression and Poisson hurdle models were calculated. MIH was diagnosed in 13.6% of the study population. Approximately 16.4% of the children demonstrated caries-related defects (D3-4MFS > 0). The mean season-adjusted concentration of 25(OH)D was 75.8 nmol/l (standard deviation 22.0 nmol/l). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, equivalent income, and television/personal computer (TV/PC) viewing hours, a 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio of having MIH (OR = 0.89; P = 0.006). Furthermore, higher 25(OH)D values were associated with a lower number of caries-affected permanent teeth. It is concluded that elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with better dental health parameters. PMID:25503610

  17. Elevated serum 25(OH)-vitamin D levels are negatively correlated with molar-incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Khnisch, J; Thiering, E; Kratzsch, J; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Hickel, R; Heinrich, J

    2015-02-01

    To date, the precise etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is uncertain. Vitamin D plays a key role in hard tissue formation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and dental health data obtained from 1,048 children in a 10-year follow-up of the Munich GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. The dental examination included the diagnosis of MIH and recording of (non-)cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from blood samples of the 10-year investigation and measured with a fully automated, modular system. Different logistic regression and Poisson hurdle models were calculated. MIH was diagnosed in 13.6% of the study population. Approximately 16.4% of the children demonstrated caries-related defects (D3-4MFS > 0). The mean season-adjusted concentration of 25(OH)D was 75.8 nmol/l (standard deviation 22.0 nmol/l). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, equivalent income, and television/personal computer (TV/PC) viewing hours, a 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio of having MIH (OR = 0.89; P = 0.006). Furthermore, higher 25(OH)D values were associated with a lower number of caries-affected permanent teeth. It is concluded that elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with better dental health parameters. PMID:25503610

  18. Elevated cytosolic calcium in cerebrocortical nerve terminals of rats during prolonged ethanol ingestion

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, M.A.; Raikoff, K. )

    1990-01-01

    Increases in cytosolic free calcium concentrations ((Ca{sup ++})i) may underlie acute neuronal degeneration during ischemic or anoxic episodes, seizures and excitotoxin treatment. With quin-2 and fura-2 fluorescent probes, we have obtained evidence for elevated (Ca{sup ++})i in cerebrocortical terminals of adult rats following chronic consumption of ethanol-containing liquid diets for neurotoxic durations. Compared to isocaloric carbohydrate-fed controls, ethanol-fed rats had significantly higher (Ca{sup ++})i in P2 synaptosomal fractions after 4 months of diet intake, and in purified cerebrocortical synaptosomes after diet ingestion for 10 months. In addition, (Ca{sup ++})i in the synaptosomal fractions of ethanol-fed rats from either exposure time were markedly resistant to K{sup +}-dependent potentiation. Persistently increased synaptic (Ca{sup ++})i and a blunted response to K{sup +} depolarization following chronic ethanol ingestion lead us to associate impaired Ca{sup ++} homeostasis in the neurodegenerative processes of alcoholism.

  19. Elevated collagen turnover in Nigerian children with calcium-deficiency rickets.

    PubMed

    Sharp, C A; Oginni, L M; Worsfold, M; Oyelami, O A; Risteli, L; Risteli, J; Davie, M W

    1997-08-01

    Calcium deficiency is a major etiological determinant of rickets in Nigerian children and is accompanied by undermineralization of the developing bone matrix which is composed largely of type I collagen. We have assessed types I and III collagen metabolism by measuring the circulating concentrations of teh N- and C-terminal pro-peptides (intact PINP and PICP) and the C-terminal telopeptide (ICTP) of type I collagen, and the N-terminal pro-peptide (PIIINP) of type III collagen in 94 healthy Nigerian children and in 44 children aged 1-5 years with active calcium-deficiency rickets. In active rickets the mean levels of the four collagen metabolites were approximately twofold higher than in the healthy children, despite a wide variation of individual values. Mean intact PINP was 812 +/- 279 versus 403 +/- 189 microg/liter; PICP was 573 +/- 265 versus 348 +/- 299 microg/liter; PIIINP was 16.8 +/- 8.6 versus 10.8 +/- 3.6 microg/liter, and ICTP was 28.4 +/- 17.2 versus 11.9 +/- 4.1 microg/liter (all P < 0.001), in rachitic and healthy children, respectively. Healthy children younger than 3 years had higher levels of all the collagen metabolites than those between 3 and 5 years (all P < 0.05). Alkaline phosphatase was greater in rickets than in the healthy group (P < 0.001) whereas mean osteocalcin levels were slightly lower (P = 0.009). 1,25(OH)2D correlated with all the collagen propeptides, but not with ICTP in the healthy children. No such correlations were found in rickets, where there was a poor inverse correlation between 1,25(OH)2D and ICTP. These data suggest that collagen turnover is elevated in cases of calcium-deficiency rickets, where vitamin D status is adequate, possibly indicating increased turnover of undermineralized osteoid. PMID:9312400

  20. Serum Galectin and Renal Dysfunction in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Karetnikova, Victoria; Osokina, Anastasia; Gruzdeva, Olga; Uchasova, Evgenya; Zykov, Michael; Kalaeva, Victoria; Kashtalap, Vasily; Shafranskaya, Kristina; Hryachkova, Oksana; Barbarash, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between serum galectin levels and renal dysfunction in relation to in-hospital prognosis and unfavorable prognosis 1 year after ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI). Patients were assigned to two groups according to the cystatin C-based estimate of GFR on day 12 after STEMI: (1) STEMI patients with normal renal function (GFR based on cystatin C levels = 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and (2) those with renal dysfunction (RD) (GFR based on cystatin C levels <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). A decrease in GFR estimated from the CKD-EPI equation on day 12 was more frequently found in patients with a reduced GFR based on cystatin C levels (41.9%) compared with those without RD (21.3%). Galectin levels exceeded the cut-off value (17.8 ng/mL) in 50.6% of cases in the group with GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and in 32% of cases in the group with a normal GFR. The presence of RD and elevated galectin levels >17.8 ng/mL on day 12 after MI are independent predictors of an adverse prognosis at 1 year in STEMI patients. Elevated galectin levels are directly correlated with the presence of early postinfarction angina. PMID:26980923

  1. Calcium Entry and ?-Synuclein Inclusions Elevate Dendritic Mitochondrial Oxidant Stress in Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dryanovski, Dilyan I.; Guzman, Jaime N.; Xie, Zhong; Galteri, Daniel J.; Volpicelli-Daley, Laura A.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Miller, Richard J.; Schumacker, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    The core motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are attributable to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Mitochondrial oxidant stress is widely viewed a major factor in PD pathogenesis. Previous work has shown that activity-dependent calcium entry through L-type channels elevates perinuclear mitochondrial oxidant stress in SNc dopaminergic neurons, providing a potential basis for their selective vulnerability. What is less clear is whether this physiological stress is present in dendrites and if Lewy bodies, the major neuropathological lesion found in PD brains, exacerbate it. To pursue these questions, mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons derived from C57BL/6 transgenic mice were studied in primary cultures, allowing for visualization of soma and dendrites simultaneously. Many of the key features of in vivo adult dopaminergic neurons were recapitulated in vitro. Activity-dependent calcium entry through L-type channels increased mitochondrial oxidant stress in dendrites. This stress progressively increased with distance from the soma. Examination of SNc dopaminergic neurons ex vivo in brain slices verified this pattern. Moreover, the formation of intracellular ?-synuclein Lewy-body-like aggregates increased mitochondrial oxidant stress in perinuclear and dendritic compartments. This stress appeared to be extramitochondrial in origin, because scavengers of cytosolic reactive oxygen species or inhibition of NADPH oxidase attenuated it. These results show that physiological and proteostatic stress can be additive in the soma and dendrites of vulnerable dopaminergic neurons, providing new insight into the factors underlying PD pathogenesis. PMID:23761910

  2. Solution combustion synthesis of calcium phosphate particles for controlled release of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Junjie; Qian, Yu; Zhang, Xiali; Zhou, Feifei; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Hongbin; Chen, JianHua; Wang, XuHong; Yu, Wencong

    2015-05-01

    Four different phase compositions of calcium phosphate (CaP) particles were prepared via a solution combustion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld analysis results revealed that the variations in the nominal Ca/P (molar) ratios were found to provide a favorable control in the different proportions of CaP materials. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein to study the loading and release behavior. The release profile indicated that the BSA release rates depended on the phase compositions of the CaP particles, and showed an order of TCP-BSA>BCP-1-BSA>BCP-2-BSA>HA-BSA. The results suggested that the BSA protein release rate can be controlled by varying the phase compositions of CaP carriers. Moreover, the release process involved two stages: firstly surface diffusion via ion exchange and secondly intraparticle diffusion. PMID:25746262

  3. Serum Ionized Calcium Quantification for Staging Canine Periodontal Disease: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Miguel Carreira, L; Daniela, Dias; Pedro, Azevedo

    2015-06-01

    Periodontal diseases (PD) are infectious, inflammatory, progressive diseases of the oral cavity affecting people and dogs. PD takes 2 forms: gingivitis and periodontitis. Diagnosing or staging PD can be achieved only with dental x-rays and periodontal probing, both of which require the use of general anesthesia in dogs. This study aimed to determine whether serum ionized calcium ([iCa(2+)]) levels can be useful in preliminary PD staging in dogs. A sample of 40 dogs (n = 40) was divided into 4 groups (n = 10 each) based on the following PD stages: G1 (gingivitis), G2 (initial periodontitis), G3 (moderate periodontitis), and G4 (severe periodontitis). The groups were then subjected to [iCa(2+)] quantification. Statistically significant differences were observed between PD stages and [iCa(2+)] for all stages except G3 and G4. Therefore, this parameter can be used as an additional tool to establish and monitor preliminary PD status. PMID:26359723

  4. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    PubMed

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts. PMID:20075632

  5. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition–induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria β-oxidation. -- Highlights: ► Isoniazid metabolites were elevated only in wild-type mice. ► Isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. ► Isoniazid elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids. ► Bile acid transporters were significantly decreased in isoniazid-treated mice.

  6. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Six New Loci for Serum Calcium Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    O'Seaghdha, Conall M.; Wu, Hongsheng; Yang, Qiong; Kapur, Karen; Guessous, Idris; Zuber, Annie Mercier; Kttgen, Anna; Stoudmann, Candice; Teumer, Alexander; Kutalik, Zoltn; Mangino, Massimo; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Weihua; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Li, Guo; Tanaka, Toshiko; Portas, Laura; Lopez, Lorna M.; Hayward, Caroline; Lohman, Kurt; Matsuda, Koichi; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Firsov, Dmitri; Sorice, Rossella; Ulivi, Sheila; Brockhaus, A. Catharina; Kleber, Marcus E.; Mahajan, Anubha; Ernst, Florian D.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.; Mace, Aurelien; Boerwinckle, Eric; Arking, Dan E.; Tanikawa, Chizu; Nakamura, Yusuke; Brown, Morris J.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Siscovick, David S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Bergmann, Sven; Vollenweider, Peter; Vitart, Veronique; Wright, Alan F.; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Kolcic, Ivana; Navarro, Pau; Brown, Edward M.; Estrada, Karol; Ding, Jingzhong; Harris, Tamara B.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Hernandez, Dena; Singleton, Andrew B.; Girotto, Giorgia; Ruggiero, Daniela; d'Adamo, Adamo Pio; Robino, Antonietta; Meitinger, Thomas; Meisinger, Christa; Davies, Gail; Starr, John M.; Chambers, John C.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Huang, Jie; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H.; Campbell, Harry; Morris, Andrew P.; Franco, Oscar H.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Vlker, Uwe; Hannemann, Anke; Biffar, Reiner; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Shin, SoYoun; Lescuyer, Pierre; Henry, Hughes; Schurmann, Claudia; Munroe, Patricia B.; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Nicola; Ciullo, Marina; Gieger, Christian; Mrz, Winfried; Lind, Lars; Spector, Tim D.; Smith, Albert V.; Rudan, Igor; Wilson, James F.; Polasek, Ozren; Deary, Ian J.; Pirastu, Mario; Ferrucci, Luigi; Liu, Yongmei; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Nauck, Matthias; Kao, W. H. Linda; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Calcium is vital to the normal functioning of multiple organ systems and its serum concentration is tightly regulated. Apart from CASR, the genes associated with serum calcium are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 39,400 individuals from 17 population-based cohorts and investigated the 14 most strongly associated loci in ?21,679 additional individuals. Seven loci (six new regions) in association with serum calcium were identified and replicated. Rs1570669 near CYP24A1 (P?=?9.1E-12), rs10491003 upstream of GATA3 (P?=?4.8E-09) and rs7481584 in CARS (P?=?1.2E-10) implicate regions involved in Mendelian calcemic disorders: Rs1550532 in DGKD (P?=?8.2E-11), also associated with bone density, and rs7336933 near DGKH/KIAA0564 (P?=?9.1E-10) are near genes that encode distinct isoforms of diacylglycerol kinase. Rs780094 is in GCKR. We characterized the expression of these genes in gut, kidney, and bone, and demonstrate modulation of gene expression in bone in response to dietary calcium in mice. Our results shed new light on the genetics of calcium homeostasis. PMID:24068962

  7. Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in school-age children are inconsistently associated with increased calcium absorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) in adults may enhance calcium absorption (Ca-abs). There are few similar pediatric data leading to uncertainty about the optimal target for 25-OHD to maximize Ca-abs.Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between 25-OHD and Ca-abs in a large coho...

  8. Effects of vitamin D3 and calcium supplementation on serum levels of tocopherols, retinol, and specific vitamin D metabolites.

    PubMed

    Chai, Weiwen; Bostick, Roberd M; Ahearn, Thomas U; Franke, Adrian A; Custer, Laurie J; Cooney, Robert V

    2012-01-01

    ?-Tocopherol (?T) protects against DNA-damaging effects of nitrogen oxides, yet its physiologic regulation in vivo is unknown. Observational studies indicate inverse associations of 25[OH]-vitamin D with ?T and leptin. To determine whether vitamin D(3) supplementation alters levels of lipid-soluble micronutrients, serum samples (N = 85 subjects) from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of vitamin D(3) (800 IU) and calcium (2 g), alone and in combination, were analyzed for lipid micronutrients and specific vitamin D metabolites at baseline and after 6 mo of supplementation. Serum 25[OH]-vitamin D(3) levels increased 55% (P < 0.0001) and 48% (P = 0.0005), whereas 25[OH]-vitamin D(2) levels were lower by 48% (P = 0.26) and 21% (P = 0.36) in the vitamin D(3) and vitamin D(3) plus calcium groups, respectively. At baseline, ?T levels were inversely associated with 25[OH]D (r = -0.31, P = 0.004). With vitamin D(3) plus calcium treatment, serum ?-tocopherol decreased 14% (P = 0.04), whereas similar changes in ?T (19% lower, P = 0.14) were observed. No significant effects were observed for D(3) supplementation on leptin or retinol levels. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that vitamin D(3) calcium affects serum tocopherol and 25[OH]D(2) levels; however, studies using larger, more homogeneous populations are warranted. PMID:22149065

  9. Rates and predictors of ACE inhibitor discontinuation subsequent to elevated serum creatinine: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Wong, Joyce; Aroustamian, Irina; Gee, Manyee; Mody, Freny Vaghaiwalla

    2014-01-01

    Objectives ACE inhibitors (ACEI) are underutilised despite cardiovascular benefits, in part due to concerns of known transient elevations in serum creatinine (SCr) after initiation. Our objectives were to evaluate rates and predictors of ACEI discontinuation after SCr elevation post-ACEI initiation since limited data are available that examine this issue. Setting Primary and tertiary Veterans healthcare system in Los Angeles, California, USA Participants 3039 outpatients initiating an ACEI with a SCr measured within 6 months prior to and approximately 3 months after initiating an ACEI. Patients were divided into three groups (SCr <1.5, 1.5–2 and >2). Primary and secondary outcome measures Rates and factors associated with ACEI discontinuation subsequent to SCr elevation after ACEI initiation and for patients with baseline SCr >2 mg/dL, the change in SCr associated with chronic use. Predictors were identified using multivariate logistic regression modelling. Results At 3 months follow-up, for those with an increase in SCr, the mean increase post-ACEI initiation was 26%, ranging from −0.01 mg/dL to 0.42 mg/dL varying according to a level of baseline renal function. ACEI discontinuation was higher in patients with elevated baseline SCr (19/165, 11.5%) compared with those with SCr <1.5 (135/2497, 5.4%), and those with SCr 1.5–2.0 (28/377, 7.4%). Male patients, and those with heart failure were less likely to discontinue ACEI after an elevation of SCr post-ACEI initiation, while those taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics and β-blockers were more likely to discontinue ACEI. Conclusions SCr increases <30% on average within 3 months of ACEI initiation, with subsequent discontinuation rates varying by baseline SCr. Elevation in SCr was not associated with ACEI discontinuation rates. In patients with SCr >2 mg/dL at baseline, despite an acute increase in SCr after ACEI initiation, chronic ACEI use was associated with a decrease in SCr in most patients. PMID:25232564

  10. Serum corin is reduced and predicts adverse outcome in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ghanim, Diab; Vered, Shiraz; Hasin, Yonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The aim of the current study was to describe the role of corin, an enzyme that cleaves pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and pro-brain natriuretic peptide into their active peptides, in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: Serum corin level was studied in patients with non-ST-elevation ACS who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (n=152) and in control volunteers (n=103). Results: The corin level was lower in acute coronary syndrome patients (798288 pg/ml) than in the controls (1165613 pg/ml, p<0.0001). Those acute coronary syndrome patients who developed major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; 60.9%) within 3 years of discharge had lower corin levels than the patients who did not experience major adverse cardiovascular events (698.16233.67 vs. 952.1297.81 pg/ml, p<0.0001). Using a multiple logistic regression model, corin level was a significant predictor of post-ACS MACE: p=0.0004 for 50 pg/ml steps, AUC 0.791, while p<0.0001, and AUC 0.804 using corin and brain natriuretic peptide as predictors. Conclusions: Patients with non-ST-elevation ACS have lower serum corin levels than controls. Corin levels are lower in ACS patients who later experience MACE and thus might be predictor for MACE. This new putative biomarker may be useful, either alone or in combination with other biomarkers, for cardiovascular risk stratification assessment and outcome prediction in ACS patients. PMID:24222826

  11. HFE Genotyping in Patients with Elevated Serum Iron Indices and Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Andreia Silva; de Araújo, Thiago Ferreira; Abrantes-Lemos, Clarice Pires; Deguti, Marta Mitiko; Cançado, Eduardo Luiz Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Iron abnormalities in chronic liver disease may be the result of genetic diseases or secondary factors. The present study aimed to identify subjects with HFE-HH in order to describe the frequency of clinical manifestations, identify risk factors for iron elevation, and compare the iron profile of HFE-HH to other genotypes in liver disease patients. A total of 108 individuals with hepatic disease, transferrin saturation (TS) > 45%, and serum ferritin (SF) > 350 ng/mL were tested for HFE mutations. Two groups were characterized: C282Y/C282Y or C282Y/H63D genotypes (n = 16) were the HFE hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE-HH) group; and C282Y and H63D single heterozygotes, the H63D/H63D genotype, and wild-type were considered group 2 (n = 92). Nonalcoholic liver disease, alcoholism, and chronic hepatitis C were detected more frequently in group 2, whereas arthropathy, hepatocarcinoma, diabetes, and osteoporosis rates were significantly higher in the HFE-HH group. TS > 82%, SF > 2685 ng/mL, and serum iron > 178 μg/dL were the cutoffs for diagnosis of HFE-HH in patients with liver disease. Thus, in non-Caucasian populations with chronic liver disease, HFE-HH diagnosis is more predictable in those with iron levels higher than those proposed in current guidelines for the general population. PMID:25654085

  12. The Significance of Serum CA-125 Elevation in Chinese Patients with Primary Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, De-lei; Xu, Hao; Lv, Wei-fu; Hua, Rong; Du, Hongtao; Zhang, Qing-qiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the serum level of CA-125 and its corresponding clinical significance in Chinese patients with primary BCS. Methods. Serum CA-125 was measured in 243 patients with primary BCS receiving interventional treatment in the participating hospitals and in 120 healthy volunteers. The correlation between serum CA-125 levels and ascites volume, liver function, and prognosis was analyzed. Results. Serum CA-125 was significantly elevated in BCS patients compared to healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). Higher levels of CA-125 were found in BCS patients with abnormal hepatic function and low serum albumin levels and in patients with high volume of ascites compared to patients without these abnormalities. Serum CA-125 levels significantly correlated with ascites volume, serum level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, and Rotterdam BCS scores. The follow-up study indicated that the survival rate and asymptomatic survival rate after interventional treatment were lower in BCS patients with serum CA-125 > 175?U/mL (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Serum CA-125 was significantly higher in patients with primary BCS and had a positive correlation with the volume of ascites, severity of liver damage, and poor prognosis. Thus the serum CA-125 levels may be used to estimate the severity and prognosis of BCS in Chinese patients. PMID:26451141

  13. Longitudinal study of calcium metabolism in male puberty. I. Bone mineral content, and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, phosphate and calcium.

    PubMed

    Krabbe, S; Christiansen, C

    1984-11-01

    With the purpose of studying calcium metabolism at the growth spurt phase in puberty, bone mineral content (BMC) of the forearm, and serum concentrations of total alkaline phosphatase, phosphate, and calcium were determined in 36 boys every three months for about 2 years. BMC increased 35% throughout the study age period of 10.6 to 14.6 years, with a maximal rate between 12.8 and 13.8 years. In relation to growth velocity BMC rose steepest during the 12 months around peak height velocity (PHV) (p less than 0.001) and showed a progressive increase from 3 months before the first pubic hair stage (PH2) to PH4 (p less than 0.001). Serum alkaline phosphatase increased by a total of 55% throughout the age period with a diminished rate of increase from 13.5 to 14 years, around the PHV, and from PH3 to PH4. PMID:6524364

  14. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... edamame). Calcium-fortified foods. Look for calcium-fortified orange juice, soy or rice milk, breads, and cereal. Beans. ... vegetables, broccoli, chickpeas, and calcium-fortified products, including orange juice, soy and rice drinks, and cereals. Other Considerations ...

  15. Elevated serum levels of human relaxin-2 in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Peng; Yu, Zhen-Tao; Xiu, Li; Wang, Mei; Liu, Hua-Min

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prognostic value of serum human relaxin 2 (H2 RLN) level in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: From October 1998 to September 2009, 146 patients with histopathologically confirmed ESCC were enrolled in this study. One hundred patients underwent en bloc esophagectomy, and 46 patients with unresectable tumors underwent palliative surgery. Five of the 146 patients died of surgical complications. Serum levels of H2 RLN were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The relationship between serum H2 RLN level and each of the clinicopathological parameters was analyzed using the ?2 test. Patients were classified into two groups according to their H2 RLN level (< 0.462 ng/mL vs ? 0.462 ng/mL). When any analysis cell had fewer than five cases, the Fishers exact test was used. The statistical difference between groups A and B in each clinicopathological category was determined by the Students t test (two-tailed) or analysis of variance. Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method. The statistical difference in survival between the different groups was compared using the log-rank test. Survival correlation with the prognostic factors was further investigated by multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model with backward stepwise likelihood ratio. RESULTS: ESCC patients tended to have significantly higher serum H2 RLN concentrations (0.48 0.17 ng/mL, n = 141) compared with the healthy control group (0.342 0.12 ng/mL, n = 112). There was a significant difference between patients with lymph node involvement (0.74 0.15 ng/mL, n = 90), distant metastasis (0.90 0.19 ng/mL, n = 32) and those without lymph node involvement (0.45 0.12 ng/mL, n = 51), and distant metastasis (0.43 0.14 ng/mL, n = 109), respectively (P < 0.01). Patients with high H2 RLN levels (? 0.462 ng/mL) had a poorer prognosis than patients with low serum H2 RLN levels (< 0.462 ng/mL; P = 0.0056). The H2 RLN level was also correlated with survival and tumor-node-metastasis staging, but not with age, tumor size, gender, lymphovascular invasion or the histological grade of tumors. Cox regression analysis showed that H2 RLN was an independent variable. CONCLUSION: Serum concentrations of H2 RLN are frequently elevated in ESCC patients and are correlated with disease metastasis and survival. Serum concentrations of H2 RLN may be an important prognostic marker in ESCC patients. PMID:23613637

  16. Levels of Serum Calcium and Magnesium in Pre-eclamptic and Normal Pregnancy: A Study from Coastal India

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, Aparna; Rao, Kavyarashmi; Devi, Ullal Harshini; Shetty, Harish; Kumari, Sucheta; Shetty, Prasanna Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pre-eclampsia is one of the major causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Though the aetiology is obscure, recent studies indicate that serum levels of calcium and magnesium may have a role in pre-eclampsia. Aim: The aim of this study was to find out the relationship of serum levels of calcium and magnesium in pre-eclamptic pregnancies compared to normal pregnancies in women from southern coastal India. Settings and Design: This study was done in a medical college hospital in southern coastal India. Materials and Methods: The blood samples from 60 pre-eclamptic women and an equal number of controls were analysed for calcium and magnesium levels. Data on Body Mass Index, maternal and gestational ages, serum calcium and magnesium were compared between the two groups. Outcome of pregnancy was analysed in both the groups and compared. Statistical Analysis: Data was expressed as Mean Standard Deviation. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 20. Comparison of serum levels of the elements between the two groups was performed by Independent t-test and Chi-square test and P-value of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The serum calcium concentration was significantly lower in the pre-eclamptic group compared to normotensives (7.84 0.87 mg/dl Vs 8.97 0.69 mg/dl, p<0.001) whereas the levels of serum magnesium showed a marginal difference in both the groups. (1.43 0.55 mg/dl Vs, 1.57 0.72 mg/dl P 0.257) The study also showed that pre-eclamptic women were older, their BMI was higher and birth weight of babies lower compared to normotensives. Conclusion: According to the results of our research, intake of supplements, mainly calcium may help in the reduction of incidence of pre-eclampsia especially in a population of a developing country like ours where the nutrition is poor. Not many studies have been done in developing countries to assess the role of these elements in pre-eclampsia. The actual role of magnesium and calcium supplements needs further investigation. PMID:25177604

  17. Strong Negative Interference by Calcium Dobesilate in Sarcosine Oxidase Assays for Serum Creatinine Involving the Trinder Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiuzhi; Hou, Lian; Cheng, Xinqi; Zhang, Tianjiao; Yu, Songlin; Fang, Huiling; Xia, Liangyu; Qi, Zhihong; Qin, Xuzhen; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Qian; Liu, Li; Chi, Shuling; Hao, Yingying; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The vasoprotective drug calcium dobesilate is known to interfere with creatinine (Cr) quantifications in sarcosine oxidase enzymatic (SOE) assays. The aim of this study was to investigate this interference in 8 different commercially available assays and to determine its clinical significance. In in vitro experiments, interference was evaluated at 3 Cr levels. For this, Cr was quantified by SOE assays in pooled serum supplemented with calcium dobesilate at final concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64??g/mL. Percent bias was calculated relative to the drug-free specimen. For in vivo analyses, changes in serum concentrations of Cr, cystatin C (CysC; a renal function marker), and calcium dobesilate were monitored in healthy participants of group I before and after oral calcium dobesilate administration. In addition, variations in interference were also examined among different SOE assays using serum obtained from healthy participants of group II. Lastly, Cr levels from the 10 patients treated with calcium dobesilate were measured using 4 SOE assays and liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS/MS) for comparison. Our in vitro analyses indicated that the presence of 8??g/mL calcium dobesilate resulted in a ?4.4% to ?36.3% reduction in Cr serum concentration compared to drug-free serum for 8 SOE assays examined. In vivo, Cr values decreased relative to the baseline level with increasing drug concentration, with the lowest Cr levels obtained at 2 or 3?hours after drug administration in participants of group I. The observed Cr concentrations for participants in group II were reduced by ?28.5% to ?3.1% and ?60.5% to ?11.6% at 0 and 2?hours after administration related to baseline levels. The Cr values of 10 patients measured by Roche, Beckman, Maker, and Merit Choice SOE assays showed an average deviation of ?20.0%, ?22.4%, ?14.2%, and ?29.6%, respectively, compared to values obtained by LC-IDMS/MS. These results revealed a clinically significant negative interference with calcium dobesilate in all sarcosine oxidase-based Cr assays, but the degree of interference varied greatly among the assays examined. Thus, extra care should be taken in evaluating Cr quantification obtained by SOE assays in patients undergoing calcium dobesilate therapy. PMID:26061311

  18. Strong Negative Interference by Calcium Dobesilate in Sarcosine Oxidase Assays for Serum Creatinine Involving the Trinder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiuzhi; Hou, Li'an; Cheng, Xinqi; Zhang, Tianjiao; Yu, Songlin; Fang, Huiling; Xia, Liangyu; Qi, Zhihong; Qin, Xuzhen; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Qian; Liu, Li; Chi, Shuling; Hao, Yingying; Qiu, Ling

    2015-06-01

    The vasoprotective drug calcium dobesilate is known to interfere with creatinine (Cr) quantifications in sarcosine oxidase enzymatic (SOE) assays. The aim of this study was to investigate this interference in 8 different commercially available assays and to determine its clinical significance. In in vitro experiments, interference was evaluated at 3 Cr levels. For this, Cr was quantified by SOE assays in pooled serum supplemented with calcium dobesilate at final concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64??g/mL. Percent bias was calculated relative to the drug-free specimen. For in vivo analyses, changes in serum concentrations of Cr, cystatin C (CysC; a renal function marker), and calcium dobesilate were monitored in healthy participants of group I before and after oral calcium dobesilate administration. In addition, variations in interference were also examined among different SOE assays using serum obtained from healthy participants of group II. Lastly, Cr levels from the 10 patients treated with calcium dobesilate were measured using 4 SOE assays and liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS/MS) for comparison. Our in vitro analyses indicated that the presence of 8??g/mL calcium dobesilate resulted in a -4.4% to -36.3% reduction in Cr serum concentration compared to drug-free serum for 8 SOE assays examined. In vivo, Cr values decreased relative to the baseline level with increasing drug concentration, with the lowest Cr levels obtained at 2 or 3?hours after drug administration in participants of group I. The observed Cr concentrations for participants in group II were reduced by -28.5% to -3.1% and -60.5% to -11.6% at 0 and 2?hours after administration related to baseline levels. The Cr values of 10 patients measured by Roche, Beckman, Maker, and Merit Choice SOE assays showed an average deviation of -20.0%, -22.4%, -14.2%, and -29.6%, respectively, compared to values obtained by LC-IDMS/MS. These results revealed a clinically significant negative interference with calcium dobesilate in all sarcosine oxidase-based Cr assays, but the degree of interference varied greatly among the assays examined. Thus, extra care should be taken in evaluating Cr quantification obtained by SOE assays in patients undergoing calcium dobesilate therapy. PMID:26061311

  19. Activation of the calcium sensing receptor with cinacalcet increases serum gastrin levels in healthy older subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acidity is postulated to enhance calcium absorption since calcium is better dissolved at low pH. Extracellular calcium stimulates gastrin and gastric acid secretion in humans. Ex vivo studies indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), which is expressed on the surface of human G cells...

  20. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stomach acid (a condition more common in people older than 50) absorb calcium citrate more easily than calcium carbonate. Other forms of calcium in supplements and fortified foods include gluconate, lactate, and phosphate. Calcium absorption is best when a person consumes no more than 500 mg at one ...

  1. Irisin Is Elevated in Skeletal Muscle and Serum of Mice Immediately after Acute Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brenmoehl, Julia; Albrecht, Elke; Komolka, Katrin; Schering, Lisa; Langhammer, Martina; Hoeflich, Andreas; Maak, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings regarding the response of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (Fndc5) and irisin to exercise are partly controversial. While the 25 kDa form of Fndc5 can be observed in muscle and serum of different species, the ~12 kDa irisin band was not detectable up to now. The present study aimed to clarify whether irisin exists in its theoretical size of ~12 kDa in mice and if it is affected by exercise. Male mice were randomly assigned to a sedentary control group (CO), a group with free access to running wheels (RW), and a treadmill group (TM). Blood and leg muscles were collected to investigate the regulatory cascade including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (Ppargc1a) and Fndc5. In western blot analysis, antibodies were used capable of differentiation between full-length Fndc5 and irisin. This enabled us to demonstrate that irisin exists in muscle and serum of mice independent of exercise and that it is increased immediately after acute exercise. Different transcripts of Ppargc1a mRNA, but not Fndc5 mRNA, were up-regulated in the TM group. Furthermore, neither Fndc5 (25 kDa) nor Ppargc1a protein was elevated in muscle tissue. The Ppargc1a-Fndc5/irisin pathway did not clearly respond to mild exercise in the RW group. Our results provide evidence for the existence of irisin and for its immediate response to acute exercise in mice. PMID:24644429

  2. CYP2E1-dependent elevation of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids by isoniazid.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W; Li, Feng; Ma, Xiaochao; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2013-01-15

    Isoniazid is the first-line medication in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. Isoniazid is known to have a biphasic effect on the inhibition-induction of CYP2E1 and is also considered to be involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the full extent and mechanism of involvement of CYP2E1 in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity remain to be thoroughly investigated. In the current study, isoniazid was administered to wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice to investigate the potential toxicity of isoniazid in vivo. The results revealed that isoniazid caused no hepatotoxicity in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice, but produced elevated serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and hepatic bile acids in wild-type mice, as well as decreased abundance of free fatty acids in wild-type mice and not in Cyp2e1-null mice. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that production of isoniazid metabolites was elevated in wild-type mice along with a higher abundance of bile acids, bile acid metabolites, carnitine and carnitine derivatives; these were not observed in Cyp2e1-null mice. In addition, the enzymes responsible for bile acid synthesis were decreased and proteins involved in bile acid transport were significantly increased in wild-type mice. Lastly, treatment of targeted isoniazid metabolites to wild-type mice led to similar changes in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. These findings suggest that while CYP2E1 is not involved in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, while an isoniazid metabolite might play a role in isoniazid-induced cholestasis through enhancement of bile acid accumulation and mitochondria ?-oxidation. PMID:23142471

  3. Elevated baseline serum glutamate as a pharmacometabolomic biomarker for acamprosate treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    Nam, H W; Karpyak, V M; Hinton, D J; Geske, J R; Ho, A M C; Prieto, M L; Biernacka, J M; Frye, M A; Weinshilboum, R M; Choi, D-S

    2015-01-01

    Acamprosate has been widely used since the Food and Drug Administration approved the medication for treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in 2004. Although the detailed molecular mechanism of acamprosate remains unclear, it has been largely known that acamprosate inhibits glutamate action in the brain. However, AUD is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. Thus, biomarkers are required to prescribe this medication to patients who will have the highest likelihood of responding positively. To identify pharmacometabolomic biomarkers of acamprosate response, we utilized serum samples from 120 alcohol-dependent subjects, including 71 responders (maintained continuous abstinence) and 49 non-responders (any alcohol use) during 12 weeks of acamprosate treatment. Notably, baseline serum glutamate levels were significantly higher in responders compared with non-responders. Importantly, serum glutamate levels of responders are normalized after acamprosate treatment, whereas there was no significant glutamate change in non-responders. Subsequent functional studies in animal models revealed that, in the absence of alcohol, acamprosate activates glutamine synthetase, which synthesizes glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. These results suggest that acamprosate reduces serum glutamate levels for those who have elevated baseline serum glutamate levels among responders. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that elevated baseline serum glutamate levels are a potential biomarker associated with positive acamprosate response, which is an important step towards development of a personalized approach to treatment for AUD. PMID:26285131

  4. Elevated baseline serum glutamate as a pharmacometabolomic biomarker for acamprosate treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nam, H W; Karpyak, V M; Hinton, D J; Geske, J R; Ho, A M C; Prieto, M L; Biernacka, J M; Frye, M A; Weinshilboum, R M; Choi, D-S

    2015-01-01

    Acamprosate has been widely used since the Food and Drug Administration approved the medication for treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in 2004. Although the detailed molecular mechanism of acamprosate remains unclear, it has been largely known that acamprosate inhibits glutamate action in the brain. However, AUD is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. Thus, biomarkers are required to prescribe this medication to patients who will have the highest likelihood of responding positively. To identify pharmacometabolomic biomarkers of acamprosate response, we utilized serum samples from 120 alcohol-dependent subjects, including 71 responders (maintained continuous abstinence) and 49 non-responders (any alcohol use) during 12 weeks of acamprosate treatment. Notably, baseline serum glutamate levels were significantly higher in responders compared with non-responders. Importantly, serum glutamate levels of responders are normalized after acamprosate treatment, whereas there was no significant glutamate change in non-responders. Subsequent functional studies in animal models revealed that, in the absence of alcohol, acamprosate activates glutamine synthetase, which synthesizes glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. These results suggest that acamprosate reduces serum glutamate levels for those who have elevated baseline serum glutamate levels among responders. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that elevated baseline serum glutamate levels are a potential biomarker associated with positive acamprosate response, which is an important step towards development of a personalized approach to treatment for AUD. PMID:26285131

  5. Alanine aminotransferase isoenzymes: molecular cloning and quantitative analysis of tissue expression in rats and serum elevation in liver toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rong-Ze; Park, Soohyun; Reagan, William J.; Goldstein, Rick; Zhong, Shao; Lawton, Michael; Rajamohan, Francis; Qian, Kun; Liu, Li; Gong, Da-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is regarded as an indicator of liver damage based on the presumption that ALT protein is specifically and abundantly expressed in the liver. However, ALT elevation is also observed in non-liver injury conditions (e.g., muscle injury) and in apparently healthy people. Conversely, serum ALT activity is normal in many patients with confirmed liver diseases (e.g., cirrhosis and hepatitis C infection). To improve the diagnostic value of the ALT assay and to understand the molecular basis for serum ALT changes in various pathophysiological conditions, we have cloned rat ALT isoenzyme ALT1 and ALT2 cDNAs, examined their tissue expressions at the mRNA and protein levels, and determined ALT1 and ALT 2 serum levels in response to liver damage in rodents. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis shows that ALT1 mRNA is widely distributed and mainly expressed in intestine, liver, fat tissues, colon, muscle and heart, in the order of high to low expression level, whereas ALT2 gene expression is more restricted, mainly in liver, muscle, brain, and white adipose tissue. The tissue distribution pattern of ALT1 and ALT2 proteins largely agrees with their mRNA expression. Interestingly, hepatic ALT2 protein is about four times higher in male rats than female rats. In addition, ALT isoenzymes distribute differentially at the subcellular level in that ALT1 is a cytoplasmic protein and ALT2 a mitochondrial protein, supporting bioinformatic prediction of mitochondrial localization of ALT2. Finally, using animal models of hepatoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen, we found that both serum ALT1 and ALT2 protein levels were significantly elevated and correlated with ALT activity, providing, for the first time, the molecular basis for the elevated total serum ALT activity. PMID:19085960

  6. Elevated serum levels of creatine kinase BB in autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type II--a family study.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, T; Fowler, H L; Pendleton, J W; Sforza, P P; Gerard, R D; Lui, C Y; Eldridge, T H; Iranmanesh, A

    1992-07-01

    A markedly elevated BB isoenzyme fraction of serum creatine kinase was noted in four male siblings and correlated with typical radiographic findings of autosomal dominant osteopetrosis Type II (ADO Type II). Patients with other sclerosing bone diseases had no elevation of CK-BB. The precision of the electrophoretic mobility patterns and correlation by I-125 tagged radioimmunoassay method confirms that this is CK-BB. We postulate that the dysfunctional and/or immature osteoclasts in ADO are more dependent on CK-BB than on the usual tricarboxylic acid cycle for the production of energy. The correlation of marked elevation of serum CK-BB with radiographic evidence of ADO Type II may prove to be of value as a biologic marker in the early diagnosis of the illness and lead to better understanding of the metabolism of bone. PMID:1516225

  7. Elevated serum semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: correlation with body mass index and serum triglyceride.

    PubMed

    Mszros, Z; Szombathy, T; Raimondi, L; Kardi, I; Romics, L; Magyar, K

    1999-01-01

    Previous clinical studies reported elevated semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), but there are not sufficient data about SSAO in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The present study was conducted to investigate serum SSAO activity in NIDDM patients compared with nondiabetic and IDDM patients. Serum SSAO activity in 61 patients with diabetes (n = 34 NIDDM and n = 27 IDDM) and 36 controls was determined using 14C-benzylamine as a substrate. NIDDM and IDDM patients exhibited higher SSAO activity compared with controls ([mean +/- SD] NIDDM, 164.60+/-69.43 pmol/mg protein/h, P<.0001; IDDM, 143.91+/-72.45 pmol/mg protein/h, P<.002; control, 91.46+/-28.11 pmol/mg protein/h). There was a significant positive correlation between serum SSAO activity and the body mass index (BMI), body weight, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, and triglycerides. Within the control group, SSAO correlated with total cholesterol levels. The progression and severity of diabetic complications such as angiopathy may be exacerbated by cytotoxic metabolites (e.g., formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide) formed by SSAO. These results reveal the possibility that elevated serum SSAO activity in association with obesity and hyperlipidemia may be a cardiovascular risk factor in diabetes mellitus. PMID:9920154

  8. Medication review: an alternative phosphate binder--calcium acetate.

    PubMed

    Holechek, M J

    1991-06-01

    Calcium acetate is a potent phosphate binder that causes fewer problems with hypercalcemia and elevated serum aluminum concentrations than other calcium salt or aluminum-binding agents. It exceeds calcium carbonate in its binding ability and is not expensive. These advantages make it an attractive alternative to many of the standard phosphate-binding regimens. PMID:2064459

  9. Serum vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations in ponies, horses and foals from the United States and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pozza, Megan E; Kaewsakhorn, Thattawan; Trinarong, Chumnan; Inpanbutr, Nongnuch; Toribio, Ramiro E

    2014-03-01

    Vitamin D is essential in calcium and phosphorus regulation, bone physiology, cell proliferation and epithelial integrity. Literature on vitamin D in growing horses is sparse, and the effect of age on vitamin D has not been evaluated in equids in the United States or in tropical countries. The goal of this study was to determine if there was an effect of age on serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations in equids in the US (Ohio/Kentucky) and Thailand (Chiang Rai and Kanchanaburi) during the same time of the year. Blood samples were collected from healthy ponies (n=21) and Thoroughbred foals (n=13), yearlings (n=10), and horses (n=20) in Thailand and from Thoroughbred foals (n=10) and horses (n=17) in the US. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3, calcium and phosphorus were measured. In both countries, serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations were lower in foals than in yearlings and adult horses. Serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations were higher in horses than in ponies in Thailand, but were not different between horses from either country. Calcium concentrations were not different between groups or location. In both countries, phosphorus concentrations were higher in foals than in older groups; however, were not different between ponies and horses. This study shows that independent of geography there are age-related differences in 25(OH)D3 concentrations in horses and further confirms that 25(OH)D3 concentrations are lower in horses compared to other species. The information will serve as the basis for future clinical studies and to help understand better the pathophysiology of equine disorders associated with calcium and phosphorus dysregulation. PMID:24524849

  10. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body than any other mineral. Calcium has many important jobs. The body stores more than 99 percent ... send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods ...

  11. Sonic hedgehog stimulates the proliferation of rat gastric mucosal cells through ERK activation by elevating intracellular calcium concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Osawa, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Hirohide . E-mail: hohnishi@jichi.ac.jp; Takano, Koji; Noguti, Takasi; Mashima, Hirosato; Hoshino, Hiroko; Kita, Hiroto; Sato, Kiichi; Matsui, Hirofumi; Sugano, Kentaro

    2006-06-02

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a member of hedgehog peptides family, is expressed in gastric gland epithelium. To elucidate Shh function to gastric mucosal cells, we examined the effect of Shh on the proliferation of a rat normal gastric mucosal cell line, RGM-1. RGM-1 cells express essential components of Shh receptor system, patched-1, and smoothened. Shh enhanced DNA synthesis in RGM-1 cells and elevated intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}). In addition, Shh as well as calcium ionophore A32187 rapidly activated ERK. However, Shh failed to activate ERK under calcium-free culture condition. Pretreatment of cells with PD98059 attenuated the DNA synthesis promoted by Shh. Moreover, when cells were pretreated with cyclopamine, Shh could not elevate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}, activate ERK or promote DNA synthesis. On the other hand, although Shh induced Gli-1 nuclear accumulation in RGM-1 cells, Shh activated ERK even in cells pretreated with actinomycin D. These results indicate that Shh promotes the proliferation of RGM-1 cells through an intracellular calcium- and ERK-dependent but transcription-independent pathway via Patched/Smoothened receptor system.

  12. Hypophysectomy eliminates and growth hormone (GH) maintains the midpregnancy elevation in GH receptor and serum binding protein in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Jimenez, F.; Fielder, P.J.; Martinez, R.R.; Smith, W.C.; Talamantes, F. )

    1990-02-01

    ({sup 125}I)Iodomouse GH (({sup 125}I)iodo-mGH) binding to samples of serum and hepatic microsomal membranes was measured in hypophysectomized pregnant, sham-operated pregnant, intact pregnant, and intact adult virgin mice. Surgeries were carried out on day 11 of pregnancy, and the animals were killed on day 14. The binding of mGH to both serum and hepatic microsomal membranes of intact virgin mice was much lower than to those of intact pregnant mice. In hypophysectomized mice, the mGH-binding capacity of both serum and hepatic microsomes decreased to values similar to those of nonpregnant mice. No significant differences were observed between intact and sham-operated pregnant animals in the maternal serum mGH concentration, the serum GH-binding protein concentration, or the hepatic GH receptor concentration. GH receptor and binding protein-encoding mRNAs were also higher in intact and sham-operated pregnant mice than in virgin and hypophysectomized mice. Hypophysectomized mice were treated with 200 micrograms/day bovine GH, administered by osmotic minipump; after 3 days of treatment, a significant elevation of hepatic GH receptor and serum GH-binding protein levels was observed. These results demonstrate an up-regulation of hepatic GH receptors and serum GH-binding protein by GH during pregnancy in the mouse.

  13. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium is a mineral that is an essential part of bones and teeth. The heart, nerves, and blood-clotting systems also need calcium ... as well as the calcium-enriched citrus juices, mineral water, canned fish with bones, and soy products ...

  14. Marked elevation of serum interleukin-6 in patients with cholangiocarcinoma: validation of utility as a clinical marker.

    PubMed Central

    Goydos, J S; Brumfield, A M; Frezza, E; Booth, A; Lotze, M T; Carty, S E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if the serum level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was elevated in patients with hepatic malignancies or correlated with radiologic tumor burden. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: High serum levels of IL-6 signify an adverse prognosis in many patients with cancer. IL-6 is a growth factor for bile duct epithelium. METHODS: Using bioactive and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, serum level of IL-6 was measured in 35 healthy adults and in 60 patients presenting for definitive management of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) (15 patients), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (14), metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC) (26), and benign biliary disease (BBD) (5). Patients with clinical conditions known to raise the serum level of IL-6 were excluded. Tumor burden was calculated from concurrent computed tomography scans. IL-6 levels were measured 2 weeks after resection in 3 CC patients. Secretion of IL-6 was examined in 3 human CC cell lines. RESULTS: An elevated level of bioactive IL-6 was detected in every patient with CC and in 13 of 14 patients with HCC, 14 of 26 patients with MCRC, 2 of 5 patients with BBD, and 3 of 35 healthy adults. Median and mean levels of bioactive IL-6 were higher in CC than in other neoplasms (p < 0.026) and for all tumor groups differed from healthy adults (p < or = 0.026). IL-6 level was elevated more often in primary than in secondary liver neoplasms (p = 0.02), distinguished patients with CC or MCRC from BBD (p = 0.014 and 0.031, respectively), correlated with tumor burden in CC (p < 0.001), and dropped sharply after CC resection. CC line SG231 secreted bioactive IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: In selected patients, a high serum level of IL-6 marks patients with CC and correlates with tumor burden both before and after resection. IL-6 levels are elevated in patients with other liver neoplasms and may distinguish patients with hepatic malignancies from those with benign disease. PMID:9527063

  15. Relationships between serum asunaprevir concentration and alanine aminotransferase elevation during daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for chronic HCV genotype 1b infection.

    PubMed

    Akuta, Norio; Sezaki, Hitomi; Suzuki, Fumitaka; Kawamura, Yusuke; Hosaka, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Mariko; Saitoh, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Arase, Yasuji; Ikeda, Kenji; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2016-03-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations were the most frequent adverse events during all-oral combinations with daclatasvir and asunaprevir for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the underline mechanisms are unclear. Seventy patients with chronic HCV genotype 1b infection, who were introduced daclatasvir 60 mg once daily plus asunaprevir 100 mg twice daily for 24 weeks, were measured serum asunaprevir concentrations at the one point or more of 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the start of treatment. In 4 and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, asunaprevir concentrations in patients with albumin levels <3.6 g/dl at baseline were significantly higher than those in patients with albumin levels ≥3.6 g/dl. The baseline factors did not affect to ALT severe elevations (≥300 IU/l). At 2 weeks after the start of treatment, ALT severe elevations with asunaprevir concentrations of ≥800 ng/ml (54.5%) tended to indicate the higher rates than those of <800 ng/ml (17.6%). Furthermore, the discontinuation or reduction of asunaprevir improved ALT levels, regardless the significant decrease of serum asunaprevir concentrations. In conclusion, serum albumin levels affected to serum asunaprevir concentrations, and serum asunaprevir concentrations might partly affect to ALT severe elevations. Further large-scale prospective studies are needed to investigate the impact of the discontinuation or reduction of asunaprevir to help in the design of more effective therapeutic regimens. J. Med. Virol. 88:506-511, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26292191

  16. Study of Denosumab in the Treatment of Hypercalcemia of Malignancy in Subjects With Elevated Serum Calcium

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-13

    Breast Cancer; Hypercalcemia of Malignancy; Colon Cancer; Endocrine Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Lung Cancer; Lymphoma; Metastatic Cancer; Multiple Myeloma; Parathyroid Neoplasms; Renal Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  17. Ursolic Acid-Induced Elevation of Serum Irisin Augments Muscle Strength During Resistance Training in Men

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun Seok; Seo, Dae Yun; Chung, Yong Min; Oh, Kyoung-Mo; Park, Jung Jun; Arturo, Figueroa; Jeong, Seung-Hun; Kim, Nari

    2014-01-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), a type of pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid purified from natural plants, can promote skeletal muscle development. We measured the effect of resistance training (RT) with/without UA on skeletal muscle development and related factors in men. Sixteen healthy male participants (age, 29.375.14 years; body mass index=27.132.16 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to RT (n=7) or RT with UA (RT+UA, n=9) groups. Both groups completed 8 weeks of intervention consisting of 5 sets of 26 exercises, with 10~15 repetitions at 60~80% of 1 repetition maximum and a 60~90-s rest interval between sets, performed 6 times/week. UA or placebo was orally ingested as 1 capsule 3 times/day for 8 weeks. The following factors were measured pre-and post-intervention: body composition, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), irisin, and skeletal muscle strength. Body fat percentage was significantly decreased (p<0.001) in the RT+UA group, despite body weight, body mass index, lean body mass, glucose, and insulin levels remaining unchanged. IGF-1 and irisin were significantly increased compared with baseline levels in the RT+UA group (p<0.05). Maximal right and left extension (p<0.01), right flexion (p<0.05), and left flexion (p<0.001) were significantly increased compared with baseline levels in the RT+UA group. These findings suggest that UA-induced elevation of serum irisin may be useful as an agent for the enhancement of skeletal muscle strength during RT. PMID:25352765

  18. Circadian rhythms of osteocalcin in equine serum. Correlation with alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphate and total protein levels.

    PubMed Central

    Lepage, O M; DesCteaux, L; Marcoux, M; Tremblay, A

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether there were circadian variations in serum osteocalcin in normal horses and to determine whether it was important to regulate the time of blood sampling in clinical investigations. Osteocalcin or bone Gla-protein (BGP), alkaline phosphatase, total calcium, phosphate and total protein were studied over a 24 h period. Blood samples were taken every 60 min from nine adult Standardbred horses. There was a correlation between serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.3, p less than 0.01), phosphate (r = 0.42, p less than 0.01) and serum osteocalcin levels. There was a very marked individual effect on serum levels of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (p less than 0.01). This effect was present for phosphate levels but not significant for total calcium. The individual effect was lower and time effect was higher for serum osteocalcin if the subjects were divided into two age groups, one of horses of five years or less (n = 4) and a second group older than five years (n = 5). In both groups a circadian rhythmicity was observed. Serum osteocalcin showed a biphasic pattern. Levels were constant during daytime (light period) and underwent significant variations during the night (dark period), going through a nadir at 2000 h and through a maximum peak at 0500 h. It was concluded that in normal horses the blood osteocalcin level follows a circadian variation. Also daytime (light period) seems to be the more appropriate period for blood sampling. PMID:1884284

  19. Elevated serum level of IL-27 and VEGF in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and associate with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian-Tian; Lu, Jing; Qi, Chen-Yue; Yuan, Lin; Li, Xiao-Lin; Xia, Li-Ping; Shen, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-27 is an IL-12 family cytokine and exerts a critical role in immune regulation in the context of infection, autoimmunity, and angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible pathophysiological role of IL-27 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred and forty AS patients and 90 healthy controls were included in the current study. The levels of IL-27 and VEGF in serum and synovial fluid (SF) samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 were measured by standard laboratory techniques. Disease activity in AS was scored with Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Hip involvement, peripheral arthritis, and eye involvement were also recorded. The serum levels of IL-27 were remarkably higher in AS patients than healthy groups and significantly correlated with serum levels of VEGF. Furthermore, the serum levels of IL-27 were correlated with BASDAI independent of other markers of inflammation. Elevated serum levels of IL-27 and VEGF were detected in AS patients with peripheral arthritis and HLA-B27 positive. The SF levels of IL-27 and VEGF were significantly higher than serum levels in AS patients with peripheral arthritis. By contrast, levels of IL-27 and VEGF were not increased in AS patients with hip involvement and eye involvement. IL-27 may regulate the immunological or inflammatory process of AS. PMID:24710630

  20. Elevated serum immunoinflammation-related protein complexes are associated with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujie; Zhang, Dan; Cheng, Yuhang; Li, Zhili

    2015-11-30

    Emerging evidence suggests an underlying immune and inflammatory response for a variety of psychiatric disorders. Herein, we employed an optimized native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to isolate psychosis-related serum immunoinflammation-related protein complexes (IIRPCs) from 147 patients with schizophrenia (SCH), 158 patients with bipolar disorder (BPD), 132 patients with other psychosis, and 145 normal controls. All participants could be classified into four categories based on serum IIRPCs, which correspond to 290, 215, 70, and 7 serum samples, correspondingly. For each category, significantly enhanced levels of serum IIRPCs in patients with SCH, BPD, and other psychosis groups were observed compared with normal controls. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that serum IIRPCs have excellent diagnostic performance to differentiate SCH, BPD, and other psychosis groups from normal controls, with high sensitivities and specificities of >85%. Total serum amounts of IgG, IgA, and IgM in all patients were significantly decreased compared with normal controls. PMID:26337482

  1. Serum Metabolite Profiles and Target Tissue Gene Expression Define the Effect of Cholecalciferol Intake on Calcium Metabolism in Rats and Mice1,2

    PubMed Central

    Fleet, James C.; Gliniak, Christy; Zhang, Zhentao; Xue, Yingben; Smith, Kathleen B.; McCreedy, Rebecca; Adedokun, Sunday A.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the effect of cholecalciferol (VD3) intake on VD3 status and markers of calcium (Ca) homeostasis in mice and rats. Serum 25 hydroxycholecalciferol (25OH-VD3) concentrations were increased in animals fed diets containing 40020,000 international units (IU) VD3/kg (37 nmolL?11000 IU VD3?1), but body weight, serum Ca, and duodenal gene expression were not altered. High-VD3 intake decreased serum 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2-VD3] and renal 25 hydroxycholecalciferol-1ahydroxylase (CYP27B1) mRNA, suggesting that rodents tolerate high-VD3 intake by suppressing the activity of the VD3 endocrine system. Serum 25OH-VD3 declined when animals were fed diets containing 1000 to 25 IU VD3/kg (911 wk, inflection at 200 IU/kg, 4-fold steeper slope below this). Neither body weight nor serum Ca were influenced by low-VD3 intake. However, mice fed the 25-IU/kg diet had lower serum 1,25(OH)2-VD3, duodenal calbindin D9k mRNA, bone mineral density, and renal 25 hydroxycholecalciferol-24 hydroxylase mRNA, whereas renal CYP27B1 mRNA was elevated when rodents were fed ,200 IU VD3/kg. These data reveal a stress on VD3 and Ca metabolism at low dietary VD3 intake. Dietary Ca restriction (0.25 vs. 0.5%, 9 wk) increased serum 1,25(OH)2-VD3 and was 30% greater in rats fed a 10,000-IU VD3/kg diet. High-VD3 intake did not prevent Ca restriction-induced bone loss. Our data show that modeling human VD3 status requires lower intake than the current NRC rodent requirement (1000-IU/kg diet). Also, although rodents are very tolerant of high-VD3 intake, it cannot compensate for moderate Ca restriction. PMID:18492843

  2. Serum CEACAM1 Elevation Correlates with Melanoma Progression and Failure to Respond to Adoptive Cell Transfer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ortenberg, R.; Sapoznik, S.; Zippel, D.; Shapira-Frommer, R.; Itzhaki, O.; Kubi, A.; Zikich, D.; Besser, M. J.; Schachter, J.; Markel, G.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a devastating disease whose incidences are continuously rising. The recently approved antimelanoma therapies carry new hope for metastatic patients for the first time in decades. However, the clinical management of melanoma is severely hampered by the absence of effective screening tools. The expression of the CEACAM1 adhesion molecule on melanoma cells is a strong predictor of poor prognosis. Interestingly, a melanoma-secreted form of CEACAM1 (sCEACAM1) has recently emerged as a potential tumor biomarker. Here we add novel evidences supporting the prognostic role of serum CEACAM1 by using a mice xenograft model of human melanoma and showing a correlation between serum CEACAM1 and tumor burden. Moreover, we demonstrate that serum CEACAM1 is elevated over time in progressive melanoma patients who fail to respond to immunotherapy as opposed to responders and stable disease patients, thus proving a correlation between sCEACAM1, response to treatment, and clinical deterioration. PMID:26688824

  3. Abdominal Obesity Associated with Elevated Serum Butyrylcholinesterase Activity, Insulin Resistance and Reduced High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Tangvarasittichai, Surapon; Pongthaisong, Suthap; Meemark, Suwadee; Tangvarasittichai, Orathai

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal obesity (AO) has a strong correlation with cardiovascular disease and has been linked to Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes. We investigated the association between AO and elevated serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity, insulin resistance and the serum lipid profile, including triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in AO and non-AO women subjects. A total of 500 AO subjects (age 49.110.5years), and 142 non-AO women subjects (age 49.911.9years) were enrolled for the general biochemistry tests, serum BChE, fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Body mass index, waist circumference, Blood pressure (BP), plasma glucose (Glu), triglyceride (TG), BChE, insulin, HOMA-IR were significantly higher and HDL-C levels were significantly lower in AO subjects (p<0.05). Waist circumference was significantly correlated with BP, Glu, TG, BChE, insulin and HOMA-IR in AO subjects. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that AO was associated with elevated BChE, HOMA-IR, hypertension and reduced HDL-C after adjusting for these variables. AO is associated with elevated BChE, insulin resistance, HT and reduced HDL-C. These may predict the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and may be associated with cognitive disorder in the future, both are mediated through insulin resistance. PMID:26089612

  4. Determinants of serum levels of vitamin D: a study of life-style, menopausal status, dietary intake, serum calcium, and PTH

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low blood levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxy D3, 25OHD3) in women have been associated with an increased risk of several diseases. A large part of the population may have suboptimal 25OHD3 levels but high-risk groups are not well known. The aim of the present study was to identify determinants for serum levels of 25OHD3 in women, i.e. factors such as lifestyle, menopausal status, diet and selected biochemical variables. Methods The study was based on women from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), a prospective, population-based cohort study in Malmö, Sweden. In a previous case–control study on breast cancer, 25OHD3 concentrations had been measured in 727 women. In these, quartiles of serum 25OHD3 were compared with regard to age at baseline, BMI (Body Max Index), menopausal status, use of oral contraceptives or menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) , life-style (e.g. smoking and alcohol consumption), socio-demographic factors, season, biochemical variables (i.e. calcium, PTH, albumin, creatinine, and phosphate), and dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. In order to test differences in mean vitamin D concentrations between different categories of the studied factors, an ANOVA test was used followed by a t-test. The relation between different factors and 25OHD3 was further investigated using multiple linear regression analysis and a logistic regression analysis. Results We found a positive association between serum levels of 25OHD3 and age, oral contraceptive use, moderate alcohol consumption, blood collection during summer/ autumn, creatinine, phosphate, calcium, and a high intake of vitamin D. Low vitamin D levels were associated with obesity, being born outside Sweden and high PTH levels. Conclusions The present population-based study found a positive association between serum levels of 25OHD3 and to several socio-demographic, life-style and biochemical factors. The study may have implications e. g. for dietary recommendations. However, the analysis is a cross-sectional and it is difficult to suggest Lifestyle changes as cause- effect relationships are difficult to assess. PMID:23945218

  5. Nicotinamide treatment in a murine model of familial tumoral calcinosis reduces serum Fgf23 and raises heart calcium.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Austin M; Gray, Amie K; Moe, Sharon M; Ichikawa, Shoji

    2014-10-01

    Mutations in the GALNT3 gene result in familial tumoral calcinosis, characterized by persistent hyperphosphatemia and ectopic calcific masses in soft tissues. Since calcific masses often recur after surgical removal, a more permanent solution to the problem is required. Nicotinamide is reported to lower serum phosphate by decreasing sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters in the gut and kidney. However, its effectiveness in tumoral calcinosis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated nicotinamide as a potential therapy for tumoral calcinosis, using a murine model of the disease-Galnt3 knockout mice. Initially, five different doses of nicotinamide were given to normal heterozygous mice intraperitoneally or orally. Treatment had no effect on serum phosphate levels, but serum levels of a phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (Fgf23), decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequently, high-dose nicotinamide (40mM) was tested in Galnt3 knockout mice fed a high phosphate diet. The radiographic data pre- and post-treatment showed that nicotinamide did not reverse the calcification. However, the treatment retarded calcification growth after 4weeks, while in the untreated animals, calcifications increased in size. The therapy did not affect serum phosphate levels, but intact Fgf23 decreased in the treated mice. The treated mice also had increased calcium in the heart. In summary, nicotinamide did not alter serum phosphate levels, likely due to compensatory decrease in Fgf23 to counteract the phosphate lowering effect of nicotinamide. Although increased calcium accumulation in the heart is a concern, the therapy appears to slow down the progression of ectopic calcifications. PMID:25007710

  6. Nicotinamide treatment in a murine model of familial tumoral calcinosis reduces serum Fgf23 and raises heart calcium

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Austin M.; Gray, Amie K.; Moe, Sharon M.; Ichikawa, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the GALNT3 gene result in familial tumoral calcinosis, characterized by persistent hyperphosphatemia and ectopic calcific masses in soft tissues. Since calcific masses often recur after surgical removal, a more permanent solution to the problem is required. Nicotinamide is reported to lower serum phosphate by decreasing sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters in the gut and kidney. However, its effectiveness in tumoral calcinosis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated nicotinamide as a potential therapy for tumoral calcinosis, using a murine model of the disease–Galnt3 knockout mice. Initially, five different doses of nicotinamide were given to normal heterozygous mice intraperitoneally or orally. Treatment had no effect on serum phosphate levels; however, serum levels of a phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (Fgf23), decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequently, high-dose nicotinamide (40 mM) was tested in Galnt3 knockout mice fed a high phosphate diet. The radiographic data pre- and post-treatment showed that nicotinamide did not reverse the calcification. However, the treatment retarded calcification growth after four weeks, while in the untreated animals, calcifications increased in size. The therapy did not affect serum phosphate levels, but intact Fgf23 decreased in the treated mice. The treated mice also had increased calcium in the heart. In summary, nicotinamide did not alter serum phosphate levels, likely due to compensatory decrease in Fgf23 to counteract the phosphate lowering effect of nicotinamide. Although increased calcium accumulation in the heart is a concern, the therapy appears to slow down the progression of ectopic calcifications. PMID:25007710

  7. Impact of Elevated Hemoglobin and Serum Protein on Vasovagal Reaction from Blood Donation

    PubMed Central

    Tanba, Taiko; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Motoji, Toshiko; Munakata, Masaya; Nakajima, Kazunori; Minami, Mutsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate factors contributing to vasovagal reaction (VVR), the most frequent side effect following whole blood and apheresis donations. Complications recorded at the collection sites after voluntary donations by the Japanese Red Cross Tokyo Blood Center (JRC), in the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years, were analyzed by both univariate analysis and the multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Of 1,119,716 blood donations over the full two years, complications were recorded for 13,320 donations (1.18%), among which 67% were VVR. There were 4,303 VVR cases which had sufficient information and could be used for this study. For each VVR case, two sex- and age-matched controls (n = 8,606) were randomly selected from the donors without complications. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), predonation blood pressure, pulse and blood test results, including total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin, were compared between the VVR group and the control group. In univariate analysis, the VVR group was significantly younger, with a lower BMI, higher blood pressure and higher blood protein and hemoglobin levels than the control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, blood protein and hemoglobin levels showed dose-dependent relationships with VVR incidences by the Cochran-Armitage trend test (p<0.01). For both sexes, after adjusting for confounders with the multivariate conditional logistic regression model, the higher than median groups for total protein (male: OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.76,-2.21; female: OR 2.29; 95%CI 2.05–2.56), albumin (male: 1.75; 1.55–1.96; female: 1.76; 1.57–1.97) and hemoglobin (male: 1.98; 1.76–2.22; female: 1.62; 1.45–1.81) had statistically significant higher risk of VVR compared to the lower than median groups. These elevated serum protein and hemoglobin levels might offer new indicators to help understand VVR occurrence. PMID:26894814

  8. Impact of Elevated Hemoglobin and Serum Protein on Vasovagal Reaction from Blood Donation.

    PubMed

    Odajima, Takeshi; Takanashi, Minoko; Sugimori, Hiroki; Tanba, Taiko; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Motoji, Toshiko; Munakata, Masaya; Nakajima, Kazunori; Minami, Mutsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate factors contributing to vasovagal reaction (VVR), the most frequent side effect following whole blood and apheresis donations. Complications recorded at the collection sites after voluntary donations by the Japanese Red Cross Tokyo Blood Center (JRC), in the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years, were analyzed by both univariate analysis and the multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Of 1,119,716 blood donations over the full two years, complications were recorded for 13,320 donations (1.18%), among which 67% were VVR. There were 4,303 VVR cases which had sufficient information and could be used for this study. For each VVR case, two sex- and age-matched controls (n = 8,606) were randomly selected from the donors without complications. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), predonation blood pressure, pulse and blood test results, including total protein, albumin, and hemoglobin, were compared between the VVR group and the control group. In univariate analysis, the VVR group was significantly younger, with a lower BMI, higher blood pressure and higher blood protein and hemoglobin levels than the control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, blood protein and hemoglobin levels showed dose-dependent relationships with VVR incidences by the Cochran-Armitage trend test (p<0.01). For both sexes, after adjusting for confounders with the multivariate conditional logistic regression model, the higher than median groups for total protein (male: OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.76,-2.21; female: OR 2.29; 95%CI 2.05-2.56), albumin (male: 1.75; 1.55-1.96; female: 1.76; 1.57-1.97) and hemoglobin (male: 1.98; 1.76-2.22; female: 1.62; 1.45-1.81) had statistically significant higher risk of VVR compared to the lower than median groups. These elevated serum protein and hemoglobin levels might offer new indicators to help understand VVR occurrence. PMID:26894814

  9. Elevated Preoperative Serum Hs-CRP Level as a Prognostic Factor in Patients Who Underwent Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Bin; Ying, Jie; Kuang, Su-Juan; Jin, Hao-Sheng; Yin, Zi; Chang, Liang; Yang, Hui; Ou, Ying-Liang; Zheng, Jiang-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Li, Chuan-Sheng; Jian, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of preoperative highly sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) in serum on the prognostic outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following hepatic resection in Chinese samples.From January 2004 to December 2008, a total of 624 consecutive HCC patients who underwent hepatic resection were incorporated. Serum levels of Hs-CRP were tested at preoperation via a collection of venous blood samples. Survival analyses adopted the univariate and multivariate analyses.In our study, among the 624 screened HCC patients, 516 patients were eventually incorporated and completed follow-up. Positive correlations were found regarding preoperative serum Hs-CRP level and tumor size, Child-Pugh class, or tumor stage (all P < 0.0001). Patients with recurrence outcomes and nonsurvivors had increased Hs-CRP levels at preoperation (both P < 0.0001). When compared to the Hs-CRP-normal group, the overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival rates were evidently decreased in the Hs-CRP-elevated group. Further, preoperative serum Hs-CRP level might be having possible prediction effect regarding survival and recurrence of HCC patients after hepatic section in the multivariate analysis.Preoperative increased serum Hs-CRP level was an independent prognostic indicator in patients with HCC following hepatic resection in Chinese samples. PMID:26656354

  10. Impact of calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies on serum parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density: analysis of the 4th & 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative contributions of calcium and vitamin D to calcium metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) have been examined previously, but not in a population with very low calcium intake. To determine the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concent...

  11. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR α mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400 mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR α and ACO mRNA expression. Expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the ovariectomized control group. Rats administered low-dose olive leaf extract showed significantly elevated adiponectin mRNA expression compared with rats in the ovariectomized control group. Even though dose-dependent effects were not observed in most of the measurements, these results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism may be regulated by olive leaf extract administration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25714618

  12. Serum elevation of B lymphocyte stimulator does not increase regulatory B cells in glioblastoma patients undergoing immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Saraswathula, Anirudh; Reap, Elizabeth A; Choi, Bryan D; Schmittling, Robert J; Norberg, Pamela K; Sayour, Elias J; Herndon, James E; Healy, Patrick; Congdon, Kendra L; Archer, Gerald E; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Sampson, John H

    2016-02-01

    Regulatory B cells that secrete IL-10 (IL-10(+) Bregs) represent a suppressive subset of the B cell compartment with prominent anti-inflammatory capacity, capable of suppressing cellular and humoral responses to cancer and vaccines. B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) is a key regulatory molecule in IL-10(+) Breg biology with tightly controlled serum levels. However, BLyS levels can be drastically altered upon chemotherapeutic intervention. We have previously shown that serum BLyS levels are elevated, and directly associated, with increased antigen-specific antibody titers in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) undergoing lymphodepletive temozolomide chemotherapy and vaccination. In this study, we examined corresponding IL-10(+) Breg responses within this patient population and demonstrate that the IL-10(+) Breg compartment remains constant before and after administration of the vaccine, despite elevated BLyS levels in circulation. IL-10(+) Breg frequencies were not associated with serum BLyS levels, and ex vivo stimulation with a physiologically relevant concentration of BLyS did not increase IL-10(+) Breg frequency. However, BLyS stimulation did increase the frequency of the overall B cell compartment and promoted B cell proliferation upon B cell receptor engagement. Therefore, using BLyS as an adjuvant with therapeutic peptide vaccination could promote humoral immunity with no increase in immunosuppressive IL-10(+) Bregs. These results have implications for modulating humoral responses in human peptide vaccine trials in patients with GBM. PMID:26759007

  13. Calcium dobesilate reduces endothelin-1 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein serum levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Javadzadeh, Alireza; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Adl, Farzad Hami; Andalib, Dima; Khojasteh-Jafari, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the benefits of calcium dobesilate (CaD) administration on endothelial function and inflammatory status in patients with diabetic retinopathy through measurement of serum levels of endothelin-1 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Methods In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 90 patients with either severe nonproliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy and with blood glucose level of 120200 mg/dl were randomly allocated to treatment with either CaD tablets (500 mg daily) or placebo for 3 months. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and macular status were performed before the study. The serum levels of endothelin-1 and hsCRP were evaluated in both groups before and at the third month of the trial. Results The median serum level of hsCRP significantly differed between the groups 3 months following the CaD or placebo administration (2.2 mg/l in the CaD group versus 3.7 mg/l in the placebo group, p=0.01). The mean endothelin-1 serum level was 0.690.32 pg/ml in the CaD group and 0.860.30 pg/ml in the placebo group (p=0.01). Furthermore, in the CaD group, the serum levels of both endothelin-1 and hsCRP were significantly decreased 3 months after administration of CaD (p<0.001). Conclusions Administration of the CaD in the patients with diabetic retinopathy may reduce the serum levels of endothelin-1 and hsCRP. This might imply amelioration of the endothelial function and inflammatory status following CaD therapy in these patients. PMID:23335852

  14. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS. PMID:26663940

  15. Serum progranulin levels are elevated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, reflecting disease activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Progranulin (PGRN) is the precursor of granulin (GRN), a soluble cofactor for toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) signaling evoked by oligonucleotide (CpG)-DNA. Because TLR9 signaling plays an important role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we investigated whether PGRN is involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. Methods We measured concentrations of serum PGRN and interleukin-6 (IL-6) with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients with SLE (n = 68) and in healthy controls (n = 60). We assessed the correlation between the serum PGRN levels and established disease-activity indexes. The sera from the patients with high PGRN titers (>80 ng/ml) at the initial evaluation were reevaluated after the disease was ameliorated by treatment. We also measured the IL-6 concentration secreted by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) incubated with (a) oligonucleotide (CpG-B) in the presence or absence of recombinant human PGRN (rhPGRN); and (b) lupus sera in the presence or absence of a neutralizing anti-PGRN antibody. Results Serum PGRN levels were significantly higher in SLE patients than healthy controls. Their levels were significantly associated with activity of clinical symptoms. They also significantly correlated with values of clinical parameters, including the SLE Disease Activity Index and anti-double-stranded DNA antibody titers, and inversely with CH50, C3, and C4 levels. Moreover, serum PGRN levels significantly decreased after successful treatment of SLE. The rhPGRN significantly upregulated the production of IL-6 by PBMCs stimulated with CpG-B. Patients' sera stimulated production of IL-6 from PBMCs, which was significantly impaired by neutralization of PGRN. The serum PGRN levels significantly correlated with the serum IL-6 levels. Conclusions Serum PGRN could be a useful biomarker for disease activity of SLE. PGRN may be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE partly by enhancing the TLR9 signaling. PMID:23140401

  16. Characterization of granulations of calcium and apatite in serum as pleomorphic mineralo-protein complexes and as precursors of putative nanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Young, John D; Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, Andrew; Hung, Chin-Ming; Young, Lena; Chao, Ying-Jie; Young, James; Wu, Cheng-Yeu

    2009-01-01

    Calcium and apatite granulations are demonstrated here to form in both human and fetal bovine serum in response to the simple addition of either calcium or phosphate, or a combination of both. These granulations are shown to represent precipitating complexes of protein and hydroxyapatite (HAP) that display marked pleomorphism, appearing as round, laminated particles, spindles, and films. These same complexes can be found in normal untreated serum, albeit at much lower amounts, and appear to result from the progressive binding of serum proteins with apatite until reaching saturation, upon which the mineralo-protein complexes precipitate. Chemically and morphologically, these complexes are virtually identical to the so-called nanobacteria (NB) implicated in numerous diseases and considered unusual for their small size, pleomorphism, and the presence of HAP. Like NB, serum granulations can seed particles upon transfer to serum-free medium, and their main protein constituents include albumin, complement components 3 and 4A, fetuin-A, and apolipoproteins A1 and B100, as well as other calcium and apatite binding proteins found in the serum. However, these serum mineralo-protein complexes are formed from the direct chemical binding of inorganic and organic phases, bypassing the need for any biological processes, including the long cultivation in cell culture conditions deemed necessary for the demonstration of NB. Thus, these serum granulations may result from physiologically inherent processes that become amplified with calcium phosphate loading or when subjected to culturing in medium. They may be viewed as simple mineralo-protein complexes formed from the deployment of calcification-inhibitory pathways used by the body to cope with excess calcium phosphate so as to prevent unwarranted calcification. Rather than representing novel pathophysiological mechanisms or exotic lifeforms, these results indicate that the entities described earlier as NB most likely originate from calcium and apatite binding factors in the serum, presumably calcification inhibitors, that upon saturation, form seeds for HAP deposition and growth. These calcium granulations are similar to those found in organisms throughout nature and may represent the products of more general calcium regulation pathways involved in the control of calcium storage, retrieval, tissue deposition, and disposal. PMID:19412552

  17. Characterization of Granulations of Calcium and Apatite in Serum as Pleomorphic Mineralo-Protein Complexes and as Precursors of Putative Nanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Young, John D.; Young, Andrew; Hung, Chin-Ming; Young, Lena; Chao, Ying-Jie; Young, James; Wu, Cheng-Yeu

    2009-01-01

    Calcium and apatite granulations are demonstrated here to form in both human and fetal bovine serum in response to the simple addition of either calcium or phosphate, or a combination of both. These granulations are shown to represent precipitating complexes of protein and hydroxyapatite (HAP) that display marked pleomorphism, appearing as round, laminated particles, spindles, and films. These same complexes can be found in normal untreated serum, albeit at much lower amounts, and appear to result from the progressive binding of serum proteins with apatite until reaching saturation, upon which the mineralo-protein complexes precipitate. Chemically and morphologically, these complexes are virtually identical to the so-called nanobacteria (NB) implicated in numerous diseases and considered unusual for their small size, pleomorphism, and the presence of HAP. Like NB, serum granulations can seed particles upon transfer to serum-free medium, and their main protein constituents include albumin, complement components 3 and 4A, fetuin-A, and apolipoproteins A1 and B100, as well as other calcium and apatite binding proteins found in the serum. However, these serum mineralo-protein complexes are formed from the direct chemical binding of inorganic and organic phases, bypassing the need for any biological processes, including the long cultivation in cell culture conditions deemed necessary for the demonstration of NB. Thus, these serum granulations may result from physiologically inherent processes that become amplified with calcium phosphate loading or when subjected to culturing in medium. They may be viewed as simple mineralo-protein complexes formed from the deployment of calcification-inhibitory pathways used by the body to cope with excess calcium phosphate so as to prevent unwarranted calcification. Rather than representing novel pathophysiological mechanisms or exotic lifeforms, these results indicate that the entities described earlier as NB most likely originate from calcium and apatite binding factors in the serum, presumably calcification inhibitors, that upon saturation, form seeds for HAP deposition and growth. These calcium granulations are similar to those found in organisms throughout nature and may represent the products of more general calcium regulation pathways involved in the control of calcium storage, retrieval, tissue deposition, and disposal. PMID:19412552

  18. Acute and 3-month effects of microcrystalline hydroxyapatite, calcium citrate and calcium carbonate on serum calcium and markers of bone turnover: a randomised controlled trial in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Sarah M; Gamble, Greg D; Stewart, Angela; Horne, Lauren; House, Meaghan E; Aati, Opetaia; Mihov, Borislav; Horne, Anne M; Reid, Ian R

    2014-11-28

    Ca supplements are used for bone health; however, they have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may relate to their acute effects on serum Ca concentrations. Microcrystalline hydroxyapatite (MCH) could affect serum Ca concentrations less than conventional Ca supplements, but its effects on bone turnover are unclear. In the present study, we compared the acute and 3-month effects of MCH with conventional Ca supplements on concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers. We randomised 100 women (mean age 71 years) to 1g/d of Ca as citrate or carbonate (citrate-carbonate), one of two MCH preparations, or a placebo. Blood was sampled for 8h after the first dose, and after 3 months of daily supplementation. To determine whether the acute effects changed over time, eight participants assigned to the citrate dose repeated 8h of blood sampling at 3 months. There were no differences between the citrate and carbonate groups, or between the two MCH groups, so their results were pooled. The citrate-carbonate dose increased ionised and total Ca concentrations for up to 8h, and this was not diminished after 3 months. MCH increased ionised Ca concentrations less than the citrate-carbonate dose; however, it raised the concentrations of phosphate and the Ca-phosphate product. The citrate-carbonate and MCH doses produced comparable decreases in bone resorption (measured as serum C-telopeptide (CTX)) over 8h and bone turnover (CTX and procollagen type-I N-terminal propeptide) at 3 months. These findings suggest that Ca preparations, in general, produce repeated sustained increases in serum Ca concentrations after ingestion of each dose and that Ca supplements with smaller effects on serum Ca concentrations may have equivalent efficacy in suppressing bone turnover. PMID:25274192

  19. Macro creatine kinase type 1: a cause of spuriously elevated serum creatine kinase associated with leukoencephalopathy in a child.

    PubMed

    Bodensteiner, John B

    2014-07-01

    Macro creatine kinase type 1 is a complex formed by the creatine kinase isoenzyme BB and monoclonal IgG and occurs in about 1% of patients studied. First identified as a cause of spurious elevation of the total serum creatine kinase in patients suspected of myocardial infarction, the test has been largely replaced by the measurement of troponin levels. We present a child with delayed milestones and persistently elevated total serum creatine kinase measurements (? 1000-4000 IU) normal electromyogram and brisk myotatic reflexes. Creatine kinase isoenzymes and brain imaging showed the presence of macro creatine kinase type 1 and extensive signal abnormality of the cerebral white matter. Macro creatine kinase type 1 has been associated with several conditions though it has not been described in association with leukoencephalopathy or in patients this young. Macro creatine kinase type 1 can be a cause of elevated total creatine kinase in patients without primary muscle disease. The significance of the relationship of the macro creatine kinase to the leukoencephalopathy in this patient is unknown. PMID:23625087

  20. Independent and joint effects of serum 25-hydroxivitamin D and calcium on breast cancer ratio in an Iran population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shiryazdi, Seyed Mostafa; Ghodratipour, Zahra; Shiryazdi, Seyed Ali; Yassini, Sara; Aboueian-Jahromi, Mohaddeseh; Fallahzadeh, Hossien; Shamsi, Farimah

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that Vitamin D and calcium have protective effects against breast cancer. The results about breast cancer and serum Vitamin D and calcium levels are still controversial, indefinite, and insufficient to determine the amount of nutritional needs. Thus, we investigated the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(25-OH-D) and calcium on the ratio of breast cancer at diagnosis time. Materials and Methods: We carried out a hospital-based cross-sectional study in a population of Iran. It comprised 57 breast cancer cases, who were newly diagnosed, and 85 controls in 2013. The serum 25-OH-D and calcium levels were measured. Results: There was not any significant association between 25-OH-D and breast cancer ratio. Odds ratio (OR) comparing the highest quartile to the lowest quartile was 1.03(95% confidence interval[CI] 0.333.22, P-trend 0.95). Having sufficient (>75 nmol/L) serum 25-OH-D levels compared to insufficient serum 25-OH-D levels was not associated with a significantly decreased ratio of breast cancer (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.231.29, P = 0.17). Furthermore, an association between calcium and breast cancer did not get statistical significance (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.171.49, P-trend 0.31). The joint effect was negative interaction. Conclusion: Vitamin D and calcium do not act on decreasing ratio of breast cancer. Decreasing ratio of breast cancer in relation to serum calcium and Vitamin D level at diagnosis time needs more assessments.

  1. Alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-induced elevation of serum bile acids: lack of causative effect on bile acid transport.

    PubMed

    Neghab, M; Stacey, N H

    1996-01-01

    In recent years chemicals including chlorinated solvents have been found to interfere with the transport of bile acids (BA) by hepatocytes, which probably accounts for the raised serum bile acids (SBA) after exposure. However, the known cholestatic agent, alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) has never been fully examined for its effect on these processes. Accordingly, the direct effects in vitro and the effects of in vivo treatment on bile acid transport have been investigated in this study. Direct addition of ANIT (5-100 microns) to hepatocytes isolated from untreated rats did not result in any change in uptake or efflux of taurocholic acid (TC), one of the most obviously elevated SBA in ANIT-treated rats. Additionally, accumulation of TC over an extended incubation period was not affected by ANIT. In vivo treatment with ANIT (50 mumol/kg i.p. on each of 3 consecutive days) resulted in a marked elevation of total serum bile acids (TSBA) and a slight increase in the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and a very mild hyperbilirubinemia, while other markers of liver injury were unaltered. In hepatocytes isolated from these rats, Km and Vmax for uptake and V0 for efflux were no different between ANIT and vehicle-treated animals. In conclusion, ANIT showed no effects on transport of BA on in vitro exposure or after treatment in vivo where SBA were clearly elevated. The lack of effects of ANIT on transport of bile acids is consistent with other postulated mechanisms of action. Furthermore, this indicates that the effects noted with solvents are not necessarily replicated by substances known to cause histopathological cholestasis. PMID:8620567

  2. Elevated serum lactoferrin and neopterin are associated with postoperative infectious complications in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Du, Gang; Wei, Chengshou; Gu, Song; Tang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have shown that lactoferrin (LF) and neopterin (NT) are correlated with infection. The aim of this study is to determine whether serum levels of LF and NT are associated with postoperative infectious complications in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury. Material and methods A total of 268 patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury who underwent spinal surgery were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of LF, NT, and C-reactive protein (CRP), in addition to white blood cell count (WBC) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), were measured preoperatively and 24 h postoperatively. Results In total, 22 of 268 patients (8.2%) developed postoperative infectious complications. The levels of serum LF, NT, and CRP were significantly higher in the infected patients than in the non-infected patients. No significant differences were observed in postoperative WBC count and ESR between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that LF (OR: 1.004 (1.002–1.007)), NT (OR: 1.137 (1.054–1.227)), and CRP (OR: 1.023 (1.002–1.044)) were significantly associated with the presence of postoperative infectious complications. The area under receiver operating characteristic curves for LF, NT, and CRP was 0.709, 0.779, and 0.629, respectively. Conclusions Elevated serum concentrations of LF and NT are associated with early infection after surgery. Compared to CRP, elevated levels of LF and NT are better indicators for predicting postoperative infectious complications in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury. PMID:24273571

  3. Joint Effect of Hypertension and Elevated Serum Phosphorus on the Risk of Mortality in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-III

    PubMed Central

    Vart, Priya; Nigatu, Yeshambel T; Jaglan, Ajay; van Zon, Sander K R; Shafique, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum phosphorus might aggravate the effect of hypertension on mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the joint effect of hypertension and serum phosphorus on the risk of mortality. Methods and Results A large prospective (n=15 833), population-based cohort of participants from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey III was examined to test potential synergism between hypertension, elevated serum phosphorus, and the risk of mortality. Interaction on additive scale and multiplicative scale was estimated. After a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 1691 cases of cardiovascular mortality and 3875 cases of all-cause mortality were identified. Interaction was observed between hypertension and elevated serum phosphorus on the additive scale for cardiovascular mortality (relative excess risk due to interaction, 0.99, 95% CI: 0.06; 1.92, adjusted for age, gender, race, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). No statistically significant interaction was found between hypertension and serum phosphorus for all-cause mortality on the additive scale. No significant interaction was detected on the multiplicative scale. In sensitivity analysis, excluding participants who died in first 2 years and adjustment for additional confounders resulted in essentially similar findings. Conclusions The joint effect of hypertension and elevated serum phosphorus was larger than the sum of the independent effects on cardiovascular mortality but not on all-cause mortality. Future studies should investigate whether controlling elevated serum phosphorus in hypertensive individuals helps in prevention of extra risk of cardiovascular mortality. PMID:25994440

  4. Increased expression of the IgE Fc receptors on rat macrophages induced by elevated serum IgE levels.

    PubMed Central

    Boltz-Nitulescu, G; Plummer, J M; Spiegelberg, H L

    1984-01-01

    Macrophages (M phi) from rats with elevated serum IgE levels induced by (i) Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) infection, (ii) IgE-secreting plasmacytoma IR 162, or (iii) i.p. injection of purified rat IgE, and M phi from normal animals cultured in the presence of 10 micrograms/ml IgE were analysed for Fc IgE receptors (Fc epsilon R) expression. To detect Fc epsilon R-bearing cells, a rosette assay employing fixed ox erythrocytes coated with rat IgE was used. With undersensitized indicator cells a significantly (P less than 0.002) greater number of M phi from animals having elevated serum IgE levels or of M phi cultured in the presence of IgE formed IgE rosettes than M phi from normal donors. The IgE rosettes were IgE class-specific, since they were inhibited by rat IgE in a dose-dependent manner, but not by any other rat Ig class, heat-denatured rat IgE or human IgE. The modulating effect of Fc epsilon R expression on M phi was IgE specific, because neither rat IgG nor heated rat IgE induced increased IgE rosette formation. Furthermore, elevated serum IgE levels did not increase the expression of Fc receptors for IgG subclasses. Studies of 125I-IgE binding showed that alveolar macrophages (AM phi) from Nb-infected rats bind IgE with similar affinity (Ka 1.1 X 10(7) M-1) as AM phi from normal animals, but they have increased numbers of IgE binding sites. Collectively, the results demonstrate that in vivo and in vitro elevated serum IgE concentrations induce increased IgE rosette formation as a result of a marked increase in the number of Fc epsilon R per macrophage. PMID:6236146

  5. Reinforcement of calcium phosphate cement with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin for injectable bone substitute applications.

    PubMed

    Chew, Kean-Khoon; Low, Kah-Ling; Sharif Zein, Sharif Hussein; McPhail, David S; Gerhardt, Lutz-Christian; Roether, Judith A; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the development of novel alternative injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composites for orthopaedic applications. The new CPC composites comprise ?-tri-calcium phosphate (?-TCP) and di-calcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) mixed with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and incorporated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-OH and MWCNTs-COOH). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), compressive strength tests, injectability tests, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to evaluate the properties of the final products. Compressive strength tests and SEM observations demonstrated particularly that the concomitant admixture of BSA and MWCNT improved the mechanical properties, resulting in stronger CPC composites. The presence of MWCNTs and BSA influenced the morphology of the hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals in the CPC matrix. BSA was found to act as a promoter of HA growth when bounded to the surface of CPC grains. MWCNT-OH-containing composites exhibited the highest compressive strengths (16.3MPa), being in the range of values for trabecular bone (2-12MPa). PMID:21316621

  6. Patients with elevated triglyceride and cholesterol serum levels have a prolonged survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dorst, J; Khnlein, P; Hendrich, C; Kassubek, J; Sperfeld, A D; Ludolph, A C

    2011-04-01

    Weight loss is a common phenomenon and an independent prognostic factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Several potential causal mechanisms, including intrinsic hypermetabolism and deficient food intake, have been discussed. We investigated the influence of fasting serum glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels at time of diagnosis on survival in ALS. Serum cholesterol (LDL, HDL, and LDL/HDL ratio), triglycerides, and glucose were investigated in 488 patients (age of onset = 57.6 12.6 years) in relation to survival and revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALS-FRS) data. High serum levels of both fasting cholesterol and triglycerides had a significantly positive effect on survival (p < 0.05). We found a median prolonged life expectancy by 14 months for patients with serum triglyceride levels above the median of 1.47 mmol/l. The results suggest that the lipid metabolism and the nutritional status of ALS patients are important prognostic factors. These parameters should be thoroughly monitored during the clinical management of these patients. In case of progressive loss of body weight, a diet rich in lipids and calories should be considered. However, the final decision whether a lipid-rich diet should be recommended to ALS patients can only be based on a double-blind placebo-controlled interventional trial. Our results further imply that lipid-lowering drugs, e.g., statins, should be applied carefully in ALS patients although individual risk considerations must be made. PMID:21128082

  7. Elevated Pretherapy Serum IL17 in Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Correlate to Increased Risk of Early Recurrence after Curative Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Rong, Weiqi; Wang, Liming; Wang, Ying; Zang, Mengya; Wu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yawei; Qu, Chunfeng

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually presented in inflamed fibrotic/cirrhotic liver with extensive lymphocyte infiltration. We examined the associations between the HCC early recurrence and alterations in serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. Methods A cohort of 105 HCC patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection were included. Pre-therapy, we quantified their serum concentrations of Th1-, Th2-, Th17-, Treg-related, and other cytokines that have been reported to be associated with poor prognosis in human cancers. IL17-producing T-cells were generated in vitro from HCC patients and co-cultured with HCC cell lines separated by a 0.4 M transwell. Results All the 105 cases of HCC patients had liver cirrhosis. The patients who suffered from HCC early recurrence had higher pre-therapy serum levels of IL17 and lower levels of IL10 than those who did not suffer from recurrence after curative hepatectomy. After adjustment for general tumor clinicopathological factors, elevated serum levels of IL17 (?0.9 pg/ml) was found to be an independent risk factor for HCC early recurrence with a hazard ratio of 2.46 (95%CI 1.344.51). Patients with bigger tumors (>5 cm in diameter) and elevated serum levels of IL17 had the highest risk of early recurrence as compared to those with only one of these factors (P?=?0.009) or without any (P<0.001). These factors showed similar effects on the HCC patient overall survival. Intrahepatic infiltrated T-cells in HCC patients were identified as the major IL17-producing cells. Proliferation of HCC cells, QGY-7703, was augmented QGY-7703, was augmented in the presence of IL17-producing T-cells. This effect diminished after neutralizing antibody against human IL17A or TNF? was included. Conclusion Both tumors and IL17 from liver infiltrated T-cells contributed to HCC early recurrence and progression after curative resection. Pre-therapy serum IL17 levels may serve as an additional indicator for predicting high-risk patients. PMID:23227158

  8. Clinical Values of Elevated Serum Cytokeratin-18 Levels in Hepatitis: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhao Hui; Yang, Su Xian; Qin, Cheng Zhi; Chen, Yun Xiu

    2015-01-01

    Background: As an important intermediate filament protein within liver cells, cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) has been confirmed as a potential indicator in various hepatitis progressions. Objectives: We sought to clarify the connection between serum CK-18 levels and hepatitis pathogenesis in the present meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: With the application of various computerized databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Web of Science, China BioMedicine (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), published papers that assessed the relationship between serum CK-18 levels and hepatitis were obtained. The main key words used are Hepatitis, hepatitides, Cytokeratin-18, Keratin-18 and CK-18. Statistical analysis was conducted using the STATA software (version 12.0). Results: Eight case-control studies published between 2010 and 2014 were confirmed eligible, according to our selection criteria. The results of the meta-analysis showed that serum levels of CK-18 in hepatitis patients were higher compared to healthy controls (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 3.71, 95%CI: 2.27-5.14, P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity and disease implicated that high serum CK-18 levels might be a risk factor for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (all P < 0.05) among Asians (SMD = 2.89, 95%CI: 2.35-3.43, P < 0.001), Africans (SMD = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.12-1.26, P = 0.017), and Caucasians (SMD = 4.86, 95%CI: 1.82-7.89, P = 0.002). Conclusions: Serum CK-18 levels in hepatitis patients were higher, compared with healthy controls. Our results revealed the clinical values of CK-18, in combination with other apoptosis markers, in identifying the development of hepatitis. PMID:26045704

  9. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yingbo; Sun, Xianfu; He, Yaning; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients. Methods Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed. Results Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9%) and 60(13.9%) patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Coxs regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer. Conclusions Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer. PMID:26207909

  10. An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in intracellular calcium elevation is sensitive to biotic and abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ca2+, a versatile intracellular second messenger in various signaling pathways, initiates many responses involved in growth, defense and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. Endogenous and exogenous signals induce cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) elevation, which are responsible for the appropriate downstream responses. Results Here we report on an ethyl-methane sulfonate-mediated Arabidopsis mutant that fails to induce [Ca2+]cyt elevation in response to exudate preparations from the pathogenic mibrobes Alternaria brassicae, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The cytoplasmic Ca2+elevation mutant1 (cycam1) is susceptible to infections by A. brassicae, its toxin preparation and sensitive to abiotic stress such as drought and salt. It accumulates high levels of reactive oxygen species and contains elevated salicylic acid, abscisic acid and bioactive jasmonic acid iso-leucine levels. Reactive oxygen species- and phytohormone-related genes are higher in A. brassicae-treated wild-type and mutant seedlings. Depending on the analysed response, the elevated levels of defense-related compounds are either caused by the cycam mutation and are promoted by the pathogen, or they are mainly due to the pathogen infection or application of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Furthermore, cycam1 shows altered responses to abscisic acid treatments: the hormone inhibits germination and growth of the mutant. Conclusions We isolated an Arabidopsis mutant which fails to induce [Ca2+]cyt elevation in response to exudate preparations from various microbes. The higher susceptibility of the mutant to pathogen infections correlates with the higher accumulation of defense-related compounds, such as phytohormones, reactive oxygen-species, defense-related mRNA levels and secondary metabolites. Therefore, CYCAM1 couples [Ca2+]cyt elevation to biotic, abiotic and oxidative stress responses. PMID:24920452

  11. [Effect of radix Salviae miltiorrhizae on calcium, zinc, copper content in serum, callus and bony tissue in early stage of healing process in rat closed tibial fracture].

    PubMed

    Qin, J Z; Wang, X C

    1992-06-01

    Changes of calcium, zinc, copper contents in serum, callus and bony tissue in the early stage of the healing process of rat closed tibial fracture, also the changes of them with radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (RSM) treatment were studied. It was found that calcium, zinc contents and Zn/Cu ratio increased significantly and the rise of serum copper content was inhibited by the administration of RSM after fracture. Zn/Cu ratio in fracture callus was correlated to the calcium content in fracture callus. These findings suggested that the effect of the promotion of RSM on fracture healing was related to the increased zinc content in serum, also related to the acceleration of mobilization of zinc in fractured bone, and to the acceleration of fracture callus formation and mineralization process by the increased zinc and Zn/Cu ratio in the callus of the fracture. PMID:1421978

  12. Serum Apelin Level Predicts the Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Patients With ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Receiving Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Chen, Mai; Yu, Jin; Li, Wei-Jie; Tao, Ling; Li, Yan; Guo, Wen-Yi; Wang, Hai-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cardiovascular profile of the apelin makes it a promising therapeutic target for heart failure and ischemic heart disease. However, it remains unknown whether apelin affect the clinical outcome of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We enrolled a total of 120 patients with acute STEMI who underwent primary PCI. Serum apelin was detected. After PCI procedure, all patients were followed for 12 months. The follow-up end-point was occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE). Lower serum apelin levels (<0.54 ng/mL) was significantly associated with higher serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, higher peak creatine kinase MB fraction (CK-MB) and peak troponin-I (TNI) levels, the number of obstructed vessels, and need for inotropic support. The incidence of MACE was significantly higher in the low apelin group (23 patients out of 67) than in the high apelin group (10 patients out of 75, P < 0.001). Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that the MACE-free rate was significantly lower in the patients with low apelin than those with high apelin (P < 0.001, log rank test). The multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted with the clinical and angiographic characteristic reveals that the serum low apelin is a predictor for MACE incidence (hazard ratio = 2.36, 95% confidence interval: 1.83–3.87, P = 0.004). The finding of this study suggests that the serum apelin may be used as a marker to predict the MACE after PCI in patients with STEMI. PMID:25634182

  13. Central dopamine receptors mediating pergolide-induced elevation of serum corticosterone in rats. Characterization by the use of antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fuller, R W; Snoddy, H D

    1984-12-01

    Fourteen dopamine antagonists were compared for their ability to antagonize the elevation of the concentration of serum corticosterone in rats by pergolide, a dopamine agonist. Clozapine did not antagonize the effect of pergolide at the largest dose (10 mg/kg) that could be tested without alteration of basal levels of corticosterone. For the other antagonists, calculation of ED50 values [dose antagonizing by 50% the elevation of corticosterone caused by a 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.) dose of pergolide mesylate] revealed the following order of potency: spiperone greater than loxapine greater than fluphenazine greater than perphenazine greater than flupentixol greater than haloperidol greater than cyclophenazine greater than zotepine greater than flumezapine greater than molindone greater than metoclopramide greater than chlorpromazine greater than sulpiride. All of these compounds caused increases in the concentration of the dopamine metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), in the brains of rats. The dose that increased the concentration of DOPAC to 200% of the control value (ED200) was calculated for each compound. The ratio of the ED50 value for antagonism of the elevation of corticosterone induced by pergolide to the ED200 value for the elevation of DOPAC in brain varied, probably related to differing selectivity for pre- versus postsynaptic dopamine receptors between the compounds.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6527743

  14. Calcium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert J P

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes the chemical and biological value of the calcium ion. In calcium chemistry, our main interest is in equilibria within static, nonflowing systems. Hence, we examined the way calcium formed precipitates and complex ions in solution. We observed thereafter its uses by humankind in a vast number of materials such as minerals, e.g., marble, concrete, mortars, which parallel the biological use in shells and bones. In complex formation, we noted that many combinations were of anion interaction with calcium for example in the uses of detergents and medicines. The rates of exchange of calcium from bound states were noted but they had little application. Calcium ions do not act as catalysts of organic reactions. In biological systems, interest is in the above chemistry, but extends to the fact that Ca2+ ions can carry information by flowing in one solution or from one solution to another through membranes. Hence, we became interested in the details of rates of calcium exchange. The fast exchange of this divalent ion from most organic binding sites has allowed it to develop as the dominant second messenger. Now the flow can be examined in vitro as calcium binds particular isolated proteins, which it activates as seen in physical mechanical changes or chemical changes and this piece-by-piece study of cells is common. Here, however, we have chosen to stress the whole circuit of Ca2+ action indicating that the cell is organized both at a basal and an activated state kinetic level by the steady state flow of the ion (see Fig. 11). Different time constants of exchange utilizing very similar binding constants lead to: 1) fast responses as in the muscle of an animal; or 2) slower change as in differentiation of an egg or seed. Many other changes of state may relate to Ca2+ steady-state levels of flow in the circuitry and here we point to two: 1) dormancy in reptiles and animals; and 2) sporulation in both bacteria and lower plants. In the other chapters of this volume many components of the overall circuitry will be described. The reader should try to marry these into the overall activity of the cell for on top of molecular biology there is the cooperative system molecular biology of cells. To give an analogy, whereas much can be understood from the analysis of the properties of single-isolated water molecules, even examining their interaction in ice, this study alone cannot lead to an appreciation of the melting or boiling points of bulk water. PMID:11833348

  15. Activiation of the calcium sensing receptor stimulates serum gastrin and gastric acid secretion in healthy subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acid secretion is a complex process regulated by neuronal and hormonal pathways. Ex vivo studies in human gastric tissues indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), expressed on the surface of G and parietal cells, may be involved in this regulation. We sought to determine whether cin...

  16. Activation of the calcium sensing receptor stimulates serum gastrin and gastric acid secretion in healthy subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acid secretion is a complex process regulated by neuronal and hormonal pathways. Ex vivo studies in human gastric tissues indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), expressed on the surface of G and parietal cells, may be involved in this regulation. We sought to determine whether cin...

  17. Elevation of serum surfactant protein-A with exacerbation in canine eosinophilic pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Sone, Katsuhito; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Hayashi, Akiyoshi; Ohashi, Fumihito

    2016-02-01

    A 7-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was admitted to our hospital, because of cough with sputum. She was diagnosed as having canine eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) based on blood eosinophilia, bronchial pattern and infiltrative shadow observed on thoracic radiography, bronchiolar obstruction and air-space consolidation predominantly affecting the right caudal lung lobe, as revealed by computed tomography (CT), predominant eosinophils in CT-guided fine needle aspiration and the clinical course. She exhibited a good response to steroid therapy, and the cough disappeared. The serum surfactant protein (SP)-A level increased with the aggravated symptom and decreased markedly with improvement compared with the C-reactive protein level and the number of eosinophils. We propose that serum SP-A level is a good biomarker in CEP. PMID:26300438

  18. Elevation of serum surfactant protein-A with exacerbation in canine eosinophilic pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    SONE, Katsuhito; AKIYOSHI, Hideo; HAYASHI, Akiyoshi; OHASHI, Fumihito

    2015-01-01

    A 7-year-old female spayed Labrador Retriever was admitted to our hospital, because of cough with sputum. She was diagnosed as having canine eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) based on blood eosinophilia, bronchial pattern and infiltrative shadow observed on thoracic radiography, bronchiolar obstruction and air-space consolidation predominantly affecting the right caudal lung lobe, as revealed by computed tomography (CT), predominant eosinophils in CT-guided fine needle aspiration and the clinical course. She exhibited a good response to steroid therapy, and the cough disappeared. The serum surfactant protein (SP)-A level increased with the aggravated symptom and decreased markedly with improvement compared with the C-reactive protein level and the number of eosinophils. We propose that serum SP-A level is a good biomarker in CEP. PMID:26300438

  19. Calcium

    MedlinePLUS

    ... But your parents were right to make you drink milk when you were little. It's loaded with calcium, a mineral vital for building strong bones and teeth. Why Do I Need ... who smoke or drink soda, caffeinated beverages, or alcohol may get even ...

  20. Elevated serum uric acid in nondiabetic people mark pro-inflammatory state and HDL dysfunction and independently predicts coronary disease.

    PubMed

    Onat, Altan; Can, Günay; Örnek, Ender; Altay, Servet; Yüksel, Murat; Ademoğlu, Evin

    2013-12-01

    We explored the association of serum uric acid (UA) concentrations with pro-inflammatory state and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) dysfunction. UA tertiles in tracked 1,508 nondiabetic participants were analyzed cross-sectionally for associations with inflammation biomarkers and protective proteins over a mean follow-up of 4.9 years for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) using Cox proportional hazards regression. In the absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), UA tertiles significantly distinguished, in each sex, increasing categories of three MetS components (inflammation/oxidation markers, apolipoprotein (apo)B) and (inversely) current smoking (but not protective proteins such as HDL, apoA-I, and adiponectin). Distinctions attenuated in the presence of MetS. Linear regression model revealed fasting triglycerides (1.86 mg/dl variance), male sex, and gamma-glutamyl transferase and age as covariates of UA levels in women. In Cox analysis, incident CHD (n = 137) was predicted by mid and upper UA tertile in men alone at significant hazard ratios of 2.7, additively to conventional risk factors. Elevated serum UA levels, linked to triglycerides, mark in nondiabetic people pro-inflammatory state, and, notably, HDL dysfunction. CHD risk is independently predicted by elevated UA levels in nondiabetic men and is modulated by MetS and gender. PMID:23934383

  1. Elevation of Serum Aminotransferase Levels and Future Risk of Death from External Causes: A Prospective Cohort Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jungwoo; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Cho, Jaelim; Choi, Yoon Jung; Suh, Il

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The association between liver enzymes and death from external causes has not been examined. We investigated the association between serum aminotransferase levels and external-cause mortality in a large prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods A total of 142322 subjects of 35-59 years of age who completed baseline examinations in 1990 and 1992 were enrolled. Mortalities were identified using death certificates. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were categorized into quintiles. Sub-distribution hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a competing risks regression model in which deaths from other causes were treated as competing risks. Results Of 8808 deaths, 1111 (12.6%) were due to external causes. Injury accounted for 256 deaths, and suicide accounted for 255. After adjusting for covariates, elevated ALT and AST were significantly associated with an increased risk of all external-cause mortalities, as well as suicide and injury. Sub-distribution hazards ratios (95% CIs) of the highest versus the lowest quintiles of serum ALT and AST were, respectively, 1.57 (1.26-1.95) and 1.45 (1.20-1.76) for all external causes, 2.73 (1.68-4.46) and 1.75 (1.15-2.66) for suicide, and 1.79 (1.10-2.90) and 1.85 (1.21-2.82) for injury. The risk of external-cause mortality was also significantly higher in the fourth quintile of ALT (21.6-27.5 IU/L) than in its first quintile. Conclusion Elevated aminotransferase levels, even within the normal range, were significantly associated with increased risk of all external-cause mortalities, including suicide, and injury. PMID:26446640

  2. Association of Elevated Serum Uric Acid with the Components of Metabolic Syndrome and Oxidative Stress in Abdominal Obesity Subjects.

    PubMed

    Pingmuangkaew, Patcharin; Tangvarasittichai, Orathai; Tangvarasittichai, Surapon

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal obesity (AO) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are associated with the cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Serum uric acid (SUA) is often elevated in subjects with the AO. We aimed to investigate the association of elevated SUA with the components of MetS, oxidative stress and TG/HDL-C ratio in AO subjects. This cross-sectional study used data from a Health Survey for Prevention of Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in residents of two districts in Phitsanulok province, including 443 subjects. Anthropometric, blood pressure (BP) and biochemical variables were measured. We categorized the participants to two-group as 248 AO subjects (median age=58, interquartile range 50.0-65.0years) and 195 non-AO subjects (median age=53, interquartile range 47.0-62.0years). Waist circumference was significantly correlated with SystBP, DiastBP, Glu and SUA (P<0.05) and SUA was significantly correlated with Glu, TG, HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratio (P<0.05). By using multiple logistic regression, we found the association of elevated SUA with abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, reduced HDL-C, elevated TG/HDL-C ratio, MetS and increased oxidative stress after adjusting for their covariates. Our study demonstrated that circulating UA is a major antioxidant and might help protect against free-radical oxidative damage. However, elevated SUA concentrations associated with oxidative stress, MetS, insulin resistance, and components of MetS. Then, SUA may be a marker of increased oxidative stress, insulin resistance and MetS, implying an increased risk of vascular disease and T2DM. PMID:26089614

  3. Effect of curing conditions on the dimensional and thermal stability of calcium phosphate cement for elevated temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Blom, Johan; Rahier, Hubert; Wastiels, Jan

    2014-12-15

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are attractive materials for elevated temperature applications, like moulds to process thermoplastics up to 300 °C. The CPC resulting from the reaction of wollastonite with phosphoric acid cured at room temperature however contains hydrated phases like brushite, and is thus not stable when exposed to temperatures above 200 °C. A non-contact method based on digital image correlation demonstrated that isothermal curing at 60 °C reduces the thermal shrinkage up to 300 °C by 25%. This curing method results in the direct formation of the more stable monetite in a shorter curing time. The correlated results of TGA, pH of the filtration water, and DSC analysis on partially cured material indicate this. XRD diffractograms and SEM images in combination with EDX show the evolution of the transformation of wollastonite into monetite, and the structure and morphology of the formed material.

  4. Unique Responsiveness of Angiosperm Stomata to Elevated CO2 Explained by Calcium Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Brodribb, Timothy J.; McAdam, Scott A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperm and conifer tree species respond differently when exposed to elevated CO2, with angiosperms found to dynamically reduce water loss while conifers appear insensitive. Such distinct responses are likely to affect competition between these tree groups as atmospheric CO2 concentration rises. Seeking the mechanism behind this globally important phenomenon we targeted the Ca2+-dependent signalling pathway, a mediator of stomatal closure in response to elevated CO2, as a possible explanation for the differentiation of stomatal behaviours. Sampling across the diversity of vascular plants including lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms we show that only angiosperms possess the stomatal behaviour and prerequisite genetic coding, linked to Ca2+-dependent stomatal signalling. We conclude that the evolution of Ca2+-dependent stomatal signalling gives angiosperms adaptive benefits in terms of highly efficient water use, but that stomatal sensitivity to high CO2 may penalise angiosperm productivity relative to other plant groups in the current era of soaring atmospheric CO2. PMID:24278470

  5. Relationship Between Gender, Age, and Weight and the Serum Ionized Calcium Variations in Dog Periodontal Disease Evolution.

    PubMed

    Carreira, L Miguel; Dias, Daniela; Azevedo, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the relationships between gender, age, weight, and variations in the levels of serum ionized calcium ([iCa(2+)]) during periodontal disease (PD) evolution. In this study, dogs (n = 50) were divided into 5 groups according to the stage of PD: G0 (no PD), G1 (gingivitis), G2 (initial periodontitis), G3 (moderate periodontitis), and G4 (severe periodontitis). Statistically significant correlations were observed between age, [iCa(2+)] levels, and PD stage. Older dogs had lower [iCa(2+)] levels and more advanced PD stages (high positive correlation), and their body weight decreased as PD developed (negative correlation). Lower [iCa(2+)] values were associated with more severe PD. PMID:26359724

  6. Elevated Serum GAD65 and GAD65-GADA Immune Complexes in Stiff Person Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gu Urban, Gucci Jijuan; Friedman, Mikaela; Ren, Ping; Trn, Carina; Fex, Malin; Hampe, Christiane S.; Lernmark, ke; Landegren, Ulf; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2015-01-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and autoantibodies specific for GAD65 (GADA) are associated with autoimmune diseases including Stiff Person Syndrome (SPS) and Type 1 diabetes (T1D). GADA is recognized as a biomarker of value for clinical diagnosis and prognostication in these diseases. Nonetheless, it remains medically interesting to develop sensitive and specific assays to detect GAD65 preceding GADA emergence, and to monitor GADA-GAD65 immune complexes in blood samples. In the present study, we developed a highly sensitive proximity ligation assay to measure serum GAD65. This novel assay allowed detection of as little as 0.65?pg/ml GAD65. We were also able to detect immune complexes involving GAD65 and GADA. Both free GAD65 and GAD65-GADA levels were significantly higher in serum samples from SPS patients compared to healthy controls. The proximity ligation assays applied for detection of GAD65 and its immune complexes may thus enable improved diagnosis and better understanding of SPS. PMID:26080009

  7. Class switch recombination process in ataxia telangiectasia patients with elevated serum levels of IgM.

    PubMed

    Mohammadinejad, Payam; Abolhassani, Hassan; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Pourhamdi, Shabnam; Ghosh, Sujal; Sadeghi, Bamdad; Nasiri Kalmarzi, Rasoul; Durandy, Anne; Borkhardt, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder with various clinical manifestations. Increased serum levels of IgM and recurrent infections, mainly sinopulmonary infections, can be the presenting feature in a number of AT patients and may be initially misdiagnosed as hyper-IgM (HIgM) syndrome. This study was designed to investigate class switch recombination (CSR) as a critical mechanism in B lymphocytes' maturation to produce different isotypes of antibody in response to antigen stimulation in AT cases with HIgM presentation. Quantitative IgE production after stimulation by IL-4 and CD40L was considered as an indicator for CSR function. We also compared their results with sex and age matched AT patients without HIgM presentation. We report four AT patients with recurrent infections during infancy and high serum levels of IgM. Laboratory evaluations revealed defective CSR while none of the three AT patients without HIgM presentation had a defect in the CSR process. The characterized defect in AT is a mutation in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. This gene may result in CSR defects due to impaired DNA break repair. A special association between AT and HIgM may indicate a new subgroup of AT patients according to their clinical phenotype and CSR condition. PMID:24568663

  8. Effect of soluble calcium and lactose on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The tendency of calcium to promote microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling is well documented, but the role of lactose has not been studied. Milk protein concentrate that is 85% protein on a dry basis (MPC85) contains less calcium and lactose than skim milk. Our objectives were to determine the effects of skim milk soluble calcium and lactose concentrations on the limiting fluxes (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal factors of 0.1-m ceramic graded permeability membranes. The MF was fed with 3 different milks: skim milk, liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein content of skim milk with reverse osmosis water (MPC), and liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein and lactose contents of skim milk with reverse osmosis water and lactose monohydrate (MPC+L). Retentate and permeate were continuously recycled to the feed tank. The LF for each feed was determined by increasing flux once per hour from 55 kgm(-2)h(-1) until flux did not increase with increasing transmembrane pressure. Temperature, pressure drop across the membrane length, and protein concentration in the retentate recirculation loop were maintained at 50C, 220 kPa, and 8.77 0.2%, respectively. Experiments were replicated 3 times and the Proc GLM procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis. An increase in LF between skim milk (91 kgm(-2)h(-1)) and MPC+L (124 kgm(-2)h(-1)) was associated with a reduction in soluble calcium. The LF of MPC+L was lower than the LF of MPC (137 kgm(-2)h(-1)) due to the higher viscosity contributed by lactose. Permeates produced from the MPC and MPC+L contained more protein than the skim milk permeate due to the transfer of caseins from the micelles into the reduced-calcium sera of the MPC and MPC+L. A SP removal factor was calculated by dividing true protein in the permeate by SP in the permeate portion of the feed to describe the ease of SP passage through the membrane. No differences in SP removal factors were detected among the 3 feeds below the LF. As the fluxes approached the LF, SP removal factors decreased due to fouling. Feeding a MF system with MPC instead of skim milk will reduce the required membrane surface area, but the permeate protein composition will be slightly higher in casein content. PMID:26298759

  9. Elevation of total homocysteine in the serum of patients with cobalamin or folate deficiency detected by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Stabler, S P; Marcell, P D; Podell, E R; Allen, R H; Savage, D G; Lindenbaum, J

    1988-01-01

    To determine if levels of serum total homocysteine are elevated in patients with either cobalamin or folate deficiency, we utilized a new capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique to measure total homocysteine in the serum of 78 patients with clinically confirmed cobalamin deficiency and 19 patients with clinically confirmed folate deficiency. Values ranged from 11 to 476 mumol/liter in the cobalamin-deficient patients and 77 of the 78 patients had values above the normal range of 7-22 mumol/liter as determined for 50 normal blood donors. In the cobalamin-deficient patients, serum total homocysteine was positively correlated with serum folate, mean corpuscular volume, serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum methylmalonic acid, and the degree of neurologic involvement, and inversely correlated with platelets and hematocrit. In the folate-deficient patients, values for serum total homocysteine ranged from 17 to 185 mumol/liter and 18 of the 19 patients had values above the normal range. Some patients with pernicious anemia who were intermittently treated with cyanocobalamin were found to have elevated serum levels of total homocysteine while they were free of hematologic and neurologic abnormalities. The measurement of serum total homocysteine will help define the incidence of cobalamin deficiency and folate deficiency in various patient populations. PMID:3339129

  10. Hydrochlorothiazide inhibits bone resorption in men despite experimentally elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lemann, J; Gray, R W; Maierhofer, W J; Cheung, H S

    1985-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of hydrochlorothiazide administration in relation to Ca balance, the PTH and vitamin D endocrine systems, acid-base balance, and bone. We studied six healthy men fed constant diets providing only 5.1 +/- 0.7 SD mmoles Ca/day. Three of the men were also given calcitriol, 0.5 microgram 6-hrly throughout their studies. All subjects were observed during 18 control days and then during 18 days of hydrochlorothiazide (HTZ) administration, 25 mg 12-hrly. Observations during control days 11 through 16 were compared to those during days 7 through 18 of HTZ administration, inclusively. Directional changes during HTZ did not differ among subjects not given or given calcitriol. For all six subjects, control net intestinal Ca absorption, serum 1,25-(OH)2-D concentrations, serum iPTH concentrations, and daily urine cAMP excretion averaged 0.5 +/- 2.2 mmoles/day, 162 +/- 51 pM, 4.3 +/- 2.2 microliter Eq/ml and 4.2 +/- 0.9 mumoles/day, respectively; none changed during HTZ. As expected, HTZ administration was accompanied by a fall in urinary Ca excretion, averaging -1.4 +/- 0.8 mmoles/day; P less than 0.01. HTZ administration was also accompanied by less negative Ca balances, averaging +1.6 +/- 1.0 mmoles/day; P less than 0.025, and by a fall in daily urinary hydroxyproline excretion averaging -0.13 +/- 0.09 mmoles/day; P less than 0.025. We interpret these data to indicate that HTZ administration is accompanied by an inhibition of bone resorption. HTZ administration also raised serum HCO3 concentrations by +2.7 +/- 0.5 mEq/liter; P less than 0.001 and blood pH by + 0.05 +/- 0.02 units; P less than 0.005.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3003445

  11. [Investigating patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and elevated serum thyroglobulin but negative whole-body scan].

    PubMed

    Rosário, Pedro Weslley S; Maia, Flávia Coimbra P; Barroso, Alvaro Luís; Purisch, Saulo

    2005-04-01

    Findings of elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) and a negative whole-body scan (WBS) are not uncommon during the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In 12% of our patients submitted to thyroidectomy and radioiodine with Tg >10 ng/ml during hypothyroidism had a negative diagnostic WBS. This finding generally corresponds to a false-negative WBS. Inadequate preparation in terms of iodine exposure and insufficient elevation of TSH should be excluded. Micrometastases which do not accumulate sufficient iodine to be detected by low radioiodine activity and the loss of the capacity to express the sodium/iodine symporter explain many cases. In patients with elevated Tg, metastases can be identified after the administration of a therapeutic radioiodine dose, with this procedure being indicated in cases with Tg >10 ng/ml during hypothyroidism or >5 ng/ml after recombinant TSH, after exclusion of lung and cervical macrometastases. In the present study, 5 of 7 patients with these criteria showed ectopic uptake on post-therapy WBS. If the post-therapy scan is negative or reveals discrete uptake in the thyroid bed, other methods (e.g. FDG PET) can be performed, and the physician should not insist on radioiodine therapy. If WBS detect lymph node metastases, surgery is indicated, while in cases of diffuse lung metastases radioiodine is indicated until the occurrence of a negative WBS or normalization of stimulated Tg levels. Patients with a positive post-therapy scan may show a significant reduction in Tg, with even complete remission in some cases after radioiodine, but the impact of this treatment on mortality remains controversial. PMID:16184253

  12. Diabetes and Pancreas: Why So Difficult? Potential Mechanisms of Elevated Serum Pancreatic Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, Elena; Giampietro, Ottavio

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been associated with a higher risk of exocrine pancreas disorders despite inconsistencies among studies, presumably due to the presence of several (often unmeasured) confounding factors. As a direct consequence of this uncertainty, the relationship between anti-diabetic therapies and pancreatic adverse reactions is difficult to evaluate and remains far from being clarified. Indeed, the on going debate on the safety of incretin-based therapies does not lie in any definite conclusion. Serum level of amylases and lipase reflects the balance between production from different tissues and clearance, but it may be also influenced by numerous molecular, cellular, and systems mechanisms. The present review tries to provide an overview of potential biochemical pathways that may underlie pancreatic hyperenzymemia in health and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26639098

  13. Prognostic Value of Elevated Serum Ceruloplasmin Levels in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Hammadah, Muhammad; Fan, Yiying; Wu, Yuping; Hazen, Stanley L.; Wilson Tang, W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a copper-binding acute-phase protein that is increased in inflammatory states and deficient in Wilsons disease. Recent studies demonstrate increased levels of Cp are associated with increased risk of developing heart failure. Our objective is to test the hypothesis that serum Cp provides incremental and independent prediction of survival in stable patients with heart failure. Methods and Results We measured serum Cp levels in 890 patients with stable heart failure undergoing elective cardiac evaluation that included coronary angiography. We examine the role of Cp levels in predicting survival over 5-years of follow-up. Mean Cp level was 26.66.9 mg/dL, and demonstrated relatively weak correlation with BNP (r=0.187, p<0.001). Increased Cp levels were associated with increased 5 year all-cause mortality (Q4 vs Q1 HR 1.9, 95%CI 1.42.8, p<0.001). When controlled for coronary disease traditional risk factors, creatinine clearance, dialysis, body mass index, medications, history of myocardial infarction, BNP, LVEF, heart rate, QRS duration, left bundle branch blockage and ICD, higher Cp remained an independent predictor of increased mortality (Q4 vs Q1 HR1.7, 95%CI 1.1 2.6, p<0.05). Model quality was improved with addition of Cp to aforementioned co-variables (NRI of 9.3%, p<0.001) Conclusions Ceruloplasmin is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure. Use of Cp may help to identify patients at heightened mortality risk. PMID:25128745

  14. KEY COMPARISON: CCQM-K14: Calcium amount content in serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Nevel, L.; Aregbe, Y.; Taylor, P. D. P.

    2004-01-01

    This key comparison 'Ca in Serum' is a follow-up to the pilot study P14. The aim of the study is to demonstrate and document the capability of national metrology institutes to measure the Ca amount content in a serum sample. The comparison was an activity of the Inorganic Analysis Working Group of CCQM and was piloted by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, Geel, Belgium). The following laboratories participated in this key comparison (in alphabetical order): CENAM (Mexico) CSIR-NML (South Africa) IAEA (International Organization) IRMM (European Union) KRISS (South Korea) LGC (United Kingdom) NIST (United States of America) NMi -VSL (The Netherlands) PTB (Germany) The majority of participants applied isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) using thermal ionization MS (TIMS), sector field or quadrupole inductively coupled plasma MS (ICP-MS) as the analytical technique. IAEA reported a combined result of AAS and ICP-OES for the Ca amount content in the serum. The Key Comparison Reference Value (KCRV) was agreed upon during the IAWG meeting in October 2003 at EMPA/St-Gallen as the weighted mean of the reported participants' results. Accordingly the equivalence statements were calculated. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  15. Impacts of UVB provision and dietary calcium content on serum vitamin D3 , growth rates, skeletal structure and coloration in captive oriental fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis).

    PubMed

    Michaels, C J; Antwis, R E; Preziosi, R F

    2015-04-01

    Many amphibian species are dependent on ex situ conservation interventions for their long-term persistence. However, projects have been jeopardised by husbandry issues involving poor calcium metabolism and nutritional metabolic bone disease (NMBD). Healthy calcium metabolism requires appropriate dietary calcium content and access to vitamin D3 . In many animals, vitamin D3 can be photobiosynthesised in skin exposed to UVB radiation, as well as extracted from the diet, but the extent of vitamin D3 photobiosynthesis in amphibians is poorly known. Additionally, prey insects for captive amphibians are deficient in calcium and calcium content must be artificially increased, but the effects of different levels of augmentation and their interaction with UVB exposure are also little understood. We fed captive fire-bellied toads (Bombina orientalis) with crickets augmented to contain 5% and 10% calcium and housed them with and without UVB exposure. Despite additional dietary vitamin D3 supplementation, we found that toads exposed to UVB radiation exhibited significantly higher serum vitamin D3 levels, indicating that this species may partly rely on photobiosynthesis sources of vitamin D3 . These data are the first to show a direct link between UVB exposure and serum vitamin D3 in an amphibian. We found significant positive effects of UVB exposure and 10% dietary calcium content on skeletal structure, as well as complex interactions between treatments. We also found UVB radiation exposure resulted in more rapid natural coloration acquisition. Together, this indicates that standard calcium plus vitamin D3 supplementation methods may not fully substitute for UVB exposure and for increased feeder insect calcium content. This may have implications for the success of ex situ amphibian conservation, as well as for the welfare of captive amphibians in general. Our data lend support for the provision of UVB radiation for captive, basking amphibians. PMID:24810567

  16. Elevated serum anti-flagellin antibodies implicate subclinical bowel inflammation in ankylosing spondylitis: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) share genetic and clinical features. IBD is associated with the presence of antibodies to a variety of commensal microorganisms including anti-Saccharomyces cerevesiae antibodies (ASCA), antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), anti-I2 (associated with anti-Pseudomonas activity), anti-Eschericia coli outer membrane porin C (anti-OmpC) and anti-flagellin antibodies (anti-CBir1). Subclinical intestinal inflammation may be present in up to 65% of patients with AS. This study evaluated the presence of antimicrobial antibodies in patients with AS alone, patients with AS and concomitant IBD (AS-IBD) and a control group of patients with mechanical back pain (MBP). Methods Sera were tested by ELISA for ASCA IgG and IgA, anti-OmpC, anti-CBir1 and ANCA in 76 patients with AS alone, 77 patients with AS-IBD and 48 patients with MBP. Antibody positivity rates, median quantitative antibody levels and the proportion of patients with antibody levels in the 4th quartile of a normal distribution were compared between the three groups of patients. Results Patients with AS alone demonstrated higher anti-CBir1 antibody positivity rates and median antibody levels than MBP patients. Anti-CBir1 positivity in AS was associated with elevation of acute phase reactants. AS-IBD patients demonstrated elevated responses when compared to AS alone for ASCA, anti-OmpC and anti-CBir1. Quartile analysis confirmed the findings. Conclusions These data suggest that adaptive immune responses to microbial antigens occur in AS patients without clinical IBD and support the theory of mucosal dysregulation as a mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of AS. PMID:24286190

  17. A retroperitoneal NF1-independent malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with elevated serum CA125: case report and discussion.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bing; Meng, Xianze; Shi, Bian; Shi, Jun; Qin, Zhifeng; Wei, Pinkang

    2012-08-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are usually located in the trunk, extremities, head, or neck, and most occur with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1; von Recklinghausen's disease). No biomarkers have previously been found to be associated with their progression. Retroperitoneal NF1-independent MPNSTs are rare; they are considered to be less aggressive and to have better prognoses compared to NF1-related tumors. Currently, en bloc excision is the only consensus treatment approach. In a 27-year-old male with a giant retroperitoneal MPNST and no stigmata or family history of neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1), a remarkable elevation of serum CA125 was detected. The high-grade tumor displayed a striking progression: the primary lesion, 25 cm in diameter, recurred in its previous site as a 17-cm MPNST less than 50 days after total excision. Subsequent treatment with microwave ablation and huachansu, a traditional Chinese medication, proved ineffective, and the patient died within 3 months. Our case suggests that retroperitoneal MPNSTs can deteriorate rapidly even if NF1 independent, that aggressive treatment may not benefit large high-grade MPNSTs, and that novel and effective treatment is urgently needed. Our case also suggests the possibility of using serum tumor markers in the early detection and monitoring of MPNSTs. PMID:22528792

  18. Secretory IgA are elevated in both saliva and serum of patients with various types of primary glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Rostoker, G; Terzidis, H; Petit-Phar, M; Meillet, D; Lang, P; Dubert, J M; Lagrue, G; Weil, B

    1992-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) was determined by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (using as capture antibody an MoAb specific for secretory component) in saliva and serum from 46 patients with IgA mesangial nephritis (IgAGN), 36 with an idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), 30 with an idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MGN) and 40 healthy controls. Secretory IgA levels were elevated in both saliva and serum of patients with primary glomerulonephritis (P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney test) regardless of the histological type of the primary glomerulonephritis. Salivary IgA1 and IgA2 levels were increased in the saliva of patients with IgAGN, INS and MGN (P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney test). The monomeric/total IgA ratio, and interferon-gamma and soluble IL-2 receptor levels, in saliva did not differ between the patients and controls (P > 0.05; Mann-Whitney test). We conclude that the mucosal immune system is activated in forms of glomerulonephritis other than IgAGN. PMID:1424290

  19. Elevated Serum Interleukin-18 Level Is Associated with All-Cause Mortality in Stable Hemodialysis Patients Independently of Cardiac Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yen-Wen; Su, Chi-Ting; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Tsai, Wei-Chuan; Su, Yu-Ru; Wang, Saprina P. H.; Yang, Chun-Shin; Tsai, Liang-Miin; Chen, Jyh-Hong; Sung, Junne-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background High circulating interleukin (IL)-18 level predicts a higher hospitalization rate among dialysis patients, possibly through cardiovascular mechanisms; however, whether higher IL-18 level is associated with mortality in dialysis patients is less clear. In addition, its impacts on left ventricular (LV) function are also unknown. We conducted a cohort study to examine the impacts of IL-18 level on LV function and prognosis among clinically stable hemodialysis patients. Methods Clinically stable patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (?3 months) were prospectively enrolled from December 2008 to January 2009, and were followed up for 31 months. The enrolled patients (41% male, 66.410.9 years of age) received 2-dimensional echocardiography and myocardial deformation (strain) analysis, including LV peak systolic longitudinal strain (GLS) and circumferential strain (CS). Laboratory measurements were also performed. Cox regression analysis was used to investigate prognostic factors. Results Seventy-five patients were stratified into 2 groups by the median value of IL-18 (654.2 pg/ml). Between these 2 groups, there was no significant difference in baseline characteristics including LV ejection fraction. The high IL-18 group had a worse LV systolic function as demonstrated by reduced GLS and CS. Seventeen patients (22.7%) died during the follow-up period. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that low serum albumin, the presence of hypertension, high serum IL-18, and less negative GLS (>?15%) were independently associated with all-cause mortality. No significant interaction between IL-18 and less negative GLS was noted in the final Cox model. Conclusion Hemodialysis patients with high IL-18 levels tend to have worse LV systolic function and higher mortality rate. However, elevated serum IL-18 level is predictive of poor prognosis among stable hemodialysis patients, independently of LV dysfunction. This suggests an additional value of IL-18 to echocardiographic study in predicting all-cause mortality, and IL-18 may be helpful in early risk stratification of hemodialysis patients. PMID:24599060

  20. Elevated levels of serum cholesterol are associated with better performance on tasks of episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Leritz, Elizabeth C; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H; Milberg, William P

    2016-04-01

    We examined how serum cholesterol, an established risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD), relates to cognitive function in healthy middle-older aged individuals with no neurologic or CVD history. A complete lipid panel was obtained from a cohort of one hundred twenty individuals, ages 43-85, who also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. In order to reduce the number of variables and empirically identify broad cognitive domains, scores from neuropsychological tests were submitted into a factor analysis. This analysis revealed three explainable factors: Memory, Executive Function and Memory/Language. Three separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted using individual cholesterol metrics (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein; LDL, high density lipoprotein; HDL, and triglycerides), as well as age, education, medication status (lipid lowering agents), ApoE status, and additional risk factors for CVD to predict neuropsychological function. The Memory Factor was predicted by a combination of age, LDL, and triglyceride levels; both age and triglycerides were negatively associated with factor score, while LDL levels revealed a positive relationship. Both the Executive and Memory/Language factor were only explained by education, whereby more years were associated with better performance. These results provide evidence that individual cholesterol lipoproteins and triglycerides may differentially impact cognitive function, over and above other common CVD risk factors and ApoE status. Our findings demonstrate the importance of consideration of vascular risk factors, such as cholesterol, in studies of cognitive aging. PMID:26873100

  1. Regulation of calbindin-D28K gene expression in the chick intestine: effects of serum calcium status and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Hall, A K; Norman, A W

    1990-04-01

    Calbindin-D28K is a member of a superfamily of calcium binding proteins that share a common avidity for the divalent calcium ion. The ambient concentration of calcium in the blood circulation is thought to orchestrate the release of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin and to govern the activity of renal 1-hydroxylase and thereby synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. We report here the results of experiments designed to assess the possible contribution of dietary calcium status upon calbindin-D28K gene expression in the intestine of vitamin D-deficient chicks. The actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] and dietary calcium intake upon intestinal calbindin-D28K and calbindin-D28K mRNA were monitored by ELISA and dot-blot hybridization analyses, respectively. Vitamin D3-deficient chicks were fed either a calcium-supplemented diet (3% w/w) or a diet containing low calcium (0.4% w/w). These dietary manipulations evoked a highly significant change in serum calcium status. However, the levels of calbindin-D28K protein and its corresponding mRNA were unaffected. Administration of 1,25-(OH)2D3 (1-16 nmol per animal) to both "normocalcemic" and hypocalcemic vitamin D-deficient chicks resulted in an equivalent stimulation of duodenal calbindin-D28K accumulation of calbindin-D28K mRNA. Intestinal calbindin-D28K was stimulated 20- to 28-fold (above control levels) by 6-8 nmol 1,25-(OH)2D3 in both dietary treatment groups when measured 48 h after the single injection. Hence, despite the existence of a relatively large difference in serum calcium levels, the molecular actions of 1,25-(OH)2D3 in the vitamin D-deficient animal are apparently well insulated from serum calcium chemistry. These observations support the notion that, in the absence of vitamin D3, the calcium ion per se is unable to modulate the calbindin-D28K gene in vivo. PMID:1693035

  2. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio might help prediction of acute myocardial infarction in patients with elevated serum creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Nalbant, Ahmet; Cinemre, Hakan; Kaya, Tezcan; Varim, Ceyhun; Varim, Perihan; Tamer, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Diagnostic performance of troponin assays is affected by renal insufficiency. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio(NLR) is an independent predictor of acute coronary syndrome. Our objective was to evaluate performance of NLR in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among patients with elevated serum creatinine. Methods: Patients with elevated creatinine levels evaluated for coronary artery disease were included (n=284). Patients were divided into two groups according to having AMI or non-specific chest pain. AMI diagnosis was made based on clinical and laboratory data, including serial EKG and cardiac enzymes, ECHO and coronary angiography. Results: Troponin, neutrophil, and NLR were found to be higher in patients with AMI, compared to patients without AMI (P= 0.001, P= 0.001 and P=0.028, respectively). ROC curve analysis for NLR in diagnosing AMI was significant (AUC: 0.607; P=0.003). Sensitivity, specificity, LR +, LR-, PPV and NPV for NLR>7.4 were found as 42.3%, 74.7%, 1.68%, 0.77%, 77% and 40%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that patients whose NLR>7.4 were 2.18 times as likely to have AMI. Conclusions: NLR can be used as an independent predictor of AMI in patients with renal insufficiency. This seems to get more important in the era of high sensitivity troponin assays. Our results might also help in early diagnosis of AMI in this high risk population while serial cardiac enzyme results are pending.

  3. Elevated serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 may associate with the development of ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Ya; Xue, Bin; Wang, Yi; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Qiao; Kwang, Hou-Wen; Wu, Dong-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A meta-analysis was undertaken to examine the correlation between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) progression and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-17 (IL-17) in AS patients. Methods: PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane Library database, Ovid, Springer link, WANFANG, China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) and VIP databases(last updated search in October, 2014) were exhaustively searched for published case-control studies using keywords related to IL-6, IL-17 and AS. The search results were screened using stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the data from selected high-quality studies was analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 software. Results: Thirteen case-control studies were selected for this meta-analysis and contained a pooled total of 514 AS patients and 358 healthy controls. Our main result revealed strikingly higher serum levels of IL-6 and IL-17 in AS patients, compared to healthy controls (IL-6: SMD = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.33~3.70, P = 0.01; IL-17: SMD = 3.05, 95% CI = 2.09~4.02, P < 0.001). Ethnicity-based subgroup analysis showed a statistically correlation of high IL-6 and IL-17 serum levels with AS both in Asian (IL-6: SMD = 3.15, 95% CI = 0.75~5.55, P < 0.001; IL-17: SMD = 3.30, 95% CI = 1.93~4.66, P < 0.001) and Caucasian populations (IL-6: SMD = 1.34, 95% CI = 0.33~2.35, P = 0.009; IL-17: SMD = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.06~3.98, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Meta-analysis of pooled data from thirteen high-quality studies revealed a strong correlation between elevated IL-6 and IL-17 serum levels and the development of AS. Therefore, IL-6 and IL-17 could be used as markers for diagnosis and assessment of treatment outcomes in AS patients. PMID:26770328

  4. ERK1/2 mediates sperm acrosome reaction through elevation of intracellular calcium concentration.

    PubMed

    Jaldety, Yael; Breitbart, Haim

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian sperm acquire fertilization capacity after residing in the female reproductive tract for a few hours in a process called capacitation. Only capacitated sperm can bind the zona pellucida (ZP) of the egg and undergo the acrosome reaction, a process that allows penetration and fertilization. Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) mediates signalling in many cell types, however its role in sperm function is largely unknown. Here we show that ERK1/2 is highly phosphorylated/activated after a short incubation of mouse sperm under capacitation conditions and that this phosphorylation is reduced after longer incubation. Further phosphorylation was observed upon addition of crude extract of egg ZP or epidermal growth factor (EGF). The mitogen-activated ERK-kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 abolished ERK1/2 phosphorylation, in vitro fertilization rate and the acrosome reaction induced by ZP or EGF but not by the Ca2+-ionophore A23187. Moreover, inhibition of ERK1/2 along the capacitation process diminished almost completely the sperm's ability to go through the acrosome reaction, while inhibition at the end of capacitation attenuated the acrosome reaction rate by only 45%. The fact that the acrosome reaction, induced by the Ca2+ -ionophore A23187, was not inhibited by U0126 suggests that ERK1/2 mediates the acrosome reaction by activating Ca2+ transport into the cell. Direct determination of intracellular [Ca2+] revealed that Ca2+ influx induced by EGF or ZP was completely blocked by U0126. Thus, it has been established that the increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation/activation in response to ZP or by activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) by EGF, is a key event for intracellular Ca2+ elevation and the subsequent occurrence of the acrosome reaction. PMID:25023718

  5. Elevated Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Alteration of Thyroid Hormones in Children from Guiyu, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xijin; Liu, Junxiao; Zeng, Xiang; Lu, Fangfang; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. This study explored whether there is an association between PBDEs, heavy metal and key growth- and development-related hormones in children from Guiyu, an e-waste area in southern China. We quantified eight PBDE congeners using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry, lead and cadmium utilizing graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, three thyroids with radioimmunoassay and two types of growth hormones by an enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) in 162 children, 4 to 6 years old, from Guiyu. In blood, median total PBDE was 189.99 ng/g lipid. Lead and cadmium concentrations in blood averaged 14.53±4.85 µg dL−1 and 0.77±0.35 µg L−1, respectively. Spearman partial correlation analysis illustrated that lead was positively correlated with BDE153 and BDE183. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was positively correlated with almost all PBDE congeners and negatively correlated with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), whereas free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) were negatively correlated with BDE154. However, no correlation between the hormones and blood lead or cadmium levels was found in this study. Adjusted multiple linear regression analysis showed that total PBDEs was negatively associated with FT3 and positively associated with TSH. Notably, FT4 was positively correlated with FT3, house functions as a workshop, and father's work involved in e-waste recycling and negatively correlated with vitamin consumptions. TSH was negatively related with FT4, paternal residence time in Guiyu, working hours of mother, and child bean products intake. IGFBP-3 was positively correlated with IGF-1 and house close to an e-waste dump. These results suggest that elevated PBDEs and heavy metals related to e-waste in Guiyu may be important risk factors for hormone alterations in children. PMID:25415336

  6. Biphasic modulation by mGlu5 receptors of TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium elevation in sensory neurons contributes to heat sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Masuoka, T; Nakamura, T; Kudo, M; Yoshida, J; Takaoka, Y; Kato, N; Ishibashi, T; Imaizumi, N; Nishio, M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Elevation of glutamate, an excitatory amino acid, during inflammation and injury plays a crucial role in the reception and transmission of sensory information via ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the biphasic effects of metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptor activation on responses to noxious heat. Experimental Approach We assessed the effects of intraplantar quisqualate, a non-selective glutamate receptor agonist, on heat and mechanical pain behaviours in mice. In addition, the effects of quisqualate on the intracellular calcium response and on membrane currents mediated by TRPV1 channels, were examined in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons from mice. Key Results Activation of mGlu5 receptors in hind paw transiently increased, then decreased, the response to noxious heat. In sensory neurons, activation of mGlu5 receptors potentiated TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium elevation, while terminating activation of mGlu5 receptors depressed it. TRPV1-induced currents were potentiated by activation of mGlu5 receptors under voltage clamp conditions and these disappeared after washout. However, voltage-gated calcium currents were inhibited by the mGlu5 receptor agonist, even after washout. Conclusions and Implications These results suggest that, in sensory neurons, mGlu5 receptors biphasically modulate TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium response via transient potentiation of TRPV1 channel-induced currents and persistent inhibition of voltage-gated calcium currents, contributing to heat hyper- and hypoalgesia. PMID:25297838

  7. Platelet Activating Factor Enhances Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis Via PKC, Elevated Intracellular Calcium, and Modulation of Synapsin 1 Dynamics and Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Jennetta W.; Lu, Shao-Ming; Gelbard, Harris A.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is an inflammatory phospholipid signaling molecule implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory and neurotoxicity during neuroinflammation. However, little is known about the intracellular mechanisms mediating PAF’s physiological or pathological effects on synaptic facilitation. We show here that PAF receptors are localized at the synapse. Using fluorescent reporters of presynaptic activity we show that a non-hydrolysable analog of PAF (cPAF) enhances synaptic vesicle release from individual presynaptic boutons by increasing the size or release of the readily releasable pool and the exocytosis rate of the total recycling pool. cPAF also activates previously silent boutons resulting in vesicle release from a larger number of terminals. The underlying mechanism involves elevated calcium within presynaptic boutons and protein kinase C activation. Furthermore, cPAF increases synapsin I phosphorylation at sites 1 and 3, and increases dispersion of synapsin I from the presynaptic compartment during stimulation, freeing synaptic vesicles for subsequent release. These findings provide a conceptual framework for how PAF, regardless of its cellular origin, can modulate synapses during normal and pathologic synaptic activity. PMID:26778968

  8. Repeated intoxication presenting with azotemia, elevated serum osmolal gap, and metabolic acidosis with high anion gap: differential diagnosis, management, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Prevost, Merideth; Sun, Yijuan; Servilla, Karen S; Massie, Larry; Glew, Robert H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2012-02-01

    A man with a history of alcoholism presented on two different occasions with mental changes, clinical signs of volume depletion, elevated serum osmolal gap, metabolic acidosis with high anion gap, metabolic alkalosis, hyponatremia, and azotemia after binge drinking of only ethanol. In both episodes, the serum contained ethanol, acetone, and 2-propanol (isopropanol), but no methanol or ethylene glycol. In the first episode, the rates of excretion of acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate in the urine were greatly increased. Volume repletion was the only treatment. In both episodes, azotemia and metabolic acidosis were rapidly reversed, while modest metabolic alkalosis was noted after treatment. The triad of azotemia, elevated osmolal gap, and high anion gap metabolic acidosis, which characterizes intoxication with methanol or ethylene glycol, can also develop in alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA), an entity with substantially different management and outcome. Finding 2-propanol in the serum of patients with AKA indicates either concomitant 2-propanol ingestion or formation of 2-propanol from acetone. PMID:20602169

  9. Elevation of C-reactive protein in serum of Channa punctatus as an indicator of water pollution.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Bhattacharya, S

    1992-08-01

    Effect of some pollutants like heavy metals, non-metals and pesticides on the circulating level of C-reactive protein (CRP) which is an acute phase plasma protein was studied in a freshwater murrel C. punctatus. Fish was exposed to nonlethal doses of these xenobiotics which were apparently safe. But the level of CRP detected by sensitive single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) technique showed that within 12 hr of exposure the nonlethal doses of xenobiotics could initiate the acute phase response in terms of elevated CRP titre. Heavy metals caused the acute phase within 24 hr, nonmetals and Metacid-50 within 48 hr exposure. The carbamate compound, carbaryl demonstrated a biphasic response to CRP level which may be correlated with the reversible type of anticholinesterase property of this compound while Metacid-50 is an irreversible type of anticholinesterase agent. The assessment of the CRP level in the serum of fish may be utilized as a primary bioindicator of a contaminated environment toxic enough to mount an acute phase response. PMID:1459653

  10. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) Mutation in Breast Adenocarcinoma Is Associated With Elevated Levels of Serum and Urine 2-Hydroxyglutarate

    PubMed Central

    Sadrzadeh, Hossein; Comander, Amy H.; Higgins, Michaela J.; Bardia, Aditya; Perry, Ashley; Burke, Meghan; Silver, Regina; Matulis, Christina R.; Straley, Kimberly S.; Yen, Katharine E.; Agresta, Sam; Kim, Hyeryun; Schenkein, David P.; Borger, Darrell R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase) genes have been discovered across a range of solid-organ and hematologic malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia, glioma, chondrosarcoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. An intriguing aspect of IDH-mutant tumors is the aberrant production and accumulation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which may play a pivotal oncogenic role in these malignancies. We describe the first reported case of an IDH1 p.R132L mutation in a patient with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast adenocarcinoma. This patient was initially treated for locally advanced disease, but then suffered a relapse and metastasis, at which point an IDH1-R132 mutation was discovered in an affected lymph node. The mutation was subsequently found in the primary tumor tissue and all metastatic sites, but not in an uninvolved lymph node. In addition, the patient’s serum and urine displayed marked elevations in the concentration of 2-HG, significantly higher than that measured in six other patients with metastatic HR+ breast carcinoma whose tumors were found to harbor wild-type IDH1. In summary, IDH1 mutations may impact a rare subgroup of patients with breast adenocarcinoma. This may suggest future avenues for disease monitoring through noninvasive measurement of 2-HG, as well as for the development and study of targeted therapies against the aberrant IDH1 enzyme. PMID:24760710

  11. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation in breast adenocarcinoma is associated with elevated levels of serum and urine 2-hydroxyglutarate.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Amir T; Sadrzadeh, Hossein; Comander, Amy H; Higgins, Michaela J; Bardia, Aditya; Perry, Ashley; Burke, Meghan; Silver, Regina; Matulis, Christina R; Straley, Kimberly S; Yen, Katharine E; Agresta, Sam; Kim, Hyeryun; Schenkein, David P; Borger, Darrell R

    2014-06-01

    Mutations in the IDH1 and IDH2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase) genes have been discovered across a range of solid-organ and hematologic malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia, glioma, chondrosarcoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. An intriguing aspect of IDH-mutant tumors is the aberrant production and accumulation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), which may play a pivotal oncogenic role in these malignancies. We describe the first reported case of an IDH1 p.R132L mutation in a patient with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast adenocarcinoma. This patient was initially treated for locally advanced disease, but then suffered a relapse and metastasis, at which point an IDH1-R132 mutation was discovered in an affected lymph node. The mutation was subsequently found in the primary tumor tissue and all metastatic sites, but not in an uninvolved lymph node. In addition, the patient's serum and urine displayed marked elevations in the concentration of 2-HG, significantly higher than that measured in six other patients with metastatic HR+ breast carcinoma whose tumors were found to harbor wild-type IDH1. In summary, IDH1 mutations may impact a rare subgroup of patients with breast adenocarcinoma. This may suggest future avenues for disease monitoring through noninvasive measurement of 2-HG, as well as for the development and study of targeted therapies against the aberrant IDH1 enzyme. PMID:24760710

  12. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),

  13. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  14. Elevated polyamines in urothelial cells from OAB subjects mediate oxotremorine-evoked rapid intracellular calcium rise and delayed acetylcholine release

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingkai; Sun, Yan; Tomiya, Noboru; Hsu, Yuchao

    2013-01-01

    Increased polyamine signaling in bladder urothelial cells (BUC) may play a role in the pathophysiology of overactive bladder (OAB). We quantitated intracellular polyamine levels in cultured BUC from OAB and asymptomatic (NB) subjects. We assessed whether polyamines modulated rapid intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) changes and delayed acetylcholine (ACh) release evoked by oxotremorine (OXO, a muscarinic agonist). BUC were cultured from cystoscopic biopsies. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantitated intracellular putrescine, spermidine, and spermine levels. Five-millimeter difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), and one-millimeter methylglyoxalbisguanylhydrazone (MGBG) treatments were used to deplete intracellular polyamines. Ten micrometers of OXO were used to increase [Ca2+]i levels (measured by fura 2 microfluorimetry) and trigger extracellular ACh release (measured by ELISA). Polyamine levels were elevated in OAB compared with NB BUC (0.5 0.15 vs. 0.16 0.03 nmol/mg for putrescine, 2.4 0.21 vs. 1.01 0.13 nmol/mg for spermidine, and 1.90 0.27 vs. 0.86 0.26 nmol/mg for spermine; P < 0.05 for all comparisons). OXO evoked greater [Ca2+]i rise in OAB (205.10 18.82% increase over baseline) compared with in NB BUC (119.54 13.01%; P < 0.05). After polyamine depletion, OXO evoked [Ca2+]i rise decreased in OAB and NB BUC to 43.40 6.45 and 38.82 3.5%, respectively. OXO tended to increase ACh release by OAB vs. NB BUC (9.02 0.1 vs. 7.04 0.09 ?M, respectively; P < 0.05). Polyamine depletion reduced ACh release by both OAB and NB BUC. In conclusion, polyamine levels were elevated twofold in OAB BUC. OXO evoked greater increase in [Ca2+]i and ACh release in OAB BUC, although these two events may be unrelated. Depletion of polyamines caused OAB BUC to behave similarly to NB BUC. PMID:23698115

  15. The viability of mouse spermatogonial germ cells on a novel scaffold, containing human serum albumin and calcium phosphate nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yadegar, Mona; Hekmatimoghaddam, Seyed Hossein; Nezami Saridar, Saeide; Jebali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: In spermatogenesis, spermatogonial cells differentiate to the haploid gametes. It has been shown that spermatogenesis can be done at in vitro condition. In vitro spermatogenesis may provide an open window to treat male infertility. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel scaffold containing human serum albumin (HSA)/tri calcium phosphate nanoparticles (TCP NPs) on the mouse spermatogonial cell line (SCL). Materials and Methods: First, TCP NPs were synthesized by reaction of calcium nitrate and diammonium phosphate at pH 13. Then, serial concentrations of TCP NPs were separately added to 500 mg/mL HSA, and incubated in the 100oC water for 30 min. In the next step, each scaffold was cut (22mm), placed into sterile well of microplate, and then incubated for 1, 2, and 3 days at 37oC with mouse SCL. After incubation, the cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was evaluated by different tests including 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, vital staining, and cell counting. On the other hand, the release of TCP NPs and HSA from the scaffolds was measured. Results: Based on microscopic observation, the size of cavities for all scaffolds was near 200-500 m, and the size of TCP NPs was near 50-100 nm. All toxicity tests showed that the increase of TCP concentration in the scaffold did not affect mouse SCL. It means that the percentage of cell viability, LDH release, vital cells, and cell quantity was 85%, 105%, 90%, and 110%, respectively. But, the increase of incubation time led to increase of LDH release (up to 115%) and cell count (up to 115%). Also, little decrease of cell viability and vital cells was seen when incubation time was increased. Here, no release of TCP NPs and HSA was seen after increase of TCP concentration and incubation time. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the increase of TCP concentration in HSA/ TCP NPs scaffold does not lead to cytotoxicity. On the other hand, the increase of incubation time leads to increase of mouse SCL cell death. In this study, it was found that TCP NPs and HSA could not release from the scaffolds. In future, both proliferation and differentiation of mouse SCL on HSA/TCP NPs scaffold must be checked over more wide incubation times. PMID:26000004

  16. A Diffusible Signal from Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Elicits a Transient Cytosolic Calcium Elevation in Host Plant Cells1[W

    PubMed Central

    Navazio, Lorella; Moscatiello, Roberto; Genre, Andrea; Novero, Mara; Baldan, Barbara; Bonfante, Paola; Mariani, Paola

    2007-01-01

    The implication of calcium as intracellular messenger in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis has not yet been directly demonstrated, although often envisaged. We used soybean (Glycine max) cell cultures stably expressing the bioluminescent Ca2+ indicator aequorin to detect intracellular Ca2+ changes in response to the culture medium of spores of Gigaspora margarita germinating in the absence of the plant partner. Rapid and transient elevations in cytosolic free Ca2+ were recorded, indicating that diffusible molecules released by the mycorrhizal fungus are perceived by host plant cells through a Ca2+-mediated signaling. Similar responses were also triggered by two Glomus isolates. The fungal molecules active in generating the Ca2+ transient were constitutively released in the medium, and the induced Ca2+ signature was not modified by the coculture of germinating spores with plant cells. Even ungerminated spores were able to generate the signaling molecules, as proven when the germination was blocked by a low temperature. The fungal molecules were found to be stable to heat treatment, of small molecular mass (<3 kD), and, on the basis of extraction with an organic solvent, partially lipophilic. Evidence for the specificity of such an early fungal signal to the AM symbiosis is suggested by the lack of a Ca2+ response in cultured cells of the nonhost plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and by the up-regulation in soybean cells of genes related to Medicago truncatula DMI1, DMI2, and DMI3 and considered essential for the establishment of the AM symbiosis. PMID:17142489

  17. Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Indicator of Plant Stress in Conifers at two elevations on Mount Moosilauke, NH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. N.; Rock, B. N.; Hale, S. R.; Graham, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The research presented was conducted as part of Watershed Watch, a two-week hands-on summer program for undeclared entry-level undergraduates, designed to recruit and retain students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. The research was conducted on needles of red spruce (Picea rubens) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) at the University of New Hampshire. The presence of calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) in the cell walls of spruce mesophyll cells has been reported as an indicator of environmental stress. To assess this, first and third year needles of both species were collected from Mt. Moosilauke (Woodstock, NH) at two elevations (790m and 960m). Needles were analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Estimates of chlorophyll and water were made using the Red Edge Inflection Point and the Moisture Stress Index. These were compared to SEM images of needle sections to visually correlate the amount of CaOx with the reflectance indices. Balsam fir from 790m have a higher occurrence of CaOx in their first and third year needles than from the 960m site, while spectroscopy results indicated less stress (i.e., higher chlorophyll and more water) at the lower site. This does not support a correlation between CaOx and stress factors in balsam fir. In red spruce, those needles with fewest CaOx had higher estimates of chlorophyll and water, supporting the correlation. Based on these results, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between CaOx and plant stress in different species of conifers.

  18. Elevated serum monoclonal and polyclonal free light chains and interferon inducible protein-10 predicts inferior prognosis in untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Witzig, Thomas E; Maurer, Matthew J; Stenson, Mary J; Allmer, Cristine; Macon, William; Link, Brian; Katzmann, Jerry A; Gupta, Mamta

    2014-04-01

    The detection of serum free light (FLC) is useful in the diagnosis of several hematological diseases. The role and biological relevance of monoclonal or polyclonal FLC elevations in predicting long-term outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is unknown. We determined the relationship of the type of FLC elevations to outcome, tumor genotype, and pattern of serum cytokine elevations in 276 patients with untreated DLBCL. Elevated FLC was an adverse prognostic factor through 6 years of follow-up (monoclonal, Event free survival (EFS) HR = 3.56, 95% CI: 1.88-6.76, P <0.0001; polyclonal, EFS HR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.50-4.38, P = 0.0006). About 73% of DLBCL tumors with monoclonal FLC elevations were activated B-cell type (ABC) versus 33% from patients with normal FLC. Only ABC-DLBCL lines secreted kappa FLC in vitro and this secretion could be inhibited by the NF-κB inhibitor bortezomib. Patients with monoclonal FLC had significantly (all P <0.001) increased serum levels of IL-12, sIL-2Rα, IL-1R, and IP-10. Patients with polyclonal elevations of FLC had higher levels of IL-6 (P = 0.033), IL-8 (P =0.025), sIL2Rα (P = 0.011), and IL-1R1 (P = 0.041). The combination of elevated FLC and a CXC superfamily chemokine IP-10 predicted a particularly inferior outcome characterized by late relapse. These increased abnormal FLC and cytokines are potentially useful biomarkers for prognosis and selecting agents for untreated DLBCL. PMID:24382707

  19. Elevated monoclonal and polyclonal serum immunoglobulin free light chain as prognostic factors in B- and T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Witzig, Thomas E; Maurer, Matthew J; Habermann, Thomas M; Link, Brian K; Micallef, Ivana N M; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S; Ansell, Stephen M; Colgan, Joseph P; Inwards, David J; Porrata, Luis F; Markovic, Svetomir N; Johnston, Patrick B; Lin, Yi; Thompson, Carrie; Gupta, Mamta; Katzmann, Jerry A; Cerhan, James R

    2014-12-01

    The serum immunoglobulin free light chain (FLC) assay quantitates free kappa (?) and lambda (?) light chains. FLC elevations in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are associated with an inferior survival. These increases in FLC can be monoclonal (as in myeloma) or polyclonal. The goal was to estimate the frequency of these elevations within distinct types of B-cell and T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and whether the FLC measurements are associated with event-free survival (EFS). We studied serum for FLC abnormalities using normal laboratory reference ranges to define an elevated ? or ? FLC. Elevations were further classified as polyclonal or monoclonal. Four hundred ninety-two patients were studied: 453 B-cell and 34 T-cell NHL patients. Twenty-nine % (142/453) of patients had an elevated FLC of which 10% were monoclonal elevations. Within B-cell NHL, FLC abnormalities were most common in lymphoplasmacytic (79%), mantle cell (68%), and lymphomas of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (31%); they were least common in follicular (15%). The hazard ratio (HR) for EFS in all patients was 1.41 (95% CI; 1.11-1.81); in all B-cell NHL the HR was 1.44 (95% CI 1.11-1.96); in all T-cell NHL the HR was 1.17 (95% CI 0.55-2.49). FLC abnormalities predicted an inferior OS (HR?=?2.75, 95% CI: 1.93-3.90, P?serum FLC assay is useful for prognosis in both B-cell and T-cell types of NHL. In B-cell NHL further discrimination between a monoclonal and polyclonal elevation may be helpful and should be analyzed in prospective clinical trials. PMID:25228125

  20. Elevated Monoclonal and Polyclonal Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chain (FLC) as Prognostic Factors in B- and T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Witzig, Thomas E.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Link, Brian K.; Micallef, Ivana N. M.; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S.; Ansell, Stephen M.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Inwards, David J.; Porrata, Luis F.; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Johnston, Patrick B.; Lin, Yi; Thompson, Carrie; Gupta, Mamta; Katzmann, Jerry A.; Cerhan, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The serum immunoglobulin free light chain (FLC) assay quantitates free kappa (?) and lambda (?) light chains. FLC elevations in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are associated with an inferior survival. These increases in FLC can be monoclonal (as in myeloma) or polyclonal. The goal was to estimate the frequency of these elevations within distinct types of B-cell and T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and whether the FLC measurements are associated with event-free survival (EFS). We studied serum for FLC abnormalities using normal laboratory reference ranges to define an elevated ? or ? FLC. Elevations were further classified as polyclonal or monoclonal. 492 patients were studied: 453 B-cell and 34 T-cell NHL patients. 29% (142/453) had an elevated FLC of which 10% were monoclonal elevations. Within B-cell NHL, FLC abnormalities were most common in lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (79%), MCL (68%) and MALT (31%); they were least common in FL (15%). The hazard ratio (HR) for EFS in all patients was 1.41 (95% CI; 1.111.81); in all B-cell NHL the HR was 1.44 (95% CI 1.111.96); in all T-cell NHL the HR was 1.17 (95% CI 0.552.49). FLC abnormalities predicted an inferior OS (HR = 2.75, 95% CI: 1.933.90, p<0.0001). The serum FLC assay is useful for prognosis in both B-cell and T-cell types of NHL. In B-cell NHL further discrimination between a monoclonal and polyclonal elevation may be helpful and should be analyzed in prospective clinical trials. PMID:25228125

  1. Elevation of serum interleukins 8, 4, and 1β levels in patients with gastrointestinal low-grade B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Toji, Tomohiro; Goto, Naoe; Kasahara, Senji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Tari, Akira; Noujima-Harada, Mai; Miyata, Takafumi; Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines that are produced by helper T cells (Th) regulate immune reactions, facilitate class switching of B cells, and prolong the lifespan of B and T cells. Eradication therapy using antibiotics is sometimes effective against gastrointestinal (GI) malignant lymphoma, suggesting that the tumor development or progression is affected by the inflammatory microenvironment. In the present study, serum samples from 148 patients with various subtypes of malignant lymphoma were tested for 11 proinflammatory Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the comparison by subtype or GI lesions, serum interleukin (IL)-8 (P = 6.7E−05), IL-4 (P = 7.5E−05), and IL-1β (P = 0.0043) levels showed significant differences among subtypes, being particularly elevated in follicular lymphomas (FL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Serum IL-8 levels were elevated in GI-FL and MALT lymphomas, and serum IL-4 and IL-1 β levels were elevated in MALT lymphomas. These findings show that GI low-grade B-cell lymphoma could develop against the background of an inflammatory microenvironment. Thus, these cytokines may be useful as diagnostic markers and could provide new insights into tumor development. PMID:26674732

  2. Elevation of serum interleukins 8, 4, and 1β levels in patients with gastrointestinal low-grade B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Toji, Tomohiro; Goto, Naoe; Kasahara, Senji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Tari, Akira; Noujima-Harada, Mai; Miyata, Takafumi; Sato, Yasuharu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines that are produced by helper T cells (Th) regulate immune reactions, facilitate class switching of B cells, and prolong the lifespan of B and T cells. Eradication therapy using antibiotics is sometimes effective against gastrointestinal (GI) malignant lymphoma, suggesting that the tumor development or progression is affected by the inflammatory microenvironment. In the present study, serum samples from 148 patients with various subtypes of malignant lymphoma were tested for 11 proinflammatory Th1/Th2 cytokines. In the comparison by subtype or GI lesions, serum interleukin (IL)-8 (P = 6.7E-05), IL-4 (P = 7.5E-05), and IL-1β (P = 0.0043) levels showed significant differences among subtypes, being particularly elevated in follicular lymphomas (FL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Serum IL-8 levels were elevated in GI-FL and MALT lymphomas, and serum IL-4 and IL-1 β levels were elevated in MALT lymphomas. These findings show that GI low-grade B-cell lymphoma could develop against the background of an inflammatory microenvironment. Thus, these cytokines may be useful as diagnostic markers and could provide new insights into tumor development. PMID:26674732

  3. Effect of age on pregnancy outcome without assisted reproductive technology in women with elevated early follicular phase serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Check, J H; Peymer, M; Lurie, D

    1998-01-01

    There are data suggesting that patients with elevated early follicular phase serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels have a poor fertility outcome. This has been attributed to a high rate of aneuploidy in the oocytes. It is not clear whether the spindle defects leading to nondisjunction are related to the high FSH levels or the age of the oocyte. The study presented herein retrospectively evaluated 6-month pregnancy rates in women with elevated early follicular phase serum FSH levels according to age. Only cases without in vitro fertilization were used, since the elevated FSH levels were deemed likely to interfere with multiple egg recruitment needed for assisted reproductive technology. The 6-month clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates were significantly higher in the women <40 years of age (46.1 and 34.6%, respectively) than in those aged 40 or older (10.5 and 5.3%). These data suggest that women with elevated follicular-phase serum FSH levels have a better fertility prognosis when they are younger. PMID:9623783

  4. Auranofin, an anti-rheumatic gold compound, modulates apoptosis by elevating the intracellular calcium concentration ([ca2+]I) in mcf-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Elizabeth; Bsselberg, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Auranofin, a transition metal complex is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but is also an effective anti-cancer drug. We investigate the effects of Auranofin in inducing cell death by apoptosis and whether these changes are correlated to changes of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Cytotoxicity of Auranofin was evaluated using MTS assay and the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. With fluorescent dyes SR-FLICA and 7-AAD apoptotic death and necrotic death were differentiated by Flow cytometry. A concentration dependent decrease in the viability occurred and cells were shifted to the apoptotic phase. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) was recorded using florescence microscopy and a calcium sensitive dye (Fluo-4 AM) with a strong negative correlation (r = -0.713) to viability. Pharmacological modulators 2-APB (50 ?M), Nimodipine (10 ?M), Caffeine (10 mM), SKF 96365(20 ?M) were used to modify calcium entry and release. Auranofin induced a sustained increase of [Ca2+]i in a concentration and time dependent manner. The use of different blockers of calcium channels did not reveal the source for the rise of [Ca2+]i. Overall, elevation of [Ca2+]i by Auranofin might be crucial for triggering Ca2+-dependent apoptotic pathways. Therefore, in anti-cancer therapy, modulating [Ca2+]i should be considered as a crucial factor for the induction of cell death in cancer cells. PMID:25383481

  5. Auranofin, an Anti-Rheumatic Gold Compound, Modulates Apoptosis by Elevating the Intracellular Calcium Concentration ([Ca2+]i) in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Elizabeth; Bsselberg, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Auranofin, a transition metal complex is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but is also an effective anti-cancer drug. We investigate the effects of Auranofin in inducing cell death by apoptosis and whether these changes are correlated to changes of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Cytotoxicity of Auranofin was evaluated using MTS assay and the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. With fluorescent dyes SR-FLICA and 7-AAD apoptotic death and necrotic death were differentiated by Flow cytometry. A concentration dependent decrease in the viability occurred and cells were shifted to the apoptotic phase. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) was recorded using florescence microscopy and a calcium sensitive dye (Fluo-4 AM) with a strong negative correlation (r = ?0.713) to viability. Pharmacological modulators 2-APB (50 ?M), Nimodipine (10 ?M), Caffeine (10 mM), SKF 96365(20 ?M) were used to modify calcium entry and release. Auranofin induced a sustained increase of [Ca2+]i in a concentration and time dependent manner. The use of different blockers of calcium channels did not reveal the source for the rise of [Ca2+]i. Overall, elevation of [Ca2+]i by Auranofin might be crucial for triggering Ca2+-dependent apoptotic pathways. Therefore, in anti-cancer therapy, modulating [Ca2+]i should be considered as a crucial factor for the induction of cell death in cancer cells. PMID:25383481

  6. Velcalcetide (AMG 416), a novel peptide agonist of the calcium-sensing receptor, reduces serum parathyroid hormone and FGF23 levels in healthy male subjects

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kevin J.; Bell, Gregory; Pickthorn, Karen; Huang, Saling; Vick, Andrew; Hodsman, Peter; Peacock, Munro

    2014-01-01

    Context Velcalcetide, also known as AMG 416, is a novel, long-acting selective peptide agonist of the calcium sensing receptor. It is being developed as an intravenous treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease—mineral and bone disorder. Objective To assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of velcalcetide in healthy male volunteers. Methods The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-dose, dose-escalation study in healthy males aged 18–45 years conducted at a single center. Each cohort included eight subjects randomized 6:2 to velcalcetide or placebo. Intervention Velcalcetide at 0.5, 2, 5 and 10 mg or placebo was administered intravenously. Outcomes Measurements included plasma ionized calcium (iCa), serum total calcium, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), phosphorus and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, calcitonin and urine creatinine, calcium and phosphorus and plasma pharmacokinetics for velcalcetide. Vital signs, safety biochemical and hematological indices, and adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Results Intravenous administration of velcalcetide was well tolerated with no adverse reaction of nausea, vomiting or diarrhea reported. Velcalcetide mediated dose-dependent decreases in serum iPTH at 30 min, FGF23 at 24 h and iCa at 12 h post dose (P < 0.05) and in urine fractional excretion of phosphorus and increases in tubular reabsorption of phosphorus. Velcalcetide plasma exposure increased in a dose-related manner and the terminal elimination of half-life was comparable across the dose range evaluated and ranged from 18.4 to 20.0 h. Conclusion Single IV doses of velcalcetide were well tolerated and associated with rapid, sustained, dose-dependent reductions in serum PTH. The results support further evaluation of velcalcetide as a treatment for SHPT in hemodialysis patients. PMID:24235081

  7. Comparative effects of sodium pyrithione evoked intracellular calcium elevation in rodent and primate ventral horn motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Knox, Ronald J; Keen, Kim L; Luchansky, Laurelee; Terasawa, Ei; Freyer, Hugh; Barbee, Steven J; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2008-02-01

    Oral administration of sodium pyrithione (NaP) causes hindlimb weakness in rodents, but not in primates. Previous work using Aplysia neurons has demonstrated that NaP produces a persistent influx of Ca(2+) ions across the plasma membrane. To determine whether this also occurs in mammalian neurons and whether this could underlie the inter-species difference between rodents and primates, we have tested the effects of NaP on intracellular Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)](i)) in rat and monkey motor neurons in vitro. Motor neurons present in spinal cord slices from rhesus monkey embryos (E37 and 56) and from rat E16 were dissected and cultured on glass coverslips. Following 2 weeks (rhesus) or 2-3 days (rat) in culture, neurons were loaded with fura-PE3/AM, and examined for [Ca(2+)](i) changes in response to NaP. Rhesus motor neurons were identified by immunostaining for Islet-1 (MN specific antigen) and neuron specific enolase (NSE). Motor neurons from both species exhibited dose-dependent NaP-evoked increases in [Ca(2+)](i) However, the dose-response curve for the Rhesus motor neurons was significantly shifted to the right of the rat dose-response curve, whereas the overall amplitude of the Ca(2+) rise was similar in both species. As shown previously for the Aplysia neurons, the action of NaP is attenuated by SKF 96365, an inhibitor of store-operated calcium entry. In contrast the action of NaP is unaffected by nifedipine and tetrodotoxin, blockers of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) and Na(+) channels, respectively, or by ouabain, an inhibitor of the plasma membrane Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. Our results indicate that the NaP-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) is conserved across species and suggest that the toxicological sensitivity of rodent over primate to pyrithione could be due to the enhanced sensitivity of rodent motor neurons to NaP-evoked intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. PMID:18053804

  8. Presence of anti-mitochondrial antibodies and elevated serum immunoglobulin G levels: is this primary biliary cirrhosis-autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome?

    PubMed

    Muttaqillah, Najihan Abdul Samat; Abdul Wahab, Asrul; Ding, Chuan Hun; Mohammad, Marlyn; Biswas, Suvra; Rahman, Md Mostafizur

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis in combination with autoimmune hepatitis has been termed "overlap syndrome", but its diagnosis is challenging. We report a case of a 43-year-old lady who presented with a six-month history of jaundice and pruritus. She subsequently developed gum bleeds. Laboratory investigations revealed hypochromic microcytic anemia, abnormal coagulation profiles, elevated serum alanine transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels, and raised serum IgG and IgM levels. Her serum was also positive for anti-nuclear and anti-mitochondrial antibodies. The findings from her abdominal CT scan were suggestive of early liver cirrhosis and the histopathological examination results of her liver biopsy were consistent with primary biliary cirrhosis. The patient was treated with ursodeoxycholic acid and her liver function test parameters normalized after six months. PMID:26648811

  9. A High-Calcium and Phosphate Rescue Diet and VDR-Expressing Transgenes Normalize Serum Vitamin D Metabolite Profiles and Renal Cyp27b1 and Cyp24a1 Expression in VDR Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Martin; Lee, Seong Min; Pike, J Wesley; Jones, Glenville

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)-dependent gene expression is compromised in the VDR null mouse. The biological consequences include: hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25(OH)2D3, and consequential skeletal abnormalities. CYP24A1 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved in the side chain oxidation and destruction of both 1,25(OH)2D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3). In the current studies, we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technology to compare the metabolic profiles of VDR null mice fed either a normal or a calcium and phosphate-enriched rescue diet and to assess the consequence of transgenic expression of either mouse or human VDR genes in the same background. Serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels in VDR null mice on normal chow were highly elevated (>3000 pg/mL) coincident with undetectable levels of catabolites such as 24,25-(OH)2D3 and 25-OH-D3-26,23-lactone normally observed in wild-type mice. The rescue diet corrected serum Ca(++), PTH, and 1,25(OH)2D3 values and restored basal expression of Cyp24a1 as evidenced by both renal expression of Cyp24a1 and detection of 24,25-(OH)2D3 and the 25-OH-D3-26,23-lactone. Unexpectedly, this diet also resulted in supranormal levels of 3-epi-24,25-(OH)2D3 and 3-epi-25-OH-D3-26,23-lactone. The reappearance of serum 24,25-(OH)2D3 and renal Cyp24a1 expression after rescue suggests that basal levels of Cyp24a1 may be repressed by high PTH. Introduction of transgenes for either mouse or human VDR also normalized vitamin D metabolism in VDR null mice, whereas this metabolic pattern was unaffected by a transgene encoding a ligand binding-deficient mutant (L233S) human VDR. We conclude that liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling is an ideal analytical method to study mouse models with alterations in calcium/phosphate homeostasis. PMID:26441239

  10. Chronic immune activation in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is associated with elevated serum levels of soluble CD14 and CD25 but not endotoxaemia

    PubMed Central

    Litzman, J; Nechvatalova, J; Xu, J; Ticha, O; Vlkova, M; Hel, Z

    2012-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most frequent symptomatic immunoglobulin primary immunodeficiency, is associated with chronic T cell activation and reduced frequency of CD4+ T cells. The underlying cause of immune activation in CVID is unknown. Microbial translocation indicated by elevated serum levels of lipopolysaccharide and soluble CD14 (sCD14) has been linked previously to systemic immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV-1/AIDS), alcoholic cirrhosis and other conditions. To address the mechanisms of chronic immune activation in CVID, we performed a detailed analysis of immune cell populations and serum levels of sCD14, soluble CD25 (sCD25), lipopolysaccharide and markers of liver function in 35 patients with CVID, 53 patients with selective immunoglobulin (Ig)A deficiency (IgAD) and 63 control healthy subjects. In CVID subjects, the concentration of serum sCD14 was increased significantly and correlated with the level of sCD25, C-reactive protein and the extent of T cell activation. Importantly, no increase in serum lipopolysaccharide concentration was observed in patients with CVID or IgAD. Collectively, the data presented suggest that chronic T cell activation in CVID is associated with elevated levels of sCD14 and sCD25, but not with systemic endotoxaemia, and suggest involvement of lipopolysaccharide-independent mechanisms of induction of sCD14 production. PMID:23121673

  11. A Japanese child with asymptomatic elevation of serum creatine kinase shows PTRF-CAVIN mutation matching with congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4.

    PubMed

    Dwianingsih, Ery Kus; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Itoh, Kyoko; Yamauchi, Yumiko; Awano, Hiroyuki; Malueka, Rusdy Ghazali; Nishida, Atsushi; Ota, Mitsunori; Yagi, Mariko; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL), characterized by generalized absence of adipose tissue, has heterogeneous causes. Recently, a novel type of CGL complicated by muscular dystrophy was categorized as CGL4 caused by PTRF-CAVIN deficiency. However, it is unknown whether CGL4 exhibits clinical abnormalities during the infantile period. Here, we describe the youngest Japanese case of CGL4-a Japanese girl with asymptomatic high serum creatine kinase (CK) levels at 3months old. She was referred to our hospital at 5months of age because of her elevated serum CK (2528IU/L). Generalized absence of adipose tissue was first recognized at 2years of age. Mutation analysis of genes known to be responsible for CGL1-3 failed to disclose any abnormalities. Instead, analysis of the PTRF-CAVIN gene encoding PTRF-CAVIN revealed compound heterozygous mutations, one allele contained an insertion (c.696_697insC) and the other allele harbored a novel nonsense mutation (c.512C>A). Our patient had low serum leptin and adiponectin levels and insulin resistance. Pathological studies on biopsied muscle disclosed mild dystrophic change and highly reduced expression of PTRF-CAVIN. It was concluded that our PTRF-CAVIN deficient patient showed not only CGL but also asymptomatic elevation of serum CK because of her mild muscle dystrophic change. PMID:20638880

  12. Peripheral insulin resistance in obese girls with hyperandrogenism is related to oxidative phosphorylation and elevated serum free fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cree-Green, Melanie; Newcomer, Bradley R; Coe, Gregory; Newnes, Lindsey; Baumgartner, Amy; Brown, Mark S; Pyle, Laura; Reusch, Jane E; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2015-05-01

    Hyperandrogenic syndrome (HAS) is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. Muscle IR in type 2 diabetes is linked with defects in mitochondrial oxidative capacity. In vivo muscle mitochondrial function has not been studied in HAS, especially in youth, who are early in the disease process. Our goal was to measure muscle mitochondrial oxidative function and peripheral IR in obese youth with HAS. Obese girls without HAS [n = 22, age 15(13,17) yr, BMI Z-score 2.05 0.37] and with HAS [n = 35, age 15(14,16) yr, BMI Z-score 2.18 0.30] were enrolled. Mitochondrial function was assessed with (31)phosphorus MR spectroscopy before, during, and after near-maximal isometric calf exercise, and peripheral IR was assessed with an 80 mUm(-2)min(-1) hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Girls with HAS had higher androgens [free androgen index 7.9(6.6,15.5) vs. 3.5(3.0,4.0), P < 0.01] and more IR [glucose infusion rate 9.4(7.0, 12,2) vs. 14.5(13.2,15.8) mgkg lean(-1)min(-1), P < 0.01]. HAS girls also had increased markers of inflammation including CRP, platelets, and white blood cell count and higher serum free fatty acids during hyperinsulinemia. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was lower in HAS [0.11(0.06,0.19) vs. 0.18(0.12,0.23) mmol/s, P < 0.05], although other spectroscopy markers of mitochondrial function were similar between groups. In multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, IR related to androgens, oxidative phosphorylation, and free fatty acid concentrations during hyperinsulinemia. These relationships were present in just the HAS cohort as well. Obese girls with HAS have significant peripheral IR, which is related to elevated androgens and free fatty acids and decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. These may provide future options as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25714677

  13. Complete remission achieved in a multiple myeloma patient with elevated serum KL-6 level by a combination regimen with bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Yutaka; Nishimura, Nao; Nosaka, Kisato; Hata, Hiroyuki; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2014-04-01

    A 79-year-old woman suffering from double vision after a 4-year history of MGUS was referred to our hospital. MRI revealed that she had three intracranial plasmacytoma masses and one spinal plasmacytoma mass. Bone marrow aspirates showed 52.4% plasma cell infiltration and immunoelectrophoresis identified serum IgG-M protein, leading to a diagnosis of IgG-type multiple myeloma. IgG was elevated to 3,355 mg/dl and urine type Bence-Jones protein was positive. KL-6, a membrane-bound glycoprotein encoded by Mucin 1 and a marker of interstitial pneumonia, was also elevated to 1,409 mg/dl, but computed tomography of the lungs revealed no obvious pulmonary lesions. Previously reported studies showing that myeloma patients with elevated KL-6 might have a poor prognosis prompted us to treat this patient with a three-drug (bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone: VCD) combination regimen. When 6 cycles of the regimen had been completed, no M-protein was detectable in her serum. Furthermore, ? free light chain had significantly decreased from 12,700 to 24.8 mg/l. In addition, (18)F-FDG PET/CT revealed reduced mass sizes and no (18)F-FDG uptakes by plasmacytomas. Thus, she was defined as having achieved a stringent complete remission (sCR). We therefore concluded that the VCD combination regimen was highly effective in this multiple myeloma patient with KL-6 elevation. PMID:24850459

  14. Calcium metabolism and familial risk of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Grobbee, D E; van Hooft, I M; Hofman, A

    1995-11-01

    There is circumstantial evidence that disturbances of calcium metabolism are implicated in primary hypertension. From a large number of observational epidemiological studies, data have shown that a low dietary calcium intake increases the risk for high blood pressure. There is no general sensitivity for the effects of inadequate calcium intake, but subgroups of hypertensive patients have been described characterized by reduced serum ionized calcium levels, increased urinary excretion of calcium, raised intracellular calcium levels, reduced cellular membrane calcium binding, and other indicators of a relative calcium need. Some of these changes, however, may be secondary to blood pressure elevation. The family history approach enables to study the pathophysiology of early primary hypertension, at a stage at which blood pressure differences between future hypertensive subjects and normotensive subjects are still limited. In the Dutch Hypertension and Offspring Study, young normotensive subjects were studied selected on the basis of presence or absence of familial predisposition for hypertension. The findings show that disturbances in calcium metabolism are present in the early phase of primary hypertension and may precede the development of high blood pressure. Moreover, they suggest that changes in calcium metabolism may be a characteristic of familial hypertension and could reflect a genetic basis for calcium sensitive hypertension. The presence of a relatively reduced serum calcium and increased plasma PTH [1-84] level in the offspring of hypertensive parents indicates that calcium balance in prehypertensive subjects is maintained at a higher level of circulating PTH. The implications of these findings in relation to other available data are discussed. PMID:8588111

  15. Elevated Serum Levels of NSE and S-100β Correlate with Increased Risk of Acute Cerebral Infarction in Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Jia, JianJun; Wang, ZhenFu; Zhang, ShanChun

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated the clinical value of serum levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and human soluble protein-100β (S-100β) in acute cerebral infarction (ACI) patients. Material/Methods A literature search of electronic databases identified relevant case-control studies that examined the correlations between NSE and S-100β serum levels, and ACI. The retrieved studies were screened based on our strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, and high-quality studies were subsequently selected for meta-analysis. STATA software (Version 12.0, Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) was utilized for statistical analysis. Results A total of 13 case-control studies, containing 911 ACI patients and 686 healthy controls, were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that serum levels of NSE and S-100β in ACI patients were significantly higher than the control group. Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed that the serum levels of NSE and S-100β in ACI patients were significantly higher than the control group in Asian population. In Caucasian population, the serum levels of NSE in case group was significantly higher than the control group, but no significant differences in serum levels of S-100β were observed between ACI patients and the control group. Conclusions Based on our results, we conclude that serum levels of NSE and S-100β strongly correlate with ACI in Asian population, and may be important clinical markers for diagnosis and treatment of ACI. PMID:26124190

  16. Circadian rhythm of serum 25 (OH) vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus levels in the treatment and management of type-2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Masood, Tariq; Kushwaha, Rajeev S; Singh, Ranjana; Sailwal, Shivani; Pandey, Himanshu; Varma, Amit; Singh, Raj K; Cornelissen, Germaine

    2015-02-01

    The circadian time structure of serum 25 (OH) vitamin D (25-OHD), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) may prove to be helpful in prevention, efficacy and management of diabetes mellitus. Ten newly diagnosed patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (6 men and 4 women), 30-65 years of age, and 10 age-matched clinically healthy volunteers (7 men and 3 women) were synchronized for one week with diurnal activity from about 06:00 to about 22:00 and nocturnal rest. Breakfast was served around 08:00, lunch around 13:30 and dinner around 20:00. Drugs/nutraceuticals known to affect the vitamin D-calcium metabolism and status were not taken. Blood samples were collected at 6-h intervals for 24 h under standardized, 24-h synchronized conditions. Serum 25-OHD, Ca, P, Ca-P product and Ca-P ratio were determined. A marked circadian variation was demonstrated for 25-OHD in healthy volunteers (p = 0.030) and of borderline statistical significance in the diabetic patients (p = 0.083) by population-mean cosinor analysis. Similarly, healthy volunteers showed borderline significance for serum Ca, P and Ca-P ratio. The circadian acrophase of Ca occurred later in the patients as compared to healthy controls. Mapping the circadian rhythm (an important component of the broader time structure or chronome, which includes a.o., trends with age and extra-circadian components) of vitamin D and calcium is needed for exploring their role as markers in the treatment and management of diabetic patients. PMID:25788054

  17. Do Negative 124I Pretherapy Positron Emission Tomography Scans in Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels Predict Negative 131I Posttherapy Scans?

    PubMed Central

    Khorjekar, Gauri R.; Garcia, Carlos; O'Neil, Jeffrey; Moreau, Shari; Atkins, Francis B.; Mete, Mihriye; Orquiza, Michael H.; Burman, Kenneth; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Background: The management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) who have elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and negative 131I or 123I scans is problematic, and the decision regarding whether or not to administer 131I therapy (a “blind” therapy) is also problematic. While 124I positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been shown to detect more foci of residual thyroid tissue and/or metastases secondary to DTC than planar 131I images, the utility of a negative 124I PET scan in deciding whether or not to consider performing blind 131I therapy is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether a negative 124I pretherapy PET scan in patients with elevated serum Tg levels and negative 131I or 123I scans predicts a negative 131I posttherapy scan. Methods: Several prospective studies have been performed to compare the radiopharmacokinetics of 124I PET versus 131I planar imaging in patients who 1) had histologically proven DTC, 2) were suspected to have metastatic DTC (e.g., elevated Tg, positive recent fine-needle aspiration cytology, suspicious enlarging mass), and 3) had 131I planar and 124I PET imaging performed. Using these criteria, we retrospectively identified patients who had an elevated Tg, a negative diagnostic 131I/123I scan, a negative diagnostic 124I PET scan, therapy with 131I, a post-therapy 131I scan, and a prior 131I therapy with a subsequent positive post-131I therapy scan. For each scan, two readers categorized every focus of 131I and 124I uptake as positive for thyroid tissue/metastases or physiological. Results: Twelve patients met the above criteria. Ten of these 12 patients (83%) had positive foci on 131I posttherapy scan. Conclusion: In our selected patient population, 131I posttherapy scans are frequently positive in patients with elevated serum Tg levels, a negative diagnostic 131I or 123I scan, and a negative 124I PET scan. Thus, for a patient with elevated serum Tg level, negative diagnostic 131I planar scan, and a prior post-131I therapy scan that was positive, a negative 124I PET scan will have a low predictive value for a negative post-131I therapy scan and should not be used to exclude the option of blind 131I therapy. PMID:24820222

  18. Serum hyperchloremia as a risk factor for acute kidney injury in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nachiket; Baker, Sarah M.; Walters, Ryan W.; Kaja, Ajay; Kandasamy, Vimalkumar; Abuzaid, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    A high serum chloride concentration has been associated with the development of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. However, the association between hyperchloremia and acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients admitted with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of STEMI and treated with PCI was performed. Subjects were classified as having hyper- or normochloremia based upon their admission serum chloride level. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed for the primary and secondary outcomes. The primary analysis evaluated whether high serum chloride on admission was associated with the development of AKI after adjusting for age, diabetes mellitus, admission systolic blood pressure, contrast volume used during angiography, Killip class, and need for vasopressor therapy or intraaortic balloon pump. The secondary analyses evaluated whether high serum chloride was associated with sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Of 291 patients (26.1% female, mean age of 59.9 ± 12.6 years, and mean body mass index of 29.3 ± 6.1 kg/m2), 25 (8.6%) developed AKI. High serum chloride on admission did not contribute significantly to the development of AKI (odds ratio, 95%; confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.24). In addition, serum chloride on admission was not significantly associated with sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation after adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. In conclusion, our study demonstrated no association between baseline serum hyperchloremia and an increased risk of AKI in patients admitted with STEMI treated with PCI. PMID:26722155

  19. Serum hyperchloremia as a risk factor for acute kidney injury in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nachiket; Baker, Sarah M; Walters, Ryan W; Kaja, Ajay; Kandasamy, Vimalkumar; Abuzaid, Ahmed; Modrykamien, Ariel M

    2016-01-01

    A high serum chloride concentration has been associated with the development of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. However, the association between hyperchloremia and acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients admitted with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of STEMI and treated with PCI was performed. Subjects were classified as having hyper- or normochloremia based upon their admission serum chloride level. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed for the primary and secondary outcomes. The primary analysis evaluated whether high serum chloride on admission was associated with the development of AKI after adjusting for age, diabetes mellitus, admission systolic blood pressure, contrast volume used during angiography, Killip class, and need for vasopressor therapy or intraaortic balloon pump. The secondary analyses evaluated whether high serum chloride was associated with sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Of 291 patients (26.1% female, mean age of 59.9 12.6 years, and mean body mass index of 29.3 6.1 kg/m(2)), 25 (8.6%) developed AKI. High serum chloride on admission did not contribute significantly to the development of AKI (odds ratio, 95%; confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.24). In addition, serum chloride on admission was not significantly associated with sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation after adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. In conclusion, our study demonstrated no association between baseline serum hyperchloremia and an increased risk of AKI in patients admitted with STEMI treated with PCI. PMID:26722155

  20. Peripheral blood monocyte vitamin D receptor levels are elevated in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Favus, Murray J; Karnauskas, Alexander J; Parks, Joan H; Coe, Fredric L

    2004-10-01

    Idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) is the most common cause of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Increased intestinal calcium absorption and bone resorption and decreased tubule calcium reabsorption may be caused by elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] in some patients but not in those with normal serum 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels. Because 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) exerts its biological actions through binding to the cellular vitamin D receptor (VDR), the present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that VDR levels are elevated in IH patients. Ten male IH calcium oxalate stone-formers were paired with controls matched in age within 5 yr and lacking a history of stones or family history of stones. Blood was obtained for serum, peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) were separated from lymphocytes and other mononuclear cells, and PBM VDR content was measured by Western blotting. The PBM VDR level was 2-fold greater in IH men at 49 +/- 21 vs. 20 +/- 15 fmol/mg protein, mean +/- sd; P < 0.008. Serum 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels were not higher than controls (48 +/- 14 vs. 39 +/- 11 pg/ml; P < 0.068). In conclusion, PBM VDR levels are elevated in IH calcium oxalate stone-formers. The elevation could not be ascribed to increased serum 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels. These results suggest that the molecular basis for IH involves a pathological elevation of tissue VDR level, which may elevate intestinal calcium absorption and bone resorption and decrease renal tubule calcium reabsorption. The mechanism for increased VDR in IH patients with normal serum 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels is unknown. PMID:15472188

  1. Elevated serum leptin levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction; correlation with coronary angiographic and echocardiographic findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the relationship between serial serum leptin levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who received thrombolysis and the degree of coronary atherosclerosis, coronary reperfusion, echocardiographic findings, and clinical outcome. 51 consecutive patients presenting with AMI were studied. Clinical characteristics including age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. Serial serum leptin levels at the time of admission and subsequently at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 60 hours afterwards were obtained. Coronary angiography was performed in 34 patients; the relation between serum leptin levels and evidence of coronary reperfusion as well as the extent of coronary atherosclerosis according to the coronary artery surgery study classification (CASS) were evaluated. Echocardiographic evaluation was performed in all patients. 36 matched patients were enrolled as control group who had serum leptin level 9.4??6.5?ng/ml. Results The patients mean age was 50.5??10.6?years. There were 47 males and 3 females. 37.1% were diabetics, 23.5% were hypertensive, 21.6% were dyslipidemic and 22.7% were obese (BMI???30). Leptin concentrations (ng/ml) increased and peaked at the 4th sample (36?hrs) after admission (mean??SD) sample (1) =9.55??7.4, sample (2) =12.9??8.4, sample (3) =13.8??10.4, sample (4) =18.9??18.1, sample (5) =11.4??6.5, sample (6) =10.8??8.9?ng/ml. There was a significant correlation between serum leptin and BMI (r?=?0.342; p?=?0.03). Leptin levels correlated significantly to creatine kinase level on the second day (r?=?0.43, p???0.01). Significant correlation of mean serum leptin with the ejection fraction (P?serum leptin between patients who achieved coronary reperfusion vs. those who did not (p?=?0.8). There was a trend for an increase in the mean serum leptin levels with increasing number of diseased vessels. There was no correlation between serum leptin levels and outcome neither during the hospitalization nor at 9?months follow up. Conclusion Serum leptin levels increase after myocardial infarction. Serum leptin level may be a predictor of the left ventricular ejection fraction and the degree of atherosclerosis but not of coronary reperfusion. PMID:22642879

  2. The Effects of Serum from Prostate Cancer Patients with Elevated Body Mass Index on Prostate Cancer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Benjamin C; Fleshner, Neil E; Klotz, Laurence H; Venkateswaran, Vasundara

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether serum from obese, compared to non-obese, PCa (prostate cancer) patients creates a growth-enhancing tumor micro-environment in vitro. Serum from 80 subjects was divided into four groups: normal weight men with and without PCa and overweight/obese men with and without PCa. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were measured in LNCaP, and PC3 cells treated with patient serum were obtained from the above groups. The results reveal that proliferation of LNCaP cells was significantly (P = 0.05) greater with serum from non-obese (mean = 1.26 0.20) compared to that from obese patients (mean = 1.16 0.19). Serum from obese PCa patients compared to non-obese PCa patients induced significantly greater amounts of cell migration (P < 0.01) in PC3 cells. Serum from obese patients induced significantly (P < 0.01) lower amounts of cell invasion (mean = 8.2 4.5) compared to non-obese patients (mean = 18.1 5.0) when treated on PC3 cells. Serum TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor alpha) levels correlated with LNCaP cell proliferation in vitro in non-obese PCa (P < 0.01) and non-obese control groups (P = 0.05). All statistical calculations controlled for age, since the PCa patient groups were significantly older than the control groups (P < 0.01). In conclusion, serum from obese PCa patients induced greater PCa cell migration and lower cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. PMID:25987846

  3. Peripheral Blood Cells from Patients with Autoimmune Addison's Disease Poorly Respond to Interferons In Vitro, Despite Elevated Serum Levels of Interferon-Inducible Chemokines.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Kine; Bjnesy, Trine; Hellesen, Alexander; Breivik, Lars; Bakke, Marit; Husebye, Eystein S; Bratland, Eirik

    2015-10-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is a disorder caused by an immunological attack on the adrenal cortex. The interferon (IFN)-inducible chemokine CXCL10 is elevated in serum of AAD patients, suggesting a peripheral IFN signature. However, CXCL10 can also be induced in adrenocortical cells stimulated with IFNs, cytokines, or microbial components. We therefore investigated whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from AAD patients display an enhanced propensity to produce CXCL10 and the related chemokine CXCL9, after stimulation with type I or II IFNs or the IFN inducer poly (I:C). Although serum levels of CXCL10 and CXCL9 were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls, IFN stimulated patient PBMC produced significantly less CXCL10/CXCL9 than control PBMC. Low CXCL10 production was not significantly associated with medication, disease duration, or comorbidities, but the low production of poly (I:C)-induced CXCL10 among patients was associated with an AAD risk allele in the phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene. PBMC levels of total STAT1 and -2, and IFN-induced phosphorylated STAT1 and -2, were not significantly different between patients and controls. We conclude that PBMC from patients with AAD are deficient in their response to IFNs, and that the adrenal cortex itself may be responsible for the increased serum levels of CXCL10. PMID:25978633

  4. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety. PMID:26847149

  5. Peripheral Blood Cells from Patients with Autoimmune Addison's Disease Poorly Respond to Interferons In Vitro, Despite Elevated Serum Levels of Interferon-Inducible Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Bjånesøy, Trine; Hellesen, Alexander; Breivik, Lars; Bakke, Marit; Husebye, Eystein S.; Bratland, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is a disorder caused by an immunological attack on the adrenal cortex. The interferon (IFN)-inducible chemokine CXCL10 is elevated in serum of AAD patients, suggesting a peripheral IFN signature. However, CXCL10 can also be induced in adrenocortical cells stimulated with IFNs, cytokines, or microbial components. We therefore investigated whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from AAD patients display an enhanced propensity to produce CXCL10 and the related chemokine CXCL9, after stimulation with type I or II IFNs or the IFN inducer poly (I:C). Although serum levels of CXCL10 and CXCL9 were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls, IFN stimulated patient PBMC produced significantly less CXCL10/CXCL9 than control PBMC. Low CXCL10 production was not significantly associated with medication, disease duration, or comorbidities, but the low production of poly (I:C)-induced CXCL10 among patients was associated with an AAD risk allele in the phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene. PBMC levels of total STAT1 and -2, and IFN-induced phosphorylated STAT1 and -2, were not significantly different between patients and controls. We conclude that PBMC from patients with AAD are deficient in their response to IFNs, and that the adrenal cortex itself may be responsible for the increased serum levels of CXCL10. PMID:25978633

  6. Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin and Low Iodine Intake Are Associated with Nontoxic Nodular Goiter among Adults Living near the Eastern Mediterranean Coast

    PubMed Central

    Ovadia, Yaniv S.; Gefel, Dov; Turkot, Svetlana; Aharoni, Dorit; Fytlovich, Shlomo; Troen, Aron M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Information about iodine intake is crucial for preventing thyroid diseases. Inadequate iodine intake can lead to thyroid diseases, including nontoxic nodular goiter (NNG). Objective. To estimate iodine intake and explore its correlation with thyroid diseases among Israeli adults living near the Mediterranean coast, where iodine-depleted desalinated water has become a major source of drinking water. Methods. Cross-sectional study of patients attending Barzilai Medical Center Ashkelon. Participants, who were classified as either NNG (n = 17), hypothyroidism (n = 14), or control (n = 31), provided serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and completed a semiquantitative iodine food frequency questionnaire. Results. Elevated serum Tg values (Tg > 60?ng/mL) were significantly more prevalent in the NNG group than in the other groups (29% versus 7% and 0% for hypothyroidism and controls, resp., P < 0.05). Mean estimated iodine intake was significantly lower in the NNG group (65 30??g/d) than in controls (115 60??g/d) (P < 0.05) with intermediate intake in the hypothyroid group (73 38??g/d). Conclusions. Elevated serum Tg values and low dietary iodine intake are associated with NNG among adult patients in Ashkelon District, Israel. Larger studies are needed in order to expand on these important initial findings. PMID:25610705

  7. Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements of gastrointestinal type associated with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level: an unusual case and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Mariana; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Marques, Rita Canas; Flix, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the case of a 19-year-old woman with a poorly differentiated ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and an elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level. The patient presented with diffuse abdominal pain and bloating. Physical examination, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right ovarian tumor that was histopathologically diagnosed as a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements. Her alpha-fetoprotein serum level was undetectable after tumor resection. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that account for 0.5% of all ovarian neoplasms. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors tend to be unilateral and occur in women under 30 years of age. Although they are the most common virilizing tumor of the ovary, about 60% are endocrine-inactive tumors. Elevated serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein are rarely associated with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, with only approximately 30 such cases previously reported in the literature. The differential diagnosis should include common alpha-fetoprotein-producing ovarian entities such as germ cell tumors, as well as other non-germ cell tumors that have been rarely reported to produce this tumor marker. PMID:25926909

  8. Elevated serum interleukin-35 levels correlate with poor prognosis in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lingwei; Xu, Xiaoyan; Ye, Bairu; Pan, Min; Shi, Zhen; Hu, Yunling

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidences have demonstrated that serum interleukin-35 (IL-35) levels are closely associated with the development, progression, and poor prognosis of a variety of cancers. However, the relationship between IL-35 and the progression of human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are poorly understood. The aim of present study was to assess the expression of IL-35 and determine its clinical significance in human ccRCCs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to examine the serum IL-35 levels in 132 patients with ccRCC and 100 healthy controls. The association of IL-35 levels with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of ccRCC patients was statistically analyzed. Serum IL-35 levels in patients with ccRCC (25.8611.78 pg/ml) were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (10.059.47 pg/ml, P<0.001). High serum IL-35 levels were significantly correlated with pathologic stage (P<0.001), fuhrman grade (P<0.001), tumor size (P=0.012), T stage (P=0.007), N classification (P=0.002), metastasis (P<0.001) and recurrence (P=0.001). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that high serum IL-35 levels were significantly associated with poor overall survival (log-rank, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that serum IL-35 levels (HR=2.919, 95% CI =1.871-4.830, P=0.001) and pathologic stage (HR=2.541, 95% CI =1.227-3.987, P=0.002) were an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival of ccRCC patients. In conclusion, high serum IL-35 levels are associated with poor prognosis in patients with ccRCC. IL-35 may represent a promising and useful prognostic biomarker for ccRCC.

  9. TRPC6 is required for hypoxia-induced basal intracellular calcium concentration elevation, and for the proliferation and migration of rat distal pulmonary venous smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QINGJIE; WANG, DONG; YAN, GAOLING; SUN, LING; TANG, CHENGCHUN

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia induces pulmonary vasoconstriction and reconstruction in the pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins (PVs), and elevation of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is a primary factor of these processes. In the present study, the role of transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPCs) in mediating the hypoxia-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i in rat distal pulmonary venous smooth muscle cells (PVSMCs) was investigated. Rats with chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (CHPH) were used for in vivo experiments, and PVSMCs were isolated for in vitro experiments. [Ca2+]i was measured using fura-2-based fluorescence calcium imaging. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of TRPCs. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium and Transwell assays were used to investigate the proliferation and migration of PVSMCs, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrated that TRPC6 was increased in the distal PVs of CHPH rats, and in PVSMCs exposed to hypoxic conditions (4% O2, 72 h); however, TRPC1 was not. The 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol-induced [Ca2+]i elevation was increased in PVSMCs isolated from CHPH rats and in PVSMCs cultured under hypoxic conditions (4% O2, 72 h). Hypoxia induced PVSMC [Ca2+]i elevation, proliferation and migration. These alterations were inhibited following TRPC6 knockdown. Results from the present study suggest that TRPC6 expression is increased during chronic hypoxia, which contributes to Ca2+ entry into the cell, thus promoting proliferation and migration of PVSMCs. PMID:26718737

  10. Effect of calcium soap of fatty acids supplementation on serum biochemical parameters and ovarian activity during out-of-the-breeding season in crossbred ewes.

    PubMed

    El-Nour, Hayat H M; Nasr, Soad M; Hassan, Walid R

    2012-01-01

    This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of calcium soap of fatty acid (CSFA) supplementation on serum biochemical and hormones and ovarian activity during out-of-the-breeding season in ewes. Twelve crossbred ewes, 2-3 years of age and weighting 45-55 kg, were allocated into two equal groups. The first group was control and the other was treated with 50 g/head of CSFA. All ewes were fed basal diet and treated with 60 mg of medroxy progesterone acetate intravaginal sponge for 12 day. At the third day of sponge removal, the CSFA-treated group was given 50 g/head of CSFA daily for two estrous cycles. During the estrus phase, ovarian activity was detected using ultrasonography in both groups. All ewes were then subjected to natural breeding and conception rate. Blood samples were collected from all ewes during treatment period. Results revealed significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and progesterone levels with decrease in calcium and phosphorous levels in treated group. In treated group, normal-size ovaries and more than one follicle on the ovaries were detected and pregnancy rate increased. In conclusion, CSFA supplementation was effective to maintain the reproductive performance when ewes were out of the breeding season. PMID:22629155

  11. Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen allergen induces elevation of intracellular calcium in human keratinocytes and impairs epidermal barrier function of human skin ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Junichi; Tsutsumi, Moe; Goto, Makiko; Nagayama, Masaharu; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Cry j1 is the major peptide allergen of Japanese cedar (Sugi), Cryptomeria japonica. Since some allergens disrupt epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis, we hypothesized that Cry j1 might have a similar effect. Intracellular calcium level in cultured human keratinocytes was measured with a ratiometric fluorescent probe, Fura-2 AM. Application of Cry j1 significantly increased the intracellular calcium level of keratinocytes, and this increase was inhibited by trypsin inhibitor or a protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) antagonist. We found that Cry j1 itself did not show protease activity, but application of Cry j1 to cultured keratinocytes induced a rapid (within 30s) and transient increase of protease activity in the medium. This transient increase was blocked by trypsin inhibitor or PAR-2 antagonist. The effect of Cry j1 on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) of cultured human skin was measured in the presence and absence of a trypsin inhibitor and PAR-2 antagonist. Cry j1 significantly impaired the barrier function of human skin ex vivo, and this action was blocked by co-application of trypsin inhibitor or PAR-2 antagonist. Our results suggested that interaction of Cry j1 with epidermal keratinocytes leads to the activation of PAR-2, which induces elevation of intracellular calcium and disruption of barrier function. Blocking the interaction of Cry j1 with epidermal keratinocytes might ameliorate allergic reaction and prevent disruption of epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. PMID:26498292

  12. Recurrent pure CNS germinoma with markedly elevated serum and cerebrospinal fluid human chorionic gonadotropin-beta (HCG?).

    PubMed

    Khatua, Soumen; Phillips, Andrew; Fangusaro, Jason; Bovan, Sally; Dhall, Girish; Finlay, Jonathan L

    2011-05-01

    Controversy continues regarding what level of serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) human chorionic gonadotrophin-beta (HCG?) is consistent with pure germinoma of the central nervous system (CNS). We report a 10-year female with biopsy-proven pure germinoma and normal serum and CSF HCG? who experienced subsequent biopsy-proven recurrences of germinoma. At recurrence, serum and CSF HCG? levels were 560 and 3,202 mIU/ml, respectively, although final autopsy demonstrated pure germinoma. This case illustrates the need to re-evaluate the assumption that pathologically pure germinomas may be associated with high levels of HCG? which are unrelated to nongerminomatous germ cell tumor (NGGCT)/choriocarcinomatous elements. PMID:20949592

  13. Elevation of Kynurenine Metabolites in Rat Liver and Serum: A Potential Additional Mechanism of the Alcohol Aversive and Anti-cancer Effects of Disulfiram?

    PubMed Central

    Badawy, Abdulla A.-B.; Bano, Samina

    2016-01-01

    Aims The tryptophan metabolites 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) inhibit the liver mitochondrial low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase and possess alcohol-aversive and immunosuppressant properties. As the disulfiram (DS) metabolite carbon disulphide activates enzymes forming 3-HK and 3-HAA, we investigated if repeated disulfiram treatment increases the hepatic and serum levels of these 2 metabolites. Methods Livers and sera of male Wistar rats were analysed for tryptophan and kynurenine metabolites after repeated DS treatment for 7 days. Results DS increased liver and serum [3-HK] and [3-HAA] possibly by increasing the flux of tryptophan down the hepatic kynurenine pathway and activation of kynurenine hydroxylase and kynureninase. Conclusions We provisionally suggest that elevation of some kynurenine metabolites may be an additional mechanism of the alcohol-aversive and anticancer effects of disulfiram. PMID:26224731

  14. Elevation of serum KL-6 in patients with psoriasis treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor-? therapy.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Y; Tada, K; Shimokawa, M; Kawai, K; Kanekura, T

    2016-01-01

    We report three patients with psoriasis whose serum level of Krebs Von Den Lungen (KL)-6 increased during therapy with anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?. A diagnosis of early-phase or subclinical interstitial pneumonia was made in two patients, and their KL-6 level decreased after anti-TNF-? discontinuation. The rise in KL-6 in the other patient was attributed to methotrexate. We propose that serum KL-6 should be monitored routinely in patients treated with anti-TNF agents. PMID:25557847

  15. Effects of maintenance lithium treatment on serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels: a retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Umberto; De Cori, David; Aguglia, Andrea; Barbaro, Francesca; Lanfranco, Fabio; Bogetto, Filippo; Maina, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study was to evaluate the effects of maintenance lithium treatment on parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels. Methods A retrospective longitudinal naturalistic study design was used. Data were collected from the database of a tertiary psychiatric center covering the years 20102014. Included were bipolar patients who had never been exposed to lithium and had lithium started, and who had PTH, and total and ionized calcium levels available before and during lithium treatment. Paired t-tests were used to analyze changes in PTH and calcium levels. Linear regressions were performed, with mean lithium level and duration of lithium exposure as independent variables and change in PTH levels as dependent variable. Results A total 31 patients were included. The mean duration of lithium treatment was 18.611.4 months. PTH levels significantly increased during lithium treatment (+13.5514.20 pg/mL); the rate of hyperparathyroidism was 12.9%. Neither total nor ionized calcium increased from baseline to follow-up; none of our patients developed hypercalcemia. Linear regressions analyses did not show an effect of duration of lithium exposure or mean lithium level on PTH levels. Conclusion Lithium-associated stimulation of parathyroid function is more common than assumed to date. Among parameters to be evaluated prior to lithium implementation, calcium and PTH should be added. PMID:26229473

  16. Fetuin-A/albumin-mineral complexes resembling serum calcium granules and putative nanobacteria: demonstration of a dual inhibition-seeding concept.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Young, David; Young, John D

    2009-01-01

    Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB) are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend to block apatite nuclei formation or to stabilize the nascent nuclei as amorphous or semi-crystalline spherical nanoparticles, until the same inhibitory influences are overwhelmed or de-repressed, whereby the apatite nuclei grow in size to coalesce into crystalline spindles and films-a mechanism that may explain not only the formation of calcium granules in nature but also normal or ectopic calcification in the body. PMID:19956594

  17. Fetuin-A/Albumin-Mineral Complexes Resembling Serum Calcium Granules and Putative Nanobacteria: Demonstration of a Dual Inhibition-Seeding Concept

    PubMed Central

    Young, David; Young, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Serum-derived granulations and purported nanobacteria (NB) are pleomorphic apatite structures shown to resemble calcium granules widely distributed in nature. They appear to be assembled through a dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism involving proteinaceous factors, as determined by protease (trypsin and chymotrypsin) and heat inactivation studies. When inoculated into cell culture medium, the purified proteins fetuin-A and albumin fail to induce mineralization, but they will readily combine with exogenously added calcium and phosphate, even in submillimolar amounts, to form complexes that will undergo morphological transitions from nanoparticles to spindles, films, and aggregates. As a mineralization inhibitor, fetuin-A is much more potent than albumin, and it will only seed particles at higher mineral-to-protein concentrations. Both proteins display a bell-shaped, dose-dependent relationship, indicative of the same dual inhibitory-seeding mechanism seen with whole serum. As ascertained by both seeding experiments and gel electrophoresis, fetuin-A is not only more dominant but it appears to compete avidly for nanoparticle binding at the expense of albumin. The nanoparticles formed in the presence of fetuin-A are smaller than their albumin counterparts, and they have a greater tendency to display a multi-layered ring morphology. In comparison, the particles seeded by albumin appear mostly incomplete, with single walls. Chemically, spectroscopically, and morphologically, the protein-mineral particles resemble closely serum granules and NB. These particles are thus seen to undergo an amorphous to crystalline transformation, the kinetics and completeness of which depend on the protein-to-mineral ratios, with low ratios favoring faster conversion to crystals. Our results point to a dual inhibitory-seeding, de-repression model for the assembly of particles in supersaturated solutions like serum. The presence of proteins and other inhibitory factors tend to block apatite nuclei formation or to stabilize the nascent nuclei as amorphous or semi-crystalline spherical nanoparticles, until the same inhibitory influences are overwhelmed or de-repressed, whereby the apatite nuclei grow in size to coalesce into crystalline spindles and filmsa mechanism that may explain not only the formation of calcium granules in nature but also normal or ectopic calcification in the body. PMID:19956594

  18. DSR-71167, a novel mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity, separates urinary sodium excretion and serum potassium elevation in rats.

    PubMed

    Nariai, Tetsuro; Fujita, Katsuya; Kawane, Kenji; Mori, Masaya; Nakayama, Ryo; Matsuda, Koichi; Katayama, Seiji; Fukuda, Nobuhisa; Hori, Seiji; Iwata, Masato; Hasegawa, Futoshi; Suzuki, Kuniko; Kato, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists, such as spironolactone (SPI) and eplerenone (EPL), are useful for treating hypertension and heart failure. However, these two agents have the serious side effect of hyperkalemia. We hypothesized that adding the ability to inhibit carbonic anhydrase (CA) would reduce the risk of hyperkalemia associated with MR antagonists. We investigated the profiles of DSR-71167 [2-([(2,2-difluoroethyl)amino]methyl)-2'-fluoro-N-(3-methoxy-4-sulfamoylphenyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide hydrochloride; an MR antagonist with weak CA inhibitory activity] with regard to antimineralocorticoid actions by examining relationships between the urinary excretion of sodium (index of antimineralocorticoid action) in deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats and elevation of serum levels of potassium in potassium-loaded rats compared with a DSR-71167 derivative without CA inhibition (2-(hydroxymethyl)-N-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-2'-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide), SPI, and EPL. DSR-71167 dose-dependently increased urinary excretion of sodium in deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats without elevating serum levels of potassium in potassium-loaded rats. 2-(Hydroxymethyl)-N-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-2'-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide, SPI, and EPL elevated serum levels of potassium significantly in potassium-loaded rats at doses that increased MR inhibitory activity. We confirmed that DSR-71167 significantly increases urinary bicarbonate and decreases blood bicarbonate, as pharmacodynamic markers of CA inhibition, in intact rats. Chronic DSR-71167 administration showed antihypertensive effects in high salt-loaded Dahl hypertensive rats. These results demonstrate that DSR-71167 is a novel type of MR antagonist, with CA inhibitory activity, which is expected to become a safer MR antagonist with a low potential risk for hyperkalemia. PMID:25922341

  19. A Phase II Randomized, Controlled Trial of S-Adenosylmethionine in Reducing Serum ?-Fetoprotein in Patients with Hepatitis C Cirrhosis and Elevated AFP.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Timothy R; Osann, Kathryn; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Pimstone, Neville; Hoefs, John C; Hu, Ke-Qin; Hassanein, Tarek; Boyer, Thomas D; Kong, Lorene; Chen, Wen-Pin; Richmond, Ellen; Gonzalez, Rachel; Rodriguez, Luz M; Meyskens, Frank L

    2015-09-01

    In animal models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) increased the risk of HCC whereas administration of SAMe reduced HCC. The aim of this trial was to determine whether oral SAMe administration to patients with hepatitis C cirrhosis would decrease serum ?-fetoprotein (AFP) level, a biomarker of HCC risk in hepatitis C. This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of SAMe, up to 2.4 g/d, for 24 weeks as compared with placebo among subjects with hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated serum AFP. Primary outcome was change in AFP between baseline and week 24. Secondary outcomes included changes in routine tests of liver function and injury, other biomarkers of HCC risk, SAMe metabolites, markers of oxidative stress, and quality of life. One hundred ten subjects were randomized and 87 (44 SAMe and 43 placebo) completed treatment. There was no difference in the change in AFP during 24 weeks among subjects receiving SAMe as compared with placebo. Changes in markers of liver function, liver injury, and hepatitis C viral level were not significantly different between groups. Similarly, SAMe did not change markers of oxidative stress or serum glutathione level. SAMe blood level increased significantly among subjects receiving SAMe. Changes in quality of life did not differ between groups. Overall, this trial did not find that SAMe treatment improved serum AFP in subjects with advanced hepatitis C cirrhosis and a mildly elevated AFP. SAMe did not improve tests of liver function or injury or markers of oxidative stress or antioxidant potential. PMID:26130251

  20. Effect of dietary Garcinia cambogia extract on serum essential minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium) and trace elements (iron, copper, zinc) in rats fed with high-lipid diet.

    PubMed

    Grsel, Feraye Esen; Ate?, Atila; Bilal, Tanay; Altiner, Ay?en

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Garcinia cambogia extract on serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in rats fed with the normal or the high-lipid and -cholesterol diet. Thirty 1-year-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (pathogen-free), weighing an average of 229 g, were randomly assigned to three experimental groups of ten animals each. Diets and tap water were given ad libitum for 75 days. Group 1 (control group) was fed with basal diet (2 % liquid vegetable oil, 0 % cholesterol), while the diets of groups 2 and 3 contained vegetable oil (2 % liquid vegetable oil and 5 % hydrogenated vegetable oil) and cholesterol (3 %) in high levels. 4,5 % G. cambogia extract containing 65 % HCA was added to the diet of group 3 as from day 45. Blood samples were withdrawn on days 0, 45 and 75. Serum mineral levels were analyzed using standard enzymatic colorimetric methods with a spectrophotometer. All significant differences were p<0.05. Serum Ca levels were not significantly different between all groups on days 45 and 75. Serum P level was significantly higher in the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract than in the control group on day 45. Serum Mg level was significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group on day 45. Serum Fe levels were significantly lower in the control group than in the other groups on days 45 and 75. Serum Zn level of the group fed with high-lipid diet and G. cambogia extract was significantly higher than in the control group on day 75. Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in the control group, and in group 3 than in group 2 on day 75. In conclusion, a diet containing the high fat amounts may lead to the increase in circular levels of some minerals due to the short-chain fatty acid production lowering the luminal pH which increases mineral solubility, or serving as a fuel for mucosal cells and stimulating cell proliferation in the large intestine. G. cambogia extract may be used in the P and Cu deficiencies due to increases resulting in the present P and Cu amounts in G. cambogia extract, or the use of phytate P in diet. It was hoped that with further evidence-based study this product will enter to mainstream medicines. PMID:22419377

  1. Changes of Serum Calcium Concentration, Frequency of Ruminal Contraction and Feed Intake Soon after Parturition of Dairy Cows Fed Difructose Anhydride III

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, S.; Teramura, M.; Sato, T.; Hanada, M.

    2015-01-01

    Requirements to control the large decrease in serum calcium (Ca) due to parturition and to increase the feed intake soon after parturition have been well accepted in dairy cows. This study was aimed to investigate the feed intake affected by serum Ca concentration with difructose anhydride (DFA) III supplement in dairy cows soon after parturition. Fourteen transition Holstein cows were divided into DFA and control (CONT) groups within 1 to 5 parity variations in each group. Measurement schedule for an individual cow was from 14 d before parturition to 7 d following parturition. The cows in DFA group were supplied 0.2 kg/head/d of DFA III feed containing 40 g of pure DFA III while the cows in CONT group received no DFA III. Other feeding procedures were the same for all cows in both groups. At parturition (d 0), serum Ca concentration sharply declined in both groups (p<0.05). Time interval for recovery from decreased serum Ca to its normal range (>9.0 mg/dL) tended to be faster in DFA group (12 h) than in the CONT group (48 h), but the differences were not significant. Active ruminal contraction was observed in DFA group at following parturition of d 1 (p<0.05), d 3 (p<0.05), and d 5 (p<0.01). Dry matter (DM) intake did not differ between the groups. However, positive correlations were observed between serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction (p<0.001), and between ruminal contraction and DM intake (p<0.001) during following parturition. According to multiple regression analysis (R2 = 0.824, p<0.001), the DM intake was positively affected by serum Ca concentration and ruminal contraction. These results suggest that feed intake soon after parturition in dairy cows can be increased by improvement of serum Ca concentration and active ruminal contraction, but DFA III supplementation in this study did not improve the lower serum Ca concentration due to parturition. PMID:25557676

  2. Time and dose relationships between schisandrin B- and schisandrae fructus oil-induced hepatotoxicity and the associated elevations in hepatic and serum triglyceride levels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Nan; Zhu, Pei-Li; Chu, Zhu-Sheng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Schisandrin B (Sch B), a dibenzocyclooctadiene compound, is isolated from schisandrae fructus (SF). This study was conducted to compare the time- and dose-response between Sch B- and SF oil (SFO)-induced changes in hepatic and serum parameters in mice. Methods Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were given a single oral dose of Sch B (0.1252 g/kg) or SFO (0.35 g/kg). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, hepatic malondialdehyde, and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured at increasing time intervals within 6120 hours postdosing. Results Serum ALT activity was elevated by 60%, with maximum effect (Emax) =45.77 U/L and affinity (KD) =1.25 g/kg at 4896 hours following Sch B, but not SFO, treatment. Sch B and SFO treatments increased hepatic malondialdehyde level by 70% (Emax =2.30 nmol/mg protein and KD =0.41 g/kg) and 22% (Emax =1.42 nmol/mg protein and KD =2.56 g/kg) at 72 hours postdosing, respectively. Hepatic index was increased by 16%60% (Emax =11.01, KD =0.68 g/kg) and 8%32% (Emax =9.88, KD =4.47 g/kg) at 12120 hours and 24120 hours after the administration of Sch B and SFO, respectively. Hepatic TG level was increased by 40%158% and 35%85%, respectively, at 1296 hours and 648 hours after Sch B and SFO treatment, respectively. The values of Emax and KD for Sch B/SFO-induced increase in hepatic TG were estimated to be 22.94/15.02 ?mol/g and 0.78/3.03 g/kg, respectively. Both Sch B and SFO increased serum TG (up to 427% and 123%, respectively), with the values of Emax =5.50/4.60 mmol/L and KD =0.43/2.84 g/kg, respectively. Conclusion The findings indicated that Sch B/SFO-induced increases in serum/hepatic parameters occurred in a time-dependent manner, with the time of onset being serum TG level < hepatic TG level < hepatic index < serum ALT activity. However, the time of recovery of these parameters to normal values varied as follow: serum TG level < hepatic TG level and liver injury < hepatic index. The Emax and affinity of Sch B on tissue/enzyme/receptor were larger than those of SFO. PMID:25278745

  3. Association of elevated serum ferritin concentration with insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism in Korean men and women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Hee; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Bae, Sung Jin; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

    2011-03-01

    Increased serum ferritin concentrations in nonpathologic conditions, reflecting subclinical iron overload, have been reported to be associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, serum ferritin concentrations differ significantly according to sex and ethnicity; and data concerning the relationship between serum ferritin concentrations and glucose metabolism abnormalities in Asian men and women are conflicting. This cross-sectional study investigated the association of serum ferritin concentrations with insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism in a large number of subjects with normal fasting glucose (NFG) level, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) level, or type 2 DM. We analyzed clinical and laboratory data from 12 090 subjects (6378 men and 5712 women; age, 20-89 years) who underwent general medical checkups. The study population included 1054 subjects with type 2 DM, 3783 subjects with IFG level, and 7253 subjects with NFG level. Serum ferritin, hemoglobin A(1c), fasting glucose, lipid, and insulin levels were measured. Insulin resistance and β-cell function indices were derived from a homeostasis model assessment. Serum ferritin concentrations were highest in the DM group, followed by the IFG group and the NFG group, in both men and women (186 ± 127, 176 ± 108, and 156 ± 92 ng/mL, respectively, in men; 85 ± 62, 75 ± 55, and 59 ± 47 ng/mL, respectively, in women). After adjustment for other variables using multiple regression analysis, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was independently associated with serum ferritin concentration in men, but not in women. When the fourth quartile of ferritin was compared with the first quartile, the age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for type 2 DM was 1.71 (95% confidence interval, 1.38-2.12) in men and 1.50 (1.05-2.13) in women. The OR in men was attenuated to 1.27 (1.01-1.60) but remained significant after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, serum lipids, liver enzymes, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). In nondiabetic subjects, the age-adjusted OR for IFG in the fourth quartile of ferritin was 1.82 (1.56-2.13) in men and 1.68 (1.40-2.02) in women. The OR was attenuated to 1.31 (1.11-1.55) in men and 1.45 (1.19-1.78) in women after adjustment for BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, serum lipids, liver enzymes, and hsCRP. In NFG subjects, the age-adjusted OR for metabolic syndrome in the fourth quartile of ferritin concentration was 2.85 (1.99-4.07) in men and 1.21 (0.82-1.79) in women. In men, the OR was attenuated to 1.58 (1.06-2.37) after adjustment for BMI, liver enzymes, and hsCRP. Increased serum concentrations of ferritin are associated with insulin resistance, type 2 DM, IFG, and metabolic syndrome in men, but only with IFG in women. These results suggest that iron overload is associated with insulin resistance in men, but not in women. PMID:20423745

  4. The possible relationship between allergic manifestations and elevated serum levels of brain specific auto-antibodies in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Gehan Ahmed; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Yousef

    2013-08-15

    Etiology of autism has become an area of a significant controversy. Allergy induced autism is an area of research wherein immune responses to some allergens may play a pathogenic role in autism. Allergy may induce the production of brain specific auto-antibodies in a subgroup of autistic children. We are the first to investigate the possible link between allergic manifestations and serum levels of both anti-myelin basic protein (anti-MBP) and anti-myelin associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) brain-specific auto-antibodies, which were measured by ELISA method, in 42 autistic children in comparison to 42 healthy-matched children. Allergic manifestations (bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and/or allergic rhinitis) were found in 47.6% of autistic patients. Increased serum levels of anti-MBP and anti-MAG auto-antibodies were found in 57.1% and 66.7%, respectively of autistic children. In addition, 78.5% of autistic children had increased serum levels of both anti-MBP and/or anti-MAG auto-antibodies. Autistic patients with allergic manifestations had significantly higher serum levels of anti-MBP and anti-MAG auto-antibodies than those without these manifestations (P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively). In conclusion, allergy may be a contributing factor to the increased serum levels of anti-MBP and anti-MAG auto-antibodies in some autistic children. Indeed, we need to know more about the links between allergy, immune system and brain in autism for finding new therapeutic modalities in autism. PMID:23726766

  5. Serum HE4 levels are less frequently elevated than CA125 in women with benign gynecologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Richard G.; Miller, M. Craig; Steinhoff, Margaret M.; Skates, Steven J.; Lu, Karen H.; Lambert-Messerlian, Geralyn; Bast, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction HE4 is a novel biomarker for ovarian cancer. This study measured HE4 and CA125 levels in women with benign gynecologic disorders. Methods Sera were obtained from women prior to surgery for a pelvic mass and HE4 and CA125 levels were determined. The proportions of patients with elevated biomarker levels were compared. Results There were 1042 women with benign disease. HE4 levels were less often elevated than CA125 (8% versus 29%, p<0.001). A marked difference was observed in patients with endometriosis where HE4 was elevated in 3% of cases and CA125 in 67% (p<0.0001). Serous ovarian tumors were associated with elevated levels of HE4 in 8% of cases and CA125 in 20% (p=0.0002); uterine fibroids in 8% versus 26% (p=0.0083); dermoids in 1% versus 21% (p=0.0004); and inflammatory disease in 10% versus 37% (p=0.014). Conclusion HE4 is elevated less frequently than CA125 in benign disease, particularly in premenopausal patients. PMID:22284961

  6. A novel dietary supplement containing multiple phytochemicals and vitamins elevates hepatorenal and cardiac antioxidant enzymes in the absence of significant serum chemistry and genomic changes

    PubMed Central

    Bulku, Elida; Zinkovsky, Daniel; Patel, Payal; Javia, Vishal; Lahoti, Tejas; Khodos, Inna; Stohs, Sidney J

    2010-01-01

    A novel dietary supplement composed of three well-known phytochemicals, namely, Salvia officinalis (sage) extract, Camellia sinensis (oolong tea) extract, and Paullinia cupana (guarana) extract, and two prominent vitamins (thiamine and niacin) was designed to provide nutritional support by enhancing metabolism and maintaining healthy weight and energy. The present study evaluated the safety of this dietary supplement (STG; S, sage; T, tea; G, guarana) and assessed changes in target organ antioxidant enzymes (liver, kidneys and heart), serum chemistry profiles and organ histopathology in Fisher 344 rats. Adult male and female Fisher 344 rats were fed control (no STG) or STG containing (1X and 7X, 1X = daily human dose) diets and sacrificed after 2 and 4 months. Serum chemistry analysis and histopathological examination of three vital target organs disclosed no adverse influence on protein, lipid and carbohydrate profiles, genomic integrity of the liver and/or the tissue architecture. However, analysis of the most important antioxidant components in the liver, kidney and heart homogenates revealed a dramatic increase in total glutathione concentrations, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. Concomitantly, oxidative stress levels (malondialdehyde accumulation) in these three organs were less than control. Organ specific serum markers (ALT/AST for the liver; CPK/AST/LDH for the heart; BUN/creatinine for kidneys) and the genomic integrity disclosed no STG-induced alteration. Some of the serum components (lipid and protein) showed insignificant changes. Overall, STG-exposed rats were more active, and the results suggest that STG exposure produces normal serum chemistry coupled with elevated antioxidant capacity in rats fed up to seven times the normal human dose and does not adversely influence any of the vital target organs. Additionally, this study reiterates the potential benefits of exposure to a pharmacologically relevant combination of phytochemicals compared to a single phytochemical entity. PMID:20716937

  7. Related effects of calcium and serum on the G1 phase of the human W138 fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Tupper, J T; Kaufman, L; Bodine, P V

    1980-07-01

    Deprivation of extracellular Ca or serum inhibits the proliferation of WI38 human diploid fibroblasts. Under these conditions, the cells become quiescent at a point in the cell cycle typical of early G1 or G0 phase-arrested cells. Exit of the cells from this point in the cycle appears to require both the presence of serum and Ca simultaneously. If quiescent cells are serum-stimulated in low Ca medium (0.01 mM), they do not progress through G1 to the S phase, which normally requires 14-18 hr. However, they remain competent to do so. Addition of Ca for up to 48 hr after serum stimulation results in an equal fraction of the cells progressing G1 phase as compared to the presence of Ca at the time of serum addition. In contrast, if quiescent cells are serum-stimulated in the presence of Ca, which is then removed, the cells can remain competent to enter S phase for only 10-12 hr. Re-addition of Ca beyond this time does not allow G1 progression on a normal schedule. These data suggest that Ca and serum are both required to trigger, in whole or in part, the pleiotypic response. Ca appears also to render the cells competent to enter S phase, but this competence is labile; an observation consistent with the PDGF-induced competence observed previously in the 3T3 cell. These observations are in contrast to previous data from other cell types which suggest that Ca is required only in late G1 phase for successful entrance to S phase. PMID:7440649

  8. Blood transcript immune signatures distinguish a subset of people with elevated serum ALT from others given acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Fannin, R D; Gerrish, K; Sieber, S O; Bushel, P R; Watkins, P B; Paules, R S

    2016-04-01

    The diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury is hindered by the limited utility of clinical chemistries. We have shown that hepatotoxicants can produce peripheral blood transcriptome "signatures" (PBTS) in rodents and humans. In this study, 42 adults were treated with acetaminophen (APAP; 1 g every 6 hours) for seven days, followed by three days of placebo. Eleven subjects received only placebo. After five days, 12 subjects (30%) had increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels ("responders"). PBTS of 707 and 760 genes, respectively, could distinguish responders and nonresponders from placebos. Functional analysis of the responder PBTS revealed increased expression of genes involved in TH2-mediated and innate immune responses, whereas the nonresponders demonstrated increased gene expression consistent with a tolerogenic immune response. Taken together, these observations suggest that the clinical subjects with transient increases in serum ALT failed to maintain or intensify a hepatic tolerogenic immune response. PMID:26690555

  9. Insulin resistance is associated with elevated serum pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) levels in morbidly obese patients.

    PubMed

    Gattu, Arijeet K; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jornayvaz, Francois; Dziura, James; Li, Fangyong; Crawford, Susan E; Chu, Xin; Still, Christopher D; Gerhard, Glenn S; Chung, Chuhan; Samuel, Varman

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for developing diabetes. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has been identified by experimental and clinical studies as both a causative and counter-regulatory factor in the metabolic syndrome. We set out to determine whether serum PEDF levels correlated with the degree of insulin resistance in morbidly obese patients. Sera from 53 patients who were evaluated prior to gastric bypass surgery were analyzed for PEDF levels using a commercial ELISA. None of the patients were on diabetes medications prior to enrollment. Baseline data included BMI, serum glucose and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) scores. Patients were stratified based on HOMA score and glucose levels into three groups: insulin sensitive (IS): HOMA <2 and glucose <126; insulin resistant (IR): HOMA >2 and glucose ≤126; and diabetes mellitus (DM): HOMA >2 and glucose >126. Pre- and post-gastric bypass sera from 12 patients were obtained for serial assessment of metabolic parameters and PEDF levels. PEDF secretion was assessed in primary human hepatocytes, HCC cells, and cultured adipocytes in the absence and presence of high glucose media. No significant differences in age, gender, and BMI were found among the three groups. PEDF levels were similar between IR patients and the other groups, but were significantly higher in DM compared to IS patients (p = 0.01). Serum PEDF in individual patients declined significantly after gastric bypass (p = 0.006). High glucose media led to significantly higher PEDF release by human hepatocytes in vitro (p = 0.016). These data demonstrate that serum PEDF concentrations better relate to insulin resistance than to adiposity and suggest that PEDF expression is closely linked to the development of insulin resistance. PMID:22547263

  10. Elevated Serum Levels of Cysteine and Tyrosine: Early Biomarkers in Asymptomatic Adults at Increased Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohorko, Nina; Petelin, Ana; Jurdana, Mihaela; Biolo, Gianni; Jenko-Pražnikar, Zala

    2015-01-01

    As there is effective intervention for delaying or preventing metabolic diseases, which are often present for years before becoming clinically apparent, novel biomarkers that would mark metabolic complications before the onset of metabolic disease should be identified. We investigated the role of fasting serum amino acids and their associations with inflammatory markers, adipokines, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components in subjects prior to the onset of insulin resistance (IR). Anthropometric measurements, food records, adipokines, biochemical markers, and serum levels of amino acids were determined in 96 asymptomatic subjects aged 25–49 years divided into three groups according to the number of MetS components present. Cysteine and tyrosine were significantly higher already in group with one component of MetS present compared to subjects without MetS components. Serum amino acid levels correlated with markers of inflammation and adipokines. Alanine and glycine explained 10% of insulin resistance variability. The role of tyrosine and cysteine, that were higher already with 1 component of MetS present, should be further investigated as they might point to future insulin disturbances. PMID:25821801

  11. Normal results of post-race thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging in marathon runners with elevated serum MB creatine kinase levels

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, A.J.; Silverman, L.M.; Holman, B.L.

    1985-10-01

    Elevated cardiac enzyme values in asymptomatic marathon runners after competition can arise from skeletal muscle through exertional rhabdomyolysis, silent injury to the myocardium, or a combined tissue source. Peak post-race levels of the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase are similar to values in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Previously reported normal results of infarct-avid myocardial scintigraphy with technetium 99m pyrophosphate in runners after competition suggest a non-cardiac source but cannot exclude silent injury to the myocardium. Therefore, thallium 201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in runners immediately after competition together with determination of sequential cardiac enzyme levels. Among 15 runners tested, the average peak in serum MB creatine kinase 24 hours after the race was 128 IU/liter with a cumulative MB creatine kinase release of 117 IU/liter; these values are comparable to those in patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction. Thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphic results were normal in five runners randomly selected from those who volunteered for determination of sequential blood levels. It is concluded that elevations of serum MB creatine kinase in marathon runners arise from a skeletal muscle source and that thallium 201 myocardial scintigraphy is useful to assess runners for myocardial injury when clinical questions arise.

  12. Influence of pre-, post-, and simultaneous perfusion of elevated calcium on the effect of ascending concentrations of lead on digoxin-induced cardiac arrest in isolated frog heart

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, M.S.; Muthu, P.; Parthiban, N.

    1995-10-01

    Cardiotoxicity of lead, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has already been documented as a potentially lethal, although rarely recognized, complication of lead intoxication. Further, it has already been reported from this laboratory that lead acetate (LA) preperfusion potentiated cardiotoxicity of digoxin (DGN) in isolated frog heart preparation and that exposure to elevated calcium (elev. Ca{sup 2+}) prior to, and simultaneously with LA at 10{sup {minus}7} M concentration, attenuated this potentiation. As an extension of this work, it was considered of interest to study the effect of perfusion of elev. Ca{sup 2+} (6.5 mM) prior to, after and simultaneously with ascending concentrations of lead (10{sup {minus}9}, 10{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}5}M) on DGN induced cardiac arrest (CA) in isolated frog heart, since Pb{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions are known to compete with each other for the same target sites at the cellular level, an instance of competitive mass action effect. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Maxillary sinus floor elevation using a tissue-engineered bone with calcium-magnesium phosphate cement and bone marrow stromal cells in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Deliang; Xia, Lunguo; Zhang, Wenjie; Huang, Hui; Wei, Bin; Huang, Qingfeng; Wei, Jie; Liu, Changsheng; Jiang, Xinquan

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of maxillary sinus floor elevation with a tissue-engineered bone constructed with bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs) and calcium-magnesium phosphate cement (CMPC) material. The calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and phosphorus (P) ions released from calcium phosphate cement (CPC), magnesium phosphate cement (MPC), and CMPC were detected by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bMSCs seeded on CPC, MPC, and CMPC or cultured in CPC, MPC, and CMPC extracts were measured by MTT analysis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, alizarin red mineralization assay, and real-time PCR analysis of the osteogenic genes ALP and osteocalcin (OCN). Finally, bMSCs were combined with CPC, MPC, and CMPC and used for maxillary sinus floor elevation in rabbits, while CPC, MPC, or CMPC without cells served as control groups. The new bone formation in each group was detected by histological finding and fluorochrome labeling at weeks 2 and 8 after surgical operation. It was observed that the Ca ion concentrations of the CMPC and CPC scaffolds was significantly higher than that of the MPC scaffold, while the Mg ions concentration of CMPC and MPC was significantly higher than that of CPC. The bMSCs seeded on CMPC and MPC or cultured in their extracts proliferated more quickly than the cells seeded on CPC or cultured in its extract, respectively. The osteogenic differentiation of bMSCs seeded on CMPC and CPC or cultured in the corresponding extracts was significantly enhanced compared to that of bMSCs seeded on MPC or cultured in its extract; however, there was no significant difference between CMPC and CPC. As for maxillary sinus floor elevation in vivo, CMPC could promote more new bone formation and mineralization compared to CPC and MPC, while the addition of bMSCs could further enhance its new bone formation ability significantly. Our data suggest that CMPC possesses moderate biodegradability and excellent osteoconductivity, which may be attributed to its Ca and Mg ion composition, and the tissue-engineered bone constructed of CMPC and bMSCs might be a potential alterative graft for maxillofacial bone regeneration. PMID:22066969

  14. In Situ 13C NMR at Elevated-Pressures and -Temperatures Investigating the Conversion of CO2 to Magnesium and Calcium Carbonate Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surface, J. A.; Conradi, M. S.; Skemer, P. A.; Hayes, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    We have constructed specialized NMR hardware to conduct in situ elevated-pressure, elevated-temperature 13C NMR studies of unmixed heterogeneous mixtures of solids, liquids, gases, and supercritical fluids. Specifically, our aim is to monitor CO2 uptake in both ultramafic rocks and in more porous geological materials to understand the mechanisms of chemisorption as a function of temperature, pressure and pH. In this in situ NMR probe, we are able to simulate processes at geologically relevant fluid pressures and temperatures, monitoring the kinetics of CO2 conversion to carbonates. The in situ NMR experiments consist of heterogeneous mixtures of rock, salty brine solution, and moderate pressure CO2 gas at elevated temperatures. The purpose of studying these reactions is to determine efficacy of carbonate formation in various geological reservoirs. Via 13C NMR, we have spectroscopically characterized and quantified the conversion of CO2 to magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate minerals. When CO2 reacts with the calcium or magnesium in a mineral or rock sample, the 13C chemical shift, linewidth, lineshape, and relaxation times change dramatically. This change can be monitored in situ and provide instantaneous and continuous characterization that maps the chemistry that is taking place. For example, on the pathway to MgCO3 formation, there are a number of phases of Mg(OH)x(H2O)y(CO3)z that are apparent via NMR spectroscopy. We will demonstrate that NMR can be used for quantitative characterization of multiple metastable mineral phases in pure forms and in mixtures. Results are confirmed via powder XRD and Raman spectroscopy of aquo- hydro- carbonato- magnesium species and calcium carbonate species. We also have monitored the 13C spectroscopy to analyze the phase of CO2 (liquid, supercritical, or gas) and its conversion into other forms, such as bicarbonate and carbonate species, providing a "window" into the in situ pH of the reacting system. Reference: 'In Situ Measurement of Magnesium Carbonate Formation from CO2 Using Static High-Pressure and -Temperature 13C NMR' J. Andrew Surface, Philip Skemer, Sophia E. Hayes, and Mark S. Conradi, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013, 47, 119-125. DOI: 10.1021/es301287n

  15. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk of Compensated Cirrhosis Patients with Elevated HBV DNA Levels according to Serum Aminotransferase Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junggyu; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jung Hee; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Kim, Hye Seung; Jung, Sin-Ho; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Yoo, Byung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes, hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhotic patients with normal aminotransferase levels are closely followed-up for the elevation of aminotransferase levels instead of prompt antiviral therapy (AVT). We analyzed the long-term hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk according to the aminotransferase levels in a retrospective cohort of 1,468 treatment-nave, HBV-related, compensated cirrhosis patients with elevated HBV DNA levels (?2,000 IU/mL). Based on aminotransferase levels, patients were categorized into normal (< 40 U/L, n = 364) and elevated group (?40 U/L, n = 1,104). During a median of 5.3 yr of follow-up (range: 1.0-8.2 yr), HCC developed in 296 (20%) patients. The 5-yr cumulative HCC incidence rate was higher in patients with elevated aminotransferase level, but was not low in normal aminotransferase level (17% vs. 14%, P = 0.004). During the follow-up, 270/364 (74%) patients with normal aminotransferase levels experienced elevation of aminotransferase levels, and AVT was initiated in 1,258 (86%) patients. Less patients with normal aminotransferase levels received AVT (70% vs. 91%, P < 0.001) and median time to start AVT was longer (17.9 vs. 2.4 months, P < 0.001). AVT duration was an independent factor associated with HCC, and median duration of AVT was shorter (4.0 vs. 2.6 yr, P < 0.001) in patients with normal aminotransferase levels. The HCC risk of compensated cirrhosis patients with normal aminotransferase level is not low, and AVT duration is associated with lowered HCC risk, indicating that prompt AVT should be strongly considered even for those with normal aminotransferase levels. PMID:26539006

  16. The isoelectric focusing of creatine kinase variants: II. The heterogeneity of creatine kinase in human serum with normal and elevated catalytic concentrations.

    PubMed

    SiragEldin, E; Gercken, G; Harm, K

    1986-11-01

    An effective and reliable method for the quantitative estimation of creatine kinase-MB, creatine kinase-MM variants and mitochondrial forms of creatine kinase in serum is presented. The high resolving power of isoelectric focusing allows the use of tetrazolium salts and meldola blue for the quantitative measurement without interfering non-specific reduction. The addition of thiol compounds to the agarose medium increases the sensitivity of the method, due to the inhibition of sulfhydryl group oxidation, and prevents enzyme degradation, which is a possible cause of an artificial heterogeneity. Depending upon the type of muscle and the degree of cell damage, we found 3-4 creatine kinase-MM sub-bands in sera with activities below 80 U/l. At elevated creatine kinase activities 3-11 creatine kinase-MM sub-bands were found. The appearance of creatine kinase-MB in serum indicates that damage has occurred to certain organs, especially the cardiac muscle. An organ with moderate or massive cell damage could release, in addition to the sarcoplasmatic creatine kinase variants, other forms with more alkaline isoelectric points (mitochondrial creatine kinase). The presence of such bands in serum of patients correlates with poor prognosis. Besides the separation of creatine kinase-MM sub-bands, creatine kinase-MB, creatine kinase-BB and of macroforms 1 and 2, the advantage of this method is the detection of mitochondrial creatine kinase forms, which in cellulose acetate electrophoresis migrate with creatine kinase-MM. PMID:3806013

  17. Elevated serum neurotensin and CRH levels in children with autistic spectrum disorders and tail-chasing Bull Terriers with a phenotype similar to autism.

    PubMed

    Tsilioni, I; Dodman, N; Petra, A I; Taliou, A; Francis, K; Moon-Fanelli, A; Shuster, L; Theoharides, T C

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by defects in communication and social interactions, as well as stereotypic behaviors. Symptoms typically worsen with anxiety and stress. ASD occur in early childhood, often present with regression and have a prevalence of 1 out of 68 children. The lack of distinct pathogenesis or any objective biomarkers or reliable animal models hampers our understanding and treatment of ASD. Neurotensin (NT) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are secreted under stress in various tissues, and have proinflammatory actions. We had previously shown that NT augments the ability of CRH to increase mast cell (MC)-dependent skin vascular permeability in rodents. CRH also induced NT receptor gene and protein expression in MCs, which have been implicated in ASD. Here we report that serum of ASD children (4-10 years old) has significantly higher NT and CRH levels as compared with normotypic controls. Moreover, there is a statistically significant correlation between the number of children with gastrointestinal symptoms and high serum NT levels. In Bull Terriers that exhibit a behavioral phenotype similar to the clinical presentation of ASD, NT and CRH levels are also significantly elevated, as compared with unaffected dogs of the same breed. Further investigation of serum NT and CRH, as well as characterization of this putative canine breed could provide useful insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of ASD. PMID:25313509

  18. Elevated extracellular calcium increases expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene via a calcium channel and ERK pathway in human dental pulp cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Eiji; Kanaya, Sousuke; Hamaji, Nozomu; Sato, Hisae; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2010-04-16

    Dental pulp cells, which have been shown to share phenotypical features with osteoblasts, are capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and generating a dentin-like mineral structure. Elevated extracellular Ca{sup 2+}Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} has been implicated in osteogenesis by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} signaling in odontogenesis remains unclear. We found that elevated Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} increases bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 gene expression in human dental pulp cells. The increase was modulated not only at a transcriptional level but also at a post-transcriptional level, because treatment with Ca{sup 2+} increased the stability of BMP-2 mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. A similar increase in BMP-2 mRNA level was observed in other human mesenchymal cells from oral tissue; periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts. However, the latter cells exhibited considerably lower expression of BMP-2 mRNA compared with dental pulp cells and periodontal ligament cells. The BMP-2 increase was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD98059, and partially inhibited by the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channels inhibitor, nifedipine. However, pretreatment with nifedipine had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation triggered by Ca{sup 2+}, suggesting that the Ca{sup 2+} influx from Ca{sup 2+} channels may operate independently of ERK signaling. Dental pulp cells do not express the transcript of Ca{sup 2+}-sensing receptors (CaSR) and only respond slightly to other cations such as Sr{sup 2+} and spermine, suggesting that dental pulp cells respond to Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} to increase BMP-2 mRNA expression in a manner different from CaSR and rather specific for Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} among cations.

  19. Effects of calcium and plant sterols on serum lipids in obese Zucker rats on a low-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Vaskonen, Timo; Mervaala, Eero; Sumuvuori, Ville; Seppnen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Karppanen, Heikki

    2002-03-01

    Ca may interfere with fat and cholesterol metabolism through formation of insoluble soaps with fatty and bile acids in the intestine. In the present study, we examined the effects of different dietary Ca levels on the serum lipid profile and cholesterol metabolism in obese Zucker rats fed a low-fat diet. We also tested whether dietary Ca interfered with the lipid-lowering effects of a pine oil-derived plant sterol mixture. Increase in dietary Ca intake from 0.2 to 0.8%, and further to 2.1% (w/w) dose-dependently decreased serum total cholesterol (r -0.565, P=0.002, n 27), LDL-cholesterol (r -0.538, P=0.006, n 25), and triacylglycerol (r -0.484, P=0.014, n 25) concentrations, and increased HDL-cholesterol (r -0.478, P=0.016, n 25) and HDL: LDL cholesterol (r 0.672, P<0.001, n 25) in rats fed a 1% cholesterol diet. Analysis of serum campesterol: cholesterol and sitosterol: cholesterol suggested that Ca dose-dependently increased intestinal cholesterol absorption (r 0.913, P<0.001, n 18), whereas serum desmosterol: cholesterol and lathosterol: cholesterol indicated that Ca dose-dependently increased endogenous cholesterol synthesis (r 0.691, P=0.003, n 18). Therefore, the decrease of serum LDL-cholesterol appeared to be due to Ca-induced increase in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. The increase in Ca intake did not interfere with the beneficial effects of plant sterols on serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The high-Ca diet with plant sterol supplementation further increased the HDL-cholesterol concentration and HDL: LDL cholesterol. The present findings indicate that the beneficial effects of dietary Ca on the serum lipid profile during a low-fat diet are dose-dependent, and resemble those of bile acid sequestrants. Increased dietary Ca did not impede the lipid-lowering effects of natural plant sterols. PMID:12064332

  20. A possible association between elevated serum levels of brain-specific auto-antibodies and reduced plasma levels of docosahexaenoic acid in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Gehan A; El-Khashab, Heba Y; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

    2015-03-15

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are not only essential for energy production, but they also exhibit a range of immunomodulatory properties that progress through T cell mediated events. Autoimmunity may have a pathogenic role in a subgroup of autistic children. This study is the first to investigate the relationship between serum levels of anti-myelin basic protein (anti-MBP) brain-specific auto-antibodies and reduced plasma levels of PUFAs in autistic children. Plasma levels of PUFAs (including linoleic, alphalinolenic, arachidonic "AA" and docosahexaenoic "DHA" acids) and serum anti-MBP were measured in 80 autistic children, aged between 4 and 12 years, and 80 healthy-matched children. Autistic patients had significantly lower plasma levels of PUFAs than healthy children. On the other hand, ?6/?3 ratio (AA/DHA) was significantly higher in autistic patients than healthy children. Low plasma DHA, AA, linolenic and linoleic acids were found in 67.5%, 50%, 40% and 35%, respectively of autistic children. On the other hand, 70% of autistic patients had elevated ?6/?3 ratio. Autistic patients with increased serum levels of anti-MBP auto-antibodies (75%) had significantly lower plasma DHA (P<0.5) and significantly higher ?6/?3 ratio (P<0.5) than patients who were seronegative for these antibodies. In conclusions, some autistic children have a significant positive association between reduced levels of plasma DHA and increased serum levels of anti-MBP brain-specific auto-antibodies. However, replication studies of larger samples are recommended to validate whether reduced levels of plasma PUFAs are a mere association or have a role in the induction of the production of anti-MBP in some autistic children. PMID:25773150

  1. Highly Elevated Serum Hepcidin in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia prior to and after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Does This Protect from Excessive Parenchymal Iron Loading?

    PubMed Central

    Eisfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Westerman, Mark; Krahl, Rainer; Leiblein, Sabine; Liebert, Uwe Gerd; Hehme, Marianne; Teupser, Daniel; Niederwieser, Dietger; Al-Ali, Haifa Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    Hepcidin is upregulated by inflammation and iron. Inherited (HFE genotype) and treatment-related factors (blood units (BU), Iron overload) affecting hepcidin (measured by C-ELISA) were studied in 42 consecutive patients with AML prior to and after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Results. Elevated serum ferritin pre- and post-HCT was present in all patients. Median hepcidin pre- and post-HCT of 358 and 398?ng/mL, respectively, were elevated compared to controls (median 52?ng/mL) (P < .0001). Liver and renal function, prior chemotherapies, and conditioning had no impact on hepcidin. Despite higher total BU after HCT compared to pretransplantation (P < .0005), pre- and posttransplant ferritin and hepcidin were similar. BU influenced ferritin (P = .001) and hepcidin (P = .001). No correlation of pre- or posttransplant hepcidin with pretransplant ferritin was found. HFE genotype did not influence hepcidin. Conclusions. Hepcidin is elevated in AML patients pre- and post-HCT due to transfusional iron-loading suggesting that hepcidin synthesis remains intact despite chemotherapy and HCT. PMID:21687645

  2. Elevated serum microRNA levels associate with absence of high-grade prostate cancer in a retrospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Mihelich, Brittany L; Maranville, Joseph C; Nolley, Rosalie; Peehl, Donna M; Nonn, Larisa

    2015-01-01

    To reduce treatment of indolent prostate cancer (PCa), biomarkers are needed to improve identification of patients with a low-risk of having aggressive disease. Over-treatment of these patients occurs because of uncertainty in the aggressiveness of the entire tumor based on the biopsies, which do not accurately sample multifocal tumors. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are stable serum markers and differential miRNA levels occur in men with PCa. The goal of this study was to identify circulating miRNAs that were associated with aggressive or indolent PCa. We measured circulating miRNAs in 150 patients prior to surgery and compared the miRNA levels to the pathology of the entire radical prostatectomy specimen. For this study we used an exceptionally well-characterized cohort of patients who had benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), low-grade or high-grade PCa. Low-grade was defined as patients with 100% Gleason grade 3 tumor as determined by step-wise sectioning. High-grade PCa patients had 30-90% Gleason grade 4+5 in the tumor. BPH patients had at least two biopsies negative for PCa. Twenty one miRNAs were selected for analysis. The miRNAs were quantified by RT-qPCR and analyzed by logistic regression. High levels of 14 miRNAs were exclusively present in the serum from patients with low-grade PCa or BPH, compared to men with high-grade PCa who had consistently low levels. The expression levels of the 14 miRNAs were combined into a "miR Score" which had a negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.939 to predict absence of high-grade PCa among PCa and BPH patients. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) was known for the PCa patients and a combined "miR Risk Score" accurately classified a subset of patients with low risk of BCR (NPV 0.941). In summary, measurement of serum miRNAs may have pre-surgical utility in combination with clinical risk calculators to identify patients with low risk of harboring aggressive PCa. PMID:25874774

  3. Repeated spurious elevation of serum prostate-specific antigen values solved by chemiluminescence analysis: A possible interference by heterophilic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bayó, Miquel; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Jesús; Bellido, Jose Antonio; Abascal-Junquera, Jose María; Hannaoui, Naim; Banús, Josep Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heterophilic antibodies are human immunoglobulins directed against various animal antigens. They can produce false-positive results in the analysis of different tumor markers, including prostate-specific antigen. This interference can lead to misdiagnosis, unnecessary tests, and overtreatment in some cases. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old man with repeated spurious elevation of prostate-specific antigen, reaching levels of 108.7 ng/mL, that were suspected to be caused by heterophilic antibodies. The interference was solved by changing the analysis technique. Real values of prostate-specific antigen were less than 1 ng/mL. PMID:26568798

  4. Calcium Elevation- and Attenuated Resting Calcium-dependent Abscisic Acid Induction of Stomatal Closure and Abscisic Acid-Induced Enhancement of Calcium Sensitivities of S-type Anion and K+in Channels in Arabidopsis guard cells

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Robert S.; Xue, Shaowu; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Yang, Yingzhen; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Wang, Angela; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2010-01-01

    Stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid depends on mechanisms that are mediated by intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i), and also on mechanisms independent of [Ca2+]i in guard cells. In this study we address three important questions in reference to these two predicted pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. 1. How large is the relative abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closing response from a [Ca2+]i-elevation-independent pathway? 2. How do ABA-insensitive mutants affect a [Ca2+]i-elevation-independent pathway? 3. Does ABA enhance (prime) the Ca2+-sensitivity of anion and inward-rectifying K+ channel regulation? We monitored stomatal responses to ABA while experimentally inhibiting [Ca2+]i elevations and clamping [Ca2+]i to resting levels. The absence of [Ca2+]i-elevations was confirmed in ratiometric [Ca2+]i imaging experiments. ABA-induced stomatal closing in the absence of [Ca2+]i-elevations above the physiological resting [Ca2+]i showed only ?30% of the stomatal closure response and was greatly slowed compared to the presence of [Ca2+]i-elevations. The ABA-insensitive mutants ost1-2, abi2-1, gca2 showed partial stomatal closing responses that correlate with [Ca2+]i-dependent ABA signaling. Interestingly, patch clamp experiments show that exposure of guard cells to ABA greatly enhances the ability of cytosolic Ca2+ to both activate S-type anion channels and down-regulate inward K+ channels, providing strong evidence for the Ca2+ sensitivity priming hypothesis. The present study shows and quantifies an attenuated and slowed ABA response, while directly inhibiting [Ca2+]i-elevations in guard cells. A minimal model is discussed, in which ABA increases (primes) the [Ca2+]i sensitivity of stomatal closing mechanisms. PMID:19302418

  5. Intra-uterine infection and cord immunoglobulin M II. Clinical analysis of infants with elevated cord serum immunoglobulin M *

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Annette; Dent, P. B.; Emrich, W. H.; Gent, M.; Rahim, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    Cord blood immunoglobulin M was measured in 3474 consecutive newborn infants. A group of 147 infants with elevated IgM values (?19.0 mg./100 ml.) were compared with 92 unselected newborn infants with normal IgM values. One infant with clinically unsuspected congenital rubella was detected in the study group while no cases of intra-uterine infection were found among the controls. A greater proportion of mothers in the study group had a history of viral infection. The study group also contained a larger number of mothers who might be considered to be at greater risk of infection with agents known to cause intra-uterine disease. Follow-up studies at 6 months of age revealed no differences between the two groups aside from an increased incidence of minor motor abnormalities in the study group. While it is recognized that infants with cord blood IgM levels truly in excess of 30 mg./100 ml. may represent a high-risk group with respect to proved or subclinical intra-uterine infection, it is concluded that routine cord blood screening for elevated IgM values is not a high-yield procedure for the detection of intra-uterine infection in our population. PMID:4203457

  6. Elevated expressions of serum miR-15a, miR-16, and miR-17-5p are associated with acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jin; Du, Kang; Lu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as potential biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of multiple human diseases including AIS. In this study, serum expression levels of miR-15a, miR-16, and miR-17-5p were detected in AIS patients (n = 106) and healthy controls (n = 120) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Statistical analyses were performed to investigate the associations between miRNA levels and AIS risk. The serum expression levels of miR-15a, miR-16, and miR-17-5p increased by 8.3 fold (P = 0.0104), 42 fold (P < 0.0001), and 9.9 fold (P = 0.0002) in AIS patients compared to controls, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that serum miR-17-5p level was a significant and independent predictor for determining the presence of AIS. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed areas under the curves (AUCs) of 0.698 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.559-0.837, P = 0.01), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.71-0.931, P < 0.001), and 0.784 (95% CI: 0.666-0.903, P < 0.001) for miR-15a, miR-16, and miR-17-5p, respectively, while the AUC increased to 0.845 (95% CI: 0.74-0.949, P < 0.001) for the combination of these three micoRNAs. Our findings indicate that elevated serum expression of miR-15a, miR-16, and miR-17-5p is strongly associated with AIS and that the combination of these three microRNAs may be a promising serum biomarker for AIS. PMID:26885038

  7. Cellular Hypertrophy and Increased Susceptibility to Spontaneous Calcium-Release of Rat Left Atrial Myocytes Due to Elevated Afterload

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifei; Cannell, Mark B.; Kim, Shang Jin; Watson, Judy J.; Norman, Ruth; Calaghan, Sarah C.; Orchard, Clive H.; James, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Atrial remodeling due to elevated arterial pressure predisposes the heart to atrial fibrillation (AF). Although abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function has been associated with AF, there is little information on the effects of elevated afterload on atrial Ca2+-handling. We investigated the effects of ascending aortic banding (AoB) on Ca2+-handling in rat isolated atrial myocytes in comparison to age-matched sham-operated animals (Sham). Myocytes were either labelled for ryanodine receptor (RyR) or loaded with fluo-3-AM and imaged by confocal microscopy. AoB myocytes were hypertrophied in comparison to Sham controls (P<0.0001). RyR labeling was localized to the z-lines and to the cell edge. There were no differences between AoB and Sham in the intensity or pattern of RyR-staining. In both AoB and Sham, electrical stimulation evoked robust SR Ca2+-release at the cell edge whereas Ca2+ transients at the cell center were much smaller. Western blotting showed a decreased L-type Ca channel expression but no significant changes in RyR or RyR phosphorylation or in expression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, SR Ca2+ ATPase or phospholamban. Mathematical modeling indicated that [Ca2+]i transients at the cell center were accounted for by simple centripetal diffusion of Ca2+ released at the cell edge. In contrast, caffeine (10 mM) induced Ca2+ release was uniform across the cell. The caffeine-induced transient was smaller in AoB than in Sham, suggesting a reduced SR Ca2+-load in hypertrophied cells. There were no significant differences between AoB and Sham cells in the rate of Ca2+ extrusion during recovery of electrically-stimulated or caffeine-induced transients. The incidence and frequency of spontaneous Ca2+-transients following rapid-pacing (4 Hz) was greater in AoB than in Sham myocytes. In conclusion, elevated afterload causes cellular hypertrophy and remodeling of atrial SR Ca2+-release. PMID:26713852

  8. Cellular Hypertrophy and Increased Susceptibility to Spontaneous Calcium-Release of Rat Left Atrial Myocytes Due to Elevated Afterload.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifei; Cannell, Mark B; Kim, Shang Jin; Watson, Judy J; Norman, Ruth; Calaghan, Sarah C; Orchard, Clive H; James, Andrew F

    2015-01-01

    Atrial remodeling due to elevated arterial pressure predisposes the heart to atrial fibrillation (AF). Although abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function has been associated with AF, there is little information on the effects of elevated afterload on atrial Ca2+-handling. We investigated the effects of ascending aortic banding (AoB) on Ca2+-handling in rat isolated atrial myocytes in comparison to age-matched sham-operated animals (Sham). Myocytes were either labelled for ryanodine receptor (RyR) or loaded with fluo-3-AM and imaged by confocal microscopy. AoB myocytes were hypertrophied in comparison to Sham controls (P<0.0001). RyR labeling was localized to the z-lines and to the cell edge. There were no differences between AoB and Sham in the intensity or pattern of RyR-staining. In both AoB and Sham, electrical stimulation evoked robust SR Ca2+-release at the cell edge whereas Ca2+ transients at the cell center were much smaller. Western blotting showed a decreased L-type Ca channel expression but no significant changes in RyR or RyR phosphorylation or in expression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, SR Ca2+ ATPase or phospholamban. Mathematical modeling indicated that [Ca2+]i transients at the cell center were accounted for by simple centripetal diffusion of Ca2+ released at the cell edge. In contrast, caffeine (10 mM) induced Ca2+ release was uniform across the cell. The caffeine-induced transient was smaller in AoB than in Sham, suggesting a reduced SR Ca2+-load in hypertrophied cells. There were no significant differences between AoB and Sham cells in the rate of Ca2+ extrusion during recovery of electrically-stimulated or caffeine-induced transients. The incidence and frequency of spontaneous Ca2+-transients following rapid-pacing (4 Hz) was greater in AoB than in Sham myocytes. In conclusion, elevated afterload causes cellular hypertrophy and remodeling of atrial SR Ca2+-release. PMID:26713852

  9. Usefulness of Serum Unbound Free Fatty Acid Levels to Predict Death Early in Patients with ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction[From the TIMI II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Andrew H.; Kampf, J. Patrick; Kwan, Thomas; Zhu, Baolong; Adams, Jesse; Kleinfeld, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Circulating total free fatty acids (FFA) are elevated early in myocardial infarction (MI) and are associated with an increase in mortality. We investigated the association of serum unbound free fatty acids (FFAu) levels with mortality,in patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) II trial.TIMI II enrolled patients within 4 hours of chest pain. Patients were treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 1 hour of enrollment. The concentration of FFAu was evaluated in serum samplesfrom 1834 patients obtained at baseline, before therapy.FFAu was an independent risk factor for death as early as one day of hospitalization and continued to be an independent risk factor for the more than 38 years of follow up. When adjusted for other cardiovascular risk factors FFAu levels in the fourth as compared to the first quartile remained an independent risk factor for death due to MI (hazard ratio, 5.0; 95 % confidence interval, 1.9-13.0), to all cardiac death (hazard ratio, 2.4; confidence interval, 1.3-4.4) and to all cause death (hazard ratio, 1.9, confidence interval, 1.2-3.1).Females were twice as likely to be in the upper two FFAu quartiles and had approximately twice the rate of death as males. In conclusion, increased levels of FFAu are one of the earliest molecular biomarkers of mortality in STEMI and are independent of other risk factors known to affect outcomes in STEMI. PMID:24176067

  10. Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.

    PubMed

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium. PMID:21448562

  11. Hepatic Inflammatory Pseudotumor With Elevated Serum CA19-9 Level Mimicking Liver Metastasis From Rectal Cancer: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Yoshihiro; Shiba, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Yuki; Eto, Ken; Misawa, Takeyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) of the liver is rare, and differential diagnosis from malignant tumors is difficult. We herein report a case of IPT of the liver with marked elevation of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). A 72-year-old woman, who underwent low anterior resection for rectal cancer, had low-grade fever and epigastric pain. The patient has well-controlled idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) with steroid maintenance treatment. Abnormal laboratory findings included serum carcinoembryonic antigen of 15.9 ng/mL and CA19-9 up to 14,632 U/mL. Computed tomography revealed a low-density lesion, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a high intensity lesion on T1, T2-weighted, and diffusion-weighted images (55 22 mm in the Couinaud's segment 4 of the liver). However, 1 month after the appearance of the symptom, serum level of CA19-9 suddenly decreased to 37 U/mL. The tumor decreased spontaneously to 20 10 mm. Seven months later, the tumor had reduced to 18 11 mm. With a diagnosis of IPT, the patient remains well without regrowth of the tumor at 1 year follow-up after CA19-9 decrease to normal limits. PMID:24229018

  12. Ovarian acyclicity in zoo African elephants (Loxodonta africana) is associated with high body condition scores and elevated serum insulin and leptin.

    PubMed

    Morfeld, Kari A; Brown, Janine L

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether excessive body fat and altered metabolic hormone concentrations in the circulation were associated with ovarian acyclicity in the world's largest land mammal, the African elephant. We compared body condition, glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations and the glucose-to-insulin ratio (G:I) between cycling (n=23; normal 14-16 week cycles based on serum progestagens for at least 2 years) and non-cycling (n=23; consistent baseline progestagen concentrations for at least 2 years) females. A validated body condition score (BCS) index (five-point scale; 1=thinnest, 5=fattest) was used to assess the degree of fatness of the study elephants. The mean BCS of non-cycling elephants was higher than that of their cycling counterparts. There were differences in concentrations of serum metabolic biomarkers, with non-cycling elephants in the BCS 5 category having higher leptin and insulin concentrations and a lower G:I ratio than cycling BCS 5 females. Using 'non-cycling' as the outcome variable in regression models, high BCS was a strong predictor of a non-cycling status. This study provides the first evidence that ovarian acyclicity in zoo African elephants is associated with body condition indicative of obesity, as well as elevated, perturbed biomarkers of metabolic status. PMID:25375263

  13. Obesity and Hepatic Steatosis Are Associated with Elevated Serum Amyloid Beta in Metabolically Stressed APPswe/PS1dE9 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chih-Wen; Lin, Chien-Hung; Tzeng, Tsai-Teng; Hsu, Hao-Chieh; Huang, Fong-Lee; Tsay, Huey-Jen; Liu, Hui-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Diabesity-associated metabolic stresses modulate the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). For further insights into the underlying mechanisms, we examine whether the genetic background of APPswe/PS1dE9 at the prodromal stage of AD affects peripheral metabolism in the context of diabesity. We characterized APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice treated with a combination of high-fat diet with streptozotocin (HFSTZ) in the early stage of AD. HFSTZ-treated APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice exhibited worse metabolic stresses related to diabesity, while serum β-amyloid levels were elevated and hepatic steatosis became apparent. Importantly, two-way analysis of variance shows a significant interaction between HFSTZ and genetic background of AD, indicating that APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice are more vulnerable to HFSTZ treatment. In addition, body weight gain, high hepatic triglyceride, and hyperglycemia were positively associated with serum β-amyloid, as validated by Pearson’s correlation analysis. Our data suggests that the interplay between genetic background of AD and HFSTZ-induced metabolic stresses contributes to the development of obesity and hepatic steatosis. Alleviating metabolic stresses including dysglycemia, obesity, and hepatic steatosis could be critical to prevent peripheral β-amyloid accumulation at the early stage of AD. PMID:26244977

  14. Development of status epilepticus, sustained calcium elevations and neuronal injury in a rat survival model of lethal paraoxon intoxication.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Laxmikant S; Carter, Dawn S; Phillips, Kristin F; Blair, Robert E; DeLorenzo, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    Paraoxon (POX) is an active metabolite of organophosphate (OP) pesticide parathion that has been weaponized and used against civilian populations. Exposure to POX produces high mortality. OP poisoning is often associated with chronic neurological disorders. In this study, we optimize a rat survival model of lethal POX exposures in order to mimic both acute and long-term effects of POX intoxication. Male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with POX (4mg/kg, ice-cold PBS, s.c.) produced a rapid cholinergic crisis that evolved into status epilepticus (SE) and death within 6-8min. The EEG profile for POX induced SE was characterized and showed clinical and electrographic seizures with 7-10Hz spike activity. Treatment of 100% lethal POX intoxication with an optimized three drug regimen (atropine, 2mg/kg, i.p., 2-PAM, 25mg/kg, i.m. and diazepam, 5mg/kg, i.p.) promptly stopped SE and reduced acute mortality to 12% and chronic mortality to 18%. This model is ideally suited to test effective countermeasures against lethal POX exposure. Animals that survived the POX SE manifested prolonged elevations in hippocampal [Ca(2+)]i (Ca(2+) plateau) and significant multifocal neuronal injury. POX SE induced Ca(2+) plateau had its origin in Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores since inhibition of ryanodine/IP3 receptor lowered elevated Ca(2+) levels post SE. POX SE induced neuronal injury and alterations in Ca(2+) dynamics may underlie some of the long term morbidity associated with OP toxicity. PMID:24785379

  15. Development of status epilepticus, sustained calcium elevations and neuronal injury in a rat survival model of lethal paraoxon intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Laxmikant S.; Carter, Dawn S.; Phillips, Kristin F.; Blair, Robert E.; DeLorenzo, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Paraoxon (POX) is an active metabolite of organophosphate (OP) pesticide parathion that has been weaponized and used against civilian populations. Exposure to POX produces high mortality. OP poisoning is often associated with chronic neurological disorders. In this study, we optimize a rat survival model of lethal POX exposures in order to mimic both acute and long-term effects of POX intoxication. Male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with POX (4 mg/kg, ice-cold PBS, s.c.) produced a rapid cholinergic crisis that evolved into status epilepticus (SE) and death within 68 min. The EEG profile for POX induced SE was characterized and showed clinical and electrographic seizures with 710 Hz spike activity. Treatment of 100% lethal POX intoxication with an optimized three drug regimen (atropine, 2 mg/kg, i.p., 2-PAM, 25 mg/kg, i.m. and diazepam, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) promptly stopped SE and reduced acute mortality to 12% and chronic mortality to 18%. This model is ideally suited to test effective countermeasures against lethal POX exposure. Animals that survived the POX SE manifested prolonged elevations in hippocampal [Ca2+]i (Ca2+ plateau) and significant multifocal neuronal injury. POX SE induced Ca2+ plateau had its origin in Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores since inhibition of ryanodine/ IP3 receptor lowered elevated Ca2+ levels post SE. POX SE induced neuronal injury and alterations in Ca2+ dynamics may underlie some of the long term morbidity associated with OP toxicity. PMID:24785379

  16. Increased severity of respiratory infections associated with elevated anti-LPS IgG2 which inhibits serum bactericidal killing.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy J; Whitters, Deborah; Sevastsyanovich, Yanina R; Heath, Jennifer N; Pravin, John; Goodall, Margaret; Browning, Douglas F; O'Shea, Matthew K; Cranston, Amy; De Soyza, Anthony; Cunningham, Adam F; MacLennan, Calman A; Henderson, Ian R; Stockley, Robert A

    2014-08-25

    Although specific antibody induced by pathogens or vaccines is a key component of protection against infectious threats, some viruses, such as dengue, induce antibody that enhances the development of infection. In contrast, antibody-dependent enhancement of bacterial infection is largely unrecognized. Here, we demonstrate that in a significant portion of patients with bronchiectasis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, antibody can protect the bacterium from complement-mediated killing. Strains that resist antibody-induced, complement-mediated killing produce lipopolysaccharide containing O-antigen. The inhibition of antibody-mediated killing is caused by excess production of O-antigen-specific IgG2 antibodies. Depletion of IgG2 to O-antigen restores the ability of sera to kill strains with long-chain O-antigen. Patients with impaired serum-mediated killing of P. aeruginosa by IgG2 have poorer respiratory function than infected patients who do not produce inhibitory antibody. We suggest that excessive binding of IgG2 to O-antigen shields the bacterium from other antibodies that can induce complement-mediated killing of bacteria. As there is significant sharing of O-antigen structure between different Gram-negative bacteria, this IgG2-mediated impairment of killing may operate in other Gram-negative infections. These findings have marked implications for our understanding of protection generated by natural infection and for the design of vaccines, which should avoid inducing such blocking antibodies. PMID:25113975

  17. Elevated Serum Levels of Homocysteine as an Early Prognostic Factor of Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kevere, Laura; Purvina, Santa; Bauze, Daiga; Zeibarts, Marcis; Andrezina, Raisa; Rizevs, Arnis; Jelisejevs, Sergejs; Piekuse, Linda; Kreile, Madara; Purvins, Indulis

    2012-01-01

    Background and Goal. The aim was to examine the serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and their associations with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T polymorphism in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders as well as controls. Materials and Methods. There were 198 patients: 82 with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 22 with mood disorders, and 94 controls. The level of Hcy was determined by an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography system. MTHFR C677T polymorphism was analysed using the restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction method. Results. The average level of Hcy was 11.94 5.6??mol/L for patients with schizophrenia, 11.65 3.3??mol/L for patients with affective disorders, versus 6.80 2.93??mol/L in a control. The highest level of Hcy has been observed in patients with episodic-recurrent course of schizophrenia (11.30 7.74??mol/L), paranoid schizophrenia continuous (12.76 5.25??mol/L), and in patients with affective disorders (11.65 3.26??mol/L). An association between the MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism and Hcy level was found by linear regression analysis (r = 1.41, P = 0.029). Conclusions. The data indicate a link between Hcy levels and schizophrenia and mood disorders. No associations between the level of Hcy in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism were found. PMID:23091720

  18. Increased severity of respiratory infections associated with elevated anti-LPS IgG2 which inhibits serum bactericidal killing

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Timothy J.; Whitters, Deborah; Sevastsyanovich, Yanina R.; Heath, Jennifer N.; Pravin, John; Goodall, Margaret; Browning, Douglas F.; O’Shea, Matthew K.; Cranston, Amy; De Soyza, Anthony; Cunningham, Adam F.; MacLennan, Calman A.; Stockley, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Although specific antibody induced by pathogens or vaccines is a key component of protection against infectious threats, some viruses, such as dengue, induce antibody that enhances the development of infection. In contrast, antibody-dependent enhancement of bacterial infection is largely unrecognized. Here, we demonstrate that in a significant portion of patients with bronchiectasis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, antibody can protect the bacterium from complement-mediated killing. Strains that resist antibody-induced, complement-mediated killing produce lipopolysaccharide containing O-antigen. The inhibition of antibody-mediated killing is caused by excess production of O-antigen–specific IgG2 antibodies. Depletion of IgG2 to O-antigen restores the ability of sera to kill strains with long-chain O-antigen. Patients with impaired serum-mediated killing of P. aeruginosa by IgG2 have poorer respiratory function than infected patients who do not produce inhibitory antibody. We suggest that excessive binding of IgG2 to O-antigen shields the bacterium from other antibodies that can induce complement-mediated killing of bacteria. As there is significant sharing of O-antigen structure between different Gram-negative bacteria, this IgG2-mediated impairment of killing may operate in other Gram-negative infections. These findings have marked implications for our understanding of protection generated by natural infection and for the design of vaccines, which should avoid inducing such blocking antibodies. PMID:25113975

  19. miR-181b Promotes hepatic stellate cells proliferation by targeting p27 and is elevated in the serum of cirrhosis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Baocan; Li, Wenxi; Guo, Kun; Xiao, Yongtao; Wang, Yuqin; Fan, Jiangao

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181a and miR-181b, especially, miR-181b could be induced by transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) in hepatic stellate cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181b could promote HSC-T6 cell proliferation by directly targeting the negative cell regulator-p27 in HSC-T6 cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-181b was identified as potential serum diagnostic marker for liver cirrhosis patients. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs, as a kind of negative gene regulators, were demonstrated to be involved in many types of diseases. In this study, we found that transforming growth factor-beta 1 could induce the expression of miR-181a and miR-181b, and miR-181b increased in the much higher folds than miR-181a. Because of the important role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in HSC activation and liver cirrhosis, we investigate the effect of miR-181a and miR-181b on HSC proliferation. The results showed that miR-181b could promote HSC-T6 cell proliferation by regulating cell cycle. Further study showed p27, the cell cycle regulator, was the direct target of miR-181b in HSC-T6 cell. But miR-181a had no effects on HSC-T6 cell proliferation and cell cycle, and did not target p27. Interestingly, miR-181b is elevated significantly in serum of liver cirrhosis cases comparing to that of normal persons, whereas miR-181a expression was in the similar level with that of normal persons. These results suggested that miR-181b could be induced by TGF-{beta}1 and promote the growth of HSCs by directly targeting p27. The elevation of miR-181b in serum suggested that it may be potential diagnostic biomarkers for cirrhosis. As for miR-181a, it may work in TGF-{beta}1 pathway by a currently unknown mechanism.

  20. The Severity of Visceral Leishmaniasis Correlates with Elevated Levels of Serum IL-6, IL-27 and sCD14

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Priscila L.; de Oliveira, Fabrícia A.; Santos, Micheli Luize B.; Cunha, Luana Celina S.; Lino, Michelle T. B.; de Oliveira, Michelle F. S.; Bomfim, Manuela O. M.; Silva, Angela Maria; de Moura, Tatiana R.; de Jesus, Amélia R.; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Reed, Steven G.; de Almeida, Roque P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe disease caused by infection with protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Classic VL is characterized by a systemic infection of phagocytic cells and an intense activation of the inflammatory response. It is unclear why 90% of infected individuals do not develop the disease while a minority develop the classical form. Furthermore, among those that develop disease, a small group progresses to more severe form that is unresponsive to treatment. The presence of inflammatory mediators in serum could theoretically help to control the infection. However, there is also a release of anti-inflammatory mediators that could interfere with the control of parasite multiplication. In this study, we took advantage of the spectrum of outcomes to test the hypothesis that the immune profile of individuals infected with Leishmania (L.) infantum is associated with the development and severity of disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera from patients with confirmed diagnosis of VL were evaluated for the presence of numerous molecules, and levels compared with healthy control and asymptomatic infected individuals. Conclusions/Principal Findings Although differences were not observed in LPS levels, higher levels of sCD14 were detected in VL patients. Our data suggest that L. infantum may activate the inflammatory response via CD14, stimulating a generalized inflammatory response with production of several cytokines and soluble molecules, including IFN-γ, IL-27, IL-10, IL-6 and sCD14. These molecules were strongly associated with hepatosplenomegaly, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. We also observed that IL-6 levels greater than 200 pg/ml were strongly associated with death. Together our data reinforce the close relationship of IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-27 in the immune dynamics of VL and suggest the direct participation of sCD14 in the activation of the immune response against L. infantum. PMID:26814478

  1. Motor restlessness, sleep disturbances, thermal sensory alterations and elevated serum iron levels in Btbd9 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    DeAndrade, Mark P; Johnson, Russell L; Unger, Erica L; Zhang, Li; van Groen, Thomas; Gamble, Karen L; Li, Yuqing

    2012-09-15

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is a sensory-motor neurological disorder with a circadian component. RLS is characterized by uncomfortable sensations in the extremities, generally at night or during sleep, which often leads to an uncontrollable urge to move them for relief. Recently, genomic studies identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms in BTBD9, along with three other genes, as being associated with a higher risk of RLS. Little is known about the function of BTBD9 or its potential role in the pathophysiology of RLS. We therefore examined a line of Btbd9 mutant mice we recently generated for phenotypes similar to symptoms found in RLS patients. We observed that the Btbd9 mutant mice had motor restlessness, sensory alterations likely limited to the rest phase, and decreased sleep and increased wake times during the rest phase. Additionally, the Btbd9 mutant mice had altered serum iron levels and monoamine neurotransmitter systems. Furthermore, the sensory alterations in the Btbd9 mutant mice were relieved using ropinirole, a dopaminergic agonist widely used for RLS treatment. These results, taken together, suggest that the Btbd9 mutant mice model several characteristics similar to RLS and would therefore be the first genotypic mouse model of RLS. Furthermore, our data provide further evidence that BTBD9 is involved in RLS, and future studies of the Btbd9 mutant mice will help shine light on its role in the pathophysiology of RLS. Finally, our data argue for the utility of Btbd9 mutant mice to discover and screen novel therapeutics for RLS. PMID:22678064

  2. Biomimetic synthesis of hollow calcium carbonate with the existence of the agar matrix and bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianhua; Wu, Gang; Qing, Chengsong

    2016-01-01

    Proteins play important roles in the process of biomineralization. Vaterite and calcite have been synthesized by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2 in the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and agar system. The samples have been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The shape of CaCO3 crystal has been analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results show that calcite is a single product in the absence of BSA, but the product is a mixture of calcite and vaterite in the presence of BSA. The spheral shell of CaCO3 crystal was obtained when the concentration of BSA increased to 9.0mg/mL. PMID:26478327

  3. Elevated Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells (sTREM)-1 Levels in Maternal Serum during Term and Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    Tency, Inge; Verstraelen, Hans; Saerens, Bart; Verhasselt, Bruno; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Degomme, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background Infection and inflammation are important mechanisms leading to preterm birth. Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) belongs to a family of cell surface receptors that seems to play an important role in fine-tuning the immune response. It has been demonstrated that sTREM-1 is involved in bacterial infection as well as in non-infectious inflammatory conditions. Few studies have investigated serum sTREM-1 expression during preterm labor. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess sTREM-1 concentrations in maternal serum during term and preterm labor. Methods This case control study included 176 singleton pregnancies in the following groups: patients in (1) preterm labor, delivered before 34 weeks (PTB) (n?=?52); (2) GA matched controls, not in labor, matched for gestational age (GA) with the PTB group (n?=?52); (3) at term in labor (n?=?40) and (4) at term not in labor (n?=?32). sTREM-1 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Results sTREM-1 was detected in all serum samples. Median sTREM-1 concentrations were significantly higher in women with PTB vs. GA matched controls (367 pg/ml, interquartile range (IQR) 304483 vs. 273 pg/ml, IQR 208334; P<0.001) and in women at term in labor vs. at term not in labor (300 pg/ml, IQR 239353 vs. 228 pg/ml, IQR 174285; P<0.001). Women with PTB had significantly higher levels of sTREM-1 compared to women at term in labor (P?=?0.004). Multiple regression analysis, with groups recoded as three key covariates (labor, preterm and rupture of the membranes), showed significantly higher sTREM-1 concentrations for labor (+30%, P<0.001) and preterm (+15%, P?=?0.005) after adjusting for educational level, history of PTB and sample age. Conclusions sTREM-1 concentrations in maternal serum were elevated during spontaneous term and preterm labor and sTREM-1 levels were significantly higher in preterm labor. PMID:23468854

  4. Elevated serum complement factors 3 and 4 are strong inflammatory markers of the metabolic syndrome development: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenfang; Tang, Qin; Wen, Jing; Tang, Yan; Huang, DaMin; Huang, Yuzhen; Xie, Jinling; Luo, Yawen; Liang, Min; Wu, Chunlei; Lu, Zheng; Tan, Aihua; Gao, Yong; Wang, Qiuyan; Jiang, Yonghua; Yao, Ziting; Lin, Xinggu; Zhang, Haiying; Mo, Zengnan; Yang, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological design, consisting of cross-sectional (n?=?2376) and cohort (n?=?976) studies, was adopted to investigate the association between complement factors 3 (C3) and 4, and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) development. In the cross-sectional study, the C3 and C4 concentrations in the MetS group were higher than those in the non-MetS group (all P??0.050). After multi-factor adjustment, the odds ratios (ORs) in the highest quartile of C3 and C4 concentrations were 7.047 (4.664, 10.648) and 1.961 (1.349, 2.849), respectively, both Ptrend?elevated C3 and C4 levels were independent risk factors for MetS development. PMID:26726922

  5. Elevated serum complement factors 3 and 4 are strong inflammatory markers of the metabolic syndrome development: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenfang; Tang, Qin; Wen, Jing; Tang, Yan; Huang, DaMin; Huang, Yuzhen; Xie, Jinling; Luo, Yawen; Liang, Min; Wu, Chunlei; Lu, Zheng; Tan, Aihua; Gao, Yong; Wang, Qiuyan; Jiang, Yonghua; Yao, Ziting; Lin, Xinggu; Zhang, Haiying; Mo, Zengnan; Yang, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological design, consisting of cross-sectional (n = 2376) and cohort (n = 976) studies, was adopted to investigate the association between complement factors 3 (C3) and 4, and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) development. In the cross-sectional study, the C3 and C4 concentrations in the MetS group were higher than those in the non-MetS group (all P < 0.001), and the levels of immune globulin M (IgM), IgA, IgE, and IgG exhibited no significant differences between MetS and non-MetS (all P > 0.050). After multi-factor adjustment, the odds ratios (ORs) in the highest quartile of C3 and C4 concentrations were 7.047 (4.664, 10.648) and 1.961 (1.349, 2.849), respectively, both Ptrend < 0.050. After a 4 years follow-up, total 166 subjects were diagnosed with MetS, and the complement baseline levels from 2009 were used to predict the MetS risk in 2013. In the adjusted model, the relative risks (RRs) in the highest quartile of C3 and C4 levels were 4.779 (2.854, 8.003) and 2.590 (1.567, 4.280), respectively, both Ptrend < 0.001. Activation of complement factors may be an important part of inflammatory processes, and our results indicated that the elevated C3 and C4 levels were independent risk factors for MetS development. PMID:26726922

  6. A calcium-binding protein with similarity to serum albumin localized to the ER-Golgi network and cell walls of spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    PubMed

    Lait, Cameron G.; Zwiazek, Janusz J.

    2001-08-01

    Using polyclonal antibodies raised against human serum albumin (HSA), a 70-kDa microsomal protein with an isoelectric point of approximately 6.5 was detected in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The protein was purified by selective ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion exchange HPLC. The protein shared 100% identity with the first 15 amino acids at the NH2 terminus of HSA, including the X-X-H amino acid region, which was identified in HSA as being responsible for binding of copper, zinc, indole derivatives and calcium. Blue staining of the protein with the cationic carbocyanine dye 'Stains-all' and 45Ca overlay following SDS-PAGE also suggest that the 70-kDa plant protein binds calcium. The protein reacted positively with carbohydrate specific thymol stain, and the carbohydrates associated with the protein were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as galactose and galacturonic acid. The 70-kDa plant protein was present in the detergent-poor phase following Triton X-114 extraction of the microsomal proteins. Cell fractionation using continuous sucrose gradients showed that the protein is present in membrane fractions with high activity of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi marker enzymes. Using nitrocellulose tissue prints probed with anti-HSA antibodies, we demonstrated that the protein is present in the apoplastic space of petioles, suggesting that the protein is secreted to the apoplast of cortex cells in plants. Localization and binding properties suggest that the plant protein identified in the present study may participate in secretion processes, possibly involved with the transport of precursors required for cell-wall synthesis. PMID:11473705

  7. (Z)3,4,5,4‧-trans-tetramethoxystilbene, a new analogue of resveratrol, inhibits gefitinb-resistant non-small cell lung cancer via selectively elevating intracellular calcium level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xing-Xing; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Su Wei; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; He, Jian-Xing; Ding, Jian; Xue, Wei-Wei; Mujtaba, Tahira; Michelangeli, Francesco; Huang, Min; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Da-Kai; Jiang, Ze-Bo; Zhou, Yan-Ling; Kin-Ting Kam, Richard; Liu, Liang; Lai-Han Leung, Elaine

    2015-11-01

    Calcium is a second messenger which is required for regulation of many cellular processes. However, excessive elevation or prolonged activation of calcium signaling would lead to cell death. As such, selectively regulating calcium signaling could be an alternative approach for anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we have identified an effective analogue of resveratrol, (Z)3,4,5,4‧-trans-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) which selectively elevated the intracellular calcium level in gefitinib-resistant (G-R) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. TMS exhibited significant inhibitory effect on G-R NSCLC cells, but not other NSCLC cells and normal lung epithelial cells. The phosphorylation and activation of EGFR were inhibited by TMS in G-R cells. TMS induced caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy by directly binding to SERCA and causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and AMPK activation. Proteomics analysis also further confirmed that mTOR pathway, which is the downstream of AMPK, was significantly suppressed by TMS. JNK, the cross-linker of ER stress and mTOR pathway was significantly activated by TMS. In addition, the inhibition of JNK activation can partially block the effect of TMS. Taken together, TMS showed promising anti-cancer activity by mediating calcium signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis as well as autophagy in G-R NSCLC cells, providing strategy in designing multi-targeting drug for treating G-R patients.

  8. (Z)3,4,5,4'-trans-tetramethoxystilbene, a new analogue of resveratrol, inhibits gefitinb-resistant non-small cell lung cancer via selectively elevating intracellular calcium level.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xing-Xing; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Su Wei; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; He, Jian-Xing; Ding, Jian; Xue, Wei-Wei; Mujtaba, Tahira; Michelangeli, Francesco; Huang, Min; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Da-Kai; Jiang, Ze-Bo; Zhou, Yan-Ling; Kin-Ting Kam, Richard; Liu, Liang; Lai-Han Leung, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is a second messenger which is required for regulation of many cellular processes. However, excessive elevation or prolonged activation of calcium signaling would lead to cell death. As such, selectively regulating calcium signaling could be an alternative approach for anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we have identified an effective analogue of resveratrol, (Z)3,4,5,4'-trans-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) which selectively elevated the intracellular calcium level in gefitinib-resistant (G-R) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. TMS exhibited significant inhibitory effect on G-R NSCLC cells, but not other NSCLC cells and normal lung epithelial cells. The phosphorylation and activation of EGFR were inhibited by TMS in G-R cells. TMS induced caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy by directly binding to SERCA and causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and AMPK activation. Proteomics analysis also further confirmed that mTOR pathway, which is the downstream of AMPK, was significantly suppressed by TMS. JNK, the cross-linker of ER stress and mTOR pathway was significantly activated by TMS. In addition, the inhibition of JNK activation can partially block the effect of TMS. Taken together, TMS showed promising anti-cancer activity by mediating calcium signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis as well as autophagy in G-R NSCLC cells, providing strategy in designing multi-targeting drug for treating G-R patients. PMID:26542098

  9. (Z)3,4,5,4′-trans-tetramethoxystilbene, a new analogue of resveratrol, inhibits gefitinb-resistant non-small cell lung cancer via selectively elevating intracellular calcium level

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xing-Xing; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Su Wei; Wong, Vincent Kam-Wai; He, Jian-Xing; Ding, Jian; Xue, Wei-Wei; Mujtaba, Tahira; Michelangeli, Francesco; Huang, Min; Huang, Jun; Xiao, Da-Kai; Jiang, Ze-Bo; Zhou, Yan-Ling; Kin-Ting Kam, Richard; Liu, Liang; Lai-Han Leung, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is a second messenger which is required for regulation of many cellular processes. However, excessive elevation or prolonged activation of calcium signaling would lead to cell death. As such, selectively regulating calcium signaling could be an alternative approach for anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we have identified an effective analogue of resveratrol, (Z)3,4,5,4′-trans-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) which selectively elevated the intracellular calcium level in gefitinib-resistant (G-R) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. TMS exhibited significant inhibitory effect on G-R NSCLC cells, but not other NSCLC cells and normal lung epithelial cells. The phosphorylation and activation of EGFR were inhibited by TMS in G-R cells. TMS induced caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy by directly binding to SERCA and causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and AMPK activation. Proteomics analysis also further confirmed that mTOR pathway, which is the downstream of AMPK, was significantly suppressed by TMS. JNK, the cross-linker of ER stress and mTOR pathway was significantly activated by TMS. In addition, the inhibition of JNK activation can partially block the effect of TMS. Taken together, TMS showed promising anti-cancer activity by mediating calcium signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis as well as autophagy in G-R NSCLC cells, providing strategy in designing multi-targeting drug for treating G-R patients. PMID:26542098

  10. Serum A-FABP Is Increased and Closely Associated with Elevated NT-proBNP Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Treated with Rosiglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mi; Bao, Yuqian; Lu, Junxi; Zhou, Jian; Jia, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Background Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) has been shown to play important roles in the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In this study we investigated the possible role of A-FABP in the development of cardiac dysfunction related to rosiglitazone treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 84 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were treated with rosiglitazone for 48 weeks. Circulating A-FABP and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were determined at baseline and repeated at 24 and 48 weeks. After the 48-week rosiglitazone treatment period, serum levels of both A-FABP and NT-proBNP increased progressively and significantly (P<0.01). Serum levels of A-FABP were demonstrated to be positively correlated with gender and waist circumference both at baseline and the end of the study, and with age, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and NT-proBNP at 48 weeks (all P<0.05). In addition, changes in A-FABP were significantly and positively correlated with changes in NT-proBNP (r?=?0.239, P?=?0.039). Furthermore, multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the changes in A-FABP were independently and positively associated with changes in NT-proBNP after adjusting for confounding factors (??=?0.320, P?=?0.007). Conclusions/Significance Rosiglitazone-mediated increase of A-FABP is closely associated with the elevation of NT-proBNP, a well-established marker of cardiac dysfunction. The findings of our study imply that A-FABP may mediate the cross-talk between heart and adipose tissue. PMID:22046439

  11. Utility of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Kamaleshwaran, K. K.; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, 99mTc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of 99mTc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. 18F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. 18F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. PMID:26097420

  12. Utility of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC in 131I Whole-Body Scan Negative Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Serum Thyroglobulin Levels.

    PubMed

    Shinto, Ajit S; Kamaleshwaran, K K; Mallia, Madhav; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Banerjee, Sharmila; Velayutham, Pavanasam; Damodharan, Suresh; Sairam, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging abilities of a recently developed Technetium-99m labeled somatostatin analog, (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC, in terms of precise localization of the disease. The study population consisted of 28 patients (16 men, 12 women; age range: 39-72 years) with histologically confirmed DTC, who presented with recurrent or persistent disease as indicated by elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels after initial treatment (serum Tg > 10 ng/ml off T4 suppression for 4-6 weeks). All patients were negative on the Iodine-131 posttherapy whole-body scans. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) was performed in all patients. SSTR scintigraphy was true positive in 23 cases (82.1%), true negative in two cases (7.1%) and false negative in three cases (10.7%) which resulted in a sensitivity of 88.46%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 89.2%. Sensitivity of (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC scan was higher (93.7%) for patients with advanced stages, that is stages III and IV. (18)F-FDG showed a sensitivity of 93.7%, a specificity of 50% and an accuracy of 89.3%. (18)F-FDG PET was found to be more sensitive, with lower specificity due to false positive results in 2 patients. Analysis on a lesion basis demonstrated substantial agreement between the two imaging techniques with a Cohen's kappa of 0.66. Scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-Hynic-TOC might be a promising tool for treatment planning; it is easy to perform and showed sufficient accuracy for localization diagnostics in thyroid cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. PMID:26097420

  13. Association of a STAT 6 haplotype with elevated serum IgE levels in a population based cohort of white adults

    PubMed Central

    Weidinger, S; Klopp, N; Wagenpfeil, S; Rummler, L; Schedel, M; Kabesch, M; Schafer, T; Darsow, U; Jakob, T; Behrendt, H; Wichmann, H; Ring, J; Illig, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown linkage of chromosome 12q 1324 with atopy related phenotypes. Among candidate genes in this region is STAT6 (signal transducer and activator of transcription), which is essential for Th2 cell differentiation, recruitment, and effector function. Methods: We evaluated six polymorphisms of STAT6 for evidence of associations with serum IgE levels and atopic diseases in a population based cross sectional cohort of 1407 German adults. Genotyping was performed using the matrix assisted laser desorption ionisationtime of flight mass spectrometry method. Haplotypes were estimated using the SAS/Genetics module, and population-derived IgE percentiles (50% IgE>53 kU/l, 66% IgE>99 kU/l and 90% IgE>307 kU/l) were modelled as outcome variables in haplotype trend regression analysis. Results: All polymorphisms were genotyped successfully. Haplotype reconstruction revealed 8/64 possible haplotypes, reaching estimated frequencies of 1% or more. One polymorphism in intron 2 (rs324011) showed a significant association with total serum IgE (p = 0.015). A STAT6 risk haplotype for elevated IgE showing odds ratios of 1.7 (p = 0.015) for IgE cut-off 100 kU/l, and 1.54 (p = 0.032), 1.6 (p = 0.025), and 2.54 (p = 0.007) for IgE percentiles 50%, 66%, and 90%, respectively was detected. The increased risk of this haplotype was confirmed by linear haplotype trend regression on log transformed IgE values (p = 0.007). Analysis further revealed a risk haplotype for specific sensitisation and a risk haplotype for asthma. Conclusion: The data indicate that genetic variants within STAT6 contribute significantly to IgE regulation and manifestation of atopic diseases. PMID:15342695

  14. SETX mutations are a frequent genetic cause of juvenile and adult onset cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/background Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia defines a group of genetically distinct recessive ataxias including ataxia-telangectasia (A-T, ATM gene), ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1, APTX gene) and type 2 (AOA2, SETX gene). Although, a few unique clinical features differentiate each of these forms, the patients also share common clinical signs, such as the presence of cerebellar atrophy, sensorimotor axonal neuropathy, and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum level. Materials and methods We selected 22 Italian patients from 21 families, presenting progressive cerebellar ataxia, axonal neuropathy, and elevated serum AFP. We screened the coding regions of ATM, APTX and SETX genes for point mutations by direct sequencing or DHPLC, and searched genomic rearrangements in SETX by MLPA analysis. In selected cases, quantification of ATM and senataxin proteins was performed by Western blot. Clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging data were collected. Results Thirteen patients (12 families) carried SETX mutations (AOA2, 57%), two were mutated in ATM (A-T), and three in APTX (AOA1). In three remaining patients, we could not find pathogenic mutations, and in one case we found, in homozygosis, the SETX p.K992R polymorphism (population frequency 1-2%). In AOA2 cases, we identified 14 novel and three reported SETX mutations. Signs at onset were gait ataxia and facial dyskinesia, and the age ranged between 11 and 18 years. None had obvious oculomotor apraxia at the latest examination (age 14–45 years). The patient carrying the p.K992R SETX polymorphism had a phenotype similar to that of the diagnosed AOA2 patients, while the other three undiagnosed subjects had a very late onset and a few distinguishing clinical features. Discussion and conclusions We describe a large series of 13 AOA2 Italian patients. The phenotype was consistent with previous descriptions of AOA2, except for a higher frequency of strabism, and for the absence of oculomotor apraxia. In our survey ~60% of juvenile-to-adult cases with cerebellar ataxia, sensorimotor neuropathy and increased AFP are due to mutations in the SETX gene, and a smaller percentage to APTX and ATM gene mutations. PMID:23941260

  15. Should HFE p.C282Y homozygotes with moderately elevated serum ferritin be treated? A randomised controlled trial comparing iron reduction with sham treatment (Mi-iron)

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sim Yee; Dolling, Lara; Dixon, Jeannette L; Nicoll, Amanda J; Gurrin, Lyle C; Wolthuizen, Michelle; Wood, Erica M; Anderson, Greg J; Ramm, Grant A; Allen, Katrina J; Olynyk, John K; Crawford, Darrell; Kava, Jennifer; Ramm, Louise E; Gow, Paul; Durrant, Simon; Powell, Lawrie W; Delatycki, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HFE p.C282Y homozygosity is the most common cause of hereditary haemochromatosis. There is currently insufficient evidence to assess whether non-specific symptoms or hepatic injury in homozygotes with moderately elevated iron defined as a serum ferritin (SF) of 3001000?g/L are related to iron overload. As such the evidence for intervention in this group is lacking. We present here methods for a study that aims to evaluate whether non-specific symptoms and hepatic fibrosis markers improve with short-term normalisation of SF in p.C282Y homozygotes with moderate elevation of SF. Methods and analysis Mi-iron is a prospective, multicentre, randomised patient-blinded trial conducted in three centres in Victoria and Queensland, Australia. Participants who are HFE p.C282Y homozygotes with SF levels between 300 and 1000??g/L are recruited and randomised to either the treatment group or to the sham treatment group. Those in the treatment group have normalisation of SF by 3-weekly erythrocytapheresis while those in the sham treatment group have 3-weekly plasmapheresis and thus do not have normalisation of SF. Patients are blinded to all procedures. All outcome measures are administered prior to and following the course of treatment/sham treatment. Patient reported outcome measures are the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS-primary outcome), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form V.2 (SF36v2) and Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale 2 short form (AIMS2-SF). Liver injury and hepatic fibrosis are assessed with transient elastography (TE), Fibrometer and Hepascore, while oxidative stress is assessed by measurement of urine and serum F2-isoprostanes. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Human Research Ethics Committees of Austin Health, Royal Melbourne Hospital and Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. Trial registration Trial identifier: NCT01631708; Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov PMID:26270952

  16. Elevated on-treatment levels of serum IFN-gamma is associated with treatment failure of peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Ying; Huang, Ching-I; Dai, Chia-Yen; Wang, Shu-Chi; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Liang, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Hung; Hou, Nai-Jen; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Huang, Chung-Feng; Lin, Zu-Yau; Chen, Shinn-Cherng; Huang, Jee-Fu; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection had been associated with cytokine imbalance. Cytokine dynamics in response to peginterferon/ribavirin therapy have an impact on the treatment efficacy for HCV patients. Ninety-two treatment-naive chronic hepatitis C patients were treated with 24 or 48 weeks of peginterferon/ribavirin therapy according to their viral genotypes. Sustained virologic response (SVR) is defined as undetectable HCV RNA throughout a 24-week post-treatment follow-up period. Dynamic serum levels of the following cytokines: (1) Th1-mediated cytokines: IFN-γ, interleukin-2, and TNF-alpha; (2)Th2-mediated cytokines: interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 and (3)immuno-modulatory cytokines: interleukin-1β, interleukin-8, and interleukin-12 were determined by Fluorescent Bead immunoassay. Serial dynamic cytokine expression demonstrated that not only elevated IFN-γ concentrations at specific time points but also the total IFN-γ amount was strongly linked to non-response in peginterferon/ribavirin therapy. IFN-γ levels could serve as an independent predictor for SVR analyzed by multivariate logistic regression test. The accuracy of discriminating responders from non-responders was acceptable when IFN-γ cut-off levels were set at 180, 120, and 40 pg/ml at the 4th week, 12th week, and end-of-treatment of therapy, respectively. Elevated on-treatment IFN-γ concentration was significantly associated with treatment failure among interleukin-28B rs8099917TT carriers and those patients failed to achieve rapid virologic response. PMID:26965318

  17. Liver Fat Content Is Associated with Elevated Serum Uric Acid in the Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations: Shanghai Changfeng Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojing; Ma, Hui; Xia, Mingfeng; Wang, Dan; Li, Xiaoming; Wu, Jiong; Zhao, Naiqing; Pan, Baishen; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Although many studies have indicated a relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hyperuricemia, a few studies specifically examining the effects of the severity of liver fat content (LFC) on serum uric acid (SUA) and the presence of hyperuricemia because of the limitation of the examination methods for NAFLD. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the NAFLD and SUA levels in the Chinese population using standardized quantitative ultrasound. Methods A community-based study was conducted from May 2010 to December 2012. A total of 4,305 people aged 45 years and above without excessive drinking were enrolled. A standard interview and anthropometric and laboratory blood parameters were collected for each person. The standardized ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio and hepatic attenuation rate was used to quantify LFC. Results The prevalence of NAFLD and hyperuricemia was 33.1% and 17.1%, respectively. A total of 23.5% of the NAFLD subjects had hyperuricemia, and their SUA was higher than that of non-NAFLD subjects (327.2±76.8 vs 301.9±77.4 μmol/L, P<0.001). The LFC was positively correlated with SUA (r = 0.130, P<0.001) and an independent factor for SUA (standardized β = 0.054, P<0.001). The OR for the presence of hypreuricemia was 1.175 (95% CI 1.048–1.318; P<0.001) with a 1 SD increase in the log LFC. LFC greater than 10% was related to elevated SUA and an increased presence of hyperuricemia. Conclusions LFC accumulation was associated with an increase in the prevalence of hyperuricemia and elevated SUA in our community-based population. LFC greater than 10% is related to the risk for hyperuricemia. PMID:26473493

  18. Elevated on-treatment levels of serum IFN-gamma is associated with treatment failure of peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Ying; Huang, Ching-I; Dai, Chia-Yen; Wang, Shu-Chi; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Liang, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Hung; Hou, Nai-Jen; Yeh, Ming-Lun; Huang, Chung-Feng; Lin, Zu-Yau; Chen, Shinn-Cherng; Huang, Jee-Fu; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection had been associated with cytokine imbalance. Cytokine dynamics in response to peginterferon/ribavirin therapy have an impact on the treatment efficacy for HCV patients. Ninety-two treatment-naive chronic hepatitis C patients were treated with 24 or 48 weeks of peginterferon/ribavirin therapy according to their viral genotypes. Sustained virologic response (SVR) is defined as undetectable HCV RNA throughout a 24-week post-treatment follow-up period. Dynamic serum levels of the following cytokines: (1) Th1-mediated cytokines: IFN-γ, interleukin-2, and TNF-alpha; (2)Th2-mediated cytokines: interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 and (3)immuno-modulatory cytokines: interleukin-1β, interleukin-8, and interleukin-12 were determined by Fluorescent Bead immunoassay. Serial dynamic cytokine expression demonstrated that not only elevated IFN-γ concentrations at specific time points but also the total IFN-γ amount was strongly linked to non-response in peginterferon/ribavirin therapy. IFN-γ levels could serve as an independent predictor for SVR analyzed by multivariate logistic regression test. The accuracy of discriminating responders from non-responders was acceptable when IFN-γ cut-off levels were set at 180, 120, and 40 pg/ml at the 4th week, 12th week, and end-of-treatment of therapy, respectively. Elevated on-treatment IFN-γ concentration was significantly associated with treatment failure among interleukin-28B rs8099917TT carriers and those patients failed to achieve rapid virologic response. PMID:26965318

  19. Moderate hypocalcemia due to normal serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in an asymptomatic kindred with familial hypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Nolten, W E; Chesney, R W; Dabbagh, S; Lemann, J; Slatopolsky, E; Klingensmith, G J; DeLuca, H F

    1987-06-01

    Hypoparathyroidism was diagnosed in nine members of a kindred of three generations. This study investigated why these persons were asymptomatic and without developmental abnormalities, in contrast to the common presentation of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism. In the hypocalcemic subjects, serum calcium level was 7.4 +/- 0.8 mg/dl (mean +/- SD) and ionized serum calcium level was 3.48 +/- 0.21 mg/dl. Immunoreactive parathyroid hormone values were inappropriately low. Injection of EDTA in one patient lowered ionized calcium levels, but immunoreactive parathyroid hormone values did not rise. Serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and other vitamin D metabolites were normal or elevated and substantially higher than in other hypoparathyroid states. The normally observed positive correlation between the fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D that reflects the dependence of net bone resorption on 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was upheld in hypoparathyroid patients. It is proposed that the subjects with familial hypoparathyroidism in this kindred had moderate asymptomatic hypocalcemia without developmental abnormalities because normal or elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels enhanced intestinal calcium absorption. This may represent one point in the spectrum of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism. Alternately, both the moderate degree of hypocalcemia and the normal serum calcitriol values could have been related to mild, partial hypoparathyroidism, which could have been inherited in this kindred. PMID:3111255

  20. Microdeletions of 3p21.31 characterized by developmental delay, distinctive features, elevated serum creatine kinase levels, and white matter involvement.

    PubMed

    Eto, Kaoru; Sakai, Norio; Shimada, Shino; Shioda, Mutsuki; Ishigaki, Keiko; Hamada, Yusuke; Shinpo, Michiko; Azuma, Junji; Tominaga, Koji; Shimojima, Keiko; Ozono, Keiichi; Osawa, Makiko; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2013-12-01

    Interstitial deletions of chromosome 3 are rare, and only one patient with a microdeletion of 3p21.31 has been reported to date. We identified two additional cases of patients with microdeletions of 3p21.31. The characteristic clinical features of developmental delay and distinctive facial features (including arched eyebrows, hypertelorism, epicanthus, and micrognathia) were seen both in the previously reported patient and in the two newly identified patients. In these two new cases, additional features, including elevated serum creatine kinase levels and characteristic neuroradiological features with white matter involvement, were seen. These features had not been described in the previous case in which the patient was examined during infancy, suggesting an age-dependent mechanism. The shortest region of overlap among the three deletions narrowed down the candidate genes that may be responsible for the common neurological features to the bassoon (presynaptic cytomatrix protein) gene (BSN), which has an important function in neuronal synapses. In this study, we confirmed common phenotypic features in the patients with microdeletions of 3p21.31 and identified additional features that have not been reported previously. Because the constellation of such characteristic features is quite unique, clinical manifestations of the patients with microdeletions of 3p21.31 would be clinically recognizable as a contiguous gene deletion syndrome. PMID:24039031

  1. Elevated levels of endothelial-derived microparticles, and serum CXCL9 and SCGF-β are associated with unstable asymptomatic carotid plaques.

    PubMed Central

    Schiro, Andrew; Wilkinson, Fiona L.; Weston, Ria; Smyth, J. Vincent; Serracino-Inglott, Ferdinand; Alexander, M. Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are released from dysfunctional endothelial cells. We hypothesised that patients with unstable carotid plaque have higher levels of circulating microparticles compared to patients with stable plaques, and may correlate with serum markers of plaque instability and inflammation. Circulating EMPs, platelet MPs (PMPs) and inflammatory markers were measured in healthy controls and patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. EMP/PMPs were quantified using flow cytometry. Bioplex assays profiled systemic inflammatory and bone-related proteins. Immunohistological analysis detailed the contribution of differentially-regulated systemic markers to plaque pathology. Alizarin red staining showed calcification. EMPs and PMPs were significantly higher in patients with carotid stenosis (≥70%) compared to controls, with no differences between asymptomatic vs symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients with unstable plaques exhibited higher levels of EMPs, CXCL9 and SCGF-β compared to those with stable plaques. CXCL9, and SCGF-β were detected within all plaques, suggesting a contribution to both localised and systemic inflammation. Osteopontin and osteoprotegerin were significantly elevated in the symptomatic vs asymptomatic group, while osteocalcin was higher in asymptomatic patients with stable plaque. All plaques exhibited calcification, which was significantly greater in asymptomatic patients. This may impact on plaque stability. These data could be important in identifying patients at most benefit from intervention. PMID:26564003

  2. Elevated levels of endothelial-derived microparticles, and serum CXCL9 and SCGF-β are associated with unstable asymptomatic carotid plaques.

    PubMed

    Schiro, Andrew; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Weston, Ria; Smyth, J Vincent; Serracino-Inglott, Ferdinand; Alexander, M Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are released from dysfunctional endothelial cells. We hypothesised that patients with unstable carotid plaque have higher levels of circulating microparticles compared to patients with stable plaques, and may correlate with serum markers of plaque instability and inflammation. Circulating EMPs, platelet MPs (PMPs) and inflammatory markers were measured in healthy controls and patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. EMP/PMPs were quantified using flow cytometry. Bioplex assays profiled systemic inflammatory and bone-related proteins. Immunohistological analysis detailed the contribution of differentially-regulated systemic markers to plaque pathology. Alizarin red staining showed calcification. EMPs and PMPs were significantly higher in patients with carotid stenosis (≥ 70%) compared to controls, with no differences between asymptomatic vs symptomatic patients. Asymptomatic patients with unstable plaques exhibited higher levels of EMPs, CXCL9 and SCGF-β compared to those with stable plaques. CXCL9, and SCGF-β were detected within all plaques, suggesting a contribution to both localised and systemic inflammation. Osteopontin and osteoprotegerin were significantly elevated in the symptomatic vs asymptomatic group, while osteocalcin was higher in asymptomatic patients with stable plaque. All plaques exhibited calcification, which was significantly greater in asymptomatic patients. This may impact on plaque stability. These data could be important in identifying patients at most benefit from intervention. PMID:26564003

  3. Nisoldipine improves the impaired erythrocyte deformability correlating with elevated intracellular free calcium-ion concentration and poor glycaemic control in NIDDM

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, J; Tsuda, K; Takeda, T; Yu, L; Fujimoto, S; Kajikawa, M; Nishimura, M; Mizuno, N; Hamamoto, Y; Mukai, E; Adachi, T; Seino, Y

    1999-01-01

    Aims To explore the mechanisms underlying the impaired erythrocyte deformability (RBC-df) in diabetic patients, the relationship between erythrocyte intracellular free calcium-ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) and RBC-df, and the effects of Ca2+-channel blocker on [Ca2+]i and RBC-df were evaluated. Methods Forty-eight patients with NIDDM and 24 control subjects were enrolled in this study. [Ca2+]i was determined using fura-2, and RBC-df by filtration method expressed as Deformability Index (DI). Erythrocytes were treated with nisoldipine to evaluate the effects of a Ca2+-channel blocker. Results [Ca2+]i was significantly higher (82.6 (78.087.2) vs 76.6 (74.381.2) nmol lRBC?1, P<0.001), and DI was significantly lower (0.14 (0.090.28) vs 0.22 (0.160.28), P<0.01) in NIDDM than in controls. There was a significant correlation between HbA1c and [Ca2+]i (r=0.38, P<0.01), between HbA1c and DI (r=?0.51, P<0.01), and between [Ca2+]iand DI (r=?0.42, P<0.01). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed HbA1cand [Ca2+]i as independent determinants for the impaired RBC-df. Nisoldipine treatment in vitro significantly decreased [Ca2+]i, and significantly improved RBC-df. Conclusions These data indicate that the impaired RBC-df in NIDDM may at least partly be attributed to the elevated [Ca2+]i and poor glycaemic control. In addition, favorable effects of a Ca2+-channel blocker on both [Ca2+]i and RBC-df have been demonstrated. PMID:10336573

  4. Effect of serum withdrawal on the contribution of L-type calcium channels (CaV1.2) to intracellular Ca2+ responses and chemotaxis in cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mahendra K; Clunn, Gerard F; Lymn, Joanne S; Austin, Oneka; Hughes, Alun D

    2005-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) chemotaxis is fundamental to atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. An increase in intracellular Ca2+ [Ca2+]i is an important signal in chemotaxis, but the role of L-type calcium channels (CaV1.2) in this response in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMC) has not been examined. hVSMC were grown from explant cultures of saphenous vein. Confluent hVSMC at passage 3 were studied after culture in medium containing 15% foetal calf serum (FCS) (randomly cycling) or following serum deprivation for up to 7 days. Smooth muscle ?-actin was measured by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. [Ca2+]i was measured using fura 2 fluorimetry. Chemotaxis was measured using a modified Boyden chamber technique and cell attachment to gelatin-coated plates was also quantified. The number and affinity of dihydropyridine-binding sites was assessed using [5-methyl-3H]PN 200-110 binding. In randomly cycling cells, the calcium channel agonist, Bay K 8644a and 100?mM KCl did not affect [Ca2+]i. In addition, the rise in [Ca2+]i induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF) was unaffected by the CaV1.2 antagonists, amlodipine and verapamil. In randomly cycling cells amlodipine did not affect PDGF-induced migration. In serum-deprived cells, smooth muscle ?-actin was increased and Bay K 8644a and 100?mM KCl increased [Ca2+]i. PDGF-induced rises in [Ca2+]i were also inhibited by amlodipine and verapamil. The ability of Bay K 8644a to increase [Ca2+]i and verapamil to inhibit PDGF-induced rises in [Ca2+]i was evident within 3 days after serum withdrawal. In serum-deprived hVSMC Bay K 8644a induced chemotaxis and amlodipine inhibited PDGF-induced migration. Cell attachment in the presence of PDGF was unaffected by amlodipine in either randomly cycling or serum-deprived hVSMC. Serum withdrawal was associated with a decrease in the maximum number of dihydropyridine-binding sites (Bmax) and a decrease in affinity (KD). Serum deprivation of hVSMC results in increased expression of smooth muscle ?-actin, a marker of more differentiated status, and increased [Ca2+]i responses and chemotaxis mediated by CaV1.2. These observations may have important implications for understanding the therapeutic benefits of calcium channel antagonists in cardiovascular disease. PMID:15880143

  5. Effect Modifying Role of Serum Calcium on Mortality-Predictability of PTH and Alkaline Phosphatase in Hemodialysis Patients: An Investigation Using Data from the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System from 2005 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Chung; Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Chiao-Ying; Kao, Chih-Chin; Chang, Fan-Chi; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Hsu, Chi-Cheng; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2015-01-01

    Predicting mortality in dialysis patients based on low intact parathyroid hormone levels is difficult, because aluminum intoxication, malnutrition, older age, race, diabetes, or peritoneal dialysis may influence these levels. We investigated the clinical implications of low parathyroid hormone levels in relation to the mortality of dialysis patients using sensitive, stratified, and adjusted models and a nationwide dialysis database. We analyzed data from 2005 to 2012 that were held on the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System, and 94,983 hemodialysis patients with valid data regarding their intact parathyroid levels were included in this study. The patient cohort was subdivided based on the intact parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase levels. The mean hemodialysis duration within this cohort was 3.5 years. The mean (standard deviation) age was 62 (14) years. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, the hemodialysis duration, serum albumin levels, hematocrit levels, calcium levels, phosphate levels, and the hemodialysis treatment adequacy score, the single-pool Kt/V, the crude and adjusted all-cause mortality rates increased when alkaline phosphatase levels were higher or intact parathyroid hormone levels were lower. In general, at any given level of serum calcium or phosphate, patients with low intact parathyroid hormone levels had higher mortality rates than those with normal or high iPTH levels. At a given alkaline phosphatase level, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 1.33 (p < 0.01, 95% confidence interval 1.27–1.39) in the group with intact parathyroid hormone levels < 150 pg/mL and serum calcium levels > 9.5 mg/dL, but in the group with intact parathyroid hormone levels > 300 pg/mL and serum calcium levels > 9.5 mg/dL, the hazard ratio was 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.01). Hence, maintaining albumin-corrected high serum calcium levels at > 9.5 mg/dL may correlate with poor prognoses for patients with low intact parathyroid hormone levels. PMID:26107510

  6. Elevated Concentrations of Serum Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients in Relation to Disease Activity, Inflammatory Status, B Cell Activity and Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Draborg, Anette H.; Lydolph, Magnus C.; Westergaard, Marie; Olesen Larsen, Severin; Nielsen, Christoffer T.; Duus, Karen; Jacobsen, Sren; Houen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we examined the concentration of serum immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and investigated its association with various disease parameters in order to evaluate the role of FLCs as a potential biomarker in SLE. Furthermore, FLCs association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies was examined. Methods Using a nephelometric assay, ?FLC and ?FLC concentrations were quantified in sera from 45 SLE patients and 40 healthy controls. SLE patients with renal insufficiency were excluded in order to preclude high concentrations of serum FLCs due to decreased clearance. Results Serum FLC concentrations were significantly elevated in SLE patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.0001) also after adjusting for Ig levels (p<0.0001). The concentration of serum FLCs correlated with a global disease activity (SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI)) score of the SLE patients (r = 0.399, p = 0.007). Furthermore, concentrations of FLCs correlated with titers of dsDNA antibodies (r = 0.383, p = 0.009), and FLC levels and SLEDAI scores correlated in the anti-dsDNA-positive SLE patients, but not in anti-dsDNA-negative SLE patients. Total immunoglobulin (IgG and IgA) concentrations correlated with FLC concentrations and elevated FLC levels were additionally shown to associate with the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein and also with complement consumption determined by low C4 in SLE patients. Collectively, results indicated that elevated serum FLCs reflects increased B cell activity in relation to inflammation. SLE patients had an increased seropositivity of EBV-directed antibodies that did not associate with elevated FLC concentrations. An explanation for this could be that serum FLC concentrations reflect the current EBV activity (reactivation) whereas EBV-directed antibodies reflect the extent of previous infection/reactivations. Conclusion SLE patients have elevated concentrations of serum FLCs that correlate with global disease activity scores and especially serologic markers for active disease. These findings are suggestive of circulating FLCs having potential as a new supplementary serologic biomarker in SLE. PMID:26402865

  7. Elevated serum levels of Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive human Mac-2 binding protein predict the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C patients

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Kazumi; Tateyama, Masakuni; Abiru, Seigo; Komori, Atsumasa; Nagaoka, Shinya; Saeki, Akira; Hashimoto, Satoru; Sasaki, Ryu; Bekki, Shigemune; Kugiyama, Yuki; Miyazoe, Yuri; Kuno, Atsushi; Korenaga, Masaaki; Togayachi, Akira; Ocho, Makoto; Mizokami, Masashi; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive human Mac-2-binding protein (WFA+-M2BP) was recently shown to be a liver fibrosis glycobiomarker with a unique fibrosis-related glycoalteration. We evaluated the ability of WFA+-M2BP to predict the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients who were infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). A total of 707 patients who had been admitted to our hospital with chronic HCV infection without other potential risk factors were evaluated to determine the ability of WFA+-M2BP to predict the development of HCC; factors evaluated included age, sex, viral load, genotypes, fibrosis stage, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels, bilirubin, albumin, platelet count, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), WFA+-M2BP, and the response to interferon (IFN) therapy. Serum WFA+-M2BP levels were significantly increased according to the progression of liver fibrosis stage (P?elevation of WFA+-M2BP. Multivariate analysis identified age >57 years, F4, AFP >20 ng/mL, WFA+-M2BP ?4, and WFA+-M2BP 1-4 as well as the response to IFN (no therapy vs. sustained virological response) as independent risk factors for the development of HCC. The time-dependent areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated that the WFA+-M2BP assay predicted the development of HCC with higher diagnostic accuracy than AFP. Conclusion: WFA+-M2BP can be applied as a useful surrogate marker for the risk of HCC development, in addition to liver biopsy. (Hepatology 2014;60:15631570) PMID:25042054

  8. Neonatal hypocalcemic seizures due to excessive maternal calcium ingestion.

    PubMed

    Borkenhagen, Jenna F; Connor, Ellen L; Stafstrom, Carl E

    2013-06-01

    Hypocalcemia is a common, treatable cause of neonatal seizures. A term girl neonate with no apparent risk factors developed seizures on day 5 of life, consisting of rhythmic twitching of all extremities in a migrating pattern. Physical examination was normal except for jitteriness. Laboratory evaluation was unremarkable except for decreased total and ionized serum calcium levels and an elevated serum phosphorus level. The mother had ingested 3-6 g of calcium carbonate daily during the final 4 months of pregnancy to control morning sickness. The baby's electroencephalogram showed multifocal interictal sharp waves and intermittent electrographic seizures consisting of focal spikes in the left hemisphere accompanied by rhythmic jerking of the right arm and leg. Treatment with intravenous calcium gluconate over several days resulted in cessation of seizures and normalization of serum calcium. The child has remained seizure free and is normal developmentally at 9 years of age. Hypocalcemic seizures in this newborn were likely secondary to excessive maternal calcium ingestion, which led to transient neonatal hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia. Inquiry about perinatal maternal medication use should include a search for over-the-counter agents that might not be thought of as "drugs," as in this case, antacids. PMID:23668874

  9. Elevated granulocyte strontium in inflammatory arthritides is related to the inflammatory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haellgren, R.; Svensson, K.; Johansson, E.; Lindh, U.

    1984-12-01

    Total cellular strontium and calcium were measured by the nuclear microprobe technique. Increased mass fraction of both elements was found in granulocytes isolated from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and other kinds of inflammatory arthritides. Increased granulocyte calcium but only marginally elevated granulocyte strontium was demonstrated in patients with scleroderma. The granulocyte accumulation of strontium and calcium seems to be linked to the degree of inflammatory activity, because the granulocyte content of both elements was positively correlated to the plasma concentration of acute-phase proteins. Corticosteroid therapy induced a marked reduction of granulocyte strontium but a more modest decrease of granulocyte calcium. The serum levels of strontium and calcium were within the normal ranges in all patients and were not significantly altered by corticosteroids. 21 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePLUS

    ... provides 200 to 400 mg of calcium. Calcium citrate: This is a more expensive form of calcium. ... common in people over age 50) absorb calcium citrate better than calcium carbonate. Other forms, such as ...

  11. Usefulness of serum unbound free fatty acid levels to predict death early in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (from the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] II trial).

    PubMed

    Huber, Andrew H; Kampf, J Patrick; Kwan, Thomas; Zhu, Baolong; Adams, Jesse; Kleinfeld, Alan M

    2014-01-15

    Circulating total free fatty acid (FFA) levels are elevated early in myocardial infarction (MI) and have been associated with an increase in mortality. We investigated the association of serum unbound FFA (FFAu) levels with mortality in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation MI in the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction II trial. The Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction II trial enrolled patients within 4 hours of chest pain onset. The patients were treated with a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 1 hour of enrollment. The FFAu concentration was evaluated in serum samples from 1,834 patients obtained at baseline, before therapy. The FFAu level was an independent risk factor for death as early as at 1 day of hospitalization and continued to be an independent risk factor for the >3.8 years of follow-up. When adjusted for other cardiovascular risk factors, the FFAu levels in the fourth versus the first quartile remained an independent risk factor for death from MI (hazard ratio 5.0, 95% confidence interval 1.9 to 13.0), all cardiac death (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.4), and all-cause death (hazard ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 3.1). Women were twice as likely to be in the upper 2 FFAu quartiles and had approximately twice the rate of death as men. In conclusion, FFAu elevation is 1 of the earliest molecular biomarkers of mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation MI and was independent of other risk factors known to affect the outcomes after ST-segment elevation MI. PMID:24176067

  12. Elevating your elevator talk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  13. THE EFFECT OF HIGH-DOSE VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION ON SERUM VITAMIN D LEVELS AND MILK CALCIUM CONCENTRATION IN LACTATING WOMEN AND THEIR INFANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Improve vitamin D status in lactating women and their recipient infants, and measure breast milk calcium concentration ([Ca]) as a function of vitamin D regimen. Design/Methods: Fully breastfeeding mothers were randomized at one month postpartum to 2,000 (n = 12) or 4,000 (n = 13) IU/d...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1145 - Calcium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium test system. 862.1145 Section 862.1145....1145 Calcium test system. (a) Identification. A calcium test system is a device intended to measure the total calcium level in serum. Calcium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1145 - Calcium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium test system. 862.1145 Section 862.1145....1145 Calcium test system. (a) Identification. A calcium test system is a device intended to measure the total calcium level in serum. Calcium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1145 - Calcium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium test system. 862.1145 Section 862.1145....1145 Calcium test system. (a) Identification. A calcium test system is a device intended to measure the total calcium level in serum. Calcium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1145 - Calcium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium test system. 862.1145 Section 862.1145....1145 Calcium test system. (a) Identification. A calcium test system is a device intended to measure the total calcium level in serum. Calcium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment...

  18. Elevated hepcidin serum level in response to inflammatory and iron signals in exercising athletes is independent of moderate supplementation with vitamin C and E

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Víctor; Peinado, Ana B; Barba-Moreno, Laura; Altamura, Sandro; Butragueño, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Alteheld, Birgit; Stehle, Peter; Zapico, Augusto G; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Gassmann, Max

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency among endurance athletes is of major concern for coaches, physicians, and nutritionists. Recently, it has been observed that hepcidin, the master regulator of iron metabolism, was upregulated after exercise and was found to be related to interleukin-6 (IL-6) elevation. In this study performed on noniron deficient and well-trained runners, we observed that hepcidin concentrations remain elevated in response to inflammatory and iron signals despite a 28-days supplementation period with vitamins C (500 mg/day) and E (400 IU/day). PMID:26243212

  19. Dietary Calcium Does Not Affect Prostate Tumor Progression in LPB-Tag Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    S., Mordan-McCombs; T., Brown; J., Welsh; M, Tenniswood

    2007-01-01

    High dietary calcium has been shown in epidemiological studies to be a risk factor for prostate cancer, and it has been postulated that this effect is secondary to calcium induced modulation of the vitamin D axis. In this study, we used LPB-Tag transgenic mice on the CD1 background to examine the impact of dietary calcium on prostate tumor progression. CD1-LPB-Tag mice predictably develop autochthonous, hormone-responsive prostate tumors by 3 months of age. Age matched transgenic and non-transgenic littermates were weaned onto high (2%) or low (0.2%) calcium diets and mice were sacrificed at 5, 7, and 9 weeks of age. The entire urogenital complex was excised, weighed, and processed for histology. There was no significant effect of dietary calcium on tumor weight or on the time course of tumor progression, as monitored using a modified Gleason grade (MGS). Serum calcium was maintained in the normal range in mice on the low and high calcium diet throughout the study. Circulating 1,25(OH)2D3 was elevated by low dietary calcium in 5 week old mice, but not in older animals. In summary, neither development nor progression of prostate tumors in LPB-Tag mice was accelerated by high dietary calcium. PMID:17307354

  20. Chemotherapy-Induced Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Damage: a Cause of Falsely Elevated Serum 1,3-Beta-d-Glucan Levels?

    PubMed

    Prattes, Juergen; Raggam, Reinhard B; Vanstraelen, Kim; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Hoegenauer, Christoph; Krause, Robert; Prüller, Florian; Wölfler, Albert; Spriet, Isabel; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Blood citrulline and intestinal fatty acid binding protein were determined as biomarkers for intestinal mucositis. Biomarker levels were correlated with corresponding serum 1,3-beta-d-glucan levels in 56 samples obtained from 33 cases with underlying hematological malignancies receiving induction chemotherapy. No correlation between biomarkers of intestinal mucositis and BDG levels was observed. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01576653.). PMID:26719433

  1. ACTH promotes chondrogenic nodule formation and induces transient elevations in intracellular calcium in rat bone marrow cell cultures via MC2-R signaling

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jodi F.; Rodriguez, Sylvana; Ragolia, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is among the several melanocortin peptide hormones that are derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC). ACTH has been found to enhance osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. We show that in the presence of dexamethasone, ACTH dose-dependently increases chondrogenic nodule formation in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) from the Wystar Kyoto (WKY) rat. The nodules consist of condensed cells highly expressing alkaline phosphatase, Sox9 and type II collagen transcripts, and a proteoglycan rich matrix. Immunoblot analysis of crude membrane fractions was used to determine that these cells express three melanocortin receptors (MC-R); MC2-R, MC3-R and MC5-R, as well as the melanocortin 2-receptor accessory protein (MRAP). To determine which of these receptors mediate ACTH-induced effects, we used MC-R specific peptides and the known agonist profiles of the receptors. Neither ?-MSH, a strong agonist of the MC5-R nor ?2-MSH, a strong agonist of the MC3-R, duplicates ACTH effects in rat BMSC. In addition, calcium flux was examined as a mechanism for ACTH action at the MC2-R. Consistent with MC2-R and MRAP expression patterns in the BMSC cultures, ACTH-induced transient increases in intracellular calcium were increased with dexamethasone treatment. Neither ?-MSH nor ?2-MSH affected calcium flux. Dexamethasone increased MC2-R and MRAP expression as well as POMC peptide expression and cleavage to increase the production of the lipolytic ?-LPH product. Therefore the effects of ACTH in rat BMSC enriched for mesenchymal progenitors are consistent with an MC2-R signaling mechanism and dexamethasone is capable of regulating components of the melanocortin system in these cells. PMID:23358747

  2. ACTH promotes chondrogenic nodule formation and induces transient elevations in intracellular calcium in rat bone marrow cell cultures via MC2-R signaling.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jodi F; Rodriguez, Sylvana; Ragolia, Louis

    2013-05-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is among several melanocortin peptide hormones that are derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC). ACTH has been found to enhance osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. We show that, in the presence of dexamethasone, ACTH dose-dependently increases chondrogenic nodule formation in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) from the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat. The nodules consist in condensed cells highly expressing alkaline phosphatase, Sox9 and type II collagen transcripts and a proteoglycan-rich matrix. Immunoblot analysis of crude membrane fractions has shown that these cells express three melanocortin receptors (MC-R), namely MC2-R, MC3-R and MC5-R and the melanocortin 2-receptor accessory protein (MRAP). To determine which of these receptors mediate ACTH-induced effects, we have used MC-R-specific peptides and the known agonist profiles of the receptors. Neither ?-MSH, a strong agonist of MC5-R, nor ?2-MSH, a strong agonist of MC3-R, duplicates ACTH effects in rat BMSC. In addition, calcium flux has been examined as a mechanism for ACTH action at the MC2-R. Consistent with MC2-R and MRAP expression patterns in the BMSC cultures, ACTH-induced transient increases in intracellular calcium are increased with dexamethasone treatment. Neither ?-MSH nor ?2-MSH affects calcium flux. Dexamethasone increases MC2-R and MRAP expression and POMC peptide expression and cleavage increasing the production of the lipolytic ?-lipotropic hormone product. Therefore, the effects of ACTH in rat BMSC enriched for mesenchymal progenitors are consistent with an MC2-R signaling mechanism, with dexamethasone being capable of regulating components of the melanocortin system in these cells. PMID:23358747

  3. Abnormally elevated serum hCG in a patient with end-stage renal disease seeking abortion: to be expected or a cause for concern? A case report.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Benjamin W; Zerden, Matthew L; Morse, Jessica E

    2015-07-01

    A patient with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis was referred to our abortion clinic with a concern for molar pregnancy. By 12 weeks, her human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level was over 500,000. A review of the literature demonstrates that elevated hCG should be expected in this population and should not alter care. PMID:25858678

  4. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injection of calcium-containing heparin in a chronic kidney injury patient.

    PubMed

    Fatma, Lilia Ben; El Ati, Zohra; Azzouz, Haifa; Rais, Lamia; Krid, Madiha; Smaoui, Wided; Maiz, Hdi Ben; Bji, Soumaya; Zouaghi, Karim; Zitouna, Moncef; Moussa, Fatma Ben

    2014-09-01

    Subcutis calcinosis, characterized by abnormal calcium deposits in the skin, is a rare complication of using calcium-containing heparin occurring in patients with advanced renal failure. We report the case of an 83-year-old female, a known case of chronic kidney disease (CKD) for four years with recent worsening of renal failure requiring hospitalization and hemodialysis. She developed subcutis calcinosis following injection of calcium-containing heparin. Biochemical tests showed serum parathormone level at 400 pg/dL, hypercalcemia, elevated calcium-phosphate product and monoclonal gammopathy related to multiple myeloma. She developed firm subcutaneous nodules in the abdomen and the thighs, the injection sites of Calciparin (calcium nadroparin) that was given as a preventive measure against deep vein thrombosis. The diagnosis of subcutis calcinosis was confirmed by the histological examination showing calcium deposit in the dermis and hypodermis. These lesions completely disappeared after discontinuing calcium nadroparin injections. Subcutis calcinosis caused by injections of calcium-containing heparin is rare, and, to the best our knowledge, not more than 12 cases have been reported in the literature. Pathogenesis is not well established but is attributed to the calcium disorders usually seen in advanced renal failure. Diagnosis is confirmed by histological tests. Outcome is mostly favorable. The main differential diagnosis is calciphylaxis, which has a poor prognosis. Even though rarely reported, we should be aware that CKD patients with elevated calcium-phosphorus product can develop subcutis calcinosis induced by calcium-containing heparin. When it occurs, fortunately and unlike calciphylaxis, outcome is favorable. PMID:25193911

  5. Calcium bioavailability from calcium fortified food products.

    PubMed

    Kohls, K

    1991-08-01

    The calcium balance of 12 presumed healthy human young adult subjects was assessed. Subjects consumed a constant laboratory-controlled diet supplemented with one of four calcium-fortified food products: orange juice (OJ), milk (M), experimental pasteurized processed cheese (T), soda (S), or a calcium carbonate plus vitamin D tablet (CC). Study length was 6 weeks with seven-day experimental periods (2-days allowed for adjustment with 5-days combined for purposes of analysis). All urine and fecal samples were collected by the subjects for the duration of the study. Blood samples were drawn at the end of each experimental period. Urine and fecal calcium contents were determined. Blood samples were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase. Results of this study indicate a higher fecal calcium content (mg/day) when subjects consumed CC and T, and when subjects consumed self-selected diets, than when given S, M, or OJ. Urinary calcium excretion was significantly lower when subjects consumed OJ than when they consumed M, T, or their self-selected diets. A significantly larger positive calcium balance was demonstrated when subjects consumed OJ as compared to T. Fecal transmit time did not vary significantly. Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly lower when subjects consumed T than when they consumed self-selected diets. PMID:1765836

  6. Low Serum Testosterone Levels Are Associated with Elevated Urinary Mandelic Acid, and Strontium Levels in Adult Men According to the US 20112012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Hroux, Paul; Zhang, Qunwei; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Gu, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the effects of environmental exposure of chemicals on androgenic system in the general population. We studied 5,107 subjects included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (20112012). Methods Urinary, serum, and blood levels of 15 subclasses comprising 110 individual chemicals were analyzed for their association with serum testosterone levels. The subjects were divided into high and low testosterone groups according to the median testosterone concentration (374.51 ng/dL). Odds ratios (ORs) of individual chemicals in association with testosterone were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for age, ethnicity, cotinine, body mass index, creatinine, alcohol, and the poverty income ratio. Results Adjusted ORs for the highest versus lowest quartiles of exposure were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.07, 4.21; Ptrend = 0.044), 1.84 (95% CI: 1.02, 3.34; Ptrend = 0.018) for the association between urinary mandelic acid, and strontium quartiles with low testosterone concentrations in adult men, respectively. However, no association was observed for the remaining chemicals with testosterone. Conclusions The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data suggest that elevations in urinary mandelic acid, and strontium levels are negatively related to low serum testosterone levels in adult men. PMID:25996772

  7. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; Orwoll, Shiela; McCarron, David A.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P < 0.001), elevated parathyroid hormone levels (P < 0.001), reduced calcitonin levels (P < 0.05), unchanged 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, and elevated skull (P < 0.01) and reduced femur bone mineral density. Basal and thrombin-stimulated platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for indirect systolic BP to be reduced in conscious flight animals (P = 0.057). However, mean arterial pressure was elevated (P < 0.001) after anesthesia. Dietary calcium altered all aspects of calcium metabolism (P < 0.001), as well as BP (P < 0.001), but the only interaction with flight was a relatively greater increase in ionized calcium in flight animals fed low- compared with high-calcium diets (P < 0.05). The results indicate that 1) flight-induced disruptions of calcium metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  8. IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with only lymphadenopathy and without elevated serum IgG4 or renal imaging abnormalities: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xi; Wang, Lihua; Wang, Chen; Gao, Lifang; Yao, Shulei; Wu, Liran; Zhang, Xiaoqin

    2015-01-01

    IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN) is the most common renal manifestation of IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) and may cause acute or chronic renal dysfunction. Imaging often shows heterogeneous densities in the kidneys, such as a mass or multiple nodules. Serology usually demonstrates high levels of serum IgG4 and total IgG. Most patients have other organs involvement by IgG4 related disease. Although lymphadenopathy is frequently observed in patients with IgG4-TIN, it is rarely presented as the only extrarenal lesion. Herein, we present a rare case of IgG4-TIN associated with only lymphadenopathy and without elevated serum IgG4 or renal imaging abnormalities. A 61-year-old Chinese man was admitted to our hospital with seven months history of generalized lymphadenopathy and five months history of renal dysfunction. His renal imaging was normal. He had no current or previous clinical, radiographic, and/or histologic evidence of other organ involvement except for the lymphadenopathy. Renal biopsy indicated plasma cell-rich TIN with an increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells and storiform fibrosis. Repeated lymph nodes biopsy revealed IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. However, he did not have elevated serum IgG4 or total IgG levels. Oral prednisone therapy improved his renal function and lymphadenopathy. These findings supported our final diagnosis of IgG4-TIN. Clinicians should be aware of this condition and steroid therapy should be considered for such patients. An early diagnosis and appropriate therapy can induce remission and preserve renal function. PMID:26770608

  9. The treatment of uraemic hyperphosphataemia with calcium acetate and calcium carbonate: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, K; Scheer, J; Asmus, G; Umlauf, E; Hagemann, J; von Herrath, D

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study of long-term haemodialysis patients investigated the effects of calcium acetate and calcium carbonate on concentrations of serum phosphate, calcium, and parathyroid hormone. It was demonstrated that both substances led to a significant decrease in phosphate and serum parathyroid hormone. Administration of calcium acetate reduced the serum phosphate concentration in 7 weeks from an initial value of 2.08 +/- 0.53 mmol/l to 1.51 +/- 0.39 mmol/l (P less than 0.01). Following a 1-week wash-out period, calcium carbonate reduced the serum phosphate concentration in the same patients from 1.99 +/- 0.62 mmol/l to 1.34 +/- 0.40 mmol/l (P less than 0.01). Of particular significance, however, is the fact that in relation to daily elementary calcium intake, calcium acetate was a considerably more effective binder of intestinal phosphate than calcium carbonate. During administration of calcium acetate only 1.02 g of elementary calcium were required daily in order to reduce the serum phosphate concentration. The same patients, however, required 1.88 g of elementary calcium during calcium carbonate therapy. Complementary studies investigated the influence of an accompanying calcitriol medication. In this instance, too, calcium acetate was shown to be more effective; although the patients developed hypercalcaemia with calcium acetate, this happened more often with calcium carbonate. In summary it can be said that daily calcium loading of the uraemic organism under calcium acetate therapy is reduced by nearly half as compared to calcium carbonate therapy, and that this can be achieved with the same effective decrease of the serum phosphate concentration. PMID:1866045

  10. Elevated serum miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 are noninvasive biomarkers for the presence and progression of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Song, Jiaxi; Bu, Xiaomin; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Jia; Cai, Jialu; Wan, Shujun; Fan, Chunli; Zhang, Chunni; Wang, Junjun

    2016-04-01

    The levels of miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 have been reported to be up-regulated in the tissues of experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) rat models. However, the clinical diagnostic and prognostic values of the serum signatures of these 3 miRNAs in TBI remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression levels of these 3 microRNAs (miRNAs) in the sera of TBI patients and to evaluate their relationships with the severity and clinical outcome of TBI. The serum levels of these miRNAs were assessed in TBI patients (n = 76) and healthy controls (n = 38) by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. The severities and clinical outcomes of the TBI patients were evaluated with the Glasgow coma scale and the Glasgow outcome scale. The serum miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 levels were significantly increased in the TBI patients compared with the controls at all examined time points, and these levels were significantly higher in the patients with severe TBI than in those with moderate or mild TBI (p < 0.05). The serum miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 levels were significantly higher in the patients with a poor outcome than in those with a good outcome (p < 0.05). The AUCs of miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 for distinguishing the TBI patients from the healthy controls were 1.000 (p < 0.001), 0.727 (p < 0.001) and 0.801 (p < 0.001), respectively. Interestingly, the AUCs of miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 for distinguishing the mild TBI patients from the healthy controls were 1.000 (p < 0.001), 0.742 (p < 0.001) and 0.819 (p < 0.001), respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 are potentially valuable indicators of the diagnosis, severity, and prognosis of TBI. Our study showed that the serum levels of miR-93, miR-191, and miR-499 are all increased in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Their serum levels are associated with TBI severity and outcome, which suggest that these miRNAs play important roles in the pathogenesis and progression of TBI. We think these findings should provide a new strategy for the diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment of TBI. PMID:26756543

  11. Early Elevation of Serum MMP-3 and MMP-12 Predicts Protection from World Trade Center-Lung Injury in New York City Firefighters: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Echevarria, Ghislaine C.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Naveed, Bushra; Prezant, David J.; Rom, William N.; Nolan, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective After 9/11/2001, some Fire Department of New York (FDNY) workers had excessive lung function decline. We hypothesized that early serum matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) expression predicts World Trade Center-Lung Injury (WTC-LI) years later. Methods This is a nested case-control analysis of never-smoking male firefighters with normal pre-exposure Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) who had serum drawn up to 155 days post 9/11/2001. Serum MMP-1, 2,3,7,8, 9, 12 and 13 were measured. Cases of WTC-LI (N = 70) were defined as having an FEV1 one standard deviation below the mean (FEV1≤77%) at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation (SPE) which was performed 32 months (IQR 21–53) post-9/11. Controls (N = 123) were randomly selected. We modeled MMP's ability as a predictor of cases status with logistic regression adjusted for time to blood draw, exposure intensity, weight gain and pre-9/11 FEV1. Results Each log-increase in MMP-3 and MMP-12 showed reduced odds of developing WTC-LI by 73% and 54% respectively. MMP-3 and MMP-12 consistently clustered together in cases, controls, and the cohort. Increasing time to blood draw significantly and independently increased the risk of WTC-LI. Conclusions Elevated serum levels of MMP-3 and MMP-12 reduce the risk of developing WTC-LI. At any level of MMP-3 or 12, increased time to blood draw is associated with a diminished protective effect. PMID:24146820

  12. Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate as oral phosphate binder in pediatric and adolescent hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Wallot, M; Bonzel, K E; Winter, A; Gerger, B; Lettgen, B; Bald, M

    1996-10-01

    Calcium carbonate is widely used as an oral phosphorus binder to control hyperphosphatemia in children on maintenance hemodialysis. Intestinal calcium absorption may induce hypercalcemia, particularly if calcitriol is given simultaneously. In adults, calcium acetate binds phosphorus more effectively than calcium carbonate, while reducing the frequency of hypercalcemic events. We therefore compared calcium acetate with calcium carbonate in nine pediatric patients on long-term maintenance hemodialysis. Following a 1-week withdrawal of phosphorus binders, calcium carbonate was administered for 7 weeks; after a second withdrawal, calcium acetate was given for another 7 weeks. All patients received calcitriol regularly. Both agents lowered the serum phosphorus concentration significantly (calcium carbonate 5.7 +/- 1.4 vs. 7.7 +/- 2.1 mg/ dl, P < 0.005; calcium acetate 5.8 +/- 1.4 vs. 7.8 +/- 2.0 mg/dl, P < 0.005). Significantly less elementary calcium was ingested with calcium acetate than with calcium carbonate: 750 (375-1,500) vs. 1,200 (0-3,000) mg calcium/day, P < 0.0001. Wit calcium carbonate serum calcium increased significantly. The number of episodes of hyperphosphatemia or hypercalcemia did not differ between treatments. Intact plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) decreased significantly with both phosphate binders, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 increased. There was a close relationship between serum phosphorus and PTH in prepubertal but not in pubertal patients. We conclude that hyperphosphatemia can be controlled effectively by both calcium acetate and calcium carbonate in pediatric hemodialysis patients. The oral load of elementary calcium is reduced significantly by binding phosphorus with calcium acetate instead of calcium carbonate; nevertheless, hypercalcemic episodes remain equally frequent with both phosphate binders. PMID:8897570

  13. Elevation of serum creatine kinase during methimazole treatment of Graves disease in a 13-year-old girl and a literature review of similar cases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeseon; Kim, Jinsup; Huh, Rimm; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    We report a 13-year-old girl with Graves disease, who showed an increased level of serum creatine kinase (CK) accompanied by myalgia after methimazole (MMI) treatment. This patient developed muscular pain two weeks after MMI administration, along with increased CK levels. The level of thyroid hormone was within the normal range when she showed increased CK levels. After the MMI dose was decreased and levo-thyroxine was added, serum CK levels decreased to normal and the myalgia improved. The pathophysiologic mechanism of this effect has not yet been elucidated. An acute relatively hypothyroid state occurs secondary to antithyroid drug (ATD) administration in chronic hyperthyroidism, which may cause changes in the CK levels. In this report, we present a rare pediatric case, along with a literature review of similar cases. In the initial state of MMI treatment, myalgia should be detected and when it occurs, CK levels should be measured. The clinical strategy of monitoring CK levels with the aim of normalizing thyroid hormones is helpful in case of the development of adverse reactions, such as myalgia, during ATD treatment for Graves disease in children. PMID:26191516

  14. Retrospective Study of Serum Sclerostin Measurements in Bed Rest Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, J. M.; Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Divieti, Pajevic P.; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, M. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton s response to mechanical unloading at the cellular level in part by an increase in sclerostin, an inhibitor of the anabolic Wnt pathway. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Thus, we determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men who participated in a controlled bed rest study. Seven healthy adult men (31 +/- 3 yrs old) underwent 90-day six-degree head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston's Institute for Translational Sciences - Clinical Research Center (ITS-CRC). Serum sclerostin, PTH, serum markers of bone turnover (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, RANKL/OPG, and osteocalcin), urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24 hour pooled urinary markers of bone resorption (NTX, DPD, PYD) were evaluated pre-bed rest (BL), bed rest day 28 (BR-28), bed rest day 60 (BR-60), and bed rest day 90 (BR-90). In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at BL, BR-60, and post bed rest day 5 (BR+5). Data are reported as mean +/- standard deviation. We used repeated measures ANOVA to compare baseline values to BR-28, BR-60, and BR-90. RESULTS Consistent with prior reports, BMD declined significantly (1-2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites (spine, hip, femur neck, and calcaneus). Serum sclerostin levels were elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29% +/- 20%, p = 0.003), BR-60 (+42% +/- 31%, p < 0.001), and BR-90 (22% +/- 21%, p = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (-17% +/- 16%, p = 0.02), BR-60 (-24% +/- 14%, p = 0.03), and returned to baseline at BR-90 (-21% +/- 21%, p = 0.14). Serum bone turnover markers did not change, however urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated following bed rest (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION We observed an increase of serum sclerostin associated with decreased serum PTH and elevated bone resorption markers in otherwise healthy men subjected to long-term immobilization.

  15. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  16. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Laffray, Sophie; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca2+ homeostasis. The low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms) play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca2+ channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations. PMID:24672455

  17. Nanoparticle-Based Test Measures Overall Propensity for Calcification in Serum

    PubMed Central

    Farese, Stefan; Grber, Steffen; Wald, Johanna; Richtering, Walter; Floege, Jrgen; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2012-01-01

    Vascular and soft tissue calcification contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in both the general population and CKD. Because calcium and phosphate serum concentrations are near supersaturation, the balance of inhibitors and promoters critically influences the development of calcification. An assay that measures the overall propensity for calcification to occur in serum may have clinical use. Here, we describe a nanoparticle-based assay that detects, in the presence of artificially elevated calcium and phosphate concentrations, the spontaneous transformation of spherical colloidal primary calciprotein particles (CPPs) to elongate crystalline secondary CPPs. We used characteristics of this transition to describe the intrinsic capacity of serum to inhibit the precipitation of calcium and phosphate. Using this assay, we found that both the sera of mice deficient in fetuin-A, a serum protein that inhibits calcification, and the sera of patients on hemodialysis have reduced intrinsic properties to inhibit calcification. In summary, we developed a nanoparticle-based test that measures the overall propensity for calcification in serum. The clinical use of the test requires evaluation in a prospective study. PMID:22956818

  18. Elevation of serum IgE level and peripheral eosinophil count during T lymphocyte-directed gene therapy for ADA deficiency: implication of Tc2-like cells after gene transduction procedure.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, N; Ariga, T; Ohtsu, M; Yamada, M; Tame, A; Furuta, H; Kobayashi, I; Okano, M; Yanagihara, Y; Sakiyama, Y

    1998-11-01

    We have successfully carried out T-cell-directed gene therapy for a boy with severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA SCID) and unexpectedly found an elevation of serum IgE level and peripheral eosinophil count during the course. More than 90% of transduced cells cultured for 7-11 days before infusion into the patient were positive for CD8 and expressed Th2-type cytokine genes such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Furthermore, CD4(+) T-depleted PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) from the patient synthesized IgE in vitro by stimulation with IL-4. Collectively, these results suggested that Tc2-like cells in the transduced cells have distinct immunological functions to help IgE synthesis and activate eosinophils. PMID:9865602

  19. Establishment of Elevated Serum Levels of IL-10, IL-8 and TNF-? as Potential Peripheral Blood Biomarkers in Tubercular Lymphadenitis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Abhimanyu; Bose, Mridula; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Jain, Ashima; Sethi, Tavpritesh; Tiwari, Pradeep Kumar; Agrawal, Anurag; Banavaliker, Jayant Nagesh; Bhowmick, Kumar Tapas

    2016-01-01

    Background Tubercular lymphadenitis (TL) is the most common form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) consisting about 1520% of all TB cases. The currently available diagnostic modalities for (TL), are invasive and involve a high index of suspicion, having limited accuracy. We hypothesized that TL would have a distinct cytokine signature that would distinguish it from pulmonary TB (PTB), peripheral tubercular lymphadenopathy (LNTB), healthy controls (HC), other lymphadenopathies (LAP) and cancerous LAP. To assess this twelve cytokines (Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)?, Interferon (IFN) -?, Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-18, IL-1?, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4, IL-1Receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-8 and TNF-?, which have a role in pathogenesis of tuberculosis, were tested as potential peripheral blood biomarkers to aid the diagnosis of TL when routine investigations prove to be of limited value. Methods and Findings A prospective observational cohort study carried out during 20102013. This was a multi-center study with three participating hospitals in Delhi, India where through random sampling cohorts were established. The subjects were above 15 years of age, HIV-negative with no predisposing ailments to TB (n = 338). The discovery cohort (n = 218) had LNTB (n = 50), PTB (n = 84) and HC (n = 84). The independent validation cohort (n = 120) composed of patients with cancerous LAP (n = 35), other LAP (n = 20) as well as with independent PTB (n = 30), LNTB (n = 15) and HC (n = 20). Eight out of twelve cytokines achieved statistical relevance upon evaluation by pairwise and ROC analysis. Further, variable selection using random forest backward elimination revealed six serum biosignatures including IL-12, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8 and TNF-? as optimal for classifying the LNTB status of an individual. For the sake of clinical applicability we further selected a three analyte panel (IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-?) which was subjected to multinomial modeling in the independent validation cohort which was randomised into training and test cohorts, achieving an overwhelming 95.9% overall classifying accuracy for correctly classifying LNTB cases with a minimal (7%) misclassification error rate in the test cohort. Conclusions In our study, a three analyte serum biosignatures and probability equations were established which can guide the physician in their clinical decision making and step wise management of LNTB patients. This set of biomarkers has the potential to be a valuable adjunct to the diagnosis of TL in cases where AFB positivity and granulomatous findings elude the clinician. PMID:26784906

  20. Calcium Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dietary calcium Decreased levels of vitamin D Magnesium deficiency Increased levels of phosphorus Acute inflammation of the pancreas ( pancreatitis ) Renal failure Urinary calcium levels may be affected by ...

  1. Circadian Models of Serum Potassium, Sodium, and Calcium Concentrations in Healthy Individuals and Their Application to Cardiac Electrophysiology Simulations at Individual Level

    PubMed Central

    Fijorek, Kamil; Puskulluoglu, Miroslawa

    2013-01-01

    In the article a brief description of the biological basis of the regulation of human biological clocks was presented in order to introduce the role of circadian rhythms in physiology and specifically in the pharmacological translational tools based on the computational physiology models to motivate the need to provide models of circadian fluctuation in plasma cations. The main aim of the study was to develop statistical models of the circadian rhythm of potassium, sodium, and calcium concentrations in plasma. The developed ion models were further tested by assessing their influence on QT duration (cardiac endpoint) as simulated by the biophysically detailed models of human left ventricular cardiomyocyte. The main results are model equations along with an electronic supplement to the article that contains a fully functional implementation of all models. PMID:24078832

  2. Effect of vitamin D3, other drugs altering serum calcium or phosphorus concentrations, and desoxycorticosterone on the distribution of Tc-99m pyrophosphate between target and nontarget tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.

    1981-06-01

    Radioactive imaging agents are chemically designed for selective distribution. Another approach to selectivity is to find stable compounds that favorably influence this distribution. Using a rat model of myocardial necrosis, we studied effects of various stable compounds (as a single, large dose or fractionated into short series) on the ratio, uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PPi) by the target lesion/uptake by the principal nontarget, bone (L/B). Vitamin D3s ability to increase L/B was mediated by the hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia that it caused. The hypercalcemia was accompanied by increased (Ca) in the lesion. In contrast, pulse doses of desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) at 7 and 6 hr before killing increased uptake by lesion, increasing L/B from 0.19 +/- 0.03 to 0.45 +/- 0.08 (p less than 0.01), with no change in serum (Ca) and minimal changes in serum (P), (Na), and (K). DOCA also increased the lesion-to-blood ratio from 6.5 +/- 0.07 to 15.4 +/- 3.9 (p less than 0.05). These results encourage further study of DOCA's effect and investigation of other stable drugs that may influence distribution of other imaging agents.

  3. Activation of the gut calcium-sensing receptor by peptide agonists reduces rapid elevation of plasma glucose in response to oral glucose load in rats.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Maya; Hira, Tohru; Mitsunaga, Arimi; Sato, Eri; Nakajima, Shingo; Kitahara, Yoshiro; Eto, Yuzuru; Hara, Hiroshi

    2014-06-15

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in various tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. To investigate the role of gut CaSR on glycemic control, we examined whether single oral administration of CaSR agonist peptides affected the glycemic response in rats. Glucose tolerance tests were performed under oral or duodenal administration of various CaSR agonist peptides (?Glu-Cys, protamine, and poly-d-lysine hydrobromide) in conscious rats. Involvement of CaSR was determined by using a CaSR antagonist. Signaling pathways underlying CaSR agonist-modified glycemia were investigated using gut hormone receptor antagonists. The gastric emptying rate after the administration of CaSR agonist peptides was measured by the phenol red recovery method. Oral and duodenal administration of CaSR agonist peptides attenuated glycemic responses under the oral glucose tolerance test, but the administration of casein did not. The promotive effect on glucose tolerance was weakened by luminal pretreatment with a CaSR antagonist. Treatment with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist partially diminished the glucose-lowering effect of peptides. Furthermore, the gastric emptying rate was decreased by duodenal administration of CaSR agonist peptides. These results demonstrate that activation of the gut CaSR by peptide agonists promotes glucose tolerance in conscious rats. 5-HT3 receptor and the delayed gastric emptying rate appear to be involved in the glucose-lowering effect of CaSR agonist peptides. Thus, activation of gut CaSR by dietary peptides reduces glycemic responses so that gut CaSR may be a potential target for the improvement of postprandial glycemia. PMID:24812056

  4. Development and validation a LC-MS/MS method for determination of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel and NMDA receptor antagonist NGP1-01 in mouse serum

    PubMed Central

    Jogiraju, Harini; Zhou, Xiang; Gobburi, Ashta Lakshmi Prasad; Pedada, Kiran K.; Geldenhuys, Werner J.; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J.; Crish, Samuel D.; Anderson, David J.

    2016-01-01

    NGP1-01 (8-benzylamino-8, 11-oxapentacyclo [5.4.0.02, 6.03, 10.05, 9] undecane) is a heterocyclic cage compound with multifunctional calcium channel blocking activity that has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective in several neurodegenerative models. A sensitive internal standard LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to quantify NGP1-01 in mouse serum. The internal standard (IS) was 8-phenylethyl-8, 11-oxapentacyclo [5.4.0.0(2, 6).0(3, 10).0(5, 9)] undecane. Sample preparation involved a protein precipitation procedure by addition of acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Phenomenex Kinetex phenyl-hexyl column (100 x 2.1 mm, 2.6 ?m) employing a gradient (45% isocratic 3 min, 45% to 95% linear gradient 6 min, 95% isocratic 3 min) of an elution mobile phase of 5 mM ammonium acetate in 100% acetonitrile mixing with an application mobile phase of 5 mM ammonium acetate in 2% acetonitrile. Detection was achieved by a QTrap 5500 mass spectrometer (AB Sciex) employing electrospray ionization in the positive mode with multiple-reaction-monitoring (MRM) for NGP1-01 (m/z 266 ? 91) and IS (m/z 280 ? 105). The method validation was carried out in accordance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. The method had a linear range of at least 0.550 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient 0.999. The intra-assay and inter-assay precisions (%CV) were equal to or within the range of 1.0 to 4.3% and the accuracies (% relative error) equal to or within ?2.5% to 3.4%. The analyte was stable for at least 2 months at ?20C, for at least 8 h at room temperature and for at least three freeze thaw cycles. The extraction recovery was 94.9 to 105.0%, with a %CV ? 9.5%. The technique was found to be free of any matrix effects as determined by experiments involving five different lots of mouse serum. Cross-talk interferences were not present. Two different gradient slope chromatography runs were done on dosed mouse serum samples to assess a possible positive error in peak area determination from in-source fragmentation of metabolites generating the same MRM transitions as the parent drug or IS. No such interference was found in the NGP1-01 peak, while a minor interference was identified in the IS peak. The optimized method was applied to the measurement of NGP1-01 in serum of dosed mice. PMID:24950096

  5. Preeclampsia serum-induced collagen I expression and intracellular calcium levels in arterial smooth muscle cells are mediated by the PLC-γ1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rongzhen; Teng, Yincheng; Huang, Yajuan; Gu, Jinghong; Ma, Li; Li, Ming; Zhou, Yuedi

    2014-01-01

    In women with preeclampsia (PE), endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction can lead to altered secretion of paracrine factors that induce peripheral vasoconstriction and proteinuria. This study examined the hypothesis that PE sera may directly or indirectly, through human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), stimulate phospholipase C-γ1-1,4,5-trisphosphate (PLC-γ1-IP3) signaling, thereby increasing protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) activity, collagen I expression and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs). HUASMCs and HUVECs were cocultured with normal or PE sera before PLC-γ1 silencing. Increased PLC-γ1 and IP3 receptor (IP3R) phosphorylation was observed in cocultured HUASMCs stimulated with PE sera (P<0.05). In addition, PE serum significantly increased HUASMC viability and reduced their apoptosis (P<0.05); these effects were abrogated with PLC-γ1 silencing. Compared with normal sera, PE sera increased [Ca2+]i in cocultured HUASMCs (P<0.05), which was inhibited by PLC-γ1 and IP3R silencing. Finally, PE sera-induced PKC-α activity and collagen I expression was inhibited by PLC-γ1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) (P<0.05). These results suggest that vasoactive substances in the PE serum may induce deposition in the extracellular matrix through the activation of PLC-γ1, which may in turn result in thickening and hardening of the placental vascular wall, placental blood supply shortage, fetal hypoxia–ischemia and intrauterine growth retardation or intrauterine fetal death. PE sera increased [Ca2+]i and induced PKC-α activation and collagen I expression in cocultured HUASMCs via the PLC-γ1 pathway. PMID:25257609

  6. Preeclampsia serum-induced collagen I expression and intracellular calcium levels in arterial smooth muscle cells are mediated by the PLC-γ1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rongzhen; Teng, Yincheng; Huang, Yajuan; Gu, Jinghong; Ma, Li; Li, Ming; Zhou, Yuedi

    2014-01-01

    In women with preeclampsia (PE), endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction can lead to altered secretion of paracrine factors that induce peripheral vasoconstriction and proteinuria. This study examined the hypothesis that PE sera may directly or indirectly, through human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), stimulate phospholipase C-γ1-1,4,5-trisphosphate (PLC-γ1-IP3) signaling, thereby increasing protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) activity, collagen I expression and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs). HUASMCs and HUVECs were cocultured with normal or PE sera before PLC-γ1 silencing. Increased PLC-γ1 and IP3 receptor (IP3R) phosphorylation was observed in cocultured HUASMCs stimulated with PE sera (P<0.05). In addition, PE serum significantly increased HUASMC viability and reduced their apoptosis (P<0.05); these effects were abrogated with PLC-γ1 silencing. Compared with normal sera, PE sera increased [Ca(2+)]i in cocultured HUASMCs (P<0.05), which was inhibited by PLC-γ1 and IP3R silencing. Finally, PE sera-induced PKC-α activity and collagen I expression was inhibited by PLC-γ1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) (P<0.05). These results suggest that vasoactive substances in the PE serum may induce deposition in the extracellular matrix through the activation of PLC-γ1, which may in turn result in thickening and hardening of the placental vascular wall, placental blood supply shortage, fetal hypoxia-ischemia and intrauterine growth retardation or intrauterine fetal death. PE sera increased [Ca(2+)]i and induced PKC-α activation and collagen I expression in cocultured HUASMCs via the PLC-γ1 pathway. PMID:25257609

  7. Role of calcium antagonists in progression of arteriosclerosis. Evidence from animal experiments and clinical experience. Part I. Preventive effects of calcium antagonists in animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Frey, M; Just, H

    1994-01-01

    The quantitative predominance of free and total cholesterol over the amount of mural calcium is a most significant criterion of healthy human coronary arteries during the whole life span (0-90 years). However, this normal ratio increasingly changes as soon as arteriosclerotic alterations of the coronary walls set in. Accordingly, the mural calcium content steadily rises from fatty streaks over severe arteriosclerosis and, lastly, seems to reach a climax in plaques which caused lethal coronary infarction. Furthermore, the severe arteriosclerosis of human art. dorsalis pedis with gangrene (and amputation) is characterized by a tremendous calcium incorporation and absence of any mural cholesterol changes. Only in rare cases of human basilary plaques was a dangerous cholesterol incorporation in brain arterial wall found without significant elevation of serum cholesterol levels. The presented data indicate the existence of two different types of arteriosclerosis in one and the same patient and two basically different types of experimental coronary plaques according to their chemical composition, microscopic aspect and responsiveness to calcium antagonists: 1) the calcium type, developing in vitamin-D3-treated rats, and 2) the cholesterol type, represented by fatty coronary atheromata of cholesterol-fed rabbits. Coronary atheromata of cholesterol-fed New Zealand rabbits may be suitable models for coronary heart disease in rare cases of human familiar hypercholesterolemia. The formation of conventional human coronary artery plaques, however, essentially requires a progressive uptake of calcium, thereby representing a calcium dominated type of arteriosclerosis. Calcium antagonists specifically inhibit progredient mural calcium uptake in all experimental models of arteriosclerosis tested so far. However, neither in atheromatous arteries nor in afflicted organs (myocardium, liver, kidneys) of cholesterol-fed rabbits were we able to find any significant prevention of cholesterol accumulation by calcium antagonist. PMID:7945170

  8. Effect of a combined therapeutic approach of intensive lipid management, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, and increased serum 25 (OH) vitamin D on coronary calcium scores in asymptomatic adults.

    PubMed

    Davis, William; Rockway, Susie; Kwasny, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The impact of intensive lipid management, omega-3 fatty acid, and vitamin D3 supplementation on atherosclerotic plaque was assessed through serial computed tomography coronary calcium scoring (CCS). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction with statin therapy has not been shown to reduce or slow progression of serial CCS in several recent studies, casting doubt on the usefulness of this approach for tracking atherosclerotic progression. In an open-label study, 45 male and female subjects with CCS of > or = 50 without symptoms of heart disease were treated with statin therapy, niacin, and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides < or = 60 mg/dL; high-density lipoprotein > or = 60 mg/dL; and vitamin D3 supplementation to achieve serum levels of > or = 50 ng/mL 25(OH) vitamin D, in addition to diet advice. Lipid profiles of subjects were significantly changed as follows: total cholesterol -24%, low-density lipoprotein -41%; triglycerides -42%, high-density lipoprotein +19%, and mean serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels +83%. After a mean of 18 months, 20 subjects experienced decrease in CCS with mean change of -14.5% (range 0% to -64%); 22 subjects experienced no change or slow annual rate of CCS increase of +12% (range 1%-29%). Only 3 subjects experienced annual CCS progression exceeding 29% (44%-71%). Despite wide variation in response, substantial reduction of CCS was achieved in 44% of subjects and slowed plaque growth in 49% of the subjects applying a broad treatment program. PMID:19092644

  9. Effects of prepartum dietary cation-anion difference and acidified coproducts on dry matter intake, serum calcium, and performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Rezac, D J; Block, E; Weber, D; Brouk, M J; Bradford, B J

    2014-02-01

    Two products designed to deliver supplemental anions were evaluated for their effects on DMI, total serum Ca, and performance of transition dairy cows relative to a control diet that did not contain supplemental anions. Diets differed in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and anion source. Treatments were diets including a control (CON; DCAD +17.7 meq/100 g DM; n = 13), Bio-Chlor (BC; DCAD +2.5 meq/100 g DM; n = 14), and SoyChlor (SC, DCAD +0.4 meq/100 g DM; n = 15). Treatments began 21 d before expected calving dates and continued through parturition (mean treatment length 20.98 d); on calving, all animals received the same diet. Milk yield was measured through 21 d in milk, and milk samples were collected daily between 5 and 21 d in milk. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures. Prepartum DMI was 9.0, 8.5, and 7.5 0.6 kg/d for CON, BC, and SC treatments, respectively, and tended to be lower for SC than CON (P = 0.07). Postpartum DMI and milk yields were similar among treatments. Milk protein, lactose, and urea nitrogen concentrations were highest for SC and lowest for BC, with CON being intermediate. Plasma glucose, measured on d 5, 10, and 21 postpartum, tended to be different among treatments (P = 0.06; 66.7, 57.1, and 63.8 3.1 mg/dL for CON, BC, and SC, respectively). Serum total Ca concentrations did not differ among dietary treatments and only tended to change over time; values were not indicative of clinical hypocalcemia. With limited sample size, no significant effects of treatment were detected for incidence of postpartum health disorders or plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate concentration. Although DMI tended to be depressed in the prepartum period by SC, this intake depression was not accompanied by negative effects on performance or health in the postpartum period. Results suggest that cows were not adequately stressed to cause hypocalcemia or that DCAD values near 0 were insufficient to improve postpartum health and performance or both. PMID:24398835

  10. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Lane, Helen W.

    1999-01-01

    Bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight, threatening to limit the duration of human space missions. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after extended-duration missions. The hypotheses to be tested in this project are that space flight alters calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism, and that calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism will return to baseline within days to weeks of return to Earth. These hypotheses will be evidenced by elevated rates of bone mineral resorption and decreased bone mineral deposition, decreased absorption of dietary calcium, altered calcitropic endocrine profiles, elevated excretion of calcium in urine and feces, and elevated excretion of markers of bone resorption. The second hypothesis will be evidenced by return of indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism to preflight levels within days to weeks of return to Earth. Studies will be conducted on International Space Station astronauts before, during, and after extended-duration flights. Measurements of calcium kinetics, bone mass, and endocrine/biochemical markers of bone and calcium homeostasis will be conducted. Kinetic studies utilizing dual isotope tracer kinetic studies and mathematical modeling techniques will allow for determination of bone calcium deposition, bone calcium resorption, dietary calcium absorption and calcium excretion (both urinary and endogenous fecal excretion). These studies will build upon preliminary work conducted on the Russian Mir space station. The results from this project will be critical for clarifying how microgravity affects bone and calcium homeostasis, and will provide an important control point for assessment of countermeasure efficacy. These results are expected to aid in developing countermeasures for bone loss, both for space crews and for individuals on Earth who have metabolic bone diseases.

  11. Effects of supplementation with a calcium-rich marine-derived multi-mineral supplement and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides on serum lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Barbara E; Allsopp, Philip J; Slevin, Mary M; Magee, Pamela J; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir M

    2016-02-01

    Recent literature suggests that Ca supplements have adverse effects on cardiovascular health. The effects of a Ca-rich supplement administered alone or in combination with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) on serum lipids in postmenopausal women were examined using secondary data from a 24-month double-blind randomised controlled study. A total of 300 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to daily supplements of 800 mg of Ca (24 g Aquamin) (Ca), 800 mg of Ca with 3 g of scFOS (CaFOS) or control (maltodextrin) (MD). A full lipid profile, body composition, blood pressure and a range of cytokines were measured at baseline and after 24 months. Intention-to-treat ANCOVA assessed treatment effects between the groups. A significant time-by-treatment effect was observed for LDL and total cholesterol for the Ca and CaFOS groups, with both groups having lower LDL and total cholesterol concentrations compared with MD after 24 months. The control group had mean (52 mmol/l) total cholesterol concentrations above the normal range (?5 mmol/l) at 24 months, whereas values remained within the normal range in the treatment groups. There was no significant treatment effect on HDL-cholesterol, TAG, body composition, blood pressure or cytokine concentrations at 24 months, with the exception of IL-4, where there was a significant increase in the CaFOS group compared with the placebo. This study demonstrates a lipid-lowering effect of both the Ca-rich supplement alone and the supplement with scFOS. At the 4-year follow-up, there was no significant difference between the groups for reported diagnosed cardiovascular conditions. PMID:26669430

  12. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order to work. ... A 24-hour urine sample is most often needed: On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you wake up in the morning. ...

  13. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePLUS

    ... All cells need calcium in order to work. Calcium helps build strong bones and teeth. It is important for heart function. It also helps with muscle contraction, nerve signaling, and blood clotting. This article discusses ...

  14. Comparison of Serum Uric Acid, Bilirubin, and C-Reactive Protein as Prognostic Biomarkers of In-Hospital MACE Between Women and Men With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Stefan; Huseynov, Aydin; Koepp, Johanna; Jabbour, Claude; Behnes, Michael; Becher, Tobias; Renker, Matthias; Lang, Siegfried; Borggrefe, Martin; Lehmann, Ralf; Akin, Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid (UA), and total bilirubin (TB) are associated with coronary artery disease and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We retrospectively included 1167 patients with STEMI who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and routine blood sampling. The study cohort consisted of 803 patients (73.1% male, mean age 62.5 13.4 years). In men, the levels of CRP, TB, and UA were significantly higher in the MACE than in the non-MACE group (P < .05). The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis shows that CRP (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53-0.66; P = .014) and TB (AUC: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.51-0.65; P = .019) are significantly associated with MACE but not UA (AUC: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.42-0.76; P = .083). Logistic regression revealed CRP (odds ratio [OR] 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00-1.01; P = .006) and TB (OR 2.03; 95% CI: 1.12-3.40; P = .007) as an independent predictor for MACE. In women, none of the biomarkers was associated with MACE by ROC analysis or logistic regression analysis. This study demonstrated that high CRP and TB serum levels have a prognostic association with in-hospital MACE in male patients with STEMI. PMID:26032849

  15. Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Stern, D.T.; Shipp, C.C.; Rasmussen, H.M.

    1988-07-01

    Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested /sup 47/Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8 weeks and a 300-mg calcium diet for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. After the diet change, serum intact PTH (32.2% increase; P = 0.005), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D; 43.8% increase; P = 0.003), and fractional whole body calcium retention (42.8% increase; P = 0.004) increased within 1 week. Although the PTH and calcium retention responses remained fairly constant throughout the low calcium intake period, serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations declined toward baseline after week 1. Thus, the late increase in calcium retention may have resulted from calcium absorption that was independent of 1,25-(OH)2D stimulation.

  16. Intracellular free calcium and mitosis in mammalian cells: anaphase onset is calcium modulated, but is not triggered by a brief transient

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts and LLC-PK epithelial cells in prometaphase or metaphase were either injected with fura-2 or loaded with the acetoxymethyl ester derivative of fura-2 (fura-2 AM) and monitored by microspectrofluorimetry. With both methods of loading, we observed two aspects of intracellular free calcium (Cai) metabolism. (a) Most fibroblasts and epithelial cells exhibited a gradual rise from 75 nM in metaphase to 185 nM during cleavage, returning to baseline by early G1. (b) Mitotic Swiss 3T3 cells exhibited rapid transient Cai changes, similar to those previously reported [Poenie, M., J. Alderton, R. Y. Tsien, R. A. Steinhardt. 1985. Nature (Lond.). 315:147-149; Poenie, M., J. Alderton, R. Steinhardt, and R. Tsien. 1986. Science (Wash. DC). 233:886-889; Ratan, R., and M. L. Shelanski. 1988. J. Cell Biol. 107:993]. These Cai transients occurred repetitively, often beginning in metaphase and continuing long after daughter cell formation. Eliminating serum or calcium from the medium abolished the transients, but delayed neither the gradual Cai elevation nor anaphase onset. Co- injection of EGTA or 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'- tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) with fura-2 in calcium-free medium, but not in calcium containing medium, blocked both anaphase and the sustained Cai elevation in almost all cases. Blocked cells were rescued by returning calcium to the medium, whereupon Cai slowly but steadily rose as the cell entered anaphase. Spindle microtubules persisted through the EGTA block. Depolymerization of spindle microtubules by nocodazole also reversibly blocked anaphase onset and the sustained Cai elevation, but did not block transients. This study has revealed the following: (a) anaphase in mammalian fibroblasts and epithelial cells is not triggered by brief calcium transients; (b) anaphase is a calcium-modulated event, usually accompanied by a sustained elevation of Cai above 50 nM; (c) the elevation of Cai is dependent upon an intact spindle; and (d) fibroblasts progress through mitosis by drawing upon either intracellular or extracellular sources of calcium. PMID:2668300

  17. Calcium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corry, Ben; Hool, Livia

    Ion channels underlie the electrical activity of cells. Calcium channels have a unique functional role, because not only do they participate in this activity, they form the means bywhich electrical signals are converted to responses within the cell. Calcium concentrations in the cytoplasm of cells are maintained at a low level, and calcium channels activate quickly such that the opening of ion channels can rapidly change the cytoplasmic environment. Once inside the cell, calcium acts as a "second messenger" prompting responses by binding to a variety of calcium sensitive proteins. Calcium channels are known to play an important role in stimulating muscle contraction, in neurotransmitter secretion, gene regulation, activating other ion channels, controlling the shape and duration of action potentials and many other processes. Since calcium plays an integral role in cell function, and since excessive quantities can be toxic, its movement is tightly regulated and controlled through a large variety of mechanisms.

  18. [Aortic calcification and calcium].

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Motoo

    2010-11-01

    Vascular calcification occurred as the last step of arteriosclerosis makes a lot of disturbances on vascular function and should influence on the worsening of the vascular diseases. Calcium is the main component of the vascular calcification like bone, and one of causes of vascular calcification should be the hypoparathyroidism due to the lowering of serum calcium and the following calcium paradox seen in osteoporosis. Bone calcium must shift to the arterial wall from the bone. Medial calcification could be formed under the molecular regulatory control like in bone by differentiated osteoblast or chondroblast from pericyte like cell origin smooth muscle cell. Many substances such as osteopontine, osteocalcine, bone morphogenetic protein 2, matrix Gla protein and alkaliphosphatase were found in calcified area. In intimal calcification, degenerated elastin and macrophage originated calcification were found. In the process of degeneration of elastin polypentapeptide structure in elastin can be easily conbined to Ca(2+), elastin-Ca(2+) complex is neutralized by PO4(2-) and calcium phosphate is accumulated in degenerated elastin. PMID:21037382

  19. Altered Calcium and Vitamin D Homeostasis in First-Time Calcium Kidney Stone-Formers

    PubMed Central

    Ketha, Hemamalini; Singh, Ravinder J.; Grebe, Stefan K.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Rule, Andrew D.; Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Background Elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) concentrations have been reported among cohorts of recurrent calcium (Ca) kidney stone-formers and implicated in the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria. Variations in Ca and vitamin D metabolism, and excretion of urinary solutes among first-time male and female Ca stone-formers in the community, however, have not been defined. Methods In a 4-year community-based study we measured serum Ca, phosphorus (P), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25(OH)2D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) concentrations in first-time Ca stone-formers and age- and gender frequency-matched controls. Results Serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D were increased in Ca stone-formers compared to controls (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001). Stone-formers had a lower serum 24,25(OH)2D/25(OH)D ratio compared to controls (P = 0.008). Serum PTH and FGF-23 concentrations were similar in the groups. Urine Ca excretion was similar in the two groups (P = 0.82). In controls, positive associations between serum 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH)2D, FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and negative associations between serum Ca and PTH, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D were observed. In SF associations between FGF-23 and fractional phosphate excretion, and FGF-23 and 1,25(OH)2D, were not observed. 1,25(OH)2D concentrations associated more weakly with FGF-23 in SF compared with C (P <0.05). Conclusions Quantitative differences in serum Ca and 1,25(OH)2D and reductions in 24-hydroxylation of vitamin D metabolites are present in first-time SF and might contribute to first-time stone risk. PMID:26332888

  20. Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Different CalciumRegulating Mechanisms Depending on External Calcium Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhi; Avila, Andrew; Gollahon, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an Enhanced Calcium Efflux mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxels stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. PMID:24549172

  1. The Role of Calcium in Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance. PMID:25713787

  2. The role of calcium in human aging.

    PubMed

    Beto, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is necessary for many functions in human health. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body with 99% found in teeth and bone. Only 1% is found in serum. The serum calcium level is tightly monitored to remain within normal range by a complex metabolic process. Calcium metabolism involves other nutrients including protein, vitamin D, and phosphorus. Bone formation and maintenance is a lifelong process. Early attention to strong bones in childhood and adulthood will provide more stable bone mass during the aging years. Research has shown that adequate calcium intake can reduce the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and diabetes in some populations. The dietary requirements of calcium and other collaborative nutrients vary slightly around the world. Lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency is a common cause of low calcium intake. Strategies will be discussed for addressing this potential barrier to adequate intake. The purpose of this narrative review is a) to examine the role of calcium in human health, b) to compare nutrient requirements for calcium across lifecycle groups and global populations, c) to review relationships between calcium intake, chronic disease risk, and fractures, and d) to discuss strategies to address diet deficiencies and lactose intolerance. PMID:25713787

  3. Elevated BP after AKI.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Hsu, Raymond K; Yang, Jingrong; Ordonez, Juan D; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    The connection between AKI and BP elevation is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether AKI in the hospital is independently associated with BP elevation during the first 2 years after discharge among previously normotensive adults. We studied adult members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system, who were hospitalized between 2008 and 2011, had available preadmission serum creatinine and BP measures, and were not known to be hypertensive or have BP>140/90 mmHg. Among 43,611 eligible patients, 2451 experienced AKI defined using observed changes in serum creatinine concentration measured during hospitalization. Survivors of AKI were more likely than those without AKI to have elevated BP-defined as documented BP>140/90 mmHg measured during an ambulatory, nonemergency department visit-during follow-up (46.1% versus 41.2% at 730 days; P<0.001). This difference was evident within the first 180 days (30.6% versus 23.1%; P<0.001). In multivariable models, AKI was independently associated with a 22% (95% confidence interval, 12% to 33%) increase in the odds of developing elevated BP during follow-up, with higher adjusted odds with more severe AKI. Results were similar in sensitivity analyses when elevated BP was defined as having at least two BP readings of >140/90 mmHg or those with evidence of CKD were excluded. We conclude that AKI is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of elevated BP. Preventing AKI during a hospitalization may have clinical and public health benefits beyond the immediate hospitalization. PMID:26134154

  4. Disturbance of Serum Viscosity in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Donald E.

    1974-01-01

    The serum viscosity of diabetic patients has been found to be increased. The elevation averaged 8% above healthy subjects and 6% above nondiabetic patients. The serum viscosity elevation was greater when diabetic sequelae associated with microangiopathy were present. No relation of serum viscosity to age, sex, obesity, duration of disease, or type of treatment was demonstrated. Serum total protein and glucose levels were found to be correlated with serum viscosity, and increases in their serum concentrations were observed in diabetes. Analysis demonstrated that their elevation did not explain either the viscosity increase or the difference in viscosity between diabetics with and without sequelae. Intrinsic viscosity, abbreviated [η], is a concentration-independent solute property related to molecular shape. [η] was found to be 7% higher in diabetic than in normal serum. The [η] difference accounted for at least half of the serum viscosity elevation. The rest of the increase was due to increased serum protein level and increased nonprotein solids, presumably glucose and lipid. Associated with increased [η] was a decline in albumin: globulin ratio and elevation of the acute phase reactant proteins, α1-acid glycoprotein, α1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, and ceruloplasmin. Studies comparing diabetic and normal serum fractionated by using 21.5% sodium sulfate showed that changes in [η] were attributable to changes in serum protein composition rather than an inherent qualitative disturbance of protein present in one of the fractions. Since serum viscosity is elevated in early diabetes, it may be a part of the metabolic disturbance of diabetes and could play a role in the development of diabetic microangiopathy. PMID:4205523

  5. The Abnormal Phenotypes of Cartilage and Bone in Calcium-Sensing Receptor Deficient Mice Are Dependent on the Actions of Calcium, Phosphorus, and PTH

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chunxiang; Ding, Guoxian; Karaplis, Andrew; Brown, Edward; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2011-01-01

    Patients with neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) are homozygous for the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) mutation and have very high circulating PTH, abundant parathyroid hyperplasia, and severe life-threatening hypercalcemia. Mice with homozygous deletion of CaR mimic the syndrome of NSHPT. To determine effects of CaR deficiency on skeletal development and interactions between CaR and 1,25(OH)2D3 or PTH on calcium and skeletal homeostasis, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of homozygous CaRdeficient (CaR?/?) mice to those of double homozygous CaR and 1?(OH)asedeficient [CaR?/?1?(OH)ase?/?] mice or those of double homozygous CaR and PTHdeficient [CaR?/?PTH?/?] mice at 2 weeks of age. Compared to wild-type littermates, CaR?/? mice had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and severe skeletal growth retardation. Chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression in growth plates were reduced significantly, whereas trabecular volume, osteoblast number, osteocalcin-positive areas, expression of the ALP, type I collagen, osteocalcin genes, and serum ALP levels were increased significantly. Deletion of 1?(OH)ase in CaR?/? mice resulted in a longer lifespan, normocalcemia, lower serum phosphorus, greater elevation in PTH, slight improvement in skeletal growth with increased chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression, and further increases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Deletion of PTH in CaR?/? mice resulted in rescue of early lethality, normocalcemia, increased serum phosphorus, undetectable serum PTH, normalization in skeletal growth with normal chondrocyte proliferation and enhanced PTHrP expression, and dramatic decreases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Our results indicate that reductions in hypercalcemia play a critical role in preventing the early lethality of CaR?/? mice and that defects in endochondral bone formation in CaR?/? mice result from effects of the marked elevation in serum calcium concentration and the decreases in serum phosphorus concentration and skeletal PTHrP levels, whereas the increased osteoblastic bone formation results from direct effects of PTH. PMID:21966280

  6. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  7. Calcium Hydroxylapatite

    PubMed Central

    Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in todays market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

  8. Red Liriope platyphylla stimulated the insulin secretion through the regulation of calcium concentration in rat insulinoma cells and animal models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Young-Ju; Kwak, Moon-Hwa; Im, Dong-Soon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Red L. platyphylla (RLP) on calcium and glucose levels during insulin secretion. To achieve this, alteration of insulin and calcium concentrations was measured in rat insulinoma-1 (INS-1) cells and animal models in response to RLP treatment. In INS-1 cells, maximum secretion of insulin was detected upon treatment with 200 g/mL of RLP for 20 min. Nifedipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, effectively inhibited insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. Regarding calcium levels, the maximum concentration of intracellular calcium in INS-1 cells was obtained by treatment with 100 g/mL of RLP, whereas this level was reduced under conditions of 200 g/mL of RLP. Further, RLP-treated INS-1 cells showed a higher level of intracellular calcium than that of L. platyphylla (LP), Korea White Ginseng (KWG), or Korea Red Ginseng (KRG)-treated cells. This RLP-induced increase in intracellular calcium was abrogated but not completely abolished upon treatment with 40 M nifedipine in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the insulin level was dramatically elevated upon co-treatment with high concentrations of glucose and RLP, whereas it was maintained at a low level in response to glucose and RLP co-treatment at low concentrations. In an animal experiment, the serum concentration of calcium increased or decreased upon RLP treatment according to glucose level compared to vehicle treatment. Therefore, these results suggest that insulin secretion induced by RLP treatment may be tightly correlated with calcium regulation, which suggests RLP is an excellent candidate for diabetes treatment. PMID:23825481

  9. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, H.L.; Elford, R.W.; Shumak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Reflotron dry chemistry reflectance photometer was studied as a case-finding method in physicians' offices. A total of 713 adult patients had their risk factor profiles determined along with fingerprick blood cholesterol measurements. Blood cholesterol levels were classified into three categories, (<5.2 mmol/L), 51%; borderline high (5.2 to 6.1 mmol/L), 28%; and high (?6.2 mmol/L), 21%. The physicians' predictions from clinical risk factor profiles of which patients had elevated serum cholesterol levels were inaccurate. PMID:21229051

  10. The importance of urinary calcium in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Miguel Angel Ochoa-Hortal; Cano-Garca, Mara del Carmen; Arrabal-Martn, Miguel; Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Calcium stones are associated with osteoporosis and manifested mainly by elevated fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the presence of abnormal metabolism of calcium and calciuria in women with osteoporotic fracture with no previously known renal lithiasis compared to women without osteoporosis and without renal lithiasis. Methods: In total, 87 women were included in the study. They were divided into two groups: Group 1 with 55 postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture and without renal lithiasis; and Group 2 with 32 postmenopausal women without osteoporosis and without history of renal lithiasis. The following parameters of phospho-calcium metabolism were analyzed: calciuria 24-hour, oxaluria 24-hour, uricosuria 24-hour, and citraturia 24-hour. The presence of hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, and hypocitraturia was compared between groups. Statistical significance was set at p ? 0.05. Results: The mean age was 70.1 13.8 in Group 1 and 56.7 6.4 in Group 2 (p = 0.0001). Women in Group 1 had higher levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (p < 0.05) and fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (p < 0.05). The percentage of patients with hypercalciuria in Group 1 (40%) was higher compared to Group 2 (18.8%) and statistically significant (p = 0.04). There were no statistically significant differences in the percentage of hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, and hypocitraturia between groups. This study has its limitations including its cross-sectional nature at a unique centre and its low number of patients. Conclusion: The determination of urinary calcium and fasting calcium/creatinine ratio in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fracture without renal lithiasis may facilitate individualization of medical therapy and decreasing lithogenic risk. PMID:26085877

  11. Calcium Regulates FGF-23 Expression in Bone

    PubMed Central

    David, Valentin; Dai, Bing; Martin, Aline; Huang, Jinsong; Han, Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    Calcium has recently been shown to regulate fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), a bone-derived phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone. To better understand the regulation of FGF-23 by calcium, phosphorus, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D], and PTH, we examined FGF-23 expression under basal conditions and in response to PTH, doxercalciferol, or high-calcium diet treatment in Gcm2−/− and Cyp27b1−/− mutant mice. Gcm2−/− mice exhibited low serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia, whereas Cyp27b1−/− mice had high PTH, undetectable 1,25(OH)2D, hypocalcemia, and hypophosphatemia. Serum FGF-23 levels were decreased in both mutant models. Doxercalciferol administration increased serum FGF-23 levels in both mutant models. PTH administration to Gcm2−/− mice also increased serum FGF-23 levels, in association with an increase in both 1,25(OH)2D and calcium concentrations. Multiple regression analysis of pooled data indicated that changes in FGF-23 were positively correlated with serum calcium and 1,25(OH)2D but not related to changes in serum phosphate concentrations. A high-calcium diet also increased serum FGF-23 concentrations in Cyp27b1−/− mice in the absence of 1,25(OH)2D and in Gcm2−/− mice with low PTH. The addition of calcium to the culture media also stimulated FGF-23 message expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. In addition, FGF-23 promoter activity in cultured osteoblasts was inhibited by the L-calcium-channel inhibitor nifedipine and stimulated by calcium ionophores. The effects of chronic low calcium to prevent 1,25(OH)2D and PTH stimulation of FGF-23 in these mutant mouse models suggest that suppression of FGF-23 plays an important physiological adaptive response to hypocalcemia. PMID:24140714

  12. Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease; CPPD disease; Acute CPPD arthritis; Pseudogout ... Calcium pyrophosphate arthritis is caused by the collection of salt called calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The buildup ...

  13. Calcitonin control of calcium metabolism during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, Karam F. A.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this proposal is to elucidate calcitonin role in calcium homeostasis during weightlessness. In this investigation our objectives are to study: the effect of weightlessness on thyroid and serum calcitonin, the effect of weightlessness on the circadian variation of calcitonin in serum and the thyroid gland, the role of light as zeitgeber for calcitonin circadian rhythm, the circadian pattern of thyroid sensitivity to release calcitonin in response to calcium load, and the role of serotonin and norepinephrine in the control of calcitonin release. The main objective of this research/proposal is to establish the role of calcitonin in calcium metabolism during weightlessness condition. Understanding the mechanism of these abnormalities will help in developing therapeutic means to counter calcium imbalance in spaceflights.

  14. Calcium homeostasis disorder during and after neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Rambaud, Jerome; Guellec, Isabelle; Guilbert, Julia; Lger, Pierre-Louis; Renolleau, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used during pediatric resuscitation in case of refractory hypoxemia or septic shock under maximum therapy. Previous studies describe calcium homeostasis dysregulation. The aim of this study was to confirmed of calcium homeostasis dysregulation in neonates under ECMO and supposed news explanation. Subjects and Methods: From November 2012 to July 2013, we performed a prospective single center observational study. Eleven neonatal patients were included. Blood was obtained before and during ECMO (day 7, 14 and 21) for parathyroid hormone (PTH), protein adjusted serum calcium, ionized calcium, magnesium, and calcitriol levels. All surviving patients underwent a consultation up to 6 months after ECMO weaning. Results: During ECMO PTH was inadequately high with normal serum calcium on day 7 (PTH: 73.54 40 ng/l; calcemia: 2.33 0.21 mmol/l), day 14 (PTH: 57.63 29.57 ng/l; calcemia: 2.44 0.43 mmol/l) and day 21 (PTH: 54.93 8.43 ng/l; calcemia: 2.13 0.09 mmol/l). The absence of correlation between serum calcium and PTH levels seem to confirm the dysregulation of PTH - serum calcium metabolism during ECMO. Six months after ECMO weaning, we noticed hypercalcemia with normal PTH. Conclusions: We confirmed the existence of severe disturbances of calcium homeostasis in neonates on ECMO and supposed the possible damage of calcium regulation. We did not succeed in finding clear explanations of these disturbances. PMID:26430336

  15. Development of a swine specific 9-plex Luminex cytokine assay and assessment of immunity after porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccination: Elevated serum IL-12 levels are not predictive of protect

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Luminex multiplex swine cytokine assay was developed to measure 9 cytokines simultaneously in pig serum and tested in a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine/challenge study. This assay detects innate (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IFNa, TNFa); regulatory (IL-10), Th1 (IL-12, I...

  16. Elevated Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Serum Levels and Altered Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression, Nitric Oxide, and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Denise Maciel; Garcia, Fernanda Gonçalves; Terra, Ana Paula Sarreta; Lopes Tosta, Ana Cristina; Silva, Luciana de Almeida; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto; Silva Teixeira, David Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Background. During dengue virus (DV) infection, monocytes produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) which might be critical to immunopathogenesis. Since intensity of DV replication may determine clinical outcomes, it is important to know the effects of viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) on innate immune parameters of infected patients. The present study investigates the relationships between dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) serum levels and innate immune response (TLR4 expression and TNF-α/NO production) of DV infected patients presenting different clinical outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings. We evaluated NO, NS1 serum levels (ELISA), TNF-α production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and TLR4 expression on CD14+ cells from 37 dengue patients and 20 healthy controls. Early in infection, increased expression of TLR4 in monocytes of patients with dengue fever (DF) was detected compared to patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Moreover, PBMCs of DHF patients showed higher NS1 and lower NO serum levels during the acute febrile phase and a reduced response to TLR4 stimulation by LPS (with a reduced TNF-α production) when compared to DF patients. Conclusions/Significance. During DV infection in humans, some innate immune parameters change, depending on the NS1 serum levels, and phase and severity of the disease which may contribute to development of different clinical outcomes. PMID:25580138

  17. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePLUS

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  18. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS You are here : EPA Home Research Environmental Assessment IRIS IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  19. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  20. Project Calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Allan, S.E.; Bieber, J.

    1992-09-01

    Fouling problems in utility boilers have been classified into two principal types: high-temperature and low-temperature fouling. A multiclient-sponsored program was initiated at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to better understand the causes of low-temperature fouling when burning high-calcium western US coals. The goals of Project Calcium were to define the low-temperature deposition problem, identify the calcium-based components that are responsible for the formation of the deposits, develop ways to predict their formation, and identify possible methods to mitigate the formation of these deposits. To achieve the goals of Project Calcium, detailed sampling of utility boilers and laboratory-scale studies coupled with state-of-the-art methods to determine the inorganic components in coals and coal ash-derived materials were conducted. Boiler Sampling was also performed. The work involved sampling coal, entrained ash, deposits and slags from five full-scale utility boilers combined with detailed advanced characterization of the materials. The results of this work aided in identifying the key phenomena to focus the laboratory studies and in model verification. Field testing was conducted at three utilities.

  1. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? ...

  2. How to manage an isolated elevated PTH?

    PubMed

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Cavalier, Etienne; Cormier, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the diagnostic approach of an increased serum PTH concentration in a normocalcemic, normophosphatemic patient. Detection of this biological presentation is frequent in routine practice all the more that PTH reference values established in vitamin D replete subjects with a normal renal function are used by the clinical laboratories. The first step in this diagnostic approach will be to rule out a cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Among these, the most frequent are vitamin D deficiency, very low calcium intake, impaired renal function, malabsorptions, drugs interfering with calcium/bone metabolism, such as lithium salts and antiresorptive osteoporosis therapies, hypercalciuria due to a renal calcium leak. If no cause of SHPT are evidenced, the diagnosis of normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) should be considered. A calcium load test is a very useful tool for this diagnosis if it shows that serum PTH is not sufficiently decreased when calcemia rises frankly above the upper normal limit. In a normocalcemic patient with hypercalciuria and a high serum PTH concentration, a thiazide challenge test may help to differentiate SHPT due to a renal calcium leak from normocalcemic PHPT. Beyond the discussion of this diagnostic flowchart, we also discuss some points about the merits and the difficulties of measuring and interpreting ionized calcemia and 24-h calciuria. PMID:25882890

  3. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are associated with inorganic phosphate-induced osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-rong; Bai, Jing; Yuan, Shuai-jun; Yu, Cai-xia; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Tian-lan; Wang, Kui

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we demonstrated that calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles formed in cell culture media were implicated in the process of high inorganic phosphate (Pi) mediated osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Exposure of BMSCs in vitro to high Pi-containing media reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expressions of osteoblast-specific genes. The sediments of CaP nanoparticles were observed at the cell surface and some of them were concomitantly found inside cells at high Pi concentration. In addition, treatment the cells with pyrophosphate (PPi), an inhibitor of calcium crystal formation, abrogated the ALP activity induced by high Pi, suggesting the contribution of CaP nanoparticles. Moreover, for isolated CaP nanoparticles, there was a trend of conversion from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite with elevated Pi. The particle size of CaP increased and the surface morphology changed from spherical to irregular due to increased concentrations of serum proteins incorporated into CaP nanoparticles. The study demonstrated that those physicochemical properties of CaP nanoparticles played an important role in modulating BMSCs differentiation. Furthermore, the addition of Pi in the osteogenic media resulted in a dose-dependent increase in matrix mineralization, while treatment of the cells with PPi suppressed Pi-induced calcium deposition. The findings indicated that calcium deposition in the matrix partly came from the spontaneous precipitation of CaP nanoparticles. PMID:26111760

  4. Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate as phosphorus binders in patients on chronic haemodialysis: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ring, T; Nielsen, C; Andersen, S P; Behrens, J K; Sodemann, B; Kornerup, H J

    1993-01-01

    The first reported double-blind cross-over comparison between the phosphorus binders calcium carbonate and calcium acetate was undertaken in 15 stable patients on chronic maintenance haemodialysis. Detailed registration of diet and analysis of the protein catabolic rate suggested an unchanged phosphorus intake during the study. It was found that predialytic serum phosphate concentration was significantly decreased by 0.11 mmol/l (0.34 mg/dl) (P = 0.021, 95% confidence limits 0.02-0.21 mmol/l; 0.06-0.65 mg/dl) during calcium acetate treatment. The calcium phosphate product was insignificantly decreased during treatment with calcium acetate whereas we could not exclude the possibility that calcium concentration had increased. PMID:8390009

  5. The salutary effect of dietary calcium on bone mass in a rat model of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Whether supplementation of dietary calcium reduces the differences in bone mass of unweighed limbs and normally weighted limbs, and whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) respond differently to dietary calcium in unweighted animals in comparison with pair-fed controls was studied. The hind limbs of rats were unweighted by a tail suspension method and diets containing 0.1% to 2.4% calcium. After 2 weeks serum calcium, phosphorus, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D intestinal calcium transport were determined and bone mass, ash weight, and calcium in the tibia, L-1 vertebra, and humerus were measured. No significant differences in body weights were observed among the various groups. Suspended rats maintained constant levels of serum calcium and phosphate over the wide range of dietary calcium. Serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and intestinal calcium transport fell as dietary calcium was increased. Bone calcium in the tibia and vertebra from suspended rats remained less than that from pair-fed control. It is suggested that although no striking difference between suspended and control animals was observed in response to dieteary calcium, increasing dietary calcium may reduce the negative impact of unloading on the calcium content of the unweighted bones. The salutary effect of high dietary calcium appears to be due to inhibition of bone resorption rather than to stimulation of bone formation.

  6. Regulation of calcium metabolism during prolonged antiorthostatic hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grigoryev, A. I.; Morukov, B. V.; Dorokhova, B. R.; Rustamyan, L. A.

    1988-01-01

    Characteristics of the regulation of calcium exchange in healthy persons exposed to 182 days of antiorthostatic hypokinesia are investigated. Total calcium concentrations, ionized calcium activities and parathyroid hormone concentrations in blood serum were determined, before, during, and up to 15 days after a 182-day period of strict bed rest at a head down tilt of 4 deg; and tests of blood urine responses to a calcium lactate stress were performed to study the role of the kidneys. An increase in calcium ion activity is observed during the period of hypokinesia, while total calcium concentrations changed to a lesser degree. Plasma parathyroid hormone levels are found to significantly exceed background levels during hypokinesia and in the recovery period immediately following. Finally, the increase in calcium excretion in the urine during prolonged limitations of muscular activity is found to be connected with both an enhancement of calcium filtration and a decrease in its reabsorption in the kidneys, possibly due to changes in hormonal regulation.

  7. The Incidence and Clinical Characteristics of Acute Serum Creatinine Elevation more than 1.5 mg/dL among the Patients Treated with Tenofovir/Emtricitabine-containing HAART Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung Hi; Park, Jung Hwa; Jung, Hye Jin; Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Jong Myung; Kim, Sujeong

    2015-01-01

    Background The combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) has been the first choice nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) according to many reliable antiretroviral treatment (ART) guidelines because of its high efficacy. However, TDF-related renal toxicity reported in Western countries is a challenging issue regarding clinical use. We conducted this study to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of an acute increase in serum creatinine (Cr) level > 1.5 mg/dL among TDF/FTC-based highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)-treated patients. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 205 HIV-infected patients treated with TDF/FTC-containing regimens between 1 February 2010 and 30 April 2014. Three groups of TDF/FTC + ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r), TDF/FTC + non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and TDF/FTC + integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), and three PI/r subgroups of TDF/FTC + lopinavir (LPV)/r, TDF/FTC + atazanavir (ATV)/r, TDF/FTC + darunavir (DRV)/r were evaluated. Results A total 136 patients (91 in the TDF/FTC + PI/r group, 20 in the TDF/FTC + NNRTI group and 25 in the TDF/FTC + INSTI group) were included in the statistical analysis. Four cases (4.9%; all in the TDF/FTC + PI/r group) among 136 patients showed an acute increase in serum Cr more than 1.5 mg/dL, so the overall incidence was 2.8 cases per 100 patient-years. One case was a patient treated with TDF/FTC + LPV/r, and the others were treated with TDF/FTC + ATV/r. No case of an acute increase in serum Cr was observed in the TDF/FTC + DRV/r group. The incidence of serum Cr increase more than 1.5 mg/dL in TDF/FTC + PI/r group was 4.0 cases per 100 patient-years. Conclusion Although only a small number of patients were evaluated retrospectively from a single center, the TDF/FTC + PI/r regimen may have been related with relatively higher tendency of increment of serum Cr level. These findings reinforce the importance of close follow-ups of HIV-infected patients treated with the TDF/FTC + PI/r regimens. PMID:26788407

  8. Calcium plus vitamin D and the risk of fractures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-awaited WHI results reveal that calcium and vitamin D supplementation (1000 mg/400 IU) didn't lower fracture rates but did increase risk of kidney stones in calcium-replete (1150 mg/d mean intake) but vitamin D insufficient (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 46 nmol/L) postmenopausal women. How sho...

  9. Evaluation of Serum Magnesium, Lipid Profile and Various Biochemical Parameters as Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ramavataram, DVSS; Patel, Payal A.; Rupani, Mihir P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is chronic inflammatory disease, associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) than the general population. Chronic inflammatory conditions are likely to alter magnesium level and various biochemical parameters. Objectives To study the probable changes in serum magnesium, lipid profile and various biochemical parameters and to assess risk factors of CVD in newly diagnosed RA patients compared to controls. Materials and Methods We studied 50 newly diagnosed RA adult patients and 50 healthy individuals as controls. Serum magnesium, calcium, lipid profile, uric acid and other biochemical parameters were measured in study subjects. Results were expressed as Mean SD and compared between RA subjects and controls by Independent sample t-test and Pearson correlation. Results We found decreased serum magnesium and calcium in RA subjects compared to the controls (p < 0.001). RA subjects had atherogenic lipid profile characterized by elevated total cholesterol (p = 0.054), LDL cholesterol (p = 0.008) and decreased HDL cholesterol (p <0.001). Serum uric acid was higher in RA cases compared to controls (p = 0.025). Serum magnesium was negatively correlated with total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and positively correlated with HDL cholesterol in RA cases. Conclusion Decreased magnesium level, dyslipidemia and increased uric acid observed in our study together may be more potent risk factors for CVD in newly diagnosed RA subjects. We recommend that serum magnesium should be investigated as a part of cardiovascular risk management in RA. We suggest that decreased serum magnesium and increased serum uric acid may be considered as nontraditional risk factors of CVD in RA. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the impact of inflammation on various biochemical parameters and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with RA. PMID:26023546

  10. Accurate localization of an insulinoma by preoperative selective intra-arterial calcium injection and intraoperative glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Iwanaka, T; Matsumoto, M; Yoshikawa, Y; Koda, N; Mochizuki, H; Aihara, T; Imaizumi, S

    2000-01-01

    The role of pre- and intraoperative procedures for the localization of insulinomas has been extensively debated. We report a case of successful treatment using preoperative selective intra-arterial calcium injection and intraoperative glucose monitoring. A 12-year-old boy with hypoglycemic attacks had a large insulinoma in the head of the pancreas on computed tomography. Preoperative selective angiography combined with arterial stimulation-venous sampling (ASVS) by intra-arterial injection of calcium revealed no other insulinomas in the body and tail of the pancreas. Elevation of serum glucose on intraoperative monitoring confirmed complete enucleation of the insulinoma. Preoperative ASVS can accurately localize an insulinoma, and may help to increase the success rate of surgery and avoid blind pancreatectomy. PMID:10663858

  11. Correlation between maternal milk and infant serum levels of chlorinated pesticides (CP) and the impact of elevated CP on bleeding tendency and immune status in some infants in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Schaalan, Mona F; Abdelraouf, Sahar M; Mohamed, Waleed A; Hassanein, Fetouh S

    2012-01-01

    Chlorinated pesticides (CP) are environmentally persistent pollutants that (prenatally through the placenta and post-natally via breastfeeding) are transferred from mother to child. Considering the significant bleeding tendency noted in infants of CP-intoxicated mothers in Egypt, this study aimed to investigate any correlation between levels of these xenobiotics in mothers' milk and bleeding tendencies of their infants, as well as a possible role of any related immunosuppression in this phenomenon. This study examined 180 newborns presenting with altered bleeding tendencies and their mothers, and 180 normal newborns and their mothers (serving as a controls), selected from the Breastfeeding Unit, Center for Social and Preventive Medicine at the Cairo University Pediatric Hospital. Chlorinated pesticides (e.g., hexachlorocyclohexane, DDT, hepta-chloroepoxide, ?- and ?-endosulfan, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin) levels and their derivatives were measured in mothers' milk as well as in serum of neonates using gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. To link bleeding tendency with lactational intoxication of neonates by CP, newborns' blood was assessed for: platelet count, bleeding and prothrombin time, liver enzymes, Vitamin K, TNF?, and IL-10. Breast milk CP levels were associated with a higher incidence of bleeding in infants. Interference with the coagulation cascade was supported by changes in prothrombin time (prolonged), platelet counts (decreased), liver enzymes (increased), and serum vitamin K concentrations (decreased). Moreover, the significant decrease in WBC count and lymphocytes added to depressed cytokine secretion, i.e., TNF? and IL-10, suggested an organochlorine-induced immunotoxicity in infants developmentally exposed to the agents. We conclude that maternal transfer of CP, via breastfeeding or across the placenta, was sufficient to achieve similar CP levels in the serum of their infants; this correlated with a manifesting of altered bleeding tendencies and perturbed cytokine biology in these infants. PMID:21962179

  12. Gastric bypass in obese rats causes bone loss, vitamin D deficiency, metabolic acidosis, and elevated peptide YY

    PubMed Central

    Canales, Benjamin K.; Schafer, Anne L.; Shoback, Dolores M.; Carpenter, Thomas O.

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic bone disease and bariatric surgery have long been interconnected. The objective of this study is to better understand the mechanisms of bone mass loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. We evaluated mineral homeostasis and bone mass in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats after RYGB or sham surgery. Methods Twelve DIO male Sprague Dawley rats underwent RYGB (n = 8) or sham (n = 4) surgery at 21 weeks of age. Postoperatively, animals ate an ad libitum 40% fat, normal calcium diet and were euthanized 22 weeks later. Serum and urine chemistries, insulin, leptin, bone turnover markers (BTM), and calciotropic and gut hormones were measured before and 22 weeks after surgery. Femurs were analyzed using microcomputed tomography (CT). Results Compared to sham, RYGB animals had lower serum bicarbonate, calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, insulin, and leptin levels with higher serum parathyroid hormone, peptide YY, and urinary calcium at 43 weeks of age. Sham control rats gained weight and had coupled decreases in formation (P1 NP and OC) and unchanged resorption (CTX) BTMs. Comparatively, RYGB animals had higher serum CTX and OC but even lower P1 NP levels than controls. CT revealed lower trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness and lower cortical bone volume, thickness, and moment of inertia relative to controls. Conclusion In rats with DIO, long-term RYGB-associated bone resorption appears to be driven in part by vitamin D malabsorption and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Other mechanisms, such as chronic acidosis, changes in fat-secreted hormones, and persistently elevated gut-derived hormone peptide YY, may also contribute to observed bone mass differences. Further investigation of these potential contributors to bone loss may lead to new targets for skeletal maintenance after RYGB. PMID:24969093

  13. Calcium Acetate or Calcium Carbonate for Hyperphosphatemia of Hemodialysis Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Han; Yang, Bo; Mao, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Background High levels of serum phosphorus both at baseline and during follow-up are associated with increased mortality in dialysis patients, and administration of phosphate binders was independently associated with improved survival among hemodialysis population. Calcium-based phosphate binders are the most commonly used phosphate binders in developing countries for their relatively low costs. Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety between calcium carbonate and calcium acetate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Google scholar and Chinese databases (Wanfang, Weipu, National Knowledge Infrastructure of China) were searched for relevant studies published before March 2014. Reference lists of nephrology textbooks and review articles were checked. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that assessed the effects and adverse events of calcium acetate and calcium carbonate in adult patients with MHD was performed using Review Manager 5.0. Results A total of ten studies (625 participants) were included in this meta-analysis. There was insufficient data in all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events for meta-analysis. Compared with calcium carbonate group, the serum phosphorus was significantly lower in calcium acetate group after4 weeks administration (MD -0.15 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.01) and after 8 weeks administration (MD -0.25 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.11). There was no difference in serum calcium levels or the incidence of hypercalcemia between two groups at 4 weeks and 8 weeks. No statistical difference was found in parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels or serum calcium by phosphorus (Ca x P) product. There was significantly higher risk of intolerance with calcium acetate treatment (RR 3.46, 95% CI 1.48 to 8.26). Conclusions For hyperphosphatemia treatment, calcium acetate showed better efficacy and with a higher incidence of intolerance compared with calcium carbonate. There are insufficient data to establish the comparative superiority of the two calcium-based phosphate binders on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular end-points in hemodialysis patients. PMID:25799184

  14. Calcium crystal-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Halverson, P B; Derfus, B A

    2001-05-01

    Recent studies have added to our knowledge regarding the mechanisms of calcium crystal deposition. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition is associated with elevated levels of PPi in joints. Cyclic compression of cartilage transiently elevated ATP levels in culture media. Extracellular ATP may be hydrolyzed by nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (NTPPPH), yielding an elevated PPi concentration. CPPD crystal deposition increases with age. Nitric oxide may alter cartilage matrix by interfering with chondrocyte mitochondrial function and ATP production. Transglutaminase in adult, but not young, porcine articular chondrocytes was able to activate latent transforming growth factor beta, a potent stimulus to PPi production. Basic calcium phosphate crystals are more likely to form in a milieu of reduced PPi concentration. The ank gene mutation results in higher intracellular PPi concentration and lower extracellular concentration. The ANK protein is thought to be a transmembrane protein necessary for transport of PPi out of cells. A mutation that results in reduced synthesis of NTPPPH PC-1 caused infantile wrist and ankle periarticular calcification and vascular calcification. PMID:11333353

  15. Effect of vitamin D/sub 3/, other drugs altering serum calcium or phosphorus concentrations, and desoxycorticosterone on the distribution of Tc-99m pyrophosphate between target and nontarget tissues. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.

    1981-06-01

    Radioactive imaging agents are chemically designed for selective distribution. Another approach to selectivity is to find stable compounds that favorably influence this distribution. Using a rat model of myocardial necrosis, the effects of various stable compounds on the ratio, uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PPi) by the target lesion/uptake by the principal nontarget, bone (L/B) were studied. Vitamin D/sub 3/s ability to increase L/B was mediated by the hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia that it caused. In contrast, pulse doses of desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) at 7 and 6 h before killing increased uptake by lesion, with no change in serum (Ca) and minimal changes in serum (P), (Na), and (K). DOCA also increased the lesion-to-blood ratio. These results encourage further study of DOCA's effect and investigation of other stable drugs that may influence distribution of other imaging agents.

  16. Calcium acetate, an effective phosphorus binder in patients with renal failure.

    PubMed

    Mai, M L; Emmett, M; Sheikh, M S; Santa Ana, C A; Schiller, L; Fordtran, J S

    1989-10-01

    Calcium salts are increasingly used as phosphorus binders in patients with chronic renal failure. Calcium carbonate is the principal salt presently utilized, however, other calcium salts may be more effective and safer phosphorus binders. Theoretical calculations, in vitro experiments, and in vivo studies in normal subjects have shown calcium acetate to be a more effective phosphorus binder than other calcium salts. This salt has not previously been studied in patients with chronic renal failure. We used a one-meal gastrointestinal balance technique to measure phosphorus absorption, calcium absorption and phosphorus binding in six patients with chronic renal failure. Calcium acetate was compared with calcium carbonate and placebo. Equivalent doses (50 mEq Ca++) of calcium acetate bound more than twice as much phosphorus (106 +/- 23 mg) as calcium carbonate (43 +/- 39 mg) P less than 0.05. When phosphorus binding was factored for calcium absorption, calcium acetate bound 0.44 mEq HPO4 =/mEq absorbed Ca++ compared with 0.16 mEq HPO4 = bound/mEq Ca++ absorbed with calcium carbonate. More efficient phosphorus binding permits serum phosphorus concentration to be controlled with lower doses of calcium salts. The higher phosphorus binding/calcium absorption ratio coupled with a lower dose indicates that less calcium will be absorbed when calcium acetate is used for phosphorus control. Markedly positive calcium balance, hypercalcemia and ectopic calcification should be less likely to occur with this drug than other calcium salts. PMID:2811066

  17. Vascular calcifications as a footprint of increased calcium load and chronic inflammation in uremic patients: a need for a neutral calcium balance during hemodialysis?

    PubMed

    Tetta, C; Gallieni, M; Panichi, V; Brancaccio, D

    2002-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications caused by an accelerated atherosclerotic disease represent the largest single cause of mortality in chronic renal failure patients. The rapidly developing atherosclerosis of the uremic syndrome appears to be caused by a synergism of different mechanisms, such as malnutrition, oxidative stress and genetic factors. Recent studies provide evidence that chronic inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Hyperphosphatemia and an increased calcium-phosphate ion product have also been associated with an increased risk of death. Cardiovascular calcifications secondary to increases in phosphate and calcium load in dialysis patients might exert an important contribution to the excess cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in dialysis patients. Elevated serum levels of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with the extent and severity of the atherosclerotic processes as well as with an increased risk of experiencing myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death in apparently healthy subjects. In patients affected by pre-dialytic renal failure increased levels of CRP and IL-6 were recorded in 25% of our population; CRP and IL-6 were inversely related with renal function. These data suggest the activation--even in the predialytic phase of renal failure--of mechanisms known to contribute to the enhanced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of the uremic syndrome. In recent years we have investigated the hypothesis that the chronic inflammatory state of the uremic patient could be at least in part due to the dialytic technique. We have shown that the increase of CRP in stable dialysis patients may be due to the stimulation of monocyte/macrophage by backfiltration of dialysate contaminants. During conventional dialysis, a positive calcium balance and a concomitant inflammatory state may act as cofactors in the development of cardiovascular calcifications. We suggest that this hypothesis should be verified by clinical studies. A reevaluation of the ideal calcium levels in the dialysate is warranted: a neutral intradialytic calcium balance is probably more appropriate, although not easily attainable. PMID:11853066

  18. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

  19. Evaluation of Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Behçet's Disease by Using Noninvasive Radiological Methods such as Intima-Media Thickness of the Carotid, Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index, Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring, and Their Relation to Serum Fetuin-A Levels: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Aynur; Genç, Berhan; Akyıldız, Muhittin; Şahin, Neslin; Uyar, İhsan Sami; Saklamaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory systemic vasculitis. Evidence for increased atherosclerosis in BD has been observed. The relation between cardiovascular risk factors and increased atherosclerosis in patients with BD is still controversial. Objective We performed this study to evaluate arterial stiffness in patients with BD by using noninvasive radiological methods such as carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI), coronary artery calcium score (CACaS), and their relation to serum fetuin-A levels, which was recently found to be important in vascular calcification. Methods This prospective study included 26 patients with BD and 25 control subjects. In all patients, the CIMT, ABPI, CACaS, and serum fetuin-A levels were examined. Results The CIMT and CACaS were statistically higher and the ABPI was statistically lower in BD patients than in the control group. All p-values were <0.001. Positive correlations were found between the CACaS and CIMT, and negative correlations were found between the CACaS and ABPI. Although the values of fetuin-A were higher in BD, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.064). However, the correlations found between fetuin-A levels and CIMT and between fetuin-A levels and CACaS were significant. Conclusion The CIMT, CACaS, and ABPI are all useful in detecting structural and functional vascular damage in BD. PMID:26719639

  20. Abnormal systemic metabolism of iron, porphyrin, and calcium in Fahr's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Beall, S S; Patten, B M; Mallette, L; Jankovic, J

    1989-10-01

    Striopallidodentate calcinosis (Fahr's disease) is characterized clinically by seizures, rigidity, and dementia and pathologically by mineral deposition in the basal ganglia, dentate nucleus, and cerebral cortex. Disorders of iron and calcium-phosphate metabolism are thought to play a role in its pathogenesis. We present the case of a patient with familial striopallidodentate calcinosis who had porphyria cutanea tarda, refractory anemia, and pseudohypoparathyroidism type 2. The serum level of ferritin was markedly increased, serum iron and iron-binding capacity were below normal, and at autopsy she had deposition of iron in liver, spleen, bone marrow, and brain. She showed intermittent mild hypocalcemia, increased serum values of parathyroid hormone, elevated renal tubular reabsorption of phosphate, and low serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, suggesting blunted renal responsiveness to endogenous parathyroid hormone. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 2 was confirmed by infusion of synthetic parathyroid hormone, which gave a normal urinary cyclic adenosine monophosphate response, but a blunted phosphaturic response. After splenectomy for hypersplenism and weekly phlebotomies, she showed progressive improvement in function, mental status, weight, and seizure control. The hypothesis advanced is that the underlying pathophysiology of the separate diseases contributed to the formation of the brain stones through mechanisms of defective iron transport and free radical production. PMID:2817830

  1. [Calcium intake and glucose and lipids concetrations in overweight and obese patients].

    PubMed

    Pachocka, Lucyna M; Nowak, Agnieszka; Targosz, Urszula; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina; Stolarska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    Well-balanced diet is one of the determinants of the health and wellbeing. Inadequate nutrients' intake can promote disease development. The purpose of this study was to assess the intake of calcium, phosphorus and protein and relation between calcium intake and lipids and glucose serum concentration in patients with obesity. The studied group consisted of 57 subjects, aged 21-63 years. Dietary assessment was based on 3-d dietary record. Serum lipids concentrations were assessed by enzymatic methods, serum calcium concentrations were assessed by Vitros 250. The mean calcium intake in men was 588.8 mg/d, in women 549.3 mg/d. Calcium intake was statistically significant correlated with glucose concentration in women and men, but not with lipids concentrations. Dietary calcium intake in studied group was below the RDA. Calcium intake could be one of determinants of glucose concentration in obese persons. PMID:17711128

  2. Serum Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Renal Handling of Phosphorus in Patients with Chronic Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Popovtzer, Mordecai M.; Pinggera, Wulf F.; Hutt, Martin P.; Robinette, John; Halgrimson, Charles G.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    In eight patients with advanced renal insufficiency (inulin clearance 1.49.1 ml/min), concentrations of serum calcium (S[Ca]) and phosphorus (S[P]) were maintained normal (S[Ca] > 9.0 mg/100 ml, (S[P] < 3.5 mg/100 ml) for at least 20 consecutive days with phosphate binding antacids and oral calcium carbonate. The initial serum levels of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) were elevated in three (4269230 pg/ml), normal in four (one after subtotal parathyroidectomy), and not available in one. The initial fractional excretion of filtered phosphorus (CpCIN) was high in all and ranged from 0.451.05. Following sustained normo-calcemia and normo-phosphatemia, S-PTH was reduced below control levels in all patients; being normal in six and elevated in two. CpCIN decreased below control levels in all patients; it remained high in six (of which five had normal S-PTH) and was normal (CpCIN=0.01) in two (of which one had elevated S-PTH). The observed relationship between S-PTH and CpCIN could either reflect the inability of the radioimmunoassay for PTH employed to measure a circulating molecular species of PTH which was present in which case the actual levels of S-PTH were higher than those measured, and/or it could be indicative of the presence of additional important factor(s) (other than S-PTH) which inhibit tubular reabsorption of phosphorus in advanced chronic renal failure. PMID:4672382

  3. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  4. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  5. Calcium source (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  6. Calcium carbonate overdose

    MedlinePLUS

    Calcium carbonate is an ingredient that is commonly found in antacids (for heartburn) and some dietary supplements. Calcium carbonate overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes ...

  7. [Usefulness of calcium acetate as a chelating of phosphorus in patients in hemodialysis with secondary hyperthyroidism].

    PubMed

    Torregrosa Prats, J V; Mas Mas, M; Montesinos Ballestena, M; Casellas Bartumeus, J; Campistol Plana, J M

    1995-08-01

    In this study, we prospectively evaluated the efficacy of calcium acetate in patients with chronic renal insufficiency on hemodialysis programme with secondary hyperparathyroidism and hyperphosphatemia, which are difficult to control by means of the usual finders (calcium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide) and who were treated with pulses of calcitriol. We studied 10 patients. The inclusion criteria were: a serum phosphorus higher than 6.5 mg/dl, a serum PTHi higher than 250 pg/ml and a serum calcium higher than 9.5. The former therapy was stopped at the time of the patient was included in the study. Calcium acetate was initially introduced with doses between 2.5-4 g/day according to previous calcium and phosphate values. Also, all patients were initially treated with intermittent subcutaneous bolus of Calcitriol were modified and adjusted according to serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus and PTHi. The concentration of calcium in the dialyzed was of 1.25 mmol/l. Fortnightly total calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase serum determinations and monthly aluminium and PTHi serum determinations were carried out. During the 6 months treatment, a decrease was observed in serum concentrations of phosphate (p < 0.01), aluminum (p < 0.02) and PTHi (p < 0.001) with no changes in the values of calcium (p = ns) nor alkaline phosphatase (p = ns). The incidence of hypercalcemia was low during the follow-up period (11% of all biochemical serum determinations) and was easily controlled. We can conclude that calcium acetate is a sure and effective finder of phosphorus with a very good tolerance. Administered together with pulses of calcitriol, and the use of a low calcium concentration in the dialysate, it does not increase the risk of hypercalcemia. PMID:8924527

  8. Phenotype and function of CXCR5+CD45RA−CD4+ T cells were altered in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma and elevated serum CXCL13 predicted better prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Liang, Hua; Huang, Xiangbo; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Yu; Shen, Tao; Lu, Fengmin

    2015-01-01

    The present study reveals an immunological characterization of circulating and tumor-infiltrating T follicular helper cells (Tfh), namely CXCR5+CD45RA−CD4+ T cells, and their related cytokines in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. In HCC patients, circulating Tfh cells showed a CCR7+ and/or ICOS+ phenotype with increased Th2-like cells and decreased Th1-like and Th17-like subsets. Although the bulk frequency of circulating Tfh cells was not altered in HCC patients, the frequency of infiltrated CXCR5+CD45RA−CD4+ CD3+cells was higher in tumor than in para-tumor tissues, and Th1-like cells were the predominant phenotype. Circulating Tfh cells in HCC patients were defective in the production of IL-21 in vitro, which was in accordance with lower IL-21 levels in tumor tissues than in para-tumor tissues. Serum CXCL13 was increased in HCC patients and associated with recurrence-free survival after hepatectomy. This was confirmed in an additional HCC cohort of 111 patients with up to 5 years follow-up. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that the percentage of CXCR5+ or CXCL13+ cells was higher in poorly differentiated than in well-differentiated tumors. In conclusion, patients with HBV-related HCC showed altered phenotypes and impaired function of Tfh cells or subpopulations. CXCL13 could be a potential biomarker for predicting recurrence in HCC patients after hepatectomy. PMID:26517519

  9. Calcium balance in normal individuals and in patients with chronic kidney disease on low- and high-calcium diets.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David M; Brady, Kate

    2012-06-01

    Calcium balance in chronic kidney disease is poorly understood as calcium deficiency is a stimulus for secondary hyperparathyroidism and consequent bone loss while calcium excess promotes extraosseous calcifications. To help resolve this, we evaluated calcium balance in normal individuals and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on daily diets containing 800 and 2000 mg elemental calcium. Both normal individuals and patients with late stage 3 and stage 4 CKD were in slightly negative to neutral calcium balance on the 800-mg calcium diet. Normal individuals were in modest positive calcium balance on the 2000-mg diet, while patients with CKD on the same diet were in marked positive calcium balance at least over the 9 days of study; and significantly greater than the normal individuals. Increased calcium intake significantly decreased 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels but did not alter the serum calcium concentration. Thus, our findings have important implications for both preventing calcium deficiency and loading in individuals with late stage 3 and stage 4 CKD. PMID:22297674

  10. Elevated resting [Ca(2+)](i) in myotubes expressing malignant hyperthermia RyR1 cDNAs is partially restored by modulation of passive calcium leak from the SR.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianzhong; Esteve, Eric; Pessah, Isaac N; Molinski, Tadeusz F; Allen, Paul D; Lpez, Jos R

    2007-05-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle triggered in susceptible individuals by inhalation anesthetics and depolarizing skeletal muscle relaxants. This syndrome has been linked to a missense mutation in the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) in more than 50% of cases studied to date. Using double-barreled Ca(2+) microelectrodes in myotubes expressing wild-type RyR1 ((WT)RyR1) or RyR1 with one of four common MH mutations ((MH)RyR1), we measured resting intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Changes in resting [Ca(2+)](i) produced by several drugs known to modulate the RyR1 channel complex were investigated. We found that myotubes expressing any of the (MH)RyR1s had a 2.0- to 3.7-fold higher resting [Ca(2+)](i) than those expressing (WT)RyR1. Exposure of myotubes expressing (MH)RyR1s to ryanodine (500 microM) or (2,6-dichloro-4-aminophenyl)isopropylamine (FLA 365; 20 microM) had no effects on their resting [Ca(2+)](i). However, when myotubes were exposed to bastadin 5 alone or to a combination of ryanodine and bastadin 5, the resting [Ca(2+)](i) was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the percent decrease in resting [Ca(2+)](i) in myotubes expressing (MH)RyR1s was significantly greater than that for (WT)RyR1. From these data, we propose that the high resting myoplasmic [Ca(2+)](i) in (MH)RyR1 expressing myotubes is due in part to a related structural conformation of (MH)RyR1s that favors "passive" calcium leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. PMID:17182726

  11. A Novel Aerosol Foam Formulation of Calcipotriol and Betamethasone Has No Impact on HPA Axis and Calcium Homeostasis in Patients With Extensive Psoriasis Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Taraska, Victoria; Tuppal, Raj; Olesen, Martin; Bang Pedersen, Claus; Papp, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fixed combination calcipotriol 50 g/g (Cal; as hydrate) plus betamethasone 0.5 mg/g (as dipropionate; BD) has been formulated in an innovative aerosol foam. Objective: To assess systemic safety of Cal/BD aerosol foam. Methods: In a multicentre, single-arm, open-label, maximal-use systemic-exposure trial, adult patients with moderate to severe, extensive psoriasis (15%-30% of body surface area, including ?30% of scalp) applied Cal/BD foam once daily. Endpoints were week 4 abnormal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge test and change in albumin-corrected serum calcium, 24-hour urinary calcium excretion, and urinary calcium-creatinine ratio. Results: 35 patients reaching week 4 exhibited normal ACTH responses. At week 4, changes in calcium homeostasis were minor and not clinically relevant; no patients experienced elevations above normal. Disease severity generally improved, and 49% of patients achieved treatment success according to the Physicians Global Assessment of Disease Severity. Conclusion: No clinically relevant HPA axis or calcium homeostasis impact was observed with 4 weeks of once-daily Cal/BD foam in patients with extensive psoriasis vulgaris. PMID:26224733

  12. The Impact of Admission Serum Creatinine Derived Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate on Major Adverse Cardiac Events in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Uluganyan, Mahmut; Karaca, Gurkan; Ulutas, Turker Kemal; Ekmekci, Ahmet; Tusun, Eyup; Murat, Ahmet; Koroglu, Bayram; Uyarel, Huseyin; Bakhshaliyev, Nijad; Eren, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Background The impact of Cockroft-Gault (C-G) derived estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was assessed. Methods A total of 884 patients were classified into four categories according to admission creatine derived eGFR: < 60, 60 - < 90, 90 - < 120, and ≥ 120 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results In-hospital and long-term MACEs were significantly higher in eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 subgroup (P < 0.001 and P = 0.028). Multivariate analysis demonstrated 7.78-fold (95% CI: 0.91 - 66.8) higher mortality risk in eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 subgroup. Conclusion As an easily applicable bedside method, C-G derived eGFR could be important for prediction of in-hospital and long-term mortality and MACE in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. PMID:26985253

  13. Calcium signals and oocyte maturation in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Ryusaku; Takeda, Noriyo; Stricker, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    In various oocytes and eggs of animals, transient elevations in cytoplasmic calcium ion concentrations are known to regulate key processes during fertilization and the completion of meiosis. However, whether or not calcium transients also help to reinitiate meiotic progression at the onset of oocyte maturation remains controversial. This article summarizes reports of calcium signals playing essential roles during maturation onset (=germinal vesicle breakdown, GVBD) in several kinds of marine invertebrate oocytes. Conversely, other data from the literature, as well as previously unpublished findings for jellyfish oocytes, fail to support the view that calcium signals are required for GVBD. In addition to assessing the effects of calcium transients on GVBD in marine invertebrate oocytes, the ability of maturing oocytes to enhance their calcium-releasing capabilities after GVBD is also reviewed. Furthermore, possible explanations are proposed for the contradictory results that have been obtained regarding calcium signals during oocyte maturation in marine invertebrates. PMID:26679945

  14. Levels of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in serum among atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Yokoyama, Naokata; Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Sposto, R.; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Shiraki, Mastaka

    1994-01-01

    To examines the potential causes of increased levels of calcium in serum with increasing dose of atomic bomb radiation, which was obtained from the previous preliminary analysis, levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in serum were examined among 1459 subjects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A significant effect of radiation on levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin in serum was found, even after patients with hyperparathyroidism were excluded. The level of calcium in serum increased with radiation dose; this can be explained partly by the increase in the level of PTH with radiation dose. However, the dose effect on calcium remained even after adjustment for PTH, calcitonin and confounding factors such as renal function, serum albumin level and medication. Parathyroid hormone increased initially by 6.8% per gray, but the dose response leveled off after about 1 Gy. The level of calcitonin increased with radiation dose, probably in part due to feedback mechanisms stimulated by the increase in calcium. However, after adjustment for the level of calcium, the increase in the level of calcitonin with dose was still found. Although the etiological mechanisms of the effect of radiation on serum levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin are unclear, radiation exposure may affect secretion of PTH and calcitonin and regulation of calcium a long time after atomic bomb exposure. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Serum ?-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, J. B.; Pounder, R. E.; Neale, G.; Moss, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Serum ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity correlates closely with the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and 5?-nucleotidase (5NT) in various forms of liver disease. Maximum elevations of all three enzyme activities are observed in diseases which particularly affect the biliary tract. Compared with the other two enzymes GGT is generally increased to a greater extent and is thus the most sensitive indicator of biliary-tract disease, while estimations of serum GGT are more reproducible than those of 5NT. However, a group of patients who had been treated with phenytoin and barbiturates were found to have elevated serum GGT activities without any other evidence of liver disease. The apparent effect of certain drugs on serum GGT activity indicates the need for caution in interpreting the results of this test. PMID:4404786

  16. Calcium acetate used as phosphate binding treatment in uremic hyperphosphatemia.

    PubMed

    Wikstrm, B; Danielson, B G; Fellstrm, B

    1991-01-01

    Due to toxic side effects of aluminum-containing agents for treatment of uremic hypophosphatemia, much interest has been focused upon aluminum-free phosphate binder alternatives. From results of experimental studies with calcium acetate, this salt has been suggested as a possible effective and safe phosphate binder. In the present study, calcium acetate was used during a mean of 11 months for serum phosphate control in 30 uremic patients previously treated with aluminum and/or calcium carbonate. Satisfactory control of serum phosphate was achieved during the study (mean phosphate concentration +/- SE: 2.15 +/- 0.12 mmol/l compared to prestudy 2.23 +/- 0.19 mmol/l). Mean serum concentrations of calcium, alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone did not change significantly during the study. Serum aluminum decreased significantly (p less than 0.01). Moderate hypercalcemia was observed in 6 patients. Calcium acetate treatment was withdrawn in 2 patients due to gastrointestinal discomfort. It is concluded that calcium acetate seems to be an effective phosphate binder alternative with relatively few side effects. PMID:1680430

  17. Dietary Calcium Requirements Do Not Differ between Mexican-American Boys and Girls12

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Cristina; Martin, Berdine R.; McCabe, George P.; McCabe, Linda; Peacock, Munro; Weaver, Connie M.

    2014-01-01

    Mexican Americans are an understudied ethnic group for determinants of bone health, although the risk of age-related osteoporosis is high in this rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population. Thus, the objective of the present study was to establish the dietary calcium requirements for bone health in Mexican-American adolescents by measuring calcium retention calculated from balance in response to a range of dietary calcium intakes and to determine predictors of skeletal calcium retention. Adolescents aged 1215 y were studied twice on paired calcium intakes ranging from 600 to 2300 mg/d using randomized-order, crossover 3-wk balance studies. Skeletal calcium retention was calculated as dietary calcium intake minus calcium excreted in feces and urine over the last 2 wk of balance. A linear model was developed to explain the variation in calcium retention. Boys (n = 20) were taller and had higher lean mass, usual dietary calcium intake, bone mineral content, and serum alkaline phosphatase compared with girls, whereas girls (n = 20) had higher Tanner scores and greater fat mass. Calcium retention increased with calcium intake (P < 0.0001) and did not differ by sex (P = 0.66). In boys and girls considered together, calcium intake explained 33% of the variation in calcium retention. Serum alkaline phosphatase explained an additional 11% of the variation in calcium retention. Other variables measured, including the urine N-telopeptide of type I collagen/creatinine ratio, Tanner score, serum parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D, weight, height, and body mass index, did not contribute to the variance in calcium retention. In adolescence, calcium retention in both Mexican-American boys and girls was higher than determined previously in adolescent nonHispanic white girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01277185. PMID:24872223

  18. Serum progesterone and estrogens in elephants.

    PubMed

    Plotka, E D; Seal, U S; Schobert, E E; Schmoller, G C

    1975-08-01

    Serum progesterone and estrogens were measured by radioimmunoassay in the serum of immature, mature, and pregnant African and Asian elephants. Progesterone was elevated from 26 to 215 pg/ml in nonpregnant animals and up to 480 pg/ml in late pregnancy animals. No relationship to reproductive state was evident for the low levels of estrogens which ranged from 9 to 37 pg/ml. PMID:1157766

  19. Astrocyte calcium signaling: the third wave.

    PubMed

    Bazargani, Narges; Attwell, David

    2016-01-27

    The discovery that transient elevations of calcium concentration occur in astrocytes, and release 'gliotransmitters' which act on neurons and vascular smooth muscle, led to the idea that astrocytes are powerful regulators of neuronal spiking, synaptic plasticity and brain blood flow. These findings were challenged by a second wave of reports that astrocyte calcium transients did not mediate functions attributed to gliotransmitters and were too slow to generate blood flow increases. Remarkably, the tide has now turned again: the most important calcium transients occur in fine astrocyte processes not resolved in earlier studies, and new mechanisms have been discovered by which astrocyte [Ca(2+)]i is raised and exerts its effects. Here we review how this third wave of discoveries has changed our understanding of astrocyte calcium signaling and its consequences for neuronal function. PMID:26814587

  20. Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate as phosphate binders in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Caravaca, F; Santos, I; Cubero, J J; Esparrago, J F; Arrobas, M; Pizarro, J L; Robles, R; Sanchez-Casado, E

    1992-01-01

    We conducted a randomized unblinded parallel clinical trial to compare the effectiveness, side effects and tolerance between calcium acetate (CA) and calcium carbonate (CC) in 80 stable chronic hemodialysis patients selected on the basis of their acceptable control of serum phosphorus (P) levels with aluminum hydroxide (AH). All patients were dialyzed against the same calcium dialyzate (1.62 mmol/l). The serum analytical tests included: calcium corrected to total protein, P, PTH (intact molecule) and bicarbonate. The study was divided into the following periods: P0: baseline measurements; P1: washout (withdrawal of AH for 15 days); P2: random allocation to CA and CC treatment at doses equivalent to 75 mEq of elemental calcium, stratified according to previous doses of AH (2 months); P3: adjustment of doses until control P (2 months). CA was poorly tolerated in 7 patients and CC in 2 (NS). The changes in serum P levels between P0 and P2 periods were lower in the CA group (1.73 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.80 +/- 0.50 mmol/l; p = 0.26) than in the CC group (1.77 +/- 0.35 vs. 1.93 +/- 0.48 mmol/l; p = 0.03, paired t test). Serum calcium was hardly modified by CA (2.42 +/- 0.20 vs. 2.47 +/- 0.17 mmol/l; NS) while in the CC group, it rose significantly (2.40 +/- 0.12 vs. 2.55 +/- 0.22 mmol/l; p = 0.0004). There were no differences in the control of PTH or bicarbonate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1584317

  1. Calcium entry via connexin hemichannels in lens epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Amritlal; Shahidullah, Mohammad; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to hyposmotic solution causes release of ATP from lens cells via hemichannels. Because hemichannel opening feasibly could swamp the cells with calcium, we carried out studies to measure the magnitude of the increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration caused by hemichannel opening. In studies on porcine lens epithelial cells in primary culture, propidium iodide (PI) uptake was measured as an index of hemichannel opening. PI uptake was increased significantly in cells exposed to hyposmotic solution. The PI increase under hyposmotic conditions was suppressed by GAP 27, a connexin inhibitor peptide. In studies on cells loaded with Fura-2, continuous exposure to hyposmotic solution caused a cytoplasmic calcium concentration increase that peaked within ~30 sec then remained elevated at or below the peak response for more than 60 min. The peak calcium concentration was 186 2.3 nM compared to a baseline value of 98.0 1.4 nM. The calcium concentration increased a lot further in cells exposed to A23187 (2.5 M) or the sodium-calcium exchange inhibitor SN-6 (10 M) added after the onset of the calcium rise in hyposmotic solution. The cytoplasmic calcium increase in hyposmotic solution was abolished by GAP 27. Calcium returned to baseline in cells exposed to hyposmotic solution then treated with GAP 27 starting 2 min after the onset of the calcium rise. The calcium increase in hyposmotic solution did not occur when calcium was eliminated from the bathing medium. The responses to hyposmotic and hyperosmotic stress were different. There was no detectable increase in calcium or PI entry in cells exposed to hyperosmotic solution (500 mOsm). In summary, GAP 27-sensitive accumulation of PI by cultured lens epithelium points to connexin hemichannel opening and associated calcium entry. Even though connexins form channels with a large carrying capacity, calcium entry does not increase the cytoplasmic calcium concentration beyond a tolerable physiological range. PMID:25597520

  2. Recent advances in calcium metabolism. I. Mechanisms of calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Root, A W; Harrison, H E

    1976-01-01

    Within recent years newly acquired knowledge has provided a clearer understanding of some aspects of the complex mechanisms that collectively maintain calcium homeostasis within body fluids and it is our intent to define current concepts of the interrelationship of these various factors to the end that fuller understanding may be available concerning the maintenance of calcuim homeostasis in health as well as features which result in its disruption and the consequent effects of imbalances of calcium in various disease states. In this first section dealing with the physiologic state, there are included descriptions of: (1) the metabolism of vitamin D, the synthesis of its active metabolites, 25 OHD3 and1.25(OH)2D3, and the metabolic actions of the active vitamin D metabolite and analogues upon gastrointestinal, bone, and kidney functions; (2) the synthesis, secretion, and metabolic activity of parathyroid hormone and the difficulties with the radioimmunoassay of PTH related to the number of PTH-like peptides in the circulation; and (3) the chemistry, metabolism, and biologic activities of calcitonin, a hypocalcemic principle derived from the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland. It is emphasized that under normal circumstances these humoral mechanisms act in an integrated manner to maintain serum concentrations of total and ionized calcium within narrowly defined limits. PMID:812968

  3. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Hglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10616.001 PMID:26613410

  4. Effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and diltiazem on tissue calcium in uremic rat.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, O; Nakagawa, K; Syono, T; Nishian, Y; Takenaka, Y; Takamitsu, Y

    1995-11-01

    The concentration of calcium was measured in the aorta, heart, and kidney of uremic rats treated with 100 ng/kg/day 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25 D3) or 60 mg/kg/day diltiazem for 12 weeks. The concentration of calcium was increased in the aorta, heart, and kidney of uremic rats, and was further increased by administration of 1,25 D3. The 1,25 D3-induced increase in calcium in the aorta was inhibited by diltiazem, but this effect was not accompanied by a decrease in serum calcium x phosphate products. Diltiazem had no effect on the 1,25 D3-induced increase of calcium in the heart and kidney. Thus, in uremia 1,25 D3 may promote the calcification of the aorta; calcium antagonists may protect against calcification without a reduction in serum calcium x phosphate products. PMID:8771237

  5. Calcium transients during early development in single starfish (Asterias forbesi) oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, A.; Reynolds, G.T.

    1984-11-01

    Maturation and fertilization of the starfish oocyte are putative calcium-dependent events. The authors have investigated the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of this calcium dependence in single oocytes of Asterias forbesi. They used the calcium photoprotein, aequorin, in conjunction with a microscope-photomultiplier and microscope-image intensifier. Surprisingly, in contrast to earlier work with Marasthenias glacialis, there is no detectable increase in intracellular-free calcium in the oocyte of A. forbesi in response to the maturation hormone 1-methyl adenine. During fertilization of the same, matured, A. forbesi oocyte there is a large increase in intracellular-free calcium. The calcium concentration increases to approx.1 ..mu..M at the point of insemination and the region of elevated free calcium expands across the oocyte in approx.20 s (17-19/sup 0/C). After the entire oocyte reaches an elevated concentration of free calcium, the concentration decreases uniformly throughout the oocyte over the next several minutes.

  6. Effects of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate on toxicity in ICR mice and on bone mineral density in an ovariectomized mice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Sherry; Chen, Jin Ching; Hsu, Chin Wei; Chang, Walter H.

    2009-09-01

    Taking calcium supplements can reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis, but they are not readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanotechnology is expected to resolve this problem. In the present study, we examined whether the bioavailability of calcium carbonate and calcium citrate can be improved by reducing the particle size. The morphology of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate was characterized by dynamic laser-light scattering (DLS), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The measurements obtained from DLS, FE-SEM and TEM were comparable. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity tests were performed to establish the safety of these products after oral administration. The no-observed-adverse-effect levels of nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate were 1.3 and 2.3 g kg-1 body weight, respectively. The results of our in vivo studies indicate that administering nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate can enhance the serum calcium concentration and maintain the whole-body bone mineral density in ovariectomized mice. These data suggest that nano calcium carbonate and nano calcium citrate are more bioavailable than micro calcium carbonate and micro calcium citrate, respectively.

  7. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  8. Calcium, phosphorus, and bone metabolism in the fetus and newborn.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    The placenta actively transports minerals whereas the intestines and kidneys may be nonessential for fetal mineral homeostasis. Mineral concentrations are higher in fetal blood than in adults in order for the developing skeleton to accrete adequate mineral content. Fetal bone development and serum mineral regulation are dependent upon parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP), but not calcitriol, fibroblast growth factor-23, calcitonin, or the sex steroids. After birth, a switch from fetal to neonatal regulatory mechanisms is triggered by loss of the placental calcium infusion, onset of a breathing, and a postnatal fall in serum calcium and rise in phosphorus. This is followed by an increase in PTH, then a rise in calcitriol, and developmental changes in kidneys and intestines. Serum calcium increases and phosphorus declines over days. The intestines become the main source of mineral, while kidneys reabsorb mineral, and bone turnover contributes additional mineral to the circulation. PMID:26363942

  9. Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate as phosphate-binding agents in chronic haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Pflanz, S; Henderson, I S; McElduff, N; Jones, M C

    1994-01-01

    Hyperphosphataemia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy, and phosphate-binding agents are required in many chronic dialysis patients. Aluminium hydroxide and calcium carbonate are well-established phosphate binders, but their use is associated with toxicity or poor efficacy. Calcium acetate is known to be a potent phosphate binder, and has recently been used successfully in chronic dialysis patients. In this randomized cross-over trial in 31 chronic haemodialysis patients, equimolar doses of calcium acetate and calcium carbonate were administered for 6 weeks each. Compliance was estimated from tablet counts, and biochemical parameters were measured at the end of each treatment period. Of the 31 patients 23 completed both treatment arms; of the remainder, three withdrew due to adverse symptoms, hypercalcaemia necessitated treatment withdrawal in two, and three died. Non-compliance was significantly higher with acetate (18.3% tablets not taken) than with carbonate (8.7%). Serum phosphate was significantly lower after treatment with acetate (1.51 mmol/l) than with carbonate (1.80), as was the Ca x PO4 product (3.59 vs 4.18 respectively) and PTH (17.8 vs 25.4 pmol/l respectively). Serum calcium was significantly higher after acetate therapy (2.40 vs 2.32 mmol/l). No significant difference was found for sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, urea, creatinine, and haemoglobin. This study confirms that the treatment of hyperphosphataemia is more effective with calcium acetate than with calcium carbonate. For the first time an associated beneficial effect on secondary hyperparathyroidism has also been demonstrated. Patient tolerability of calcium acetate was considerably poorer, probably due in part to tablet formulation and bulkiness, as well as possible direct gastrointestinal effects of the acetate salt. PMID:7800211

  10. Calcium-Rich Foods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 130 Waffle 80 g 47 Meat, fish and eggs Food Serving Size Calcium (mg) Egg 50 g 27 Red meat 120 g 7 ... foods Food Serving Size Calcium (mg) Quiche (cheese, eggs) 200 g 212 Omelette with cheese 120 g ...

  11. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Salmon and sardines canned with their soft bones Almonds, Brazil nuts, sunflower seeds, tahini, and dried beans ... greens = 220 mg of calcium 3 ounces of almonds = 210 mg of calcium Vitamin D is needed ...

  12. Treatment of uraemic hyperphosphatemia with calcium acetate: a safe alternative to calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Biagini, M; Malaguti, M; Sicoli, R; Capece, R; Friggi, A; Ciaffi, G; Bargagna, R

    1992-01-01

    Clinical usefulness of calcium acetate (CAA) as phosphorus binder was assessed in 19 stable hemodialysis patients with persistent hyperphosphatemia. All were dialysed thrice weekly with a constant dialytic schedule and a dialysate calcium of 3.5 mEq/l. One month prior the study beginning all patients stopped assumption of Ca and vitamin D supplements. In the first period of the study CAA (mean daily doses 2.2 g) was administered for one month followed by 15 days of withdrawal. The mean serum phosphorus decreased from 7.6 +/- 1.4 to 5.8 +/- 0.8 mg% (p < 0.005). After 15 days of withdrawal mean serum phosphorus reached the pretreatment value. Then the patients entered a long term study with personalized doses of CAA (between 1 and 4 g/day) and administration in 8 of them of alpha-calcidol. After a mean follow-up period of 5.4 +/- 1.5 months serum phosphorus was reduced from 7.5 +/- 1.1 to 5.6 +/- 1.1 mg% (p < 0.0005) while calcemia increased from 9.0 +/- 0.7 to 9.6 +/- 0.6 mg% (p < 0.005). Only one patient developed mild hypercalcemia. We concluded that CAA is a safe alternative to calcium carbonate for the control of hyperphosphatemia of uraemic patients for the most efficient phosphorus binding and the lesser absorption of calcium. PMID:1457693

  13. Serum sialic acid and CEA concentrations in human breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hogan-Ryan, A.; Fennelly, J. J.; Jones, M.; Cantwell, B.; Duffy, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The concentration of bound sialic acid in the sera of 56 normal subjects and 65 subjects with breast cancer was measured, in order to determine (1) whether serum sialic acid concentrations are raised in breast cancer and (2) whether the concentration of sialic acid in serum reflects tumour stage. The amount of sialic acid in serum was compared to serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) values. Urinary hydroxyproline and serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations were used as indicators of bone and liver involvement. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was also measured. Significantly elevated serum sialic acid concentrations were found in breast cancer, and showed correlation with tumour stage. Serum sialic acid values did not correlate with CEA values. The results suggest that measurement of serum sialic acid concentrations may be of adjunctive value in assessing tumour stage. PMID:7387856

  14. Calcium and magnesium disorders.

    PubMed

    Goff, Jesse P

    2014-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a clinical disorder that can be life threatening to the cow (milk fever) and predisposes the animal to various other metabolic and infectious disorders. Calcium homeostasis is mediated primarily by parathyroid hormone, which stimulates bone calcium resorption and renal calcium reabsorption. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to enhance diet calcium absorption. High dietary cation-anion difference interferes with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Hypomagnesemia reduces tissue response to parathyroid hormone. PMID:24980727

  15. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  16. Calcium and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... babies who don't get enough calcium and vitamin D (which aids in calcium absorption) are at increased risk for rickets. Rickets is a bone-softening disease that causes severe bowing of the legs, poor growth, and sometimes muscle pain and weakness. Calcium also ...

  17. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the roles of calcium and vitamin D in bone health. Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling and it also affects bone mass through its impact on the remodeling rate. Typically, about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and ...

  18. Lasting effects of glutamate on nuclear calcium concentration in cultured rat hippocampal neurons: regulation by calcium stores.

    PubMed Central

    Korkotian, E; Segal, M

    1996-01-01

    1. Changes in free intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) were measured in the nucleus and perinuclear regions of cultured rat hippocampal neurons using either fura-2 or fluo-3 calcium indicators. 2. Brief application of glutamate caused a transient rise of [Ca2+]i in all cell compartments, which recovered to pre-drug levels in all but the nuclear region. The new, higher level of nuclear calcium ([Ca2+]n) was sustained for as long as the cell was monitored. 3. The new level of [Ca2+]n was dependent on the magnitude of the calcium transient, and was higher in older cells in culture, but it did not affect responses to subsequent applications of glutamate. 4. The sustained elevation of [Ca2+]n was prevented by drugs which affect calcium stores (caffeine, ryanodine and Ruthenium Red), indicating that an extranuclear calcium store interacts with [Ca2+]n. Images Figure 1 Figure 8 PMID:8910194

  19. Serum Protein Profile Alterations in Hemodialysis Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G A; Davies, R W; Choi, M W; Perkins, J; Turteltaub, K W; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Langlois, R G; Curzi, M P; Trebes, J E; Fitch, J P; Dalmasso, E A; Colston, B W; Ying, Y; Chromy, B A

    2003-11-18

    Background: Serum protein profiling patterns can reflect the pathological state of a patient and therefore may be useful for clinical diagnostics. Here, we present results from a pilot study of proteomic expression patterns in hemodialysis patients designed to evaluate the range of serum proteomic alterations in this population. Methods: Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOFMS) was used to analyze serum obtained from patients on periodic hemodialysis treatment and healthy controls. Serum samples from patients and controls were first fractionated into six eluants on a strong anion exchange column, followed by application to four array chemistries representing cation exchange, anion exchange, metal affinity and hydrophobic surfaces. A total of 144 SELDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained from each serum sample. Results: The overall profiles of the patient and control samples were consistent and reproducible. However, 30 well-defined protein differences were observed; 15 proteins were elevated and 15 were decreased in patients compared to controls. Serum from one patient exhibited novel protein peaks suggesting possible additional changes due to a secondary disease process. Conclusion: SELDI-TOF-MS demonstrated dramatic serum protein profile differences between patients and controls. Similarity in protein profiles among dialysis patients suggests that patient physiological responses to end-stage renal disease and/or dialysis therapy have a major effect on serum protein profiles.

  20. SERUM CHEMISTRY AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF BROWN BULLHEADS (AMEIURUS NEBULOSUS) FROM THE BUFFALO AND NIAGARA RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas were observed in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from the Buffalo and Niagara Rivers (NY) and Old Woman Creek (OH). ignificant increases in serum BUN, uric acid, triglycerides inorganic phosphate, ALT, LDL, calcium and iron and ...

  1. Membrane associated complexes in calcium dynamics modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szopa, Piotr; Dyzma, Micha?; Ka?mierczak, Bogdan

    2013-06-01

    Mitochondria not only govern energy production, but are also involved in crucial cellular signalling processes. They are one of the most important organelles determining the Ca2+ regulatory pathway in the cell. Several mathematical models explaining these mechanisms were constructed, but only few of them describe interplay between calcium concentrations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cytoplasm and mitochondria. Experiments measuring calcium concentrations in mitochondria and ER suggested the existence of cytosolic microdomains with locally elevated calcium concentration in the nearest vicinity of the outer mitochondrial membrane. These intermediate physical connections between ER and mitochondria are called MAM (mitochondria-associated ER membrane) complexes. We propose a model with a direct calcium flow from ER to mitochondria, which may be justified by the existence of MAMs, and perform detailed numerical analysis of the effect of this flow on the type and shape of calcium oscillations. The model is partially based on the Marhl et al model. We have numerically found that the stable oscillations exist for a considerable set of parameter values. However, for some parameter sets the oscillations disappear and the trajectories of the model tend to a steady state with very high calcium level in mitochondria. This can be interpreted as an early step in an apoptotic pathway.

  2. Membrane associated complexes in calcium dynamics modelling.

    PubMed

    Szopa, Piotr; Dyzma, Micha?; Ka?mierczak, Bogdan

    2013-06-01

    Mitochondria not only govern energy production, but are also involved in crucial cellular signalling processes. They are one of the most important organelles determining the Ca(2+) regulatory pathway in the cell. Several mathematical models explaining these mechanisms were constructed, but only few of them describe interplay between calcium concentrations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cytoplasm and mitochondria. Experiments measuring calcium concentrations in mitochondria and ER suggested the existence of cytosolic microdomains with locally elevated calcium concentration in the nearest vicinity of the outer mitochondrial membrane. These intermediate physical connections between ER and mitochondria are called MAM (mitochondria-associated ER membrane) complexes. We propose a model with a direct calcium flow from ER to mitochondria, which may be justified by the existence of MAMs, and perform detailed numerical analysis of the effect of this flow on the type and shape of calcium oscillations. The model is partially based on the Marhl et al model. We have numerically found that the stable oscillations exist for a considerable set of parameter values. However, for some parameter sets the oscillations disappear and the trajectories of the model tend to a steady state with very high calcium level in mitochondria. This can be interpreted as an early step in an apoptotic pathway. PMID:23735591

  3. Role of the calcium-sensing receptor in calcium regulation of epidermal differentiation and function

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Chia-Ling; Bikle, Daniel D

    2013-01-01

    The epidermis is a stratified squamous epithelium composed of proliferating basal and differentiated suprabasal keratinocytes. It serves as the bodys major physical and chemical barrier against infection and harsh environmental insults, as well as preventing excess water loss from the body into the atmosphere. Calcium is a key regulator of the proliferation and differentiation in keratinocytes. Elevated extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o) raises the levels of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i), promotes cell-cell adhesion, and activates differentiation-related genes. Keratinocytes deficient in the calcium-sensing receptor fail to respond to [Ca2+]o stimulation and to differentiate, indicating a role for the calcium-sensing receptor in transducing the [Ca2+]o signal during differentiation. The concepts derived from in vitro gene knockdown experiments have been evaluated and confirmed in three mouse models in vivo. PMID:23856269

  4. Serum Klotho Levels in Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mostafidi, Elmira; Moeen, Akbar; Nasri, Hamid; Ghorbani Hagjo, Amir; Ardalan, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Klotho is an anti-aging protein that is predominantly secreted by the kidneys. Objectives: The aim of the study was to measure and compare the circulating Klotho levels in the serum of trained athletes and in healthy, non-athlete controls. Materials and Methods: Thirty trained football players were enrolled and their serum Klotho levels were measured the morning after their last evening exercise training. Results: The plasma free Klotho concentration was significantly higher in the athlete group (3.375 ± 1.48 ng/mL) compared to the non-athletes (1.39 ± 0.43 ng/mL) (P < 0.05). Serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, and phosphorus were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions: Regular aerobic exercise could increase plasma Klotho levels, and this could be an explanation for exercise-related anti-aging effects. PMID:26981496

  5. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  6. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A.

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  7. Feeding 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan during the transition from pregnancy to lactation increases calcium mobilization from bone in rats.

    PubMed

    Laporta, J; Peters, T L; Weaver, S R; Merriman, K E; Hernandez, L L

    2013-05-01

    An increasing demand for calcium during pregnancy and lactation can result in both clinical and subclinical hypocalcemia during the early lactation period in several mammalian species, in particular the dairy cow. Serotonin (5-HT) was recently identified as a regulator of lactation and bone turnover. The purpose of this study was to determine whether supplementation of the maternal diet with a 5-HT precursor would increase maternal bone turnover and calcium mobilization to maintain appropriate circulating maternal concentrations of ionized calcium during lactation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were fed either a control diet (n = 15) or a diet supplemented with the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, 0.2%; n = 15) from day 13 of pregnancy through day 9 of lactation. Maternal serum and plasma (day 1 and day 9 of lactation), milk and pup weight (daily), mammary gland and bone tissue (day 9 of lactation) were collected for analysis. The 5-HTP diet elevated circulating maternal concentrations of 5-HT on day 1 and day 9 of lactation and parathyroid hormone related-protein (PTHrP) on day 9 of lactation (P < 0.033). In addition, 5-HTP supplementation increased total serum calcium concentrations on day 1 of lactation and total milk calcium concentration on day 9 of lactation (P< 0.032). Supplemental 5-HTP did not alter milk yield, maternal body weight, mammary gland structure, or pup litter weights (P > 0.05). Supplemental 5-HTP also resulted in increased concentrations of mammary 5-HT and PTHrP, as well as increased mRNA expression of rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase 1, and Pthrp mRNA on day 9 of lactation (P < 0.028). In addition, supplementation of 5-HTP resulted in increased mRNA expression of maternal mammary calcium transporters and resorption of bone in the femur, indicated by increase osteoclast number and diameter aswell as mRNA expression of classical markers of bone resorption on day 9 of lactation (P< 0.048). These results show that increasing 5-HT biosynthesis during the transition from pregnancy to lactation could be a potential therapeutic target to explore for prevention of subclinical and clinical hypocalcemia. PMID:23433710

  8. Effects of Lowering Dialysate Calcium Concentration on Mineral and Bone Disorders in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: Conversion from 3.0?mEq/L to 2.75?mEq/L.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Ueki, Kenji; Tokumoto, Masanori; Suehiro, Takaichi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Masatomo; Fujimi, Satoru; Kitazono, Takanari; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko

    2016-02-01

    Selection of a lower dialysate calcium concentration (DCa) can reduce calcium burden and prevent vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients. However, decreased DCa can worsen mineral and bone disorders. This 1-year retrospective observational study evaluated 121 hemodialysis patients at Fukuoka Renal Clinic who underwent conversion of DCa from 3.0?mEq/L to 2.75?mEq/L. The primary outcomes were changes in serum levels of calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). The effects of baseline serum calcium and PTH levels on changes in biochemical parameters were also determined. One year after DCa conversion, mean serum calcium level decreased, while serum phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, and PTH concentrations increased. The rate of achievement of target PTH was higher in patients with lower serum PTH level at baseline, while patients with higher baseline serum PTH level tended to exceed the upper limit of the PTH target range. Patients with higher baseline serum calcium concentration showed a greater decrease in serum calcium level and a greater increase in serum PTH level at 1 year. Patients with a lower baseline serum PTH level can benefit from optimal PTH control following conversion of DCa from 3.0?mEq/L to 2.75?mEq/L. However, secondary hyperparathyroidism may be exacerbated in some patients with higher baseline serum calcium (Ca) and PTH levels. These results indicate that an individualized approach can maximize the benefits of Ca unloading after conversion to lower DCa. PMID:26482334

  9. Effects of exposure to cadmium on calcium metabolism: a population study.

    PubMed Central

    Staessen, J; Amery, A; Bernard, A; Bruaux, P; Buchet, J P; Claeys, F; De Plaen, P; Ducoffre, G; Fagard, R; Lauwerys, R R

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may affect calcium metabolism in the population at large. The 1987 participants (965 men and 1022 women), from 20 to 80 years old, constituted a random sample of the population of four Belgian districts. The urinary excretion of cadmium, a measure of lifetime exposure, averaged 9.3 nmol/24 h in men (range 0.4-324 nmol/24 h) and 7.1 nmol/24 h (range 0.1-71 nmol/24 h) in women. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity and the urinary excretion of calcium correlated significantly and positively with urinary cadmium excretion in both men and women, and serum total calcium concentration negatively with urinary cadmium excretion in men only. The regression coefficients obtained after adjustment for significant covariates indicated that when urinary cadmium excretion increased twofold, serum alkaline phosphatase activity and urinary calcium excretion rose by 3-4% and 0.25 mmol/24 h respectively, whereas in men serum total calcium concentration fell by 6 mumol/l. After adjustment for significant covariates the relation between serum total calcium concentration and urinary cadmium excretion was not significant in women. The findings suggest that even at environmental exposure levels calcium metabolism is gradually affected, as cadmium accumulates in the body. The morbidity associated with this phenomenon in industrialised countries remains presently unknown and requires further investigation. PMID:1931731

  10. Serum fetuin-A levels and abdominal aortic calcification in healthy men - The STRAMBO study.

    PubMed

    Schoppet, Michael; Rauner, Martina; Benner, Jacqueline; Chapurlat, Roland; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Szulc, Pawel

    2015-10-01

    Vascular calcification results from an imbalance between increased extracellular levels of calcium and phosphate, reduced solubility, and low levels of calcification inhibitors in blood or the vascular wall. Fetuin-A is a major circulating calcification inhibitor. Rodent models of fetuin-A deficit indicate its calcification inhibiting potential. Clinical studies suggest its role as a biomarker in vascular disease. This cross-sectional study was performed in a cohort of 974 men aged ? 40 years (average 68 years) consisting of men holding health insurance cover with Mutuelle des Travailleurs de la Rgion Lyonnaise. Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) was assessed semi-quantitatively on lateral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) spine scans. Serum fetuin-A was measured by an immunoassay. After adjustment for confounders (age, lifestyle, body composition, health status, treatment, glomerular filtration rate [GFR], hormones, and cytokines), prevalence of severe AAC (AAC score>4) decreased with increasing fetuin-A levels (OR=0.68 per SD increase, 95% CI: 0.54-0.84, p<0.001). After adjustment for confounders, low fetuin-A and hypertension were each associated with higher odds of AAC>4. Coexistence of low serum fetuin-A levels and heavy smoking, elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 levels or low serum dickkopf-1 levels were associated with higher odds of AAC>4. Similar results were obtained for 789 men with GFR>60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Similar results were obtained when severe AAC was defined as AAC score >3 or AAC>5. Thus, lower serum fetuin-A levels are associated with severe AAC, suggesting that poor calcification inhibitory potential contributes to vascular calcification, independently of renal impairment. PMID:26079998

  11. The Effect of Treatment of Acidosis on Calcium Balance in Patients with Chronic Azotemic Renal Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Litzow, John R.; Lemann, Jacob; Lennon, Edward J.

    1967-01-01

    Small but statistically significant negative calcium balances were found in each of eight studies in seven patients with chronic azotemic renal disease when stable metabolic acidosis was present. Only small quantities of calcium were excreted in the urine, but fecal calcium excretion equaled or exceeded dietary intake. Complete and continuous correction of acidosis by NaHCO3 therapy reduced both urinary and fecal calcium excretion and produced a daily calcium balance indistinguishable from zero. Apparent acid retention was found throughout the studies during acidosis, despite no further reduction of the serum bicarbonate concentration. The negative calcium balances that accompanied acid retention support the suggestion that slow titration of alkaline bone salts provides an additional buffer reservoir in chronic metabolic acidosis. The treatment of metabolic acidosis prevented further calcium losses but did not induce net calcium retention. It is suggested that the normal homeostatic responses of the body to the alterations in ionized calcium and calcium distribution produced by raising the serum bicarbonate might paradoxically retard the repair of skeletal calcium deficits. PMID:6018764

  12. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    MedlinePLUS

    This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood sample. Other electrophoresis tests that measure proteins in the serum include: Immunoelectrophoresis Immunofixation Globulin electrophoresis